WorldWideScience

Sample records for population risk women

  1. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    -up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  2. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  3. Risk factors for common mental disorders in women. Population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Kirkwood, Betty R; Pednekar, Sulochana; Weiss, Helen; Mabey, David

    2006-12-01

    The determinants of common mental disorders in women have not been described in longitudinal studies from a low-income country. Population-based cohort study of 2494 women aged 18 to 50 years, in India. The Revised Clinical Interview Schedule was used for the detection of common mental disorders. There were 39 incident cases of common mental disorder in 2166 participants eligible for analysis (12-month rate 1.8%, 95% CI 1.3-2.4%). The following baseline factors were independently associated with the risk for common mental disorder: poverty (low income and having difficulty making ends meet); being married as compared with being single; use of tobacco; experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge; reporting a chronic physical illness; and having higher psychological symptom scores at baseline. Programmes to reduce the burden of common mental disorder in women should target poorer women, women with chronic physical illness and who have gynaecological symptoms, and women who use tobacco.

  4. Neuroserpin polymorphisms and stroke risk in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stern Barney J

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroserpin, primarily localized to CNS neurons, inhibits the adverse effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA on the neurovascular unit and has neuroprotective effects in animal models of ischemic stroke. We sought to evaluate the association of neuroserpin polymorphisms with risk for ischemic stroke among young women. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-matched control subjects (43.1% African-American. Neuroserpin single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chosen through HapMap were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke. Results Of the five SNPs analyzed, the A allele (frequency; Caucasian = 0.56, African-American = 0.42 of SNP rs6797312 located in intron 1 was associated with stroke in an age-adjusted dominant model (AA and AT vs. TT among Caucasians (OR = 2.05, p = 0.023 but not African-Americans (OR = 0.71, p = 0.387. Models adjusting for other risk factors strengthened the association. Race-specific haplotype analyses, inclusive of SNP rs6797312, again demonstrated significant associations with stroke among Caucasians only. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that neuroserpin is associated with early-onset ischemic stroke among Caucasian women.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Chinese women: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xinyu; Wang, Quanyi; Lu, Yongxian

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the current prevalence rate of urinary incontinence (UI) and to identify risk factors in Chinese women, we conducted a population-based survey in 3058 women in Beijing, China, in 2009. The prevalence rate of UI was estimated to be 22.1%, with stress UI (12.9%) being more prevalent than urgency UI (1.7%) and mixed UI (7.5%). The prevalence rates of UI, urgency UI, and mixed UI increased with age, with the highest recorded in participants aged ≥70 years. However, stress UI was most commonly seen in participants aged 50 to 69 years. Risk factors for UI included aging, lower education background, older age of menarche, menstrual disorder, pregnancy history, episiotomy, chronic pelvic pain, gynecological disease, other chronic diseases, constipation, fecal incontinence, lower daily water intake, and frequency of high protein intake. UI is a common disorder in Chinese women, and many risk factors are able to affect the development of UI. © 2011 APJPH.

  6. Coronary heart disease risk factors in adult premenopausal white women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with a healthy female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Our specific aim was to determine whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients were independent of their higher body mass index (BMI) and centripetal obesity. In adult, premenopausal, white women, CHD risk factors were compared between 488 patients with well-defined PCOS and 351 healthy free-living population controls from the Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS). After excluding women with irregular menses (putative PCOS phenotypes), comparisons were also made between the 261 PFS women with a history of regular menses and the 488 women with PCOS. Fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin secretion, blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were measured. Compared with both the full cohort of 351 PFS women and the subgroup of 261 PFS women with regular menses, women with PCOS had higher BMI, waist circumference, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR (all Ps PCOS, compared with the 351 and 261 PFS women, had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P PCOS women with normal BMI (PCOS cannot be exclusively attributed to their preponderant centripetal obesity. Identification of women with clinical features of PCOS should alert the clinician to potentially increased risk for CHD and prompt CHD risk factor testing.

  7. Prevalence, outcome, and women's experiences of external cephalic version in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnders, Marlies; Offerhaus, Pien; van Dommelen, Paula; Wiegers, Therese; Buitendijk, Simone

    2010-06-01

    Until recently, external cephalic version to prevent breech presentation at birth was not widely accepted. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, outcomes, and women's experiences of external cephalic version to improve the implementation of the procedure in the Netherlands. A prospective cohort study was conducted of 167 women under the care of a midwife with confirmed breech presentation at a gestational age of 33 completed weeks or more. Between June 2007 and January 2008, 167 women with a confirmed breech presentation were offered an external cephalic version. Of this group, 123 women (73.7%, 95% CI: 65.5-80.5) subsequently received the version. These women had about a ninefold increased probability of a cephalic presentation at birth compared with women who did not undergo a version (relative risk [RR]: 8.8, 95% CI: 2.2-34.8). The chance of a vaginal birth after an external cephalic version was almost threefold (RR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5-5.0). The success rate was 39 percent, although considerable differences existed associated with region and parity. Ninety-four percent of women with a successful version rated it as a good experience compared with 71 percent of women who had a failed version (p = 0.015). Significant pain during the version was experienced by 34 percent of women, of whom 18 percent also experienced fear during the version, compared with no women who reported little or no pain (p = 0.006). Women who reported significant pain or fear during the version experienced the version more negatively (OR: 6.0, 95% CI: 3.3-12.2 and OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.0, respectively). One in every four women with a breech presentation in independent midwifery care did not receive an external cephalic version. Of the women who received a version one third experienced significant pain during the procedure. Considerable regional variation in success rate existed.

  8. Radiotherapy did not increase thyroid cancer risk among women with breast cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an increased risk of thyroid cancer exists among women with breast cancer in Taiwan, particularly among those receiving RT. We used data from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan for the investigation. The breast cancer cohort contained 55,318 women (including 28,187 who received RT and 27,131 who received no RT), each of whom was randomly frequency matched according to age and index year with three women without breast cancer from the general population. Cox's proportion hazards regression analysis was conducted to estimate the effects of breast cancer with or without RT treatment on subsequent thyroid cancer risk. We found that women with breast cancer exhibited a significantly higher risk of subsequent thyroid cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-2.44). The two groups (with or without RT) in the breast cancer cohort exhibited significantly increased risks. However, in the breast cancer cohort, the risk of thyroid cancer among women who received RT was not significantly higher than that of women who received no RT (aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.90-1.83). Stratified analysis according to age revealed that only younger women with breast cancer (20-54 y) had a significantly higher risk of developing thyroid cancer. This study determined that Taiwanese women with breast cancer had a higher risk of developing thyroid cancer; however, RT seems to not play a crucial role in this possible relationship. © 2015 UICC.

  9. Management Options for Women at Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer in a Multi-ethnic Health Plan Population: A Randomized Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    ...-to-moderate risk women from minority populations. Resulting strategies will be usefully applied in the large, ethnically and economically diverse populations of health maintenance organizations from which increasing...

  10. Management Options for Women at Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer in a Multi-ethnic Health Plan Population: A Randomized Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiatt, Robert

    1997-01-01

    ...-to-moderate risk women from minority populations. Resulting stategies will be usefully applied in the large, ethnically and economically diverse populations of health maintenance organizations from which increasing...

  11. High-risk HPV infection after five years in a population-based cohort of Chilean women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreccio Catterina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV: vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping. Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4% women; 45 (4.6% refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women 70 (0%; it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0. Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits. Conclusions HR-HPV prevalence increased in the study population. All HR-HPV infections in women 30 years.

  12. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong Bing; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cheng, Jia Rong; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of intake of soya food, a rich source of phytoestrogens, with the risk of endometrial cancer. Design Population based case-control study, with detailed information on usual soya food intake over the past five years collected by face to face interview using a food frequency questionnaire. Setting Urban Shanghai, China. Participants 832 incident cases of endometrial cancer in women aged of 30 to 69 years diagnosed during 1997-2001 and identified from the Shanghai Cancer Registry; 846 control women frequency matched to cases on age and randomly selected from the Shanghai Residential Registry. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for risk of endometrial cancer in women with different intakes of soya foods. Results Regular consumption of soya foods, measured as amount of either soya protein or soya isoflavones, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with women with the lowest quarter of intake, the adjusted odds ratio of endometrial cancer was reduced from 0.93 to 0.85 and 0.67 with increasing quarter of soya protein intake (P for trend 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed for soya isoflavones and soya fibre intake. The inverse association seemed to be more pronounced among women with high body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusion Regular intake of soya foods is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:15136343

  13. [Domestic violence against women of a crisis intervention population - forms of violence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, E; Stieglitz, R-D; Flury, M; Riecher-Rössler, A

    2013-06-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: Domestic violence is common and can lead to severe physical and psychological problems. Thus, we have investigated the frequency of occurrence, forms and risk factors of domestic violence against female patients on a crisis intervention ward. 115 women were screened with the "screening spouse violence" (SPG) and the "index of spouse abuse" (ISA). The life time prevalence concerning spouse violence was 70 %. Out of 74 women who were currently living in a relationship 28 (38 % )were victims of violence in the last 12 months prior to their admission. Women who experienced violence had a significantly lower level of education. Screening for domestic violence in female patients in the field of crisis intervention and psychiatry should become a standard of "good clinical practice". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for hospitalisation of women with lupus during pregnancy: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y; Chen, Y-H; Lin, H-C; Chen, S-F; Lin, H-C

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationwide population-based dataset to examine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with and without SLE hospitalisation during pregnancy. We identified 1,010 pregnant women who had SLE during 2001 2003 as the study cohort and 5,050 randomly selected pregnant women (five for every woman with SLE) as a comparison cohort. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the relationship between women with and without SLE and the risk of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, and babies small for gestational age (SGA), after adjusting for the characteristics of the infant, mother, and father. We found that there were significant differences in the risk of LBW (14.9% vs. 7.2%), preterm birth (14.4% vs. 8.5%), and SGA (28.5% vs. 17.5%) for women with SLE compared to women without. In addition, the adjusted odds of LBW, preterm birth, and SGA babies for women who had SLE during pregnancy were 6.15 (95% CI=4.15-9.13), 4.19 (95% CI=2.77-6.36), and 4.25 (95% CI=2.95-6.11) times, respectively, compared to women without any chronic illness. The adjusted odds of LBW, preterm birth, and SGA babies for women who had SLE but were not hospitalized during pregnancy were 1.80 (95% CI=1.43-2.26), 1.62 (95% CI=1.30-2.03), and 1.63 (95% CI=1.38-1.94) times, respectively, compared to unaffected mothers. We conclude that SLE can impact the pregnancy outcomes, especially if hospitalisation occurs during the pregnancy.

  15. Increased Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Nationwide, Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Kai; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chen, Ching-Pei; Chen, Hung-Te; Yang, Po-Ta; Tsai, Chen-Dao; Huang, Ching-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a sex-specific disease that has different presentations between men and women. Women with uterine leiomyoma can present with VTE without exhibiting the traditional risk factors. We investigated the relationship between a history of uterine leiomyoma and the risk of VTE using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Methods We conducted a retrospective, nationwide, population-based case-control study using the NHIRD. We identified 2,282 patients with diagnosed VTE and 392,635 subjects without VTE from 2000 to 2013. After development of an age and index diagnosis year frequency-matched model and propensity score-matched model, 2 models with a case-to-control ratio of 1 to 4 were established. Using the diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma as the exposure factor, conditional logistic regression was performed to examine the association between uterine leiomyoma and VTE. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of uterine leiomyoma and comorbid diseases on the risk of VTE. Results A strong association was observed between uterine leiomyoma and VTE in the overall patient model, frequency-matched model and propensity score-matched model [p leiomyoma who were ≥ 45 years old were less likely to experience VTE, but women with uterine leiomyoma and anemia, cancer, coronary artery disease or heart failure were more likely to experience VTE. Conclusions Women with uterine leiomyomas have an increased risk of developing VTE, especially during reproductive periods or in the presence of specific diseases. PMID:29375226

  16. Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60?000 women

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, S C; Giovannucci, E; Bergkvist, L; Wolk, A

    2005-01-01

    We examined prospectively the association between whole grain consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. A total of 61?433 women completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline (1987?1990) and, through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry, 805 incident cases of colorectal cancer were identified during a mean follow-up of 14.8 years. High consumption of whole grains was associated with a lower risk of colon cancer, but not of rectal canc...

  17. Population and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, V

    1994-01-01

    Explanations of cultural patterns can be found in the economic context (carrying capacity) in which they develop. Population pressure explains the abuse of women throughout history and in modern times because overpopulation leads to devaluation of women's reproductive capacity. A cultural response to overpopulation includes practices that limit the numbers of women of reproductive age. Such practices foster son preference, which results in selective abortion, female infanticide, neglect and overwork of girls, dowry deaths, and discrimination against widows. The results of these practices are manifest in sex ratios that are culturally rather than naturally controlled and in demographic facts such as the calculation that 60 million females are missing in Asia alone (and perhaps more than 100 million worldwide). Women are also removed from a reproductive setting by being kidnapped or sold into prostitution or by being forced to adopt prostitution for economic survival. In cases where survival is threatened by environmental degradation and population growth, the most harsh cultural practices will emerge to adapt the population to the resources at hand. This situation creates an ethical dilemma posed by the problem of imposing Western values on a culture that is undertaking adaptive practices to insure its very survival. Ways to help women in these situation include limiting population growth humanely through family planning, provision of paid work to women, and creation of an environment that supports a small family ideal. Prosperity itself, through modernization, sometimes causes family sizes to increase. The most important intervention appears to be the provision of paid employment outside the home for women. On the other hand, large-scale wealth transfers and liberal immigration policies simply send signals that population pressure is a regional problem that can be alleviated by the international community. Increasing immigration to developed countries will place

  18. Chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women: A large population-based, prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Yi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-05-01

    Chocolate consumption may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health, but evidence from prospective cohort studies is still limited. We aimed to examine the prospective associations between chocolate consumption and risk of stroke among men and women in a large population-based cohort. A total of 38,182 men and 46,415 women aged 44-76 years, and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer at baseline in 1995 and 1998, were followed up until the end of 2009 and 2010, respectively. We obtained data on chocolate consumption for each participant using a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire that included 138 food and beverage items. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of stroke in relation to chocolate consumption. During a median follow-up of 12.9 years, we identified 3558 incident strokes cases (2146 cerebral infarctions and 1396 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjustment for age, body mass index, life styles, dietary intakes, and other risk factors, chocolate consumption was associated with a significant lower risk of stroke in women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99). However, the association in men was not significant (HR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.10). In addition, the association did not vary by stroke subtypes in either men or women. Findings from this large Japanese cohort supported a significant inverse association between chocolate consumption and risk of developing stroke in women. However, residual confounding could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal exposures and the risk of intracranial meningioma in women: a population-based case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Brian; Longstreth, WT Jr; Phillips, Leslie E; Koepsell, Thomas D; Van Belle, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The role of exogenous hormone exposures in the development of meningioma is unclear, but these exposures have been proposed as one hypothesis to explain the over-abundance of such tumors in women. The association between oral contraception (OC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and intracranial meningioma in women was investigated using a population-based, matched case-control study. Exposures for 143 cases and 286 controls matched on age within five years were obtained by interview. Diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically and estrogen and progesterone receptor assays conducted. Although risk of meningioma appeared modestly elevated in past OC users (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.8 – 2.7), and in current users (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 0.5 – 12.6), the confidence intervals were wide. No significant association between meningioma risk and duration of OC use was found. Likewise, risk of meningioma was only weakly associated with past use of HRT (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.4 – 1.3), and not at all with current use of HRT (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.5 – 2.2). Of 142 available specimens, 2 (1%) expressed estrogen receptors, whereas 130 (92%) expressed progesterone receptors (PR). OC use was associated with increased risk of a meningioma expressing less rather than more PR (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.3 – 8.0). Overall, in post menopausal women, HRT use appeared to confer a non-significant protective effect, and was not associated with low or high PR expressing meningiomas. This study found little evidence of associations between meningioma and exogenous hormone exposures in women but did suggest that some hormonal exposures may influence tumor biology in those women who develop meningioma

  20. Population attributable risk of modifiable risk factors associated with invasive breast cancer in women aged 45-69 years in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Louise F; Page, Andrew N; Dunn, Nathan A M; Pandeya, Nirmala; Protani, Melinda M; Taylor, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the population attributable risk of key modifiable risk factors associated with breast cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) for high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity were calculated, using prevalence data from a representative survey of women attending mammographic screening at BreastScreen Queensland in 2008 and relative risk estimates sourced from published literature. Attributable cancers were calculated using 'underlying' breast cancer incidence data for 2008 based on Poisson regression models, adjusting for the inflation of incidence due to the effects of mammographic screening. Attributable burden of breast cancer due to high body mass index (BMI), use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), alcohol consumption and inadequate physical activity. In Queensland women aged 45-69 years, an estimated 12.1% (95% CI: 11.6-12.5%) of invasive breast cancers were attributable to high BMI in post-menopausal women who have never used HRT; 2.8% (95% CI: 2.7-2.9%) to alcohol consumption; 7.6% (95% CI: 7.4-7.9%) to inadequate physical activity in post-menopausal women and 6.2% (95% CI: 5.5-7.0%) to current use of HRT after stratification by BMI and type of HRT used. Combined, just over one quarter (26.0%; 95% CI: 25.4-26.6%) of all invasive breast cancers in Queensland women aged 45-69 years in 2008 were attributable to these modifiable risk factors. There is benefit in targeting prevention strategies to modify lifestyle behaviours around BMI, physical activity, HRT use and alcohol consumption, as a reduction in these risk factors could decrease invasive breast cancer incidence in the Queensland population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis among women and men: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kristiansen, Louise; Becker, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol and gallstone disease are the most established risk factors for pancreatitis. Smoking is rarely considered to be a cause despite the fact that a few studies have indicated the opposite. We aimed to assess the independent effects of smoking on the risk of pancreatitis. METHODS......: We used data from an observational, population-based cohort study conducted in Denmark. Participants were 9573 women and 8332 men who were followed up for a mean of 20.2 years. Participants underwent a physical examination and completed self-administered questionnaires about lifestyle habits....... Information on incident cases of acute and chronic pancreatitis were obtained by record linkage with the Danish national registries. RESULTS: A total of 235 cases of pancreatitis occurred during follow-up. A dose-response association between smoking and risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis was observed...

  2. Occupation and breast cancer risk in Polish women: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplonska, Beata; Stewart, Patricia; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rusiecki, Jennifer; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Bardin-Mikolajczak, Alicja; Zatonski, Witold; Gromiec, Jan; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Brinton, Louise A; Blair, Aaron

    2007-02-01

    The etiology of breast cancer is not well understood and the role of occupational exposures in breast carcinogenesis is still uncertain. The population-based case-control study included 2,386 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2000-2003, and 2,502 controls. Lifetime occupational histories and information on other potential breast cancer risk factors were obtained through personal interviews. Conditional logistic regression analyses calculated odds ratios (ORs) associated with various occupations and industries after control for potential confounders. We found statistically significant excesses of breast cancer among engineers (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.0-3.8), economists (2.1; 1.1-3.8), sales occupations-retail (1.2; 1.0-1.5), and other sales occupations (1.2; 1.0-1.5). Industries showing significantly elevated risks included special trade contractors (2.2; 1.2-4.3), electronic and electric equipment manufacturers (1.7; 1.1-2.7); and public administration/general government n.e.c. (2.7; 1.3-5.7). Each of these findings was supported by a statistically significant positive trend for duration of employment (Pelectronic and electric equipment manufacturing industry and for the occupations with potential exposure to magnetic fields deserve further evaluation.

  3. Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cerebral infarction in a biracial population : the stroke prevention in young women study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittner, S J; Giles, W H; Macko, R F; Hebel, J R; Wozniak, M A; Wityk, R J; Stolley, P D; Stern, B J; Sloan, M A; Sherwin, R; Price, T R; McCarter, R J; Johnson, C J; Earley, C J; Buchholz, D W; Malinow, M R

    1999-08-01

    Genetic enzyme variation and vitamin intake are important determinants of blood homocyst(e)ine levels. The prevalence of common genetic polymorphisms influencing homocyst(e)ine levels varies by race, and vitamin intake varies by socioeconomic status. Therefore, we examined the effect of vitamin intake, race, and socioeconomic status on the association of homocyst(e)ine with stroke risk. All 59 hospitals in the greater Baltimore-Washington area participated in a population-based case-control study of stroke in young women. One hundred sixty-seven cases of first ischemic stroke among women aged 15 to 44 years were compared with 328 controls identified by random-digit dialing from the same region. Risk factor data were collected by standardized interview and nonfasting phlebotomy. Plasma homocyst(e)ine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Blacks and whites did not differ in median homocyst(e)ine levels, nor did race modify the association between homocyst(e)ine and stroke. After adjustment for cigarettes per day, poverty status, and regular vitamin use, a plasma homocyst(e)ine level of >/=7.3 micromol/L was associated with an odds ratio for stroke of 1.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5). The association between elevated homocyst(e)ine and stroke was independent not only of traditional vascular risk factors but also of vitamin use and poverty status. The degree of homocyst(e)ine elevation associated with an increased stroke risk in young women is lower than that previously reported for middle-aged men and the elderly and was highly prevalent, being present in one third of the control group.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for anaemia in pregnant women: a population-based prospective cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoyi; Li, Zhu; Ananth, Cande V

    2009-07-01

    Maternal anaemia is a common pregnancy complication in developing countries; however, its epidemiology remains largely unexplored in China. This study was designed to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of anaemia during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted, using data from a population-based pregnancy-monitoring system in 13 counties in East China (1993-96). Women who delivered singleton infants at 20-44 weeks with at least one haemoglobin assessment during pregnancy were included (n = 164 667). The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin pregnancy as well as in each trimester was estimated. Multivariable log-binomial regression models were used to evaluate risk factors. The overall prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy was 32.6%, with substantial variations across trimesters (11.2%, 20.1% and 26.2% in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters respectively). Risk factors for anaemia included older maternal age, education below junior high school (prevalence rate ratio [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08, 1.12), farming occupation (1.05, 95% CI 1.03, 1.06), and mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.05, 1.13) and severe PIH (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19). Peri-conception folic acid use was associated with a reduced risk for anaemia in the 1st trimester (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.72, 0.78). Initiating prenatal care after the 1st trimester was associated with increased risk of anaemia in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Our study found anaemia during pregnancy is highly prevalent in this indigenous Chinese population. The risk increases with the severity of hypertensive disorders. Folic acid supplementation during the peri-conception period is associated with reduced risk of 1st trimester anaemia.

  5. Ischemic stroke risk, smoking, and the genetics of inflammation in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorkin John D

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by current cigarette smoking status. Methods A population-based case-control study of stroke among women aged 15–49 identified 224 cases of first ischemic stroke (47.3% African-American and 211 age-comparable control subjects (43.1% African-American. Several inflammatory candidate gene SNPs chosen through literature review were genotyped in the study population and assessed for association with stroke and interaction with smoking status. Results Of the 8 SNPs (across 6 genes analyzed, only IL6 SNP rs2069832 (allele C, African-American frequency = 92%, Caucasian frequency = 55% was found to be significantly associated with stroke using an additive model, and this was only among African-Americans (age-adjusted: OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–5.0, p = 0.049; risk factor adjusted: OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.0–6.5, p = 0.05. When stratified by smoking status, two SNPs demonstrated statistically significant gene-environment interactions. First, the T allele (frequency = 5% of IL6 SNP rs2069830 was found to be protective among non-smokers (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.11–.082, p = 0.02, but not among smokers (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 0.48–5.58, p = 0.43; genotype by smoking interaction (p = 0.036. Second, the C allele (frequency = 39% of CD14 SNP rs2569190 was found to increase risk among smokers (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.09–3.86, p = 0.03, but not among non-smokers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.62–1.39, p = 0.72; genotype by smoking interaction (p = 0.039. Conclusion This study demonstrates

  6. Impact of abdominal obesity and systemic hypertension on risk of coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk Population Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Faha, N. N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Chir, Mbb

    2014-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the respective contributions of waist circumference and systemic hypertension (HTN) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in a large population-based cohort representative of a contemporary European population. A total of 9580 men and 12 250 women aged

  7. Prevalence, Outcome, and Women's Experiences of External Cephalic Version in a Low-Risk Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Marlies; Offerhaus, Pien; van Dommelen, Paula; Wiegers, Therese; Buitendijk, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Background: Until recently, external cephalic version to prevent breech presentation at birth was not widely accepted. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, outcomes, and women's experiences of external cephalic version to improve the implementation of the procedure in the

  8. Prevalence, outcome, and women's experiences of external cephalic version in a low-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, M.; Offerhaus, P.; Dommelen, P. van; Wiegers, T.; Buitendijk, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Until recently, external cephalic version to prevent breech presentation at birth was not widely accepted. The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence, outcomes, and women's experiences of external cephalic version to improve the implementation of the procedure in the

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Low-Income Women: A Population-Based Study in China from 1991 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyan; Bai, Lingling; Zhan, Changqing; Yang, Li; Tu, Jun; Gu, Hongfei; Shi, Min; Wang, Jinghua; Ning, Xianjia

    2016-12-01

    Data on long-term trends in the prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among women in China are rare, especially among low-income women. The aim of this study was to investigate the secular trends in the prevalence of CVD risk factors among low-income women in northern China. The prevalence and clustering of CVD risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, current smoking status, and alcohol consumption, were assessed and compared in women aged 35-74 years in northern China in 1991 and 2011. The age-adjusted prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among women was significantly higher in 2011 than in 1991, with increases of 31% (53.6% vs. 41.1%) for hypertension, 148% (20.9% vs. 8.4%) for obesity, 256% (11.7% vs. 3.3%) for diabetes, and 1634% (4.5% vs. 0.3%) for alcohol consumption. Over the 21-year period, there were significant differences in the prevalence of clustering of ≥1, ≥2, and 3 risk factors in all age groups. The greatest increase was observed among women aged 35-44 years, with a 7.3-fold increase in the prevalence of clustering of three risk factors. Simultaneously, the prevalence of clustering of ≥1 risk factors among women aged 35-44 years was 1.7-fold higher in 2011 than in 1991; the prevalence of clustering of ≥2 risk factors was raised by 5.5-fold among elderly women. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to emphasize the prevention and control of cardiovascular risk factors among young women in rural China to reduce the burden of CVDs.

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for fractures and use of DXA scanning in Danish women. A regional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P

    2011-01-01

    .5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65–79 years, spouse status, and income......To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated...... with the use of DXA. Introduction To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. Methods From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40–90 years living...

  11. Adequate Prenatal Care Reduces the Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with History of Infertility: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibekova, Raushan; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of various measures of prenatal care on adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with a history of infertility. Study Design A retrospective cohort study. Methods Data were derived by linking 2 large nationwide population-based datasets, the National Health Insurance Research Database and Taiwan Birth Certificate Registry. The study sample included 15,056 women with an infertility diagnosis and 60,224 randomly selected women without infertility matched to the study sample by maternal age. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed for the analysis. Results Women diagnosed with infertility respectively had 1.39 (95% CI, 1.06~1.83), 1.15 (95% CI, 1.08~1.24), 1.13 (95% CI, 1.08~1.18), and 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05~1.12) higher odds of having very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, preterm births, labor complications, and cesarean sections (CSs) compared to women without infertility. Inadequate numbers of total and major prenatal visits and late initiation of prenatal care increased the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility, especially the risk of a VLBW baby. However, no significant associations were found for the risks of adverse birth outcomes in infertile women with adequate prenatal care compared to fertile women with adequate care. Conclusions Study findings suggest that adequate prenatal care can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with infertility. PMID:24358347

  12. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  13. Ischemic stroke risk, smoking, and the genetics of inflammation in a biracial population: the stroke prevention in young women study

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, John W; Brown, David W; Giles, Wayne H; Stine, Oscar C; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Mitchell, Braxton D; Sorkin, John D; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Sparks, Mary J; Dobbins, Mark T; Shoffner, Latasha T; Zappala, Nancy K; Reinhart, Laurie J; Kittner, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for vascular disease, the genetic mechanisms that link cigarette smoking to an increased incidence of stroke are not well understood. Genetic variations within the genes of the inflammatory pathways are thought to partially mediate this risk. Here we evaluate the association of several inflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ischemic stroke risk among young women, further stratified by curre...

  14. High coffee consumption and different brewing methods in relation to postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk in the Norwegian women and cancer study: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Braaten, Tonje; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eiliv

    2014-03-25

    Coffee and its compounds have been proposed to inhibit endometrial carcinogenesis. Studies in the Norwegian population can be especially interesting due to the high coffee consumption and increasing incidence of endometrial cancer in the country. A total of 97 926 postmenopausal Norwegian women from the population-based prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study, were included in the present analysis. We evaluated the general association between total coffee consumption and endometrial cancer risk as well as the possible impact of brewing method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate risks, and heterogeneity tests were performed to compare brewing methods. During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 462 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. After multivariate adjustment, significant risk reduction was found among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day of coffee with a hazard ratio of 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.34-0.79). However, we did not observe a significant dose-response relationship. No significant heterogeneity in risk was found when comparing filtered and boiled coffee brewing methods. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in subgroup analyses among participants who drank ≥8 cups/day and had a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and in current smokers. These data suggest that in this population with high coffee consumption, endometrial cancer risk decreases in women consuming ≥8 cups/day, independent of brewing method.

  15. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K Padhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs. We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India.A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670 in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation. A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs and adjusted odds ratios (AORs and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4% preterm births, 95 (14.2% births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7% spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9% stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72-3.71, preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54-3.62, and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24-3.23 were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49-3.80 and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29-3.79 but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94-2.73. The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key confounding factors in our estimates, the

  16. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bijaya K; Baker, Kelly K; Dutta, Ambarish; Cumming, Oliver; Freeman, Matthew C; Satpathy, Radhanatha; Das, Bhabani S; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-07-01

    The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India. A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670) in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation). A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4%) preterm births, 95 (14.2%) births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7%) spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9%) stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72-3.71), preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54-3.62), and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24-3.23) were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49-3.80) and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29-3.79) but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94-2.73). The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key confounding factors in our estimates, the possibility

  17. Spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study of younger women from the general population in Denmark. Validation, occurrence and risk determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C

    2006-01-01

    -based prospective cohort study comprising 11,088 women and data from a linkage of the cohort with the Hospital Discharge Register to compare spontaneous abortions as reported in the interview with those identified in the register. Based on interview data, we estimated the rate of spontaneous abortion during the two......-year follow-up. Finally, risk determinants for incident spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 654 spontaneous abortions before enrolment in the study were reported by the women compared to 531 abortions found in the register. More than 80% of the spontaneous...... abortions identified from both sources were recorded in the same year. During follow-up a total of 20.9% of pregnancies intended to be carried to term ended as a spontaneous abortion. In the risk factor analysis, we found that previous spontaneous abortion, being single, never having used oral...

  18. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Friis-Holmberg, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the power of FRAX® without bone mineral density (BMD) and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) in predicting fractures. METHODS: This study was a prospective, population-based study performed in Denmark comprising 3614 women aged 40-90years, who...... returned a questionnaire concerning items on risk factors for osteoporosis. Fracture risk was calculated using the different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS and SCORE) for each woman. The women were followed using the Danish National Register registering new major osteoporotic fractures during 3......years, counting only the first fracture per person. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and statistics and Harrell's index were calculated. Agreement between the tools was calculated by kappa statistics. RESULTS: A total of 4% of the women experienced a new major osteoporotic...

  19. Role of women in population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivasdava, T N

    Population control through voluntary adoption of family planning is emphasized in India's family planning policy. The 1981 census figures have not shown an arresting rate of population growth. The social and attitudinal barriers to promoting the concept of the small family are great where men and women are not exposed to new ideas. The target groups for family planning include the 75% of the population residing in rural areas. The literacy rate for women in rural areas in 1971 was 18.69. Motivation is difficult unless supported by systematic education. Women play an important role in the determination of family size. Participation in social and economic activities may help to promote small family size by meeting the necessary conditions of emotional and social fulfillment of women outside the family context. Adquate education for women in rural as well as urban areas can elucidate alternatives to childbearing and enable women to appreciate the need for and use of contraception. Employment opportunities enhance women's familial decision making power through the acquisition of an alternative social and economic role, which may help them to adopt birth control practices, space their children, and limit family size. Motivational schemes may change the attitudes of a small number of families, however, greater gains could be achieved through an investment in women's education and employment.

  20. Annual surveillance by CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer in both high-risk and population risk women is ineffective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, E R; Sleightholme, H V; Considine, A M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of annual CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scan as surveillance for ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective audit. SETTING: NHS Trust. POPULATION: Three hundred and forty-one asymptomatic women enrolled for ovarian cancer screening: 179 were in a high...... and local cancer registry data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ovarian cancers occurring in study population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of TVU, and CA125 as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Four ovarian cancers and one endometrial...... cancer occurred. One ovarian cancer was detected at surveillance, three occurred in women who presented symptomatically between screenings. Thirty women underwent exploratory surgery because of abnormal findings at surveillance. Two women had cancer (PPV = 6.7%); one had ovarian cancer and the other...

  1. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  2. Risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus using results of a prospective population-based study in Iranian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Ferdos; Nouhjah, Sedigheh; Shahbazian, Hajieh; Shahbazian, Nahid; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud; Jahanshahi, Alireza

    2018-04-21

    Early identification of at-risk groups is an important step in preventing gestational diabetes and its subsequent side effects. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of gestational diabetes based on the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria in Ahvaz. In a cross-sectional case control study, 520 pregnant women involving life after gestational diabetes Ahvaz cohort study (LAGAs) were investigated for risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 40% and25.8% in the GMD group and in 35.8% and 16.2% in the control group respectively (p = 0.002). According to NCEP-ATP III criteria, 16.9% of women with GDM and 6.9% of mothers in the control group had metabolic syndrome in first visit of pregnancy (p diabetes[OR = 1.86(95% CI, 1.19-2.94)] (p = 0.006), pre-pregnancy BMI [OR = 1.05(95% CI, 1.007-1.11)] (p = 0.04) and metabolic syndrome in first visit of pregnancy[OR = 2.34 (95% CI, 1.038-5.30)] (p = 0.04) with GDM. Factors including maternal age, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy BMI reported in previous studies around the world. A significant association between metabolic syndrome in the first visit of pregnancy and GDM is novel finding of this study. Therefore screening of pre-pregnancy metabolic syndrome in women at risk of gestational diabetes is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ten-year incident osteoporosis-related fractures in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study - comparing site and age-specific risks in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Jerilynn C; Langsetmo, Lisa; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Goltzman, David; Kovacs, Christopher S; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Josse, Robert G; Brown, Jacques P; Leslie, William D; Kreiger, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    Population-based incident fracture data aid fracture prevention and therapy decisions. Our purpose was to describe 10-year site-specific cumulative fracture incidence by sex, age at baseline, and degree of trauma with/without consideration of competing mortality in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study adult cohort. Incident fractures and mortality were identified by annual postal questionnaires to the participant or proxy respondent. Date, site and circumstance of fracture were gathered from structured interviews and medical records. Fracture analyses were stratified by sex and age at baseline and used both Kaplan-Meier and competing mortality methods. The baseline (1995-97) cohort included 6314 women and 2789 men (aged 25-84 years; mean±SD 62±12 and 59±14, respectively), with 4322 (68%) women and 1732 (62%) men followed to year-10. At least one incident fracture occurred for 930 women (14%) and 247 men (9%). Competing mortality exceeded fracture risk for men aged 65+years at baseline. Age was a strong predictor of incident fractures especially fragility fractures, with higher age gradients for women vs. men. Major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) (hip, clinical spine, forearm, humerus) accounted for 41-74% of fracture risk by sex/age strata; in women all MOF sites showed age-related increases but in men only hip was clearly age-related. The most common fractures were the forearm for women and the ribs for men. Hip fracture incidence was the highest for the 75-84 year baseline age-group with no significant difference between women 7.0% (95% CI 5.3, 8.9) and men 7.0% (95% CI 4.4, 10.3). There are sex differences in the predominant sites and age-gradients of fracture. In older men, competing mortality exceeds cumulative fracture risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Women Veterans, a Population at Risk for Fibromyalgia: The Associations Between Fibromyalgia, Symptoms, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aoust, Rita F; Rossiter, Alicia Gill; Elliott, Amanda; Ji, Ming; Lengacher, Cecile; Groer, Maureen

    2017-07-01

    The Institute of Federal Health Care recently published an executive summary from a round table discussion indicating that active duty and retired female military personnel are at high risk for adverse health outcomes unique to military service including complications related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unreported sexual trauma, and musculoskeletal problems. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine began to review, evaluate, and summarize the literature on health outcomes in Gulf War-deployed and found sufficient evidence of a causal relationship with PTSD and suggestive evidence of an association with fibromyalgia (FM). This study examines the prevalence and impact of FM in women veterans and to explore the association between other comorbidities to improve risk differentiation for treatment and improve outcomes. This study is designed as a nested, cross-sectional study within a larger project funded by the U.S. Army at the University of South Florida, College of Nursing entitled "Nursing Health Initiative for Empowering Women Veterans." A sample of 76 participants completed a battery of study instruments related to physical and psychological stressors. Over half of the sample had a positive FM screening score (56.68%) although only 14.42% were deployed to the Middle East. More than 70% of participants reported harassment in life in the military and 32.9% reported sexual assault while in the military. Results of the 1-way analysis of variances find that there was a significant association of FM with the psychological symptoms of stress, depression, and PTSD. There was a significant association of FM with quality of life and sleep difficulty. The results from this pilot study suggest there is a significant relationship between FM and the psychological symptoms of depression and PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of these women screened positive for depressive symptoms and just over one-quarter of participants had symptoms indicative of PTSD. Only a small proportion of

  5. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Määttä Mikko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years. Seventy-three percent (n = 1222 participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p  Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels.

  6. Lifestyle factors and site-specific risk of hip fracture in community dwelling older women – a 13-year prospective population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated to hip fractures. It seems that different hip fracture types have different etiologies. In this study, we evaluated the lifestyle-related risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in older women over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods The study design was a prospective, population-based study consisting of 1681 women (mean age 72 years). Seventy-three percent (n = 1222) participated in the baseline measurements, including medical history, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and nutrition, along with body anthropometrics and functional mobility. Cox regression was used to identify the independent predictors of cervical and trochanteric hip fractures. Results During the follow-up, 49 cervical and 31 trochanteric fractures were recorded. The women with hip fractures were older, taller, and thinner than the women with no fractures (p trochanteric fractures (HR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.8-6.6, and HR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.5-11.4, respectively). Low baseline physical activity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture, especially in the cervical region (HR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9). A decrease in cervical fracture risk (p = 0.002) was observed with physically active individuals compared to their less active peers (categories: very low or low, moderate, and high). Moderate coffee consumption and hypertension decreased the risk of cervical fractures (HR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8, for both), while smoking was a predisposing factor for trochanteric fractures (HR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.3). Conclusions Impaired functional mobility, physical inactivity, and low body mass may increase the risk for hip fractures with different effects at the cervical and trochanteric levels. PMID:22978821

  7. Risk, treatment duration, and recurrence risk of postpartum affective disorder in women with no prior psychiatric history: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H Rasmussen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 5%-15% of all women experience postpartum depression (PPD, which for many is their first psychiatric disorder. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postpartum affective disorder (AD, duration of treatment, and rate of subsequent postpartum AD and other affective episodes in a nationwide cohort of women with no prior psychiatric history.Linking information from several Danish national registers, we constructed a cohort of 457,317 primiparous mothers with first birth (and subsequent births from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2013 (a total of 789,068 births and no prior psychiatric hospital contacts and/or use of antidepressants. These women were followed from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2014. Postpartum AD was defined as use of antidepressants and/or hospital contact for PPD within 6 months after childbirth. The main outcome measures were risk of postpartum AD, duration of treatment, and recurrence risk. We observed 4,550 (0.6% postpartum episodes of AD. The analyses of treatment duration showed that 1 year after the initiation of treatment for their first episode, 27.9% of women were still in treatment; after 4 years, 5.4%. The recurrence risk of postpartum AD for women with a PPD hospital contact after first birth was 55.4 per 100 person-years; for women with postpartum antidepressant medication after first birth, it was 35.0 per 100 person-years. The rate of postpartum AD after second birth for women with no history of postpartum AD was 1.2 per 100 person-years. After adjusting for year of birth and mother's age, women with PPD hospital contact after first birth had a 46.4 times higher rate (95% CI 31.5-68.4 and women with postpartum antidepressant medication after their first birth had a 26.9 times higher rate (95% CI 21.9-33.2 of a recurrent postpartum episode after their second birth compared to women with no postpartum AD history. Limitations include the use of registry data to identify cases and limited

  8. Risk factors for cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in elderly women: a population-based 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Heikki; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Korpelainen, Juha; Heikkinen, Jorma; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the contribution of lifestyle-related factors, calcaneal ultrasound, and radial bone mineral density (BMD) to cervical and trochanteric hip fractures in elderly women in a 10-year population-based cohort study. The study population consisted of 1,681 women (age range 70-73 years). Seventy-two percent (n = 1,222) of them participated in the baseline measurements. Calcaneal ultrasound was assessed with a quantitative ultrasound device. BMD measurements were performed at the distal and ultradistal radius by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to find the most predictive variables for hip fracture risk. During the follow-up, 53 of the women had hip fractures, including 32 cervical and 21 trochanteric ones. The fractured women were taller and thinner and had lower calcaneal ultrasound values than those without fractures. High body mass index (BMI) was a protective factor against any hip fractures, while low functional mobility was a risk factor of hip fractures. Specifically, high BMI protected against cervical hip fractures, while low physical activity was a significant predictor of these fractures. Similarly, high BMI protected against trochanteric fractures, whereas low functional mobility and high coffee consumption were significant predictors of trochanteric fractures. Cervical and trochanteric hip fractures seem to have different risk factors. Therefore, fracture type should be taken into account in clinical fracture risk assessment and preventative efforts, including patient counseling. However, the study is not conclusive due to the limited number of observed fractures during follow-up, and the results have to be confirmed in future studies.

  9. Placental weight in the first pregnancy and risk for preeclampsia in the second pregnancy: A population-based study of 186 859 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dypvik, Johanne; Larsen, Sandra; Haavaldsen, Camilla; Jukic, Anne M; Vatten, Lars J; Eskild, Anne

    2017-07-01

    To study whether placental weight in the first pregnancy is associated with preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. In this population-based study, we included all women with two consecutive singleton pregnancies reported to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway during 1999-2012 (n=186 859). Placental weight in the first pregnancy was calculated as z-scores, and the distribution was divided into five groups of equal size (quintiles). We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for preeclampsia in the second pregnancy according to quintiles of placental weight z-scores in the first pregnancy. The 3rd quintile was used as the reference group. Among women without preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, 1.4% (2507/177 149) developed preeclampsia in the second pregnancy. In these women, the risk for preeclampsia in the second pregnancy was associated with placental weight in the first pregnancy in both lowest (crude odds ratio (cOR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.14-1.47) and highest quintile (cOR 1.20, 95% CI; 1.06-1.36). The risk associated with the highest quintile of placental weight was confined to term preeclampsia. Among women with preeclampsia in the first pregnancy, 15.7% (1522/9710) developed recurrent preeclampsia, and the risk for recurrent preeclampsia was associated with placental weight in lowest quintile in the first pregnancy (cOR 1.30, 95% CI; 1.10-1.55). Adjustment for interval between pregnancies, maternal diabetes, age, and smoking in the first pregnancy did not alter these estimates notably. Placental weight in the first pregnancy might help to identify women who could be at risk for developing preeclampsia in a second pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Population and status of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, S

    1988-06-01

    It is difficult to determine the social status or rank of women, since no uniform indicators of status have been approved. Currently, in most Asian and Pacific countries, women make up the majority of illiterates (75% in South Asia; 70% in China), even in areas that have expanded their educational facilities. East and Southeast Asia have succeeded so far in their attempts to increase the enrollment ratios for women (90% female enrollment ratio as opposed to less than 50% in South Asia). Male-female roles seem to be entrenched in the society of all the countries. Women have benefited from an improvement in health care in East and Southeast Asia. In South Asia, female mortality is still very high. In most of the Asian and Pacific countries, female participation in the labor force is relatively low. However, this may be a misnomer, since the estimates do not include domestic workers that produce familial income. Women in the labor force seem to group into 4 major areas: professional and technical, clerical, service, and production work--all of which are usually low paying, low status jobs. Population growth in developing countries seems to have slowed the advancement of women toward greater gender equality by increasing the dependency burden and limiting social and material resources. High fertility rates among women correlate with an increase in illiteracy and a decrease in status improvement through education. Child bearing and home-making place heavy burdens on those women who marry young because of social pressures. Males are normally educated first in these larger families. The correlation of mortality conditions and female status is not currently clear. Rural-to-urban migration of the husband causes a weakening of the wife's status. Migration of some women to urban areas relieves social pressures and allows them to seek employment, but isolates others from a life with which they are familiar. Higher education of women seems to postpone marriage and child

  11. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  12. High-dose B-vitamin supplements and risk for age-related cataract: a population-based prospective study of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Jinjin Z; Lindblad, Birgitta E; Bottai, Matteo; Morgenstern, Ralf; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies that have investigated the association between B-vitamin supplement use and risk for cataract yield conflicting results. The aim of this study was to examine the association between use of high-dose B-vitamin supplements (approximately 10 times recommended daily intake) and risk for age-related cataract in a population-based prospective study of 13 757 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and 22 823 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men. Dietary supplement use and potential confounders were assessed using a questionnaire at baseline. Information on cataract diagnosis and extraction was obtained through linkage to registers. During the follow-up period between January 1998 and December 2011, we identified 8395 cataract cases (3851 for women and 4544 for men). The use of B vitamins plus other supplements and B vitamins only was associated with 9 % (95 % CI 2, 17) and 27 % (95 % CI 12, 43) increased risk for cataract, respectively. The hazard ratios for use of B vitamins only and risk for cataract stratified by different age groups were as follows: B-vitamin supplements was associated with an increased risk for cataract. This association might be confined to younger participants.

  13. Birthweight, parental age, birth order and breast cancer risk in African-American and white women: a population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. We also examined paternal age. Birthweight analyses were conducted for white and African-American women born in North Carolina on or after 1949 (196 cases, 167 controls). Maternal age was analyzed for US born participants younger than 49 years of age (280 cases, 236 controls). Results There was a weak inverse association between birthweight in the highest tertile and breast cancer overall (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–1.2), although associations differed by race (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–1.0, and OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.5–2.1 for African-American and white women, respectively). For maternal age there was an approximately threefold increase in risk in women whose mothers were older than 22 years of age, relative to 19–22 years of age, when the women were born. After adjustment for maternal age, older paternal age increased risk in the oldest and youngest age categories (relative to 23–27 years of age at the woman's birth: OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.1 for age 15–22 years; OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7–2.2 for age 28–34 years; and OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7–3.2 for age 35–56 years). There was no association with older paternal age for white women alone. After adjustment for maternal age (265 cases, 224 controls), a birth order of fifth or higher relative to first had an inverse association with breast cancer for women younger than 49 years old (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3–1.3). Conclusion Although the CIs are wide, these results lend support to the possibility that the prenatal

  14. Women with high early pregnancy urinary iodine levels have an increased risk of hyperthyroid newborns: the population-based Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Marco; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Visser, Willy; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, W Edward; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Bongers-Schokking, Jacoba J; Ross, H Alec; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2014-04-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in thyroid dysfunction and has been associated with adverse obstetric and foetal effects, leading to worldwide salt iodization programmes. As nowadays 69% of the world's population lives in iodine-sufficient regions, we investigated the effects of variation in iodine status on maternal and foetal thyroid (dys)function in an iodine-sufficient population. Urinary iodine, serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and TPO-antibody levels were determined in early pregnancy (13·3 (1·9) week; mean (SD)) in 1098 women from the population-based Generation R Study. Newborn cord serum TSH and FT4 levels were determined at birth. The median urinary iodine level was 222·5 μg/l, indicating an iodine-sufficient population. 30·8% and 11·5% had urinary iodine levels 500 μg/l, respectively. When comparing mothers with urinary iodine levels 500 vs ≤500 μg/l, there were no differences in the risk of maternal increased or decreased TSH, hypothyroxinaemia or hyperthyroidism. Mothers with urinary iodine levels >500 μg/l had a higher risk of a newborn with decreased cord TSH levels (5·6 ± 1·4 (mean ± SE) vs 2·1 ± 0·5%, P = 0·04), as well as a higher risk of a hyperthyroid newborn (3·1 ± 0·9 vs 0·6 ± 0·3%, P = 0·02). These mothers had newborns with higher cord FT4 levels (21·7 ± 0·3 vs 21·0 ± 0·1 pm, P = 0·04). Maternal urinary iodine levels iodine-sufficient population, higher maternal urinary iodine levels are associated with an increased risk of a hyperthyroid newborn. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A population-based survey in Australia of men's and women's perceptions of genetic risk and predictive genetic testing and implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S

    2011-01-01

    Community attitudes research regarding genetic issues is important when contemplating the potential value and utilisation of predictive testing for common diseases in mainstream health services. This article aims to report population-based attitudes and discuss their relevance to integrating genetic services in primary health contexts. Men's and women's attitudes were investigated via population-based omnibus telephone survey in Queensland, Australia. Randomly selected adults (n = 1,230) with a mean age of 48.8 years were interviewed regarding perceptions of genetic determinants of health; benefits of genetic testing that predict 'certain' versus 'probable' future illness; and concern, if any, regarding potential misuse of genetic test information. Most (75%) respondents believed genetic factors significantly influenced health status; 85% regarded genetic testing positively although attitudes varied with age. Risk-based information was less valued than certainty-based information, but women valued risk information significantly more highly than men. Respondents reported 'concern' (44%) and 'no concern' (47%) regarding potential misuse of genetic information. This study contributes important population-based data as most research has involved selected individuals closely impacted by genetic disorders. While community attitudes were positive regarding genetic testing, genetic literacy is important to establish. The nature of gender differences regarding risk perception merits further study and has policy and service implications. Community concern about potential genetic discrimination must be addressed if health benefits of testing are to be maximised. Larger questions remain in scientific, policy, service delivery, and professional practice domains before predictive testing for common disorders is efficacious in mainstream health care. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Environmental risk factors for women with polycystic ovary syndrome in china: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X F; Liu, Y; Xu, L Z; Zhou, L L; Tang, L L; Zhuang, J; Li, T T; Guo, W Q; Hu, R; Qiu, D S; Han, D W

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrinology disease with heterogeneous phenotype. Environmental factors are thought to be involved in the development of PCOS. The present study aimed to explore the potential environmental risk factors of PCOS. A cross-sectional study and stratified population-based case-control study were carried out. Pre-designed questionnaires were prepared, including questions about medication history, contact history of endocrine disruptors (EDs), environment and habituation. Fasting blood was collected for measurement of sex hormone, glucose and insulin. Matched logistic regression analysis was used to find the potential independent risk factor of PCOS. One thousand eight hundred fifty-four participants (aged 12-44 years) were analyzed in the cross-sectional investigation. One hundred sixty-nine PCOS patients and 338 matched controls were compared. PCOS patients were more frequent than controls in eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001), contacting pesticide (p=0.021), eating fruit with pericarp (p=0.001), living beside a garbage heap (p=0.001), working at an acid plant (p=0.028), taking Chinese patent drugs (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.028) and drinking alcohol (p=0.001). However, PCOS patients were less likely to use kitchen ventilators (p=0.002), eat canned food (p=0.049), contact decorated materials, use skin care products (p=0.01) and cosmetics (p=0.027). No difference was found in taking antiepileptic drugs (p=0.93). Eating plastic-packaged food (p=0.001, OR=44.449), eating fruit with pericarp (p=0.03, OR=5.7) and drinking alcohol (p=0.001, OR=29.632) were found to be the independent risk factors for PCOS. The existence of an association between EDs and PCOS was proved. Plastic-packaged food, fruit with pericarp and drinking alcohol should be avoided as possible as we can. However, the causal relationships among these factors and PCOS should be proved by further research.

  17. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may

  18. Determinants of fracture risk in a UK-population-based cohort of older women: a cross-sectional analysis of the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA)

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Emma M.; Gould, Virginia C.; Morrison, Leigh; Masud, Tahir; Tobias, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Background: identification of individuals with high fracture risk from within primary care is complex. It is likely that the true contribution of falls to fracture risk is underestimated. Methods: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort of 3,200 post-menopausal women aged 73???4 years. Self-reported data were collected on fracture, osteoporosis clinical risk factors and falls/mobility risk factors. Self-reported falls were compared with recorded falls on GP computerised records....

  19. Some risk factors for the development of type 2 Diabetes in men and women of Belgrade population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Jadranka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the last two decades there has been an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in both developed and in developing countries. Objective. To determine whether personal habits like smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption or physical inactivity are different between genders in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The study was conducted in Belgrade, during the period 2007-2008, and included newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. We included 80 men and 99 women diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2, referred to the Primary Health Care Centre 'Savski venac'. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic and anthropometric characteristics, as well as data on healthy habits. The χI test and two-tailed t-test were used for data analysis. Results. The men were significantly more engaged in industry and crafts, while the women worked significantly more frequently in administrative jobs. The men were married significantly more frequently than the women (p<0.05 and had a higher level of education (p<0.05. Regarding to the level of implementation of nutritional and physical activity, there were no significant differences between the genders (p>0.05. The women consumed coffee significantly more frequently than the men (p<0.05, but drank less alcohol (p<0.05. The men were former smokers significantly more frequently (p<0.05 than the women. Conclusion. These results indicate the role of certain personal habits in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus—a prospective, population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, M.-M.E.; West, S.; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S.; Jokelainen, J.; Auvinen, J.; Puukka, K.; Ruokonen, A.; Järvelin, M.-R.; Tapanainen, J.S.; Franks, S.; Piltonen, T.T.; Morin-Papunen, L.C.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? SUMMARY ANSWER The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28–4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years

  1. Overweight and obese but not normal weight women with PCOS are at increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus-a prospective, population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, M-M E; West, S; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Jokelainen, J; Auvinen, J; Puukka, K; Ruokonen, A; Järvelin, M-R; Tapanainen, J S; Franks, S; Piltonen, T T; Morin-Papunen, L C

    2017-02-01

    What are the respective roles of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), long-term weight gain and obesity for the development of prediabetes or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by age 46 years? The risk of T2DM in women with PCOS is mainly due to overweight and obesity, although these two factors have a synergistic effect on the development of T2DM. PCOS is associated with an increased risk of prediabetes and T2DM. However, the respective roles of PCOS per se and BMI for the development of T2DM have remained unclear. In a prospective, general population-based follow-up birth cohort 1966 (n = 5889), postal questionnaires were sent at ages 14 (95% answered), 31 (80% answered) and 46 years (72% answered). Questions about oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism were asked at age 31 years, and a question about PCOS diagnosis at 46 years. Clinical examination and blood sampling were performed at 31 years in 3127 women, and at 46 years in 3280 women. A 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 46 years of age in 2780 women. Women reporting both oligoamenorrhoea and hirsutism at age 31 years and/or diagnosis of PCOS by 46 years were considered as women with PCOS (n = 279). Women without any symptoms at 31 years and without PCOS diagnosis by 46 years were considered as controls (n = 1577). The level of glucose metabolism was classified according to the results of the OGTT and previous information of glucose metabolism status from the national drug and hospital discharge registers. PCOS per se significantly increased the risk of T2DM in overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 ) women with PCOS when compared to overweight/obese controls (odds ratio: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28-4.67). Normal weight women with PCOS did not present with an increased risk of prediabetes or T2DM. The increase in weight between ages 14, 31 and 46 years was significantly greater in women with PCOS developing T2DM than in women with PCOS and normal glucose tolerance, with the most significant increase occurring

  2. Post-ischemic stroke rehabilitation is associated with a higher risk of fractures in older women: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huei Kai; Lin, Shu Man; Yang, Clement Shih Hsien; Liang, Chung Chao; Cheng, Hung Yu

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation can improve physical activity after stroke. However, patients may be more prone to falls and fractures because of balance and gait deficits. Few reports have studied the relationship between rehabilitation and subsequent fractures after ischemic stroke. To investigate whether post-stroke rehabilitation affects fracture risk. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with a newly diagnosed ischemic stroke between 2000 and 2012 were included. After propensity score matching, a total of 8,384 patients were enrolled. Half of the patients (4,192) received post-stroke rehabilitation within 1 month; the other half did not receive any post-stroke rehabilitation. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures among patients with and without rehabilitation within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Patients were further stratified by sex and age (20-64 and ≥65 years). Patients receiving post-stroke rehabilitation had a higher incidence of fracture (6.2 per 100 person-years) than those who did not (4.1 per 100 person-years) after adjustment for sociodemographic and coexisting medical conditions [HR = 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.25-1.87, p rehabilitation had a significantly higher risk of fracture (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.21-2.17, p = 0.001). Rehabilitation after ischemic stroke is associated with an increased fracture risk in older women.

  3. Are testosterone levels and depression risk linked based on partnering and parenting? Evidence from a large population-representative study of U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-08-01

    Partnered adults tend to have lower risks of depression than do single individuals, while parents are more commonly depressed than non-parents. Low testosterone men, and possibly women, are also at greater risk of depression. A large body of research has shown that partnered parents have lower testosterone than single non-parents in some cultural settings, including the U.S. Here, we drew on a large (n = 2438), U.S.-population representative cohort of reproductive aged adults (age: 38.1 years ± 11.1 SD) to test hypotheses regarding the intersections between partnering and parenting, testosterone, socio-demographic characteristics, and depression outcomes. Men and women's depression prevalence did not vary based on testosterone. Partnered fathers had lower testosterone than single (never married, divorced) non-fathers, but were less commonly depressed than those single non-fathers. Partnered mothers had reduced testosterone compared to never married and partnered non-mothers. Never married mothers had higher depression prevalence and elevated depressive symptomology compared to partnered mothers; these differences were largely accounted for by key health-related covariates (e.g. cigarette smoking, BMI). We found significant three-way-interactions between socioeconomic status (SES), testosterone, and parenting for adults' depression risks. High testosterone, high SES fathers had the lowest prevalence of mild depression, whereas low testosterone, low SES non-fathers had the highest. Compared to other mothers, low SES, low testosterone mothers had elevated prevalence of mild depression. Overall, low SES, high testosterone non-mothers had substantially elevated depression risks compared to other women. We suggest that psychobiological profiles (e.g. a male with low testosterone) can emerge through variable psychosomatic and psychosocial pathways and the net effect of those profiles for depression are influenced by the social (e.g. partnering and parenting status

  4. Preventing Preterm Birth with Progesterone in Women with a Short Cervical Length from a Low-Risk Population: A Multicenter Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van der Ven, A.J.; Kleinrouweler, C.E.; Schuit, E.; Kazemier, B.M.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; de Miranda, E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Sikkema, J.M.; Woiski, M.D.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Pajkrt, E.; de Groot, C.J.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Haak, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vaginal progesterone in reducing adverse neonatal outcome due to preterm birth (PTB) in low-risk pregnant women with a short cervical length (CL). Study Design Women with a singleton pregnancy without a history of PTB

  5. A Population-based Survey of the Prevalence, Potential Risk Factors, and Symptom-specific Bother of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Adult Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Lan; Xu, Tao; Lang, Jinghe; Li, Zhaoai; Gong, Jian; Liu, Qing; Liu, Xiaochun

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are few in China, and none has been conducted nationwide. To estimate the prevalence and potential risk factors of LUTS and the bother they impose on adult women in China. This is the second analysis of a population-based cross-sectional survey on urinary incontinence conducted between February and July 2006 in six regions of China. Cluster samples were randomly selected for interviews. No intervention was implemented. A modified Chinese Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire was administered. The participants were asked about the presence of individual LUTS and rated their symptom bother. Descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and multivariate logistic regressions were used for data analysis. A total of 18 992 respondents (94.96%) were included. The prevalence of any LUTS, storage symptoms, or voiding symptoms was 55.5%, 53.9%, and 12.9%, respectively, and increased with age. Nocturia was the most common symptom (23.4%), followed by urgency (23.3%) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI; 18.9%). Nocturia was most frequently rated as bothersome (93.0%) but was generally minor (80.5%). Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) were most frequently reported as severe (11.5% and 10.8%) or moderate (18.5% and 16.8%) bothers. Any LUTS were more prevalent in urban women (57.1% vs 53.9%). Multiple factors increased the odds of bother and individual LUTS, and older age and coexisting pelvic organ prolapse were strong predictors (pfactors influenced bother and individual LUTS. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms is high and increases with age in adult women in China. Urgency and urgency urinary incontinence were most frequently regarded as severe or moderate bothers and should be targeted for medical intervention. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  7. Development and risk factors of type 2 diabetes in a nationwide population of women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Glintborg, Dorte; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Prospective population-based data regarding development and possible predictors of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in PCOS are limited. Design: National Register-based study. Methods: Patients with PCOS (PCOS......, body mass index, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, 2 hour blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and triglycerides were positively associated with development of T2D, whereas higher number of births was negatively associated with development of T2D. Conclusion: The event rate.......7; 4.3) (pvs. 2.0 per 1000 patient years in controls (pvs. 35 (27-44) years in controls (p

  8. Alcohol consumption and the risk of self-reported perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis in young adult women in a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, P; Grønbæk, M; Kjær, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been suggested to be associated with the development of allergic rhinitis (AR), but there is limited data on the topic. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing AR among young...... women. Methods Five thousand eight hundred and seventy Danish women aged 20-29 years participated in a prospective cohort study, and were free of seasonal and perennial AR at baseline (1991-1993). Alcohol consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self......-reported information on seasonal and perennial AR debuting during a mean follow-up period of 7.8 years. Results During follow-up, 831 women developed seasonal AR and 523 women developed perennial AR, corresponding to 14% and 9%. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing perennial AR...

  9. Risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or invasive cancers in ASCUS women with different management: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yi Jou; Chen, Yun Yuan; Hsu, Huang Cheng; Chiang, Chun Ju; You, San Lin; Chen, Chi An; Cheng, Wen Fang

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the progression risk of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) with different clinical managements. Women with their first diagnosis of ASCUS cytology were retrieved from the national cervical cancer screening database and linked to the national health insurance research database to identify the management of these women. The incidences of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 and invasive cervical cancer (CIN3+) were calculated, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the National Taiwan University Hospital and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02063152). There were total 69,741 women included. Various management strategies including colposcopy, cervical biopsies and/or endocervical curettage, and cryotherapy, failed to reduce the risk of subsequent CIN3+ compared with repeat cervical smears. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure/conization significantly decreased risk of subsequent CIN3+ lesions (HR=0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.07-0.68; p=0.010). Women in their 40s-50s had an approximately 30% risk reduction compared to other age groups. Women with a previous screening history >5 years from the present ASCUS diagnosis were at increased risk for CIN3+ (HR=1.24; 95% CI=1.03-1.49; p=0.020). In women of first-time ASCUS cytology, a program of repeat cytology can be an acceptable clinical option in low-resource settings. Caution should be taken especially in women with remote cervical screening history more than 5 years. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  10. A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of the risk of uterine, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PCOS and the subsequent development of gynecological cancers including uterine, breast, or ovarian cancer. We identified subjects who were diagnosed with PCOS between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, in the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without known PCOS who were also matched according to age. All PCOS and control patients were observed until diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or uterine cancer or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or December 31, 2009. The PCOS cohort consisted of 3,566 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 14,264 matched control patients without PCOS. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of uterine cancer and breast cancer in subjects with PCOS were higher (HR: 8.42 [95% confidence interval: 1.62-43.89] and HR: 1.99 [95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.77], respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. With the Monte Carlo method, only the mean adjusted HR of 1,000 comparisons for developing uterine cancer during the follow-up period was greater for the PCOS group than for the control groups (HR: 4.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.57-14.11). PCOS might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed uterine cancer. It is critical that further large-scale, well-designed studies be conducted to confirm the association between PCOS and gynecological cancer risk. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Women's NGOs mobilize for population summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) encouraged representatives from women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to attend the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. ICPD policy makers held issues meetings in September, 1993, for women's NGOs. the ICPD will have a direct bearing on women's issues such as access to family planning, reproductive health care, the fate of girls, and gender equality. 31 alumni of CEDPA met with UN officials and other NGO leaders at the second ICPD Preparatory Committee meeting in New York. CEDPA was encouraged that US policy supported women-managed and women-centered health services. CEDPA president Peggy Curlin recommends health and girl's education as the best means for improving the quality of life in developing countries. CEDPA has a Leadership and Advocacy Project, which promotes women's leadership in population policy at ICPD, regionally, and nationally. CEDPA recommends that women's NGOs and CEDPA link up with appropriate regional networks (in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan). Women can become involved in the ICPD by becoming an NGO representative to the conference. Women can also become involved by writing to CEDPA about their concerns regarding gender equity and women's empowerment, reproductive rights, girl child initiatives, and adequate resources for NGOs.

  12. Women, population and development trends since 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, H

    1989-01-01

    This paper review progress over the past 5 years with respect to the 6 recommendations adopted at the International Conference on Population 1984, which specifically address the situation of women. They include: 1) integrating women into development, 2) women's economic participation, 3) education, training, and employment, 4) raising the age at marriage, 5) the active involvement of men in all areas of family responsibility, and 6) the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Several important areas potentially relevant to population issues which were omitted from the Conference recommendations are identified and discussed--namely, the situation of women (in particular, older women, women who are the sole supporters of families, and women and migration) and the situation of women in times of severe economic adversity. Finally, progress made with respect to data on women is highlighted, and caution is advised with respect to continued calls for new data. In contrast to the Nairobi Forward-Looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the recommendations are noted for implying an almost unresolvable conflict between women's biological and economic roles. However, it is pointed out that the goals of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women for full equality of men and women would require that the same choices be available to both sexes with respect to labor force participation. While it is too soon to have a clear perspective on the pace and direction of change during the past 5 years, the author finds it impossible to be optimistic about current trends because, in too many areas, progress regarding women has either stagnated or moved into reverse gear. The disappointing record is partially attributed to the tendency for policy makers to see the promotion of economic growth through sound economic policy and advancing the status of women as competing rather than

  13. Adolescent body mass index and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a cohort of 1.79 million Israeli men and women: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Zohar; Kark, Jeremy D; Katz, Lior H; Twig, Gilad; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Leibovici Weissman, Yaara; Leiba, Adi; Lipshiez, Irena; Keinan Boker, Lital; Afek, Arnon

    2017-10-15

    This study examined the association between the body mass index (BMI) in late adolescence and the risk of colon and rectal cancer. This study analyzed a cohort of 1,087,358 Jewish men and 707,212 Jewish women who underwent health examinations at the ages of 16 to 19 years between 1967 and 2002 and were followed by linkage to the national cancer registry up to 2012. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer according to age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentiles from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (overweight, 85th percentile to cancer, including 1977 among men (1403 in the colon and 574 in the rectum) and 990 among women (764 in the colon and 226 in the rectum), were identified. Overweight and obesity were associated with the risk for colon cancer among both men (HR for overweight, 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.84; HR for obesity, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.15-2.06; statistically significant from a BMI of 23.4 kg/m 2 [spline analysis]) and women (HR for overweight, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.22-1.93; HR for obesity, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.89-2.57; significant from a BMI of 23.6 kg/m 2 ). Obesity, but not overweight, was associated with a risk for rectal cancer among men (HR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65; significant from a BMI of 29.6 kg/m 2 ) and women (HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 0.90-4.58; significant from a BMI of 30.6 kg/m 2 ). Being overweight or obese in adolescence was associated with an increased risk of subsequent colon cancers in men and women, whereas obesity was associated with rectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:4022-30. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Smoking and alcohol drinking increased the risk of esophageal cancer among Chinese men but not women in a high-risk population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhao, J.K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhou, J.Y.; Wang, X.S.; Zhang, X.F.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Although the association for esophageal cancer with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking has been well established, the risk appears to be less strong in China. To provide more evidence on the effect of smoking and alcohol consumption with esophageal cancer in China, particularly among Chinese

  15. Risk perception for diabetes in Appalachian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Ishveen; Chopra, Avijeet

    2017-01-01

    The social and economic burden of diabetes is large and growing. Diabetes is a significant public health issue in the Appalachian region; women constitute approximately 50% of those diagnosed with diabetes. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors (cognitive and affective representations) and perceived risk of diabetes in non-diabetic, non-elderly (21-50 years) Appalachian women residing in West Virginia (N = 202). Participants were recruited through social media, flyers, and a newsletter from the West Virginia University Extension. The final survey was conducted from March 2015 to June 2015. Bivariate analyses were used to examine unadjusted relations among sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors and comparative perceived risk of diabetes. In a multivariable logistic regression model, we found that younger age, higher body mass index, non-White race, greater diabetes knowledge, personal control, and moderate amounts of physical activity were significantly, positively associated with higher diabetes risk perception (p related to diabetes risk perception among Appalachian women. Understanding perceived diabetes-related risk may aid in the development of effective intervention strategies to reduce the burden of diabetes among Appalachian and other populations. These cross-sectional findings need further evaluation in longitudinal studies.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  18. Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in Chinese pregnant women: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available We compared the increases in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM based on the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO criteria and its risk factors in Tianjin, China, over a 12-year period. We also examined the changes in the prevalence using the criteria of International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG.In 2010-2012, 18589 women who registered within 12 weeks of gestation underwent a glucose challenge test (GCT at 24-28 gestational weeks. Amongst them, 2953 women with 1-hour plasma glucose ≥ 7.8 mmol/L underwent a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and 781 women had a positive GCT but absented from the standard OGTT. An adjusted prevalence of GDM was calculated for the whole cohort of women by including an estimate of the proportion of women with positive GCTs who did not have OGTTs but would have been expected to have GDM. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using the IADPSG criteria. The prevalence of GDM risk factors was compared to the 1999 survey.The adjusted prevalence of GDM by the 1999 WHO criteria was 8.1%, a 3.5-fold increase as in 1999. Using the IADPSG criteria increased the adjusted prevalence further to 9.3%. Advanced age, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index, Han-nationality, higher systolic blood pressure (BP, a family history of diabetes, weight gain during pregnancy and habitual smoking were risk factors for GDM. Compared to the 1999 survey, the prevalence of overweight plus obesity had increased by 1.8 folds, age ≥ 30 years by 2.3 folds, systolic BP by 2.3 mmHg over the 12-year period.Increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity and older age at pregnancy were accompanied by increasing prevalence of GDM, further increased by change in diagnostic criteria.

  19. Improving antenatal risk assessment in women exposed to high risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Natasha; Newman, Louise K; Hunter, Mick; Dunlop, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal substance use and related psychosocial risk factors are known to increase the likelihood of child protection involvement; less is known about the predictive nature of maternal reflective functioning (RF) in this population. This preliminary study assessed psychosocial and psychological risk factors for a group of substance dependent women exposed to high risks in pregnancy, and their impact on child protection involvement. Pregnant women on opiate substitution treatment (n = 11) and a comparison group (n = 15) were recruited during their third trimester to complete measures of RF (Pregnancy Interview), childhood trauma, mental health and psychosocial assessments. At postnatal follow-up, RF was reassessed (Parent Development Interview - Revised Short Version) and mother-infant dyads were videotaped to assess emotional availability (EA). Child protection services were contacted to determine if any concerns had been raised for infant safety. Significant between-group differences were observed for demographics, psychosocial factors, trauma and mental health symptoms. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found for RF or EA between groups. Eight women in the 'exposed to high risks' group became involved with child protection services. Reflective functioning was not significantly associated with psychosocial risk factors, and therefore did not mediate the outcome of child protection involvement. Women 'exposed to high risks' were equally able to generate a model of their own and their infants' mental states and should not be seen within a deficit perspective. Further research is required to better understand the range of risk factors that predict child protection involvement in high risk groups. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors and disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sharon K

    2015-05-01

    Coronary artery disease and stroke predominantly affect older women as opposed to younger women, but the risk factors that contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk often start in young women. Young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with migraine, and who use oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have short-term increases in thrombotic complications that can result in coronary events or stroke. Attention should be focused on risk reduction in women of all ages. Screening for and discussing diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, migraine, PCOS, and pregnancy complication history and discussing the pros and cons of hormone and statin medications are part of reducing cardiovascular risk for women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Expert Group Meeting on Population and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development sponsored by the UN, an expert group met in June 1992 in Botswana to consider issues related to population and women. Particular attention was devoted to gender equality, population, and development; reproductive health and the health of families; adolescent fertility, marriage, and reproductive health; family planning (FP) and FP programs; education of girls and women and the relationship of education to fertility, health, and welfare; women's economic activity and its relationship to demographic factors; and the relationship between women, population, and the environment. While both developed and developing countries were considered, the emphasis was on the latter. 32 recommendations for action were addressed primarily to governments and other social institutions and also to funding agencies. The recommendations call for a recognization that health and education are particularly critical for women. They ask for the development of gender-based analysis and assessment of development policies to discover their impact on women. Service delivery to women should be culturally appropriate, and women should be integrated into development initiatives and into management and policy-making levels of social institutions. Responsible parenthood should be promoted as should the assumption of familiar responsibilities by men. Women should have access to safe abortion services. Adolescents should receive the education necessary to protect their reproductive health, and a minimum marriage age should be adopted. FP programs should be appropriate to their clients and should provide safe methods of fertility regulation. Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. Safe sex measures should be promoted. The health of girls and women should

  2. A Population-based survey of the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections and associated risk factors among young women in Vitória, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Figueiredo, Nínive Camilo; Schmidt, Renylena; Page-Shafer, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) and syphilis infections and associated risk exposures in a population-based sample of young women in Vitória, Brazil. Methods From March to December 2006, a cross-sectional sample of women aged 18 to 29 years was recruited into a single stage, population-based study. Serological markers of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis infections and associated risk exposures were assessed. Results Of 1,200 eligible women, 1,029 (85.8%) enrolled. Median age was 23 (interquartile range [IQR] 20, 26) years; 32.2% had ≤ 8 years of education. The survey weighted prevalence estimates were: HIV, 0.6% (95% CI), 0.1%, 1.1%); anti-HBc, 4.2% (3.0%, 5.4%); HBsAg, 0.9% (0.4%, 1.6%); anti-HCV, 0.6% (0.1%, 1.1%) and syphilis 1.2% (0.5%, 1.9%). Overall, 6.1% had at least one positive serological marker for any of the tested infection. A majority (87.9%) was sexually active, of whom 12.1% reported a previously diagnosed sexually transmitted infection (STI) and 1.4% a history of commercial sex work. Variables independently associated with any positive serological test included: older age (≥25 vs. 4× minimum wage), previously diagnosed STI, ≥ 1 sexual partner, and any illicit drug use. Conclusions These are the first population-based estimates of the prevalence of exposure to these infectious diseases and related risks in young women, a population for whom there is a scarcity of data in Brazil. PMID:18401700

  3. Antral follicle count predicts natural menopause in a population-based sample: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa F; Bates, Gordon Wright; Schreiner, Pamela J; Siscovick, David S; Sternfeld, Barbara; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-08-01

    The timing of menopause is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Tools that predict this milestone have relevance for clinical and research purposes. Among infertile women, a positive relationship exists between antral follicle count (AFC) and response to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, a marker of ovarian reserve. However, an age-independent relationship between AFC and menopause has not been demonstrated. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the relationship between AFC measured in women aged 34 to 49 years and incident natural menopause during 7 years of follow-up. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study is a longitudinal community-based study (Chicago, IL; Birmingham, AL; Minneapolis, MN; and Oakland, CA) begun in 1985-1986. In 2002-2003, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women's Study measured follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and performed a transvaginal ultrasound protocol that included AFC (2-10 mm follicles on both ovaries). Incident natural menopause was assessed by surveys in 2005-2006 and 2009-2010. In our sample (n = 456), the median (interquartile range) AFC and FSH level were 5 (2-9) and 7.8 (5.6-11.0) mIU/mL, respectively, at a mean (range) age of 42 (34-49) years in 2002-2003. One hundred one women reported natural menopause by 2009-2010. In Cox models, current smoking, stable menses, FSH level higher than 13 mIU/mL, and AFC of 4 or less were independently associated with incident natural menopause. Compared with AFC higher than 4, those with an AFC of 4 or less were nearly twice as likely to have undergone menopause during 7 years of follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.19-3.02) after adjustment for covariates. AFC has been found to be independently associated with natural menopause during 7 years of follow-up after controlling for other markers of ovarian aging.

  4. [Population-based study on infection and genotype distribution of high-risk human among women in rural areas of China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, J L; Luo, X M; Wu, J L; Song, B; Ma, L

    2017-04-06

    Objective: To explore the epidemiologic characterization of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and genotype distribution of HR-HPV among women in rural areas of China. Methods: This study used multiple layers of stratified cluster random sampling method. During January to December in 2014, 117 counties of 27 provinces were selected as the HPV test screening pilot project counties. The women aged 35-64 years with rural areas Hukou in these project counties were selected as the study subjects. A total 457 799 women received HPV DNA test. Among them, 118 237 women from 32 counties in 11 provinces received qualified HPV DNA test by fluorescent PCR to detect HPV genotypes. Results: Among 118 237 rural women, the overall HR-HPV positive infection rate was 7.8% (9 249/118 237). The infection rate increased with age and reached an infection peak at the 60-64 age groups (9.9%, 831/8 394). The HR-HPV positive infection rate in western regions (6.9%, 2 144/31 130) was statistical significantly lower than in central regions (8.2%, 1 894/23 023) and eastern regions (8.1%, 5 211/64 084) (χ(2)=51.46, PChina. The single infection rates were 20.9% (1 355/6 496), 18.7% (1 215/6 496), and 11.2% (725/6 496), respectively. The multiple infection rates were 47.2% (77/163), 17.8% (29/163), and 18.4% (30/163), respectively. Conclusion: The HR-HPV positive infection rate in rural areas of Chinese woman was 7.8%, western region has lower infection rate compared with central and eastern regions. HPV 52 was first of the most common genotypes in rural areas of China.

  5. Suicide risk among homeless population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Calvo-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists little scientific production on autolytic behaviour in homeless people, despite the fact that it is one of the groups that is more at risk. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of previous attempted suicide and suicide risk and its connection with the main risk factors. In order to do so, central tendency and dispersion measures, correlations, contingence tables, and average comparison tables according to type of variable and normality were used. The Plutchik suicide-risk test was used in order to determine the risk of suicide, and specific tests for the main risk factors analysed. The main results show a 24.7% suicide rate and 45.2% (n = 66 displayed suicide risk. The main predictive factor of the risk of suicide was the daily consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.011, p less than .001, followed by being a woman (OR = 1.381, p = .021. It is necessary to design and apply suicide prevention strategies for this population.

  6. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  7. HIV Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Transgender Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E

    2017-05-01

    Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. 0222 Night work and breast cancer risk among women in the public Danish health care sector - a short-term follow up of a large scale population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tilma Vistisen, Helene; Helene Garde, Anne; Marie Hansen, Aase

    2014-01-01

    prevalence of night shift work and with detailed data regarding occupational title and date and hour for beginning and end of every work duty: The Danish Working Hour Database (DWHD). DWHD encompasses payroll data as of 2007 and is updated on an annual basis. For this analysis we defined night work...... national health registries. RESULTS: The 6-year follow up from 2007 to 2012 included 169.011 women of which 98.297 (58%) had ever worked nights during the follow up. A total of1.281 breast cancer cases occurred within the study population. 846 cases occurred among women never worked nights and 435 cases...... among women ever worked nights. CONCLUSIONS: Internal risk assessment of this dataset that includes alternative exposure metrics based on day-to-day night work exposure information will be presented....

  9. Effect of vitamin D(3) and calcium on fracture risk in 65- to 71-year-old women: a population-based 3-year randomized, controlled trial--the OSTPRE-FPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, Kari; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Kärkkäinen, Matti; Rikkonen, Toni; Sandini, Lorenzo; Sirola, Joonas; Honkanen, Risto; Alhava, Esko; Kröger, Heikki

    2010-07-01

    Antifracture efficacy of high-dose vitamin D (800 IU) and calcium (1000 mg) remains controversial. To determine whether daily 800 IU of vitamin D and 1000 mg of calcium supplementation prevents fractures, we randomized 3432 women of the population-based Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study cohort (ages 65 to 71 years) living in the region of northern Savonia, Finland (latitude 62 degrees to 64 degrees N) for 3 years to receive 800 IU of cholecalciferol and 1000 mg of calcium as calcium carbonate or to a control group that did not receive placebo. The main outcome measure was incident fractures. Fracture data were collected in telephone interviews and validated. Data on 3195 women, 1586 in the intervention group and 1609 in the control group, were available for analysis. In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, the risk of any fracture decreased in the vitamin D and calcium group by 17% [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-1.12], and the risk of any nonvertebral fracture decreased by 13% (aHR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.63-1.19). The risk of distal forearm fractures decreased by 30% (aHR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.41-1.20), and the risk of any upper extremity fractures decreased by 25% (aHR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.49-1.16), whereas the risk of lower extremity fractures remained essentially equal (aHR = 1.02; 95% CI 0.58-1.80). None of these effects reached statistical significance. In conclusion, this study did not produce statistically significant evidence that vitamin D and calcium supplementation prevents fractures in a 65- to 71-year-old general population of postmenopausal women. 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Risk perception in women with high-risk pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects the decisions they make about antenatal care and so may therefore influence the wellbeing of mother and baby. This article addresses the factors which influence women when making risk assessments and how these assessments may differ from those of healthcare professionals.\\ud \\ud Women use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status including advice from professionals, from other trusted sources, and their own intui...

  11. Indoor pollution as an occupational risk factor for tuberculosis among women: a population-based, gender oriented, case-control study in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Ma Cecilia; García-García, Lourdes; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ponce-De-León, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Bobadilla-Del-valle, Miriam; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Cano-Arellano, Bulmaro; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Palacios-Merino, Luz del Carmen; Juárez-Sandino, Luis; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Small, Peter M; Pérez-Padilla, José Rogelio

    2009-01-01

    Indoor air pollution produced by biomass cooking fuels in developing countries has been associated with acute and chronic lower respiratory diseases, but has not been identified as an occupational exposure among women. To examine the relationship between the use of biomass cooking fuels (mainly wood) and tuberculosis (TB) among women living in rural areas in Southern Mexico. We conducted a population based case-control study in the health jurisdiction of Orizaba, Mexico. Cases were all incident female pulmonary TB patients, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, living in communities with fewer than 15,000 inhabitants, diagnosed between March 1995 and April 2003. Woodsmoke exposure was assessed by applying a standardized questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78 questionnaire). Controls were randomly selected from sex-matched neighbors. Appropriate IRB approval was obtained. 42 TB cases and 84 community controls were recruited. Multivariate assessment showed that more than 20 years of exposure to smoke from biomass fuels was three times more frequent among cases than among controls [Odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.06-10.30, p = 0.03], after controlling for age, body mass, household crowding, years of formal education and tobacco use. We found a strong association between the use of biomass cooking fuels and tuberculosis among women in a community-based, case-control study. Results of this study are intended to provide evidence to policy makers, community leaders and the general public on the importance of implementing gender oriented interventions that decrease the use of biomass fuels in poor communities in developing countries.

  12. Does daily vitamin D 800 IU and calcium 1000 mg supplementation decrease the risk of falling in ambulatory women aged 65-71 years? A 3-year randomized population-based trial (OSTPRE-FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Matti K; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Salovaara, Kari; Sandini, Lorenzo; Rikkonen, Toni; Sirola, Joonas; Honkanen, Risto; Arokoski, Jari; Alhava, Esko; Kröger, Heikki

    2010-04-01

    The hypothesis was that the calcium and vitamin D supplementation prevents falls at the population level. The OSTPRE-FPS was a randomized population-based open-trial with 3-year follow-up. The supplementation group (n=1566) received daily cholecalciferol 800IU+calcium carbonate 1000mg, while the control group (n=1573) received no supplementation or placebo. A randomly selected subsample of 593 subjects underwent a detailed measurement program including serum 25(OH)D measurements. The occurrence of falls was the primary outcome of the study. The participants in the subsample were telephoned at 4 months intervals and the rest of the trial population was interviewed by phone once a year. In the entire trial population (ETP), there were 812 women with 1832 falls in the intervention group and 833 women with 1944 falls in the control group (risk ratio was 0.98, 95% CI 0.92-1.05, P=0.160). The supplementation was not associated with single or multiple falls in the ETP. However, in the subsample, multiple fall incidence decreased by 30% (odds ratio (OR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.97, P=0.034) in the supplementation group. Further, the supplementation decreased the incidence of multiple falls requiring medical attention (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.97, P=0.031) in the ETP. The mean compliance in the entire trial population was 78% and in the subsample 79%. Overall, the primary analysis showed no association between calcium and vitamin D supplementation and risk of falls. However, the results of a post hoc analysis suggested that there was a decreased risk of multiple falls requiring medical attention: this finding requires confirmation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda, its associated risk factors and relationship to ANC services attendance: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurangirwa, Akashi Andrew; Mogren, Ingrid; Ntaganira, Joseph; Krantz, Gunilla

    2017-02-22

    To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage. This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included. Villages in the study area were selected using a multistage random sampling technique and community health workers helped in identifying eligible participants. Clinical psychologists, nurses or midwives carried out face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations. The prevalence rates of physical, sexual, psychological violence and controlling behaviour during pregnancy were 10.2% (95% CI 8.3 to 12.2), 9.7% (95% CI 7.8 to 11.6), 17.0% (95% CI 14.6 to 19.4) and 20.0% (95% CI 17.4 to 22.6), respectively. Usage of antenatal care services was less common among women who reported controlling behaviour (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.79). No statistically significant associations between physical, psychological and sexual violence and antenatal care usage were found. Low socioeconomic status was associated with physical violence exposure (OR) 2.27 (95% CI 1.29 to 3.98). Also, young age, living in urban areas and poor social support were statistically significant in their associations with violence exposure during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence inquiry should be included in the standard antenatal care services package and professionals should be trained in giving support, advice and care to those exposed. Gender-based violence is criminalised behaviour in Rwanda; existing policies and laws must be followed and awareness raised in society for preventive purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  14. Determinants of fracture risk in a UK-population-based cohort of older women: a cross-sectional analysis of the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emma M; Gould, Virginia C; Morrison, Leigh; Masud, Tahir; Tobias, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Identification of individuals with high fracture risk from within primary care is complex. It is likely that the true contribution of falls to fracture risk is underestimated. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort of 3,200 post-menopausal women aged 73 ± 4 years. Self-reported data were collected on fracture, osteoporosis clinical risk factors and falls/mobility risk factors. Self-reported falls were compared with recorded falls on GP computerised records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for fracture. A total of 838 (26.2%) reported a fracture after aged 50; 441 reported falling more than once per year, but 69% of these had no mention of falls on their computerised GP records. Only age [odds ratios (OR): 1.37 per 5 year increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23-1.53], height (1.02 per cm increase, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), weight (OR: 0.99 per kg increase, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and falls (OR: 1.49 for more than once per year compared with less, 95% CI: 1.13-1.94) were independent risk factors for fracture. Falls had the strongest association. When identifying individuals with high fracture risk we estimate that more than one fall per year is at least twice as important as height and weight. Furthermore, using self-reported falls data is essential as computerised GP records underestimate falls prevalence.

  15. Exercise level before pregnancy and engaging in high-impact sports reduce the risk of pelvic girdle pain: a population-based cohort study of 39 184 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, Katrine Mari; Bjelland, Elisabeth K; Stuge, Britt; Orsini, Nicola; Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Vangen, Siri

    2016-07-01

    To examine whether an association exists between exercise levels pre-pregnancy and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy has been associated with physical inactivity, a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used data from a population-based cohort study including 39 184 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Pre-pregnancy exercise frequency and types were assessed by questionnaire in pregnancy week 17. Pelvic girdle pain, defined as combined pain in the anterior pelvis and in the posterior pelvis bilaterally, was self-reported in pregnancy week 30. Multivariable Poisson regression estimated risks of pelvic girdle pain associated with pre-pregnancy exercise. We examined a dose-response association of prepregnancy exercise frequency using restricted cubic splines. A test for non-linearity was also conducted. Final models were adjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, history of low back pain and history of depression. 4069 women (10.4%) reported pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy and the prevalence among women who were non-exercisers prepregnancy was 12.5%. There was a non-linear association for pre-pregnancy exercise and risk of pelvic girdle pain (test for non-linearity, p=0.003). Compared to non-exercisers, women exercising 3-5 times weekly pre-pregnancy had a 14% lower risk of developing pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96). Taking part in high-impact exercises such as running, jogging, orienteering, ballgames, netball games and high-impact aerobics were associated with less risk of pelvic girdle pain. Women who exercise regularly and engage in high-impact exercises before the first pregnancy may have a reduced risk of pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  17. Examining the Effect of Medication Adherence on Risk of Subsequent Fracture Among Women with a Fragility Fracture in the U.S. Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Allison; Boytsov, Natalie; Burge, Russel; Krohn, Kelly; Lombard, Louise; Zhang, Xiang; Xie, Lin; Baser, Onur

    2017-11-01

    In the United States, osteoporosis affects approximately 10 million people, of whom 80% are women, and it contributes a significant clinical burden to the community. Poor adherence to osteoporosis medications adds to the overall burden of illness. To examine the association of osteoporosis medication adherence and the risk of a subsequent fracture among Medicare-enrolled women with a previous fragility fracture. This study was a retrospective observational analysis of U.S. administrative claims data among female Medicare beneficiaries who had a nontrauma closed fragility fracture between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011. Patients were required to have continuous medical and pharmacy enrollment 12 months pre- and postfracture date. In addition, patients were required to have an osteoporosis medication prescription for a bisphosphonate (alendronate, risedronate, pamidronate, etidronate, zoledronate, and tiludronate), calcitonin, denosumab, raloxifene, or teriparatide during the follow-up period. Adherence was calculated using cumulative medication possession ratio (MPR) from the treatment initiation date in 30-day increments. MPR was stratified into high adherence (MPR ≥ 80%), moderate adherence (50% ≤ MPR > 80%), and low adherence (MPR 80%; n = 4,602, 16.6%). After adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics, patients with low and moderate adherence to osteoporosis medications were 33% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.17-1.50, P Eli Lilly. Xie, Keshishian, and Baser are employees of STATinMED Research, a paid consultant to Eli Lilly in connection with the study design, data analysis, and development of the manuscript for this study. Boytsov, Burge, Lombard, and Zhang are employees and stock owners of Eli Lilly. At the time of research, Krohn was an employee of Eli Lilly. Study concept and design were contributed by Burge and Lombard, along with the other authors. Xie, Baser, and Keshishian took the lead in data collection, assisted by the

  18. Transfer of risk coefficients across populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of lifetime risk projections for a Canadian population caused by the uncertainty in the choice of method for transferring excess relative risk coefficients between populations is assessed. Site-specific projections, varied by factors up to 3.5 when excess risk coefficients of the BEIR V relative risk models were transferred to the Canadian population using an additive and multiplicative method. When the risk from all cancers are combined, differences between transfer methods were no longer significant. The Canadian projections were consistent with the ICRP-60 nominal fatal cancer risk estimates. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the risk of perchlorate exposure in a population of late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Application of probabilistic biologically-based dose response modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumen, A; George, N I

    2017-01-01

    The risk of ubiquitous perchlorate exposure and the dose-response on thyroid hormone levels in pregnant women in the United States (U.S.) have yet to be characterized. In the current work, we integrated a previously developed perchlorate submodel into a recently developed population-based pregnancy model to predict reductions in maternal serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. Our findings indicated no significant difference in geometric mean estimates of fT4 when perchlorate exposure from food only was compared to no perchlorate exposure. The reduction in maternal fT4 levels reached statistical significance when an added contribution from drinking water (i.e., 15 μg/L, 20 μg/L, or 24.5 μg/L) was assumed in addition to the 90th percentile of food intake for pregnant women (0.198 μg/kg/day). We determined that a daily intake of 0.45 to 0.50 μg/kg/day of perchlorate was necessary to produce results that were significantly different than those obtained from no perchlorate exposure. Adjusting for this food intake dose, the relative source contribution of perchlorate from drinking water (or other non-dietary sources) was estimated to range from 0.25–0.3 μg/kg/day. Assuming a drinking water intake rate of 0.033 L/kg/day, the drinking water concentration allowance for perchlorate equates to 7.6–9.2 μg/L. In summary, we have demonstrated the utility of a probabilistic biologically-based dose-response model for perchlorate risk assessment in a sensitive life-stage at a population level; however, there is a need for continued monitoring in regions of the U.S. where perchlorate exposure may be higher. - Highlights: • Probabilistic risk assessment for perchlorate in U.S. pregnant women was conducted. • No significant change in maternal fT4 predicted due to perchlorate from food alone. • Drinking water concentration allowance for perchlorate estimated as 7.6–9.2 μg/L

  20. Evaluation of the risk of perchlorate exposure in a population of late-gestation pregnant women in the United States: Application of probabilistic biologically-based dose response modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumen, A, E-mail: Annie.Lumen@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Rd, HFT-110, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); George, N I, E-mail: Nysia.George@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Rd, HFT-20, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The risk of ubiquitous perchlorate exposure and the dose-response on thyroid hormone levels in pregnant women in the United States (U.S.) have yet to be characterized. In the current work, we integrated a previously developed perchlorate submodel into a recently developed population-based pregnancy model to predict reductions in maternal serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels for late-gestation pregnant women in the U.S. Our findings indicated no significant difference in geometric mean estimates of fT4 when perchlorate exposure from food only was compared to no perchlorate exposure. The reduction in maternal fT4 levels reached statistical significance when an added contribution from drinking water (i.e., 15 μg/L, 20 μg/L, or 24.5 μg/L) was assumed in addition to the 90th percentile of food intake for pregnant women (0.198 μg/kg/day). We determined that a daily intake of 0.45 to 0.50 μg/kg/day of perchlorate was necessary to produce results that were significantly different than those obtained from no perchlorate exposure. Adjusting for this food intake dose, the relative source contribution of perchlorate from drinking water (or other non-dietary sources) was estimated to range from 0.25–0.3 μg/kg/day. Assuming a drinking water intake rate of 0.033 L/kg/day, the drinking water concentration allowance for perchlorate equates to 7.6–9.2 μg/L. In summary, we have demonstrated the utility of a probabilistic biologically-based dose-response model for perchlorate risk assessment in a sensitive life-stage at a population level; however, there is a need for continued monitoring in regions of the U.S. where perchlorate exposure may be higher. - Highlights: • Probabilistic risk assessment for perchlorate in U.S. pregnant women was conducted. • No significant change in maternal fT4 predicted due to perchlorate from food alone. • Drinking water concentration allowance for perchlorate estimated as 7.6–9.2 μg/L.

  1. Management Options for Women at Risk for Inherited Breast Cancer in a Multi-Ethnic Health Plan Population: A Randomized Control Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaefer, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    ... susceptibility, and sociodemographic factors, such as education and ethnicity; b) to conduct focus groups with Asian, Hispanic, African American, and White women to learn about possible differences in their attitudes concerning genetic testing...

  2. Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population pressure and health risks in urban market environment: a study of Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This study was directed at permanent sellers in Bodija Market, (men and women) and people who frequent the market to make purchases.

  3. Rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000-2008): a linked data population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Tracy, Sally; Tracy, Mark; Bisits, Andrew; Brown, Chris; Thornton, Charlene

    2014-05-21

    To examine the rates of obstetric intervention and associated perinatal mortality and morbidity in the first 28 days among low-risk women giving birth in private and public hospitals in NSW (2000-2008). Linked data population-based retrospective cohort study involving five data sets. New South Wales, Australia. 691 738 women giving birth to a singleton baby during the period 2000-2008. Rates of neonatal resuscitation, perinatal mortality, neonatal admission following birth and readmission to hospital in the first 28 days of life in public and private obstetric units. Rates of obstetric intervention among low-risk women were higher in private hospitals, with primiparous women 20% less likely to have a normal vaginal birth compared to the public sector. Neonates born in private hospitals were more likely to be less than 40 weeks; more likely to have some form of resuscitation; less likely to have an Apgar birth admission and to be readmitted to hospital in the first 28 days for birth trauma (5% vs 3.6%); hypoxia (1.7% vs 1.2%); jaundice (4.8% vs 3%); feeding difficulties (4% vs 2.4%) ; sleep/behavioural issues (0.2% vs 0.1%); respiratory conditions (1.2% vs 0.8%) and circumcision (5.6 vs 0.3%) but they were less likely to be admitted for prophylactic antibiotics (0.2% vs 0.6%) and for socioeconomic circumstances (0.1% vs 0.7%). Rates of perinatal mortality were not statistically different between the two groups. For low-risk women, care in a private hospital, which includes higher rates of intervention, appears to be associated with higher rates of morbidity seen in the neonate and no evidence of a reduction in perinatal mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Mortality Risk for Women on Chronic Hemodialysis Differs by Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M Sood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports have demonstrated similar survival for men and women on hemodialysis, despite women's increased survival in the general population. Objectives: To examine the effect of age on mortality in women undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Design: A retrospective cohort study using an administrative data registry, the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry (CORR from Jan. 2001 and Dec. 2009. Setting: Canada. Patients: 28,971 (Women 11,792 (40.7%, Men 17,179 (59.3% incident chronic hemodialysis patients who survived greater than 90 days on dialysis. Measurements: All-cause mortality. Methods: Cox proportional hazards and competing risks models were employed to determine the independent association between sex, age and likelihood of all-cause mortality with renal transplantation as the competing outcome. Results: During the study period, 6060 (51.4% of women and 8650 (50.4% of men initiating dialysis died. Younger women experienced higher mortality (Age 85: Women 66%, Men 70.2%, HR 0.83 95% CI 0.71–0.97 compared to men. This relationship persisted after accounting for the competing risk of transplantation. Limitations: The cause of death was unknown. Conclusions: Women's survival on chronic hemodialysis varies by age compared to men with a significantly higher mortality in women younger than 45 years old and lower mortality in woman older than 75 years of age.

  5. Risk of Falling in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Armas; Joan Lappe; Veronica J. Slavik; Kellan Slattery; Shih-Chuan Cheng; Davender S. Malik; John N. Mordeson

    2015-01-01

    We propose a weighted average approach to measure the risk of falling in older women. We consider four causal variables of falling, namely serum 25-OHD levels, medication use, fracture, and age. We use five methods to derive linear equations with these four factors as independent variables in the linear equations with risk of falling as the dependent variable.

  6. Adiponectin and risk of coronary heart disease in apparently healthy men and women (from the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Côté, Mélanie; Cartier, Amélie; Reuwer, Anne Q.; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between adiponectin levels and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). We performed a prospective case-control analysis nested in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Participants were apparently healthy men and women 45 to 79 years of age

  7. Cardiovascular risk profile in women and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufouil, Carole; Seshadri, Sudha; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the importance of cardiovascular risk factors in dementia development, including Alzheimer's disease. As cardiovascular risk profiles vary greatly by gender, with men suffering a greater burden of cardiovascular risk in midlife, this could lead to differences in dementia risk. To explore current evidence on the association between components of the cardiovascular risk profile and dementia risk in women and men, we reviewed all studies reporting the risk of dementia associated with cardiovascular risk factors stratified by gender and found 53 eligible articles out of over 4,000 published since the year 2000. Consistent results were found: 1) for exposures acting specifically in women: Overweight/obesity (harmful) and physical activity (protective), and 2) for exposures acting similarly in women and men: Moderate alcohol (protective) and hypertension, diabetes, and depression (harmful). A modified effect of tobacco or high cholesterol/statin use remained controversial. Available data do not allow us to assess whether selection of men with healthier cardiovascular profile (due to cardiovascular death in midlife) could lead in late life either to a difference in the distribution of risk factors or to a differential effect of these risk factors by gender. We recommend that results on dementia risk factors, especially cardiovascular ones, be reported systematically by gender in all future studies. More generally, as cardiovascular risk profiles evolve over time, more attention needs to be paid to the detection and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, as early as possible in the life course, and as actively in women as in men.

  8. Depression and HIV risk behavior practices among at risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 at risk, predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Our conceptual model hypothesized a relationship between depression and HIV risk in which depression and condom-related attitudes were construed as intervening (or mediating) variables. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between depression and women's risk behaviors. The results showed that depression was a key-mediating variable, having its primary influence on women's risky practices through its impact upon their attitudes toward using condoms. Factors associated with depression, included religiosity, closeness of family relationships, financial problems, childhood maltreatment experiences, and drug-related problems. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are: (1) heightening faith community involvement and religious participation to decrease depression; (2) working with women whose familial bonds are in need of strengthening to combat depression; (3) providing mental health and counseling services to women who were emotionally and/or sexually abused during their formative years seems to help these women to recover from unresolved issues that may be fueling depression; (4) assisting at risk women who need training in money management issues to minimize their risk for depression; and (5) helping women drug abusers to receive treatment for their drug problems to combat their depression and lower their HIV risk.

  9. Diabetes and Obesity as Independent Risk Factors for Osteoporosis: Updated Results from the ROIS/EMEROS Registry in a Population of Five Thousand Post-Menopausal Women Living in a Region Characterized by Heavy Environmental Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neglia, Cosimo; Argentiero, Alberto; Chitano, Giovanna; Agnello, Nadia; Ciccarese, Roberta; Vigilanza, Antonella; Pantile, Valerio; Argentiero, Domenico; Quarta, Raffaele; Rivezzi, Matteo; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Di Somma, Carolina; Migliore, Alberto; Iolascon, Giovanni; Gimigliano, Francesca; Distante, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Prisco

    2016-11-01

    Objectives : We aimed to analyze bone mineralization and the effect of different risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Methods : We found 4909 postmenopausal subjects within ≥10,000 records from the ROIS/EMEROS (Ionian and Salento Osteoporosis Registry/Euro Mediterranean Registry of Osteoporosis) registry, a population study carried out in an area characterized by heavy environmental pressure between Brindisi and Taranto from 2009 to 2016. All subjects were assessed via phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS) to evaluate their bone mineralization (assessed via amplitude dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS)) and the association between demineralization and the presence of other conditions or risk factors. Results : Mean age was 64 ± 9.5 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.7 ± 3.5 kg/m². Pearson correlation analyses revealed a negative association between bone mineralization (AD-SoS) and BMI ( p osteoporosis (adjusted for age, physical activity, and the use of drugs known to increase the risk of fractures) in subjects with diabetes and obesity: 1.39 (confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.83) and 1.46 (CI: 1.20-1.78), respectively. A statistically significant linear trend of higher ORs of osteoporosis was found for increasing values of BMI. Conclusions : Our study confirmed the high impact of obesity and type 1 and type 2 diabetes on osteoporosis.

  10. The Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test is a clinically validated human papillomavirus assay for triage in the referral population and use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older: a review of validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has become an essential part of current clinical practice in the management of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. We reviewed the most important validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay, the RealTime High Risk HPV test (RealTime)(Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA), for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older published in peer-reviewed journals from 2009 to 2013. RealTime is designed to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes with concurrent distinction of HPV-16 and HPV-18 from 12 other HPV genotypes. The test was launched on the European market in January 2009 and is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for routine detection of HPV. We concisely reviewed validation studies of a next-generation real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay: the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test. Eight validation studies of RealTime in referral settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ (range 88.3-100%) and CIN3+ (range 93.0-100%), as well as comparative clinical sensitivity relative to the currently most widely used HPV test: the Qiagen/Digene Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA Test (HC2). Due to the significantly different composition of the referral populations, RealTime absolute clinical specificity for CIN2+ and CIN3+ varied greatly across studies, but was comparable relative to HC2. Four validation studies of RealTime performance in cervical cancer screening settings showed its consistently high absolute clinical sensitivity for both CIN2+ and CIN3+, as well as comparative clinical sensitivity and specificity relative to HC2 and GP5+/6+ PCR. RealTime has been extensively evaluated in the last 4 years. RealTime can be considered clinically validated for triage in referral population settings and for use in primary cervical cancer screening in women 30 years and older.

  11. Acceptance of Referral for Cancer-Risk Counseling in Population of Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy: Variables Predicting Followup at a Cancer Genetics Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Neill, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    ..., Shattuck-Eidens, Frank, and BRCAPRO models. Questionnaires assessing psychological status, and knowledge and attitudes about breast cancer, cancer risk counseling, and genetic testing were used to identify predictors of referral uptake...

  12. Women and smoking: risks, impacts, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Prado, Gustavo Faibichew; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among women has drawn increasing attention because of the increase (or less pronounced decrease) in its prevalence when compared with that observed for men, as well as because of the specific effects that smoking has on women's health. For the 2010 "World No Tobacco Day", the World Health Organization chose the theme "Gender and tobacco with an emphasis on marketing to women", with the aim of encouraging policies to combat marketing strategies employed by the tobacco industry and to curb the epidemic of smoking among women. In this article, we discuss the characteristics of smoking among women, addressing factors such as smoking prevalence, nicotine dependence, the role of the tobacco industry, health risks, approaches to smoking cessation, treatment strategies, and prevention measures.

  13. Possible association of first and high birth order of pregnant women with the risk of isolated congenital abnormalities in Hungary - a population-based case-matched control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Susánszky, Éva; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2014-08-01

    In epidemiological studies at the estimation of risk factors in the origin of specified congenital abnormalities in general birth order (parity) is considered as confounder. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of first and high (four or more) birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities in a population-based case-matched control data set. The large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities included 21,494 cases with different isolated congenital abnormality and their 34,311 matched controls. First the distribution of birth order was compared of 24 congenital abnormality groups and their matched controls. In the second step the possible association of first and high birth order with the risk of congenital abnormalities was estimated. Finally some subgroups of neural-tube defects, congenital heart defects and abdominal wall's defects were evaluated separately. A higher risk of spina bifida aperta/cystica, esophageal atresia/stenosis and clubfoot was observed in the offspring of primiparous mothers. Of 24 congenital abnormality groups, 14 had mothers with larger proportion of high birth order. Ear defects, congenital heart defects, cleft lip± palate and obstructive defects of urinary tract had a linear trend from a lower proportion of first born cases to the larger proportion of high birth order. Birth order showed U-shaped distribution of neural-tube defects and clubfoot, i.e. both first and high birth order had a larger proportion in cases than in their matched controls. Birth order is a contributing factor in the origin of some isolated congenital abnormalities. The higher risk of certain congenital abnormalities in pregnant women with first or high birth order is worth considering in the clinical practice, e.g. ultrasound scanning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk acceptance by the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diekershoff, K.

    1980-01-01

    Information which is given by systematical learning processes creates a necessary prerequisite for a partly realistic evaluation of risks. If the objective shall be achieved to reduce continuously the acceptance of risks it is absolutely necessary to include the persons concerned in the process of communication and formation. In this field social science could make a specific contribution by its approach in action research. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Cardiovascular risk prediction tools for populations in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, F; Patel, A; Gu, D; Sritara, P; Lam, T H; Rodgers, A; Woodward, M

    2007-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk equations are traditionally derived from the Framingham Study. The accuracy of this approach in Asian populations, where resources for risk factor measurement may be limited, is unclear. To compare "low-information" equations (derived using only age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and smoking status) derived from the Framingham Study with those derived from the Asian cohorts, on the accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction. Separate equations to predict the 8-year risk of a cardiovascular event were derived from Asian and Framingham cohorts. The performance of these equations, and a subsequently "recalibrated" Framingham equation, were evaluated among participants from independent Chinese cohorts. Six cohort studies from Japan, Korea and Singapore (Asian cohorts); six cohort studies from China; the Framingham Study from the US. 172,077 participants from the Asian cohorts; 25,682 participants from Chinese cohorts and 6053 participants from the Framingham Study. In the Chinese cohorts, 542 cardiovascular events occurred during 8 years of follow-up. Both the Asian cohorts and the Framingham equations discriminated cardiovascular risk well in the Chinese cohorts; the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve was at least 0.75 for men and women. However, the Framingham risk equation systematically overestimated risk in the Chinese cohorts by an average of 276% among men and 102% among women. The corresponding average overestimation using the Asian cohorts equation was 11% and 10%, respectively. Recalibrating the Framingham risk equation using cardiovascular disease incidence from the non-Chinese Asian cohorts led to an overestimation of risk by an average of 4% in women and underestimation of risk by an average of 2% in men. A low-information Framingham cardiovascular risk prediction tool, which, when recalibrated with contemporary data, is likely to estimate future cardiovascular risk with similar accuracy in Asian

  16. Population Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...

  17. Physical activity, C-reactive protein levels and the risk of future coronary artery disease in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Day, Nicholas E.; Luben, Robert; Bingham, Sheila A.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is inversely associated with the risk of future coronary artery disease. Whether this relationship is in part mediated by lower levels of systemic inflammation, as indicated by C-reactive protein concentrations, is unknown. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control

  18. Incidence of fetal chromosome abnormalities in 2264 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Philip, J

    1987-01-01

    Among a population of 6305 pregnant women, aged 25 to 34 years and estimated to be at no increased risk of genetic disease in the fetus, 4606 women participated in a randomized controlled trial of genetic amniocentesis between 1980 and 1984. In the study group having amniocentesis (2264 women), 23...

  19. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Restless Legs Syndrome in Women and Men: A Preliminary Population-Based Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Liu, Gangqiong; Li, Ling; Yang, Jing; Ma, Shengli

    2018-03-15

    Many studies have investigated the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and cardiovascular risk factors, leading to conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine whether RLS is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. This cross-sectional study included 5,324 consecutive subjects who visited the Physical Examination Center of The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University for their yearly routine physical examination. Participants underwent a face-to-face interview with a neurologist for the assessment of RLS, based on the International Restless Legs Study Group criteria. They also completed a questionnaire related to cardiovascular risk factors and other health-related and demographic information. Logistic regression was used to assess which of the demographic and cardiovascular risk factors increased the odds of RLS. Then, unadjusted and adjusted models were designed to determine whether RLS was associated with increased odds of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, or hypertension. RLS was observed in 9.2% of the participants. Multivariable logistic regression models, which included the covariates age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, hypercholesterolemia, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score (dichotomized at 5), demonstrated that female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99-2.95), smoking (OR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.31-2.92), high cholesterol (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03-1.64), and PSQI score > 5 (OR: 5.61, 95% CI: 2.14-14.69) are significantly associated with RLS. Additionally, RLS was associated with hypertension, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score > 5, diabetes, anemia, and decreased renal function. RLS is associated with the prevalence of hypertension but not with that of cardiovascular disease or coronary artery disease. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. A Neglected Population: Drug-Using Women and Women's Methods of HIV/STI Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L.

    2008-01-01

    Women drug users are at extremely high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from sexual transmission, but remain seriously neglected in intervention research promoting women-initiated methods of HIV/STI prevention. Sparse available data indicate a high interest and enthusiasm for women-initiated methods among these women.…

  1. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Hippe, M; Schnohr, P

    1998-01-01

    cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, diabetes, body mass index, height, alcohol intake, physical activity, and level of education. CONCLUSION: Women may be more sensitive than men to some of the harmful effects of smoking. Interactions between components of smoke and hormonal factors......OBJECTIVE: To compare risk of myocardial infarction associated with smoking in men and women, taking into consideration differences in smoking behaviour and a number of potential confounding variables. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up of myocardial infarction. SETTING: Pooled data...... from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen. SUBJECTS: 11,472 women and 13,191 men followed for a mean of 12.3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First admission to hospital or death caused by myocardial infarction. RESULTS: 1251 men and 512 women had a myocardial infarction during follow up...

  2. Attitudes and stereotypes regarding older women and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulaurier, Richard; Fortuna, Karen; Lind, Danielle; Emlet, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Persons aged 50 years and over will soon disproportionately represent the future of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is estimated that by 2015 older adults will represent 50% of persons living with HIV in the United States. Despite the HIV/AIDS growing population among older adults, attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes toward older adults that exist in general society have affected HIV prevention, education, and care. Specifically, ageist attitudes about the sexuality of older adults in general and older women in particular, low clinical HIV suspicion among healthcare providers, lack of knowledge about risk among older women, and differentials in power related to negotiating sexual practices all lead to heightened concerns for the prevention, identification, and treatment of HIV disease in mature women. This article examines common attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes that exist within general society as well as health and social service providers that place older women at a disadvantage when it comes to HIV prevention, education, and treatment.

  3. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time.Design Nationwide register based cohort study.Setting Denmark.Populations 482 972 primiparous women with a first l...

  4. Using Breast Cancer Risk Associated Polymorphisms to Identify Women for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Ziv

    Full Text Available Breast cancer can be prevented with selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs and aromatase inhibitors (AIs. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women with a 5-year breast cancer risk ≥3% consider chemoprevention for breast cancer. More than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with breast cancer. We sought to determine how to best integrate risk information from SNPs with other risk factors to risk stratify women for chemoprevention.We used the risk distribution among women ages 35-69 estimated by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC risk model. We modeled the effect of adding 70 SNPs to the BCSC model and examined how this would affect how many women are reclassified above and below the threshold for chemoprevention.We found that most of the benefit of SNP testing a population is achieved by testing a modest fraction of the population. For example, if women with a 5-year BCSC risk of >2.0% are tested (~21% of all women, ~75% of the benefit of testing all women (shifting women above or below 3% 5-year risk would be derived. If women with a 5-year risk of >1.5% are tested (~36% of all women, ~90% of the benefit of testing all women would be derived.SNP testing is effective for reclassification of women for chemoprevention, but is unlikely to reclassify women with <1.5% 5-year risk. These results can be used to implement an efficient two-step testing approach to identify high risk women who may benefit from chemoprevention.

  5. Smoke, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use in an Italian population of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; De Luca, Carmen; Mappa, Ilenia; Quattrocchi, Tomasella; Angelo, Licameli; Cesari, Elena

    2011-11-01

    High-risk behaviours are associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure to drugs, infection or radiation is a cause of concern for pregnant women, who contact Teratology Information Services (TIS) to have a counseling but with an accurate medical history is possible to detect additional behavioural risk factors that can significantly interfere with pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to describe risk behaviours in a population of Italian women calling our TIS and to identify related maternal factors. Between December 2008 and January 2010 we collected data from 503 pregnant women calling our TIS (Telefono Rosso, Rome). We investigated about smoke, alcohol and abuse substances addiction and we also collected demographic data. Of the 503 women consenting to participate 34% were found to have an additional risk marker during the current pregnancy. Within this group were 22.7% (n=119) who reported smoking, the 17.7% (n=89) admitted to drink and 2 women (0.4%) used illicit drugs. In 13.7% of cases (n=69) reason for calling represented an exposure to teratogenic agents. Unmarried status and previous induced abortion represent a risk factor for all high-risk behaviours. Lower education (pdrugs (pconsumption. A lower parity was a risk factor for alcohol assumption (p=0.04). Women with high-risk behaviours tend to be exposed to more than a risk factor. Teratogen Information Services are an important system to identify women with pregnancy risk markers. These services should have the ability to provide risk reduction information to women who smoke cigarettes or with alcohol or drug use. In addition to the phone based information these women may benefit from referral back to their physician for assessment and management of substance use/abuse during pregnancy. Substance abuse risks are often underestimated by pregnant women. Single mothers or women with an history of terminations of pregnancy represents an high-risk population. Physicians

  6. Diabetes and Obesity as Independent Risk Factors for Osteoporosis: Updated Results from the ROIS/EMEROS Registry in a Population of Five Thousand Post-Menopausal Women Living in a Region Characterized by Heavy Environmental Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Neglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to analyze bone mineralization and the effect of different risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Methods: We found 4909 postmenopausal subjects within ≥10,000 records from the ROIS/EMEROS (Ionian and Salento Osteoporosis Registry/Euro Mediterranean Registry of Osteoporosis registry, a population study carried out in an area characterized by heavy environmental pressure between Brindisi and Taranto from 2009 to 2016. All subjects were assessed via phalangeal quantitative ultrasound (QUS to evaluate their bone mineralization (assessed via amplitude dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS and the association between demineralization and the presence of other conditions or risk factors. Results: Mean age was 64 ± 9.5 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 28.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2. Pearson correlation analyses revealed a negative association between bone mineralization (AD-SoS and BMI (p < 0.001. By using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we observed significant values of odds ratios (ORs of osteoporosis (adjusted for age, physical activity, and the use of drugs known to increase the risk of fractures in subjects with diabetes and obesity: 1.39 (confidence interval (CI: 1.05–1.83 and 1.46 (CI: 1.20–1.78, respectively. A statistically significant linear trend of higher ORs of osteoporosis was found for increasing values of BMI. Conclusions: Our study confirmed the high impact of obesity and type 1 and type 2 diabetes on osteoporosis.

  7. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  8. Longtime napping is associated with cardiovascular risk estimation according to Framingham risk score in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Sun, Kan; Lin, Diaozhu; Qi, Yiqin; Li, Yan; Yan, Li; Ren, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Menopause can affect the physiological timing system, which could result in circadian rhythm changes and development of napping habits. Whether longtime napping in postmenopausal women is associated with cardiovascular disease is, however, still debated. The present study aims to investigate this association. We conducted a population-based study in 4,616 postmenopausal Chinese women. Information on sleep duration was self-reported. The Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score was calculated and used to identify participants at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women, such as age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose, postload glucose, and hemoglobin A1C (all P for trend napping hours, and was 3.7%, 4.3%, and 6.9% in the no daytime napping group, the 0.1 to 1 hour group, and the more than 1 hour group, respectively (P for trend = 0.005). Compared with the no daytime napping group, postmenopausal women with daytime napping more than 1 hour had higher risk of CHD in both univariate (odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI, 1.29-2.95) and multivariate (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI, 1.03-2.52) logistic regression analyses. No statistically significant association was detected between night sleeping hours and high risk of CHD in postmenopausal participants. Daytime napping is positively associated with estimated 10-year CHD risk in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  9. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Daly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Women with GDM were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (IRR = 21.96; 95% CI 18.31-26.34 and hypertension (IRR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.59-2.16 after adjusting for age, Townsend (deprivation quintile, body mass index, and smoking. For ischemic heart disease (IHD, the IRR was 2.78 (95% CI 1.37-5.66, and for cerebrovascular disease 0.95 (95% CI 0.51-1.77; p-value = 0.87, after adjusting for the above covariates and lipid-lowering medication and hypertension at baseline. Follow-up screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors was poor. Limitations include potential selective documentation of severe GDM for women in primary care, higher surveillance for outcomes in women diagnosed with GDM than control women, and a short median follow-up postpartum period, with a small number of outcomes for IHD and cerebrovascular disease.Women diagnosed with GDM were at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and had a significantly increased incidence of hypertension and IHD. Identifying this group of women in general practice and targeting cardiovascular risk factors could improve long-term outcomes.

  10. Hormonal therapy and risk of breast cancer in mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Amadou

    Full Text Available The use of hormonal therapies, including hormonal contraceptives (HC and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT have been shown to influence breast cancer (BC risk. However, the variations of these effects among populations and ethnic groups are not completely documented, especially among Hispanic women. We evaluated the association between HC and premenopausal BC risk, and between HRT and postmenopausal BC risk in Mexican women. Data from a Mexican multi-center population-based case-control study ofwomen aged 35 to 69 years were analysed. A total of 1000 cases and 1074 matched controls were recruited between 2004 and 2007. Information on hormonal therapy was collected through a structured questionnaire. Results were analysed using conditional logistic regression models. Overall, HC were used by 422/891 (47.3% premenopausal women and HRT was used by 220/1117 (19.7% postmenopausal women. For HC, odds ratios (ORs for BC were 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.82, 1.49 for current users and 1.68 (95% CI: 0.67, 4.21 for ever-users. No clear effect of duration of use was observed. For HRT, the OR for BC was significantly increased in ever users (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.08. A non-significant increased risk was observed for combined estrogen/progestin, (OR =  1.85; 95% CI: 0.84, 4.07 whereas no effect was observed for the use of estrogen alone (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.91. Our results indicate that, HC had a non-significant effect on the risk of pre-menopausal BC, but suggested that injected contraceptives may slightly increase the risk, whereas HRT had a significant effect on post-menopausal BC in this population. This study provides new information about the effects of HC and HRT on BC risk in a Mexican population, which may be of relevance for the population of Latin America as a whole.

  11. Fracture risk assessed by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) compared with fracture risk derived from population fracture rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo; Hermann, Anne Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the Swedish version of Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)) without bone mass density (BMD) in a Danish population to examine the possibility of applying this version to Danish women. METHODS: From the Danish National Register of social security numbers, we...

  12. Effectiveness of population-based service screening with mammography for women ages 40 to 49 years with a high or low risk of breast cancer: socioeconomic status, parity, and age at birth of first child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellquist, Barbro Numan; Czene, Kamila; Hjälm, Anna; Nyström, Lennarth; Jonsson, Håkan

    2015-01-15

    Invitation to mammography screening of women aged 40 to 49 years is a matter of debate in many countries and a cost-effective alternative in countries without screening among women aged 40 to 49 years could be inviting those at higher risk. The relative effectiveness of mammography screening was estimated for subgroups based on the breast cancer risk factors parity, age at time of birth of first child, and socioeconomic status (SES). The SCReening of Young Women (SCRY) database consists of all women aged 40 to 49 years in Sweden between 1986 and 2005 and was split into a study and control group. The study group consisted of women residing in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were invited to screening and the control group of women in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were not invited to screening. Rate ratio (RR) estimates were calculated for 2 exposures: invitation and attendance. There were striking similarities noted in the RR pattern for women invited to and attending screening and no statistically significant difference or trend in the RR was noted by risk group. The RR estimates increased by increasing parity for parity of 0 to 2 and ranged from 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-0.79) to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65-0.95) for attending women. The RR for women with high SES was lower than that for women with low SES (RR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.60-0.86] and RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.99], respectively). For women aged 20 to 24 years at the time of the birth of their first child, the RR was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.91) and estimates for other ages were similar. There was no statistically significant difference noted in the relative effectiveness of mammography screening by parity, age at the time of birth of the first child, or SES. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  13. Physical activity and lung cancer risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Parent, Marie-Elise; Pintos, Javier; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Danieli, Coraline; Richardson, Lesley; Bourbonnais, Robert; Gauvin, Lise; Siemiatycki, Jack; Koushik, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that recreational physical activities (PA) may reduce lung cancer risk, there is little evidence concerning the possible role of a potentially more important source of PA, namely occupational PA. We investigated both recreational and lifetime occupational PA in relation to lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada (N CASES  = 727; N CONTROLS  = 1,351). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), separately for men and women, adjusting for smoking, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both sexes, increasing recreational PA was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (OR MEN  = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.92; OR WOMEN  = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, comparing the highest versus lowest tertiles). For occupational PA, no association was observed among women, while increasing occupational PA was associated with increased risk among men (OR MEN  = 1.96, 95% CI 1.27-3.01). ORs were not modified by occupational lung carcinogen exposure, body mass index, and smoking level; results were similar across lung cancer histological types. Our results support the previous findings for recreational PA and lung cancer risk. Unexpectedly, our findings suggest a positive association for occupational PA; this requires replication and more detailed investigation.

  14. Risk Factors of Dystocia in Nulliparous Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women. Methods: This case series enrolled 447 nulliparous women who presented with a single pregnancy in the vertex presentation and gestational age of 38-42 weeks. Maternal anthropometric measurements were obtained upon admission. We defined dystocia as a cesarean section or vacuum delivery for abnormal progression of labor as evidenced by the presence of effective uterine contractions, cervical dilation of less than 1 cm/h in the active phase for 2 h, duration of the second stage beyond 2 h, or fetal head descent less than 1 cm/h. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5. Kruskal-Wallis, logistic regression, chi-square, Student’s t test and the Mann-Whitney tests were used as appropriated. Results: The state anxiety score (OR=10.58, CI: 1.97-56.0), posterior head position (OR=9.53, CI: 4.68-19.36), fetal head swelling in the second stage of labor (OR=6.85, CI: 2.60-18.01), transverse diagonal of Michaelis sacral ≤9.6 cm (OR=6.19, CI: 2.49-15.40), and height to fundal ratio dystocia. Conclusion: Critical care during labor and delivery in women who have a height to fundal height ratio of dystocia. PMID:24850982

  15. [Women with AIDS: disclosing risk stories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermelho, L L; Barbosa, R H; Nogueira, S A

    1999-01-01

    This study approaches the social and cultural profile concerning risk for HIV infection in women, describing some epidemiological variables and disclosing reports of risk situations, the meaning of living with AIDS, and support received. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 25 women from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, prior to the availability of multi-drug treatment. The majority reported limited schooling, were housewives or engaged in under-skilled occupations, and had family incomes lower than average for users of this public teaching hospital. The view of AIDS as "someone else's disease" was prevalent, and STDs were perceived as male infections, although several women reported episodes of STDs prior to HIV. They had received their diagnosis and initial medical care only after their partners' and/or children's illness or death. The study points to preventive strategies reinforcing these silent women's bargaining power, acting on men as potential active participants in reproductive health programs that incorporate STD/AIDS issues.

  16. Anxiety in women "at risk' of developing breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Thirlaway, K.; Fallowfield, L.; Nunnerley, H.; Powles, T.

    1996-01-01

    Do family history clinics offering counselling, surveillance and preventative programmes alleviate or exacerbate anxiety in women at a high risk of developing breast cancer? In this study risk perceptions and anxiety of 99 'at risk' women participating in the Tamoxifen Prevention Trial were compared with those of 87 'at risk' women not attending any specialist clinic who were recruited from the National Breast Screening Programme (NBSP). Most anxiety was found in NBSP women with a family hist...

  17. Population-Attributable Risk Proportion of Clinical Risk Factors for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Natalie J; Golmakani, Marzieh K; Miglioretti, Diana L; Sprague, Brian L; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-09-01

    Many established breast cancer risk factors are used in clinical risk prediction models, although the proportion of breast cancers explained by these factors is unknown. To determine the population-attributable risk proportion (PARP) for breast cancer associated with clinical breast cancer risk factors among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Case-control study with 1:10 matching on age, year of risk factor assessment, and Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registry. Risk factor data were collected prospectively from January 1, 1996, through October 31, 2012, from BCSC community-based breast imaging facilities. A total of 18 437 women with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ were enrolled as cases and matched to 184 309 women without breast cancer, with a total of 58 146 premenopausal and 144 600 postmenopausal women enrolled in the study. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density (heterogeneously or extremely dense vs scattered fibroglandular densities), first-degree family history of breast cancer, body mass index (>25 vs 18.5-25), history of benign breast biopsy, and nulliparity or age at first birth (≥30 years vs breast cancer. Of the 18 437 women with breast cancer, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (3.7) years among premenopausal women and 61.7 (7.2) years among the postmenopausal women. Overall, 4747 (89.8%) premenopausal and 12 502 (95.1%) postmenopausal women with breast cancer had at least 1 breast cancer risk factor. The combined PARP of all risk factors was 52.7% (95% CI, 49.1%-56.3%) among premenopausal women and 54.7% (95% CI, 46.5%-54.7%) among postmenopausal women. Breast density was the most prevalent risk factor for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women and had the largest effect on the PARP; 39.3% (95% CI, 36.6%-42.0%) of premenopausal and 26.2% (95% CI, 24.4%-28.0%) of postmenopausal breast cancers could potentially be averted if all women with heterogeneously or extremely dense

  18. Fall risk in an active elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C.; Simonsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    risk can be assessed by testing balance performance. In this study a test battery of physiological parameters related to balance and falls was designed to address fall risk in a community dwelling elderly population. RESULTS: Ninety-four elderly males and females between 70 and 80 years of age were...... assessment in which the physiological performance is evaluated in relation to the activity profile of the individual. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null...

  19. Quantifying introgression risk with realistic population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Atiyo; Meirmans, Patrick G; Haccou, Patsy

    2012-12-07

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into another. This can have severe consequences, such as extinction of endemic species, or the spread of transgenes. Quantification of the risk of introgression is an important component of genetically modified crop regulation. Most theoretical introgression studies aimed at such quantification disregard one or more of the most important factors concerning introgression: realistic genetical mechanisms, repeated invasions and stochasticity. In addition, the use of linkage as a risk mitigation strategy has not been studied properly yet with genetic introgression models. Current genetic introgression studies fail to take repeated invasions and demographic stochasticity into account properly, and use incorrect measures of introgression risk that can be manipulated by arbitrary choices. In this study, we present proper methods for risk quantification that overcome these difficulties. We generalize a probabilistic risk measure, the so-called hazard rate of introgression, for application to introgression models with complex genetics and small natural population sizes. We illustrate the method by studying the effects of linkage and recombination on transgene introgression risk at different population sizes.

  20. [Women, development and population in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, R

    1989-12-01

    Women's situation as defined according to cultural factors which are present both in the division of labor by sex and in the power relationships, has its own specificities in the different social groups of a society. This happens for material reasons as well as because prevalent ideologies vary, among the different groups, from very traditional models of sexual roles to others which allow a greater flexibility in these roles. The consequences are reflected in the reproductive behavior. A woman's social insertion affects her specific situation, through a set of closely related variables: the educational opportunities, the quantity and characteristics of the domestic work they must carry out and the opportunities to participate in paid work. These variables influence demographic behavior through the age at 1st marriage, infant mortality, the values assigned to children and the capacity of taking reproductive decisions. In order to improve the situation of poorer women it is necessary that the economic, social and cultural development give special benefits to that sector, greater educational opportunities which could lead to possibilities of stable and well remunerated work. In these conditions women could achieve a greater self-determination to establish more equitable conjugal relationships and to decide with more freedom the number of their children.

  1. Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Estimates Based on the Gail Model and Its Predictors in Qatari Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Çatan, Funda; El Ayoubi, Hanadi R; Acar, Ahmet; Ibrahim, Wanis H

    2017-07-01

    The Gail model is the most widely used breast cancer risk assessment tool. An accurate assessment of individual's breast cancer risk is very important for prevention of the disease and for the health care providers to make decision on taking chemoprevention for high-risk women in clinical practice in Qatar. To assess the breast cancer risk among Arab women population in Qatar using the Gail model and provide a global comparison of risk assessment. In this cross-sectional study of 1488 women (aged 35 years and older), we used the Gail Risk Assessment Tool to assess the risk of developing breast cancer. Sociodemographic features such as age, lifestyle habits, body mass index, breast-feeding duration, consanguinity among parents, and family history of breast cancer were considered as possible risks. The mean age of the study population was 47.8 ± 10.8 years. Qatari women and Arab women constituted 64.7% and 35.3% of the study population, respectively. The mean 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risks were 1.12 ± 0.52 and 10.57 ± 3.1, respectively. Consanguineous marriage among parents was seen in 30.6% of participants. We found a relationship between the 5-year and lifetime risks of breast cancer and variables such as age, age at menarche, gravidity, parity, body mass index, family history of cancer, menopause age, occupation, and level of education. The linear regression analysis identified the predictors for breast cancer in women such as age, age at menarche, age of first birth, family history and age of menopausal were considered the strong predictors and significant contributing risk factors for breast cancer after adjusting for ethnicity, parity and other variables. The current study is the first to evaluate the performance of the Gail model for Arab women population in the Gulf Cooperation Council. Gail model is an appropriate breast cancer risk assessment tool for female population in Qatar.

  2. Quantifying introgression risk with realistic population genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Meirmans, P.G.; Haccou, P.

    2012-01-01

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into another. This can have severe consequences, such as extinction of endemic species, or the spread of transgenes. Quantification of the risk of introgression is an important component of genetically modified

  3. Low bone mass prevalence and osteoporosis risk factor assessment in African American Wisconsin women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Srividya; Partington, Susan; Binkley, Neil

    2005-11-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is seen in all racial groups. With the increasing population and longevity of minority groups, osteoporosis is becoming an important health concern. Data regarding risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass and awareness of osteoporosis risk in African American (AA) women are limited. This article evaluates the risk factors for, and prevalence of, low bone mass in a population of urban AA women in Wisconsin and assesses this group's perceived risk for osteoporosis. One hundred fifty consecutive community-dwelling AA women > or = 45 years old from Milwaukee, Wis were asked to complete a questionnaire based on currently accepted osteoporosis risk factors. Additionally, their perception of osteoporosis risk was assessed using a Likert scale. All subjects underwent quantitative calcaneal ultrasound. Subject mean age was 54 +/- 7 years. Mean T- and Z-scores were 0.5 and 0.4, respectively. Applying World Health Organization criteria, osteopenia (bone mineral density T-score 2 children), postmenopausal state, and current smoking were associated with lower calcaneal bone mass. Higher education and presence of diabetes were associated with a higher bone mass. Only 25% of the women surveyed thought they were at moderate to high risk for osteoporosis. Low bone mass was present in 33% of these AA women despite their relative young age. Many AA women do not perceive osteoporosis as a health risk. It is necessary to develop strategies to educate AA women regarding osteoporosis risk.

  4. Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-02-06

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.

  5. Population and women in development: gender issues in the context of population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshete, A

    1992-12-01

    "The objective of this paper is to examine women's productive and reproductive roles and their intricate linkages and the interplay with the demographic variables of population and development. Although these interactions...are not yet fully understood, attempts will be made utilizing available data and literature to make an analysis of the linkages and interplays that exist between population variables with factors associated with the role, status and participation of women in the social and economic lives of African societies.... The paper will analyze the linkages and integrate the implications for population policies and programmes towards the enhancement of women's role and status and their participation in the development process." excerpt

  6. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  7. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  8. Plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid and C-reactive protein, and risk of future coronary artery disease, in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Meuwese, Marijn C; Day, Nicholas E; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-09-01

    High plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, a marker of fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with low risk of coronary artery disease. Whether this relationship is explained by a reduction in systemic inflammation is unclear. We investigated the relationship between ascorbic acid plasma concentration and coronary artery disease risk, and in addition whether this relationship depended on classical risk factors and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. We used a prospective nested case-control design. The study consisted of 979 cases and 1794 controls (1767 men and 1006 women). Increasing ascorbic acid quartiles were associated with lower age, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and CRP concentration, but with higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. No associations existed between ascorbic acid concentration and total cholesterol concentration or LDL-cholesterol concentration. When data from men and women were pooled, the risk estimates decreased with increasing ascorbic acid quartiles such that people in the highest ascorbic acid quartile had an odds ratio for future coronary artery disease of 0.67 (95 % CI 0.52, 0.87) compared with those in the lowest quartile (P for linearity=0.001). This relationship was independent of sex, age, diabetes, smoking, BMI, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and CRP level. These data suggest that the risk reduction associated with higher ascorbic acid plasma concentrations, a marker of fruit and vegetable intake, is independent of classical risk factors and also independent of CRP concentration.

  9. Work related neck and upper limb symptoms (RSI) : high risk occupations and risk factors in the Dutch working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    By means of the questionnaire Monitor on Stress and Physical Load 984 employers and 10813 employees were interviewed about the presence of risk factors for stress and musculoskeletal problems (RSI). The prevalence among the Dutch working population was 30.5%. Women appear to have a higher risk of

  10. Hyponatremia, a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J P; Amar, A O S; Hyldstrup, L

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia has been linked to an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We found an increased hazard ratio of major osteoporotic fractures adjusted for potential confounders, including osteoporosis and medication. A reduced BMD was not sufficiently explaining the association. Our data...... indicate that hyponatremia should be considered a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures. INTRODUCTION: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in clinical practice and could be a risk factor for both osteoporosis and fractures. Mild hyponatremia has traditionally been regarded as a benign...... and asymptomatic condition; however, data from large population and animal studies have led to a reappraisal of this view. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of hyponatremia with osteoporosis and major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) in women. METHODS: This is a historical cohort study...

  11. Risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in morocco women were it occupies the first place in term of incidence and mortality. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the risk factors associated with a breast cancer in a population of Moroccan women. Methods: A casecontrol study was conducted with ...

  12. Risk Management Education for Kentucky Farm Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hunter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how an agricultural and farm risk management education program, known as Annie’s Project, was adapted from a midwestern focus to meet the diversity of Kentucky agriculture and shares the results of a longer-term evaluation of the Kentucky program. The Annie’s Project program is geared specifically to the needs of farm women. The program adaption process, which began in late 2006, is detailed from inception through pilot testing to the full launch of the program. Over a four year period, the Kentucky Annie’s Project program reached 425 farm women in 41 of Kentucky’s 120 counties. The evaluation draws on the results of a questionnaire mailed to program participants 18 months to 5 years after programming. Participants reported statistically significant gains in all topical areas representing agricultural risk management education, including production, human resources, marketing, legal, and financial. Key actions which occurred as a result of participating in the program included increasing confidence in management abilities, reviewing personal/farm insurances policies, developing a network of peers and professionals, and using financial statements.

  13. Breast Cancer Incidence and Risk Reduction in the Hispanic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Eric J; Chin, Megan L; Haq, Mohamed M

    2018-02-26

    Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer amongst women worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality overall. It is also the foremost reason for cancer-related mortality in Hispanic females in the United States (US). Although the current incidence of breast cancer is significantly lower in Hispanics compared to that of non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Blacks, (91.9, 128.1, and 124.3 per 100,000, respectively, annually), this may increase if Hispanics develop similar lifestyle behaviors to other American women, in categories such as weight management, age at first birth, number of children, and breastfeeding habits. Stage-for-stage mortality for Hispanics is similar to NHWs, but the mortality rate is not declining as rapidly in this ethnic group. Hispanic women share many of the same risk factors for developing breast cancer as NHWs and Blacks. This suggests that many of the risk reduction strategies used in other racial populations may also benefit this group. Providing education about breast cancer and implementing risk reduction strategies in culturally-aware environments could help keep incidence low and reduce cancer-related mortality. Since Hispanics are the largest minority group in the US, this could have a significant impact on the incidence and mortality nationally.

  14. Women and Men in the United States: March 2002. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Renee E.

    This report compares the status of women and men on such measures as age, marital status, educational attainment, occupation, income, and poverty status. Findings are based on data collected by the Census Bureau in the Annual Demographic Supplement to the March 2002 Current Population Survey. Overall, women slightly outnumber men in the total…

  15. Quantifying introgression risk with realistic population genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Atiyo; Meirmans, Patrick G.; Haccou, Patsy

    2012-01-01

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into another. This can have severe consequences, such as extinction of endemic species, or the spread of transgenes. Quantification of the risk of introgression is an important component of genetically modified crop regulation. Most theoretical introgression studies aimed at such quantification disregard one or more of the most important factors concerning introgression: realistic genetical mechanisms, rep...

  16. Cardiovascular risk in minority and underserved women in Appalachian Tennessee: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera Lea

    2010-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to translate current knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors, screening, and prevention to a disparate population of women and to ascertain the cardiovascular health status and risk factors in a sample of minority and underserved Appalachian women. Demographic data were collected from a voluntary sample of women from a disparate population living in Appalachian Tennessee. A coronary risk profile recorded family health history, personal health history, and lifestyle habits affecting risk for cardiovascular disease. Physiologic measurements included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol levels, ankle brachial index, and carotid artery stenosis. Women in Appalachia Tennessee from a disparate population have high risks for heart disease and stroke. This is a critical time to address any modifiable risk factors and aggressively treat underlying cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide primary care to women who may not be aware of their cardiovascular risks or actual disease. NPs can ensure that their practice incorporates primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention through screening, individual health education, and aggressive evidence-based treatment plans for women.

  17. Cancer risk among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2006-01-01

    The available epidemiologic evidence does not support a carcinogenic effect of silicone breast implants on breast or other cancers. Data on cancer risk other than breast cancer are limited and few studies have assessed cancer risk beyond 10-15 years after breast implantation. We extended follow...... proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, calendar period and reproductive history. We observed 163 cancers among women with breast implants compared to 136.7 expected based on general population rates (SIR = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.4), during a mean follow-up period of 14.4 years...... (range = 0-30 years). Women with breast implants experienced a reduced risk of breast cancer (SIR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-1.0), and an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.5-2.7). Stratification by age at implantation, calendar year at implantation and time since implantation...

  18. Anxiety in women "at risk' of developing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirlaway, K.; Fallowfield, L.; Nunnerley, H.; Powles, T.

    1996-01-01

    Do family history clinics offering counselling, surveillance and preventative programmes alleviate or exacerbate anxiety in women at a high risk of developing breast cancer? In this study risk perceptions and anxiety of 99 'at risk' women participating in the Tamoxifen Prevention Trial were compared with those of 87 'at risk' women not attending any specialist clinic who were recruited from the National Breast Screening Programme (NBSP). Most anxiety was found in NBSP women with a family history. Women attending the family history clinic and participating in the trial had anxiety scores comparable with 86 women recruited from the NBSP who did not have a family history. We conclude that such specialist clinics do not see a selected group of the most anxious 'at risk' women nor does participation in tamoxifen prevention programmes appear to increase anxiety. PMID:8645590

  19. Cancer risk among Danish women with cosmetic breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Kjøller, Kim; Fryzek, Jon P; Henriksen, Trine F; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2006-02-15

    The available epidemiologic evidence does not support a carcinogenic effect of silicone breast implants on breast or other cancers. Data on cancer risk other than breast cancer are limited and few studies have assessed cancer risk beyond 10-15 years after breast implantation. We extended follow-up of our earlier cohort study of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants by 7 years, yielding 30 years of follow-up for women with longest implant duration. The study population consisted of women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery (n = 1,653) or public hospitals (n = 1,110), and a control group of women who attended private clinics for other plastic surgery (n = 1,736), between 1973-95. Cancer incidence through 2002 was ascertained using the Danish Cancer Registry. Risk evaluation was based on computation of standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, calendar period and reproductive history. We observed 163 cancers among women with breast implants compared to 136.7 expected based on general population rates (SIR = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.4), during a mean follow-up period of 14.4 years (range = 0-30 years). Women with breast implants experienced a reduced risk of breast cancer (SIR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-1.0), and an increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.5-2.7). Stratification by age at implantation, calendar year at implantation and time since implantation showed no clear trends, however, the statistical precision was limited in these analyses. When excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, the SIR for cancer overall was 1.0 (95% CI = 0.8-1.2). With respect to other site-specific cancers, no significantly increased or decreased SIR were observed. Similar results were found when directly comparing women who had implants at private clinics with women who attended private clinics for other plastic surgery, with rate ratios for cancer

  20. AIDS Risk Perception and its related factors in Women with High-Risk Behaviors in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Tafazoli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.

  1. From menarche to menopause: A population-based assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for reproductive tract infection symptoms over life stages in rural girls and women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kelly K; Padhi, Bijaya; Torondel, Belen; Das, Padmalaya; Dutta, Ambarish; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Das, Bhabani; Dreibelbis, Robert; Caruso, Bethany; Freeman, Matthew C; Sager, Lauren; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot

  2. From menarche to menopause: A population-based assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for reproductive tract infection symptoms over life stages in rural girls and women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Bijaya; Torondel, Belen; Das, Padmalaya; Dutta, Ambarish; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Freeman, Matthew C.; Sager, Lauren; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2017-01-01

    Women face greater challenges than men in accessing water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) resources to address their daily needs, and may respond to these challenges by adopting unsafe practices that increase the risk of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). WASH practices may change as women transition through socially-defined life stage experiences, like marriage and pregnancy. Thus, the relationship between WASH practices and RTIs might vary across female reproductive life stages. This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between WASH exposures and self-reported RTI symptoms in 3,952 girls and women from two rural districts in India, and tested whether social exposures represented by reproductive life stage was an effect modifier of associations. In fully adjusted models, RTI symptoms were less common in women using a latrine without water for defecation versus open defecation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.69; Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.48, 0.98) and those walking shorter distances to a bathing location (OR = 0.79, CI = 0.63, 0.99), but there was no association between using a latrine with a water source and RTIs versus open defecation (OR = 1.09; CI = 0.69, 1.72). Unexpectedly, RTI symptoms were more common for women bathing daily with soap (OR = 6.55, CI = 3.60, 11.94) and for women washing their hands after defecation with soap (OR = 10.27; CI = 5.53, 19.08) or ash/soil/mud (OR = 6.02; CI = 3.07, 11.77) versus water only or no hand washing. WASH practices of girls and women varied across reproductive life stages, but the associations between WASH practices and RTI symptoms were not moderated by or confounded by life stage status. This study provides new evidence that WASH access and practices are associated with self-reported reproductive tract infection symptoms in rural Indian girls and women from different reproductive life stages. However, the counterintuitive directions of effect for soap use highlights that causality and mechanisms of effect cannot

  3. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  5. Population-Attributable Risk Percentages for Racialized Risk Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob; Haardörfer, Regine; McBride, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Research about relationships between place characteristics and racial/ethnic inequities in health has largely ignored conceptual advances about race and place within the discipline of geography. Research has also almost exclusively quantified these relationships using effect estimates (e.g., odds ratios), statistics that fail to adequately capture the full impact of place characteristics on inequities and thus undermine our ability to translate research into action. We draw on geography to further develop the concept of “racialized risk environments,” and we argue for the routine calculation of race/ethnicity-specific population-attributable risk percentages. PMID:27552263

  6. Cancer risk among Los Angeles women with cosmetic breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deapen, Dennis M; Hirsch, Elliot M; Brody, Garry S

    2007-06-01

    As the first generation of women who received cosmetic breast implants ages, questions remain about cancer risk. This study is an update of the Los Angeles Augmentation Mammaplasty Study and examines cancer risk among women with long-term exposure to breast implants. The authors conducted a record linkage cohort study of patients with cosmetic breast implants by abstracting from records of the private practices of 35 board-certified plastic surgeons in Los Angeles County, California. They included 3139 Caucasian women who received cosmetic breast implants between 1953 and 1980. Spanish-surnamed women, nonresidents of Los Angeles County, and patients with prior subcutaneous mastectomy or breast cancer were excluded. Cancer outcomes through 1994 were ascertained through record linkage with the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. With a mean follow-up period of 15.5 years, 43 cases of breast cancer were observed, compared with 62.6 expected, based on Los Angeles County population-based incidence rates (standardized incidence ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.93). Significant increases were observed for cancer of the lung and bronchus (standardized incidence ratio, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.42 to 3.09) and vulvar cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.39 to 7.16). The breast cancer results of this study are consistent with the previous reports of the Los Angeles study as well as with several other long-term cohort studies. Lung cancer has previously been found to be increased in this cohort and also in some, but not most, other studies. The increased risk of vulva cancer has previously been observed in this cohort and just one other.

  7. Risk and Aging Vascular in a city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Cardiovascular diseases that every year have more prevalence in the country, are the product of risky factors, many of them modifiable and preventable. The objective of the present study has been to know and analyze the factors of cardiovascular risk and determine the vascular age in the population of Lima. Material and methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in March 2016, in the southern, northern and eastern cones of Metropolitan Lima, in people older than 30 and younger than 75 years old. The survey structured for the study collected the following variables: gender, age, arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes, physical activity and type of diet. Blood presure, weight and tall were recorded. Results: In total, 485 participants were included, 197 men and 288 women. The age was 49,5± 9,9 years old. The more frequent risky factor was the unhealthy diet (47,6%, followed by sedentary lifestyle (42,5%. Arterial hypertension was observed in 20,8%, being more frequent in men. 85.2% did not smoke and overweight was found in 47.2%, being its frequency higher in women. The low risk was determined in 60,4% and it was predominant in women, while higher risk was 18.6% in men. The average cardiovascular age was higher in 1,4 years compared to the chronological age beign more marked in men, in whom the difference was 5,8 years between 50 and 59 years old. Conclusions: The more frecuente cardiovascular risk has been unhealthy diet followed by sedentary lifestyle. The high risk was 18,6% predominating in

  8. Population facts that can spur women's well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1994-01-01

    Although women's rights proposals included in the International Conference on Population and Development deserve support on their own merit, governments are more likely to increase funding for human development if the environmental and economic advantages of investing in women are spelled out. A significant negative association between income growth and population growth emerged in the 1980s. During this decade, 41 countries where population was growing more slowly demonstrated an average income growth of 1.23% per year, while average income fell by an average of 1.25% per year in 41 countries where there was more rapid population growth. In the 1965-80 period, there was no such correlation. Moreover, population control is among the most effective measures for protecting the environment. If--through female education, women's rights, maternal-child health, and family planning--the United Nations' low population projection existed in the year 2050 as opposed to the medium projection (2.2 billion higher), 4.4 million square kilometers of land would be saved and there would be 9.3 billion tones less in carbon dioxide emissions per year. This would be equivalent to halting all current deforestation and a 26% improvement in global energy improvement. Achievement of the low projection would further result in 342 million fewer cases of malnutrition than the medium projection.

  9. Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, L; Hedman, A M; Thornton, L M; Kuja-Halkola, R; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Cantor-Graae, E; Almqvist, C; Birgegård, A; Lichtenstein, P; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Bulik, C M

    2017-08-01

    The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. All individuals born 1984-2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989-1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Frestada, Daria; Michelsen, Marie Mide

    2016-01-01

    physically active than women while women have healthier dietary habits. Genetic factors also affect cardiovascular risk but no sex differences have been seen. Increased cardiovascular risk attributed to psychosocial distress is similar in men and women, but since women are more prone to psychosocial distress......Background: Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in both sexes in developed countries for decades. In general, men and women share the same cardiovascular risk factors. However, in recent trials including both men and women sexspecific analyses have raised awareness of sex...... differences in cardiovascular risk factors due to both biological and cultural differences. Results: Women experience their first myocardial infarction (MI) 6-10 years later than men and a protective effect of their natural estrogen status prior to menopause has been suggested. Female sex hormones have been...

  11. Fracture risk in perimenopausal women treated with beta-blockers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Kassem, M.

    2004-01-01

    beta2-Adrenergic receptors have been identified on human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, raising the question of a sympathetic regulation of bone metabolism. We investigated effects of treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) on bone turnover, bone mineral density...... (BMD), and fracture risk. Within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS) a population based, comprehensive cohort study of 2016 perimenopausal women, associations between treatment with beta-blockers and bone turnover and BMD were assessed in a cross-sectional design at the start of study....... Moreover, in a nested case-control design, fracture risk during the subsequent 5 years was assessed in relation to treatment with beta-blockers at baseline. Multiple regression- and logistic regression-analyses were performed. Treatment with beta-blockers was associated with a threefold increased fracture...

  12. 'A low risk is still a risk': exploring women's attitudes towards genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility in order to target disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, L.; Timmermans, D. R.; Bouwman, C. M.; Cornel, M. C.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Population breast cancer screening programs by mammography are offered to women based on age. It has been suggested that a screening program based on genetic risk profile could be more effective by targeting interventions at those at higher genetic risk. This study explores women's attitudes towards

  13. Recurrence risk of low Apgar score among term singletons: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Mol, Ben W. J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the risk of recurrence of low Apgar score in a subsequent term singleton pregnancy. Population-based cohort study. The Netherlands. A total of 190,725 women with two subsequent singleton term live births between 1999 and 2007. We calculated the recurrence risk of low Apgar score after

  14. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer variation range assessment based on various radon risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    To address public concerns regarding radon risk and variations in risk estimates based on various risk models available in the literature, lifetime lung cancer risks were calculated with five well-known risk models using more recent Canadian vital statistics (5-year averages from 2008 to 2012). Variations in population risk estimation among various models were assessed. The results showed that the Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer can vary from 5.0 to 17% for men and 5.1 to 18% for women based on different radon risk models. Averaged over the estimates from various risk models with better radon dosimetry, 13% of lung cancer deaths among Canadian males and 14% of lung cancer deaths among Canadian females were attributable to long-term indoor radon exposure. (authors)

  15. [Population policy and women: the relevance of previous studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barbieri, M T

    1983-01-01

    Although Mexico has had high rates of population growth since the 1930s caused by continuing high fertility but declining infant and general mortality, and has undergone deep structural change including declining agricultural production, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and increasing urban umemployment, it was not until the 1970s that the government began to adopt measures aimed at controlling population growth. Opponents of family planning argued that economic and social development would lead to fertility decline, but its proponents believed that reducing population growth would free resources for productive investment that otherwise would have to be used to finance services for the ever-growing population. At the same time that the constitution and laws were changed to allow or promote family planning, Mexican civil and labor laws were changed to provide for equality of men and women. Some background is necessary to understand the effect of such changes in the role and status of the Mexican woman. A relationship has been noted between demographic models--the form in which a society reproduces over a given time--and the social condition of women. Women have generally been subordinated to men during known history, but recent research indicates that their history has not been as uniform as once supposed. The particular form in which each society defines the natural-biological basis of sex roles varies; social definitions of sex and gender vary depending on the extension of "natural-biological" character to specific areas and tasks. The cases of French women in the 16th-18th centuries and German women under Hitler illustrate different ways in which demographic models and the condition of women have varied within a general framework of subordination of women. But when attempts are made to change a given demographic model, the condition of women is redefined at the level of practice as well as of value orientations concerning motherhood, female labor force

  16. Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999–2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Arndt Mesenburg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups.

  17. A comprehensive examination of breast cancer risk loci in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C; Ambrosone, Christine B; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F; Hu, Jennifer J; Ziegler, Regina G; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V; Ingles, Sue A; Press, Michael F; Deming, Sandra L; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Palmer, Julie R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng; Adebamowo, Clement A; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Chen, Gary K; Stram, Alex; Park, Karen; Rand, Kristin A; Chanock, Stephen J; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-15

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American women. In this study of breast cancer in African American women (3016 cases, 2745 controls), we tested an additional 54 novel breast cancer risk variants. Thirty-eight variants (70%) were found to have an association with breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported, with eight (15%) replicating at P University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fasting glucose and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Sarna, M; Thanvi, Jyoti; Sharma, Vibha; Gupta, V P

    2007-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that blood glucose levels in the range of normoglycemia are associated with increased cardiovascular risk we performed an epidemiological study in an urban population. Randomly selected adults > or = 20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target sample was 1800 (men 960, women 840) of which 1123 subjects participated. Blood samples were available in 1091 subjects (60.6%, men 532, women 559). Measurement of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was performed. Cardiovascular risk factors were determined using US Adult Treatment Panel-3 guidelines. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) of fasting glucose with various risk factors were determined. Fasting glucose levels were classified into various groups as 126 mg/dl or known diabetes. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was determined in each group. There was a significant positive correlation of fasting glucose in men and women with body mass index (r = 0.20, 0.12), waist-hip ratio (0.17, 0.09), systolic blood pressure (0.07, 0.22), total cholesterol (0.21, 0.15) and triglycerides (0.21, 0.25). Prevalence (%) of cardiovascular risk factors in men and women was smoking/tobacco use in 37.6 and 11.6, hypertension in 37.0 and 37.6, overweight and obesity in 37.8 and 50.3, truncal obesity in 57.3 and 68.0, high cholesterol > or = 200 mg/dl in 37.4 and 45.8, high triglycerides > or = 150 mg/dl in 32.3 and 28.6 and metabolic syndrome in 22.9 and 31.6 percent. In various groups of fasting glucose there was an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, and metabolic syndrome (Mantel-Haenzel X2 for trend, p fasting glucose continuous relationship of fasting glucose levels with many cardiovascular risk factors and level < 75 mg/dl is associated with the lowest prevalence.

  19. [Population resettlement and women's changing roles in the Sahel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, D O

    1992-01-01

    For many decision makers in the Sahel, relocating populations from poor, over-populated regions to relatively fertile zones regulated by the state seemed the best approach to improving women's conditions, particularly in household affairs. In the original territories, women have their personal fields where they raise vegetables and other products which they sell to secure their own income. During the dry season, they engage in other activities for money (e.g., production and sale of millet beer and sale of pottery). Women have relative economic autonomy. Within the family household and in villages, they isolate themselves in their own spaces (e.g., kitchen and wells) and discuss their specific problems. In government-controlled zones where families resettle, the families are supposed to plant the same varieties of imposed cultivation (e.g., rice) judged to be more productive. They must sow, plow, and harvest using the same techniques. All activities are controlled. Women have no decision power and must submit to the logic of the chief of agricultural production. They no longer have time to dedicate themselves to individual economic activity (especially in irrigated zones, where there are two annual plantings), or to assure a good education for their children. They have little time to dedicate to hygiene and nutrition. These government-controlled agricultural zones have established an exploitation model that contributes to the socioeconomic destabilization of families. The retreat of women's economic power is often accompanied by degradation of family well-being. Agricultural development schemes that involve agricultural migrations have marginalized women even more than they were before resettlement in spite of improvement in family income. It is narrowly linked to short-term development. In conclusion, agricultural resettlement schemes do not improve the status of women.

  20. Physical attractiveness and women's HIV risk in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Margaret; Chae, Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic. We use interviewers' ratings of respondents' attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women's assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15-35. Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than other women their age are 9% more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women's own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings.

  1. Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact of FTO ... with increased obesity risk but there is a lack of association with diabetes. ... (as certain foods or gene therapy) will prevent the percentage of women who is affected ...

  2. Client experiences with perinatal healthcare for high-risk and low-risk women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stenus, Cherelle M.V.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kerkhof, Erna F.G.M.; Need, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Problem: It is unknown if client experiences with perinatal healthcare differ between low-risk and high-risk women. Background: In the Netherlands, risk selection divides pregnant women into low- and high-risk groups. Receiving news that a pregnancy or childbirth has an increased likelihood of

  3. Interleukin-1 gene locus polymorphisms are associated with risk to breast cancer in Croatian population

    OpenAIRE

    KAARVATN, MARIKKEN HEILAND; KROG EFTEDAL, RANDI; VRBANEC, JURICA; JOTANOVIC, ZDRAVKO; ETOKEBE, GODFREY E.; BALEN, SANJA; KULIC, ANA; DEMBIC, ZLATKO

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer has a complex genetic susceptibility. Innate and adaptive immunity can additionally increase the genetic risk to breast cancer development. We typed polymorphisms in the genes of the interleukin(IL)-1 and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines in a case-control study in Caucasian population from Croatia. We compared the allelic and genotypic frequencies between patients (n=194), healthy women (n=188) and general population (n=531). The risk for breast cancer has been significantly diff...

  4. Tamoxifen for women at high risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarali, Safia A; Narod, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Safia A Nazarali, Steven A Narod Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, and The University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Tamoxifen has been used as a treatment for women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer for roughly four decades and has been approved as chemoprevention for over ten years. Although tamoxifen has been proven to be beneficial in preventing breast cancer in high-risk women, its use has not been widely embraced. To ...

  5. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  6. Caries risk assessment in pregnant women using cariogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolić Olivera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.

  7. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  8. Screening women at high risk of breast cancer on the basis of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Geneticists are able to identify the risk of breast cancer. Strategies on offer include prevention, early diagnosis by screening, and prophylactic surgery. This paper analyses the evidence for offering screening. The radiation dose of mammography has been measured, but the risk is not fully known. Mammography screening of women of 40-50 years in the normal population has known effect. Little evidence is available for women under 40 years or for women with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Dense parenchymal pattern is associated with high grade cancers, and is both a risk factor and a reason for impaired screening sensitivity. Whether this applies to younger women or women at high risk is speculative. The pathological features of the cancers in gene carriers show differences from those occurring in normal women. This work should be correlated with imaging features. There is no literature to support the use of newer imaging methods in these women. Ultrasound and MRI avoid radiation and may be useful in dense breasts. SestaMIBI and PET scanning are not yet mature enough for screening, and may never have such a role. Any newer modality must be subjected to a formal randomised trial before being offered to screen women at high risk

  9. Cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, L W; Atkin, S L

    2007-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women that has received an immense amount of attention in the recent years due to the possible associated risk of cardiovascular disease. Women with PCOS demonstrate an adverse cardiovascular profile characteristic of the cardiometabolic syndrome and an established risk of progression to type 2 diabetes. Despite the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and increased surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, it is unclear if they develop accelerated atherosclerosis. This article summarized the recent development and findings of cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS, and finally the therapeutic options will be discussed.

  10. A metasynthesis of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S.; Ayers, S.; Holden, D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.\\ud \\ud Methods: A systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that rep...

  11. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92%) used an observational design and focused on women (70%) with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups) and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although evolving, is still

  12. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  13. Thyroid disorders and breast cancer risk in Asian population: a nationwide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lin, Ching-Heng; Luo, Xun; Lin, Tseng-Hsi

    2018-03-30

    To evaluate whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism increases the risk of subsequent breast cancer in an Asian population. Nationwide population-based case-control study. All healthcare facilities in Taiwan. A total of 103 466 women (mean age 53.3 years) were enrolled. 51 733 adult women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer without a previous cancer history between 2006 and 2011 were identified and included in our study. 51 733 women with no cancer diagnosis prior to the index date were age matched as controls. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism prior to the diagnosis of breast cancer or the same index date was identified, age, histories of thyroid disease treatment, oestrogen use and radioactive iodine treatment were adjusted. To identify risk differences in developing breast cancer among patients with a medical history of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. There was a significantly increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism under the age of 55 years (age hypothyroidism also showed an increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.19, P=0.029) without statistical significance after stratification by age group (age 55 years). Treatment for thyroid disorders did not alter the association in subgroup analyses (P=0.857; 0.262, respectively). Asian women under 55 years of age with history of hyperthyroidism have a significantly increased risk of breast cancer regardless of treatment. Women with history of hypothyroidism may also have an increased risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. [Cardiovascular risk factors in the population at risk of poverty and social exclusión].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fernández, Carlos; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Ruíz-Gandara, África; Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Álvarez-López, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Detect if there are differences in prevalence, distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and risk according to REGICOR and SCORE's function; between people belonging to different occupational classes and population at risk of social exclusion. Cross-sectional. SITE: Occupational health unit of the City Hall of Córdoba. Sample availability of 628 people, excluding 59 by age or incomplete data. The group of municipal workers was obtained randomly while all contracted exclusion risk was taken. No preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic actions that modify the course of the previous situation of workers were applied. Smoke, glucose, lipids, blood pressure and BMI as main variables. T-student were used for comparison of means and percentages for Chi 2 . Statistical significance attached to an alpha error <5% and confidence interval with a 95% security. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were employed to find out what explanatory variables predict group membership of workers at risk of exclusion. Smoking (95% CI: -.224;-.443), hypercholesterolemia (95% CI: -.127;-.320), obesity (95% CI: -.005;-0.214), diabetes (95% CI: -.060;-.211) and cardiovascular risk were higher in men at risk of exclusion. In women there were differences in the same variables except smoking (P=.053). The existence of inequalities in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is checked. In a context of social crisis, health promotion and primary prevention programs directing to the most vulnerable, they are needed to mit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. [Latex allergy in a population at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Fernández, M; Flores Sandoval, G; Orea Solano, M

    1999-01-01

    The allergy to latex is an illness whose prevalence has been increased in very significant form in the last years. To know the allergy incidence to latex in population of risk, as well as to identify the related sintomatology and the importance or paper that play the atopia antecedents and time of contact with latex for the development of the illness. We carry out a prospective, descriptive, experimental and traverse study in population of risk, in the service of Allergy and clinical Immunology of the Hospital Regional Lic. Adolfo López Mateos, ISSSTE. One hundred patients of both sexes were included, with age of 20 to 50 years, with the antecedent of being personal medical and paramedic and to have presented contact with latex material in a minimum period of one year. They were carried out clinical history with registration of sintomatology nasal, bronchial, cutaneous and associated to contact with latex. They were carried out cutaneous test for prick to latex with positive control with the help of histamine solution and negative control with solution of Evans and immediate reading of the same one. 22% of the patients in study, they presented positive skin test latex, with a time of exhibition 10 year-old average, 68% presented antecedent of atopy personal, family and, likewise the associate sintomatology was in a 33.3% dermatology, 54.5 nasal, nobody presented bronchial symptoms and a 9% asymptomatic was reported. We support that the immediate skin test latex for Prick is an important parameter of support diagnosis for allergy to type 1 latex.

  16. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  17. Intimate partner violence and mental ill health among global populations of Indigenous women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielowska, Marta; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognised as a major obstacle to the achievement of gender equality and human development. Its adverse physical and mental health consequences have been reported to affect women of all ages and backgrounds. Although Indigenous women seem to experience higher rates of partner abuse than non-Indigenous women, mental health consequences of IPV among this population are not yet clearly established in the literature. This study systematically reviewed the global literature on mental health outcomes and risk factors for mental ill health among Indigenous women who experienced IPV. Primary quantitative and mixed methods studies that reported about mental health and IPV among Indigenous women (aged 14+) were included. 21 bibliographic databases were searched until January 2017. Quality of included studies was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Findings are reported according to PRISMA-P 2015. 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies reported very high rates of IPV and high prevalence of mental disorders. The most frequently identified types of IPV were physical and/or sexual violence, verbal aggression, and emotional abuse. The strongest predictor of poor mental health was physical violence. The most commonly reported mental health outcomes were depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite the small number of studies identified, the available evidence suggests that experiences of IPV and mental disorders among Indigenous women are linked and exacerbated by poverty, discrimination, and substance abuse. More research is needed to better understand distributions and presentations of IPV-related mental illness in this population.

  18. A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

    2015-04-01

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors in Iranian women compared with Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Devlina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis is an important public health problem in older adults. It is more common in postmenopausal women and not only gives rise to morbidity but also markedly diminishes the quality of life in this population. There is lack of information about the risk factor of osteoporosis in developing countries. In this study we aimed to assess the risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women from selected BMD centers of two developing Asian countries (Iran and India. Methods This study is a multicenter interview-based study conducted in selected hospitals and health centers from urban areas in Iran and India. The case group included postmenopausal osteoporotic women who were identified as patients with bone density higher than 2.5 SD below average of young normal bone density (in L1–L4 spine region interest and/or total femoral region by using DEXA method. The controls were chosen from postmenopausal women with normal bone density (in L1–L4 spine and total femoral regions using DEXA method matching in age groups was strategy of choice. The sample sizes included from Iran a total of 363 subjects (178 osteoporotic and 185 normal and from India a total of 354 subjects (203 osteoporotic and 151 normal. Results The significant (p Lower education defined as less than class 12 or nil college (2.1 (2.7, duration of menopause greater than 5 years: (2.2 (1.4, Menarche age (after 14 years: (1.9 (1.6, Menopause age (before 45 years: (1.1 (2, Parity more than 3: (1.1 (1, Bone and joint problem (2.3 (2.2. Calcium supplementation (0.6 and HRT (0.4 were shown as protective factors and steroid therapy (3.3 was found as a risk factor in Iran. Calcium supplementation more than 1 year (0.3 was shown as a protective factor in India. Pure vegetarianism: (2.2 and Red meat consumption more than 4 times per week (1.4 was shown as a risk factor in Indian and Iranian subjects respectively. Regular consumption of Soya (0.3, almond (0.5, fish (0

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas

    2012-04-01

    Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boarder were treated with a standard fixed oral 3-day treatment, and venous plasma concentrations of both drugs were measured frequently for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Population pharmacokinetics were evaluated with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The main pharmacokinetic finding was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but reduced exposure to dihydroartemisinin in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Piperaquine was best described by a three-compartment disposition model with a 45% higher elimination clearance and a 47% increase in relative bioavailability in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was an unaltered total exposure to piperaquine but a shorter terminal elimination half-life. Dihydroartemisinin was best described by a one-compartment disposition model with a 38% lower relative bioavailability in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. The resulting net effect of pregnancy was a decreased total exposure to dihydroartemisinin. The shorter terminal elimination half-life of piperaquine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin will shorten the posttreatment prophylactic effect and might affect cure rates. The clinical impact of these pharmacokinetic findings in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria needs to be evaluated in larger series.

  2. Abortion and depression: a population-based longitudinal study of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2008-06-01

    Induced abortion is an experience shared by a large number of women in Norway, but we know little about the likely social or mental health-related implications of undergoing induced abortion. International studies suggest an increased risk of adverse outcomes such as depression, but many studies are weakened by poor design. One particular problem is the lack of control for confounding factors likely to increase the risk of both abortion and depression. The aim of the study was to investigate whether induced abortion was a risk factor for subsequent depression. A representative sample of women from the normal population (n=768) was monitored between the ages of 15 and 27 years. Questions covered depression, induced abortion and childbirth, as well as sociodemographic variables, family relationships and a number of individual characteristics, such as schooling and occupational history and conduct problems. Young women who reported having had an abortion in their twenties were more likely to score above the cut-off point for depression (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-6.1). Controlling for third variables reduced the association, but it remained significant (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.7-5.6). There was no association between teenage abortion and subsequent depression. Young adult women who undergo induced abortion may be at increased risk for subsequent depression.

  3. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  4. Risk factors of epithelial ovarian carcinomas among women with endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line H.; Schnack, Tine H.; Buchardi, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the published literature on epidemiologic risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among women with a diagnosis of endometriosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Studies comparing epidemiologic risk factors...... an elevated risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. However, due to the limited number and size of studies in this area we cannot draw definitive conclusions. Further research into a risk factor profile among women with endometriosis is needed before clear recommendations can be made....... of epithelial ovarian cancer among women with endometriosis were included. A quality assessment was conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Eight of 794 articles met the inclusion criteria. A lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was observed in women with documented complete surgical excision...

  5. Risk Profiles for Endometriosis in Japanese Women: Results From a Repeated Survey of Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Nagai, Kazue; Mizunuma, Hideki; Kubota, Toshiro; Lee, Jung-Su; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk factors for endometriosis may differ according to diagnosis methodologies, such as study populations and diagnostic accuracy. We examined risk profiles in imaging-diagnosed endometriosis with and without surgical confirmation in a large population of Japanese women, as well as the differences in risk profiles of endometriosis based on history of infertility. Methods Questionnaires that included items on sites of endometriosis determined by imaging techniques and surgical procedure were mailed to 1025 women who self-reported endometriosis in a baseline survey of the Japan Nurses’ Health Study (n = 15 019). Results Two hundred and ten women had surgically confirmed endometriosis (Group A), 120 had imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without a surgical procedure (Group B), and 264 had adenomyosis (Group C). A short menstrual cycle at 18–22 years of age and cigarette smoking at 30 years of age were associated with significantly increased risk of endometriosis (Group A plus Group B), while older age was associated with risk of adenomyosis (Group C). In women with a history of infertility, a short menstrual cycle was associated with a significantly increased risk of endometriosis in both Group A and Group B, but risk profiles of endometriosis were different between Group A and Group B in women without a history of infertility. Conclusions Women with surgically confirmed endometriosis and those with imaging-diagnosed endometriosis without surgery have basically common risk profiles, but these risk profiles are different from those with adenomyosis. The presence of a history of infertility should be taken into consideration for evaluation of risk profiles. PMID:25716280

  6. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

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    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine.We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set.Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them.The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  7. Increased risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Kuchiki, Megumi; Vejborg, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    of misclassification, i.e. women who were actually false-negatives instead of false-positives. METHOD: We used data from the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme, Denmark. The study population was the 295 women, out of 4743 recalled women from a total of 58,003 participants, with a false-positive test during...... the women with misclassified tests had been excluded, there was an excess risk of breast cancer of 27% (RR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.46) among the women with a false-positive test compared to women with only negative tests. Women with a false-positive test determined at assessment had...... an excess risk of 27%, while false-positives determined at surgery had an excess risk of 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the increased risk is not explained only by misclassification. The excess risk remains for false-positives determined at assessment as well as at surgery, which favours some...

  8. Cambodian Remarried Women Are at Risk for Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Sothy; Szmodis, Whitney; Grace, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Divorce rates continue to rise, especially in urban centers, which in turn contributes to increasing numbers of women who remarry. While remarriage is one of the only options for survival for divorced women, especially those from low socioeconomic status, remarriage also brings with it increased stressors of financial strain and the strain of blended families. This study tested the hypothesis that remarried women compared with first-time married and divorced women are at increased risk for domestic violence. The sample was drawn from the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey, consisting of 1,560 women with the average age of 31.64. Results showed that 20% of women reported emotional violence and 14%, physical violence. Based on hierarchical multiple regressions, this study found that remarried women were more likely to experience physical and emotional abuse than women in their first marriage or women who remain divorced/not in union. Further interaction analyses showed that domestic violence varies depending on place of residence, number of children younger than 5 years, partners' education, and wealth index. Rural residents who were in poorest and poorer groups and urban residents in their poorer and middle groups of their wealth index showed high risk of domestic violence. Remarried women with two or three children younger than 5 years showed highest risk of domestic violence. Additional three-way interaction analysis revealed that remarried women residing in rural/urban areas with a spouse having no education and/or primary level of education were at highest risk of domestic violence. The study lends support to the structural role of the power of male dominance on women's social and emotional well-being. This study suggested that to reduce men's perceived domination, structural intervention that includes implementing gender-responsive curriculum in formal education, as well as strengthening domestic violence law enforcement would help reduce domestic violence

  9. Tobacco smoking and risk of hip fracture in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S; Prescott, E; Sørensen, T I

    2000-01-01

    population studies conducted in Copenhagen with detailed information on smoking habit. A total of 13,393 women and 17,379 men, initially examined between 1964 and 1992, were followed until 1997 for first admission due to hip fracture. The relative risks (RR) of hip fracture associated with smoking were......BACKGROUND: Previous findings suggest that tobacco smoking increases the risk of hip fracture in women. A similar adverse effect of smoking is suspected to be present in men, but bone mineral density studies have raised the concern that men may be more sensitive to the deleterious effect of smoking...... on bone than women. In this study we prospectively determined the influence of current, previous, and cumulative smoking history on risk of hip fracture in men and women and addressed the issue of possible gender difference in the susceptibility to tobacco smoking. METHODS: Pooled data from three...

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh LGH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were

  11. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

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    Oliveira Helena CF

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males.

  12. Latent Class Analysis of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Russian Women at Risk for Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohora, Som; Chaffin, Mark; Shaboltas, Alla; Bonner, Barbara; Isurina, Galina; Batluk, Julia; Bard, David; Tsvetkova, Larissa; Skitnevskaya, Larissa; Volkova, Elena; Balachova, Tatiana

    2017-11-01

    The number of HIV cases attributed to heterosexual contact and the proportion of women among HIV positive individuals has increased worldwide. Russia is a country with the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the region, and the infection spreads beyond traditional risk groups. While young women are affected disproportionately, knowledge of HIV risk behaviors in women in the general population remains limited. The objectives of this study were to identify patterns of behaviors that place women of childbearing age at high risk for HIV transmission and determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol use are predictive of the risk pattern. A total of 708 non-pregnant women, aged between 18 and 44 years, who were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy were enrolled in two regions in Russia. Participants completed a structured interview focused on HIV risk behaviors, including risky sexual behavior and alcohol and drug use. Latent class analysis was utilized to examine associations between HIV risk and other demographic and alcohol use characteristics and to identify patterns of risk among women. Three classes were identified. 34.93% of participants were at high risk, combining their risk behaviors, e.g., having multiple sexual partners, with high partner's risk associated with partner's drug use (class I). Despite reporting self-perceived risk for HIV/STI, this class of participants was unlikely to utilize adequate protection (i.e., condom use). The second high risk class included 13.19% of participants who combined their risky sexual behaviors, i.e., multiple sexual partners and having STDs, with partner's risk that included partner's imprisonment and partner's sex with other women (class II). Participants in this class were likely to utilize protection/condoms. Finally, 51.88% of participants were at lower risk, which was associated primarily with their partners' risk, and these participants utilized protection (class III). The odds

  13. [Raising women's awareness of cardiovascular risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Anne

    Professor Claire Mounier-Vehier, a cardiologist and vascular specialist at Lille university regional hospital, is a leading spokesperson for women in the field of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. One of her many roles is head of the 'heart, arteries and women health care pathway' set up in 2013 at Lille university hospital. She discusses the importance of this specific and multidisciplinary care pathway at a time when epidemiological data show that the management of women's cardiovascular health has become a public health priority. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Aspects of Cardiometabolic Risk in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterakis, Thomas S; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2014-12-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, exhibit an adverse cardiovascular risk profile characteristic of the cardiometabolic syndrome. These women, compared with age- and body mass index-matched women without PCOS, appear to present a higher risk of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia, and possibly a higher rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. However, despite the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and increased surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, it is unclear whether they have accelerated atherosclerosis and greater mortality, the latter mainly because of a lack of endpoint studies. This article addresses, summarizes, and discusses salient data from the existing literature, including gaps and uncertainties, aspects, and mechanisms related to the spectrum of adverse cardiometabolic profile factors in women with PCOS.

  15. The National Women's Health Study: assembly and description of a population-based reproductive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prior Susan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miscarriage is a common event but is remarkably difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Few large-scale population-based studies have been conducted in the UK. Methods This was a population-based two-stage postal survey of reproductive histories of adult women living in the United Kingdom in 2001, sampled from the electronic electoral roll. In Stage 1 a short "screening" questionnaire was sent to over 60,000 randomly selected women in order to identify those aged 55 and under who had ever been pregnant or ever attempted to achieve a pregnancy, from whom a brief reproductive history was requested. Stage 2 involved a more lengthy questionnaire requesting detailed information on every pregnancy (and fertility problems, and questions relating to socio-demographic, behavioural and other factors for the most recent pregnancy in order to examine risk factors for miscarriage. Data on stillbirth, multiple birth and maternal age are compared to national data in order to assess response bias. Results The response rate was 49% for Stage 1 and 73% for the more targeted Stage 2. A total of 26,050 questionnaires were returned in Stage 1. Of the 17,748 women who were eligible on the grounds of age, 27% reported that they had never been pregnant and had never attempted to conceive a child. The remaining 13,035 women reported a total of 30,661 pregnancies. Comparison of key reproductive indicators (stillbirth and multiple birth rates and maternal age at first birth with national statistics showed that the data look remarkably similar to the general population. Conclusions This study has enabled the assembly of a large population-based dataset of women's reproductive histories which appears unbiased compared to the general UK population and which will enable investigation of hard-to-measure outcomes such as miscarriage and infertility.

  16. State of terror: women at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  17. State of terror: women at risk

    OpenAIRE

    The Karen Women’s Organisation

    2008-01-01

    Two reports researched and written by the Karen Women’sOrganisation – Shattering Silences in 2004 and State ofTerror in 20071 – document the wide range of humanrights abuses against Burmese women and girls.

  18. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    ) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound...

  19. Cardiometabolic Risk in Hyperlipidemic Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leutner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex specific differences of metabolic and clinical characteristics of treated hyperlipidemic men and women (HL-men and HL-women. Methods. In this study vascular and metabolic characteristics of 35 HL-women and 64 HL-men were assessed. In addition a sex specific analysis of metabolic and nutritional habits of HL-patients with prediabetes (HL-IGR was done. Results. HL-women were older and had favourable concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-ratio but were also shown to have higher concentrations of lipoprotein-a compared to HL-men. HL-men were characterized as having higher levels of liver-specific parameters and body weight as well as being more physically active compared to HL-women. Brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP was higher in HL-women than HL-men, while no differences in metabolic syndrome and glycemic parameters were shown. HL-IGR-women were also older and still had a better profile of sex specific lipid parameters, as well as a lower body weight compared to HL-IGR-men. No differences were seen in vascular parameters such as the intima media thickness (IMT. Conclusion. HL-women were older and had overall more favourable concentrations of lipid parameters and liver enzymes but did not differ regarding vascular morphology and insulin sensitivity compared to HL-men of comparable body mass index (BMI.

  20. Assessment of genetic risk of exposure resulted from X-ray examination of women of the reproductive age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'nikova, N.K.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the available data an evaluation of genetic radiation risk during roentgenologic examination of women of the reproductive age is presented. It is demonstrated that the degree of genetic risk depends on woman's age at the moment of the roentgenologic examination and the amount of the gonadal dose. Identification of the high-risk exposed populations has been substantiated

  1. Tourism's collapse puts Gambian women at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, M S

    1995-06-01

    Despite efforts of the Gambian government, which established a ministry in 1981 that would tackle gender issues, improve women's health, and promote empowerment, women are underrepresented in government and business, and 84% are illiterate. Child mortality is among the highest in Africa; 134 children per 1000 die before their fifth birthday. In the mid-1980s austerity measures adopted by the World Bank and IMF left the ministry without funds. Rice and vegetable production, the main source of income for women, fell in the 1990s. In 1994, paddy production dropped 23% from the previous year; this was due to a lack of technical and financial assistance. The collapse of tourism with Capt. Yahya Jammeh's seizure of power has put prostitutes catering to tourists out of work, but women who have lost jobs in the hotel industry may be pushed into local prostitution to survive. The impact of this on the HIV/AIDS epidemic is unclear. Although Gambia is one of the world's most aid-dependent countries (more than a quarter of the GNP before the coup), corruption and mismanagement in the nongovernmental sector is widespread. The director of the Women in Development Programme, a $15m World Bank project, was forced to resign over allegations of fraud. The political process sidelines women; only village chiefs, who are traditionally men, are allowed to vote when new heads are elected.

  2. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  3. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women | Davey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women older than 50 years. Risk factors for CVD differ in some aspects from those in men. The prevention of CVD in women has undergone a reappraisal with the publication of studies looking at the use of menopausal hormone therapy for both primary and ...

  4. Heart Disease in Women: Understand Symptoms and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unless you have no other options. Although several traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease — such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure and obesity — affect women and men, other factors may play a bigger role in the development of heart disease in women. ...

  5. Risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaria, Anuradha; Bharti, Rekha; Sharma, Manjula; Dewan, Rupali; Kapoor, Garima; Aggarwal, Abha; Batra, Achla; Batra, Aruna

    2013-12-01

    Psychological symptoms are common & bothersome in post menopausal women. Hence, screening these women for risk factors for psychological disorders is an important measure to improve their health. To study the risk assessment for psychological disorders in postmenopausal women Material & Methods: This was a prospective and observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. It included a cross-section of 200 postmenopausal women attending gynecology OPD and menopausal clinic. Psychological symptoms were present in 32% postmenopausal women while sleep disturbance and decreased concentration were reported by nearly 34%. Irritability, nervousness and depression were the presenting complaints in 31.5%, 28.5% and 23.5% women respectively. Mild depression was present in 41.5%, whereas 3% women suffered from clinical (moderate to severe) depression. Depression was significantly associated with vasomotor symptoms (p=0.000), past history of depression (p=0.048) and psychosocial stressors (p=0.000). Women during postmenopausal years are at increased risk of psychological disorders; hence assessment of mental health and address of related issues should be an integral part of comprehensive evaluation of these women.

  6. Women, environment and population: a Moroccan case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mdaghri, C A

    1995-01-01

    The case study of the impact of environmental degradation on rural Moroccan women illustrates that women with a high degree of dependence on natural resources are the most deeply affected by environmental degradation. The study area is deforested with declining water supplies and soil erosion. Within the study area are two peasant sedentary communities with different relationships to the urban economy. The first area is in part of the northwest province of Tetouan, where population density is high, cultivated lands have expanded, and fuelwood collection has increased to the detriment of the environment. The study village is Al Haoud with 87 households. The second area is in the province of Al Hoceima, where resources are poor and population pressure is great. The peasants grow cannabis, which provides substantial revenues, especially for the middlemen. The study village is Iatmanene with 69 households. In Al Haoud women are the basis of the "Jbala" economy, and their survival is based on conservation of resources (sharing of ovens and fuelwood for baking bread). In Iatmanene 33% of households have one member working abroad, and 20% have two or more members absent. Off-farm income is based on sales of dwarf palm produce in Al Haoud and income from migrant workers and petty trading. 4% of housing Al Haoud and 38% in Iatmanene is modern housing. 75% of housing in Iatmanene has 4 or more rooms. No house in Al Haoud has 4 rooms. 91% in Al Haoud, and 71% in Iatmanene are nuclear families. Only Iatmanene of the 12 study villages has piped water and electricity. Iatmanene population has a higher standard of living. Education of girls is 48% in Iatmanene and zero in Al Haoud. Children are used for fetching water. In Al Haoud boys help with water fetching to some extent. Women in Al Haoud and girls in Iatmanene collect fuelwood. Almost all households in Iatmanene and only 68% in Al Haoud know about family planning. 44% in Iatmanene and 0% in Al Haoud are current users

  7. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Marie Angèle Traore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3±8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181. The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%, HPV 52 (16.7%, HPV 18 (14.8%, and HPV 35 (13.0%. HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.

  8. Molecular Characterization of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Women in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, Ina Marie Angèle; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Dembele, Adama; Djigma, Florencia W; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Traore, Germain; Bambara, Moussa; Ouedraogo, Charlemagne; Traore, Yves; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in over 99% of cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a population of women in Bobo-Dioulasso and to identify the high-risk types present in these women. From May to June, 2015, 181 women who came for consultation at the Souro Sanou University Hospital of Bobo-Dioulasso have been included in this study. Uterine endocervical swabs have been taken in these women. DNA obtained by extraction from the samples thus collected was used to determine the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes through real-time PCR. The age of the women ranged from 20 to 56 years with a mean of 35.3 ± 8.1 years. The prevalence of infection by high-risk HPV types was 25.4% (46/181). The most common high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV 39 (18.5%), HPV 52 (16.7%), HPV 18 (14.8%), and HPV 35 (13.0%). HPV 16 which is included in the HPV vaccines was not found in the population studied. This type of study which is the first one in Bobo-Dioulasso has showed a high prevalence of genotypes HPV 39, HPV 52, and HPV 35 which are not yet covered by a vaccine.

  9. Type 1 diabetes risk in children born to women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jørgensen, Marit E

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: While some studies have indicated that children born following fertility treatment are at an increased risk for insulin resistance and higher blood glucose levels, no study to date has investigated the risk of type 1 diabetes. In this large population-based cohort study we aim...... to assess the association between maternal fertility problems and the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on all children, born in Denmark from 1987 to 2010, was extracted from the Civil Registration System and linked with the Danish Infertility Cohort to identify maternal......%) were born to women with fertility problems. In all, 313 children born to women with fertility problems (0.36%) and 5176 children born to women without fertility problems (0.28%) were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The risk of type 1 diabetes was not affected by maternal fertility status (hazard ratio...

  10. Physical attractiveness and women's HIV risk in rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Frye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Qualitative evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, where a generalized AIDS epidemic exists, suggests that attractiveness may play a role in shaping individual-level HIV risk. Attractive women, who are often blamed for the epidemic and stigmatized, are believed to pose a higher HIV risk because they are viewed as having more and riskier partners. Objective: We examine the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk in rural Malawi in the midst of the country's severe AIDS epidemic. Methods: We use interviewers' ratings of respondents' attractiveness, along with HIV test results and women's assessments of their own likelihood of infection, to estimate the association between perceived attractiveness and HIV infection and risk for a random sample of 961 women aged 15‒35. Results: Results show that women who are rated by interviewers as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than other women their age are 9Š more likely to test positive for HIV. We also find that attractiveness is associated with women's own assessments of their HIV risk: Among women who tested negative, those perceived as 'much less' or 'less' attractive than average report themselves to be at greater risk of HIV infection. Conclusions: These results suggest that attractiveness is negatively associated with HIV risk in Malawi, countering local beliefs that hold attractive women responsible for perpetuating the epidemic. Contribution: This study highlights the need to consider perceived physical attractiveness, and sexual desirability more broadly, as an under-examined axis of inequality in HIV risk in high-prevalence settings.

  11. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  12. Urinary Incontinency in Elderly Women and the Potential Risk Factors: A Cohort Study among the Elderly Women of Amirkola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Urinary incontinence is a common health problem among elderly population, particularly elderly women, and it is necessary to identify the different risk factors that cause urinary incontinence. The present study was designed to assess this problem among elderly women in Babol and the risk factors associated with it. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 590 elderly women over 60 years old in Amirkola were studied using census method. The required data were collected using standard checklists and questionnaires. Any form of involuntary withdrawal of urine, wetting the pad or underwear was considered urinary incontinence. FINDINGS: In this study, the mean age of subjects was 68.2 ± 6.8 years and 194 out of 590 women (32.9% had urinary incontinence. The marital status (OR: 0.64 (CI-95% =0.42-0.98, p=0.04, constipation history (OR: 1.63 (CI-95% =0.11-2.39, p=0.01 and use of corticosteroid drugs (OR: 1.7 (CI-95% =1.01-2.95, p=0.05 were directly related to urinary incontinence after matching with other risk factors. However, urinary incontinence in elderly women was not related to factors such as age, obesity, education, number of children, chronic diseases like diabetes, blood pressure and respiratory disorders. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, one third of elderly women in Babol suffer from urinary incontinence and unmarriedness, constipation history, and use of corticosteroid drugs increase the possibility of this condition, which necessitates the need for more attention to this problem and its risk factors that have significant emotional effects on elderly women.

  13. HIV Prevention Among Women Who Use Substances And Report Sex Work: Risk Groups Identified Among South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Peasant, Courtney; Kline, Tracy; Zule, William A; Ndirangu, Jacqueline; Browne, Felicia A; Gabel, Colby; van der Horst, Charles

    2017-11-01

    This cross-sectional study presents baseline data from women (n = 641) in a community-based randomized trial in Pretoria, South Africa. Women were eligible if they reported recent alcohol or other drug (AOD) use and condomless sex. Latent class analyses were conducted separately for those who reported sex work and those who did not. Among those who reported sex work, a Risky Sex class (n = 72, 28%) and Low Sexual Risk class (n = 190, 73%) emerged. Those in the Risky Sex class were more likely to report that their last episode of sexual intercourse was with their boyfriend (vs. a client/other partner) compared with the Low Sexual Risk class (p sex work, a Drug-Using, Violence-Exposed, and Impaired Sex class (n = 53; 14%) and Risky Sex and Moderate Drinking class (n = 326; 86%) emerged. The findings suggest that interventions for women who engage in sex work should promote safer sexual behavior and empowerment with main partners. Women who use AODs, experience physical or sexual violence, and have impaired sex may be a key population at risk for HIV and should be considered for tailored behavioral interventions in conjunction with South Africa's plan to disseminate HIV prevention methods to vulnerable women. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01497405.

  14. Prenatal screening for psychosocial risks in a high risk-population in Peru using the KINDEX interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2016-01-22

    Prenatal stress and other prenatal risk factors (e.g. intimate partner violence) have a negative impact on mother's health, fetal development as well as enduring adverse effects on the neuro-cognitive, behavioral and physical health of the child. Mothers of low socio-economic status and especially those living in crime-ridden areas are even more exposed to a host of risk factors. Societies of extreme violence, poverty and inequalities, often present difficulties to provide adequate mental health care to the most needed populations. The KINDEX, a brief standardized instrument that assesses 11 different risk factors was used by midwives to identify pregnant women at-risk, in a suburban area with one of the highest levels of domestic violence in Lima. The instrument was designed to be used by medical staff to identify high-risk child-bearing women and, based on the results, to refer them to the adequate psychological or social support providers. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of psychosocial screening using the KINDEX in a Latin American Country for the first time, and to explore the relationship of the KINDEX with thee major risk areas, maternal psychopathology, perceived stress and traumatic experiences. The study was conducted in cooperation with the gynecological department of a general hospital in a suburban area of Lima. Nine midwives conducted interviews using the KINDEX of ninety-five pregnant women attending the gynecological unit of the hospital. From these, forty pregnant women were re-interviewed by a clinical psychologist using established instruments in order to assess the feasibility of the prenatal assessment in public health settings and the relationship of the KINDEX with maternal perceived stress, psychopathology symptoms and trauma load during pregnancy. We found high rates of risk factors in the examined pregnant women comparable with those found in the general population. Significant correlations were found between the KINDEX

  15. Gender and smoking-related risk of lung cancer. The Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Hein, H O

    1998-01-01

    Our aim was to compare risk of lung cancer associated with smoking by gender and histologic type. A total of 30,874 subjects, 44% women, from three prospective population-based studies with initial examinations between 1964 and 1992 were followed until 1994 through the National Cancer Registry...

  16. Hypercoagulability and the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegerink, B; Maino, A; Algra, A; Rosendaal, F R

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS) are acute forms of arterial thrombosis and share some, but not all, risk factors, indicating different pathophysiological mechanisms. This study aims to determine if hypercoagulability has a differential effect on the risk of MI and IS. We reviewed the results from the Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives study, a population-based case-control study involving young women ( 1; for 12 (41%), it was > 2; and for 5 (17%), it was > 2.75. The five risk factors with the largest differences in associations were high levels of activated factor XI (FXI) and FXII, kallikrein, the presence of lupus anticoagulans, and a genetic variation in the FXIII gene. In young women, prothrombotic factors are associated more with the risk of IS than with MI risk, suggesting a different role of hypercoagulability in the mechanism leading to these two diseases. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  17. Oxytocin and dystocia as risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: a cohort of low-risk nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitz, Stine; Øian, Pål; Rolland, Rune; Sandvik, Leiv; Blix, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    augmented and not augmented women without dystocia were compared to investigate associations between oxytocin and adverse birth outcomes. Augmented women with and without dystocia were compared, to investigate associations between dystocia and adverse birth outcomes. a cohort of low-risk nulliparous women originally included in a randomised controlled trial. the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Østfold Hospital Trust, Norway. the study population consists of 747 well defined low-risk women. incidence of oxytocin augmentation, and associations between dystocia and augmentation, and mode of delivery, transfer of newborns to the intensive care unit, episiotomy and postpartum haemorrhage. of all participants 327 (43.8%) were augmented with oxytocin of which 139 (42.5%) did not fulfil the criteria for dystocia. Analyses adjusted for possible confounders found that women without dystocia had an increased risk of instrumental vaginal birth (OR 3.73, CI 1.93-7.21) and episiotomy (OR 2.47, CI 1.38-4.39) if augmented with oxytocin. Augmented women had longer active phase if vaginally delivered and longer labours if delivered by caesarean section if having dystocia. Among women without dystocia, those augmented had higher body mass index, gave birth to heavier babies, had longer labours if vaginally delivered and had epidural analgesia more often compared to women not augmented. in low-risk nulliparous without dystocia, we found an association between the use of oxytocin and an increased risk of instrumental vaginal birth and episiotomy. careful attention should be paid to criteria for labour progression and guidelines for oxytocin augmentation to avoid unnecessary use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  19. Estimated risks and optimistic self-perception of breast cancer risk in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, ChaeWeon; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2013-11-01

    To determine women's perceived personal and comparative risks of breast cancer, and to examine the relationships with risk factors. Despite the increasing incidence of breast cancer in younger women and the availability of screening, women's health behaviors have not advanced accordingly. A cross-sectional survey design utilized a convenience sample of 222 women in their 30s and 40s recruited from community settings in Seoul. Self-administered questionnaire data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test, and ANOVA. Risk perception levels differed significantly by breast cancer risk factors. Half of the women were optimistic about their breast cancer risk, while perceived personal risk did not reflect women's own risk factors and comparative risk differed only by the practice of clinical breast exam. Women's knowledge and awareness of their breast cancer risk factors need to be improved for appropriate risk perception and health behaviors, and accurate risk estimation could be utilized to educate them in clinical settings. © 2013.

  20. Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among women under community supervision in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Dasgupta, Anindita; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2018-01-01

    The number of women under community supervision in the United States has increased, and this population has a high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We examined STI prevalence and multiple risk factors among drug-involved women under community supervision in New York City. Data were from a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a behavioral HIV/STI intervention (Women on the Road to Health [WORTH]) among drug-involved women in the community corrections system in New York City from 2009 to 2012. To be eligible for inclusion, women had to be under community supervision within the past 90 days, have used illicit drugs at least once in the past six months, and have unprotected sex at least once in the past 90 days. Participants completed a survey containing items on STI risk factors and were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Multivariable regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and STI diagnosis. Of 333 women tested, 89 (26.7%) tested positive for an STI. Ten (3.0%) were positive for C. trachomatis, 4 (1.2%) for N. gonorrhoeae, and 77 (23.1%) for T. vaginalis. Women with any STI were more likely to be black (AOR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.08-3.77), homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.01-4.26), arrested in the past 90 days (AOR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.14-3.39), and have a greater number of sexual partners in the past 90 days (AOR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.42). Drug-using women under community supervision have a high burden of STIs driven by multiple risk factors. Implementing STI screening, prevention, and treatment programs in community supervision settings could facilitate a reduction in STIs among this population.

  1. Risk perception and unrecognized type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Janine; Lawson, Margaret L; Gaboury, Isabelle; Keely, Erin

    2009-09-01

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high chance of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) following the index pregnancy, however, little is known of women's perception of this risk. The objectives were to (1) determine women's perception of risk of future development of T2DM following a GDM pregnancy and (2) describe the prevalence of undetected dysglycaemia in a Canadian population. The study was designed as a 9-11 year follow-up study of women previously enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of tight versus minimal intervention for GDM. Women's perception of future risk of diabetes was determined by questionnaire. Fasting lipid profile, height and weight were performed on all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed on all women without prior history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). The study was conducted at Ottawa Hospital General Campus and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, in Ottawa, Canada. Eighty-nine of 299 (30%) of the original cohort were recruited. Eighty-eight women completed the questionnaire and 77 women without known diabetes underwent two hour glucose tolerance testing. Twenty-three (30%) felt their risk was no different than other women or did not know, 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a little and 27 (35%) felt risk was increased a lot. Only 52% (40/77) had normal glucose tolerance. Of all, 25/88 (28%) patients had diabetes (11 previously diagnosed and 14 diagnosed within the study). Of those newly diagnosed with DM2, four (29%) were diagnosed by fasting glucose, six (42%) by two hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) alone and four (29%) by both. Twenty-four of the women (27%) had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Of those with IGT, 12 (57%) had a fasting food glucose DM2, and all had a waist circumference >88 cm. In conclusion the perception of being at high risk for T2DM did not prevent women from having undetected T2DM. Many factors are likely to contribute to this, including the

  2. Development of a Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Model for Women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengfeng; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Ademola, Adeyinka; Oluwasola, Olayiwola A; Adeoye, Adewunmi O; Sofoluwe, Adenike; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Odedina, Stella O; Agwai, Imaria; Adebamowo, Clement; Obajimi, Millicent; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Huo, Dezheng

    2018-04-20

    Risk prediction models have been widely used to identify women at higher risk of breast cancer. We aim to develop a model for absolute breast cancer risk prediction for Nigerian women. A total of 1,811 breast cancer cases and 2,225 controls from the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study (NBCS, 1998~2015) were included. Subjects were randomly divided into the training and validation sets. Incorporating local incidence rates, multivariable logistic regressions were used to develop the model. The NBCS model included age, age at menarche, parity, duration of breast feeding, family history of breast cancer, height, body mass index, benign breast diseases and alcohol consumption. The model developed in the training set performed well in the validation set. The discriminating accuracy of the NBCS model (area under ROC curve [AUC]=0.703, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.687-0.719) was better than the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) model (AUC=0.605, 95% CI: 0.586-0.624), Gail model for White population (AUC=0.551, 95% CI: 0.531-0.571), and Gail model for Black population (AUC=0.545, 95% CI: 0.525-0.565). Compared to the BWHS, two Gail models, the net reclassification improvement of the NBCS model were 8.26%, 13.45% and 14.19%, respectively. We have developed a breast cancer risk prediction model specific to women in Nigeria, which provides a promising and indispensable tool to identify women in need of breast cancer early detection in SSA populations. Our model is the first breast cancer risk prediction model in Africa. It can be used to identify women at high-risk for breast cancer screening. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  4. Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease may differ in men and women: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bower, James H.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Rocca, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several environmental and genetic risk or protective factors have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), their interactions overall and in men and women separately remain unknown. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We considered the following 12 risk or pr...

  5. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S

    2017-09-01

    Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.

  6. Cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorders, affecting 5-10% of the female population of reproductive age. "Classic" PCOS is characterized by clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism and oligo-ovulation. According to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria, two additional phenotypes are recognized: (1) the ovulatory patient with androgen excess and polycystic ovarian morphology and (2) the anovulatory patient with polycystic ovarian morphology without androgen excess. PCOS is associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile, consisting of increased total or central adiposity, increased blood pressure, a pro-atherogenic lipid profile, increased inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the incidence of overt or gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as of preeclampsia is significantly higher in PCOS patients. Among the various PCOS phenotypes, those with evidence of androgen excess have the highest burden of cardiovascular risk. Studies evaluating the incidence of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with PCOS are extremely sparse. The available data so far indicate that coronary heart disease, as well as cerebrovascular disease is more common in postmenopausal PCOS patients. Persisting high androgen levels through the menopause, obesity and maturity onset diabetes mellitus are proposed as the main mechanisms accounting for the increased risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroepidemiological Evaluation of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types Among Married and Unmarried Iranian Women in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abedini; Karimi; Shamsy; Mansour Ghanaie; Gholinejad

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that establishes productive infections only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. Objectives This study aimed to determine the frequency of two high-risk genotypes of HPV among married and unmarried Iranian women. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional population-based study consisted of two groups of women: non-m...

  8. Attributable risk of carpal tunnel syndrome according to industry and occupation in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Pélier-Cady, Marie-Christine; Mariot, Camille; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Raimbeau, Guy; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2008-09-15

    An epidemiologic surveillance network for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was set up in the general population of a French region to assess the proportion of CTS cases attributable to work in high-risk industries and occupations. Cases of CTS occurring among patients ages 20-59 years living in the Maine and Loire region were included prospectively from 2002 to 2004. Medical and occupation history was gathered by mailed questionnaire for 815 women and 320 men. Age-adjusted relative risks of CTS and the attributable risk fractions of CTS among exposed persons (AFEs) were computed in relation to industry sectors and occupation categories. Twenty-one industry sectors and 8 occupational categories for women and 10 sectors and 6 occupational categories for men were characterized by a significant excess risk of CTS. High AFE values were observed in the manufacturing (42-93% for both sexes), construction (66% for men), and personal service industries (66% for women) and in the trade and commerce sectors (49% for women). High AFE values were observed in lower-grade white-collar occupations for women (43-67%) and blue-collar occupations for men (60-74%) and women (48-88%). The attributable proportions of CTS cases among workers employed in industry sectors and occupation categories identified at high risk of CTS varied between 36% and 93%.

  9. Women's Ways of Drinking: College Women, High-Risk Alcohol Use, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Margaret A.; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore college women's high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. This study employed a qualitative approach to understand and provide visibility for a gender-related perspective on college women's alcohol experiences and related outcomes. Data were collected from interviews with 10 undergraduate females at a…

  10. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ramjee

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002-2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old, unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole.

  11. 'Her cry is my cry': resettlement experiences of refugee women at risk recently resettled in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, L; Schweitzer, R D; Farrell, L; Correa-Velez, I; Brough, M; Murray, K; Lenette, C

    2018-05-01

    Refugee women entering resettlement countries on woman-at-risk visas represent a particularly vulnerable population. While their specific gender-based resettlement will likely differ from the general refugee population, little is known about their experiences of early resettlement, with which to inform resettlement policy and practice. This research aimed to explore lived experiences of recently resettled refugee women at risk in Australia. Qualitative research used focus groups and a framework approach to identify and explicate common themes in participants' experience. Two focus groups with a purposive sample of African and Afghan refugee women at risk (N = 10), aged 22-53 years, were conducted in South East Queensland, Australia (October 2016), recruited with the assistance of a local resettlement service. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and themes explicated. Six superordinate themes emerged: (1) sentiment of gratitude; (2) sense of loneliness and disconnection; (3) feeling incapable; (4) experiencing distress and help-seeking; (5) experiencing financial hardship; and (6) anticipating the future. Findings indicate that resettlement policy, programs, and practice that explicitly target the needs of women-at-risk refugees are warranted, including a longer period of active service provision with specific attention to strategies that address the women's social connection, self-efficacy, emotional well-being, and financial hardships. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in relation to smoking among women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten Egebjerg; Schmiedel, Sven; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    were also conducted. Hazard ratios (HRs) for a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse/high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (CIN3+) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the 2 groups. RESULTS: Among high-risk HPV positive women......BACKGROUND: Smoking has been associated with cervical cancer. We examined whether smoking increases the risk for high-grade cervical lesions in women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study, 8,656 women underwent a structured interview......, and subsequently cervical cells were obtained for HPV DNA testing. Women with high-risk HPV infection and no prevalent cervical disease at baseline (n=1,353) were followed through the Pathology Data Bank for cervical lesions for up to 13 years. Separate analyses of women with persistent high-risk HPV infection...

  13. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancy in women with mental illness living in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Elsa; Jordaan, Esme; Niehaus, Dana; Koen, Liezl; Leppanen, Jukka

    2018-06-01

    Pregnant women in general are at an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of mental illness, and those living in a developing country are even more vulnerable. Research points towards a causal relationship between unplanned pregnancy and perinatal mental illness and suggests that pregnancy planning can aid in reducing the negative impact of mental illness on a woman, her unborn baby, and the rest of the family. In this quantitative, descriptive study, we investigated both socio-demographic factors and variables relating to mental illness itself that may place women at an increased risk of experiencing unplanned pregnancy. Data was gathered at two maternal mental health clinics in Cape Town by means of semi-structured interviews. Univariate analyses of the data revealed five independent key risk factors for unplanned pregnancy: lower levels of education, unmarried status, belonging to the Colored ethnic population, substance use, and having a history of two or more suicide attempts. Some of these factors overlap with findings of similar studies, but others are unique to the specific population (women with mental illness within a developing country). Screening of women based on these risk predictors may pave the way for early interventions and reduce the incidence of unplanned pregnancy and the negative consequences thereof in the South African population.

  14. Risk of breast cancer among enlisted Army women occupationally exposed to volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennix, Christopher P; Quinn, Margaret M; Amoroso, Paul J; Eisen, Ellen A; Wegman, David H

    2005-09-01

    The military presents a unique opportunity to study the incidence of disease in a population with complete knowledge of person-time and occupation. Women in the Army are employed more frequently in non-traditional, industrial jobs such as auto mechanic and motor transport operators than in the general US population, increasing the probability of exposure to industrial chemicals. A cohort to investigate the risk of breast cancer among active duty Army women occupationally exposed to volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) was constructed. Age-adjusted incidence rates for breast cancer were calculated for more than 270,000 enlisted women who served between 1980-1996. Twenty-one VOCs, described in previously published literature as having a potential risk of breast cancer, were identified in an Army industrial hygiene survey database. Job title histories were linked to workplace chemical evaluations conducted by Army industrial hygienists, which included a subjective exposure potential rating (high, medium, low, and none) for each VOC. Poisson regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the exposure rating by job title and breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer in the cohort was significantly elevated in women younger than 35 years of age, especially among black women, when compared to the age-specific rates in the general population. Women who worked in occupations with a moderate to high exposure potential to at least one VOC had a 48% increased risk (P women with low to no exposure potential. This study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to one or more of the study VOCs is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Further substance-specific, quantitative analyses are warranted.

  15. HIV risk perception among pregnant women in western India: need for reducing vulnerabilities rather than improving knowledge!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Gadgil, Mukta; Balestre, Eric; Kulkarni, Maitreyee; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) have been considered as a low HIV risk population. Yet, a substantial proportion of new HIV infections are occurring among stable heterosexual couples. This paper sought to investigate the proportion and profile of women who, within the low-risk population, are potentially at higher risk of HIV infection. HIV risk perception of pregnant women enrolled within the ANRS 12127 Prenahtest trial was described and associated socio-behavioral characteristics, husband's characteristics, and HIV-related characteristics were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Among 484 women enrolled, baseline data were collected for 479 women and 460 women with completed data were considered for the present analysis (96%). Eighty-nine (19.4%) women perceived themselves at risk of HIV. Women with educational level Women who had heard about sexually transmitted infections were also more likely to report HIV risk perception (AOR = 3.36 [CI = 1.83-6.18]). Substantial proportion of women (one out of five) perceived themselves at risk of HIV and most of these have reported some form of vulnerability in their couple relationship such as intimate partner violence, alcoholic partner, lack of communication, and spaces for communication with partner. Though awareness and knowledge is the first step for prevention, considering the vulnerabilities associated with HIV risk perception, HIV prevention interventions in India should target overall sources of vulnerability to HIV. Targeted risk reduction for women in ANC should be considered for primary HIV prevention among couples.

  16. "Missing pieces": exploring cardiac risk perceptions in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefler, Leanne L; McSweeney, Jean C; Garner, Kimberly K

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 95% of older women have factors that put them at risk for developing cardiovascular disease, but research indicates many do not perceive themselves to be at risk. We examined older women's perceived risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and the factors influencing their perceptions. We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study using in-depth, individual interviews and quantitative measures to assess perceived risk and risk factors. Twenty-four older African American and Caucasian women had a mean 4.46 cardiac risk factors but perceived their own CHD risk as unrealistically low at 1.95 cm (SD = 1.57, on 0-to-8 cm visual analogue scale). Narrative data clustered in themes that represented a lack of fact-based information and multiple misconceptions about CHD and prevention. Major improvements in CHD health are only achievable if risk factors are prevented. This research suggests older women have substantial needs for consistent CHD information and prevention guidance. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Hidden voices: prevalence and risk factors for violence against women with disabilities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Misra, Geetanjali; Hawkes, Sarah

    2015-03-18

    There is an increasing body of evidence on the extent and predictors of violence against women in Nepal. However, much of the published research does not yet take into account additional features of marginalization and vulnerability suffered by some women - for example, women socially excluded on account of their disability. Critical gaps exist in empirical data on the extent, risk factors, access to care, socio-economic and health consequences of violence among women with disabilities in Nepal. This paper addresses some these gaps and aims to promote evidence-informed policy and programme responses in Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 475 women with disability aged 16 years and above in three districts in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 12 women who reported violence in the survey were also carried out. Using multivariate statistical methods we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for violence experienced both over the past 12 months and lifetime. Over the lifetime, 57.7% of women reported they had ever experienced violence, including emotional violence (55.2%); physical violence (34%); and sexual violence (21.5%). Over the preceding 12 months, 42% of women reported that they had experienced violence. Multivariate analysis showed that women with disabilities who were young, working in paid employment, and those who required permission from husbands/family to go to health centres or participate in community organizations were at increased risk of violence. Women experienced a range of negative outcomes from violence - including physical and emotional trauma. However, a majority of women did not seek care or redress from the health, justice or other sectors. Women in Nepal are at high risk of violence, often from members of their immediate family or local community. Rates of violence are higher in women with disability than among women in the general population. Tackling violence requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of

  18. Melanoma risk prediction using a multilocus genetic risk score in the Women's Health Initiative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunje G; Ransohoff, Katherine J; Yang, Lingyao; Hedlin, Haley; Assimes, Themistocles; Han, Jiali; Stefanick, Marcia; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2018-07-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with melanoma have been identified though genome-wide association studies. However, the combined impact of these SNPs on melanoma development remains unclear, particularly in postmenopausal women who carry a lower melanoma risk. We examine the contribution of a combined polygenic risk score on melanoma development in postmenopausal women. Genetic risk scores were calculated using 21 genome-wide association study-significant SNPs. Their combined effect on melanoma development was evaluated in 19,102 postmenopausal white women in the clinical trial and observational study arms of the Women's Health Initiative dataset. Compared to the tertile of weighted genetic risk score with the lowest genetic risk, the women in the tertile with the highest genetic risk were 1.9 times more likely to develop melanoma (95% confidence interval 1.50-2.42). The incremental change in c-index from adding genetic risk scores to age were 0.075 (95% confidence interval 0.041-0.109) for incident melanoma. Limitations include a lack of information on nevi count, Fitzpatrick skin type, family history of melanoma, and potential reporting and selection bias in the Women's Health Initiative cohort. Higher genetic risk is associated with increased melanoma prevalence and incidence in postmenopausal women, but current genetic information may have a limited role in risk prediction when phenotypic information is available. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Violence against women: prevalence and risk factors in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Selma; Bolsoy, Nursen

    2017-11-03

    This study reports on a large cross-sectional study of violence against women in Turkey, and outlines the risk factors associated with intimate partner violence. The purpose of this study was to identify in order to evaluate the domestic violence against women living in Manisa and to determine the risk factors affecting this situation. We implemented a cross-sectional descriptive study in the Manisa province of Turkey. The research data were collected by using a "Women's Information Form" consisting of 32 items, and "Scale of Domestic Violence Against Women". The study was conducted with 1760 women who complied with the inclusion criteria. It was determined that score averages of 30.0% of women from the scale of domestic violence against women were above the score average of the scale (71.38 ± 10.71) and they were exposed to violence more than the others. A statistically significant difference was obtained in the statistical analysis made between score averages from the scale of domestic violence against women and such variables as age, education, employment status, social insurance, immigration status, place of residence, marital age, year of marriage of women; age, education status, employment status of husband; and whether the husband has another wife (p violence against women is high, women does not perceive many behaviors of their husbands as violence, and the most important factor leading to this situation is social status. It is believed that the results of the study will be a guidance to local authorities, formal and voluntary organizations, educational institutions, and relevant researchers in the prevention of violence against women.

  20. A metasynthesis of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne; Ayers, Susan; Holden, Des

    2014-04-01

    risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies affects their decisions about perinatal care and is of interest to anyone involved in the care of pregnant women. This paper provides a metasynthesis of qualitative studies of risk perception in women with high risk pregnancies. a systematic search of eight electronic databases was conducted. Additional papers were obtained through searching references of identified articles. Six studies were identified that reported qualitative research into risk perception in relation to high risk pregnancy. A metasynthesis was developed to describe and interpret the studies. the synthesis resulted in the identification of five themes: determinants of risk perception; not seeing it the way others do; normality versus risk; if the infant is ok, I׳m ok; managing risk. this metasynthesis suggests women at high risk during pregnancy use multiple sources of information to determine their risk status. It shows women are aware of the risks posed by their pregnancies but do not perceive risk in the same way as healthcare professionals. They will take steps to ensure the health of themselves and their infants but these may not include following all medical recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and risk of primary infertility in women: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Í Soylu, Lív; Jensen, Allan; Juul, Kirsten E; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hargreave, Marie

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine affects the risk of primary infertility in women. We selected nulliparous Danish women aged 20-29 years from a prospective cohort and retrieved information on coffee and tea consumption from a questionnaire and an interview at enrollment. We assessed the women's fertility by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort and retrieved information on children and vital status from the Civil Registration System. All 7574 women included for analysis were followed for primary infertility from the date of enrollment (1991-1993) until 31 December 2010. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models. During follow up, primary infertility was diagnosed in 822 women. Compared with never consumers, the risk of primary infertility among women who drank coffee or tea was not affected. The risk of primary infertility was neither associated with an increasing number of daily servings of coffee (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.03) or tea (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03) in consumers only. Concerning total caffeine consumption (from coffee and tea), the risk of infertility was similar among consumers compared with never consumers. Finally, none of the additional daily 100 mg of caffeine affected the risk among consumers only (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.98-1.02). In this population-based cohort study, not restricted to women seeking pregnancy, we found no association between coffee, tea or total caffeine consumption and the risk of primary infertility in women. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Low Risk of Cervical Cancer/Precancer Among Most Women Under Surveillance Postcolposcopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Maria; Cheung, Li C; Kinney, Walter K; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lorey, Thomas S; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Befano, Brian; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-01

    To inform impending postcolposcopy guidelines, this analysis examined the subsequent risk of CIN 3+ among women with a grade lower than CIN 2 (< CIN 2) colposcopy results, taking into account the referring results that brought them to colposcopy and cotest results postcolposcopy. We analyzed 107,005 women from 25 to 65 years old, recommended for colposcopy at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We estimated absolute risks of CIN 3+ among women: (1) recommended for colposcopy (precolposcopy), (2) following colposcopy and with histology results < CIN 2 (postcolposcopy), and (3) with cotest results 12 months after a < CIN 2 colposcopy (return cotest). After colposcopy showing < CIN 2 (n = 69,790; 87% of the women at colposcopy), the 1-year risk of CIN 3+ was 1.2%, compared with 6.3% at the time of colposcopy recommendation. Negative cotest results 1 year after colposcopy identified a large group (37.1%) of women whose risk of CIN 3+ (i.e., <0.2% at 3 years after postcolposcopy cotest) was comparable with women with normal cytology in the screening population. These risks are consistent with current guidelines recommending repeat cotesting 12 months after colposcopy < CIN 2 and a 3-year return for women with a negative postcolposcopy cotest. Most women are at low risk of subsequent CIN 3+ after a colposcopy showing < CIN 2, especially those who are human papillomavirus-negative postcolposcopy, consistent with current management guidelines for repeat testing intervals. Before the finalizing the upcoming guidelines, we will consider additional rounds of postcolposcopy cotesting.

  4. Molecular sensitivity threshold of wet mount and an immunochromatographic assay evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk population of childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Castronari, Roberto; Levorato, Lucia; Luciano, Eugenio; Pistoni, Eleonora; Perito, Stefano; Bozza, Silvia; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Vaginal trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan. Diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection is mainly performed by wet mount microscopy, with a sensitivity ranging from 38% to 82%, compared to culture, still considered the gold standard. Commercial immunochromatographic tests for monoclonal-antibody-based detection have been introduced as alternative methods for diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection and have been reported in some studies to be more sensitive than wet mount. Real-time PCR methods have been recently developed, with optimal sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a molecular sensitivity threshold for both wet mount and imunochromatographic assays. To this aim, a total of 1487 low-risk childbearing women (median age 32 years, interquartile range 27-37) were included in the study, and underwent vaginal swab for T. vaginalis detection by means of a quantitative real-time PCR assay, wet mount and an immunochromatographic test. Upon comparing the results, prevalence values observed were 1.3% for real-time PCR, 0.5% for microscopic examination, and 0.8% for the immunochromatographic test. Compared to real-time PCR, wet mount sensitivity was 40% (95% confidence interval 19.1% to 63.9%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.7% to 100%). The sensitivity and specificity of the immunochromatographic assay were 57.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 79.8%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.6% to 100%), respectively. Evaluation of the wet mount results and those of immunochromatographic assay detection in relation to the number of T. vaginalis DNA copies detected in vaginal samples showed that the lower identification threshold for both wet mount (chi-square 6.1; P = 0.016) and the immunochromatographic assay (chi-square 10.7; P = 0.002) was ≥100 copies of T. vaginalis DNA/5 mcl of eluted DNA.

  5. A population study of the contribution of medical comorbidity to the risk of prematurity in blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Jurkovitz, Claudine; Hoffman, Matthew; Kroelinger, Charlan; Weintraub, William

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the higher prevalence of medical comorbidities among black women accounts for their increased risk of prematurity. A population-based regional cohort of women receiving obstetric care for singleton pregnancies at a large community hospital between 2003 and 2006 were analyzed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Data for 18,624 consecutive births found increased odds of adverse outcomes for black compared to white women: prematurity OR = 1.6 (1.4-1.8), extreme prematurity OR = 2.5 (2.0-3.2). Logistic regression modeling identified black race, age prematurity among blacks. Though there is a greater burden of health risk among black women, this did not account for the higher rates of low birthweight and prematurity.

  6. Cardiovascular health promotion in aging women: validating a population health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatzky, Jo-Ann V; Naimark, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in North American women, most cardiovascular research has focused on men. In addition, while there has been a recent trend toward population health promotion (PHP) and a consequent focus on the broad determinants of health, there is still a dearth of research evidence related to the promotion of cardiovascular health within this context. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the interrelationships between the determinants of health and individual cardiovascular health/risk behaviors in healthy women, within the context of a framework for PHP. A comprehensive inventory of factors affecting the cardiovascular health of women was operationalized in a survey questionnaire, the Cardiovascular Health Promotion Profile. Physical measures were also taken on each participant (n = 206). The multivariate analyses support significant interrelationships between the population health determinants and multiple individual cardiovascular health/risk behaviors in this cohort (p PHP framework, is central to building on the body of knowledge in this area.

  7. Impact of risk factors on cardiovascular risk: a perspective on risk estimation in a Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Sigrun A; Chrubasik, Cosima A; Piper, Jörg; Schulte-Moenting, Juergen; Erne, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In models and scores for estimating cardiovascular risk (CVR), the relative weightings given to blood pressure measurements (BPMs), and biometric and laboratory variables are such that even large differences in blood pressure lead to rather low differences in the resulting total risk when compared with other concurrent risk factors. We evaluated this phenomenon based on the PROCAM score, using BPMs made by volunteer subjects at home (HBPMs) and automated ambulatory BPMs (ABPMs) carried out in the same subjects. A total of 153 volunteers provided the data needed to estimate their CVR by means of the PROCAM formula. Differences (deltaCVR) between the risk estimated by entering the ABPM and that estimated with the HBPM were compared with the differences (deltaBPM) between the ABPM and the corresponding HBPM. In addition to the median values (= second quartile), the first and third quartiles of blood pressure profiles were also considered. PROCAM risk values were converted to European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk values and all participants were assigned to the risk groups low, medium and high. Based on the PROCAM score, 132 participants had a low risk for suffering myocardial infarction, 16 a medium risk and 5 a high risk. The calculated ESC scores classified 125 participants into the low-risk group, 26 into the medium- and 2 into the high-risk group for death from a cardiovascular event. Mean ABPM tended to be higher than mean HBPM. Use of mean systolic ABPM or HBPM in the PROCAM formula had no major impact on the risk level. Our observations are in agreement with the rather low weighting of blood pressure as risk determinant in the PROCAM score. BPMs assessed with different methods had relatively little impact on estimation of cardiovascular risk in the given context of other important determinants. The risk calculations in our unselected population reflect the given classification of Switzerland as a so-called cardiovascular "low risk country".

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 9357 subjects from 11 populations highlights missed opportunities for cardiovascular prevention in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W

    2011-01-01

    To analyze sex-specific relative and absolute risks associated with blood pressure (BP), we performed conventional and 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in 9357 subjects (mean age, 52.8 years; 47% women) recruited from 11 populations. We computed standardized multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios...

  9. [Perception of cardiovascular risk in an outpatient population of the Madrid Community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Manchón, D; Álvarez-García, G M; González-López, E

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for the largest burden of global mortality. The study of the degree of knowledge of their population risk factors and cardiovascular risk is a priority preventive strategy. A cross-sectional study with 369 people was performed. The sociodemographic variables were cardiovascular risk and perception as well as physical and anthropometric factors. The risk was stratified with the SCORE table. A total of 49.6% were men and 50.4% were women. The proportion of diagnosis was 23.8% in HTA, 39% in hypercholesterolemia, 31.4% in smoking, 26.3% in obesity and 4.6% in diabetes. Concordance between perceived and real cardiovascular risk was very weak. The population has good knowledge about diabetes and acceptable knowledge about hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia but knowledge in prediabetic states and perception of the associated cardiovascular risk is low. Copyright © 2014 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  11. Emergency caesarean section in low risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Hegaard, H K; Kjaergaard, H

    2012-01-01

    and identifies maternal and fetal risk factors associated with ECS. We included 2,748 low-risk women and 8.7% had ECS. Failure-to-progress (FTP) accounted for 68.3% of the ECS and 30.4% were performed due to suspected fetal distress (SFD). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to estimate.......26-3.20) were associated with increased risk of ECS due to FTP....

  12. Markers of Breast Cancer Risk in Women with Benign Breast Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mandelson, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    .... Although histopathology identifies women with BBD with increased risk of breast cancer, such as women with atypical hyperplasia, few women with BBD fall into these high-risk categories and most will...

  13. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    .3-97.4.Alcohol consumption was common practice among married women of reproductive age in Nepal with variation among the subgroups of population. Thus, further investigation and behavior change communication interventions to reduce alcohol consumption especially among the women with higher risk of drinking is essential.

  14. Cost effectiveness of population based BRCA1 founder mutation testing in Sephardi Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreeya; Legood, Rosa; Evans, D Gareth; Turnbull, Clare; Antoniou, Antonis C; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian; Manchanda, Ranjit

    2018-04-01

    Population-based BRCA1/BRCA2 founder-mutation testing has been demonstrated as cost effective compared with family history based testing in Ashkenazi Jewish women. However, only 1 of the 3 Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations (185delAG[c.68_69delAG]), 5382insC[c.5266dupC]), and 6174delT[c.5946delT]) is found in the Sephardi Jewish population (185delAG[c.68_69delAG]), and the overall prevalence of BRCA mutations in the Sephardi Jewish population is accordingly lower (0.7% compared with 2.5% in the Ashkenazi Jewish population). Cost-effectiveness analyses of BRCA testing have not previously been performed at these lower BRCA prevalence levels seen in the Sephardi Jewish population. Here we present a cost-effectiveness analysis for UK and US populations comparing population testing with clinical criteria/family history-based testing in Sephardi Jewish women. A Markov model was built comparing the lifetime costs and effects of population-based BRCA1 testing, with testing using family history-based clinical criteria in Sephardi Jewish women aged ≥30 years. BRCA1 carriers identified were offered magnetic resonance imaging/mammograms and risk-reducing surgery. Costs are reported at 2015 prices. Outcomes include breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and excess deaths from heart disease. All costs and outcomes are discounted at 3.5%. The time horizon is lifetime, and perspective is payer. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio per quality-adjusted life-year was calculated. Parameter uncertainty was evaluated through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Population testing resulted in gain in life expectancy of 12 months (quality-adjusted life-year = 1.00). The baseline discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for UK population-based testing was £67.04/quality-adjusted life-year and for US population was $308.42/quality-adjusted life-year. Results were robust in the 1-way sensitivity analysis. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed 100% of

  15. Risk factors and prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women from poor economic backgrounds in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Londono J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available John Londono,1 Paula Valencia,1 Ana María Santos,1 Luisa F Gutiérrez,2 Roberto Baquero,1 Rafael Valle-Oñate1,3 1Rheumatology Department, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia; 2Preventive Care Ltd, Research Unit, Chía, Cundinamarca, Colombia, 3Rheumatology Department, Hospital Militar Central, Bogotá, DC, Colombia Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporosis in premenopausal women along with associated risk factors has not been well elucidated. Recent studies have shown that poverty is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and its risk factors in a group of premenopausal women of poor economic background in Colombia. Materials and methods: The study comprised 1483 women between 35 and 53 years of age with at least one risk factor for osteoporosis. Demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, comorbidities, and risk factors for osteoporosis were evaluated. Lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4 and the femur neck were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Of the 1483 patients, 1443 (97.3% had at least one risk factor for osteoporosis and 40 (2.7% had no risk factors. Patients with one risk factor were referred to have a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, which 795 women completed. Osteopenia was found in 30.5% and osteoporosis in 4.8% of these women. The majority of these women were homemakers, and 18.5% of the patients with osteoporosis were also illiterate (P < 0.001. The risk factors identified in this population were: hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR] = 5.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.6–16, age over 45 years old (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.0–1.2, a history of malnutrition or low birth weight (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.0–5.2, or early-onset menopause (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.2. Conclusion: Premenopausal Colombian women from impoverished areas showed increased rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis compared with the data described in the current literature

  16. Statins and Hip Fracture Prevention – A Population Based Cohort Study in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Korhonen, Maarit J.; Lehenkari, Petri; Junnila, Seppo Y. T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Ruokoniemi, Päivi; Huupponen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the association of long-term statin use and the risk of low-energy hip fractures in middle-aged and elderly women. Design A register-based cohort study. Setting Finland. Participants Women aged 45–75 years initiating statin therapy between 1996 and 2001 with adherence to statins ≥80% during the subsequent five years (n = 40 254), a respective cohort initiating hypertension drugs (n = 41 610), and women randomly selected from the population (n = 62 585). Main Outcome Measures Incidence rate of and hazard ratio (HR) for low-energy hip fracture during the follow-up extending up to 7 years after the 5-year exposure period. Results Altogether 199 low-energy hip fractures occurred during the 135 330 person-years (py) of follow-up in the statin cohort, giving an incidence rate of 1.5 hip fractures per 1000 py. In the hypertension and the population cohorts, the rates were 2.0 per 1000 py (312 fractures per 157 090 py) and 1.0 per 1000 py (212 fractures per 216 329 py), respectively. Adjusting for a propensity score and individual variables strongly predicting the outcome, good adherence to statins for five years was associated with a 29% decreased risk (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58–0.86) of a low-energy hip fracture in comparison with adherent use of hypertension drugs. The association was of the same magnitude when comparing the statin users with the population cohort, the HR being 0.69 (0.55–0.87). When women with poor (statins were compared to those with good adherence to hypertension drugs (≥80%) or to the population cohort, the protective effect associated with statin use attenuated with the decreasing level of adherence. Conclusions 5-year exposure to statins is associated with a reduced risk of low-energy hip fracture in women aged 50–80 years without prior hospitalizations for fractures. PMID:23144731

  17. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in women exposed to livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Henriksen, T B; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    outcome in women with self-reported occupational or domestic contact with livestock compared to pregnant women without such contact. The Danish National Birth Cohort collected information on pregnancy outcome from 100 418 pregnant women (1996-2002) from which three study populations with occupational and....../or domestic exposure to livestock and a reference group of women with no animal contact was sampled. Outcome measures were miscarriage, very preterm birth (before gestational week 32), preterm birth (before 37 gestational weeks), small for gestational age (SGA), and perinatal death. Adverse reproductive...... outcomes were assessed in four different exposure groups of women with occupational or domestic exposure to livestock with no association found between exposure to livestock and miscarriage, preterm birth, SGA or perinatal death. These findings should diminish general occupational health concerns...

  18. Preoperative risk assessment among women undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy for cancer risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueth, Natasha M; McMahon, Melissa; Arrington, Amanda K; Swenson, Karen; Leach, Joseph; Tuttle, Todd M

    2011-09-01

    Cancer risk assessment is an important decision-making tool for women considering irreversible risk-reducing surgery. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of BRCA testing among women undergoing bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) and to review the characteristics of women who choose BPM within a metropolitan setting. We retrospectively reviewed records of women who underwent BPM in the absence of cancer within 2 health care systems that included 5 metropolitan hospitals. Women with invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were excluded; neither lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) nor atypical hyperplasia (AH) were exclusion criteria. We collected demographic information and preoperative screening and risk assessment, BRCA testing, reconstruction, and associated cancer risk-reducing surgery data. We compared women who underwent BRCA testing to those not tested. From January 2002 to July 2009, a total of 71 BPMs were performed. Only 25 women (35.2%) had preoperative BRCA testing; 88% had a BRCA mutation. Compared with tested women, BRCA nontested women were significantly older (39.1 vs. 49.2 years, P < 0.001), had significantly more preoperative biopsies and mammograms and had fewer previous or simultaneous cancer risk-reducing surgery (oophorectomy). Among BRCA nontested women, common indications for BPM were family history of breast cancer (n = 21, 45.6%) or LCIS or AH (n = 16, 34.8%); 9 nontested women (19.6%) chose BPM based on exclusively on cancer-risk anxiety or personal preference. Most women who underwent BPM did not receive preoperative genetic testing. Further studies are needed to corroborate our findings in other geographic regions and practice settings.

  19. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    .72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (... pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period...

  20. Awareness of Individual Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Self-Perception of Cardiovascular Risk in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques; Pham, Tai; Karam, Nicole; Amar, Laurence; Chicheportiche-Ayache, Corinne; Menasché, Philippe; Desnos, Michel; Dardel, Paul; Weill, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) self-perception by women may be inaccurate. A questionnaire was completed anonymously Online by women who self-reported their personal CVRF levels including age, weight, contraceptive use, menopausal status, smoking, diet and physical activities. Self-perceived risk was matched to actual cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score. Among 5,240 young and middle-aged women with a high educational level, knowledge of personal CVRFs increased with age, from 51-90% for blood pressure (BP), 22-45% for blood glucose and 15-47% for blood cholesterol levels, between 30 and 65 years, respectively. This knowledge was lower for smoking compared with nonsmoking women: 62.5% vs. 74.5% for BP (P self-perception of individual risk are inaccurate in women. Educational interventions should be emphasized. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Women?s and men?s reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women?s risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Tabassam Naved, Ruchira; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Haard?rfer, Regine; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women?s and men?s reports across 4 countries in Asia and t...

  2. Women Living with HIV over Age of 65: Cervical Cancer Screening in a Unique and Growing Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aserlind

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Women living with HIV are at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, which can lead to cervical cancer. New guidelines recommend indefinite screening. The objective of this study is to describe cervical cancer screening practices and colposcopy results in a cohort of women living with HIV over age of 65 who were followed before the new guidelines. Comorbidities, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and other risk factors were evaluated. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review on 75 women aged 65 or older living with HIV with at least one Pap smear. Results. The mean age of the cohort was 66.5 and at HIV diagnosis was 56. The majority of women were immunocompetent. 80% had serial Pap smears. Of these, 86% of 238 were negative or ASCUS. No women progressed to HSIL. 92% of colposcopies had negative or CIN I results. Three women were treated successfully for high-grade dysplasia. More than half of women had other STIs. 72% were screened for HPV; 50% were positive. Conclusion. The majority of women had negative and low-grade Pap smears. Questions remain regarding the utility of continued Pap screening and the added value of HPV testing in this unique population of older women living with HIV.

  3. Spousal sexual violence and poverty are risk factors for sexually transmitted infections in women: a longitudinal study of women in Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H A; Patel, V; West, B; Peeling, R W; Kirkwood, B R; Mabey, D

    2008-04-01

    To describe factors associated with incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a population-based sample of women in Goa, India. A random sample of women aged 18-45 years was enrolled in Goa from November 2001 to May 2003. All subjects who consented to participate and completed the recruitment procedure were interviewed six and 12 months after recruitment. Incident chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis from vaginal and/or urine specimens were detected using a commercial polymerase chain reaction and the InPouch TV Culture Kit. Of the 2180 women followed up, 64 had an incident STI (incidence of 1.8% in the first six months, and 1.4% in the second six months). Incident STI was associated with low socioeconomic status, marital status, and with concurrent bacterial vaginosis. Incidence was highest among women who were married and exposed to sexual violence (10.9%), were concerned about their husbands' affairs (10.5%), or were separated, divorced or widowed women (11.0%). Socially disadvantaged women are at increased risk of STI in this population. Sexual intercourse outside marriage was rarely reported in this population, and women are at risk of becoming infected within marriage, especially those with sexual violence. This highlights the vulnerabilities of socially disadvantaged married women in India, and the need for healthcare professionals to screen STI patients for violence, and provide the necessary support. The results also stress the importance of effectively diagnosing and treating married men with STI and promoting safer sex within marriage.

  4. Association between prenatal care utilization and risk of preterm birth among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Rong; Liang, Sheng-Wen; Wang, Jing; Chang, Jen Jen; Hu, Ke; Dong, Guang-Hui; Hu, Rong-Hua; Flick, Louise H; Zhang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Dan; Li, Qing-Jie; Zheng, Tong-Zhang; Xu, Shun-Qing; Yang, Shao-Ping; Qian, Zheng-Min

    2017-08-01

    It is recognized that prenatal care plays an important role in reducing adverse birth. Chinese pregnant women with medical condition were required to seek additional health care based on the recommended at least 5 times health care visits. This study was to estimate the association between prenatal care utilization (PCU) and preterm birth (PTB), and to investigate if medical conditions during pregnancy modified the association. This population-based case control study sampled women with PTB as cases; one control for each case was randomly selected from women with term births. The Electronic Perinatal Health Care Information System (EPHCIS) and a questionnaire were used for data collection. The PCU was measured by a renewed Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) index. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Totally, 2393 women with PTBs and 4263 women with term births were collected. In this study, 695 (10.5%) women experienced inadequate prenatal care, and 5131 (77.1%) received adequate plus prenatal care. Inadequate PCU was associated with PTB (adjusted OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.32-1.84); the similar positive association was found between adequate plus PCU and PTB. Among women with medical conditions, these associations still existed; but among women without medical conditions, the association between inadequate PCU and PTB disappeared. Our data suggests that women receiving inappropriate PCU are at an increased risk of having PTB, but it does depend on whether the woman has a medical condition during pregnancy.

  5. Joint associations between genetic variants and reproductive factors in glioma risk among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sophia S; Hartge, Patricia; Yeager, Meredith; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M; Linet, Martha; Inskip, Peter D; Black, Amanda; Hsing, Ann W; Alavanja, Michael; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Safaiean, Mahboobeh; Chanock, Stephen J; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2011-10-15

    In a pooled analysis of 4 US epidemiologic studies (1993-2001), the authors evaluated the role of 5 female reproductive factors in 357 women with glioma and 822 controls. The authors further evaluated the independent association between 5 implicated gene variants and glioma risk among the study population, as well as the joint associations of female reproductive factors (ages at menarche and menopause, menopausal status, use of oral contraceptives, and menopausal hormone therapy) and these gene variants on glioma risk. Risk estimates were calculated as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals that were adjusted for age, race, and study. Three of the gene variants (rs4295627, a variant of CCDC26; rs4977756, a variant of CDKN2A and CDKN2B; and rs6010620, a variant of RTEL1) were statistically significantly associated with glioma risk in the present population. Compared with women who had an early age at menarche (<12 years of age), those who reported menarche at 12-13 years of age or at 14 years of age or older had a 1.7-fold higher risk and a 1.9-fold higher risk of glioma, respectively (P for trend = 0.009). Postmenopausal women and women who reported ever having used oral contraceptives had a decreased risk of glioma. The authors did not observe joint associations between these reproductive characteristics and the implicated glioma gene variants. These results require replication, but if confirmed, they would suggest that the gene variants that have previously been implicated in the development of glioma are unlikely to act through the same hormonal mechanisms in women.

  6. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  7. HIV risk and awareness and interest in pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis among sheltered women in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Lester, Larissa; Schwartz, Bryanna; Collins, Constance; Johnson, Rai; Kobetz, Erin

    2016-09-01

    Pre- and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection are recommended for adults at substantial risk of HIV. Women experiencing homelessness have increased risk of HIV infection compared with stably-housed women. We conducted a survey of 74 sheltered women at Lotus House Women's Shelter (Lotus House) in Miami to assess risk behaviour as well as knowledge and perception of pre- and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis in this population. Of surveyed women, 58.1% engaged in vaginal and/or anal sex while sheltered, and of sexually-active women 55.4% reported inconsistent condom use. 83.8% of women reported no concern regarding HIV acquisition due to their behaviour. Few women surveyed (20.8%) had previously heard of pre- or non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis. The majority (58.3%) of respondents indicated receptiveness to these prevention methods when introduced. Those indicating that they would consider pre- or non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis were significantly younger than those indicating that they would not consider these prevention strategies (p = 0.004). Education and referral for pre- and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered for sheltered women at risk of HIV infection. Additional research to optimise implementation of biomedical prevention strategies in this population is needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merglova, Vlasta; Hecova, Hana; Stehlikova, Jaroslava; Chaloupka, Pavel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status of women with high-risk pregnancies. A case-control study of 142 pregnant women was conducted. The case group included 81 pregnant women with high-risk pregnancies, while 61 women with normal pregnancies served as controls. The following variables were recorded for each woman: age, general health status, DMF, CPITN, and PBI index, amounts of Streptococcus mutans in the saliva and dental treatment needs. The Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test and chi-squared test were used for statistical analyses. Statistically significant differences were detected between the PBI indices and dental treatment needs of the two groups. Out of the entire study cohort, 77% of the women in the case group and 52% of the women in the control group required dental treatment. In this study, women with complications during pregnancy had severe gingivitis and needed more frequent dental treatment than those in the control group.

  9. The effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in women with elevated androgen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Gilowska, Małgorzata; Okopień, Bogusław

    2017-02-01

    In unselected reproductive-aged women, use of combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills has been linked with an increased risk of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral contraception on cardiometabolic risk factors in a population of women with hyperandrogenism. The study included 16 untreated women with elevated testosterone levels and 15 matched healthy women who were then treated with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol (30μg) and drospirenone (3mg). Plasma lipids, glucose homeostasis markers, circulating levels of androgens, uric acid, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Compared to healthy women, women with elevated androgen levels showed increased plasma levels of hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, as well as a higher value of UACR. Oral contraception reduced androgen levels only in hyperandrogenic women. In healthy women, ethinyl estradiol plus drospirenone increased plasma levels of insulin, hsCRP, fibrinogen and homocysteine, while in women with elevated androgen levels their effect was limited only to a small increase in hsCRP. Our results suggest that a deteriorating effect of oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone in hyperandrogenic women is weaker than in healthy young women and that ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone combination therapy may be safely used in the former group of patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  10. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  11. Risk factors for Parkinson's disease may differ in men and women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric; Rocca, Walter A

    2013-02-01

    Although several environmental and genetic risk or protective factors have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), their interactions overall and in men and women separately remain unknown. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We considered the following 12 risk or protective factors: personal history of head trauma, pesticide use, immunologic diseases, anemia, hysterectomy (in women only), cigarette smoking, coffee consumption, and education; and family history of parkinsonism, essential tremor, dementia, or psychiatric disorders. We used recursive partitioning analyses to explore interactions overall and in men and women separately and used logistic regression analyses to test for interactions. In the overall group, we observed the independent effects of anemia, lack of coffee consumption (never vs. ever), and head trauma; however, the findings were different in men and women. In men, we observed the independent effects of lack of coffee consumption (never vs. ever), head trauma, and pesticide use, and a suggestive synergistic interaction between immunologic diseases and family history of dementia. By contrast, in women, anemia was the most important factor and we observed a suggestive synergistic interaction between anemia and higher education. Risk factors for PD and their interactions may differ in men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  13. We4DRR: A brand new European network for women in Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Keiler, Margreth; Promper, Catrin; Patek, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards often intensify societal inequalities having disproportionate impact on some population groups including women. On the other hand, women working in the field of natural hazards, either on site as emergency workers or in research, policy and administration as scientists, experts and managers have to deal with a number of challenges. However, gender issues are often neglected and women networks related to natural hazards in Europe but also worldwide are scarce. We present here "We4DRR: Women exchange for Disaster Risk Reduction", a new women's network focusing on gender issues in the field of disaster risk reduction but also on women working in the field. The network was initiated and organised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU) and was launched in Austria in March 2016. Its aims include collecting data on gender issues and DRR, empowerment of women, mentoring of young female professionals, and increasing the visibility of gender-specific aspects in DRR.

  14. Association between allergies, asthma, and breast cancer risk among women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowcock, Elizabeth C; Cotterchio, Michelle; Ahmad, Noor

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the association between allergies, asthma, and breast cancer risk in a large, population-based case-control study. Breast cancer cases (n = 3,101) were identified using the Ontario Cancer Registry and population controls (n = 3,471) through random digit dialing. Self-reported histories of allergies, hay fever, and asthma were collected by questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between breast cancer risk and history of allergy/hay fever and asthma, with 16 possible confounders examined. Analyses were stratified by menopausal status. A history of allergies or hay fever was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer risk [age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.86, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.96] and did not differ by menopausal status. Asthma was not associated with breast cancer risk overall; however, among premenopausal women, asthma was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer (AOR = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.54-0.97). A history of allergies may be associated with a modest reduction in breast cancer risk. Asthma does not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk overall; however, asthma may be associated with reduced breast cancer risk among premenopausal women.

  15. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  16. Dietary habits contributing to breast cancer risk among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakeh, Zahra Sheikhi; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Hatmi, Nadia; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Dabiran, Sohaila; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast

  17. Women's land ownership and risk of HIV infection in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Agosta, Laura Maria

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that land ownership empowers women to avoid HIV acquisition by reducing their reliance on risky survival sex and enhancing their ability to negotiate safer sex. However, this prediction has not been tested empirically. Using a sample of 5511 women working in the agricultural sector from the 1998, 2003 and 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, we examined the relationship between women's land ownership and participation in transactional sex, multiple sexual partnerships and unprotected sex, and HIV infection status. We controlled for demographic characteristics and household wealth, using negative binomial and logistic regression models. Women's land ownership was associated with fewer sexual partners in the past year (incidence rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.00) and lower likelihood of engaging in transactional sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99), indicators of reduced survival sex, but was not associated with unprotected sex with casual partners (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.35-1.18) or with unprotected sex with any partner among women with high self-perceived HIV risk (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.57-1.84), indicating no difference in safer sex negotiation. Land ownership was also associated with reduced HIV infection among women most likely to engage in survival sex, i.e., women not under the household headship of a husband (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89), but not among women living in husband-headed households, for whom increased negotiation for safer sex would be more relevant (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.92-3.29). These findings suggest that reinforcing women's land rights may reduce reliance on survival sex and serve as a viable structural approach to HIV prevention, particularly for women not in a husband's household, including unmarried women and female household heads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma Magnesium and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarolo-Anthony, Sally N.; Jiménez, Monik C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lower plasma magnesium levels may be associated with higher blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction, but sparse prospective data are available for stroke. Methods Among 32,826 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who provided blood samples in 1989–1990, incident ischemic strokes were identified and confirmed by medical records through 2006. We conducted a nested case-control analysis of 459 cases, matched 1:1 to controls on age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, date of blood draw, fasting status, menopausal status and hormone use. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate the multivariable adjusted association of plasma magnesium and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes. Results Median magnesium levels did not differ between ischemic stroke cases and controls (median=0.86 mmol/l for both; p-value=0.14). Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk (RR) of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–2.10, p trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke, compared to women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/l. No significant effect modification was observed by age, body mass index, hypertension or diabetes. Conclusions Lower plasma magnesium levels may contribute to higher risk of ischemic stroke among women. PMID:25116874

  19. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  20. Assessment of postmenopausal women and significant risk factors for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Peter F; Marakovits, Kimberly A; O'Sullivan, David M

    2010-09-01

    The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors can help guide early intervention. The objective of this study was to analyze numerous potential risk factors to see which were associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Women aged 49 or greater presenting for dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry bone scans were recruited from radiology sites in the Hartford, Connecticut, area between January 2007 and March 2009, inclusive. Information was collected regarding primary and secondary risk factors for osteoporosis development, as well as family history and history of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Survey results were subsequently correlated with each woman's dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan results. In a sample of 619 women, history of fracture (odds ratio [OR], 12.49), weight less than 127 pounds (OR, 3.50), and use of anticoagulants (OR, 5.40) increased the chance of developing osteoporosis. In contrast, multiparity (OR, 0.45) and history of breast-feeding (OR, 0.38) decreased the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. In women aged 49 to 54, breast-feeding was significantly protective, while low body mass index was most indicative of osteoporosis in women ages 55 to 64. Both previous fracture and low body mass index were associated with osteoporosis in women over age 64. The current results are consistent with other studies suggesting that previous fracture, low body weight, and use of anticoagulants increase the risk of osteoporosis. Our results also suggest that a history of pregnancy and breast-feeding protects against the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in women aged 49 to 54.

  1. Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesco, Kimberly K; Marshall, Lynn M; Nelson, Heidi D; Humphrey, Linda; Rizzo, Joanne; Pedula, Kathryn L; Cauley, Jane A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hochberg, Marc C; Antoniucci, Diana; Hillier, Teresa A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether older postmenopausal women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy before natural menopause (surgical menopause) have a higher risk of nonvertebral postmenopausal fracture than women with natural menopause. We used 21 years of prospectively collected incident fracture data from the ongoing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a cohort study of community-dwelling women without previous bilateral hip fracture who were 65 years or older at enrollment, to determine the risk of hip, wrist, and any nonvertebral fracture. χ(2) and t tests were used to compare the two groups on important characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by baseline oral estrogen use status were used to estimate the risk of fracture. Baseline characteristics differed significantly among the 6,616 women within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who underwent either surgical (1,157) or natural (5,459) menopause, including mean age at menopause (44.3 ± 7.4 vs 48.9 ± 4.9 y, P menopause, even among women who had never used oral estrogen (hip fracture: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.21; wrist fracture: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.78-1.57; any nonvertebral fracture: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93-1.32). These data provide some reassurance that the long-term risk of nonvertebral fracture is not substantially increased for postmenopausal women who experienced premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, compared with postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, even in the absence of postmenopausal estrogen therapy.

  2. Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Joy D; Duncan, Glen E; Bruemmer, Barbara; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2). Setting American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA. Subjects A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women. Results Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (PIndian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors. PMID:21208477

  3. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    pregnant women referred to two Danish clinics of occupational medicine (Copenhagen and Aarhus) from 1984 to 2010 were compared with the referred women's 1,077 non-referred pregnancy outcomes and with the pregnancy outcomes of 345,467 gainfully employed women from the same geographical areas and time period.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study...

  4. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [C-section rate in low-risk women: a useful indicator to compare hospitals attending deliveries with different risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Julián; Peiró, Salvador; Belda, Ana; Calabuig, Julia

    2014-01-01

    the C-section rate has been criticized as a performance indicator for not considering that different hospitals manage deliveries with diverse risks. In this work we explore the characteristics of a new indicator restricted to low C-section risk deliveries. retrospective cohort of all births (n=214,611) in all public hospitals during 2005-2010 in the Valencia Region, Spain (source: minimum basic dataset). A low-risk subpopulation consisting of women under-35, no history of c-section, between 37 and 41 gestational weeks, and with a single fetus, with cephalic presentation and normal weight (2500-3999 g) was constructed. We analyzed variability in the new indicator, its correlation with the crude indicator and, using multilevel logistic regression models, the presence of residual risks. a total of 117 589 births (58.4% of the whole deliveries) were identified as low C-section risk. The c-section rate in these women was 11.9% (24.4% for all deliveries) ranging between hospitals from 7.0% to 28.9%. The c-section rate in low-risk and total deliveries correlated strongly (r=0.88). The remaining risks in the population of low risk did not alter the hospital effect on the c-section rate. the percentage of C-section in low risk women include a high volume of deliveries, correlated with the crude indicator and residual risks are not differentially influenced by hospitals, being a useful indicator for monitoring the quality of obstetric care in the National Health System.

  6. The impact of children on divorce risks of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, G

    1997-06-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of children on divorce risks in 1971-1994 for first-married Swedish women. This impact is examined using two measures of family composition, namely the number of children and the age of the youngest child, and we find an independent effect from each of these factors on the propensity to divorce. There is an additional impact of births prior to marriage on the subsequent divorce risk.... The general picture of Swedish divorce-risk trends shows a strong increase in 1974, mostly among childless women, in response to a reform of the divorce legislation. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the risks have increased steadily, mostly among mothers." (EXCERPT)

  7. Awareness and perception of risk for cervical cancer among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer, though preventable, remains the leading cause of cancer death among women in developing countries after breast. Lack of awareness and access to preventive methods remains a key factor contributing to high levels of cervical cancer in these populations. Objectives: The study aimed to ...

  8. Statin therapy and the risk for diabetes among adult women: do the benefits outweigh the risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunsheng; Culver, Annie; Rossouw, Jacques; Olendzki, Barbara; Merriam, Philip; Lian, Bill; Ockene, Ira

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine statin therapy and the risk for diabetes among adult women using a selective review. The literature contains reports of new-onset diabetes associated with statin use. While many studies do not report sex-specific results, there is evidence indicating the risk to benefit ratio may vary by gender. However, the absolute effects are not clear because women have historically been under-represented in clinical trials. A review of the literature indicates that the cardiovascular benefits of statins appear to outweigh the risk for statin-related diabetes. However, the effect may depend upon baseline diabetes risk, dose, and statin potency. Rigorous, long-term studies focused on the risks and benefits of statins in women are unavailable to sort for gender-specific differences. Until this changes, individualized attention to risk assessment, and strong prevention with lifestyle changes must prevail.

  9. Risk of breast cancer following fertility treatment--a registry based cohort study of parous women in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Marte Myhre; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Myklebust, Tor Åge; Robsahm, Trude Eid; Oldereid, Nan Birgitte; Omland, Anne Katerine; Vangen, Siri; Brinton, Louise Annette; Storeng, Ritsa

    2015-03-01

    Despite increasing numbers of women availing themselves of assisted reproductive technology (ART), effects on cancer risk remain unresolved. Given hormonal exposures, breast cancer risk is of particular concern. The aim of this study is to investigate breast cancer risk amongst women giving birth following ART as compared to that amongst women who gave birth without ART. Data on all women who gave birth in Norway with or without ART, between 1984 and 2010 were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). 808,834 women eligible for study were linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Cox proportional models computed hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer between the two groups, adjusting for age, parity, age at first birth, calendar period and region of residence. In total, 8,037 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during the study period, 138 ART women and 7,899 unexposed. Total follow-up time was 12,401,121 person-years (median 16.0); median age at entry was 32.5 years (range 18.6-49.9) for ART women and 26.3 (range 10.5-54.6) for unexposed. Women exposed to ART had an elevated risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42). Subgroup analyses gave an HR of 1.30 (95% CI 1.07-1.57) for women treated with IVF and 1.35 (95 % CI 1.07-1.71) for women with follow-up >10 years, compared with controls. Our findings of increased risk in the study population warrant continued monitoring of women treated with ART as this population advances into more typical cancer age ranges. © 2014 UICC.

  10. Population-based intervention for cardiovascular diseases related knowledge and behaviours in Asian Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Agrawal, Aachu; Misra, Anoop; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Puneet; Dey, Sanjit; Rao, Shobha; Vasantha Devi, K P; Usha Menon, V; Revathi, R; Sharma, Vinita; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    There is poor knowledge and behaviors regarding chronic diseases related nutritional and lifestyle factors among women in low income countries. To evaluate efficacy of a multilevel population-based intervention in improving knowledge and practices for related factors we performed a study in India. Population based study among women 35-70 years was performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4624 (rural 2616, urban 2008) of eligible 8000 women (58%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity and anthropometry were recorded and blood hemoglobin, glucose and total cholesterol determined. Knowledge and behaviors regarding diet in chronic diseases were inquired in a randomly selected 100 women at each site (n = 900). A systematic multilevel population based intervention (using posters, handouts, street plays, public lectures, group lectures and focused group discussions) was administered over 6 months at each site. The questionnaire was re-administered at the end in random 100 women (n = 900) and differences determined. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparison of parameters before and after intervention was assessed using Mann Whitney test. Prevalence (%) of chronic disease related lifestyles and risk factors in rural/urban women, respectively, was illiteracy in 63.6/29.4, smoking/tobacco use 39.3/18.9, high fat intake 93.6/93.4, high salt intake 18.2/12.6, low physical activity 59.5/70.2, overweight/obesity 22.5/45.6, truncal obesity 13.0/44.3, hypertension 31.6/48.2, hypercholesterolemia 13.5/27.7, and diabetes in 4.3/15.1 percent. Composite chronic diseases knowledge at baseline vs after intervention increased significantly in overall (32.0 vs 62.0), rural (29.0 vs 63.5) and urban (39.5 vs 60.5) groups (p women in rural and urban locations in India increased chronic disease knowledge but failed to influence practices. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section in low-risk nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Cecilie; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Schroll, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between fear of childbirth (FOC) and emergency caesarean section. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of low-risk nulliparous women at term. SETTING: Nine obstetric departments in Denmark, May 2004-July 2005. POPULATION: A total of 2598 nulliparous women...... in spontaneous labor with a single fetus in cephalic presentation at term. METHODS: Self-reported FOC was assessed at 37 weeks of gestation by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) version A and at admission to the labor ward by the Delivery Fear Scale (DFS). Mode of delivery...... was recorded by the attending staff. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of emergency caesarean section in women who feared childbirth. RESULTS: FOC (W-DEQ sum score ≥ 85 and DFS sum score ≥ 70) was not associated...

  12. Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Harding

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A conservative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led to increased interactions with the fishery, and demands are being raised for the re-introduction of the hunt. We provide a demographic analysis and a risk assessment of the population, and make recommendations on how to decrease the risk of over exploitation. Although hunting increases the risk of quasi-extinction, the risk can be significantly reduced by the choice of a cautious hunting regime. The least hazardous regimes allow no hunting below a ‘security level’ in population size. Obviously, to implement such a hunting regime detailed knowledge of the population size and growth rate is required. It is not possible to estimate “true” risks for quasi-extinction, but we used an approach where the relative difference for different scenarios can be compared. With a security level at 5,000 females, the population quasi-extinction risk increases 50 fold at an annual hunt of 500 females compared with a scenario with no hunting. The risk of quasi-extinction is very sensitive to declines in the mean growth rate and to increased variance in growth rate. The variance in the population estimates over the last 14 years imply that it would take 9 years to detect a declinefrom 1.075 to 1.027 in the rate of population increase. We also show how the age composition of killed animals influences the impact of the hunt. The overall recommendation is that hunting should be kept to a minimum, carefully documented and accompanied by close population monitoring.

  13. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  14. Predicting women's alcohol risk-taking while abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary.

  15. Women at risk: Gender inequality and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Pamela C; Odimegwu, Clifford O; Ntoimo, Lorretta F C; Muchiri, Evans

    2017-04-01

    Gender inequality has been documented as a key driver of negative health outcomes, especially among women. However, studies have not clearly examined the role of gender inequality in maternal health in an African setting. Therefore, the authors of this study examined the role of gender inequality, indicated by lack of female autonomy, in exposing women to maternal health risk. Data were obtained from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey on a weighted sample of 3,906 married or partnered women aged 15-49 years. Multivariable analyses revealed that low autonomy in household decision power was associated with maternal health risk (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.52, p < .001). Autonomy interacted with household wealth showed that respondents who were in the wealthier households and had low autonomy in household decision power (OR = 2.03, p < .05) were more likely to be exposed to maternal health risk than their counterparts who had more autonomy. Efforts to lower women's exposure to maternal mortality and morbidity in Zambia should involve interventions to alter prevailing gender norms that limit women's active participation in decisions about their own health during pregnancy and delivery.

  16. Relative risks for stroke by age, sex, and population based on follow-up of 18 European populations in the MORGAM Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Kjell; Karvanen, Juha; Giampaoli, Simona

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Within the framework of the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) Project, the variations in impact of classical risk factors of stroke by population, sex, and age were analyzed. METHODS: Follow-up data were collected in 43 cohorts in 18 populations in 8...... European countries surveyed for cardiovascular risk factors. In 93 695 persons aged 19 to 77 years and free of major cardiovascular disease at baseline, total observation years were 1 234 252 and the number of stroke events analyzed was 3142. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox regression analyses....... RESULTS: Each year of age increased the risk of stroke (fatal and nonfatal together) by 9% (95% CI, 9% to 10%) in men and by 10% (9% to 10%) in women. A 10-mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure involved a similar increase in risk in men (28%; 24% to 32%) and women (25%; 20% to 29%). Smoking conferred...

  17. Breast cancer risk in a screening cohort of Asian and white British/Irish women from Manchester UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D Gareth; Brentnall, Adam R; Harvie, Michelle; Astley, Susan; Harkness, Elaine F; Stavrinos, Paula; Donnelly, Louise S; Sampson, Sarah; Idries, Faiza; Watterson, Donna; Cuzick, Jack; Wilson, Mary; Jain, Anil; Harrison, Fiona; Maxwell, Anthony J; Howell, Anthony

    2018-01-25

    The differences between breast cancer risk factors in white British/Irish and Asian women attending screening in the UK are not well documented. Between 2009-15 ethnicity and traditional breast cancer risk factors were self-identified by a screening cohort from Greater Manchester, with follow up to 2016. Risk factors and incidence rates were compared using age-standardised statistics (European standard population). Eight hundred and seventy-nine Asian women and 51,779 unaffected white British/Irish women aged 46-73 years were recruited. Asian women were at lower predicted breast cancer risk from hormonal and reproductive risk factors than white British/Irish women (mean 10 year risk 2.6% vs 3.1%, difference 0.4%, 95%CI 0.3-0.5%). White British/Irish women were more likely to have had a younger age at menarche, be overweight or obese, taller, used hormone replacement therapy and not to have had children.. However, despite being less overweight Asian women had gained more weight from age 20 years and were less likely to undertake moderate physical activity. Asian women also had a slightly higher mammographic density. Asian age-standardised incidence was 3.2 (95%CI 1.6-5.2, 18 cancers) per thousand women/year vs 4.5 (95%CI 4.2-4.8, 1076 cancers) for white British/Irish women. Asian women attending screening in Greater Manchester are likely to have a lower risk of breast cancer than white British/Irish women, but they undertake less physical activity and have more adult weight gain.

  18. Estimating and mapping the population at risk of sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere P Simarro

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, also known as sleeping sickness, persists as a public health problem in several sub-Saharan countries. Evidence-based, spatially explicit estimates of population at risk are needed to inform planning and implementation of field interventions, monitor disease trends, raise awareness and support advocacy. Comprehensive, geo-referenced epidemiological records from HAT-affected countries were combined with human population layers to map five categories of risk, ranging from "very high" to "very low," and to estimate the corresponding at-risk population.Approximately 70 million people distributed over a surface of 1.55 million km(2 are estimated to be at different levels of risk of contracting HAT. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense accounts for 82.2% of the population at risk, the remaining 17.8% being at risk of infection from T. b. rhodesiense. Twenty-one million people live in areas classified as moderate to very high risk, where more than 1 HAT case per 10,000 inhabitants per annum is reported.Updated estimates of the population at risk of sleeping sickness were made, based on quantitative information on the reported cases and the geographic distribution of human population. Due to substantial methodological differences, it is not possible to make direct comparisons with previous figures for at-risk population. By contrast, it will be possible to explore trends in the future. The presented maps of different HAT risk levels will help to develop site-specific strategies for control and surveillance, and to monitor progress achieved by ongoing efforts aimed at the elimination of sleeping sickness.

  19. The ERICE-score: the new native cardiovascular score for the low-risk and aged Mediterranean population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rafael; Brotons, Carlos; Tormo, M José; Segura, Antonio; Rigo, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Carbayo, Julio A; Gavrila, Diana; Moral, Irene; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Muñiz, Javier

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, data based on large population-based cohorts adequate to provide an accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been scarce. Thus, calibration of the EuroSCORE and Framingham scores has been proposed and done for our population. The aim was to develop a native risk prediction score to accurately estimate the individual cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population. Seven Spanish population-based cohorts including middle-aged and elderly participants were assembled. There were 11800 people (6387 women) representing 107915 person-years of follow-up. A total of 1214 cardiovascular events were identified, of which 633 were fatal. Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine the contributions of the different variables to the 10-year total cardiovascular risk. Age was the strongest cardiovascular risk factor. High systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and smoking were strong predictive factors. The contribution of serum total cholesterol was small. Antihypertensive treatment also had a significant impact on cardiovascular risk, greater in men than in women. The model showed a good discriminative power (C-statistic=0.789 in men and C=0.816 in women). Ten-year risk estimations are displayed graphically in risk charts separately for men and women. The ERICE is a new native cardiovascular risk score for the Spanish population derived from the background and contemporaneous risk of several Spanish cohorts. The ERICE score offers the direct and reliable estimation of total cardiovascular risk, taking in consideration the effect of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factor management. The ERICE score is a practical and useful tool for clinicians to estimate the total individual cardiovascular risk in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Midlife cardiovascular fitness and dementia: A 44-year longitudinal population study in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörder, Helena; Johansson, Lena; Guo, XinXin; Grimby, Gunnar; Kern, Silke; Östling, Svante; Skoog, Ingmar

    2018-04-10

    To investigate whether greater cardiovascular fitness in midlife is associated with decreased dementia risk in women followed up for 44 years. A population-based sample of 1,462 women 38 to 60 years of age was examined in 1968. Of these, a systematic subsample comprising 191 women completed a stepwise-increased maximal ergometer cycling test to evaluate cardiovascular fitness. Subsequent examinations of dementia incidence were done in 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, 2005, and 2009. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria on the basis of information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records, and registry data up to 2012. Cox regressions were performed with adjustment for socioeconomic, lifestyle, and medical confounders. Compared with medium fitness, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause dementia during the 44-year follow-up was 0.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.54) among those with high fitness and 1.41 (95% CI 0.72-2.79) among those with low fitness. High fitness delayed age at dementia onset by 9.5 years and time to dementia onset by 5 years compared to medium fitness. Among Swedish women, a high cardiovascular fitness in midlife was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent dementia. Promotion of a high cardiovascular fitness may be included in strategies to mitigate or prevent dementia. Findings are not causal, and future research needs to focus on whether improved fitness could have positive effects on dementia risk and when during the life course a high cardiovascular fitness is most important. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of Arab-American women regarding inherited cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women's perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community.

  2. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

  3. Endogenous hormones, muscle strength, and risk of fall-related fractures in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Heikkinen, Eino; Cheng, Sulin; Suominen, Harri; Saari, Päivi; Kovanen, Vuokko; Alén, Markku; Rantanen, Taina

    2006-01-01

    Among older people, fracture-causing fall often leads to health deterioration. The role of endogenous hormone status and muscle strength on fall-related fracture risk is unclear. This study investigates if, after adjustment for bone density, endogenous hormones and muscle strength would predict fall-related limb fracture incidence in older community-dwelling women followed-up over 10 years. As a part of a prospective population-based study, 187 75-year-old women were investigated. Serum estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were analyzed, and isometric muscle strength and bone mineral density were assessed. Fall-related limb fractures were gathered from patient records. Serum estradiol concentration was a significant predictor of fall-related limb fractures. Women with serum estradiol concentrations less than 0.022 nmol/L had a 3-fold risk (relative risk 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-7.36), and women with estradiol concentrations between 0.022 and 0.066 nmol/L doubled the risk (relative risk 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-5.19) of fall-related limb fracture compared to the women with estradiol concentrations ()above 0.066 nmol/L. Adjustment for muscle strength and bone mineral density did not materially change the risk estimates. High muscle strength was associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures. This study showed that in 75-year-old women higher serum estradiol concentration and greater muscle strength were independently associated with a low incidence of fall-related limb fractures even after adjustment for bone density. Our results suggest that hormonal status and muscle strength have their own separate mechanisms protecting from fall-related fractures. This finding is of importance in developing preventive strategies, but calls for further study.

  4. Suicide Risk Screening Tools and the Youth Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    The use of suicide risk screening tools is a critical component of a comprehensive approach to suicide risk assessment. Since nurses frequently spend more time with patients than any other healthcare professional, they are in key positions to detect and prevent suicidal behavior in youth. To inform nurses about suicide risk screening tools for the youth population. Suicide risk screening tools are research-based standardized instruments that are used to identify people who may be at risk for suicide. A literature search was performed using the Athabasca University Library Resource, the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar. Nurses are cautioned to utilize suicide risk screening tools as only part of the suicide risk assessment in youth populations and avoid the danger of relying on tools that may result in a blind application of evidence to the detriment of clinical experience and judgement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Olsen, Jørn; Ottesen, Bent

    2008-01-01

    In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for dystocia often...

  6. Androidal fat dominates in predicting cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soy isoflavones would attenuate the anticipated increase in androidal fat mass in postmenopausal women during the 36-month treatment, and thereby favorably modify the circulating cardiometabolic risk factors: triacylglycerol, LDLC, HDL-C, glucose, insulin, uric acid, C-reactive ...

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer among Women in Warri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer among Women in Warri and lbadan, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 3 (2013) > ... (controls) were matched in the ratio of 1:3 respectively for age and duration of stay in the area of residence.

  8. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...

  9. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer among Indian Women: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... factors for carcinoma breast among Indian women. ... to be age, diet, waist size, hip size, waist‑hip ratio (WHR), body mass index, .... The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool is based on a ... drinking, low physical activity, obesity, or environmental ... All the cases and controls who satisfied the inclusion.

  10. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molatelo Elisa Shikwane

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...

  11. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus and cytological abnormalities in women living with HIV in Denmark - the SHADE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Storgaard, Merete; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WLWH) are at increased risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared with women from the general population (WGP). We assessed the prevalence and distribution of cervical high-risk (hr) HPV infection and...

  13. Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Papalou, Olga; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2017-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Even though many studies have indicated a rise in surrogate biomarkers of CVD in women with PCOS, it is still doubtful to what extent and magnitude this elevation can be translated to real cardiovascular events. Furthermore, the cardiovascular risk factors appear to vary significantly in the different phenotypes of the syndrome. Women with PCOS have the potential for early atherosclerosis, myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Whether PCOS women are at real cardiovascular risk compared to controls remains between the verge of theoretical and real threat for the PCOS women at any age but particularly in the post-menopausal state. Interestingly, although the presence of the CVD risk factors is well documented in PCOS women, their combination on different phenotypes may play a role, which eventually results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CVD with variable degree of severity. The present manuscript aims to review the interaction between PCOS and the combination of several cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Arab-American Women Regarding Inherited Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, know...

  15. Population impact of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2014-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the relative contributions of familial and environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, few have additionally examined the predictive power on the individual level and simultaneously examined the population impact associated with a wide range of familial...... 4.50-5.31). The study showed that risk factors with highest predictive power on the individual level have a relatively low population impact. The challenge in future studies with direct genetic data is to examine gene-environmental interactions that can move research beyond current approaches...... and environmental risk factors. The authors present rate ratios (IRR), population-attributable risks (PAR) and sex-specific cumulative incidences of the following risk factors: parental history of mental illness, urban place of birth, advanced paternal age, parental loss and immigration status. We established...

  16. Oncogenic human papillomavirus genital infection in southern Iranian women: population-based study versus clinic-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eghbali Seyed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies on genital human papilloma viruses infection (HPVs in general population are crucial for the implementation of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to prevent the primary and secondary cervical cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study is to compare the prevalence rate of genital HPV infection among reproductive women with our previous clinic-based data, which showed a prevalence rate of 5% in women in southern Iran. Results Using general primers for all genotypes of HPV, of 799 randomly selected women, five (0.63%, 95% CI 0.23-1.55% tested positive for HPV DNA. Overall, seven different HPV genotypes were detected: six types (16, 18, 31, 33, 51 and 56 were carcinogenic, or “high risk genotypes” and one genotype (HPV-66 was “probably carcinogenic.” Conclusions In a population-based study, the prevalence of HPV infection among southern Iranian women was lower than that observed worldwide. However, our gynaecological clinic-based study on the prevalence of HPV infection showed results comparable with other studies in the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. Since gynaecological clinic-based data may generally overestimate HPV prevalence, estimates of prevalence according to clinic-based data should be adjusted downward by the population-based survey estimates.

  17. Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Munk, Christian; Mellemkjaer, Lene

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cancer, especially of the endometrium, breast and ovary. The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify 12,070 in- and outpatients in whom PCOS was diagnosed when they were aged 9-49 years during 1977-2012. Using the Danish Cancer Registry, we followed the cohort through 2012 and compared the women's cancer incidence with that of the general Danish female population by means of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Cancer was diagnosed in 279 women with PCOS (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06-1.34). We found an almost fourfold increased risk for endometrial cancer (numbers observed (N) = 16, SIR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.2-6.3), the large majority of cases being type 1 (N = 14, SIR = 4.7; 95% CI = 2.6-7.9). We found no association between PCOS and breast (N = 59, SIR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.8-1.4) or ovarian cancer (N = 10, SIR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.8-3.2); however, significantly increased risks were found for kidney, colon and brain cancers. The results of this large cohort study support those of case-control studies showing that women with PCOS are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, whereas their risks for breast and ovarian cancer are similar to those of women in the general population. Our finding that women with PCOS also are at increased risk for cancers of the kidney, colon and brain requires further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kj?r, Susanne Kr?ger

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. Participants 54?362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. In...

  19. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (METHODS: In a cohort study, 1,202 deliveries among....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study.......72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and...

  20. Women referred for occupational risk assessment in pregnancy have no increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Signe Brøker; Kaerlev, Linda; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2015-01-01

    .72-1.17). CONCLUSION: The women who are referred for occupational risk assessment at two large occupational university departments are not at an increased risk of preterm birth or of delivering low birth weight children. This may reflect that reproductive hazards in Danish workplaces are limited and....../or that the occupational risk assessment and counselling of pregnant women are preventing these selected adverse pregnancy outcomes. FUNDING: The Research Unit at Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Bispebjerg Hospital supported the study financially. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant. The study......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to study the association between pregnant women's referral status for occupational risk assessment, and their risk of preterm delivery (

  1. Gender moderates the relationship between impulsivity and sexual risk-taking in a cocaine-using psychiatric outpatient population

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Anne C.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Rosen, Marc I.

    2014-01-01

    Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adult...

  2. A case-control study to assess the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Valentina; Massat, Nathalie J; Thomas, Susan; MacKay, James; Warwick, Jane; Kataoka, Masako; Warsi, Iqbal; Brentnall, Adam; Warren, Ruth; Duffy, Stephen W

    2015-05-15

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its potential application in risk management is not clear, partly due to uncertainties about its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors. We aimed to quantify the impact of mammographic density on breast cancer risk in women aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer (average lifetime risk of 23%), in particular in premenopausal women, and to investigate its relationship with other breast cancer risk factors in this population. We present the results from a case-control study nested with the FH01 cohort study of 6,710 women mostly aged 40-49 at intermediate familial risk of breast cancer. One hundred and three cases of breast cancer were age-matched to one or two controls. Density was measured by semiautomated interactive thresholding. Absolute density, but not percent density, was a significant risk factor for breast cancer in this population after adjusting for area of nondense tissue (OR per 10 cm(2) = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.15, p = 0.04). The effect was stronger in premenopausal women, who made up the majority of the study population. Absolute density remained a significant predictor of breast cancer risk after adjusting for age at menarche, age at first live birth, parity, past or present hormone replacement therapy, and the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate of breast cancer. Absolute density can improve breast cancer risk stratification and delineation of high-risk groups alongside the Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year relative risk estimate. © 2014 UICC.

  3. Adding Value to Ecological Risk Assessment with Population Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Calow, Peter; Grimm, Volker

    2011-01-01

    population models can provide a powerful basis for expressing ecological risks that better inform the environmental management process and thus that are more likely to be used by managers. Here we provide at least five reasons why population modeling should play an important role in bridging the gap between...

  4. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  5. Soy Food Intake and Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Possible Difference in Asian Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Ju, Dan; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A; Stanczyk, Frank Z

    2017-01-01

    Soy foods may protect against breast cancer in Asian but not in Western populations. We examined if the levels of various markers of breast cancer risk and inflammation, as well as the effects of soy food consumption on these markers, differ between Asian and non-Asian premenopausal women in two soy intervention trials. One study randomized 220 women to a 2-yr intervention and the other one randomized 96 women in a crossover design to examine the effects of consumption of 2 daily soy servings on nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) volume; estrogens in serum, NAF, and urine; insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and inflammatory markers in serum; and mammographic densities. Mixed linear models were applied to assess ethnic differences in biomarkers and response to the soy diet. Serum C-reactive protein, serum leptin, NAF volume, and NAF estrone sulfate were lower, while urinary isoflavones were higher in Asian than in non-Asian women. A significant interaction (p interaction = 0.05) between ethnicity and soy diet was observed for IGF-1 but not for other biomarkers. The current findings suggest possible ethnic differences in levels of biomarkers for breast cancer risk but little evidence that Asian women respond differently to soy foods than non-Asian women.

  6. Association between duration of reproductive lifespan and Framingham risk score in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyun; Sim, Mu Yul; Park, Sat Byul

    2015-12-01

    The benefit of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women is still uncertain. Based upon extensive observational data, it was believed that estrogen was cardioprotective. The relationship between the period of exposure to endogenous estrogens and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been studied in Korean women. To assess associations between reproductive lifespan and CVD by using the Framingham risk score (FRS) in postmenopausal Korean women. This cross-sectional, population-based study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) for the five years 2008-2012,after adjustment for relevant variables using complex sample analysis and data weighting. Among 25,534 women, 1973 women were enrolled, after excluding those 80 years of age (n=6194), those with diabetes, CVD or cancer (n=491), those with unrecorded physical measurements (n=7335), those with menarche age ≤8 years or ≥20 years (n=6194), and premenopausal women (n=3347). The FRS tended to show a significant negative correlation with the reproductive lifespan (preproductive lifespan and FRS (adjusted relative risk [RR] for reproductive years [shortest lifespan group] compared with 28-33 reproductive years [moderate lifespan group], 1.2, p33 reproductive years [longest lifespan group] compared with 28-33 reproductive years [moderate lifespan group], -0.42, p=0.011). A longer reproductive lifespan is associated with a lower estimated risk of CVD in the next 10 years in postmenopausal women. This result suggests that estrogen has a long-term protective effect against CVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Quick Drinking Screen for identifying women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Heinecke, Nicholas; Voluse, Andrew; Johnson, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Two previous studies comparing the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS) with the Timeline Followback (TLFB) found that these two instruments yielded similar reports of alcohol use for clinical and nonclinical populations of problem drinkers. The current study evaluated the correspondence between these two drinking measures with women at risk of an Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy (AEP). Participants were 355 women who voluntarily participated in a research study during 2005 through 2007 designed to prevent AEPs. All women were screened by phone for eligibility using the QDS and approximately 2 weeks later completed a 3-month TLFB by mail. Results of this study, analyzed in 2008, paralleled previous studies showing that the QDS and the TLFB, two very different drinking measures, collected similar aggregate drinking data for women who drink heavily and are at risk of an AEP. Correspondence between the two drinking measures met acceptable levels of reliability. The present study found that the QDS has demonstrated efficacy for screening women whose level of alcohol use puts them at risk for an AEP. Although the QDS does not yield detailed drinking information, it could be used when it is not possible or necessary to gather daily drinking data.

  8. Incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velija-Asimi, Zelija; Burekovic, Azra; Dujic, Tanja; Dizdarevic-Bostandzic, Amela; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-11-10

    Our aim was to determine the incidence of prediabetes and risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective, observational study included 148 women with PCOS, without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD present at baseline. In the fasting blood samples, we measured lipids, glucose, and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance test, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), steroids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and parathyroid hormone. The follow-up period was 3 years. At baseline, prevalent prediabetes was present in 18 (12%) of PCOS cases and it progressed to T2DM in 5 (3%) of the cases. Incident prediabetes during the follow-up was noted in 47 (32%) women or 4.7 per 1000 persons/year. Prediabetes was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.089, confidence interval [CI]: 1.010; 1.174, p = 0.026), high baseline levels of CRP (OR = 3.286, CI: 1.299; 8.312, p = 0.012), homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (IR) (OR = 2.628, CI: 1.535; 4.498, p cardiovascular risk in PCOS women with prediabetes was high (hazard ratio = 1.092, CI: 1.036; 1.128, p PCOS women are considered as a high-risk population for prediabetes.

  9. Bone and fall-related fracture risks in women and men with a recent clinical fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, Svenhjalmar; van Geel, Antonia C M; Geusens, Piet P; Kessels, Alfons; Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman, Arie C; Brink, Peter R G

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide fracture rates are increasing as a result of the aging population, and prevention, both primary and secondary, is an important public health goal. Therefore, we systematically analyzed risk factors in subjects with a recent clinical fracture. All men and women over fifty years of age who had been treated in the emergency department of, or hospitalized at, our institution because of a recent fracture during a one-year period were offered the opportunity to undergo an evidence-based bone and fall-related risk-factor assessment and bone densitometry. The women included in this study were also compared with a group of postmenopausal women without a fracture history who had been included in another cohort study. Of the 940 consecutive patients, 797 (85%) were eligible for this study and 568 (60%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of fall-related risk factors (75% [95% confidence interval = 71% to 78%]; n = 425) and the prevalence of bone-related risk factors (53% [95% confidence interval = 49% to 57%]; n = 299) at the time of fracture were higher than the prevalence of osteoporosis (35% [95% confidence interval = 31% to 39%]; n = 201) as defined by a dual x-ray absorptiometry T score of fall and bone-related risk factors were present irrespective of the fracture location, patient age, or gender. An overlap between bone and fall-related risk factors was found in 50% of the patients. After adjusting for age, weight, and height, we found that women with a fracture more frequently had a diagnosis of osteoporosis (odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 2.0 to 4.1) and had a more extensive history of falls (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% confidence interval = 2.7 to 5.9) than did the postmenopausal women without a fracture history. Men and women over fifty years of age who had recently sustained a clinical fracture had, at the time of that fracture, bone and fall-related risk factors that were greater than the risk predicted by the presence of osteoporosis. Risk

  10. Risk of post-pregnancy hypertension in women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: nationwide cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Melbye, Mads; Lykke, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Bundgaard, Henning; Thilaganathan, Baskaran; Boyd, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine how soon after delivery the risk of post-pregnancy hypertension increases in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and how the risk evolves over time.Design Nationwide register based cohort study.Setting Denmark.Populations 482 972 primiparous women with a first live birth or stillbirth between 1995 and 2012 (cumulative incidence analyses), and 1 025 118 women with at least one live birth or stillbirth between 1978 and 2012 (Cox regression analyses).Main outco...

  11. Residual lifetime and 10 year absolute risks of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Lei; Winzenberg, Tania M; Chen, Mingsheng; Jiang, Qicheng; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    To determine the residual lifetime and 10 year absolute risks of osteoporotic fractures in Chinese men and women. A validated state-transition microsimulation model was used. Microsimulation and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to address the uncertainties in the model. All parameters including fracture incidence rates and mortality rates were retrieved from published literature. Simulated subjects were run through the model until they died to estimate the residual lifetime fracture risks. A 10 year time horizon was used to determine the 10 year fracture risks. We estimated the risk of only the first osteoporotic fracture during the simulation time horizon. The residual lifetime and 10 year risks of having the first osteoporotic (hip, clinical vertebral or wrist) fracture for Chinese women aged 50 years were 40.9% (95% CI: 38.3-44.0%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 6.8-9.3%) respectively. For men, the residual lifetime and 10 year fracture risks were 8.7% (95% CI: 7.5-9.8%) and 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8-1.7%) respectively. The residual lifetime fracture risks declined with age, whilst the 10 year fracture risks increased with age until the short-term mortality risks outstripped the fracture risks. Residual lifetime and 10 year clinical vertebral fracture risks were higher than those of hip and wrist fractures in both sexes. More than one third of the Chinese women and approximately one tenth of the Chinese men aged 50 years are expected to sustain a major osteoporotic fracture in their remaining lifetimes. Due to increased fracture risks and a rapidly ageing population, osteoporosis will present a great challenge to the Chinese healthcare system. While national data was used wherever possible, regional Chinese hip and clinical vertebral fracture incidence rates were used, wrist fracture rates were taken from a Norwegian study and calibrated to the Chinese population. Other fracture sites like tibia, humerus, ribs and pelvis were not included in the analysis, thus these

  12. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  13. The risk of cryptorchidism among sons of women working in horticulture in Denmark: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Pernille; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Andersen, Helle Raun; Baelum, Jesper; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2011-11-14

    Androgens are crucial for normal testicular descent. Studies show that some pesticides have estrogenic or antiandrogenic effects, and that female workers exposed to pesticides have increased risk of having a boy with cryptorchidism. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether pregnant women exposed to pesticides due to their work in horticulture experience excess risk of having sons with cryptorchidism. We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women working in horticulture using four cohorts including one cohort established with data from the departments of occupational medicine in Jutland and Funen and three existing mother-child cohorts (n=1,468). A reference group was established from the entire Danish population of boys born in the period of 1986-2007 (n=783,817). Nationwide Danish health registers provided information on birth outcome, cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy. The level of occupational exposure to pesticides was assessed by expert judgment blinded towards outcome status. Risk of cryptorchidism among exposed horticulture workers compared to the background population and to unexposed horticulture workers was assessed by Cox regression models. Pesticide exposed women employed in horticulture had a hazard ratio (HR) of having cryptorchid sons of 1.39 (95% CI 0.84; 2.31) and a HR of orchiopexy of 1.34 (0.72; 2.49) compared to the background population. Analysis divided into separate cohorts revealed a significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism in cohort 2: HR 2.58 (1.07;6.20) and increased risk of orchiopexy in cohort 4: HR 2.76 (1.03;7.35), but no significant associations in the other cohorts. Compared to unexposed women working in horticulture, pesticide exposed women had a risk of having sons with cryptorchidism of 1.34 (0.30; 5.96) and of orchiopexy of 1.93 (0.24;15.4). The data are compatible with a slightly increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons of women exposed to pesticides by working in horticulture.

  14. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in old age: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Janne; Puustinen, Juha; Piirtola, Maarit; Vahlberg, Tero; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2010-07-06

    There is evidence that the use of any psychotropic and the concomitant use of two or more benzodiazepines are related to an increased risk of fractures in old age. However, also controversial results exist. The aim was to describe associations between the use of a psychotropic drug, or the concomitant use of two or more of these drugs and the risk of fractures in a population aged 65 years or over. This study was a part of a prospective longitudinal population-based study carried out in the municipality of Lieto, South-Western Finland. The objective was to describe gender-specific associations between the use of one psychotropic drug [benzodiazepine (BZD), antipsychotic (AP) or antidepressant (AD)] or the concomitant use of two or more psychotropic drugs and the risk of fractures in a population 65 years or over. Subjects were participants in the first wave of the Lieto study in 1990-1991, and they were followed up until the end of 1996. Information about fractures confirmed with radiology reports in 1,177 subjects (482 men and 695 women) during the follow-up was collected from medical records. Two follow-up periods (three and six years) were used, and previously found risk factors of fractures were adjusted as confounding factors separately for men and women. The Poisson regression model was used in the analyses. The concomitant use of two or more BZDs and the concomitant use of two or more APs were related to an increased risk of fractures during both follow-up periods after adjusting for confounding factors in men. No similar associations were found in women. The concomitant use of several BZDs and that of several APs are associated with an increase in the risk of fractures in older men. Our findings show only risk relations. We cannot draw the conclusion that these drug combinations are causes of fractures.

  15. Are women who work in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities a suitable study population for vaginal microbicide trials in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Vallely

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility study was conducted to investigate whether an occupational at-risk cohort of women in Mwanza, Tanzania are a suitable study population for future phase III vaginal microbicide trials.1573 women aged 16-54 y working in traditional and modern bars, restaurants, hotels, guesthouses or as local food-handlers were enrolled at community-based reproductive health clinics, provided specimens for HIV/STI and pregnancy testing, and asked to attend three-monthly clinical follow-up visits for 12-months. HIV positive and negative women were eligible to enter the feasibility study and to receive free reproductive health services at any time. HIV prevalence at baseline was 26.5% (417/1573. HIV incidence among 1156 sero-negative women attending at baseline was 2.9/100PYs. Among 1020 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women, HIV incidence was 2.0/100PYs, HSV-2 incidence 12.7/100PYs and pregnancy rate 17.8/100PYs. Retention at three-months was 76.3% (778/1020. Among 771 HIV sero-negative, non-pregnant women attending at three-months, subsequent follow-up at 6, 9 and 12-months was 83.7%, 79.6%, and 72.1% respectively. Older women, those who had not moved home or changed their place of work in the last year, and women working in traditional bars or as local food handlers had the highest re-attendance.Women working in food outlets and recreational facilities in Tanzania and other parts of Africa may be a suitable study population for microbicide and other HIV prevention trials. Effective locally-appropriate strategies to address high pregnancy rates and early losses to follow-up are essential to minimise risk to clinical trials in these settings.

  16. Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherio, A; Zhang, S M; Hernán, M A; Kawachi, I; Colditz, G A; Speizer, F E; Willett, W C

    2001-07-01

    Results of case-control studies and of a prospective investigation in men suggest that consumption of coffee could protect against the risk of Parkinson's disease, but the active constituent is not clear. To address the hypothesis that caffeine is protective against Parkinson's disease, we examined the relationship of coffee and caffeine consumption to the risk of this disease among participants in two ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). The study population comprised 47,351 men and 88,565 women who were free of Parkinson's disease, stroke, or cancer at baseline. A comprehensive life style and dietary questionnaire was completed by the participants at baseline and updated every two to four years. During the follow-up (10 years in men, 16 years in women), we documented a total of 288 incident cases of Parkinson's disease. Among men, after adjustment for age and smoking, the relative risk of Parkinson's disease was 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23-0.78; p for trend coffee (p for trend = 0.004), caffeine from noncoffee sources (p for trend coffee. Among women, the relationship between caffeine or coffee intake and risk of Parkinson's disease was U-shaped, with the lowest risk observed at moderate intakes (1-3 cups of coffee/day, or the third quintile of caffeine consumption). These results support a possible protective effect of moderate doses of caffeine on risk of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a prospective study of chinese women at maternal and child health centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Bonnie WM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors for postnatal depression (PND are under-explored in the Chinese populations. There is increasing recognition of the importance of identifying predictive factors during the antenatal period for PND. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for postnatal depression in a community cohort of Chinese women with special focus on the antenatal risk factors. Methods Eight hundred and five Chinese women were interviewed during their third trimester of pregnancy and at around 2 months postnatally. Putative risk factors for PND were collected and the diagnosis of PND was confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The 2-month postnatal depression status was used as the dependent variable for univariate and multivariate analyses against putative risk factors. Results Marital dissatisfaction (Relative Risk = 8.27, dissatisfied relationship with mother-in-law (Relative Risk = 3.93, antenatal depressive symptomatology (Relative Risk = 3.90, and anxiety-prone personality (Relative Risk = 2.14 predicted PND in Chinese women independently. Conclusions Chinese women tend to keep their own feelings and emotions and it is important to monitor Chinese pregnant women with these predictive risk factors so that PND can be identified early.

  18. Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and risk of fracture among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K A; Andrade, S E; Boles, M; Buist, D S; Chase, G A; Donahue, J G; Goodman, M J; Gurwitz, J H; LaCroix, A Z; Platt, R

    2000-06-24

    Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (statins) increase new bone formation in rodents and in human cells in vitro. Statin use is associated with increased bone mineral density of the femoral neck. We undertook a population-based case-control study at six health-maintenance organisations in the USA to investigate further the relation between statin use and fracture risk among older women. We investigated women aged 60 years or older. Exposure, outcome, and confounder information was obtained from automated claims and pharmacy data from October, 1994, to September, 1997. Cases had an incident diagnosis of non-pathological fracture of the hip, humerus, distal tibia, wrist, or vertebrae between October, 1996, and September, 1997. Controls had no fracture during this period. We excluded women with records of dispensing of drugs to treat osteoporosis. There were 928 cases and 2747 controls. Compared with women who had no record of statin dispensing during the previous 2 years, women with 13 or more statin dispensings during this period had a decreased risk of non-pathological fracture (odds ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.27-0.83]) after adjustment for age, number of hospital admissions during the previous year, chronic disease score, and use of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs. No association was found between fracture risk and fewer than 13 dispensings of statins or between fracture risk and use of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs. Statins seem to be protective against non-pathological fracture among older women. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that statins increase bone mineral density in human beings and thereby decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures.

  19. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  20. Amount of alcohol consumption and risk of developing alcoholism in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    was measured in 19 698 men and women randomly drawn from the Copenhagen Population Register in 1976-78. The study population was linked to three different registers in order to detect alcoholism, and average follow-up time was 25 years. RESULTS: After adjustment for all putative confounders, the risk...... of alcoholism for women increased significantly at 1-7 drinks per week with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 3.53) compared to never/almost never drinking; the HR for drinking monthly was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.85). The risk for men did not increase significantly before 22......-41 drinks per week (HR = 3.81, 95 % CI: 2.18, 6.68) or if they had a daily alcohol intake (HR = 3.55, 95 % CI: 2.11, 5.99). Smoking was independently associated with the risk of alcoholism for both men and women. CONCLUSION: The risk of developing alcoholism increased significantly by very low intakes...

  1. A population-based study of race-specific risk for placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamilio David M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to elucidate risk factors for placental abruption are imperative due to the severity of complications it produces for both mother and fetus, and its contribution to preterm birth. Ethnicity-based differences in risk of placental abruption and preterm birth have been reported. We tested the hypotheses that race, after adjusting for other factors, is associated with the risk of placental abruption at specific gestational ages, and that there is a greater contribution of placental abruption to the increased risk of preterm birth in Black mothers, compared to White mothers. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using the Missouri Department of Health's maternally-linked database of all births in Missouri (1989–1997 to assess racial effects on placental abruption and the contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth, at different gestational age categories (n = 664,303. Results Among 108,806 births to Black mothers and 555,497 births to White mothers, 1.02% (95% CI 0.96–1.08 of Black births were complicated by placental abruption, compared to 0.71% (95% CI 0.69–0.73 of White births (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22–1.43. The magnitude of risk of placental abruption for Black mothers, compared to White mothers, increased with younger gestational age categories. The risk of placental abruption resulting in term and extreme preterm births ( Conclusion Black women have an increased risk of placental abruption compared to White women, even when controlling for known coexisting risk factors. This risk increase is greatest at the earliest preterm gestational ages when outcomes are the poorest. The relative contribution of placental abruption to term births was greater in Black women, whereas the relative contribution of placental abruption to preterm birth was greater in White women.

  2. Postpartum Depression in Women: A Risk Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farheen; Nigam, Aruna; Anjum, Ruby; Agarwalla, Rashmi

    2017-08-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) is a known entity affecting not only the women but the whole family. It affects women more harshly and chronically due to their increased stress sensitivity, maladaptive coping strategies and multiple social roles in the community. To estimate the commonly associated risk factors of PPD among the women coming to a tertiary hospital in New Delhi, India. It was a longitudinal study conducted at the antenatal clinic for a period of one year. Total 260 women were screened at > 36 weeks of gestation, of which 149 postnatal women completed the questionnaire for PPD at six weeks of their delivery. The inform consent, demographical data and obstetrical details from each participant was taken before commencing the screening. Various risk factors and their association were determined by odds-ratio and significant association was accepted at order to identify the most important confounding variables, logistic regression analysis was used. PPD is a common mental health problem seen among the postnatal women as it was found in 12.75% (19 out of 149) of subjects at six weeks of their delivery. Moreover, it has significant association with the young maternal age (p-value=0.040), birth of the female child (p-value=0.015), previous stressful life events (p-value= 0.003), low self-esteem and feeling of loneliness (p-value=0.007). This study provides important information regarding the risk factors associated with development of PPD in this region of India. Female sex of the new born and the younger age play an important role in the development of PPD.

  3. Knowledge of Men and Women about Infertility Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With technological developments, creation of new industries and changing lifestyles, infertility risk factors (IRF increased. Therefore creation of suitable solutions in society is crucial for the prevention of infertility. Since prevention of infertility in a society is directly related to awareness about infertility, in the present study the awareness of people about infertility risk factors was assessed. In this study, a survey questionnaire containing 24 factors related to IRF was developed and 170 persons (62 men and 108 women from Fooladshahr, Najafabad and Mobarakeh participated and data were extracted from these questionnaires and were statistically analyzed. Our study showed that average infertility awareness for men and women is 38% and 49% respectively. Also overall awareness was 44%. Also results showed that women’s awareness about mobile radiation and fast foods is significantly higher than men. On the other hand men have significantly higher awareness about adverse effects of chlorine in swimming pool on fertility. Higher women awareness may be related to their higher sensitivity for fertility. Also, generally a higher level of awareness was observed relating to mobile, air pollution, stress, fast foods, smoking and alcohol. Women have a higher level of awareness about infertility risk factors. Higher awareness about some IRFs may be results from widespread media coverage.

  4. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  5. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  6. Frequency Of Different Risk Factors Associated With Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Among Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Sadia; Mahmud, Syed Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection is one of the most common infections encountered by women. These infections have the tendency to recur. In order to identify women at risk of recurrence there is a need to identify risk factors associated with it. Among women, factors predisposing to recurrent infections are not much explored. The study was done with an objective to determine different risk factors associated with recurrent UTI among postmenopausal women. This was a cross sectional study conducted at the Out Patient Department of Nephrology in Shifa International Hospital Islamabad over a period of six months, June 6th to December 5th 2012. Information regarding demographics and risk factors were recorded on a predesigned pro forma. A descriptive analysis was done for quantitative variables like age and qualitative variables like marital status and frequency of different risk factors. Stratification of risk factors according to age was also done. Hundred females were enrolled into the study after informed consent. The mean age of the study population was 64.4±9.48. 97% of the population was married. Out of 100 patients, 42 had high post-void volume, 35 had urinary incontinence and 17 patients were having cystocele. According to age stratification, most frequently affected age group was between 51-60 years (38%), followed by 61-70 years (36%), then 25% in more than 70 years, whereas only 1% was between 41-50 years. Recurrent UTI in postmenopausal females is most frequently associated with high post void volume and most frequently affected age group is between 51-60 years.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection among Postmenopausal Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameel, S.; Mahmud, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infection is one of the most common infections encountered by women. These infections have the tendency to recur. In order to identify women at risk of recurrence there is a need to identify risk factors associated with it. Among women, factors predisposing to recurrent infections are not much explored. The study was done with an objective to determine different risk factors associated with recurrent UTI among postmenopausal women. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at the Out Patient Department of Nephrology in Shifa International Hospital Islamabad over a period of six months, June 6th to December 5th 2012. Information regarding demographics and risk factors were recorded on a predesigned proforma. A descriptive analysis was done for quantitative variables like age and qualitative variables like marital status and frequency of different risk factors. Stratification of risk factors according to age was also done. Results: Hundred females were enrolled into the study after informed consent. The mean age of the study population was 64.4±9.48. 97 percent of the population was married. Out of 100 patients, 42 had high post-void volume, 35 had urinary incontinence and 17 patients were having cystocele. According to age stratification, most frequently affected age group was between 51-60 years (38 percent), followed by 61-70 years (36 percent), then 25 percent in more than 70 years, whereas only 1 percent was between 41-50 years. Conclusion: Recurrent UTI in postmenopausal females is most frequently associated with high post void volume and most frequently affected age group is between 51-60 years. (author)

  8. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. CONCLUSION: No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer....

  9. [Evaluation of risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Omodei, Michelle Sako; Cangussu, Luciana Mendes; Nahas-Neto, Jorge

    2013-11-01

    It was to evaluate the frequency and the risk factors of falls in early postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 women (age: 45-65 years and amenorrhea >12 months) with time since menopause fall was identified as an unexpected unintentional change in position which causes an individual to remain in a lower level in relation to the initial position. The history of self-reported falls during the previous 24 months, and clinical and anthropometric data (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) and bone densitometric measures were analyzed. For statistical analysis, c² trend test and the logistic regression method (odds ratio (OR)) were used for the comparison between groups of women with and without falls. Of the 358 women, 48.0% (172/358) had a history of falls and 17.4% (30/172) had fractures. The fall occurred indoors (at home) in 58.7% (101/172). The mean age was 53.7 ± 6.5 years, time since menopause 5.8 ± 3.5 years, BMI 28.3 ± 4.6 kg/m² and WC 89.0 ± 11.4 cm. There were differences as the occurrence of smoking and diabetes, with greater frequency among fallers vs. non-fallers, 25.6 versus 16.1% and 12.8 versus 5.9%, respectively (prisk of falls in the presence of influential variables, it was observed that risk increased with current smoking status (OR 1.93; 95%CI 1.01-3.71), whereas other clinical and anthropometric variables did not influence this risk. In early postmenopausal women there was higher frequency of falls. Current smoking was clinical indicators of risk for falls. With the recognition of factors for falling, preventive measures become important, as the orientation of abolishing smoking.

  10. Managing Heavy Menstrual Bleeding in Women at Risk of Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, Andrew; James, Andra H

    2018-06-01

    Management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in a woman with a history of thrombosis, or who is otherwise at high risk of thrombosis, or who takes medications for anticoagulation can present a challenge to health care providers. The goal of treating HMB is to reduce menstrual blood loss. First-line therapy is typically hormonal, and hormonal therapy can be contraindicated in women with a history of thrombosis unless they are on anticoagulation. As 70% of women on anticoagulation experience HMB, successful management of HMB may involve a modification in the anticoagulation or antiplatelet regimen, hormonal therapy tailored to the patient's situation, and/or surgical therapy.

  11. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women. © 2016 UICC.

  12. Risk factors for preterm premature rupture of membranes in Chinese women from urban cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Weiyuan; Xu, Huan; Liang, Huan; Ruan, Yan; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, Xiaotian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in urban areas in China and examine the associated risk factors. A population-based, prospective study was undertaken in 14 cities in China between January 1, 2011, and January 31, 2012. Women were recruited at their first prenatal-care visit, when maternal characteristics were recorded. Risk factors were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. Of 112 439 women included in analyses, 3077 (2.7%) had PPROM. Univariate analysis showed an increased risk of PPROM before 28weeks of pregnancy in migrant women (odds ratio [OR] 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.53-3.30; P<0.001), in those with a history of recurrent induced abortions (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.66-4.56; P<0.001), and in those with a history of preterm birth (OR 3.90; 95% CI 0.77-19.61; P<0.001). The associations were maintained in multivariate analysis (P<0.001). Migration as a result of urbanization, high rates of induced abortion, and preterm birth are potential risk factors for PPROM in Chinese women. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceptions of risk and risk management among 735 women who opted for a home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Christensson, Kyllike; Wally-Bystrom, Kristina; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2010-04-01

    home birth is not included in the Swedish health-care system and the rate for planned home births is less than one in a thousand. The aim of this study was to describe women's perceptions of risk related to childbirth and the strategies for managing these perceived risks. a nationwide study including all women who had given birth at home in Sweden was conducted between 1 January 1992 and 31 July 2005. a total of 735 women had given birth to 1038 children. Of the 1038 questionnaires sent to the women, 1025 (99%) were returned. two open questions regarding risk related to childbirth and two questions answered using a scale were investigated by content analysis. regarding perceived risks about hospital birth, three categories, all related to loss of autonomy, were identified: (1) being in the hands of strangers; (2) being in the hands of routines and unnecessary interventions; and (3) being in the hands of structural conditions. Perceived risks related to a home birth were associated with a sense of being beyond help: (1) worst-case scenario; and (2) distance to the hospital. The perceived risks were managed by using extrovert activities and introvert behaviour, and by avoiding discussions concerning risks with health-care professionals. women who plan for a home birth in Sweden do consider risks related to childbirth but they avoid talking about the risks with health-care professionals. to understand why women choose to give birth at home, health-care professionals must learn about the perceived beneficial effect of doing so. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  15. Awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors among women in Malaysia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Soon Lean; Abdul Wahab, Syakirah Bainun; Chiu, Lim Bee; Yusuf, Azlina

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is recognized as the fourth leading cancer in Malaysia. However, women do not always seek help in a timely manner and gaps in awareness may influence screening uptake and presentation. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors in female population in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Penang, Malaysia from January until February 2014. Eighty-seven women were selected by convenient sampling. Awareness of risk factors of ovarian cancer was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square test for the association between socio-demographic data and awareness. A p value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. In all, 74.7% of participants answered correctly for the risk factor of increasing age, although 94.3% were unaware of increased risk of tall women. A majority, 71.3%, had a low level of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors. There was a significant association between age and knowledge (p=0.047). Additionally, there was a significant association between higher education level and level of awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors (p=0.039). This study revealed that awareness of ovarian cancer risk factors among Malaysian women is low. The results show a need for improved public understanding about ovarian cancer risks and provision of important information for health professionals about initiatives needed for future awareness, prevention and screening programs.

  16. Lifestyle behaviors and ethnic identity among diverse women at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Kubo, Ai; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Hedderson, Monique M; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2016-07-01

    Diet and physical activity lifestyle behaviors are modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes and are shaped by culture, potentially influencing diabetes health disparities. We examined whether ethnic identity-the strength of attachment to one's ethnic group, and a long-standing focus of psychological research-could help account for variations in lifestyle behaviors within a diverse population at high risk for chronic disease. Using data from the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms trial, this US-based cross-sectional study included 1463 pregnant women (74% from minority ethnic/racial groups; 46% born outside the US) with gestational diabetes (GDM), a common pregnancy complication conferring high risk for type 2 diabetes after delivery. Mixed linear regression models examined whether ethnic identity is associated with lifestyle behaviors after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and acculturative characteristics (e.g., nativity and length of residence in the US). In the overall sample, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 3% greater fiber intake, 4% greater fruit/vegetable intake, 11% greater total activity, and 11% greater walking (p values ethnic/racial groups, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 17% greater fiber intake among Filipina women; 5% lower total caloric intake among non-Hispanic White women; and 40% greater total activity, 35% greater walking, and 8% greater total caloric intake among Latina women (p values ≤ 0.03). Results from this large study suggest that ethnic group attachment is associated with some lifestyle behaviors, independent of acculturation indicators, among young women with GDM who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Stronger ethnic identity may promote certain choices known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective research is needed to clarify the temporal nature of associations between ethnic identity and

  17. Interaction between common breast cancer susceptibility variants, genetic ancestry, and nongenetic risk factors in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Laura; Stern, Mariana C; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna R; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Slattery, Martha L

    2015-11-01

    Most genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk have been discovered in women of European ancestry, and only a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted in minority groups. This research disparity persists in post-GWAS gene-environment interaction analyses. We tested the interaction between hormonal and lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer, and ten GWAS-identified SNPs among 2,107 Hispanic women with breast cancer and 2,587 unaffected controls, to gain insight into a previously reported gene by ancestry interaction in this population. We estimated genetic ancestry with a set of 104 ancestry-informative markers selected to discriminate between Indigenous American and European ancestry. We used logistic regression models to evaluate main effects and interactions. We found that the rs13387042-2q35(G/A) SNP was associated with breast cancer risk only among postmenopausal women who never used hormone therapy [per A allele OR: 0.94 (95% confidence intervals, 0.74-1.20), 1.20 (0.94-1.53), and 1.49 (1.28-1.75) for current, former, and never hormone therapy users, respectively, Pinteraction 0.002] and premenopausal women who breastfed >12 months [OR: 1.01 (0.72-1.42), 1.19 (0.98-1.45), and 1.69 (1.26-2.26) for never, 12 months breastfeeding, respectively, Pinteraction 0.014]. The correlation between genetic ancestry, hormone replacement therapy use, and breastfeeding behavior partially explained a previously reported interaction between a breast cancer risk variant and genetic ancestry in Hispanic women. These results highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between genetic ancestry, genetics, and nongenetic risk factors and their contribution to breast cancer risk. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Fracture risk is decreased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Glintborg, Dorte; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia may protect against osteoporosis, whereas amenorrhea, increased cortisol, and low growth hormone may be associated with higher fracture risk in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate fracture risk in PCOS. MATERIAL/METHODS: PCOS...... be greater in women who have not yet reached peak bone mass. Reduced participation in sports activities was probably not the reason for the reduced risk of fractures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... Denmark: Women with PCOS and/or hirsutism were identified in the Danish National Patient Register (1995-2012). Each patient was assigned three age-matched controls on the index date of PCOS diagnosis. Individuals with a previous endocrine diagnosis were excluded. Within PCOS Denmark, we embedded a well......-characterized subcohort of patients, PCOS OUH, diagnosed with PCOS at Odense University Hospital (n = 1,217). We identified incident fractures by ICD-10 codes and used conditional Cox regression analysis to compare fracture risk. RESULTS: PCOS Denmark: 19,199 women with PCOS and 57,483 controls were included, mean age 30...

  19. Assessing population exposure for landslide risk analysis using dasymetric cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ricardo A. C.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Zezere, Jose L.

    2015-04-01

    Exposed Population is a major topic that needs to be taken into account in a full landslide risk analysis. Usually, risk analysis is based on an accounting of inhabitants number or inhabitants density, applied over statistical or administrative terrain units, such as NUTS or parishes. However, this kind of approach may skew the obtained results underestimating the importance of population, mainly in territorial units with predominance of rural occupation. Furthermore, the landslide susceptibility scores calculated for each terrain unit are frequently more detailed and accurate than the location of the exposed population inside each territorial unit based on Census data. These drawbacks are not the ideal setting when landslide risk analysis is performed for urban management and emergency planning. Dasymetric cartography, which uses a parameter or set of parameters to restrict the spatial distribution of a particular phenomenon, is a methodology that may help to enhance the resolution of Census data and therefore to give a more realistic representation of the population distribution. Therefore, this work aims to map and to compare the population distribution based on a traditional approach (population per administrative terrain units) and based on dasymetric cartography (population by building). The study is developed in the Region North of Lisbon using 2011 population data and following three main steps: i) the landslide susceptibility assessment based on statistical models independently validated; ii) the evaluation of population distribution (absolute and density) for different administrative territorial units (Parishes and BGRI - the basic statistical unit in the Portuguese Census); and iii) the dasymetric population's cartography based on building areal weighting. Preliminary results show that in sparsely populated administrative units, population density differs more than two times depending on the application of the traditional approach or the dasymetric

  20. Comparison of Health Behaviors Among Women Brothel Workers to Those of the General Population of Women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Arnfred, Anders; Algren, Maria Holst

    2016-01-01

    of wanting to quit smoking was lower. The prevalence rates of exceeding the Danish high-risk level of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and illicit drug use were higher among women brothel workers compared to Danish women. The prevalence of underweight was higher and overweight and obesity lower among...... brothel workers compared to Danish women. These differences were significant when adjusted for age and educational level. We noted few differences regarding dietary habits and no differences regarding physical activity. Our findings suggest the need for health promotion initiatives, particularly...... for smoking, alcohol consumption and drug use, targeted at women brothel workers....

  1. Twins less frequent than expected among male births in risk averse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasek, Deborah; Goodman, Julia; Gemmill, Alison; Falconi, April; Hartig, Terry; Magganas, Aristotle; Catalano, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Male twin gestations exhibit higher incidence of fetal morbidity and mortality than singleton gestations. From an evolutionary perspective, the relatively high rates of infant and child mortality among male twins born into threatening environments reduce the fitness of these gestations, making them more vulnerable to fetal loss. Women do not perceive choosing to spontaneously abort gestations although the outcome may result from estimates, made without awareness, of the risks of continuing a pregnancy. Here, we examine whether the non-conscious decisional biology of gestation can be linked to conscious risk aversion. We test this speculation by measuring the association between household surveys in Sweden that gauge financial risk aversion in the population and the frequency of twins among live male births. We used time-series regression methods to estimate our suspected associations and Box-Jenkins modeling to ensure that autocorrelation did not confound the estimation or reduce its efficiency. We found, consistent with theory, that financial risk aversion in the population correlates inversely with the odds of a twin among Swedish males born two months later. The odds of a twin among males fell by approximately 3.5% two months after unexpectedly great risk aversion in the population. This work implies that shocks that affect population risk aversion carry implications for fetal loss in vulnerable twin pregnancies.

  2. Body fat distribution and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition in Norfolk cohort: a population-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canoy, Dexter; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Bingham, Sheila; Buchan, Iain; Day, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2007-01-01

    Body fat distribution has been cross-sectionally associated with atherosclerotic disease risk factors, but the prospective relation with coronary heart disease remains uncertain. We examined the prospective relation between fat distribution indices and coronary heart disease among 24,508 men and

  3. Plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid and C-reactive protein, and risk of future coronary artery disease, in apparently healthy men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Meuwese, Marijn C.; Day, Nicholas E.; Luben, Robert; Welch, Ailsa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of ascorbic acid, a marker of fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with low risk of coronary artery disease. Whether this relationship is explained by a reduction in systemic inflammation is unclear. We investigated the relationship between ascorbic acid plasma

  4. Body fatness and breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; McCann, Susan E; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, while increasing risk in postmenopausal women. However, the current evidence is largely based on studies in Caucasian populations. Associations in women of African ancestry (AA), who have a higher prevalence of obesity, have been evaluated in few studies and results suggest different effects. We evaluated the impact of body size, body fat distribution, and body composition on breast cancer risk among AA women (978 cases and 958 controls) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a multi-site case–control study in New York City (NYC) and New Jersey (NJ). Cases were newly diagnosed with histologically confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer, age 20–75 yrs. In NYC, cases were recruited through hospitals with the largest referral patterns for AA women and controls through random digit dialing (RDD). In NJ, cases were identified in seven counties in NJ thorough the NJ State Cancer Registry, and controls through RDD and community-based recruitment. During in-person interviews, questionnaires were administered and detailed anthropometric measurements were obtained. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. BMI did not have a major impact on pre- or post-menopausal breast cancer, but was significantly associated with reduced risk of ER-/PR- tumors among postmenopausal women (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.15-0.96 for BMI > 30 vs. BMI < 25). Furthermore, increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was found for higher waist and hip circumferences after adjusting for BMI, with ORs of 2.25 (95% CI: 1.07-4.74) and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.39-6.10), respectively, comparing the highest vs. lowest quartile. While ORs for higher fat mass and percent body fat among postmenopausal women were above one, confidence intervals included the null value. Our study suggests that in AA women BMI is generally unrelated to breast cancer. However, higher

  5. Evaluation of Lay Support in Pregnant women with Social risk (ELSIPS: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Sara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes are worse in families from black and ethnic minority groups and disadvantaged backgrounds. There is little evidence on whether lay support improves maternal and infant outcomes among women with complex social needs within a disadvantaged multi-ethnic population in the United Kingdom (UK. Method/Design The aim of this study is to evaluate a lay Pregnancy Outreach Worker (POW service for nulliparous women identified as having social risk within a maternity service that is systematically assessing social risks alongside the usual obstetric and medical risks. The study design is a randomised controlled trial (RCT in nulliparous women assessed as having social risk comparing standard maternity care with the addition of referral to the POW support service. The POWs work alongside community midwifery teams and offer individualised support to women to encourage engagement with services (health and social care from randomisation (before 28 weeks gestation until 6 weeks after birth. The primary outcomes have been chosen on the basis that they are linked to maternal and infant health. The two primary outcomes are engagement with antenatal care, assessed by the number of antenatal visits; and maternal depression, assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8-12 weeks after birth. Secondary outcomes include maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, routine child health assessments, including immunisation uptake and breastfeeding at 6 weeks. Other psychological outcomes (self efficacy and mother-to-infant bonding will also be collected using validated tools. A sample size of 1316 will provide 90% power (at the 5% significance level to detect increased engagement with antenatal services of 1.5 visits and a reduction of 1.5 in the average EPDS score for women with two or more social risk factors, with power in excess of this for women with any social risk factor. Analysis will

  6. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  7. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  8. Intimate partner violence among women with mental health-related activity limitations: a Canadian population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tonia

    2014-01-18

    There is strong evidence that women with serious or chronic mental illness experience higher rates of violence than women in the general population. Our objective was to examine the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV), a form of violence that is often recurrent and linked to negative physical and psychological consequences, among a representative sample of non-institutionalized women with activity limitations (ALs) due to a mental health condition. Data from the 2009 General Social Survey were used, a national, population-based, cross-sectional survey. The sample included 6851 women reporting contact with a current or former partner in the previous five years, of whom 322 (4.7%) reported a mental health-related AL always/often or sometimes. The prevalence of any type of IPV was highest among women with mental health-related ALs always/often (54.4%), followed by women reporting ALs sometimes (49.9%), and those reporting no ALs (18.3%, p mental health-related ALs always/often and sometimes, but were lower among those reporting no ALs (20.2%, 20.9%, 5.9%, p social capital variables, including perceptions of having experienced discrimination, a weak sense of belonging in their local community, and low trust toward family members and strangers were also significantly associated with having experienced IPV. Findings suggest that women with mental health-related ALs may be at increased risk of IPV. Health and social service providers may need, therefore, to better target prevention and intervention initiatives to this population.

  9. Identifying cost-effective treatment with raloxifene in postmenopausal women using risk algorithms for fractures and invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivergård, M; Ström, O; Borgström, F; Burge, R T; Tosteson, A N A; Kanis, J

    2010-11-01

    The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) recommends considering treatment in women with a 20% or higher 10-year probability of a major fracture. However, raloxifene reduces both the risk of vertebral fractures and invasive breast cancer so that raloxifene treatment may be clinically appropriate and cost-effective in women who do not meet a 20% threshold risk. The aim of this study was to identify cost-effective scenarios of raloxifene treatment compared to no treatment in younger postmenopausal women at increased risk of invasive breast cancer and fracture risks below 20%. A micro-simulation model populated with data specific to American Caucasian women was used to quantify the costs and benefits of 5-year raloxifene treatment. The population evaluated was selected based on 10-year major fracture probability as estimated with FRAX® being below 20% and 5-year invasive breast cancer risk as estimated with the Gail risk model ranging from 1% to 5%. The cost per QALY gained ranged from US $22,000 in women age 55 with 5% invasive breast cancer risk and 15-19.9% fracture probability, to $110,000 in women age 55 with 1% invasive breast cancer risk and 5-9.9% fracture probability. Raloxifene was progressively cost-effective with increasing fracture risk and invasive breast cancer risk for a given age cohort. At lower fracture risk in combination with lower invasive breast cancer risk or when no preventive raloxifene effect on invasive breast cancer was assumed, the cost-effectiveness of raloxifene worsened markedly and was not cost-effective given a willingness-to-pay of US $50,000. At fracture risk of 15-19.9% raloxifene was cost-effective also in women at lower invasive breast cancer risk. Raloxifene is potentially cost-effective in cohorts of young postmenopausal women, who do not meet the suggested NOF 10-year fracture risk threshold. The cost-effectiveness is contingent on their 5-year invasive breast cancer risk. The result highlights the importance of considering

  10. Relationship power and sexual risk among women in community-based substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Dworkin, Shari L; Hu, Mei-Chen; Manuel, Jennifer; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V

    2009-11-01

    Relationship power has been highlighted as a major factor influencing women's safer sex practices. Little research, however, has specifically examined relationship power in drug-involved women, a population with increased risk for HIV transmission. Using baseline data from a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network multisite trial of a women's HIV prevention intervention in community-based drug treatment programs, this paper examined the association between sexual relationship power and unprotected vaginal or anal sex. The Sexual Relationship Power Scale, a measure of relationship control and decision-making dominance, was used to assess the association between power and unprotected sex in relationships with primary male partners. It was hypothesized that increased relationship power would be associated with decreased unprotected sexual occasions, after controlling for relevant empirical and theoretical covariates. Findings show a more complex picture of the association between power and sexual risk in this population, with a main effect in the hypothesized direction for decision-making dominance but not for relationship control. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, and future research directions for examining power constructs and developing interventions targeting relationship power among drug-involved women are suggested.

  11. Low acceptance of HSV-2 testing among high-risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A M; Dodge, B M; Van Der Pol, B; Reece, M; Zimet, G D

    2011-06-01

    We evaluated the acceptability of a community-based herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) screening programme for at-risk women and assessed factors related to uptake of point of care HSV-2 testing. One hundred recently arrested women (median age 34 years) were recruited from a community court handling lower-level misdemeanour cases in Indianapolis, Indiana. Individuals completed a survey assessing factors related to HSV-2 screening intentions and were offered point of care HSV-2 testing. Rates of HSV-2 infection in this population are high; 61.1% of women tested were positive. The majority (81%) accepted a prescription for suppressive therapy. Women in this sample indicated that HSV-2 screening is an important component of health care but were unwilling to pay the US$10 it cost to be tested. To encourage this and other high-risk populations to be screened for HSV-2, public health resources will be needed to help individuals overcome cost-related barriers to care.

  12. Awareness of Risk Factors for Breast, Lung and Cervical Cancer in a UK Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M; Lane, Emily L

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to identify levels of risk awareness for breast, lung and cervical cancer, in a UK student population. A sample of male (N=62) and female (N=58) university students, mean age 21.62 years completed a questionnaire identifying which risk factors they knew for each cancer. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences in risk awareness across gender and cancer types. Risk factor awareness was highest for lung cancer (0.78), mid-range for breast cancer (0.61) and lowest for cervical cancer (0.47). Women had greater risk factor awareness (0.67) than males (0.57) across all three cancers. There is also significant belief in mythic risk factors such as stress (from 14 to 40% across the three cancers). Previous research has demonstrated that risk factor awareness increases with educational status, yet even in a university student population, in which the majority of females would have been offered the HPV vaccination, risk factor awareness for cancers is variable. More health education is needed particularly around the risk factors for cervical cancer.

  13. Discrimination and sexual risk among young urban pregnant women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Jessica B; Lewis, Tené T; Reid, Allecia E; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2014-01-01

    Discrimination predicts increased risk for many negative health outcomes, helping explain a variety of racial and socioeconomic health disparities. Recent research suggests discrimination may play a role in disparities in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs); however, this research has focused on risk behaviors and has yet to establish a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis specifically. This investigation tested whether discrimination predicted condom use, risky sexual partners, and self-reported STI diagnosis among a population disproportionately affected by HIV and STIs in the U.S.: young, pregnant, socioeconomically disadvantaged, women of color. During second and third trimesters, 885 mostly Latina and Black pregnant women, 14-21 years old, attending 14 hospitals and health centers in New York City for prenatal care, completed interviews. Greater discrimination during second trimester predicted greater odds of STI diagnosis and having a risky sexual partner during third trimester, but not condom use. Whether discrimination was attributed to race, identifying as Black, or identifying as Latina did not moderate effects. This is the first investigation establishing a link between discrimination and STI diagnosis, not just risk behavior. It does so among a sample of at-risk, young, pregnant, women of color. Findings suggest implications for sexual risk during pregnancy and across the life span, and risks for the pregnancy and fetus. It is vital to reduce discrimination to eliminate disparities in HIV and STIs. Future research should continue examining the role of discrimination in sexual risk among different populations and work to uncover potential mechanisms. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Reproductive and Hormonal Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Blind Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockley, Steven W

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological observations indicate that breast cancer risk is lower in visually impaired women compared to sighted women and that the risk is inversely correlated with degree of visual impairment...

  15. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    ... in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  16. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    ... skills in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  17. Vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a cross-sectional study among women of six different ethnicities in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: the HELIUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, C. J.; Vos, R. A.; Borgdorff, H.; Vermeulen, W.; van Bergen, J.; Bruisten, S. M.; Geerlings, S. E.; Snijder, M. B.; van Houdt, R.; Morré, S. A.; de Vries, H. J. C.; van de Wijgert, J. H. H. M.; Prins, M. [= Maria; Schim van der Loeff, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands the incidence of cervical cancer is higher among ethnic minority populations compared with the general Dutch population. We investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, vaginal high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection in women of six different

  18. Low bone density risk is higher in exercising women with multiple triad risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Nattiv, Aurelia; Barrack, Michelle T; Williams, Nancy I; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nichols, Jeanne F; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    The cumulative effect of the female athlete triad (Triad) risk factors on the likelihood of low bone mineral density (BMD) in exercising women is unclear. This study aimed to determine the risk of low BMD in exercising women with multiple Triad risk factors. We retrospectively examined cross-sectional data from 437 exercising women (mean ± SD age of 18.0 ± 3.5 yr, weighed 57.5 ± 7.1 kg with 24.5% ± 6.1% body fat) obtained at baseline from 4 prospective cohort studies examining Triad risk factors. Questionnaires were completed to obtain information on demographic characteristics, self-reported eating attitudes/behaviors, menstrual function, sport/activity participation, and medication use. Height and body weight were measured. BMD was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as z-scores of exercising women. Further research should be conducted to develop a user-friendly algorithm integrating these indicators of risk for low BMD in exercising women (particularly factors associated with low BMI/body weight, menstrual dysfunction, lean sport/activity participation, and elevated dietary restraint).

  19. Preeclampsia as a risk factor for diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denice S Feig

    Full Text Available Women with preeclampsia (PEC and gestational hypertension (GH exhibit insulin resistance during pregnancy, independent of obesity and glucose intolerance. Our aim was to determine whether women with PEC or GH during pregnancy have an increased risk of developing diabetes after pregnancy, and whether the presence of PEC/GH in addition to gestational diabetes (GDM increases the risk of future (postpartum diabetes.We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study for 1,010,068 pregnant women who delivered in Ontario, Canada between April 1994 and March 2008. Women were categorized as having PEC alone (n=22,933, GH alone (n=27,605, GDM alone (n=30,852, GDM+PEC (n=1,476, GDM+GH (n=2,100, or none of these conditions (n=925,102. Our main outcome was a new diagnosis of diabetes postpartum in the following years, up until March 2011, based on new records in the Ontario Diabetes Database. The incidence rate of diabetes per 1,000 person-years was 6.47 for women with PEC and 5.26 for GH compared with 2.81 in women with neither of these conditions. In the multivariable analysis, both PEC alone (hazard ratio [HR]=2.08; 95% CI 1.97-2.19 and GH alone (HR=1.95; 95% CI 1.83-2.07 were risk factors for subsequent diabetes. Women with GDM alone were at elevated risk of developing diabetes postpartum (HR=12.77; 95% CI 12.44-13.10; however, the co-presence of PEC or GH in addition to GDM further elevated this risk (HR=15.75; 95% CI 14.52-17.07, and HR=18.49; 95% CI 17.12-19.96, respectively. Data on obesity were not available.Women with PEC/GH have a 2-fold increased risk of developing diabetes when followed up to 16.5 years after pregnancy, even in the absence of GDM. The presence of PEC/GH in the setting of GDM also raised the risk of diabetes significantly beyond that seen with GDM alone. A history of PEC/GH during pregnancy should alert clinicians to the need for preventative counseling and more vigilant screening for diabetes. Please see later in the

  20. Epidemiology and risk factors HTLV virus infection in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  1. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS HTLV VIRUS INFECTION IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriella Silva Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.

  2. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  3. [Fall risk assessment in regular exercising elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Reiko; Kozaki, Koichi; Kawashima, Yumiko; Iwata, Akiko; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Igata, Akihiro; Toba, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    Fall prevention is important for elderly people to maintain their functional independence. We made a longitudinal fall-risk assessment using our "Fall-predicting score" of women who are 60 years or older and who exercised regularly. We sent "fall-predicting questionnaires" to 632 elderly women aged 60 years or older (mean 65.0+/-4.3), members of "Miishima gymnastics program", and asked about their fall history of falling in the past year in 2004 and 2005. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine the future risk factor of falling in 2005. The number of people who fell was 134 (21.2%) in 2004 and 121 (19.1%) in 2005. The number of people who fell decreased in the seventh decade, but increased in the eighth decade, and members for 6-10 years showed most decreased fall rates. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, falls in 2004, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", and "walk steep slope around the house" were significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005". Logistic regression analysis of non-fallers in 2004 showed that age and "tripping" were the significant independent risk factors of "falls in 2005", and the analysis of people who fell in 2004 showed that age, "tripping", "cannot squeeze a towel", "walk steep slope around the house", and "taking more than 5 medicines" were significant independent risk factors for falls in 2005. In regular exercising elderly women, exercise appears to prevent falls in people in the seventh decade and in the members of 6-10 years. Age, past history of falls, and fall-predicting questionnaire were important risk predictors of future falls.

  4. Hypovitaminosis D and Associated Cardiometabolic Risk in Women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjukta; Das, Ashok Kumar; Das, Swarnalata

    2016-05-01

    Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Accumulating evidences suggest that Vitamin D deficiency is common in PCOS and may be associated with metabolic and endocrinal dysfunctions in PCOS. Thus women with PCOS may be at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Present study aims to evaluate Vitamin D status and to assess its association with metabolic and endocrinal dysregulations in women with PCOS, which might help in early identification and prevention of future symptomatic cardiac disease. A total of 44 women with PCOS, diagnosed by Rotterdam criteria and 45 healthy control without PCOS, were evaluated for Vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors, including fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hs-CRP. That apart, several endocrinal parameters of hyperandrogenism were also examined. Several correlation studies were determined to establish the role of Vitamin D as a cardiometabolic risk factor in PCOS. Results were expressed as mean±SD and were statistically analysed using SPSS software version 16, unpaired student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. We found lower levels of Vitamin D, which was statistically significant as compared to healthy controls. Hyperinsulinemia, rise in insulin resistance and marked dyslipidemia was observed in the present study. Another relevant finding was significant correlation of Vitamin D with insulin and Homeostatic Model of Assessment- Insulin Resistance Index (HOMA-IR). Hypovitaminosis D was prevalent in PCOS. This was related to metabolic and hormonal disorders in PCOS. Possibly this combined with impaired fasting glucose, IR and dyslipidemia, could account for Cardio vascular risks in PCOS. Further prospective observational studies and randomized control trials are required to explore the above hypothesis.

  5. Association between parity and risk of suicide among parous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2010-04-06

    There are limited empirical data to support the theory of a protective effect of parenthood against suicide, as proposed by Durkheim in 1897. I conducted this study to examine whether there is an association between parity and risk of death from suicide among women. The study cohort consisted of 1,292,462 women in Taiwan who had a first live birth between Jan. 1, 1978, and Dec. 31, 1987. The women were followed up from the date of their first birth to Dec. 31, 2007. Their vital status was ascertained by means of linking records with data from a computerized mortality database. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios of death from suicide associated with parity. There were 2252 deaths from suicide during 32 464 187 person-years of follow-up. Suicide-related mortality was 6.94 per 100,000 person-years. After adjustment for age at first birth, marital status, years of schooling and place of delivery, the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68) among women with two live births and 0.40 (95% CI 0.35-0.45) among those with three or more live births, compared with women who had one live birth. I observed a significantly decreasing trend in adjusted hazard ratios of suicide with increasing parity. This study provides evidence to support Durkheim's hypothesis that parenthood confers a protective effect against suicide.

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of Artemether and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarning Joel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in pregnancy increases the risk of maternal anemia, abortion and low birth weight. Approximately 85.3 million pregnancies occur annually in areas with Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Pregnancy has been reported to alter the pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarial drugs. Reduced drug exposure increases the risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin in pregnant women with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Uganda. Methods Twenty-one women with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy received the fixed oral combination of 80 mg artemether and 480 mg lumefantrine twice daily for three days. Artemether and dihydroartemisinin plasma concentrations after the last dose administration were quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass-spectroscopy. A simultaneous drug-metabolite population pharmacokinetic model for artemether and dihydroartemisinin was developed taking into account different disposition, absorption, error and covariate models. A separate modeling approach and a non-compartmental analysis (NCA were also performed to enable a comparison with literature values and different modeling strategies. Results The treatment was well tolerated and there were no cases of recurrent malaria. A flexible absorption model with sequential zero-order and transit-compartment absorption followed by a simultaneous one-compartment disposition model for both artemether and dihydroartemisinin provided the best fit to the data. Artemether and dihydroartemisinin exposure was lower than that reported in non-pregnant populations. An approximately four-fold higher apparent volume of distribution for dihydroartemisinin was obtained by non-compartmental analysis and separate modeling compared to that from simultaneous modeling of the drug

  7. Integrative Therapies for Women with a High Risk Pregnancy During Antepartum Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Merry L; Whalen, Jeanne L; Williamsen, Pilar M

    High-risk pregnancies that require lengthy hospitalization can cause anxiety and stress for pregnant women. Integrative medicine therapies may be beneficial for this population, but have not been widely studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential effects of acupuncture, guided imagery, Healing Touch, massage therapy, and reflexology on pain and anxiety of hospitalized pregnant women. A retrospective analysis of the effects of integrative medicine therapies was conducted; N = 554 individual therapies were provided to hospitalized women with high-risk pregnancies. They included acupuncture (n = 83), guided imagery (n = 71), Healing Touch (n = 119), massage therapy (n = 196), and reflexology (n = 85) over an 18-month period. Pain and anxiety were measured pre- and posttherapy using a scale of 0 to 10, where 0 means no pain or no anxiety and 10 means high pain or high anxiety. Analysis of mean scores of pre- and posttherapies for pain and anxiety found a decrease of pain and anxiety after all of the therapies, ranging from an 84.5% to 61.4% decrease for pain (p < .0001) and a 91% to 70. 9% decrease for anxiety (p < .0001). Overall, patients rated their anxiety higher than pain prior to each therapy. Hospitalized pregnant women responded favorably to the therapies. There were no adverse reactions reported. Results suggest potential benefits of integrative medicine therapies for this group of inpatients. Anxiety was more prevalent than pain among hospitalized pregnant women who received integrative medicine therapy.

  8. Nonfasting Triglycerides and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Context The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. Recently, a strong association was found between elevated levels of nonfasting triglycerides, which indicate the presence of remnant lipoproteins, and increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Objective To test...... the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants The Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective, Danish population - based cohort study initiated in 1976, with follow- up through July 2007....... Participants were 13 956 men and women aged 20 through 93 years. A cross- sectional study included 9637 individuals attending the 1991- 1994 examination of the prospective study. Main Outcome Measures Prospective study: baseline levels of nonfasting triglycerides, other risk factors at baseline and at follow...

  9. Depression in Mongolian women over the first 2 months after childbirth: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, J I; Manaseki-Holland, S; Patel, V

    2009-07-01

    Social, political and economic changes in Mongolia have followed post-Soviet style government policies and contributed to both increased liberalisation and reduced security in employment and family finances. This is the first study to attempt to assess the prevalence of depression in a population of Mongolian women in the post-partum period and assess risk factors, including financial position, associated with the condition. A total of 1044 women who had delivered healthy babies in Ulaanbaatar between October and December 2002 were screened for depression using the WHO Self Reporting Questionnaire between 5 and 9 weeks post-partum. Further details on the mother, her family and social and economic circumstances were simultaneously collected. Analysis of risk factors for probable depression was undertaken using multiple logistic regression techniques. The prevalence of depression was 9.1% (95% CLs 7.5%-11.1%). Variables significantly and independently associated with risk of probable maternal depression included economic factors, mother being subject to physical abuse, dissatisfied with the pregnancy, concerned about her baby's behaviour, and her own health problems. The sample was drawn from a population of mothers all of whom had healthy, full-term babies of normal birth weight. Clinical confirmation of diagnosis was not established. Mongolian women with young infants in Ulaanbaatar probably experience depression at rates comparable with other cultures. Factors associated with probable depression were dominated by health, relationships and financial position.

  10. FRAX (Aus) and falls risk: Association in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Kara L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Lane, Stephen E; Brennan, Sharon L; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    The WHO fracture risk prediction tool (FRAX®) utilises clinical risk factors to estimate the probability of fracture over a 10-year period. Although falls increase fracture risk, they have not been incorporated into FRAX. It is currently unclear if FRAX captures falls risk and whether addition of falls would improve fracture prediction. We aimed to investigate the association of falls risk and Australian-specific FRAX. Clinical risk factors were documented for 735 men and 602 women (age 40-90 yr) assessed at follow-up (2006-2010 and 2000-2003, respectively) of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. FRAX scores with and without BMD were calculated. A falls risk score was determined at the time of BMD assessment and self-reported incident falls were documented from questionnaires returned one year later. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine: (i) cross-sectional association between FRAX scores and falls risk score (Elderly Falls Screening Test, EFST) and (ii) prospective relationship between FRAX and time to a fall. There was an association between FRAX (hip with BMD) and EFST scores (β = 0.07, p risk of incident falls increased with increasing FRAX (hip with BMD) score (unadjusted HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07). After adjustment for age and sex, the relationship became non-significant (1.01, 95% CI 0.97, 1.05). There is a weak positive correlation between FRAX and falls risk score, that is likely explained by the inclusion of age and sex in the FRAX model. These data suggest that FRAX score may not be a robust surrogate for falls risk and that inclusion of falls in fracture risk assessment should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Aortic Stiffness and Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Lekva

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in later life, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate indices of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and arterial stiffness (as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, in women with and without a history of GDM, using both the old WHO and new IADPSG diagnostic criteria, at 5 years after the index pregnancy. Dyslipidemia and PWV were used as surrogate markers for CVD risk. The population-based prospective cohort included 300 women from the original STORK study. All participants had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy. Five years later, the OGTT was repeated along with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid analysis, and PWV analysis. Measurements were compared between those women who did and did not have GDM based on both the WHO and IADPSG criteria. We found that women with GDM based on the old WHO criteria had higher CVD risk at 5 years than those without GDM, with markedly elevated PWV and more severe dyslipidemia (higher triglycerides (TG/HDL cholesterol ratio. After adjusting for known risk factors, the most important predictors for elevated PWV and TG/HDL-C ratio at 5-year follow-up were maternal age, BMI, GDM, systolic blood pressure, and indices of glucose metabolism in the index pregnancy. In conclusion, we found a higher risk for CVD, based on the surrogate markers PWV and TG/HDL-C ratio, at 5-year follow-up in women diagnosed with GDM in the index pregnancy when using the old WHO diagnostic criteria.

  12. Aortic Stiffness and Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekva, Tove; Bollerslev, Jens; Norwitz, Errol R; Aukrust, Pål; Henriksen, Tore; Ueland, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life, but the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate indices of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and arterial stiffness (as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV)), in women with and without a history of GDM, using both the old WHO and new IADPSG diagnostic criteria, at 5 years after the index pregnancy. Dyslipidemia and PWV were used as surrogate markers for CVD risk. The population-based prospective cohort included 300 women from the original STORK study. All participants had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy. Five years later, the OGTT was repeated along with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, lipid analysis, and PWV analysis. Measurements were compared between those women who did and did not have GDM based on both the WHO and IADPSG criteria. We found that women with GDM based on the old WHO criteria had higher CVD risk at 5 years than those without GDM, with markedly elevated PWV and more severe dyslipidemia (higher triglycerides (TG)/HDL cholesterol ratio). After adjusting for known risk factors, the most important predictors for elevated PWV and TG/HDL-C ratio at 5-year follow-up were maternal age, BMI, GDM, systolic blood pressure, and indices of glucose metabolism in the index pregnancy. In conclusion, we found a higher risk for CVD, based on the surrogate markers PWV and TG/HDL-C ratio, at 5-year follow-up in women diagnosed with GDM in the index pregnancy when using the old WHO diagnostic criteria.

  13. Pigmentation Traits, Sun Exposure, and Risk of Incident Vitiligo in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Rachel; Wu, Shaowei; Wilmer, Erin; Cho, Eunyoung; Li, Wen-Qing; Lajevardi, Newsha; Qureshi, Abrar

    2017-06-01

    Vitiligo is the most common cutaneous depigmentation disorder worldwide, yet little is known about specific risk factors for disease development. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 51,337 white women, we examined the associations between (i) pigmentary traits and (ii) reactions to sun exposure and risk of incident vitiligo. Nurses' Health Study participants responded to a question about clinician-diagnosed vitiligo and year of diagnosis (2001 or before, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, 2010-2011, or 2012+). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident vitiligo associated with exposures variables, adjusting for potential confounders. We documented 271 cases of incident vitiligo over 835,594 person-years. Vitiligo risk was higher in women who had at least one mole larger than 3 mm in diameter on their left arms (hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.83). Additionally, vitiligo risk was higher among women with better tanning ability (hazard ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.54) and in women who experienced at least one blistering sunburn (hazard ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-4.10). In this study, upper extremity moles, a higher ability to achieve a tan, and history of a blistering sunburn were associated with a higher risk of developing vitiligo in a population of white women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-12-30

    To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  16. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among women with vulvodynia: evidence from the population-based woman to woman health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Harlow, Siobán D; Reed, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    Psychological disorders may affect the pain experience of women with vulvodynia, but evidence remains limited. The present study aimed to describe the magnitude of the association of depression and posttraumautic stress disorder (PTSD) with the presence of vulvodynia in a nonclinical population from southeastern Michigan. Baseline data from 1,795 women participating in the Woman to Woman Health Study, a multiethnic population-based study, was used for this analysis. Validated screening questionnaires were conducted to assess vulvodynia, depression, and PTSD. Modified Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimation were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between vulvodynia status and two mental health conditions, depression and PTSD. In the adjusted models, women who screened positive for depression had a 53% higher prevalence of having vulvodynia (PR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.10) compared with women who screened negative for depression. Women who screened positive for PTSD had more than a two-fold increase in the prevalence of having vulvodynia (PR=2.37; 95% CI: 1.07, 5.25) compared with women who screened negative for PTSD. The increased prevalence of vulvodynia among those screening positive for depression or PTSD suggests that these disorders may contribute to the likelihood of reporting vulvodynia. Alternatively, vulvodynia, depression, and PTSD may have a common pathophysiological and risk profile. Prospective studies are needed to improve our understanding of the temporal relation between mental health conditions and vulvar pain.

  17. Vertigo and dizziness in adolescents: Risk factors and their population attributable risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippopulos, Filipp M; Albers, Lucia; Straube, Andreas; Gerstl, Lucia; Blum, Bernhard; Langhagen, Thyra; Jahn, Klaus; Heinen, Florian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Landgraf, Mirjam N

    2017-01-01

    To assess potential risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and to evaluate their variability by different vertigo types. The role of possible risk factors for vertigo and dizziness in adolescents and their population relevance needs to be addressed in order to design preventive strategies. The study population consisted of 1482 school-children between the age of 12 and 19 years, who were instructed to fill out a questionnaire on different vertigo types and related potential risk factors. The questionnaire specifically asked for any vertigo, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo, orthostatic dizziness, and unspecified dizziness. Further a wide range of potential risk factors were addressed including gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration, migraine, coffee and alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking. Gender, stress, muscular pain in the neck and shoulder region, sleep duration and migraine were identified as independent risk factors following mutual adjustment: The relative risk was 1.17 [1.10-1.25] for female sex, 1.07 [1.02-1.13] for stress, 1.24 [1.17-1.32] for muscular pain, and 1.09 [1.03-1.14] for migraine. The population attributable risk explained by these risk factors was 26%, with muscular pain, stress, and migraine accounting for 11%, 4%, and 3% respectively. Several established risk factors in adults were also identified in adolescents. Risk factors amenable to prevention accounted for 17% of the total population risk. Therefore, interventions targeting these risk factors may be warranted.

  18. Frequency and risk indicators of tooth decay among pregnant women in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women's medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations.

  19. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A

    1999-09-01

    Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.

  20. VTE Risk assessment - a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lothar Aj; Dominh, Thai; Assmann, Anita; Schramm, Wolfgang; Schürmann, Rolf; Hilpert, Jan; Spannagl, Michael

    2005-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER) study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18-55 years), was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993). The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. RESULTS: Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs). A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI) and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation). Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%), moderate risk (21.1%), high risk (6.0%), very high risk of future VTE (0.9%). In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our prognostic tool - containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data) - seems to be

  1. VTE Risk assessment – a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schürmann Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE. There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. Materials and methods A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18–55 years, was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993. The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. Results Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs. A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation. Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%, moderate risk (21.1%, high risk (6.0%, very high risk of future VTE (0.9%. In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. Conclusion Our prognostic tool – containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data

  2. Learning that circumcision is protective against HIV: risk compensation among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC) led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored. We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use. 34% of men (n=453) and 27% of women (n=690) had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (pwomen perceived lower HIV risk (pwomen but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.

  3. Correlates of Sex Trading among Drug-Involved Women in Committed Intimate Relationships: A Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    Despite a slight decline in new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in New York, marked increases and concentrated epidemics continue among subsets of the population, including women engaged in sex trading. We examined the prevalence and correlates of sex trading among 346 low-income, HIV-negative women in HIV-concordant intimate relationships. Women and their long-term main partners were recruited to participate in an HIV prevention intervention. Baseline data were used in this article. Of the 346 women in the study, 28% reported sex trading during the prior 90 days. Multivariate analyses showed increased relative risk of sex trading by lifetime experience of severe intimate partner violence (IPV), drug, and alcohol use, and marginal significance for mental health hospitalization, partner drug dependency, and homelessness. These findings suggest an urgent need for HIV prevention and intervention efforts targeted toward women in intimate relationships who trade sex for money or drugs, with an emphasis on IPV, mental health, history of incarceration, and substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (Pperiodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (Pperiodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  5. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with Endometriosis in Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Ashrafi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis affects women’s physical and mental wellbeing. Symptoms include dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and infertility. The purpose of this study is to assess the correlation between some relevant factors and symptoms and risk of an endometriosis diagnosis in infertile women. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 1282 surgical patients in an infertility Institute, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated by laparoscopy. Of these, there were 341 infertile women with endometriosis (cases and 332 infertile women with a normal pelvis (comparison group. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare these two groups. Logistic regression was done to build a prediction model for an endometriosis diagnosis. Results: Gravidity [odds ratio (OR: 0.8, confidence interval (CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01], parity (OR: 0.7, CI: 0.6-0.9, P=0.01, family history of endometriosis (OR: 4.9, CI: 2.1-11.3, P0.05. Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and premenstrual spotting were more significant among late-stage endometriosis patients than in those with early-stage endometriosis and more prevalent among patients with endometriosis than that of the comparison group. In the logistic regression model, gravidity, family history of endometriosis, history of galactorrhea, history of pelvic surgery, dysmenorrhoea, pelvic pain, dysparaunia, premenstrual spotting, fatigue, and diarrhea were significantly associated with endometriosis. However, the number of pregnancies was negatively related to endometriosis. Conclusion: Endometriosis is a considerable public health issue because it affects many women and is associated with the significant morbidity. In this study, we built a prediction model which can be used to predict the risk of endometriosis in infertile women.

  6. Black women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease compared with white women with PCOS [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer K; Johnson, Lauren N C; Limaye, Meghana; Feldman, Rebecca A; Sammel, Mary; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in white and black adolescents and adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with controls. Retrospective cohort study. Center for PCOS. Subjects with PCOS with data on race and cardiometabolic risk (n = 519). Controls were age and race matched from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population (1999-2006). None. MetSyn, coronary heart disease risk, and general CVD risk. Black adolescents and young adults with PCOS had an increased prevalence of MetSyn compared with their white counterparts (adolescents relative risk 2.65 [95% confidence interval 1.29-5.4], adults relative risk 1.44 [95% confidence interval 1.21-2.6]). In contrast, there was no difference in risk of MetSyn between black and white adolescents and adult women in the NHANES dataset. After controlling for age and body mass index, black women with PCOS had a significantly increased prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein and high glucose. The general CVD risk was significantly increased in black adults with PCOS. This is the first study to comprehensively demonstrate increased risk of MetSyn in both black adolescents and adult women with PCOS compared with white subjects with PCOS. This racial disparity was not present in the NHANES controls. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the independent impact of PCOS and race on CVD risk in women. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes

  8. Predation risk shapes social networks in fission-fusion populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley

    Full Text Available Predation risk is often associated with group formation in prey, but recent advances in methods for analysing the social structure of animal societies make it possible to quantify the effects of risk on the complex dynamics of spatial and temporal organisation. In this paper we use social network analysis to investigate the impact of variation in predation risk on the social structure of guppy shoals and the frequency and duration of shoal splitting (fission and merging (fusion events. Our analyses revealed that variation in the level of predation risk was associated with divergent social dynamics, with fish in high-risk populations displaying a greater number of associations with overall greater strength and connectedness than those from low-risk sites. Temporal patterns of organisation also differed according to predation risk, with fission events more likely to occur over two short time periods (5 minutes and 20 minutes in low-predation fish and over longer time scales (>1.5 hours in high-predation fish. Our findings suggest that predation risk influences the fine-scale social structure of prey populations and that the temporal aspects of organisation play a key role in defining social systems.

  9. Predation Risk Shapes Social Networks in Fission-Fusion Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Morrell, Lesley J.; Inskip, Chloe; Krause, Jens; Croft, Darren P.

    2011-01-01

    Predation risk is often associated with group formation in prey, but recent advances in methods for analysing the social structure of animal societies make it possible to quantify the effects of risk on the complex dynamics of spatial and temporal organisation. In this paper we use social network analysis to investigate the impact of variation in predation risk on the social structure of guppy shoals and the frequency and duration of shoal splitting (fission) and merging (fusion) events. Our analyses revealed that variation in the level of predation risk was associated with divergent social dynamics, with fish in high-risk populations displaying a greater number of associations with overall greater strength and connectedness than those from low-risk sites. Temporal patterns of organisation also differed according to predation risk, with fission events more likely to occur over two short time periods (5 minutes and 20 minutes) in low-predation fish and over longer time scales (>1.5 hours) in high-predation fish. Our findings suggest that predation risk influences the fine-scale social structure of prey populations and that the temporal aspects of organisation play a key role in defining social systems. PMID:21912627

  10. The TSH levels and risk of hypothyroidism: Results from a population based prospective cohort study in an Iranian adult's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Amini, Massoud; Feizi, Awat; Nasri, Maryam; Tabatabaei, Azamosadat; Faghihimani, Elham

    2017-06-01

    The aim of current study was to assess the relationship between serum TSH levels and hypothyroidism risk in the euthyroid population. In a population-based cohort study, a total of 615 individuals with a normal baseline TSH, from of total population (n=2254) in 2006, were followed up for 6years. TSH, total T4, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated based on logistic regression. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis along with area under the curve (AUC) was used to prediction of future hypothyroidism. TSH level in 2006 was a significant predictor for overt hypothyroidism, in the total population (RR=3.5) and female (RR=1.37) (all, P valuehypothyroidism from euthyroid. However, this cut off was not observed when we included only negative TPO and TgAbs people in 2006. The RR of hypothyroidism increased gradually when TSH level increased from 2.06-3.6mIU/L to >3.6mIU/L in the total population and both sexes. In women, the risk of overt hypothyroidism was significantly higher in subjects with TSH above 3.6 than those subject with THS levels≤2.05 [RR: (CI95 %), 20.57(2.-207.04), P valuehypothyroidism in future. However, it was not applicable for people with negative TPOAb and negative TgAb. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Learning that circumcision is protective against HIV: risk compensation among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    Full Text Available We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored.We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use.34% of men (n=453 and 27% of women (n=690 had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (p<0.10. Informed women perceived lower HIV risk (p<0.05, were less likely to use condoms both at last sex (p<0.10 and more generally (p<0.01, and more likely to forego condoms with partners of positive or unknown serostatus (p<0.01. The results were robust to covariate adjustment, excluding people living with HIV, and accounting for risk perceptions and condom use in 2005.We find evidence consistent with risk compensation among women but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.

  12. Ethnicity and the association between anthropometric indices of obesity and cardiovascular risk in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Louise G H; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Welborn, Timothy A; Lee, Andy H; Della, Phillip R

    2014-05-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the cross-sectional associations between anthropometric obesity measures, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and calculated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using the Framingham and general CVD risk score models, are the same for women of Australian, UK and Ireland, North European, South European and Asian descent. This study would investigate which anthropometric obesity measure is most predictive at identifying women at increased CVD risk in each ethnic group. Cross-sectional data from the National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Population-based survey in Australia. 4354 women aged 20-69 years with no history of heart disease, diabetes or stroke. Most participants were of Australian, UK and Ireland, North European, South European or Asian descent (97%). Anthropometric obesity measures that demonstrated stronger predictive ability of identifying women at increased CVD risk and likelihood of being above the promulgated treatment thresholds of various risk score models. Central obesity measures, WC and WHR, were better predictors of cardiovascular risk. WHR reported a stronger predictive ability than WC and BMI in Caucasian women. In Northern European women, BMI was a better indicator of risk using the general CVD (10% threshold) and Framingham (20% threshold) risk score models. WC was the most predictive of cardiovascular risk among Asian women. Ethnicity should be incorporated into CVD assessment. The same anthropometric obesity measure cannot be used across all ethnic groups. Ethnic-specific CVD prevention and treatment strategies need to be further developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Hormonal contraceptive use and risk of glioma among younger women a nationwide case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Oral contraceptive use influences the risk for certain cancers; however, few studies have examined any link with risk of central nervous system tumors. We investigated the association between hormonal contraceptive use and glioma risk among premenopausal women in a population-based setting...... risk set sampling. Based on prescription data, exposure until 2 years prior to the index date was categorized according to hormonal contraceptive type, i.e., combined estrogen-progestagen or progestagen-only, and duration of use (... to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for glioma associated with hormonal contraceptive use, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We identified 317 cases and 2,126 controls. Ever use of hormonal contraceptive was associated with an OR of 1.5 (95% CI: 1...

  14. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse.

  15. Risks for acquisition of bacterial vaginosis among women who report sex with women: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M Marrazzo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16-35 years who reported sex with other women (>or=1 partner, prior year. Women were followed for one year with examinations at quarterly visits and for genital symptoms at any time. Species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCRs for BV-associated bacteria (BVAB were applied to vaginal fluid obtained at enrollment. Sexual behaviors were ascertained by computer-assisted interview. Of 335 participants, 239 had no BV at baseline; 199 were seen in follow-up (median follow-up 355 days, 4.0 visits/subject. Forty women experienced >or=1 BV episode. Risks for incident BV were presentation risk for subsequent BV (HR 0.18 (0.08-0.4. Detailed analysis of behavioral data suggested a direct dose-response relationship with increasing number of episodes of receptive oral-vulvovaginal sex (HR 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Vaginal detection of several BVAB in BV-negative women predicted subsequent BV, suggesting that changes in vaginal microbiota precede BV by weeks or months. BV acquisition was associated with report of new partner with BV; associations with sexual practices - specifically

  16. Inflammatory dietary pattern and risk of depression among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michel; Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia; Schulze, Matthias B; Shulze, Mathias B; Mirzaei, Fariba; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Okereke, Olivia I; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Ascherio, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Inflammation is considered as a mechanism leading to depression, but the association between inflammatory dietary pattern and depression risk is unknown. Using reduced-rank regression, we identified a dietary pattern that was related to plasma levels of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2), and we conducted a prospective analysis of the relationship of this pattern and depression risk among participants in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 43,685 women (aged 50-77) without depression at baseline (1996) were included and followed up until 2008. Diet information was obtained from food frequency questionnaires completed between 1984 through 2002 and computed as cumulative average of dietary intakes with a 2-year latency applied. We used a strict definition of depression that required both self-reported physician-diagnosed depression and use of antidepressants, and a broader definition that included women who reported either clinical diagnosis or antidepressant use. During the 12-year follow-up, we documented 2594 incident cases of depression using the stricter definition and 6446 using the broader definition. After adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, relative risks comparing extreme quintiles of the inflammatory dietary pattern were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22, 1.63; P-trenddietary pattern is associated with a higher depression risk. This finding suggests that chronic inflammation may underlie the association between diet and depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Voigt, L F; White, E; Weiss, N S

    1994-11-02

    Certain events of reproductive life, especially completed pregnancies, have been found to influence a woman's risk of breast cancer. Prior studies of the relationship between breast cancer and a history of incomplete pregnancies have provided inconsistent results. Most of these studies included women beyond the early part of their reproductive years at the time induced abortion became legal in the United States. We conducted a case-control study of breast cancer in young women born recently enough so that some or most of their reproductive years were after the legalization of induced abortion to determine if certain aspects of a woman's experience with abortion might be associated with risk of breast cancer. Female residents of three counties in western Washington State, who were diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 845) from January 1983 through April 1990, and who were born after 1944, were interviewed in detail about their reproductive histories, including the occurrence of induced abortion. Case patients were obtained through our population-based tumor registry (part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute). Similar information was obtained from 961 control women identified through random digit dialing within these same counties. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals (CIs). Among women who had been pregnant at least once, the risk of breast cancer in those who had experienced an induced abortion was 50% higher than among other women (95% CI = 1.2-1.9). While this increased risk did not vary by the number of induced abortions or by the history of a completed pregnancy, it did vary according to the age at which the abortion occurred and the duration of that pregnancy. Highest risks were observed when the abortion was done at ages younger than 18 years--particularly if it took place after 8 weeks' gestation--or at 30 years of age or older. No increased risk of breast

  18. Coronary artery disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dah-Ching; Tsai, I-Ju; Wang, Jen-Hung; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2018-02-02

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterized by obesity, menstruation irregularity, hirsutism and infertility, and prevalent with cardiometabolic comorbidities, but population-based studies on the risk of developing coronary artery disease are limited. From claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance, we identified 8048 women with polycystic ovary syndrome aged 15-49 years newly diagnosed in 1998-2013, and 32192 women without the syndrome and CAD as controls, frequency matched by age and diagnosis date. By the end of 2013, after a mean follow-up period of 5.9 years, the overall incidence of coronary artery disease was 63% higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome than in controls (2.25 vs. 1.38 per 1000 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] of coronary artery disease was 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.81) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, compared with controls. Hazards of coronary artery disease were significant during follow-up periods of 3-4 years (aHR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.00-2.30) and of 5-9 years (aHR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07-2.32). The incidence of coronary artery disease increased further in those with cardiometabolic comorbidities. Among women with polycystic ovary syndrome, those with comorbid diabetes had an incidence of 35.2 per 1000 person-years, 20-fold greater than those without cardiometabolic comorbidities. In conclusion, women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at an elevated risk of coronary artery disease. Preventive interventions should be provided to them, particularly for those with the comorbidity of metabolism symptom.

  19. Effects of birth order and maternal age on breast cancer risk: modification by whether women had been breast-fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Hampton, John M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-05-01

    Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and genetic hypotheses. Recent studies have also considered potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin. Cases (n = 2016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002-2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (n = 1960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk-factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breast-fed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72-0.96). In analyses restricted to breast-fed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (P = 0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breast-fed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (0.82-1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breast-fed women (for women with 3 or more older siblings compared with first-born women, OR = 0.58 [CI = 0.39-0.86]) but not among nonbreast-fed women (1.13 [0.81-1.57]). These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breast-feeding status in infancy.

  20. Chromosome 5p Region SNPs Are Associated with Risk of NSCLC among Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, A. L. V.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we explored the associations between 42 polymorphisms in seven genes in this region and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk among Caucasian (364 cases; 380 controls) and African American (95 cases; 103 controls) women. Two TERT region SNPs, rs2075786 and rs2853677, conferred an increased risk of developing NSCLC, especially among African American women, and TERT-rs2735940 was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer among African Americans. Five of the 20 GHR polymorphisms and SEPP1-rs6413428 were associated with a marginally increased risk of NSCLC among Caucasians. Random forest analysis reinforced the importance of GHR among Caucasians and ide