WorldWideScience

Sample records for population game perspective

  1. Populations games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19 ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  2. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  3. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  5. Connected Gaming: An Inclusive Perspective for Serious Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Kafai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious games should focus on connected gaming, which is combining the instructionist approach on having students play educational games for learning with the constructionist approach on having students make their own games for learning. Constructionist activities have always been part of the larger gaming ecology but have traditionally received far less attention than their instructionist counterparts. Future developments in serious gaming ought to promote this more inclusive perspective to better realize the full potential of gaming as a means for learning and for connecting children to technology and to each other. This potential for more meaningful connectivity can also address the persistent access and diversity issues long facing gaming cultures. 

  6. Perspectives on Video Games as Art

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Vandermeersche, Geert; Rutten, Kris

    2017-01-01

    In their article "Perspectives on Video Games as Art" Jeroen Bourgonjon, Geert Vndermeer­sche, and Kris Rutten engage in discussing whether or not video games can be considered a form of art. Although this question has already been discussed elaborately, the debate is guided by many differ­ent and often conflicting positions. The aim of this article is to revisit this debate by mapping out a range of perspectives on video games as art. The authors explore the relation between games and differ...

  7. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  8. Children's Perspectives in a Game Programming Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholander, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    In the Playground project, we applied a constructionist learning perspective in order to build a computational learning environment in which children could design and build their own video games. In this paper, we present results from a study where children were given semi-structured programming tasks in an adventure game designed to investigate…

  9. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal o...

  10. Historical Perspectives on Games and Education from the Learning Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Brett E.; Satwicz, Tom; Caswell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three classic theorists' writing on games, learning, and development. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner all wrote about games and play as important to thinking and learning. This review attempts to synthesize their perspectives as a means to revisit underused theoretical perspectives on the role of games in education. The views of…

  11. Gender and computer games / video games : girls’ perspective orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Jingjing

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is “Gender Differences in Computer games/ Video games Industry”. Due to rapid development in technology and popularization of computers all around the world, computer games have already become a kind of common entertainment. Because computer games were designed especially for boys at the very beginning, there are still some remaining barriers when training female game designers and expanding game markets among female players.This thesis is mainly based on two studies ...

  12. Computer simulation games in population and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1988-01-01

    Computer-based simulation games are effective training tools that have several advantages. They enable players to learn in a nonthreatening manner and develop strategies to achieve goals in a dynamic environment. They also provide visual feedback on the effects of players' decisions, encourage players to explore and experiment with options before making final decisions, and develop players' skills in analysis, decision making, and cooperation. 2 games have been developed by the Research Triangle Institute for public-sector planning agencies interested in or dealing with developing countries. The UN Population and Development Game teaches players about the interaction between population variables and the national economy and how population policies complement other national policies, such as education. The BRIDGES Education Planning Game focuses on the effects education has on national policies. In both games, the computer simulates the reactions of a fictional country's socioeconomic system to players' decisions. Players can change decisions after seeing their effects on a computer screen and thus can improve their performance in achieving goals.

  13. Game-Based Learning: A Different Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Because the goals of games and the object of school-based learning are fundamentally mismatched, efforts to integrate games into the curriculum have largely fallen flat despite the best intentions of teachers and the gaming industry. Arguing that educational game designers should be investigating ways to get education into games rather than…

  14. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  15. Gaming, simulations and society research scope and perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Shiratori, R; Kato, F

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a current research scope and perspective of Simulation and Gaming.Theoretical problems of Simulation and Gaming will be examined with a view to improving the social sciences through the introduction of the techniques and concepts of Simulation and Gaming.The fields of economics, political science, psychology and business management can all be radically improved by introducing such techniques of Simulation and Gaming as the Agent-Based Modelling.Other important topics are the analysis of philosophical foundations in Simulation and Gaming as an academic discipline.The ever growing and massive popularity of PC and arcade games cannot be ignored.Their potential as agents of education and their essentially violent nature raise many ethical and moral problems that need to be addressed.

  16. Youth, friendship, and gaming: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grove, Frederik

    2014-09-01

    With digital games being part of the leisure of a multitude of young people, it is important to understand to what extent gaming-related practices such as talking about games or playing games together are associated with the quality of friendship relations with players and nonplayers. Based on 100 friendship networks, this study explored to what extent those practices permeated the everyday life of youngsters and whether they could be considered as a part of doing friendship. Results indicated that gaming as a conversational topic was widespread within and between networks. Furthermore, regardless of gender, this was significantly associated with friendship quality in almost all of the networks. When considering playing games together, a somewhat different picture emerged. In contrast to conversational practices, playing together was less widespread. Moreover, both the occurrence and the effect of co-play and friendship quality was gendered. The findings of this study show that a focus on gaming-related practices yields a fruitful starting point when considering the role of digital games in a social context that is not limited to people playing (online) games. Furthermore, they also feed into the ongoing debate of possible effects of digital games in that it shows that the way in which games influence the lives of young people goes beyond a direct effects approach.

  17. Learning "in" or "with" Games? Quality Criteria for Digital Learning Games from the Perspectives of Learning, Emotion, and Motivation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Jan; Mandl, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual paper aims to clarify the theoretical underpinnings of game based learning (GBL) and learning with digital learning games (DLGs). To do so, it analyses learning of game related skills and contents, which occurs constantly during playing conventional entertainment games, from three perspectives: learning theory, emotion theory, and…

  18. Perspectives on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Assume that everyone has the same information on population growth. There are many different opinions on what that information means and what should be done about it. Some people worry about current rates of growth, especially in the context of growing per capita consumption, and believe that all reasonable steps should be taken to reduce rates and stabilize population size. Others believe that growing populations can be accommodated by reducing consumption in rich countries, that technological progress will supply the new resources needed, that the development needed to support a larger population can be sustained, that large population size fosters prosperity, or that birth rates are falling and current growth is just temporary. These are all valid positions worthy of at least debate. Interest groups commonly acknowledgement population growth as a significant issue, but offer no response to it. Sometimes the issue goes unrecognized because it conflicts with a more highly valued personal agenda item. Finally, some responses come from confusion and anger rather than reasoning or self-interest. The proponents of these latter arguments bring nothing constructive to the debate.

  19. Playing Producer: An alternative perspective on video games as film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a perspective on analyzing video games as film by comparing the interactions of the player with those of a producer or other member in the film-making process. This contrasts with existing methodologies which focus on formal characteristics or narratology. This proposal also provides a method for combining the interactivity of games with the storytelling capacity of cinema without encountering the narrative paradox.

  20. A young people's perspective on computer game addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brus, Anne Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine computer game addiction as a social phenomenon, analyzing the consequences of using the term in order to express a concern about high frequency consumption or even a problematic usage of computer games. I argue that while it is obviously very important to take seriously...... these concerns about young people ‘at risk’, there is a gap between the phenomenon as a suggested psychiatric diagnosis and young people’s reflections on the matter. Following the work of Goffman and Becker, computer game addiction is not necessarily something negative in the eyes of the player and other young...... people. It is shown that the classification can be a positive element in young people’s identity work. On the other hand, a high consumption of computer games is also considered as ‘culturally unacceptable’. From this perspective, computer game addiction becomes a question of how to construct...

  1. Presence and biofeedback in first-person perspective computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw-Aagaard, Mark Nicholas

    2019-01-01

    . Following the line taken by presence theorists, I differentiate between immersion, an objective measure such that computer game technology can be less or more immersive, and presence, a subjective, human response to that technology. The third section looks at current possibilities for biofeedback...... in relation to sound design for first-person perspective computer games; in line with the first section, biofeedback devices are treated as an immersive technology. I close the chapter by suggesting ways in which sound design in such games might make use of biofeedback to enhance the perception of presence...

  2. Problem gaming in an everyday perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette; Karlsen, Faltin; Gregersen, Andreas Lindegaard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ”video game addiction” has gradually replaced the depiction of violence in video games as a key issue of concern among parents and professionals. The concept refers to situations where (predominantly) young (predominantly) men neglect other activities in their everyday lives in order...... to play video games. As follows from the term ”addiction” the public common sense as well as a considerable part of research draw heavy parallels to alcohol abuse or psychological disorders applying either a neurophysiological or a clinical psychological approach to the issue (e.g. Gentile 2009). Typical...... and contextual approach focusing on the social context of the gamers in question (e.g. Linderoth & Bennerstedt 2007). This panel will continue in a similar vein. The aim is not to deny that a phenomenon such as problem gaming may exist, but rather to question whether the term addiction as imported from...

  3. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. ...

  4. Differentially Positioned Language Games: Ethnomathematics from a Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnik, Gelsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new philosophical perspective for ethnomathematics which articulates Ludwig Wittgenstein's and Michel Foucault's theoretical notions. It is conceived as a theoretical toolbox which allows the analysis of, on the one hand, the mathematical language games of different forms of life and their family resemblances and, on the…

  5. Game Engineering a Multiagent Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-21

    incentives ...body  of  research  in   the  field  of  algorithmic  game   theory  devoted  to  analyzing  the  inefficiency  of...Systems,  2015  (to  appear).     [J5]  J.R.  Marden  and  J.S.  Shamma,  “Game   Theory  and  Distributed

  6. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  7. A Historical Perspective of the Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePauw, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Athletes with disabilities are more visible in the 21st century than they used to be, including in the world of sport. Today, one hears about the Paralympic Games, can find media coverage of them, can read about athletes who compete in the Paralympics and about advancements in sport prosthetic devices in science and sport magazines, and can even…

  8. Current Military Needs. War Gaming Department Perspectives, Connections 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-12

    competitive U 1 : E x t r e m i s m d i s e m p o w e r e d / p a s s i v e s u p e r e m p o w e r e d...Current Military Needs War Gaming Department Perspectives Connections 2008 Stephen Downes-Martin, Ph.D. Professor, Center for Naval Warfare Studies...policy of the War Gaming Department, the CNWS, the U.S. Naval War College, the U.S. Navy,

  9. Physics of cancer propagation: A game theory perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Cleveland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a theoretical paper which examines at a game theoretical perspective the dynamics of cooperators and cheater cells under metabolic stress conditions and high spatial heterogeneity. Although the ultimate aim of this work is to understand the dynamics of cancer tumor evolution under stress, we use a simple bacterial model to gain fundamental insights into the progression of resistance to drugs under high competition and stress conditions.

  10. Passivity analysis of higher order evolutionary dynamics and population games

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed

    2017-01-05

    Evolutionary dynamics describe how the population composition changes in response to the fitness levels, resulting in a closed-loop feedback system. Recent work established a connection between passivity theory and certain classes of population games, namely so-called “stable games”. In particular, it was shown that a combination of stable games and (an analogue of) passive evolutionary dynamics results in stable convergence to Nash equilibrium. This paper considers the converse question of necessary conditions for evolutionary dynamics to exhibit stable behaviors for all generalized stable games. Using methods from robust control analysis, we show that if an evolutionary dynamic does not satisfy a passivity property, then it is possible to construct a generalized stable game that results in instability. The results are illustrated on selected evolutionary dynamics with particular attention to replicator dynamics, which are also shown to be lossless, a special class of passive systems.

  11. Public goods games in populations with fluctuating size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Fraiman, Nicolas; Hauert, Christoph; Wakeley, John; Nowak, Martin A

    2018-05-01

    Many mathematical frameworks of evolutionary game dynamics assume that the total population size is constant and that selection affects only the relative frequency of strategies. Here, we consider evolutionary game dynamics in an extended Wright-Fisher process with variable population size. In such a scenario, it is possible that the entire population becomes extinct. Survival of the population may depend on which strategy prevails in the game dynamics. Studying cooperative dilemmas, it is a natural feature of such a model that cooperators enable survival, while defectors drive extinction. Although defectors are favored for any mixed population, random drift could lead to their elimination and the resulting pure-cooperator population could survive. On the other hand, if the defectors remain, then the population will quickly go extinct because the frequency of cooperators steadily declines and defectors alone cannot survive. In a mutation-selection model, we find that (i) a steady supply of cooperators can enable long-term population survival, provided selection is sufficiently strong, and (ii) selection can increase the abundance of cooperators but reduce their relative frequency. Thus, evolutionary game dynamics in populations with variable size generate a multifaceted notion of what constitutes a trait's long-term success. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stochastic noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies of a population of biological networks under natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Yeh, Chin-Hsun

    2017-12-01

    We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective. The noncooperative strategy can be transformed into an equivalent multi-objective optimization problem and is shown to display significantly improved network robustness to tolerate genetic variations and buffer environmental disturbances, maintaining phenotypic traits for longer than the cooperative strategy. However, the noncooperative case requires greater effort and more compromises between partly conflicting players. Global linearization is used to simplify the problem of solving nonlinear stochastic evolutionary games. Finally, a simple stochastic evolutionary model of a metabolic pathway is simulated to illustrate the procedure of solving for two evolutionary game strategies and to confirm and compare their respective characteristics in the evolutionary process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Why are you satisfied with an online game?:exploring game attractiveness and gaming climate from a socio-technical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, W. (Wangjing)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Some online games are prosperous and have attracted a large number of players, while others cannot sustain. Both technical and social factors likely affect a player’s satisfaction with an online game. However, there is a clear dearth of studies in which have investigated online games from a socio-technical perspective. This article seeks to address this gap through an empirical study on technical factors (manifesti...

  14. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games.

  15. Evidence Combination From an Evolutionary Game Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Han, Deqiang; Dezert, Jean; Deng, Yong; Shyr, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is a primary methodology for multisource information fusion because it is good at dealing with uncertain information. This theory provides a Dempster's rule of combination to synthesize multiple evidences from various information sources. However, in some cases, counter-intuitive results may be obtained based on that combination rule. Numerous new or improved methods have been proposed to suppress these counter-intuitive results based on perspectives, such as minimizing the information loss or deviation. Inspired by evolutionary game theory, this paper considers a biological and evolutionary perspective to study the combination of evidences. An evolutionary combination rule (ECR) is proposed to help find the most biologically supported proposition in a multievidence system. Within the proposed ECR, we develop a Jaccard matrix game to formalize the interaction between propositions in evidences, and utilize the replicator dynamics to mimick the evolution of propositions. Experimental results show that the proposed ECR can effectively suppress the counter-intuitive behaviors appeared in typical paradoxes of evidence theory, compared with many existing methods. Properties of the ECR, such as solution's stability and convergence, have been mathematically proved as well.

  16. Evolutionary mixed games in structured populations: Cooperation and the benefits of heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marco A.; Wardil, Lucas; Perc, Matjaž; da Silva, Jafferson K. L.

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary games on networks traditionally involve the same game at each interaction. Here we depart from this assumption by considering mixed games, where the game played at each interaction is drawn uniformly at random from a set of two different games. While in well-mixed populations the random mixture of the two games is always equivalent to the average single game, in structured populations this is not always the case. We show that the outcome is, in fact, strongly dependent on the distance of separation of the two games in the parameter space. Effectively, this distance introduces payoff heterogeneity, and the average game is returned only if the heterogeneity is small. For higher levels of heterogeneity the distance to the average game grows, which often involves the promotion of cooperation. The presented results support preceding research that highlights the favorable role of heterogeneity regardless of its origin, and they also emphasize the importance of the population structure in amplifying facilitators of cooperation.

  17. Aspiration dynamics of multi-player games in finite populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinming; Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M; Wang, Long

    2014-05-06

    On studying strategy update rules in the framework of evolutionary game theory, one can differentiate between imitation processes and aspiration-driven dynamics. In the former case, individuals imitate the strategy of a more successful peer. In the latter case, individuals adjust their strategies based on a comparison of their pay-offs from the evolutionary game to a value they aspire, called the level of aspiration. Unlike imitation processes of pairwise comparison, aspiration-driven updates do not require additional information about the strategic environment and can thus be interpreted as being more spontaneous. Recent work has mainly focused on understanding how aspiration dynamics alter the evolutionary outcome in structured populations. However, the baseline case for understanding strategy selection is the well-mixed population case, which is still lacking sufficient understanding. We explore how aspiration-driven strategy-update dynamics under imperfect rationality influence the average abundance of a strategy in multi-player evolutionary games with two strategies. We analytically derive a condition under which a strategy is more abundant than the other in the weak selection limiting case. This approach has a long-standing history in evolutionary games and is mostly applied for its mathematical approachability. Hence, we also explore strong selection numerically, which shows that our weak selection condition is a robust predictor of the average abundance of a strategy. The condition turns out to differ from that of a wide class of imitation dynamics, as long as the game is not dyadic. Therefore, a strategy favoured under imitation dynamics can be disfavoured under aspiration dynamics. This does not require any population structure, and thus highlights the intrinsic difference between imitation and aspiration dynamics.

  18. Solving the Sophistication-Population Paradox of Game Refinement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong , Shuo; Tiwary , Parth ,; Iida , Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; A mathematical model of game refinement was proposed based on uncertainty of game outcome. This model has been shown to be useful in measuring the entertainment element in the domains such as boardgames and sport games. However, game refinement theory has not been able to explain the correlation between the popularity of a game and the game refinement value. This paper introduces another aspect in the study of game entertainment, the concept of “a...

  19. Policy and prevention approaches for disordered and hazardous gaming and internet use: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    King, DL; Delfabbro, PH; Doh, YY; Wu, AMS; Kuss, DJ; Pallesen, S; Mentzoni, R; Carragher, N; Sakuma, H

    2017-01-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, poli...

  20. New Directions in Virtual Environments and Gaming to Address Obesity and Diabetes: Industry Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality is increasingly used for education and treatment in the fields of health and medicine. What is the health potential of virtual reality technology from the software development industry perspective? This article presents interviews with Ben Sawyer of Games for Health, Dr. Walter Greenleaf of InWorld Solutions, and Dr. Ernie Medina of MedPlay Technologies. Games for Health brings together researchers, medical professionals, and game developers to share information on the impact ...

  1. Game-Based Assessments: A Promising Way to Create Idiographic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A. Adrienne; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    "Game-Based Assessments: A Promising Way to Create Idiographic Perspectives" (Adrienne Walker and George Englehard) comments on: "How Task Features Impact Evidence from Assessments Embedded in Simulations and Games" by Russell G. Almond, Yoon Jeon Kim, Gertrudes Velasquez, and Valerie J. Shute. Here, Walker and Englehard write…

  2. Visual Perspectives within Educational Computer Games: Effects on Presence and Flow within Virtual Immersive Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoresby, Jon; Shelton, Brett E.

    2011-01-01

    The mis-categorizing of cognitive states involved in learning within virtual environments has complicated instructional technology research. Further, most educational computer game research does not account for how learning activity is influenced by factors of game content and differences in viewing perspectives. This study is a qualitative…

  3. Perspective Taking and Decision-Making in Educational Game Play: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Lacey J.; Buckingham, Mary H.; Geldhof, G. John; Gansert, Patricia; Stack, Caroline; Gelgoot, Erin S.; Bers, Marina U.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2018-01-01

    Video games have the potential to be contexts for moral learning. We investigated whether "Quandary," a video game designed to promote ethical thinking and moral considerations for decision-making, would help promote positive skills such as perspective taking and empathy in adolescents. We examined the effect of playing…

  4. Mean-field games with logistic population dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2013-12-01

    In its standard form, a mean-field game can be defined by coupled system of equations, a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the value function of agents and a Fokker-Planck equation for the density of agents. Traditionally, the latter equation is adjoint to the linearization of the former. Since the Fokker-Planck equation models a population dynamic, we introduce natural features such as seeding and birth, and nonlinear death rates. In this paper we analyze a stationary meanfield game in one dimension, illustrating various techniques to obtain regularity of solutions in this class of systems. In particular we consider a logistic-type model for birth and death of the agents which is natural in problems where crowding affects the death rate of the agents. The introduction of these new terms requires a number of new ideas to obtain wellposedness. In a forthcoming publication we will address higher dimensional models. ©2013 IEEE.

  5. Mean-field games with logistic population dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; De Lima Ribeiro, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    In its standard form, a mean-field game can be defined by coupled system of equations, a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the value function of agents and a Fokker-Planck equation for the density of agents. Traditionally, the latter equation is adjoint to the linearization of the former. Since the Fokker-Planck equation models a population dynamic, we introduce natural features such as seeding and birth, and nonlinear death rates. In this paper we analyze a stationary meanfield game in one dimension, illustrating various techniques to obtain regularity of solutions in this class of systems. In particular we consider a logistic-type model for birth and death of the agents which is natural in problems where crowding affects the death rate of the agents. The introduction of these new terms requires a number of new ideas to obtain wellposedness. In a forthcoming publication we will address higher dimensional models. ©2013 IEEE.

  6. Video Game Player Profiles: Bridging Industry, Game Studies and Social Science Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, game designers and game studies experts have largely sought to understand video game players through a lens of experience and observation. Meanwhile, social science research has focused on the empirical understanding of video game players using a variety of psychological constructs. This study focuses on the creation and evaluation of…

  7. The ecology of cancer from an evolutionary game theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Santos, Francisco C; Dingli, David

    2014-08-06

    The accumulation of somatic mutations, to which the cellular genome is permanently exposed, often leads to cancer. Analysis of any tumour shows that, besides the malignant cells, one finds other 'supporting' cells such as fibroblasts, immune cells of various types and even blood vessels. Together, these cells generate the microenvironment that enables the malignant cell population to grow and ultimately lead to disease. Therefore, understanding the dynamics of tumour growth and response to therapy is incomplete unless the interactions between the malignant cells and normal cells are investigated in the environment in which they take place. The complex interactions between cells in such an ecosystem result from the exchange of information in the form of cytokines- and adhesion-dependent interactions. Such processes impose costs and benefits to the participating cells that may be conveniently recast in the form of a game pay-off matrix. As a result, tumour progression and dynamics can be described in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT), which provides a convenient framework in which to capture the frequency-dependent nature of ecosystem dynamics. Here, we provide a tutorial review of the central aspects of EGT, establishing a relation with the problem of cancer. Along the way, we also digress on fitness and of ways to compute it. Subsequently, we show how EGT can be applied to the study of the various manifestations and dynamics of multiple myeloma bone disease and its preceding condition known as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We translate the complex biochemical signals into costs and benefits of different cell types, thus defining a game pay-off matrix. Then we use the well-known properties of the EGT equations to reduce the number of core parameters that characterize disease evolution. Finally, we provide an interpretation of these core parameters in terms of what their function is in the ecosystem we are describing and generate

  8. Evolutionary game dynamics in a growing structured population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncela, Julia; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Moreno, Yamir [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Traulsen, Arne [Emmy-Noether Group for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemann-Strasse 2, 24306 Ploen (Germany)], E-mail: traulsen@evolbio.mpg.de

    2009-08-15

    We discuss a model for evolutionary game dynamics in a growing, network-structured population. In our model, new players can either make connections to random preexisting players or preferentially attach to those that have been successful in the past. The latter depends on the dynamics of strategies in the game, which we implement following the so-called Fermi rule such that the limits of weak and strong strategy selection can be explored. Our framework allows to address general evolutionary games. With only two parameters describing the preferential attachment and the intensity of selection, we describe a wide range of network structures and evolutionary scenarios. Our results show that even for moderate payoff preferential attachment, over represented hubs arise. Interestingly, we find that while the networks are growing, high levels of cooperation are attained, but the same network structure does not promote cooperation as a static network. Therefore, the mechanism of payoff preferential attachment is different to those usually invoked to explain the promotion of cooperation in static, already-grown networks.

  9. Evolutionary game dynamics in a growing structured population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncela, Julia; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Moreno, Yamir; Traulsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a model for evolutionary game dynamics in a growing, network-structured population. In our model, new players can either make connections to random preexisting players or preferentially attach to those that have been successful in the past. The latter depends on the dynamics of strategies in the game, which we implement following the so-called Fermi rule such that the limits of weak and strong strategy selection can be explored. Our framework allows to address general evolutionary games. With only two parameters describing the preferential attachment and the intensity of selection, we describe a wide range of network structures and evolutionary scenarios. Our results show that even for moderate payoff preferential attachment, over represented hubs arise. Interestingly, we find that while the networks are growing, high levels of cooperation are attained, but the same network structure does not promote cooperation as a static network. Therefore, the mechanism of payoff preferential attachment is different to those usually invoked to explain the promotion of cooperation in static, already-grown networks.

  10. Reinforcement learning in complementarity game and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei

    2014-02-01

    We systematically test and compare different reinforcement learning schemes in a complementarity game [J. Jost and W. Li, Physica A 345, 245 (2005)] played between members of two populations. More precisely, we study the Roth-Erev, Bush-Mosteller, and SoftMax reinforcement learning schemes. A modified version of Roth-Erev with a power exponent of 1.5, as opposed to 1 in the standard version, performs best. We also compare these reinforcement learning strategies with evolutionary schemes. This gives insight into aspects like the issue of quick adaptation as opposed to systematic exploration or the role of learning rates.

  11. Critical Literacy Learning through Video Games: Adolescent Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…

  12. A dynamical system perspective to understanding badminton singles game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jia Yi; Seifert, Ludovic; Hérault, Romain; Chia, Shannon Jing Yi; Lee, Miriam Chang Yi

    2014-02-01

    By altering the task constraints of cooperative and competitive game contexts in badminton, insights can be obtained from a dynamical systems perspective to investigate the underlying processes that results in either a gradual shift or transition of playing patterns. Positional data of three pairs of skilled female badminton players (average age 20.5±1.38years) were captured and analyzed. Local correlation coefficient, which provides information on the relationship of players' displacement data, between each pair of players was computed for angle and distance from base position. Speed scalar product was in turn established from speed vectors of the players. The results revealed two patterns of playing behaviors (i.e., in-phase and anti-phase patterns) for movement displacement. Anti-phase relation was the dominant coupling pattern for speed scalar relationships among the pairs of players. Speed scalar product, as a collective variable, was different between cooperative and competitive plays with a greater variability in amplitude seen in competitive plays leading to a winning point. The findings from this study provide evidence for increasing stroke variability to perturb existing stable patterns of play and highlights the potential for speed scalar product to be a collective variable to distinguish different patterns of play (e.g., cooperative and competitive). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gaming the System: Culture, Process, and Perspectives Supporting a Game and App Design Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herro, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Games and digital media experiences permeate the lives of youth. Researchers have argued the participatory attributes and cognitive benefits of gaming and media production for more than a decade, relying on socio-cultural theory to bolster their claims. Only recently have large-scale efforts ensued towards moving game play and design into formal…

  14. Design Features in Games for Health: Disciplinary and Interdisciplinary Expert Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Christina; Wilcox, Lauren; Ng, Wendy; Schiffer, Jade; Hammer, Jessica

    2017-06-01

    Games for health (G4H) aim to improve health outcomes and encourage behavior change. While existing theoretical frameworks describe features of both games and health interventions, there has been limited systematic investigation into how disciplinary and interdisciplinary stakeholders understand design features in G4H. We recruited 18 experts from the fields of game design, behavioral health, and games for health, and prompted them with 16 sample games. Applying methods including open card sorting and triading, we elicited themes and features (e.g., real-world interaction, game mechanics) around G4H. We found evidence of conceptual differences suggesting that a G4H perspective is not simply the sum of game and health perspectives. At the same time, we found evidence of convergence in stakeholder views, including areas where game experts provided insights about health and vice versa. We discuss how this work can be applied to provide conceptual tools, improve the G4H design process, and guide approaches to encoding G4H-related data for large-scale empirical analysis.

  15. Promoting Parent-Child Sexual Health Dialogue with an Intergenerational Game: Parent and Youth Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Jina; Santa Maria, Diane; Dube, Sara; Markham, Christine; McLaughlin, Jeffrey; Wilkerson, Johnny M; Peskin, Melissa F; Tortolero, Susan; Shegog, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health discussions between parents and their preadolescent youth can delay sexual debut and increase condom and contraceptive use. However, parents frequently report being uncomfortable talking with their youth about sex, often reporting a lack of self-efficacy and skills to inform and motivate responsible decision making by youth. Intergenerational games may support parent-youth sexual health communication. The purpose of this study was to explore parent and youth perspectives on a proposed intergenerational game designed to increase effective parent-youth sexual health communication and skills training. Eight focus groups were conducted: four with parents (n=20) and four with their 11-14-year-old youth (n=19), to identify similarities and differences in perspectives on gaming context, delivery channel, content, and design (components, features, and function) that might facilitate dyadic sexual health communication. Participants concurred that a sex education game could improve communication while being responsive to family time constraints. They affirmed the demand for an immersive story-based educational adventure game using mobile platforms and flexible communication modalities. Emergent themes informed the development of a features inventory (including educational and gaming strategies, communication components, channel, and setting) and upper-level program flow to guide future game development. This study supports the potential of a game to be a viable medium to bring a shared dyadic sexual health educational experience to parents and youth that could engage them in a motivationally appealing way to meaningfully impact their sexual health communication and youth sexual risk behaviors.

  16. Digital games and learning mathematics: Student, teacher and parent perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Su Ting Yong; Peter Gates; Ian Harrison

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of digital games in learning mathematics at secondary school level in Malaysia. Three secondary school students, three mathematics teachers and three parents were interviewed in this study. All the participants were asked for their views and experiences in mathematics, technology usage and the use of digital games in learning mathematics. The results suggested that students were supportive and positive towards the use of computer game...

  17. The Impact of Students' Temporal Perspectives on Time-on-Task and Learning Performance in Game Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Margarida; Usart, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    The use of games for educational purposes has been considered as a learning methodology that attracts the students' attention and may allow focusing individuals on the learning activity through the [serious games] SG game dynamic. Based on the hypothesis that students' Temporal Perspective has an impact on learning performance and time-on-task,…

  18. A Communities of Practice Perspective on Educational Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Curt

    2008-01-01

    Educational computer games provide an environment in which interactions among students, teachers, and texts differ non-trivially from those of the traditional classroom. In order to build and research computer games effectively, it is important to provide a theoretical background that adequately describes and explains learning and interactions in…

  19. Computer Game Design Classes: The Students' and Professionals' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swacha, Jakub; Skrzyszewski, Adam; Syslo, Wojciech A.

    2010-01-01

    There are multiple reasons that justify teaching computer game design. Its multi-aspectual nature creates opportunity to develop, at the same time, creativity, technical skills and ability to work in team. Thinking of game design classes, one needs direction on what to focus on so that the students could benefit the most. In this paper, we present…

  20. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  1. Perceptions and Understanding of Games Creation: Teacher Candidates Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, Sheri M.; Smith, Mark A.; Pratt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Games Creation (GC) is an instructional strategy that encourages students to develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills. Children who experience GC have the potential to construct knowledge and a deeper understanding of game play (Rovegno & Bandhauer, 1994) and positive outcomes in motor skill development (Dyson, 2001; LaFont,…

  2. Exploring Preservice Teacher Perspectives on Video Games as Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Beverly B.; Powell, Angiline; Jacobsen, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Despite their popularity with learners, many K-12 teachers are reluctant to use video games as learning tools. Addressing issues surrounding this reluctance is important since the educational use of video games is supported by learning theory and an emerging research base. Specifically, this study adopts exploratory research as a means to examine…

  3. Making Decisions about an Educational Game, Simulation or Workshop: A 'Game Theory' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Uses game theory to help practitioners make decisions about educational games, simulations, or workshops whose outcomes depend to some extent on chance. Highlights include principles for making decisions involving risk; elementary laws of probability; utility theory; and principles for making decisions involving uncertainty. (eight references)…

  4. Evolutionary snowdrift game incorporating costly punishment in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Nat W. H.; Xu, C.; Tey, Siew Kian; Yap, Yee Jiun; Hui, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The role of punishment and the effects of a structured population in promoting cooperation are important issues. Within a recent model of snowdrift game (SG) incorporating a costly punishing strategy (P), we study the effects of a population connected through a square lattice. The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C) character, are willing to pay a cost α so as to punish a non-cooperative (D) opponent by β. Depending on α, β, the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, and the initial conditions, the system evolves into different phases that could be homogeneous or inhomogeneous. The spatial structure imposes geometrical constraint on how one agent is affected by neighboring agents. Results of extensive numerical simulations, both for the steady state and the dynamics, are presented. Possible phases are identified and discussed, and isolated phases in the r-β space are identified as special local structures of strategies that are stable due to the lattice structure. In contrast to a well-mixed population where punishers are suppressed due to the cost of punishment, the altruistic punishing strategy can flourish and prevail for appropriate values of the parameters, implying an enhancement in cooperation by imposing punishments in a structured population. The system could evolve to a phase corresponding to the coexistence of C, D, and P strategies at some particular payoff parameters, and such a phase is absent in a well-mixed population. The pair approximation, a commonly used analytic approach, is extended from a two-strategy system to a three-strategy system. We show that the pair approximation can, at best, capture the numerical results only qualitatively. Due to the improper way of including spatial correlation imposed by the lattice structure, the approximation does not give the frequencies of C, D, and P accurately and fails to give the homogeneous AllD and AllP phases.

  5. Game-theoretic perspective of Ping-Pong protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Hargeet; Kumar, Atul

    2018-01-01

    We analyse Ping-Pong protocol from the point of view of a game. The analysis helps us in understanding the different strategies of a sender and an eavesdropper to gain the maximum payoff in the game. The study presented here characterizes strategies that lead to different Nash equilibriums. We further demonstrate the condition for Pareto optimality depending on the parameters used in the game. Moreover, we also analysed LM05 protocol and compared it with PP protocol from the point of view of a generic two-way QKD game with or without entanglement. Our results provide a deeper understanding of general two-way QKD protocols in terms of the security and payoffs of different stakeholders in the protocol.

  6. The role of cognitive and emotional perspective taking in economic decision making in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Haruto; Koizumi, Michiko; Fujii, Takayuki; Schug, Joanna; Kameshima, Shinya; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a simple resource allocation game known as the ultimatum game (UG) with preschoolers to examine the role of cognitive and emotional perspective-taking ability on allocation and rejection behavior. A total of 146 preschoolers played the UG and completed a false belief task and an emotional perspective-taking test. Results showed that cognitive perspective taking ability had a significant positive effect on the proposer's offer and a negative effect on the responder's rejection behavior, whereas emotional perspective taking ability did not impact either the proposer's or responder's behavior. These results imply that the ability to anticipate the responder's beliefs, but not their emotional state, plays an important role in the proposer's choice of a fair allocation in an UG, and that children who have not acquired theory of mind still reject unfair offers.

  7. The role of cognitive and emotional perspective taking in economic decision making in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruto Takagishi

    Full Text Available We conducted a simple resource allocation game known as the ultimatum game (UG with preschoolers to examine the role of cognitive and emotional perspective-taking ability on allocation and rejection behavior. A total of 146 preschoolers played the UG and completed a false belief task and an emotional perspective-taking test. Results showed that cognitive perspective taking ability had a significant positive effect on the proposer's offer and a negative effect on the responder's rejection behavior, whereas emotional perspective taking ability did not impact either the proposer's or responder's behavior. These results imply that the ability to anticipate the responder's beliefs, but not their emotional state, plays an important role in the proposer's choice of a fair allocation in an UG, and that children who have not acquired theory of mind still reject unfair offers.

  8. Budaya Populer Game Pokemon Go Sebagai Soft Diplomacy Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Chadijah Isfariani

    2016-01-01

    Pokemon Go is a smartphone game that blends the real and digital worlds, tasking players with exploring their neighborhoods to find creatures and treasure for in-game use. This research describes the ways Japan uses its soft power in International coorporation relations, particulary through Pokemon Go's game. Based on Joseph S. Nye, Jr, the soft power defined as the ability of country to achieve its goal using cultural attraction rather than coercion and violence. After the World War II, Japa...

  9. Attacker-defender game from a network science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Peng; Tan, Suo-Yi; Deng, Ye; Wu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Dealing with the protection of critical infrastructures, many game-theoretic methods have been developed to study the strategic interactions between defenders and attackers. However, most game models ignore the interrelationship between different components within a certain system. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous-move attacker-defender game model, which is a two-player zero-sum static game with complete information. The strategies and payoffs of this game are defined on the basis of the topology structure of the infrastructure system, which is represented by a complex network. Due to the complexity of strategies, the attack and defense strategies are confined by two typical strategies, namely, targeted strategy and random strategy. The simulation results indicate that in a scale-free network, the attacker virtually always attacks randomly in the Nash equilibrium. With a small cost-sensitive parameter, representing the degree to which costs increase with the importance of a target, the defender protects the hub targets with large degrees preferentially. When the cost-sensitive parameter exceeds a threshold, the defender switches to protecting nodes randomly. Our work provides a new theoretical framework to analyze the confrontations between the attacker and the defender on critical infrastructures and deserves further study.

  10. Digital games and learning mathematics: Student, teacher and parent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ting Yong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of digital games in learning mathematics at secondary school level in Malaysia. Three secondary school students, three mathematics teachers and three parents were interviewed in this study. All the participants were asked for their views and experiences in mathematics, technology usage and the use of digital games in learning mathematics. The results suggested that students were supportive and positive towards the use of computer games in learning mathematics. Nevertheless, parents preferred conventional teaching approach, in which they recognized personal communication and socialization as a significant component in learning. Although the teachers did not go on to oppose the idea of using computer games for teaching mathematics, they still perceived the use of discursive approaches as the best teaching approach for learning mathematics with digital technologies at best a possible additional complementary feature. In view of that, the combination of classroom teaching and computer games might the best mathematics pedagogy. 

  11. New directions in virtual environments and gaming to address obesity and diabetes: industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Barb

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality is increasingly used for education and treatment in the fields of health and medicine. What is the health potential of virtual reality technology from the software development industry perspective? This article presents interviews with Ben Sawyer of Games for Health, Dr. Walter Greenleaf of InWorld Solutions, and Dr. Ernie Medina of MedPlay Technologies. Games for Health brings together researchers, medical professionals, and game developers to share information on the impact that game technologies can have on health, health care, and policy. InWorld is an Internet-based virtual environment designed specifically for behavioral health care. MedPlay Technologies develops wellness training programs that include exergaming technology. The interviewees share their views on software development and other issues that must be addressed to advance the field of virtual reality for health applications. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. The Perspective of Six Malaysian Students on Playing Video Games: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Roselan; Yee Leng, Eow; Wan Ali, Wan Zah; Mahmud, Rosnaini; Hamzah, Mohd. Sahandri Gani

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a glimpse into understanding the potential benefits as well as harm of playing video games from the perspective of six Malaysian secondary school students, aged 16-17 years old. The rationale of the study is to enable parents, educators, administrators and policy makers to develop a sound understanding on the impact of playing…

  13. Children's Perspective of Game: A Comparison of the Public and Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Nevin; Taspinar, Tugçe; Demis, Nurdan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine what the game means from the perspectives of children studying at public and private schools. Four questionnaires were applied to all the third grade parents of four schools; two public and two private schools in Ankara, and questionnaires were completed and sent back by 212 parents. A total of 32…

  14. The Value of ICT from a Learning Game-Playing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) case study in physical education teacher education from a student perspective. Action research evaluated the impact of a range of ICT options on student teachers' learning to play as well as learning to teach games in a secondary school context. Although multiple media were…

  15. Problematic Video Game Play and ADHD Traits in an Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidi, Maria

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the relationship between problematic video game play (PVGP), video game usage, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in an adult population. A sample of 205 healthy adult volunteers completed the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), a video game usage questionnaire, and the Problem Video Game Playing Test (PVGT). A significant positive correlation was found between the ASRS and the PVGT. More specifically, inattention symptoms and time spent playing video games were the best predictors of PVGP. No relationship was found between frequency and duration of play and ADHD traits. Hyperactivity symptoms were not associated with PVGP. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between ADHD traits and problematic video game play. In particular, adults with higher level of self-reported inattention symptoms could be at higher risk of PVGP.

  16. Perspective of Game Theory in Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, A.; Zascerinska, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of society has attracted a lot of research efforts. A strategic aspect to the society's evolution is introduced by the game theory (Fernandez, 2011, p. 1). The research question is as follows: how to organize the process of teaching and learning in education for sustainable development? The aim of the research is to…

  17. A Marketing Perspective on Educational Games, Simulations and Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia

    1989-01-01

    Examines the literature on marketing and uses the four elements of product, price, place, and promotion to elicit guidance for those who wish to market educational games, simulations, and workshops. Devising a marketing strategy centered on the customer is discussed, and the distinction between goods and services is described. (11 references)…

  18. Wireless Networks under a Backoff Attack: A Game Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras, Juan; Zazo, Santiago

    2018-01-30

    We study a wireless sensor network using CSMA/CA in the MAC layer under a backoff attack: some of the sensors of the network are malicious and deviate from the defined contention mechanism. We use Bianchi's network model to study the impact of the malicious sensors on the total network throughput, showing that it causes the throughput to be unfairly distributed among sensors. We model this conflict using game theory tools, where each sensor is a player. We obtain analytical solutions and propose an algorithm, based on Regret Matching, to learn the equilibrium of the game with an arbitrary number of players. Our approach is validated via simulations, showing that our theoretical predictions adjust to reality.

  19. Wireless Networks under a Backoff Attack: A Game Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Parras

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a wireless sensor network using CSMA/CA in the MAC layer under a backoff attack: some of the sensors of the network are malicious and deviate from the defined contention mechanism. We use Bianchi’s network model to study the impact of the malicious sensors on the total network throughput, showing that it causes the throughput to be unfairly distributed among sensors. We model this conflict using game theory tools, where each sensor is a player. We obtain analytical solutions and propose an algorithm, based on Regret Matching, to learn the equilibrium of the game with an arbitrary number of players. Our approach is validated via simulations, showing that our theoretical predictions adjust to reality.

  20. Towards understanding the guessing game: a dynamical systems’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Stefan

    2004-08-01

    The so-called “Guessing Game” or α-Beauty Contest serves as a paradigmatic conceptual framework for competitive price formation on financial markets beyond traditional equilibrium finance. It highlights features that are reasonable to consider when dealing with price formation on real markets. Nonetheless this game is still poorly understood. We propose a model which is essentially based on two assumptions: (1) players consider intervals rather than exact numbers to cope with incomplete knowledge and (2) players iteratively update their recent guesses. It provides an explanation for typical patterns observed in real data, such as the strict positivity of outcomes in the 1-shot setting, the skew background distribution of guessed numbers, as well as the polynomial convergence towards the game-theoretic Nash equilibrium in the iterative setting.

  1. Nanoscale molecular communication networks: a game-theoretic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunxiao; Chen, Yan; Ray Liu, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, communication between nanomachines is an important topic for the development of novel devices. To implement a nanocommunication system, diffusion-based molecular communication is considered as a promising bio-inspired approach. Various technical issues about molecular communications, including channel capacity, noise and interference, and modulation and coding, have been studied in the literature, while the resource allocation problem among multiple nanomachines has not been well investigated, which is a very important issue since all the nanomachines share the same propagation medium. Considering the limited computation capability of nanomachines and the expensive information exchange cost among them, in this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for distributed resource allocation in nanoscale molecular communication systems. We first analyze the inter-symbol and inter-user interference, as well as bit error rate performance, in the molecular communication system. Based on the interference analysis, we formulate the resource allocation problem as a non-cooperative molecule emission control game, where the Nash equilibrium is found and proved to be unique. In order to improve the system efficiency while guaranteeing fairness, we further model the resource allocation problem using a cooperative game based on the Nash bargaining solution, which is proved to be proportionally fair. Simulation results show that the Nash bargaining solution can effectively ensure fairness among multiple nanomachines while achieving comparable social welfare performance with the centralized scheme.

  2. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  3. Analysis on stability of strategic alliance: A game theory perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-qiong; FAN Liang-cong

    2006-01-01

    Strategic alliance has suffered much instabilities since its first implementation. Scholars have carried out many embedded, precise and comprehensive researches from both theory and empiricism. Here we try to find certain stable solutions by employing game theory, in an attempt to construct theoretical bases for strategic alliance, which people called "one of the most important organizational innovation in the end of the 20th century" (Shi, 2001), to exploit its advantages in the process of globalization. Finally, this article puts forward some advices for its success.

  4. The immediate and long-term effects of time perspective on Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavská, Kateřina

    2018-03-01

    Backgrounds and aims This study focuses on the role of time perspective (TP) in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). An inventory-based study on 377 massive multiplayer online role playing game players was conducted, followed by a 3-year-follow-up in which 48 active players from the original sample participated. We proposed that TP factors (negative TP and future positive TP) will influence either the current presence of IGD symptoms or the further development of IGD over time. In other words, the effect of TP is stable. Finally, game usage patterns were analyzed in the sense of changes in playing time and IGD symptoms in gamers after 3 years. Methods To access the variables, two scales were administered through online inventory, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory-short, and Charlton and Danforths' Core Addiction Scale, both in 2012 (N = 377) and 2015 (N = 48). The amount of time that gamers usually spent playing were obtained through self-reports. Results The study's primary presumptions were confirmed. Both negative TP and future positive TP were confirmed as significant predictors of the presence of IGD symptoms, either immediately or in the following 3 years. Data on game usage showed a significant decrease in playing time and IGD symptoms between year 0 and year 3 of the study.

  5. The play's the thing: a clinical-developmental perspective on video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfond, Holly S; Salonius-Pasternak, Dorothy E

    2005-07-01

    In this article, computer and video games are discussed as electronic play. Major perspectives on play and salient developmental issues are presented, along with similarities and differences between electronic play and other types of play. The authors consider possible benefits and risks associated with this type of play, with particular attention paid to cognitive and socioemotional development. Recommendations for clinicians in their work with children, adolescents, and parents are discussed, as are future directions for research.

  6. Case Study on the Forestry Cooperation Model from Game Structure Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Cai, Zhijian; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Take Chinese yew cooperative organization for example,different game structures of forestry cooperation model were analyzed,the elative merit and applicable occasion was discussed combined with empirical investigation,and some suggestions were given also.The results showed that depending entirely on normal forest farmers cooperate spontaneously is difficult. Policies should be designed from the perspective of promoted village cadres and influential family salons to cooperation. When m...

  7. Virtual reality games for rehabilitation of people with stroke: perspectives from the users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyn N; Woods, Claire; Rosie, Juliet A; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and users' perspectives of a novel virtual reality (VR) game-based rehabilitation intervention for people with stroke. METHOD. Six people with upper limb hemiplegia participated in a 6-week intervention that involved VR games. A series of eight progressively complex games was developed that required participants to navigate a submarine in a virtual ocean environment. Movement of the submarine was directed by forces applied to an arm interface by the affected limb. Outcome measures included assessments of arm function, questionnaires evaluating the intervention and a semi-structured interview concerning the participants' opinion of the intervention. RESULTS. All participants improved their performance on the games, although there were limited changes in clinical measures of arm function. All participants reported that they enjoyed the intervention with a wide range of overall perceptions of the experience of using VR. Three themes emerging from the interview data were: stretching myself, purpose and expectations of the intervention and future improvements. CONCLUSIONS. Participants found that taking part in this pilot study was enjoyable and challenging. Participants' feedback suggested that the games may be motivating and engaging for future users and have provided a basis for further development of the intervention.

  8. Policy and Prevention Approaches for Disordered and Hazardous Gaming and Internet Use: an International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Doh, Young Yim; Wu, Anise M S; Kuss, Daria J; Pallesen, Ståle; Mentzoni, Rune; Carragher, Natacha; Sakuma, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    Problems related to high levels of gaming and Internet usage are increasingly recognized as a potential public health burden across the developed world. The aim of this review was to present an international perspective on prevention strategies for Internet gaming disorder and related health conditions (e.g., Internet addiction), as well as hazardous gaming and Internet use. A systematic review of quantitative research evidence was conducted, followed by a search of governmental reports, policy and position statements, and health guidelines in the last decade. The regional scope included the USA, UK, Australia, China, Germany, Japan, and South Korea. Prevention studies have mainly involved school-based programs to train healthier Internet use habits in adolescents. The efficacy of selective prevention is promising but warrants further empirical attention. On an international scale, the formal recognition of gaming or Internet use as a disorder or as having quantifiable harms at certain levels of usage has been foundational to developing structured prevention responses. The South Korean model, in particular, is an exemplar of a coordinated response to a public health threat, with extensive government initiatives and long-term strategic plans at all three levels of prevention (i.e., universal, selective, and indicated). Western regions, by comparison, are dominated by prevention approaches led by non-profit organizations and private enterprise. The future of prevention of gaming and Internet problems ultimately relies upon all stakeholders working collaboratively in the public interest, confronting the reality of the evidence base and developing practical, ethical, and sustainable countermeasures.

  9. the significance of infectious diseases in african game populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the effects of African game diseases as it is only possible here, in view of lack of .... The latter is highly infectious and fatal for domestic poultry and was described .... tations of animals takes place with the'ingestion of muscle meat, containing ...

  10. Leisure, Digital Games and Learning: Perspectives for School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Eucidio Pimenta; Arruda, Durcelina Pimenta

    2014-01-01

    This text discusses the relationship between leisure and education in contemporary society from the perspective of day-to-day use of videogames by young people and its relationship to learning, and specifically school learning. We intend to analyze, in the light of current academic production, the following question: what possible relations are…

  11. The Assessment of Hyperactivity in Preschool Populations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The variety of methods available for the assessment of hyperactivity in preschool populations is reviewed. Specific procedures for assessment are presented from a multidisciplinary perspective, integrating biophysical, behavioral, cognitive, and ecological models. (Author/JDD)

  12. Population and harvest trends of big game and small game species: a technical document supporting the USDA Forest Service Interim Update of the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Michael S. Knowles; Stephen J. Brady

    2009-01-01

    This technical document supports the Forest Service's requirement to assess the status of renewable natural resources as mandated by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 (RPA). It updates past reports on national and regional trends in population and harvest estimates for species classified as big game and small game. The trends...

  13. Cancer dormancy and criticality from a game theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Kirilin, Vlamimir; Lin, Ke-Chih; Torga, Gonzalo; Qu, Junle; Liu, Liyu; Sturm, James C; Pienta, Kenneth; Austin, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The physics of cancer dormancy, the time between initial cancer treatment and re-emergence after a protracted period, is a puzzle. Cancer cells interact with host cells via complex, non-linear population dynamics, which can lead to very non-intuitive but perhaps deterministic and understandable progression dynamics of cancer and dormancy. We explore here the dynamics of host-cancer cell populations in the presence of (1) payoffs gradients and (2) perturbations due to cell migration. We determine to what extent the time-dependence of the populations can be quantitively understood in spite of the underlying complexity of the individual agents and model the phenomena of dormancy.

  14. Perspective and agency during video gaming influences spatial presence experience and brain activation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havranek Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The experience of spatial presence (SP, i.e., the sense of being present in a virtual environment, emerges if an individual perceives himself as 1 if he were actually located (self-location and 2 able to act in the virtual environment (possible actions. In this study, two main media factors (perspective and agency were investigated while participants played a commercially available video game. Methods The differences in SP experience and associated brain activation were compared between the conditions of game play in first person perspective (1PP and third person perspective (3PP as well as between agency, i.e., active navigation of the video game character (active, and non-agency, i.e., mere passive observation (passive. SP was assessed using standard questionnaires, and brain activation was measured using electroencephalography (EEG and sLORETA source localisation (standard low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Results Higher SP ratings were obtained in the 1PP compared with the 3PP condition and in the active compared with the passive condition. On a neural level, we observed in the 1PP compared with the 3PP condition significantly less alpha band power in the parietal, the occipital and the limbic cortex. In the active compared with the passive condition, we uncovered significantly more theta band power in frontal brain regions. Conclusion We propose that manipulating the factors perspective and agency influences SP formation by either directly or indirectly modulating the ego-centric visual processing in a fronto-parietal network. The neuroscientific results are discussed in terms of the theoretical concepts of SP.

  15. Bipartite Graphs as Models of Population Structures in Evolutionary Multiplayer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Rochat, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    By combining evolutionary game theory and graph theory, “games on graphs” study the evolutionary dynamics of frequency-dependent selection in population structures modeled as geographical or social networks. Networks are usually represented by means of unipartite graphs, and social interactions by two-person games such as the famous prisoner’s dilemma. Unipartite graphs have also been used for modeling interactions going beyond pairwise interactions. In this paper, we argue that bipartite graphs are a better alternative to unipartite graphs for describing population structures in evolutionary multiplayer games. To illustrate this point, we make use of bipartite graphs to investigate, by means of computer simulations, the evolution of cooperation under the conventional and the distributed N-person prisoner’s dilemma. We show that several implicit assumptions arising from the standard approach based on unipartite graphs (such as the definition of replacement neighborhoods, the intertwining of individual and group diversity, and the large overlap of interaction neighborhoods) can have a large impact on the resulting evolutionary dynamics. Our work provides a clear example of the importance of construction procedures in games on graphs, of the suitability of bigraphs and hypergraphs for computational modeling, and of the importance of concepts from social network analysis such as centrality, centralization and bipartite clustering for the understanding of dynamical processes occurring on networked population structures. PMID:22970237

  16. Evaluation of Spatial Perspective Taking Skills using a Digital Game with Different Levels of Immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Freina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the results of an experiment aimed at assessing the impact of different levels of immersion on performance in a Spatial Perspective Taking (SPT task. Since SPT is an embodied skill, the hypothesis was that the more immersive a tool is, the better the performance should be. Ninety-eight students from a local primary school have played with three different versions of a game: (i completely immersive with a Head Mounted Display, (ii semi immersive on a computer screen and (iii non-immersive where no movements were possible for the player. Results showed that in the immersive versions of the game, players obtained higher scores than in the non-immersive version, suggesting that an immersive tool can better support performance in a SPT task.

  17. The motivations of adolescents who are addicted to online games: a cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-01-01

    This research explored, from the perspective of cognitive theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. Study 1 focused on the differential motivations between the addicts and nonaddicts. The findings revealed that the addicts exhibited higher intrinsic than extrinsic motivation, whereas the nonaddicts showed an opposite relationship. The intrinsic motivation of the addicts was also higher than the nonaddicts. The results imply that intrinsic motivation plays a crucial role in gaming addiction. Study 2 was conducted to examine whether four factors that moderate the detrimental effect of extrinsic motivators on intrinsic motivation would function as predicted. Results indicated that extrinsic rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation when they were high expectancy, high relevance, tangible, and noncontingent. Thus, players' intrinsic motivation would be higher when extrinsic rewards were low expectancy, low relevance, intangible, and contingent. This article provides insights into the differential motivations of the addicted players and how to employ intrinsic motivators to affect their intrinsic motivation.

  18. Ethnic populations of India as seen from an evolutionary perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ethnic populations of India as seen from an evolutionary perspective ... of the world, and; one of the first waves of out-of-Africa migration came into India. ... By studying variation at DNA level in contemporary human populations of India, we ...

  19. Passivity analysis of higher order evolutionary dynamics and population games

    KAUST Repository

    Mabrok, Mohamed; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary dynamics describe how the population composition changes in response to the fitness levels, resulting in a closed-loop feedback system. Recent work established a connection between passivity theory and certain classes of population

  20. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Mixed population Minority Game with generalized strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, P.; Hart, M.; Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.

    2000-11-01

    We present a quantitative theory, based on crowd effects, for the market volatility in a Minority Game played by a mixed population. Below a critical concentration of generalized strategy players, we find that the volatility in the crowded regime remains above the random coin-toss value regardless of the `temperature' controlling strategy use. Our theory yields good agreement with numerical simulations.

  1. The ideal free distribution as an evolutionarily stable state in density-dependent population games

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cressman, R.; Křivan, Vlastimil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2010), s. 1231-1242 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : density-dependent population games Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2010

  2. The Hawk-Dove game in phenotypically homogeneous and heterogeneous populations of finite dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laruelle, Annick; da Silva Rocha, André Barreira; Escobedo, Ramón

    2018-02-01

    The Hawk-Dove game played between individuals in populations of finite dimension is analyzed by means of a stochastic model. We take into account both cases when all individuals in the population are either phenotypically homogeneous or heterogeneous. A strategy in the model is a gene representing the probability of playing the Hawk strategy. Individual interactions at the microscopic level are described by a genetic algorithm where evolution results from the interplay among selection, mutation, drift and cross-over of genes. We show that the behavioral patterns observed at the macroscopic level can be reproduced as the emergent result of individual interactions governed by the rules of the Hawk-Dove game at the microscopic level. We study how the results of the genetic algorithm compare with those obtained in evolutionary game theory, finding that, although genes continuously change both their presence and frequency in the population over time, the population average behavior always achieves stationarity and, when this happens, the final average strategy played in the population oscillates around the evolutionarily stable strategy in the homogeneous population case or the neutrally stable set in the heterogeneous population case.

  3. The population health approach in historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szreter, Simon

    2003-03-01

    The origin of the population health approach is an historic debate over the relationship between economic growth and human health. In Britain and France, the Industrial Revolution disrupted population health and stimulated pioneering epidemiological studies, informing the early preventive public health movement. A century-long process of political adjustment between the forces of liberal democracy and propertied interests ensued. The 20th-century welfare states resulted as complex political mechanisms for converting economic growth into enhanced population health. However, the rise of a "neoliberal" agenda, denigrating the role of government, has once again brought to the fore the importance of prevention and a population health approach to map and publicize the health impacts of this new phase of "global" economic growth.

  4. Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Als Richard Duke sein Buch ""Gaming: The Future's Language"" 1974 veröffentlichte, war er ein Pionier für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Planspielen in Politik, Strategieentwicklung und Management. Das Buch wurde zu einem viel zitierten Standardwerk. 2014 feiert die von Richard D. Duke gegründete International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA) ihr 45-jähriges Bestehen. Gleichzeitig legt Richard D. Duke eine überarbeitete Auflage seines Klassikers vor.   Inhaltsverzeichnis TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgments Preface SECTION I1. The ProblemSECTION II2. Modes of Human Communication3. Mode

  5. Population perspective is widening. Interview: Louise Lassonde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the link between poverty and population growth, the link between population growth and the environment, solutions in general and at the village level, integrated programs, urban growth, and critical policies. Developing countries do recognize that rural poverty is part of the cycle of urban migration and population dynamics. Poverty also must be treated separately from population growth issues. An important issue is the reproductive health of women, their economic opportunities, and empowerment in decision making and access to information. Another important issue is the link between human species survival and the biosphere. Both issues need to be addressed and there is no contradiction between the issues; each is reinforcing of the other in policy. At the village level improving the personal, social, and environmental gains for women in villages with high fertility and soil erosion, deforestation, and water shortages serves both concerns. Programmatically, this means more information for women, better reproductive health services for women, improved social services, tree planting programs, water use programs, and environmental protection programs. Central planning is needed, but also decentralization in implementation and decision making. Urban population growth does not lend itself to ready-made solutions. The positive is that it offers modernization and the possibility of improved social services; the negative is how to provide the services. Both population dynamics and underlying infrastructure and urban management must work together. Recommendations are 3-fold. 1) Technology, the production/consumption process, and population dynamics are the major driving forces of environmental change. 2) The planning approach needs to be reconsidered: population dynamics and implications must be integrated at every level of planning. 3) Policies that recognize the aforementioned points will induce political will to implement activities and programs.

  6. Modeling evolutionary games in populations with demographic structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Giaimo, Stefano; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    interactions, but usually omits life history and the demographic structure of the population. Here we show how an integration of both aspects can substantially alter the underlying evolutionary dynamics. We study the replicator dynamics of strategy interactions in life stage structured populations. Individuals...

  7. Evolutionary game theory for physical and biological scientists. I. Training and validating population dynamics equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D

    2014-08-06

    Failure to understand evolutionary dynamics has been hypothesized as limiting our ability to control biological systems. An increasing awareness of similarities between macroscopic ecosystems and cellular tissues has inspired optimism that game theory will provide insights into the progression and control of cancer. To realize this potential, the ability to compare game theoretic models and experimental measurements of population dynamics should be broadly disseminated. In this tutorial, we present an analysis method that can be used to train parameters in game theoretic dynamics equations, used to validate the resulting equations, and used to make predictions to challenge these equations and to design treatment strategies. The data analysis techniques in this tutorial are adapted from the analysis of reaction kinetics using the method of initial rates taught in undergraduate general chemistry courses. Reliance on computer programming is avoided to encourage the adoption of these methods as routine bench activities.

  8. Youth Mental Health, Family Practice, and Knowledge Translation Video Games about Psychosis: Family Physicians’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie

    2017-01-01

    Objective Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians’ perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. Method As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Results Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Conclusions Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth’s mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings. PMID:29056980

  9. Youth Mental Health, Family Practice, and Knowledge Translation Video Games about Psychosis: Family Physicians' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Manuela; Suzanne, Archie

    2017-01-01

    Family practitioners face many challenges providing mental healthcare to youth. Digital technology may offer solutions, but the products often need to be adapted for primary care. This study reports on family physicians' perspectives on the relevance and feasibility of a digital knowledge translation (KT) tool, a set of video games, designed to raise awareness about psychosis, marijuana use, and facilitate access to mental health services among youth. As part of an integrated knowledge translation project, five family physicians from a family health team participated in a focus group. The focus group delved into their perspectives on treating youth with mental health concerns while exploring their views on implementing the digital KT tool in their practice. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis to identify patterns, concepts, and themes in the transcripts. Three themes were identified: (a) challenges in assessing youth with mental health concerns related to training, time constraints, and navigating the system; (b) feedback on the KT tool; and, (c) ideas on how to integrate it into a primary care practice. Family practitioners felt that the proposed video game KT tool could be used to address youth's mental health and addictions issues in primary care settings.

  10. Perspectives on Population in AP® Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Max; Keller, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    A study of human geography begins with the human population. In fact, demographic topics frequently relate to other units in the AP Human Geography course. The three main concepts elaborated upon in this article are (1) the demographic transition model, (2) Malthusian theory and its critics, and (3) pronatalist and antinatalist policies that might…

  11. Roman Catholic perspectives on population ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormack, A

    1983-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of Catholics recognize the problem of rapidly increasing population and urge responsible parenthood. Current Catholic doctrine sanctions only natural family planning methods, those that rely on a woman's menstrual cycle rather than on contraceptives, but the fact is that only some 2-4% of the people of the world use noncontraceptive methods. In 1980 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that such methods are of very limited usefulness in developing countries and much more research is required if they are to become generally effective. The Church has not been very helpful in promoting population concern in the international forum. The Vatican nearly succeeded in having any reference to population completely excluded from the Third UN Development Plan. The US and European Catholic Bishops have issued strong statements condemning nuclear war, but how many voices are raised in the Catholic Church to warn about the population explosion. In the slums of the 3rd world, there have been numerous warnings against "immoral" birth control methods, but little attention has been given to the problem of rapid population growth or to realistic efforts to deal with it. The question that arises is, is it consistent to be so concerned about humankind's possible future while almost totally ignoring the population explosion. It is true that the population factor is only 1 part of the problem of world poverty; the other elements also call for a solution. The present Pope has gone further than Paul 6 in stressing human rights, but human rights can never be realized as long as hundreds of millions of poverty stricken people lack basic necessities. Is there no way, under the circumstances, to reconcile the teachings of the Papal document banning contraception, the "Humanae Vitae," with the needs of those couples who are not able to care for another child but who cannot effectively practice family planning. In a recent message sent through Cardinal Casaroli

  12. New perspectives on population: lessons from Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, L S

    1995-03-01

    The lessons from the 1994 World Population Conference in Cairo, Egypt, are summarized in this publication. The topics of discussion include the evolution of population policies, the changing policy environment, demographic trends, and solutions in the form of gender equity, provision of reproductive health services, and sustainable social and economic development. The program of action supported by 180 governments and targeted for 2015 articulated the goals of universal access to a full range of safe and reliable family planning methods and reproductive health services, a specified level of reduction in infant and child mortality, a specified level of reduction in maternal mortality, an increase in life expectancy to 70-75 years or more, and universal access to and completion of primary education. Other features include goals for improving women's status and equity in gender relations, expansion of educational and job opportunities for women and girls, and involvement of men in childrearing responsibilities and family planning. Steps should be taken to eliminate poverty and reduce or eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. Population policy must be integrated within social and economic development policies. About $22 billion will be needed for provision of family planning and reproductive health services by the year 2015. Costs will increase over the 10-year period due to the increased population to be served. Per person user costs for family planning alone are higher in countries without infrastructure and technical skills. Actual costs vary with the cost of contraceptive supplies, patterns of use, and efficiency of delivery systems. Although the plan offers 16 chapters worth of advice and recommends 243 specific actions, countries will have to be selective due to cost limitations. The 20/20 Initiative is proposed for sharing social service costs between international donors (20%) and host countries (20%). A separate UN projection of need

  13. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior.

  14. A game theory perspective on environmental assessment: What games are played and what does this tell us about decision making rationality and legitimacy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Morrison-Saunders, Angus [Murdoch University (Australia); Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa); Retief, Francois [Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2016-02-15

    Game theory provides a useful theoretical framework to examine the decision process operating in the context of environmental assessment, and to examine the rationality and legitimacy of decision-making subject to Environmental Assessment (EA). The research uses a case study of the Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainability Appraisal processes undertaken in England. To these are applied an analytical framework, based on the concept of decision windows to identify the decisions to be assessed. The conditions for legitimacy are defined, based on game theory, in relation to the timing of decision information, the behaviour type (competitive, reciprocal, equity) exhibited by the decision maker, and the level of public engagement; as, together, these control the type of rationality which can be brought to bear on the decision. Instrumental rationality is based on self-interest of individuals, whereas deliberative rationality seeks broader consensus and is more likely to underpin legitimate decisions. The results indicate that the Sustainability Appraisal process, conducted at plan level, is better than EIA, conducted at project level, but still fails to provide conditions that facilitate legitimacy. Game theory also suggests that Sustainability Appraisal is likely to deliver ‘least worst’ outcomes rather than best outcomes when the goals of the assessment process are considered; this may explain the propensity of such ‘least worst’ decisions in practise. On the basis of what can be learned from applying this game theory perspective, it is suggested that environmental assessment processes need to be redesigned and better integrated into decision making in order to guarantee the legitimacy of the decisions made. - Highlights: • Decision legitimacy is defined in terms of game theory. • Game theory is applied to EIA and SA decision windows. • Game theory suggests least worst outcomes prevail. • SA is more likely to be perceived legitimate than EIA.

  15. A game theory perspective on environmental assessment: What games are played and what does this tell us about decision making rationality and legitimacy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2016-01-01

    Game theory provides a useful theoretical framework to examine the decision process operating in the context of environmental assessment, and to examine the rationality and legitimacy of decision-making subject to Environmental Assessment (EA). The research uses a case study of the Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainability Appraisal processes undertaken in England. To these are applied an analytical framework, based on the concept of decision windows to identify the decisions to be assessed. The conditions for legitimacy are defined, based on game theory, in relation to the timing of decision information, the behaviour type (competitive, reciprocal, equity) exhibited by the decision maker, and the level of public engagement; as, together, these control the type of rationality which can be brought to bear on the decision. Instrumental rationality is based on self-interest of individuals, whereas deliberative rationality seeks broader consensus and is more likely to underpin legitimate decisions. The results indicate that the Sustainability Appraisal process, conducted at plan level, is better than EIA, conducted at project level, but still fails to provide conditions that facilitate legitimacy. Game theory also suggests that Sustainability Appraisal is likely to deliver ‘least worst’ outcomes rather than best outcomes when the goals of the assessment process are considered; this may explain the propensity of such ‘least worst’ decisions in practise. On the basis of what can be learned from applying this game theory perspective, it is suggested that environmental assessment processes need to be redesigned and better integrated into decision making in order to guarantee the legitimacy of the decisions made. - Highlights: • Decision legitimacy is defined in terms of game theory. • Game theory is applied to EIA and SA decision windows. • Game theory suggests least worst outcomes prevail. • SA is more likely to be perceived legitimate than EIA.

  16. Imagine-Self Perspective-Taking and Rational Self-Interested Behavior in a Simple Experimental Normal-Form Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Karbowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants’ attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.

  17. Imagine-Self Perspective-Taking and Rational Self-Interested Behavior in a Simple Experimental Normal-Form Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Adam; Ramsza, Michał

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the link between imagine-self perspective-taking and rational self-interested behavior in experimental normal-form games. Drawing on the concept of sympathy developed by Adam Smith and further literature on perspective-taking in games, we hypothesize that introduction of imagine-self perspective-taking by decision-makers promotes rational self-interested behavior in a simple experimental normal-form game. In our study, we examined behavior of 404 undergraduate students in the two-person game, in which the participant can suffer a monetary loss only if she plays her Nash equilibrium strategy and the opponent plays her dominated strategy. Results suggest that the threat of suffering monetary losses effectively discourages the participants from choosing Nash equilibrium strategy. In general, players may take into account that opponents choose dominated strategies due to specific not self-interested motivations or errors. However, adopting imagine-self perspective by the participants leads to more Nash equilibrium choices, perhaps by alleviating participants' attributions of susceptibility to errors or non-self-interested motivation to the opponents.

  18. Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat: New perspectives on gender and gaming, edited by Yasmin B. Kafai et al. [book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Serafin-Persson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Yasmin B. Kafai, Carrie Heeter, Jill Denner, and Jennifer Y. Sun, eds. Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat: New perspectives on gender and gaming. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008. $29.95 (371p ISBN 978-0-262-11319-9.

  19. Scripted collaboration in serious gaming for complex learning: Effects of multiple perspectives when acquiring water management skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Van Houcke, Jasper; Nadolski, Rob; Van der Hiele, Tony; Kurvers, Hub; Löhr, Ansje

    2010-01-01

    Hummel, H. G. K., Van Houcke, J., Nadolski, R. J., Van der Hiele, T., Kurvers, H., & Löhr, A. (2011). Scripted collaboration in gaming for complex learning: Effects of multiple perspectives when acquiring water management skills. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(6),

  20. CURRENT STATE OF POPULATION OF GAME MAMMALS HABITING SHELKOVSKOY DISTRICT OF CHECHNYA AND WAYS FOR OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batkhiyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The goal of the research is that: to identify the taxonomic composition of game species and make full list of species to assess the current state of populations and resources to carry out eco-faunistic analysis of the distribution of game mammals habiting Shelkovskiy district of Chechnya. Methods. We used mapping techniques, various methods of census forms and scientific processing of the collected material, systematic and bioecological analysis. Results. As a result, we have identified 5 ecological complexes and characterized them by distribution on the identified and described natural habitats. We have made an inventory of species, identified conditions of rare species and determined their status. Biometric data has been obtained for a number of species; their biological and ecological features have been described. We also identified the species composition of game mammals and their spatial distribution of habitats. The differentiation of species in ecological groups has been carried out. Data has been obtained on the number of nine major types for the period of 2012-2013, and their characteristics. We have made an estimation of ecological and economic potential of resources of game mammals of the study area. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of the results we can make a judgment about the level of biodiversity of species of game mammals of the studied area, the current state of their number and possible use for commercial, sports and recreational purposes. We propose specific measures such as the use of existing biological resources i.e. species of mammals, as well as the creation of new protected areas as a form of preserving and increasing the number of mammals in the area. The research results can be useful for monitoring and creating specially protected natural reservations, protection of endangered species. The findings have implications for the organization of hunting economy to increase the number of game animals. 

  1. The Relationship Between Structural Game Characteristics and Gambling Behavior: A Population-Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Tony; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Blaszczynski, Alex; Griffiths, Mark; Mentzoni, Rune; Pallesen, Ståle; Molde, Helge

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the structural characteristics and gambling behavior among video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers. The study was ecological valid, because the data consisted of actual gambling behavior registered in the participants natural gambling environment without intrusion by researchers. Online behavioral tracking data from Multix, an eight game video lottery terminal, were supplied by Norsk-Tipping (the state owned gambling company in Norway). The sample comprised the entire population of Multix gamblers (N = 31,109) who had gambled in January 2010. The individual number of bets made across games was defined as the dependent variable, reward characteristics of a game (i.e., payback percentage, hit frequency, size of winnings and size of jackpot) and bet characteristics of a game (i.e., range of betting options and availability of advanced betting options) served as the independent variables. Control variables were age and gender. Two separate cross-classified multilevel random intercepts models were used to analyze the relationship between bets made, reward characteristics and bet characteristics, where the number of bets was nested within both individuals and within games. The results show that the number of bets is positively associated with payback percentage, hit frequency, being female and age, and negatively associated with size of wins and range of available betting options. In summary, the results show that the reward characteristics and betting options explained 27% and 15% of the variance in the number of bets made, respectively. It is concluded that structural game characteristics affect gambling behavior. Implications of responsible gambling are discussed.

  2. Inequality measures for wealth distribution: Population vs individuals perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, R.; Rocha, H.

    2018-02-01

    Economic inequality is, nowadays, frequently perceived as following a growing trend with impact on political and religious agendas. However, there is a wide range of inequality measures, each of which pointing to a possibly different degree of inequality. Furthermore, regardless of the measure used, it only acknowledges the momentary population inequality, failing to capture the individuals evolution over time. In this paper, several inequality measures were analyzed in order to compare the typical single time instant degree of wealth inequality (population perspective) to the one obtained from the individuals' wealth mean over several time instants (individuals perspective). The proposed generalization of a simple addictive model, for limited time average of individual's wealth, allows us to verify that the typically used inequality measures for a given snapshot instant of the population significantly overestimate the individuals' wealth inequality over time. Moreover, that is more extreme for the ratios than for the indices analyzed.

  3. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided.

  4. Catholic perspectives on populations issues II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F X

    1981-02-01

    This Bulletin discusses the history and current status of the population problem from a Roman Catholic viewpoint. While upholding human rights and admitting the right of couples to control the size of their families, the Catholic Church continues to prohibit the use of artificial methods of contraception as sinful. This position hinders the Church, with its some 750 million adherents, from taking an effective lead in confronting the growing threat of global overpopulation. Rhythm has been permitted since 1930 but Pope Pius 12 in 1958 forbade contraceptive use of the pill. Despite the liberal spirit engendered by Vatican Council 2 and against the recommendation of a papal birth control commission, Pope Paul 6 in his 1968 Encyclical Humanae vitae reaffirmed the ban on artificial contraception, apparently convinced that this was necessary to combat growing sexual immorality, family breakdown, and materialism. This stance has been upheld by Pope John Paul 2 and the 1980 Synod of Bishops. The decision ignores the pleas of a number of responsible churchmen speaking for their people at the Synod and of a growing majority of Catholic theologians and laity, that Church teaching must be updated to take account of the facts of modern life. Surveys reveal that Catholic married couples increasingly find Church-approved natural family planning methods unsatisfactory and feel obliged to turn to artificial methods to regulate their family size. On the world scale, Pope John Paul 2 and the Vatican, while insisting on human rights and the need for a reordering of unjust economic, social, and political structures, seem to be neglecting the threat of civilizational breakdown that looms with the prospect of too many people in too little space with too few resources.

  5. Black Hole Safari: Tracking Populations and Hunting Big Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, N. J.

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the physical connection, or lack thereof, between the growth of galaxies and supermassive black holes is a key challenge in extragalactic astronomy. Dynamical studies of nearby galaxies are building a census of black hole masses across a broad range of galaxy types and uncovering statistical correlations between galaxy bulge properties and black hole masses. These local correlations provide a baseline for studying galaxies and black holes at higher redshifts. Recent measurements have probed the extremes of the supermassive black hole population and introduced surprises that challenge simple models of black hole and galaxy co-evolution. Future advances in the quality and quantity of dynamical black hole mass measurements will shed light upon the growth of massive galaxies and black holes in different cosmic environments.

  6. Perception Of Space, Empathy And Cognitive Processes: Design Of A Video Game For The Measurement Of Perspective Taking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio Alfredo Di Tore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective-taking skills require the ability to manipulate spatial reference systems and are the basis of the empathetic process. Empathy, in its relations with space representation and manipulation of spatial reference systems, is the investigation subject of this work, whose aim is the design of a videogame aimed at the measurement of the player's perspective taking skills. The idea of creating a video game on perspective taking is based on a classic Piagetian task, the three mountains problem, object of recent attention by the Italian scientific community that is involved in research in education. The current stage of the project has produced a video game, now in alpha testing release. The article discusses the software theoretical framework (spatial theory of empathy, describes the choices made in the design stage and comment on first results obtained during the alpha testing.

  7. Analyzing the Effect of TCP and Server Population on Massively Multiplayer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Suznjevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs use TCP flows for communication between the server and the game clients. The utilization of TCP, which was not initially designed for (soft real-time services, has many implications for the competing traffic flows. In this paper we present a series of studies which explore the competition between MMORPG and other traffic flows. For that aim, we first extend a source-based traffic model, based on player’s activities during the day, to also incorporate the impact of the number of players sharing a server (server population on network traffic. Based on real traffic traces, we statistically model the influence of the variation of the server’s player population on the network traffic, depending on the action categories (i.e., types of in-game player behaviour. Using the developed traffic model we prove that while server population only modifies specific action categories, this effect is significant enough to be observed on the overall traffic. We find that TCP Vegas is a good option for competing flows in order not to throttle the MMORPG flows and that TCP SACK is more respectful with game flows than other TCP variants, namely, Tahoe, Reno, and New Reno. Other tests show that MMORPG flows do not significantly reduce their sending window size when competing against UDP flows. Additionally, we study the effect of RTT unfairness between MMORPG flows, showing that it is less important than in the case of network-limited TCP flows.

  8. Effects of punishment in a mobile population playing the prisoner's dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Daniel R.; Fort, Joaquim

    2011-12-01

    We deal with a system of prisoner's dilemma players undergoing continuous motion in a two-dimensional plane. In contrast to previous work, we introduce altruistic punishment after the game. We find punishing only a few of the cooperator-defector interactions is enough to lead the system to a cooperative state in environments where otherwise defection would take over the population. This happens even with soft nonsocial punishment (where both cooperators and defectors punish other players, a behavior observed in many human populations). For high enough mobilities or temptations to defect, low rates of social punishment can no longer avoid the breakdown of cooperation.

  9. Mapping of the stochastic Lotka-Volterra model to models of population genetics and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, George W. A.; McKane, Alan J.

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between the M -species stochastic Lotka-Volterra competition (SLVC) model and the M -allele Moran model of population genetics is explored via timescale separation arguments. When selection for species is weak and the population size is large but finite, precise conditions are determined for the stochastic dynamics of the SLVC model to be mappable to the neutral Moran model, the Moran model with frequency-independent selection, and the Moran model with frequency-dependent selection (equivalently a game-theoretic formulation of the Moran model). We demonstrate how these mappings can be used to calculate extinction probabilities and the times until a species' extinction in the SLVC model.

  10. Strong solutions and instability for the fitness gradient system in evolutionary games between two populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiuju; Belmonte, Andrew; deForest, Russ; Liu, Chun; Tan, Zhong

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study a fitness gradient system for two populations interacting via a symmetric game. The population dynamics are governed by a conservation law, with a spatial migration flux determined by the fitness. By applying the Galerkin method, we establish the existence, regularity and uniqueness of global solutions to an approximate system, which retains most of the interesting mathematical properties of the original fitness gradient system. Furthermore, we show that a Turing instability occurs for equilibrium states of the fitness gradient system, and its approximations.

  11. Adolescent perspectives of BCT’s in a serious game: PEGASO case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rosewall Lang

    2015-10-01

    Teenagers are open minded about BCT use in games. They maintain that the BCT’s should enhance their enjoyment of game play and enjoyment and should not detract from the original remit of the game. They find it hard to conceptualise how data from the real world can be utilised in game play but are willing advocates and enthusiastic about novel technology opportunities to augment game play and mechanics. The Pegaso game is still undergoing development and the participatory approach will ensure that teenage motivations are better understood going forward so that the game can appropriately utilise the BCT interventions for maximum benefit and impact on teenage health and lifestyles.

  12. Vaccination Games with Peer Effects in a Heterogeneous Hospital Worker Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Tassier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a game theoretic model to analyze the Nash equilibrium of vaccine decisions in a hospital population with heterogeneous contacts. We use the model in conjunction with person-to-person contact data within a large university hospital. We simulate, using agent-based models, the probability of infection for various worker types in the data and use these probabilities to identify the Nash equilibrium vaccine choices of hospital workers. The analysis suggests that there may be large differences in vaccination rates among hospital worker groups. We extend the model to include peer effects within the game. The peer effects may create additional equilibria or may further cement existing equilibria depending on parameter values. Further, depending on the magnitude of the peer effects and the costs of infection and vaccination, peer effects may increase or decrease differences in worker group vaccination rates within the hospital.

  13. Evolutionary fate of memory-one strategies in repeated prisoner's dilemma game in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Sheng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2017-07-01

    We study evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game involving a one-step memory mechanism of the individuals whenever making strategy updating. In particular, during the process of strategy updating, each individual keeps in mind all the outcome of the action pairs adopted by himself and each of his neighbors in the last interaction, and according to which the individuals decide what actions they will take in the next round. Computer simulation results imply that win-stay-lose-shift like strategy win out of the memory-one strategy set in the stationary state. This result is robust in a large range of the payoff parameter, and does not depend on the initial state of the system. Furthermore, theoretical analysis with mean field and quasi-static approximation predict the same result. Thus, our studies suggest that win-stay-lose-shift like strategy is a stable dominant strategy in repeated prisoner's dilemma game in homogeneous structured populations.

  14. Game mechanics and technological mediation: an ethical perspective on the effects of MMORPG’s

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Christian; Pieters, W.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, video games have grown from a niche market to one of the major entertainment media, enticing millions of players worldwide. When ethical aspects of video games are being debated, the discussion oftentimes revolves around effects of their content, such as violence. This paper argues that effects of game mechanics, such as reward mechanisms, should be considered as well, as these are at the core of the appeal of games. We analyze the ethical dimension of behavioral game des...

  15. Subconscious learning via games and social media

    CERN Document Server

    Wortley, David; Kim, Seongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a detailed update on the applications of Serious Games in Healthcare and Education sector. In short, it provides an all rounded research and industry updates about the current and future advances in this area. These are the two sectors that are developing rapidly with direct applications of serious games. With advances in technologies and a new perspective on patient engagement and public expectations, the healthcare sector is increasingly turning to serious games to solve problems. Subconscious Learning via Games and Social Media will share expert opinions on the development and application of game technologies for health-related serious games. Our commercial and non-commercial experts comes from different aspects of the healthcare system from clinicians to therapist. The scope ranges from population health to specific medical domain applications. In the education sector, digital games have a great potential to improve learning of both adults and children. It is important to understand ho...

  16. How much inequality in income is fair? A microeconomic game theoretic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Luo, Yu; Sethuraman, Jay

    2015-10-01

    The increasing inequality in income and wealth in recent years, and the associated excessive pay packages of CEOs in the US and elsewhere, is of growing concern among policy makers as well as the common person. However, there seems to be no satisfactory answer, in conventional economic theories and models, to the fundamental questions of what kind of income distribution we ought to see, at least under ideal conditions, in a free market environment, and whether this distribution is fair. We propose a novel microeconomic game theoretic framework that addresses these questions and proves that the lognormal distribution is the fairest inequality of pay in an organization comprising of homogeneous agents, under ideal free market conditions at equilibrium. We also show that for a population of two different classes of agents, the equilibrium distribution is a combination of two different lognormal distributions where one of them, corresponding to the top ˜3-5% of the population, can be misidentified as a Pareto distribution. We compare our predictions with empirical data on global income inequality trends provided by Piketty and others. Our analysis suggests that the Scandinavian countries, and to a lesser extent Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia, have managed to get close to the ideal distribution for the bottom ˜99% of the population, while the US and UK remain less fair at the other extreme. Other European countries such as France and Germany, and Japan and Canada, are in the middle. Our theory also shows the deep and direct connection between potential game theory and statistical mechanics through entropy, which we identify as a measure of fairness in a distribution. This leads us to propose the fair market hypothesis, that the self-organizing dynamics of the ideal free market, i.e., Adam Smith's "invisible hand", not only promotes efficiency but also maximizes fairness under the given constraints.

  17. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  18. Population Dynamics for Renewables in Electricity Markets: A Minority Game View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dominance of fluctuating and intermittent stochastic renewable energy sources (RES) has introduced uncertainty in power systems which in turn, has challenged how electricity market operate. In this context, there has been significant research in developing strategies for RES producers, which...... however typically focuses on the decision process of a single producer, assuming unrealistic access to aspects of information about the power system. This paper analyzes the behavior of an entire population of stochastic producers in an electricity market using as basis a minority game: the El Farol Bar...... problem. We illustrate how uncomplicated strategies based on a adaptive learning rules lead to the coordination among RES producers and a Pareto efficient outcome....

  19. Do Stereotypic Images in Video Games Affect Attitudes and Behavior? Adolescents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Alexandra; Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; O'Connor, Alexander; Collins, Michael J

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes about video games along with their self-reported play frequency. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 361), approximately evenly divided by grade and gender, were surveyed about whether video games have stereotypic images, involve harmful consequences or affect one's attitudes, whether game playing should be regulated by parents or the government, and whether game playing is a personal choice. Adolescents who played video games frequently showed decreased concern about the effects that games with negatively stereotyped images may have on the players' attitudes compared to adolescents who played games infrequently or not at all. With age, adolescents were more likely to view images as negative, but were also less likely to recognize stereotypic images of females as harmful and more likely to judge video-game playing as a personal choice. The paper discusses other findings in relation to research on adolescents' social cognitive judgments.

  20. Designing a mobile game to thwarts malicious IT threats: A phishing threat avoidance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Arachchilage, Nalin Asanka Gamagedara; Tarhini, Ali; Love, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Phishing is an online identity theft, which aims to steal sensitive information such as username, password and online banking details from victims. To prevent this, phishing education needs to be considered. Game based education is becoming more and more popular. This paper introduces a mobile game prototype for the android platform based on a story, which simplifies and exaggerates real life. The elements of a game design framework for avoiding phishing attacks were used to address the game ...

  1. A dynamic parking charge optimal control model under perspective of commuters' evolutionary game behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, XuXun; Yuan, PengCheng

    2018-01-01

    In this research we consider commuters' dynamic learning effect by modeling the trip mode choice behavior from a new perspective of dynamic evolutionary game theory. We explore the behavior pattern of different types of commuters and study the evolution path and equilibrium properties under different traffic conditions. We further establish a dynamic parking charge optimal control (referred to as DPCOC) model to alter commuters' trip mode choice while minimizing the total social cost. Numerical tests show. (1) Under fixed parking fee policy, the evolutionary results are completely decided by the travel time and the only method for public transit induction is to increase the parking charge price. (2) Compared with fixed parking fee policy, DPCOC policy proposed in this research has several advantages. Firstly, it can effectively turn the evolutionary path and evolutionary stable strategy to a better situation while minimizing the total social cost. Secondly, it can reduce the sensitivity of trip mode choice behavior to traffic congestion and improve the ability to resist interferences and emergencies. Thirdly, it is able to control the private car proportion to a stable state and make the trip behavior more predictable for the transportation management department. The research results can provide theoretical basis and decision-making references for commuters' mode choice prediction, dynamic setting of urban parking charge prices and public transit induction.

  2. Time perspective as a predictor of massive multiplayer online role-playing game playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavska, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between the time perspective (TP) personality trait and massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) playing. We investigate the question of frequency of playing. The TP was measured with Zimbardo's TP Inventory (ZTPI), which includes five factors-past negative, past positive, present hedonistic, present fatalistic, and future. The study used data from 154 MMORPG players. We demonstrated that TP partially explained differences within a group of players with respect to the frequency of playing. Significant positive correlations were found between present factors and the amount of time spent playing MMORPGs, and significant negative correlation was found between the future factor and the time spent playing MMORPGs. Our study also revealed the influence of future-present balance on playing time. Players who scored lower in future-present balance variables (their present score was relatively high compared with their future score) reported higher values in playing time. In contrast to referential studies on TP and drug abuse and gambling, present fatalistic TP was demonstrated to be a stronger predictor of extensive playing than present hedonistic TP, which opened the question of motivation for playing. The advantage of our study compared with other personality-based studies lies in the fact that TP is a stable but malleable personality trait with a direct link to playing behavior. Therefore, TP is a promising conceptual resource for excessive playing therapy.

  3. Revisiting violent videogames research: Game studies perspectives on aggression, violence, immersion, interaction, and textual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Kontour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, the bulk of effects research on violent video games demon-strates troubling correlations between playing violent video games and increases in (or primers for aggressive behavior, which suggests that overall, violent video games may be detrimental to society. However, there may be significant weaknesses in this body of research, concerning not only methodological issues such as study design and the ways in which ‘aggression’ or ‘violence’ are conceptualized, but also containing fundamental misunderstandings of games as text, apparatus, or cultural artifact. Because these studies may not have a sophisticated enough un-derstanding of games as objects or gaming as an activity, we must there-fore reconsider the conclusions and implications thus far arrived at in this research and look for new ways forward for assessing violence in/and video games.

  4. Game-Based Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines theoretical and empirical perspectives on how Game-Based Teaching can be integrated within the context of formal schooling. Initially, this is done by describing game scenarios as models for possible actions that need to be translated into curricular knowledge practices...... approaches to game-based teaching, which may or may not correspond with the pedagogical models of particular games....

  5. Development of a population of cancer cells: Observation and modeling by a Mixed Spatial Evolutionary Games approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerniak, Andrzej; Krześlak, Michał; Student, Sebastian; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2016-09-21

    Living cells, like whole living organisms during evolution, communicate with their neighbors, interact with the environment, divide, change their phenotypes, and eventually die. The development of specific ways of communication (through signaling molecules and receptors) allows some cellular subpopulations to survive better, to coordinate their physiological status, and during embryonal development to create tissues and organs or in some conditions to become tumors. Populations of cells cultured in vitro interact similarly, also competing for space and nutrients and stimulating each other to better survive or to die. The results of these intercellular interactions of different types seem to be good examples of biological evolutionary games, and have been the subjects of simulations by the methods of evolutionary game theory where individual cells are treated as players. Here we present examples of intercellular contacts in a population of living human cancer HeLa cells cultured in vitro and propose an evolutionary game theory approach to model the development of such populations. We propose a new technique termed Mixed Spatial Evolutionary Games (MSEG) which are played on multiple lattices corresponding to the possible cellular phenotypes which gives the possibility of simulating and investigating the effects of heterogeneity at the cellular level in addition to the population level. Analyses performed with MSEG suggested different ways in which cellular populations develop in the case of cells communicating directly and through factors released to the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Action being character: a promising perspective on the solution concept of game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-05-09

    The inconsistency of predictions from solution concepts of conventional game theory with experimental observations is an enduring question. These solution concepts are based on the canonical rationality assumption that people are exclusively self-regarding utility maximizers. In this article, we think this assumption is problematic and, instead, assume that rational economic agents act as if they were maximizing their implicit utilities, which turns out to be a natural extension of the canonical rationality assumption. Implicit utility is defined by a player's character to reflect his personal weighting between cooperative, individualistic, and competitive social value orientations. The player who actually faces an implicit game chooses his strategy based on the common belief about the character distribution for a general player and the self-estimation of his own character, and he is not concerned about which strategies other players will choose and will never feel regret about his decision. It is shown by solving five paradigmatic games, the Dictator game, the Ultimatum game, the Prisoner's Dilemma game, the Public Goods game, and the Battle of the Sexes game, that the framework of implicit game and its corresponding solution concept, implicit equilibrium, based on this alternative assumption have potential for better explaining people's actual behaviors in social decision making situations.

  7. Some Analytical Properties of the Model for Stochastic Evolutionary Games in Finite Populations with Non-uniform Interaction Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Ji; Wang Xianjia

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate, which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies. But in some systems, especially biological systems, the players interact with each other discriminately. Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies. Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population. But in reality, the number of individuals in the population is always finite, and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process. Therefore, it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations. In fact, the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult. Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper, ''The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations''. In this paper, we are exactly doing this work. We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case, especially focusing on the infiuence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system. We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process. Based on the limit distribution of the process, we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system. We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games. For each case game, the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough. In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method, all our results obtained are analytical. Especially, in the dominant-case game, coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model. This result can be

  8. The puzzle of partial migration: Adaptive dynamics and evolutionary game theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leenheer, Patrick; Mohapatra, Anushaya; Ohms, Haley A; Lytle, David A; Cushing, J M

    2017-01-07

    We consider the phenomenon of partial migration which is exhibited by populations in which some individuals migrate between habitats during their lifetime, but others do not. First, using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that partial migration can be explained on the basis of negative density dependence in the per capita fertilities alone, provided that this density dependence is attenuated for increasing abundances of the subtypes that make up the population. We present an exact formula for the optimal proportion of migrants which is expressed in terms of the vital rates of migrant and non-migrant subtypes only. We show that this allocation strategy is both an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) as well as a convergence stable strategy (CSS). To establish the former, we generalize the classical notion of an ESS because it is based on invasion exponents obtained from linearization arguments, which fail to capture the stabilizing effects of the nonlinear density dependence. These results clarify precisely when the notion of a "weak ESS", as proposed in Lundberg (2013) for a related model, is a genuine ESS. Secondly, we use an evolutionary game theory approach, and confirm, once again, that partial migration can be attributed to negative density dependence alone. In this context, the result holds even when density dependence is not attenuated. In this case, the optimal allocation strategy towards migrants is the same as the ESS stemming from the analysis based on the adaptive dynamics. The key feature of the population models considered here is that they are monotone dynamical systems, which enables a rather comprehensive mathematical analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Violent Video Game Content in Adolescent Development: Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Warner, Dorothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12…

  10. Beyond the magic circle : A network perspective on role-play in online games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copier, M.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, game research is characterized by the (re)construction of contested boundaries such as the “magic circle” of the game experience. These boundaries create dichotomies, for instance, between the real and the imaginary that hide the complexity of actual play, design and research. In this

  11. Game mechanics and technological mediation : an ethical perspective on the effects of MMORPG’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, Christian; Pieters, W.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, video games have grown from a niche market to one of the major entertainment media, enticing millions of players worldwide. When ethical aspects of video games are being debated, the discussion oftentimes revolves around effects of their content, such as violence. This paper

  12. The Politics of Gaming in Schools: A Sociocultural Perspective from Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses gaming in a Western Australian school for boys. The overriding ethos of the school is supportive of the potential of ICT to better engage students and deliver enhanced educational outcomes. The school sees game-based design as at the vanguard of innovation, but also accepts its important duty of care responsibilities. Tensions…

  13. From Candy Crush to Catan: One Student's Perspective on the Benefits of Gaming in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2015, Morgan Ebbs made the bold decision to take a class called "The Rhetoric of Gaming." Having only really played games during childhood, Ebbs now thinks that choice was a bit naive. He is not ashamed to admit that he was the definition of what some like to refer to as "casual," "plebe," or…

  14. Designing Science Games and Science Toys from the Perspective of Scientific Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Kaçan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with the participation of 21 pre-service science teachers attending the faculty of education of a university in Turkey. The study aims to evaluate pre-service science teachers' science games and science toy designs in terms of scientific creativity. Participants were given a four-week period to design science games or…

  15. Demographics of undergraduates studying games in the United States: a comparison of computer science students and the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.

  16. Strong Migration Limit for Games in Structured Populations: Applications to Dominance Hierarchy and Set Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaker Kroumi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deduce a condition for a strategy S1 to be more abundant on average at equilibrium under weak selection than another strategy S2 in a population structured into a finite number of colonies of fixed proportions as the population size tends to infinity. It is assumed that one individual reproduces at a time with some probability depending on the payoff received in pairwise interactions within colonies and between colonies and that the offspring replaces one individual chosen at random in the colony into which the offspring migrates. It is shown that an expected weighted average equilibrium frequency of S1 under weak symmetric strategy mutation between S1 and S2 is increased by weak selection if an expected weighted payoff of S1 near neutrality exceeds the corresponding expected weighted payoff of S2. The weights are given in terms of reproductive values of individuals in the different colonies in the neutral model. This condition for S1 to be favoured by weak selection is obtained from a strong migration limit of the genealogical process under neutrality for a sample of individuals, which is proven using a two-time scale argument. The condition is applied to games between individuals in colonies with linear or cyclic dominance and between individuals belonging to groups represented by subsets of a given set.

  17. The Road to Rio: Medical and Scientific Perspectives on the 2016 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwet, Cheri; Lexell, Jan; Derman, Wayne; Idrisova, Guzel; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap; Wosornu, Yetsa Tuakli; Van de Vliet, Peter; Webborn, Nick

    2016-08-01

    In August and September of this year, the world will turn its attention to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. Of interest to physiatrists, the Paralympic Games will take place from September 7 to 18, with an estimated total of 4 billion viewers. In the United States, for the first time in history, the Summer Games will be broadcast over a total of 66 hours on NBCUniversal. The Paralympic Games represent the pinnacle of elite sport for athletes with disabilities while also changing perceptions around the importance of grassroots sport and physical activity opportunities for the disability community more broadly. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Violent video games and delinquent behavior in adolescents: A risk factor perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Over the years, criminological research has identified a number of risk factors that contribute to the development of aggressive and delinquent behavior. Although studies have identified media violence in general and violent video gaming in particular as significant predictors of aggressive behavior, exposure to violent video games has been largely omitted from the risk factor literature on delinquent behavior. This cross-sectional study therefore investigates the relationship between violent video game play and adolescents' delinquent behavior using a risk factor approach. An online survey was completed by 3,372 Flemish adolescents, aged 12-18 years old. Data were analyzed by means of negative binomial regression modelling. Results indicated a significant contribution of violent video games in delinquent behavior over and beyond multiple known risk variables (peer delinquency, sensation seeking, prior victimization, and alienation). Moreover, the final model that incorporated the gaming genres proved to be significantly better than the model without the gaming genres. Results provided support for a cumulative and multiplicative risk model for delinquent behavior. Aggr. Behav. 41:267-279, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Marketing in Game Design

    OpenAIRE

    Nurminen, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    In my thesis, Marketing in Game Design, I wanted to inspect how developing a game from a purely commercial perspective affects on the game design. The purpose of this thesis is to define the valid aspects of product marketing for games, how they are perceived in game industry and how those aspects affect to the game design. The question I am asking is how to make marketing a fluent part of indie game development process. Through my thesis project, Puzzleplatform, I study how the marketing asp...

  20. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: The ASD perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila eVulchanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle.Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Brock et al., 2008; Norbury, 2005 to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010. We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b, as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and van Petten, 2002. This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome. This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  1. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation.

  2. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation. PMID:25741261

  3. Gaming Preferences, Motivations, and Experiences of Pharmacy Students in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huan Ying; Wong, Li Lian; Yap, Kai Zhen; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern

    2016-02-01

    Serious games are becoming popular in various healthcare domains. However, they should be designed to cater toward learners' perspectives, needs, and specifications in order to be used to their full potential in education. This study investigated the gaming experiences, motivations, and preferences of pharmacy students. An anonymous self-administered survey obtained participant demographics, gaming experiences (enjoyment level of different game genres, years of experience, gaming frequency and duration, and motivations), and gaming preferences (on in-game rewards, settings, storylines, perspectives, and styles). Descriptive statistics, t tests, analysis of variance, chi-squared tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used for analysis. The response rate was 69.1 percent (465/673 undergraduates). Role-playing games (RPGs) (4.12 ± 1.07) and massively multiplayer online RPGs (MMORPGs) (3.81 ± 1.26) had the highest enjoyment ratings. Males enjoyed imagination games (e.g., RPGs, MMORPGs) more than females, whereas females enjoyed simulation games more. Top motivating factors for respondents were progressing to the next level (3.63 ± 1.19), excitement (3.33 ± 1.33), and a feeling of efficacy when playing (3.02 ± 1.16). Unlocking mechanisms (25.2 percent) and experience points (17.6 percent) were the most popular in-game reward systems. Most respondents preferred a fantasy/medieval/mythic setting (59.8 percent) and an adventurer storyline (41.3 percent), with similar proportions preferring competitive (35.3 percent), cooperative (33.3 percent), and collaborative (30.8 percent) game styles. Different groups of pharmacy students differ in their gaming experiences, motivating factors, and preferences. There is no "one size fits all" game that is suitable for all pharmacy education. Such differences should be considered when developing a pharmacy game in order to cater to the diverse student population.

  4. Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Potocki, Bridget

    2016-06-01

    Although previous research has investigated relationships between media consumption, sexism, and rape myth acceptance (RMA), limited research has investigated video games despite their emergence as one of the most popular forms of media entertainment globally. Given that video games typically feature even less diverse and more objectified representations of women than traditional mainstream media, we predicted that there would be relationships between video game consumption and negative beliefs and attitudes about women. In this study, we conducted a survey (N = 351) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The Role of Religious Institutions, Electronic Games, Books, and Educational Stories in the Development of the Child's Culture from the Perspective of Jordanian Mothers According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Harbat, Rima; Al Saqarat, Khalaf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of religious institutions, electronic games, books and educational stories in the development of the child's culture from the perspective of some of Jordanian mothers in Al Karak Governorate, and to achieve the objective of the study a questionnaire was build, it consisted of (33) items divided…

  6. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Bowen, Elise; Hager, Ron L

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs) and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  7. Social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games: a lecturers' and students' perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Maria; Faculty of Business at Akdeniz University; School of Sport, Leisure and Travel at Buckinghamshire New University

    2009-01-01

    Hosting the Olympic Games is often viewed as a means of raising a nation’s sporting profile as well as a tool for economic development, social regeneration and cultural integration. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of lecturers and students in higher education on the social and cultural impact of the London 2012 Olympic Games. A purposive sample of one hundred respondents (lecturers, n=30; students, n=70) was used. 73.5 per cent of respondents were male and 32.5 per ce...

  8. An Irrational Black Market? Boundary work perspective on the stigma of in-game asset transaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu-Hao

    2005-01-01

    Eastern Asia's online gaming market has undergone spectacular growth over the past seven years, this has been due to the mass broadband internet distribution in South Korea and Taiwan. According to a survey conducted by the Taiwan Network Information Center(TWNIC 2004), Taiwan has over 9.36million broadband internet users, and within these users,18.11% stress out that their most frequent online activity is playing online games, this number implies that there are at least 1.96million online ga...

  9. Problematic Video Gaming in a Young Spanish Population: Association with Psychosocial Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiza-Aguado, Carlos; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Conde-Mateos, Celia; Buiza-Navarrete, Juan Jose; Gentile, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Problematic video gaming (PVG) is a concern for psychologists attending children and adolescents. Uniform diagnostic criteria are lacking, and risk factors are poorly understood. Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and scales derived from its diagnostic criteria may be helpful to assess PVG. A multicenter study was conducted in secondary schools using an IGD-derived scale (dichotomous Nine-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale [IGD-9]), analyzing PVG-related variables. Seven hundred eight students (55.8 percent male) with mean age 15.6 ± 2.7 years were included. Seventy-three percent were gamers and 22 percent heavy gamers (HGs). Forty-five percent reported online gaming and 6.6 percent massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). Fifty-nine students (8.3 percent) scored 5 or more in IGD-9 and were classified as IGD+. HG and IGD+ subjects were more frequently male and online and MMORPG gamers (p  0.01). The multivariate analysis showed that IGD+ scores were significantly associated with worse psychosocial health and adjustment (p MMORPG gaming, and HG) were not significantly associated (p > 0.01). The IGD-9 scale scored positive in 8.3 percent of our sample. Unlike gaming time, this scale was associated with psychosocial disturbances, making it potentially useful as a screening method to detect candidates for clinical intervention.

  10. Enhancements to Constrained Novelty Search: Two-Population Novelty Search for Generating Game Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liapis, Antonios; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    pop genetic algorithm. These algorithms are applied to the problem of creating diverse and feasible game levels, representative of a large class of important problems in procedural content generation for games. Results show that the new algorithms under certain conditions can produce larger and more...... diverse sets of feasible strategy game maps than existing algorithms. However, the best algorithm is contingent on the particularities of the search space and the genetic operators used. It is also shown that the proposed enhancement of offspring boosting increases performance in all cases....

  11. Parents' and Sons' Perspectives on Video Game Play: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Lawrence A.; Olson, Cheryl K.; Warner, Dorothy E.; Hertzog, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    Public policy efforts to restrict children's access to electronic games with violent or sexual content are often predicated on assumptions about parental concerns. As an initial step in determining whether those assumptions are accurate, the authors conduct focus groups of 21 adolescent boys and 21 of their parents or guardians to explore parents'…

  12. Factors Influencing Pre-Service Teachers' Perception of Teaching Games for Understanding: A Constructivist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Ha, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors influencing pre-service Physical Education (PE) teachers' perception of a specific constructivist approach--Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in Hong Kong. By adopting a qualitative approach, 20 pre-service PE teachers were recruited for individual semi-structured interviews. Deductive data analysis was…

  13. Perspective Making: Constructivism as a Meaning-Making Structure for Simulation Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainema, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Constructivism has recently gained popularity, although it is not a completely new learning paradigm. Much of the work within e-learning, for example, uses constructivism as a reference "discipline" (explicitly or implicitly). However, some of the work done within the simulation gaming (SG) community discusses what the basic assumptions and…

  14. Scientific approaches and techniques for negotiation : a game theoretic and artificial intelligence perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. Gerding (Enrico); D.D.B. van Bragt; J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDue to the rapid growth of electronic environments (such as the Internet) much research is currently being performed on autonomous trading mechanisms. This report contains an overview of the current literature on negotiations in the fields of game theory and artificial intelligence (AI).

  15. Have the Olympic Games become more migratory? : A comparative historical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jansen (Joost); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIt is often believed that the Olympic Games have become more migratory. The number of Olympic athletes representing countries in which they weren’t born is thought to be on the rise. It should, however, be noted that migration in the context of sports is hardly a new phenomenon. In

  16. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  17. Do Students Trust in Mathematics or Intuition during Physics Problem Solving? An Epistemic Game Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) students' trust in mathematics calculation versus intuition in a physics problem solving and (2) whether this trust is related to achievement in physics in the context of epistemic game theoretical framework. To achieve this research objective, paper-pencil and interview sessions were conducted. A paper-pencil…

  18. The population health perspective as a framework for studying child maltreatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L; MacMillan, H L; Jamieson, E; Kelly, K

    2002-01-01

    The population health perspective (PHP) is commonly used in addressing a wide range of health issues. This article examines the strengths and limitations of the perspective. The determinants of health that are an integral part of the PHP are used as a framework in considering the range of outcomes associated with exposure to child maltreatment. Directions for further research are outlined.

  19. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Laurie A.; Fidopiastis, Cali M.; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  20. Perspectives on Active Video Gaming as a New Frontier in Accessible Physical Activity for Youth With Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jennifer L; Malone, Laurie A; Fidopiastis, Cali M; Padalabalanarayanan, Sangeetha; Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H

    2016-04-01

    This perspective article explores the utility of active video gaming as a means of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity among youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function who typically are excluded from mainstream exercise options. Youth with physical disabilities are disproportionately affected by health problems that result from sedentary behavior, lack of physical activity, and low fitness levels. Physical, programmatic, and attitudinal barriers have a synergistic and compounded impact on youths' ability to participate in physical activity. A recent health and wellness task force recommendation from the American Physical Therapy Association's Section on Pediatrics supports analyzing individualized health behaviors and preferences that are designed to improve fitness, physical activity, and participation in pediatric rehabilitation. This recommendation represents an opportunity to explore nontraditional options to maximize effectiveness and sustainability of pediatric rehabilitation techniques for youth with disabilities who could best benefit from customized programming. One new frontier in promoting physical activity and addressing common physical activity barriers for youth with physical disabilities is active video games (AVGs), which have received growing attention as a promising strategy for promoting health and fitness in children with and without disabilities. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential for AVGs as an accessible option to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities and limitations in lower extremity function. A conceptual model on the use of AVGs to increase physical activity participation for youth with physical disabilities is introduced, and future research potential is discussed, including a development project for game controller adaptations within the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Interactive Exercise Technologies

  1. Population Mobility in Croatia from a Life Course Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Čipin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial mobility receives a lot of research attention in Croatia. Many studies deal with international migration (Nejašmić, 2015; Lajić, 2002; Pokos, 1999; Gelo, Akrap and Čipin, 2005 as it is becoming an increasingly important component of population change. Movement of people within country also seeks thorough investigation – internal migration can have a considerable impact on the changing size and composition of population residing in local areas. However, existing literature on internal migration in Croatia (Klempić Bogadi and Lajić, 2014; Mikačić, 2000; Nejašmić, 1992 provides little information on lifetime population mobility. This paper employs a life course perspective to explore internal population mobility in Croatia. In the absence of cohort data on internal migration, the application of life table methods offers a way of estimating lifetime population mobility. The outcome is migration expectancy – the average number of moves an individual may expect to make during his or her lifetime (making allowance for the effect of mortality. Migration expectancy was first introduced by Wilber (1963 and further developed by Long (1970, 1973, 1988. The same concept has been successfully applied to assess internal population mobility in several countries (e.g. Long and Boertlein, 1976; Kulkarani and Pol, 1994; Bell, 1996; Rees et al., 2000; US Census Bureau, 2016. Migration expectancy offers a number of advantages compared to conventional measures of internal population mobility (Bell, 1996: 108–109; Bell et al., 2002: 446. Firstly, it is both readily understood and statistically valid. Computation of migration expectancy is transparent and straightforward – it requires the use of simple spreadsheet procedures. Secondly, migration expectancy enables a detailed examination of internal mobility timing. Thirdly, life table stationary population used to determine migration expectancy automatically standardizes for varying age

  2. Designing an Educational Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Hansen, Charina Benedikte Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    When designing games with learning purposes used in a classroom, there often occur problems about the lack of learning content or the lack of game contents. Other disadvantages of existing educational games are the difficulty to provide a continual balance between the challenge and the pupils......’ skill to control and solve the given task. In this paper we suggest three different perspectives that need to be communicated across in order to design a useful educational game: teachers, pupils and game designers. It is our intention with this paper to suggest some design principles for educational...... games, and to integrate teachers, pupils and game designers needs and requirements. To set up these design principles for educational games we have used a holistic perspective. This means that the design principles must be seen in coherence within the social and physical environment. The design...

  3. Pro Android Games

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember landmark games like Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, and Asteroids? Well, here's an exciting opportunity to build and/or port these games to one of the hottest mobile and netbooks platforms today: Google's Android. Pro Android Games teaches you how to build cool games like Space Blaster and the classic Asteroids from scratch on the latest Android platform. This book also shows you how to port other classic freeware/shareware games like Doom and Wolfenstein 3D from C using the Java Native Interface (JNI) for Android. This book is all about a unique perspective in Android game development:

  4. What games do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return of the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games achieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative...... study we conclude that both board games and computer games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’s abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players....

  5. Games of life and death: antibiotic resistance and production through the lens of evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Peter L; Chandler, Josephine R; Kerr, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we demonstrate how game theory can be a useful first step in modeling and understanding interactions among bacteria that produce and resist antibiotics. We introduce the basic features of evolutionary game theory and explore model microbial systems that correspond to some classical games. Each game discussed defines a different category of social interaction with different resulting population dynamics (exclusion, coexistence, bistability, cycling). We then explore how the framework can be extended to incorporate some of the complexity of natural microbial communities. Overall, the game theoretical perspective helps to guide our expectations about the evolution of some forms of antibiotic resistance and production because it makes clear the precise nature of social interaction in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Perspectives on a Learning-Model for Innovating Game-Based Movement in Sports and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbæk, Lars; Friis, Jørgen Jakob

    2017-01-01

    science and health education. We therefore ask: Which learning approach and educational factors does a learning model need to provide, in order to establish the best foundation for learning innovation and the design of game-based movement solutions within sport and health education? This paper suggests......As fitness trackers promote the quantifiable self and exergaming and interactive playful installations find their way into the public domain, the design for movement comes into focus. New trends like mobile platforms for gamed-based interaction, such as Pokémon GO, are also attempting to promote...... an active lifestyle. Such digitally supported movement promote health and underlines a need for students to understand that movement design incorporates many aspects: technology, gamification, motivation and understanding of health. To support this, a movement innovation program was needed at our sports...

  7. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  8. Fusion of smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies research, systems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita; Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

      This monograph book is focused on the recent advances in smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies. The Contributions include:   ·         Smart Gamification and Smart Serious Games. ·         Fusion of secure IPsec-based Virtual Private Network, mobile computing and rich multimedia technology. ·         Teaching and Promoting Smart Internet of Things Solutions Using the Serious-game Approach. ·         Evaluation of Student Knowledge using an e-Learning Framework. ·         The iTEC Eduteka. ·         3D Virtual Worlds as a Fusion of Immersing, Visualizing, Recording, and Replaying Technologies. ·         Fusion of multimedia and mobile technology in audioguides for Museums and Exhibitions: from Bluetooth Push to Web Pull. The book is directed to researchers, students and software developers working in the areas of education and information technologies.  

  9. Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seen in historical perspective the main economic predicaments of the present world (such as poverty, inequality, backwardness appear in a somewhat different light than in many current discussions, especially by sociologists, radical economists and political scientists. In the present paper the achievements of the modern age, and in particular of the post- World War II period, are considered in the perspective of economic and demographic history, and in their connection with the systems of production and of international relations. Some considerations concerning future possible developments conclude the paper.

  10. Identifying Chronic Conditions and Other Selected Factors That Motivate Physical Activity in World Senior Games Participants and the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray M. Merrill PhD, MPH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses chronic disease or disease-related conditions as motivators of physical activity. It also compares these and other motivators of physical activity between Senior Games participants (SGPs and the general population. Analyses are based on an anonymous cross-sectional survey conducted among 666 SGPs and 177 individuals from the general population. SGPs experienced better general health and less obesity, diabetes, and depression, as well as an average of 14.7 more years of regular physical activity ( p < .0001, 130.8 more minutes per week of aerobic activity ( p < .0001, and 42.7 more minutes of anaerobic activity per week ( p < .0001. Among those previously told they had diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or depression, 74.2%, 72.2%, 70.4%, and 60.6%, respectively, said that it motivated them to increase their physical activity. Percentages were similar between SGPs and the general population. SGPs were more likely motivated to be physically active to improve physical and mental health in the present, to prevent physical and cognitive decline in the future, and to increase social opportunities. The Senior Games reinforces extrinsic motivators to positively influence intrinsic promoters such as skill development, satisfaction of learning, enjoyment, and fun.

  11. Serious Games for Health: Learning and healing with video games?

    OpenAIRE

    Sostmann, K; Tolks, D; Fischer, M; Buron, S

    2010-01-01

    Serious Games (SG) are a new medium in the context of e-learning. Serious Games use the multimedial advantages of computer and video games to fulfil the didactic requirements to teach target groups in classical and new learning scenarios.Serious Games for Health (SGH) can be applied in the domains of medical therapy, continuing medical education and in the fields of prevention and health promotion. From a didactic and instructional psychology perspective the impact of Serious Games is based o...

  12. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S.; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model. PMID:29104555

  13. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S; Brand, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  14. Merging Theoretical Models and Therapy Approaches in the Context of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Personal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly S. Young

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013. This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.

  15. Population and Development: Perspective on a Teaching Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Leslie

    1995-01-01

    Through the World Institute's Curriculum, students can look at the world's two largest nations, China and India, to learn about population and gender equity issues. This article describes the use of recent data gathered by international agencies and population education in the classroom. (LZ)

  16. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  17. [World population and development: an important change in perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallin, J

    1984-10-24

    The International Population Conference in Mexico City was much less controversial than the World Population Conference in Bucharest 10 years previously, in part because the message of Bucharest was widely accepted and in part because of changes that occurred in the demographic and economic situations in the succeeding decade. The UN medium population projection for 1985 has been proved quite accurate; it is not as alarming as the high projection but still represents a doubling of world population in less than 40 years. The control of fertility upon which the medium projection was predicated is well underway. The movement from high to low rates of fertility and mortality began in the 18th century in the industrial countries and lasted about 1 1/2 centuries during which the population surplus was dispersed throughout the world, especially in North and South America. The 2nd phase of movement from high to low rates currently underway in the developing countries has produced a far greater population increase. The proportion of the population in the developed areas of Europe, North America, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand will decline from about 1/3 of the 2.5 billion world population of 1950 to 1/4 of the 3.7 billion of 1985, to 1/5 of the 4.8 billion of 2000, and probably 1/7 of the 10 billion when world population stabilizes at the end of the next century. The growth rates of developing countries are not homogeneous; the populations of China and India have roughly doubled in the past 35 years while that of Latin America has multiplied by 2 1/2. The population of Africa more than doubled in 35 years and will almost triple by 2025. The number of countries with over 50 million inhabitants, 9 in 1950, will increase from 19 in 1985 to 32 in 2025. The process of urbanization is almost complete in the industrialized countries, with about 75% of the population urban in 1985, but urban populations will continue to grow rapidly in the developing countries as rural

  18. Evolutionary Game Analysis of Government Regulation and Enterprise Emission from the Perspective of Environmental Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yazong

    2017-12-01

    In the context of the upcoming implementation of the environmental tax policy, there is a need for a focus on the relationship between government regulation and corporate emissions. To achieve the real effect of environmental tax policy, government need to regulate the illegal emissions of enterprises. Based on the hypothesis of bounded rationality, this paper analyses the strategic set of government regulators and polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy. By using the evolutionary game model, the utility function and payoff matrix of the both sides are constructed, and the evolutionary analysis and strategy adjustment of the environmental governance target and the actual profit of the stakeholders are carried out. Thus, the wrong behaviours could be corrected so that the equilibrium of the evolutionary system can be achieved gradually, which could also get the evolutionary stable strategies of the government and the polluting enterprises in the implementation of environmental tax policy.

  19. Game Analysis on Rural Land Transfer from the Perspective of Stakeholder Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The key—to maintaining social stability in rural areas, promoting rural economic development and building a new socialist countryside—is handling correctly the issues of rural land transfer and ironing out the conflicts resulting from the benefits imbalance. In this paper, rural land transfer is categorized into two types: land transfer caused by the collective behavior and land transfer caused by the individual behavior. In the process of land transfer caused by the collective behavior, the conflicts root in the convergence of interest among various rural social strata; while in the process of land transfer caused by the individual behavior, the game between interests and human relationship, reflects the dilemma between rationality and sensibility, which villagers are confronted with.

  20. An Analysis of VR Technology Used in Immersive Simulations with a Serious Game Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menin, Aline; Torchelsen, Rafael; Nedel, Luciana

    2018-03-01

    Using virtual environments (VEs) is a safer and cost-effective alternative to executing dangerous tasks, such as training firefighters and industrial operators. Immersive virtual reality (VR) combined with game aspects have the potential to improve the user experience in the VE by increasing realism, engagement, and motivation. This article investigates the impact of VR technology on 46 immersive gamified simulations with serious purposes and classifies it towards a taxonomy. Our findings suggest that immersive VR improves simulation outcomes, such as increasing learning gain and knowledge retention and improving clinical outcomes for rehabilitation. However, it also has limitations such as motion sickness and restricted access to VR hardware. Our contributions are to provide a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of using VR in immersive simulations with serious purposes, to propose a taxonomy that classifies them, and to discuss whether methods and participants profiles influence results.

  1. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-11-21

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  2. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyang; Tian, Jie; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

  3. Learning Mechanics and Game Mechanics Under the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory to Foster Motivation in Digital Game Based Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Proulx, Jean-Nicolas; Romero, Margarida; Arnab, Sylvester

    2018-01-01

    Background: Using digital games for educational purposes has been associated with higher levels of motivation among learners of different educational levels. However, the underlying psychological factors involved in digital game based learning (DGBL) have been rarely analyzed considering self-determination theory (SDT, Ryan \\& Deci, 2000b); the relation of SDT with the flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) has neither been evaluated in the context of DGBL.

  4. [Video games: are the motivations and intensity of use changing with age? Comparison between a population of adolescent and adult gamers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillon, J; Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the popularity of video games, few studies have been conducted in France on their use. The objective of this study was to gather data from a sample of French video game players to learn more about this population. This approach also aimed to examine whether differences exist between adolescent and adult gamers in terms of their motivations to play and whether this practice met the criteria for problem video game playing. A questionnaire collecting sociodemographic data and assessing the problems associated with the use of video games, as well as motivations to play, was distributed during a video game festival and on the Internet. A total of 778 people responded to the questionnaire. The results showed that there were few differences between adolescent and adult gamers. Both groups had an intense video game habit. The majority of them sometimes had the feeling of losing control of their use and sacrificed other activities to play video games. This last dimension was most frequently cited by adults. The feeling of spending more time playing was most frequently cited by adolescents. Concerning motivations to play, the two groups differed only on the score of the "social" dimension, significantly higher among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban population and economic growth: South Asia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously economic growth was generally discussed in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI, educational growth, savings, investments, inflation as well as trade openness of a nation. Very recently it has been identified that population is one of the major determinants of economic growth of a nation. In the recent years, the study of urbanization has gained a matter of concern in developing countries as it has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. South Asian countries are one of the emerging economics and growing at a faster rate over the past few years. At the same time, population of South Asia is growing at a significant rate. Therefore the study has attempted to identify the causal relationship between urban population and economic growth in South Asia using a panel data analysis. The study makes use of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips-Perron (PP, Pesaran as well as Fisher methods for panel unit root test. The panel Pedroni cointegration test suggests that there is long run relationship between the variables. The further panel Vector Error Correction Model (VECM suggests that there is long run causality running from urban population growth to economic growth in South Asia. The study concludes that the growth of urban population can have significant impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run.

  6. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  7. North American osprey populations and contaminants: Historic and contemporary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.

    2010-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ∼8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ∼14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ∼16,000–19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect “contaminant effects” measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  8. Joint effects of asymmetric payoff and reciprocity mechanisms on collective cooperation in water sharing interactions: a game theoretic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Nam Ng

    Full Text Available Common-pool resource (CPR dilemmas distinguish themselves from general public good problems by encompassing both social and physical features. This paper examines how a physical mechanism, namely asymmetric payoff; and a social mechanism, reciprocity; simultaneously affect collective cooperation in theoretical water sharing interactions. We present an iterative N-person game theoretic model to investigate the joint effects of these two mechanisms in a linear fully connected river system under three information assumptions. From a simple evolutionary perspective, this paper quantitatively addresses the conditions for Nash Equilibrium in which collective cooperation might be established. The results suggest that direct reciprocity increases every actor's motivation to contribute to the collective good of the river system. Meanwhile, various upstream and downstream actors manifest individual disparities as a result of the direct reciprocity and asymmetric payoff mechanisms. More specifically, the downstream actors are less willing to cooperate unless there is a high probability that long-term interactions are ensured; however, a greater level of asymmetries is likely to increase upstream actors' incentives to cooperate even though the interactions could quickly end. The upstream actors also display weak sensitivity to an increase in the total number of actors, which generally results in a reduction in the other actors' motivation for cooperation. It is also shown that the indirect reciprocity mechanism relaxes the overall conditions for cooperative Nash Equilibrium.

  9. Expanding the population genetic perspective of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Scott R

    2014-09-01

    The modern synthesis was a seminal period in the biological sciences, establishing many of the core principles of evolutionary biology that we know today. Significant catalysts were the contributions of R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright (and others) developing the theoretical underpinning of population genetics, thus demonstrating adaptive evolution resulted from the interplay of forces such as natural selection and mutation within groups of individuals occupying the same space and time (i.e. a population). Given its importance, it is surprising that detailed population genetic data remain lacking for numerous organisms vital to many ecosystems. For example, the coral reef ecosystem is well recognized for its high biodiversity and productivity, numerous ecological services and significant economic and societal values (Moberg & Folke 1999;Cinner 2014). Many coral reef invertebrates form symbiotic relationships with single-celled dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium Freudenthal (Taylor 1974), with hosts providing these (typically) intracellular symbionts with by-products of metabolism and in turn receiving photosynthetically fixed carbon capable of meeting hosts' respiratory demands (Falkowski et al. 1984; Muscatine et al. 1984). Unfortunately, the health and integrity of the coral reef ecosystem has been significantly and negatively impacted by onslaughts like anthropogenic eutrophication and disease in addition to global climate change, with increased incidences of 'bleaching' events (characterized as the loss of photosynthetic pigments from the algal cell or massive reduction of Symbiodinium density from hosts' tissue) and host mortality leading to staggering declines in geographic coverage (Bruno & Selig 2007) that have raised questions on the viability of this ecosystem as we know it (Bellwood et al. 2004; Parmesan 2006). One avenue towards anticipating the future of the coral reef ecosystem is by developing a broader and deeper

  10. The population dynamics of cancer: a Darwinian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Berwick, Marianne

    2006-10-01

    Carcinogenesis, at least for some types of cancer, can be interpreted as the consequence of selection of mutated cells similar to what, in the theory of evolution, occurs at the population level. Instead of considering a population of organisms, we can refer to a population of cells belonging to multicellular organisms. Many carcinogens are mutagens, and the observed geographic distribution of cancer is, at least in part, attributable to environmental mutagens. However, the rapid change in risk for some cancers after migration suggests that carcinogenesis involves--in addition to mutations--some late event that most probably consists of the selection of cells already carrying mutations. We review a few examples of such selective pressures: finasteride in prostate cancer, vitamin supplementation in smokers, acquired resistance to chemotherapy, peripheral resistance to insulin, and sunlight and mutations in melanoma. A disease model for such a hypothesis is represented by Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (PNH). Mutations can be present at birth, as in the case of PNH, and can have a frequency much higher than the occurrence of the corresponding disease (PNH or lymphocytic leukaemia in children). However, PNH does not require a mutator phenotype, only a mutant phenotype followed by selection. A characteristic feature of cancer, instead, is likely to be the development of the mutator phenotype. We propose a 'Darwinian' model of carcinogenesis. If the model is correct, it suggests that prevention is more complex than avoiding exposure to mutagens. Mutations and genetic instability can be already present at birth. Mutations can be selected in the course of life if they increase survival advantage of the cell under certain environmental circumstances. In addition, gene-environment interactions cannot be interpreted according to a simplified linear model (based on the 'analysis of variance' concept); experimental work suggests that a more comprehensive non

  11. Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, R; Dandona, L

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in children in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: These data were obtained as part of two population based studies in which 6935 children ≤15 years of age participated. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/60 in the better eye. Results: The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17% (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.30). Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery). The major causes of the remaining blindness included congenital eye anomalies (16.7%) and retinal degeneration (16.7%). Conclusion: In the context of Vision 2020, the priorities for action to reduce childhood blindness in India are refractive error, cataract related amblyopia, and corneal diseases. PMID:12598433

  12. Playful participation in social games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Knutz, Eva

    2018-01-01

    genres, notably serious games and health games. To further increase knowledge of social games we introduce a typology of playful participation in social games. The typology is build up by using formal concepts from theories of participatory art. Its range of application is then demonstrated through......In this paper we introduce social games as a new terrain for studies in participatory culture. Social games defy easy classification and cannot be appropriately understood from existing research perspectives. Initially, we therefore attempt to define social games by comparing it with related game...... an empirical analysis of eight social game prototypes that are designed as part of an on-going 3-year research project called Social Games against Crime. The purpose of this project is to develop socialgames that can help children build resilience towards many of the personal and social problems...

  13. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  14. Scripted Collaboration in Serious Gaming for Complex Learning: Effects of Multiple Perspectives when Acquiring Water Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans G. K.; van Houcke, Jasper; Nadolski, Rob J.; van der Hiele, Tony; Kurvers, Hub; Lohr, Ansje

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how learning outcomes from playing serious games can be enhanced by including scripted collaboration in the game play. We compared the quality of advisory reports, that students in the domain of water management had to draw up for an authentic case problem, both before and after collaborating on the problem with (virtual) peer…

  15. Revisiting the Wittgensteinian Legacy: Perspectives on Representational and Non-Representational Language-Games for Educational History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeyers, Paul; Fendler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. Language works in more complex ways, even in work that purports to be purely scientific. This article investigates the scope and limitations of language-games in educational history and theory. The study addresses concepts and pictures as examples of…

  16. Introduction to (participatory) design games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an introduction to (participatory) design games in three rounds. Firstly it argues that designing design games is a particular and very productive genre for formatting participation and design dialogues during ongoing design projects. Secondly it presents some of the main contr...... contributions to the development of design games in a historical perspective, and thirdly it introduces three recent PhD dissertations that all but in very different ways have investigated design games in more detail....

  17. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Pilot Study of a Pictorial Bilingual Nutrition Education Game to Improve the Consumption of Healthful Foods in a Head Start Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Piziak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of early childhood obesity has increased dramatically particularly among the Mexican American population. Obesity leads to earlier onset of related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely Mexican American. Dietary intake in this population demonstrated a diet very low in fiber, high in salt, and containing excessive calories with a low intake of fruit and vegetables. This study was performed in a Texas Head Start population to evaluate a bilingual pictorial nutrition education game. Acceptance of the bilingual concept and the game had been previously studied in a Head Start population in five Texas counties. The effectiveness in producing a change in eating habits was studied as a pilot project 413 children and their parents at the Bastrop County Head Start. Parents were asked to supply data about at home food frequency at the beginning and the end of the school year and the results compared. The parents were given a demonstration of the educational objectives and the students played the game throughout the year. By the end of the school year there was a statistically significant increase in the vegetables offered to this population both during the week at home (p = 0.009 and on the weekends (p = 0.02.

  19. A pilot study of a pictorial bilingual nutrition education game to improve the consumption of healthful foods in a head start population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piziak, Veronica

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of early childhood obesity has increased dramatically particularly among the Mexican American population. Obesity leads to earlier onset of related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. The Head Start population of Texas is largely Mexican American. Dietary intake in this population demonstrated a diet very low in fiber, high in salt, and containing excessive calories with a low intake of fruit and vegetables. This study was performed in a Texas Head Start population to evaluate a bilingual pictorial nutrition education game. Acceptance of the bilingual concept and the game had been previously studied in a Head Start population in five Texas counties. The effectiveness in producing a change in eating habits was studied as a pilot project 413 children and their parents at the Bastrop County Head Start. Parents were asked to supply data about at home food frequency at the beginning and the end of the school year and the results compared. The parents were given a demonstration of the educational objectives and the students played the game throughout the year. By the end of the school year there was a statistically significant increase in the vegetables offered to this population both during the week at home (p = 0.009) and on the weekends (p = 0.02).

  20. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  1. Game theoretic approaches to operating room management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Alan P

    2002-05-01

    All interactions between people can be considered games with rules and outcomes. However, modern business practices demand that the players in the game go beyond traditional game theory and look at new ways to improve the outcome of the game. Choosing the right strategy is important to a player's success. A new business strategy, "co-opetition," can be used to increase the value of the game ("create a bigger pie") through cooperative behavior, whereas competition is used to divided the "pie." By looking at how the players adopt simultaneous roles such as complementor and competitor the stakeholders in the operating room (managers, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nursing staff) can apply the principles of co-opetition to improve the overall success of their facility. Such stakeholders can utilize knowledge of how populations act in games to enhance cooperative play. Adopting such a perspective may lead to increases in the satisfaction and morale of those involved with the operating rooms. Increased morale should increase productivity and staff retention and reduce recruiting needs.

  2. Use of educational games in the health professions: a mixed-methods study of educators' perspectives in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Gillian; Skirton, Heather; Cooper, Simon; Allum, Peter; Nelmes, Pam

    2010-03-01

    Educational games have been shown to be effective in supporting learning, especially to reinforce knowledge, and students are generally positive about the use of games. The aim of this mixed-methods study that was conducted in the UK was to explore educators' views towards the use of educational games in the health sciences. The data were collected via semistructured interviews with 13 health educators and an online survey that was completed by 97 health educators. Three factors influence the use of classroom games: reflective practice, the impact of games on students, and the impact of logistical factors. Educators assess their own performance and the impact of the games on students when planning their use; however, large classes and the need for preparation time have a negative impact on educators' willingness to use games. Similar constraints might restrict the use of active learning strategies, such as simulation, that are crucial for enabling health professionals to develop competence. These issues require consideration when planning educational methods.

  3. Catholic Perspectives on Population Issues. Population Bulletin, Vol. 35, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Francis X.

    The bulletin investigates the major positions held by the Catholic Church toward population problems. Separate sections discuss the demographic debate, traditional church teaching, the birth control movement, the Vatican Council II and the Papal Birth Control Commission, Pope Paul's 1968 Encyclical against contraception, the 1980 Synod of Bishops,…

  4. Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; Ivory, James D.

    2015-01-01

    When we agreed to edit the theme on online games for this Encyclopedia our first question was, “What is meant by online games?” Scholars of games distinguish between nondigital games (such as board games) and digital games, rather than between online and offline games. With networked consoles and smartphones it is becoming harder and harder to find players in the wealthy industrialized countries who play “offline” digital games. Most games developers now include ...

  5. Research on online video games: an analysis of communication processes from the perspective of social and technological innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude BONENFANT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study relates specifically massively multiplayer online games (known by the acronym MMOG. Our hypothesis is that this type of game is a medium of socialization, a mediation mechanism for sharing information on a large scale, because its universe of encounters and its network of exchange. More specifically, the present article raises a particular aspect of MMOGs, the appropriation by the players of the communication media and the development of addons.

  6. Development of a mobile game based on virtual reality tools to sensitize the population about the nuclear power plant's emergency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Lucas H.H.; Mol, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. do E.; Legey, Ana Paula [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário Carioca (Unicarioca), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant's emergency plan, it is the bunch of instructions that every citizen must adopt in case of an emergency situation. It is highly important, that all the people living in the power plant's surroundings truly understand every single step of the plan, because only in this way people will know how to react in case of a necessity. To hit this goals, the Brazil's Electronuclear, made educational booklets, in the shape of comic books, trying to guide the population about the plan. On the other hand, we have an increasingly connected world, making possible that digital games, be very well accepted by the population. So this project has as an objective, developing a digital tool, in form of a mobile game that shows in a playful and interactive way for the user, the emergency plan, complementing the educational process and social actions made by many institutions. With the information taken from the booklets, objects and buildings were modeled in Autodesk 3Ds Max, allied with the Unity 3D Game Engine, to make a city, inspired in Angra do Reis (RJ). The player has to follow all the security protocols giving by the Eletronuclear according with the rules provided by the National Nuclear Energy Commission. Is expected, with this game that will be available for the Eletronuclear that more people have the chance to know and believe in the efficiency of the emergency plan already established. (author)

  7. Development of a mobile game based on virtual reality tools to sensitize the population about the nuclear power plant's emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Lucas H.H.; Mol, Antônio C. de A.; Santo, André C. do E.; Legey, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    The Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant's emergency plan, it is the bunch of instructions that every citizen must adopt in case of an emergency situation. It is highly important, that all the people living in the power plant's surroundings truly understand every single step of the plan, because only in this way people will know how to react in case of a necessity. To hit this goals, the Brazil's Electronuclear, made educational booklets, in the shape of comic books, trying to guide the population about the plan. On the other hand, we have an increasingly connected world, making possible that digital games, be very well accepted by the population. So this project has as an objective, developing a digital tool, in form of a mobile game that shows in a playful and interactive way for the user, the emergency plan, complementing the educational process and social actions made by many institutions. With the information taken from the booklets, objects and buildings were modeled in Autodesk 3Ds Max, allied with the Unity 3D Game Engine, to make a city, inspired in Angra do Reis (RJ). The player has to follow all the security protocols giving by the Eletronuclear according with the rules provided by the National Nuclear Energy Commission. Is expected, with this game that will be available for the Eletronuclear that more people have the chance to know and believe in the efficiency of the emergency plan already established. (author)

  8. Get Milk – A Game of Lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Holopainen, Jussi; Schneider, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Even though teaching game design has been discussed in numerous scientific and commercial publications there has been surprisingly little work discussing the merits and drawbacks of interactive learning tools that make game design theory an experience as part of an educational strategy. A common...... challenge while teaching game design is to help students to regard games with the perspective of a game designer and not as a gamer during the design process. For students the challenge lies in understanding the purpose and merits of game design theory and how it may help designing better games, in other...... words, how to apply the theory successfully in practice. In order to enable students to start looking at games from the perspective of a game designer with the purpose of discussing the suitability of applied game design mechanics (Hunicke et al., 2004) or patterns (Björk & Holopainen, 2004) we designed...

  9. Connecting the Dots between Games and Addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Karlsen, Faltin; Goggin, Joyce

    , computer games and game culture. In relation to which he recently published a book about excessive playing in online games, called 'A World of Excesses: Online Games and Excessive Playing'. Rune K. L. Nielsen, who is currently writing a PhD thesis about computer games and addiction, focusing on game...... on the subject. Though game addiction remains the most widely used term variants such as excessive-, obsessive-, compulsive-, problematic-, dependent-, and pathological gaming has emerged. Aside from the psychological perspective, however, a host of other perspectives have emerged. In this sense 'game addiction...... (e.g. Yuan et al. 2011, Kühn et al. 2011), psychological prevalence studies (e.g., Lemmens 2009, Mentzoni et al. 2011), studies of economics and serialization (Goggin 2008), addictive design (Dow-Schull 2005) and game studies (Flaaten et al. 2010). There is little interaction among researchers...

  10. A survey of characteristic engine features for technology-sustained pervasive games

    CERN Document Server

    Nevelsteen, Kim JL

    2015-01-01

    This book scrutinizes pervasive games from a technological perspective, focusing on the sub-domain of games that satisfy the criteria that they make use of virtual game elements. In the computer game industry, the use of a game engine to build games is common, but current game engines do not support pervasive games. Since the computer game industry is already rich with game engines, this book investigates: (i) if a game engine can be repurposed to stage pervasive games; (ii) if features describing a would-be pervasive game engine can be identified; (iii) using those features, if an architectu

  11. LEARNING GAMES OR LEARNING STIMULATING GAMES: AN INDIRECT APPROACH TO LEARNING STIMULATING EFFECTS FROM OFF-THE-SHELF GAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mats Wiklund; Peter Mozelius

    2014-01-01

    Playing games to support learning is a classic concept that is seeing a revival today in the widespread use of computer games. Inserting educational content into various types of computer games is a strong trend that some researchers have described as a mad rush. The aim of this article is to discuss possible learning stimulating effects of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) games in a long-term perspective. We argue that COTS game players’ attitudes towards learning m...

  12. From genes to games: cooperation and cyclic dominance in meiotic drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Arne; Reed, Floyd A

    2012-04-21

    Evolutionary change can be described on a genotypic level or a phenotypic level. Evolutionary game theory is typically thought of as a phenotypic approach, although it is frequently argued that it can also be used to describe population genetic evolution. Interpreting the interaction between alleles in a diploid genome as a two player game leads to interesting alternative perspectives on genetic evolution. Here we focus on the case of meiotic drive and illustrate how meiotic drive can be directly and precisely interpreted as a social dilemma, such as the prisoners dilemma or the snowdrift game, in which the drive allele takes more than its fair share. Resistance to meiotic drive can lead to the well understood cyclic dominance found in the rock-paper-scissors game. This perspective is well established for the replicator dynamics, but there is still considerable ground for mutual inspiration between the two fields. For example, evolutionary game theorists can benefit from considering the stochastic evolutionary dynamics arising from finite population size. Population geneticists can benefit from game theoretic tools and perspectives on genetic evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki populations in lentic mesocosms. Perspectives for ecotoxicological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DREZE V.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In the perspective of ecotoxicological assays in mesocosms, the development of mosquitofish populations (Gambusia affinis holbrooki has been assessed. The objective was to evaluate the ability of fish to reproduce in these experimental ponds under the climatic conditions of Brittany, and to see if population size and individual criteria were related to the number of adults initially introduced. Six mesocosms (3.2 m diameter and 0.7 m water depth similarly designed received sexually mature mosquitofish at the rate of 12 (6 females and 6 males, 6 (3 females and 3 males and 2 (1 female and 1 male in June 1996. Each assay was duplicated. In December 1996, the entire populations were collected and the weight, size and sex of the individuals were noted. Length-frequency distributions were relatively similar between mesocosms and the different mode groups showed that the reproductive activity occurred until the beginning of fall. The produced biomass (from 4.1 to 38.3 g and number of fish collected (from 26 to 301 were statistically correlated to the number of pairs initially introduced. This study provides interesting perspectives for ecotoxicological investigations in which the effects of pollutants on mosquitofish would be assessed at the population level.

  14. Impacts of memory on a regular lattice for different population sizes with asynchronous update in spatial snowdrift game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Feng; Liu, Xingwen; Li, Min

    2018-05-01

    Memory is an important factor on the evolution of cooperation in spatial structure. For evolutionary biologists, the problem is often how cooperation acts can emerge in an evolving system. In the case of snowdrift game, it is found that memory can boost cooperation level for large cost-to-benefit ratio r, while inhibit cooperation for small r. Thus, how to enlarge the range of r for the purpose of enhancing cooperation becomes a hot issue recently. This paper addresses a new memory-based approach and its core lies in: Each agent applies the given rule to compare its own historical payoffs in a certain memory size, and take the obtained maximal one as virtual payoff. In order to get the optimal strategy, each agent randomly selects one of its neighbours to compare their virtual payoffs, which can lead to the optimal strategy. Both constant-size memory and size-varying memory are investigated by means of a scenario of asynchronous updating algorithm on regular lattices with different sizes. Simulation results show that this approach effectively enhances cooperation level in spatial structure and makes the high cooperation level simultaneously emerge for both small and large r. Moreover, it is discovered that population sizes have a significant influence on the effects of cooperation.

  15. Productive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  16. China's floating population and the potential for HIV transmission: a social-behavioural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A F; Qingsi, Z; Hua, X; Jianfeng, B

    2003-04-01

    Historical, geo-economic and behavioural perspectives are used in an exploratory analysis of China's migrant or 'floating' population as a factor in the spread of HIV on the mainland. Participants in the interview format survey (N = 506) included in-transit individuals in Beijing, and peddlers, restaurant workers, and employment seekers in Shanghai. When viewed in light of various social dynamics, the convenience survey data suggest that elements within this migrant population, as well as their rurally located partners and spouses, may be at increased risk of acquiring the virus. Given the sheer size and broad movement of this population, it is contended that it may well be a 'tipping point' factor in AIDS prevention and control in China.

  17. [The population census in Nigeria 1991: geographical aspects of a political poker game].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, W; Malchau, G

    1994-01-01

    The population of Nigeria has been estimated at more than 100 million by various sources. The UN in 1987 estimated it at 87 million, the World Bank at 106.2 million, and the Nigerian National Population Commission at 112.3 million. However, the 1991 census, which was carefully conducted, came up with only 87.5 million, whereas according to the World Bank the number should have exceeded 120 million. The discrepancy of 30 million provoked strong reaction among politicians in the country. 5-year average growth rates between 1970 and 1990 indicated an increase from 26.6% to 37.9%; therefore, the population during the 28-year period from 1963 and 1991 must have approximated 100 million. The figure of 112.3 million would require a growth rate of 34.9%, which was plausible from the early 1970s. The results of the 1991 census have pointed to an enigmatic curiosity: was it an accident that the North has registered the highest annual growth rates dating back to 1963, or even 1952? The political infighting and series of coups d'etat by generals may also be correlated to this numerical distortion, since all these generals were Northerners. An accurate analysis was not possible because of the paucity of data. The census of 1991 has not been fully disclosed until the present time [August 1994], strengthening the case of the skeptics, although the full publication of the figures has to do with the political situation in Nigeria. The democratization process was halted after June 1992, especially after the invalidation of the results of the presidential election and the seizing of power by General Abacha. In the event that a democratic government arises, perhaps the figures of the 1991 census will be published, which could also explain the lower growth rate of the economic centers in the Southwest and the Southeast. Nigeria sorely needs more reliable census data for planning because of a one-sided export structure (95% of foreign currency is earned from oil), neglected agriculture

  18. An Overview of Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedwa Laamarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious games are growing rapidly as a gaming industry as well as a field of academic research. There are many surveys in the field of digital serious games; however, most surveys are specific to a particular area such as education or health. So far, there has been little work done to survey digital serious games in general, which is the main goal of this paper. Hence, we discuss relevant work on serious games in different application areas including education, well-being, advertisement, cultural heritage, interpersonal communication, and health care. We also propose a taxonomy for digital serious games, and we suggest a classification of reviewed serious games applications from the literature against the defined taxonomy. Finally, the paper provides guidelines, drawn from the literature, for the design and development of successful serious games, as well as discussing research perspectives in this domain.

  19. The playful and reflective game designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: A group of first-semester engineering students participated in a game design course. The aim of the course was to learn how to design computer games and programming skills by creating their own games, thereby applying their game-playing experiences to gain knowledge about game design....... The aim was for students to develop a more critically reflective perspective on video games and game design. In applying their game experiences, they developed their own digital prototypes and participated in reflective discussions on the concept of games: what makes them interesting and how...... they are constructed. The students used the GameMaker programming tool, which can be used without any prior programming knowledge. The tool allows for the easy development of 2D game prototypes.The didactic approach was based on play as a lever for the design process, and on constructionistic and reflective learning...

  20. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  2. Direct sum matrix game with prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhang Ma

    Full Text Available A direct sum form is proposed for constructing a composite game from two 2 x 2 games, prisoner's dilemma and snowdrift game. This kind of direct sum form game is called a multiple roles game. The replicator dynamics of the multiple roles game with will-mixed populations is explored. The dynamical behaviors on square lattice are investigated by numerical simulation. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of population on square lattice depend on the mixing proportion of the two simple games. Mixing SD activities to pure PD population inhibits the proportion of cooperators in PD, and mixing PD activities to pure SD population stimulates the proportion of cooperators in SD. Besides spatial reciprocity, our results show that there are roles reciprocities between different types of individuals.

  3. On the Need for Research Evidence to Guide the Design of Computer Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Computer games for learning (also called video games or digital games) have potential to improve education. This is the intriguing idea that motivates this special issue of the "Educational Psychologist" on "Psychological Perspectives on Digital Games and Learning." Computer games for learning are games delivered via computer…

  4. Understanding the Behavioral Intention to Play Austronesian Learning Games: From the Perspectives of Learning Outcome, Service Quality, and Hedonic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kuo-Lun; Huang, Tien-Chi; Chen, Mu-Yen; Chiang, Nien-Ting

    2018-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning is a novel and creative teaching approach, two key issues inhibit its success overall: a lack of appropriate learning strategies regarding learning objectives, and ineffective learning tools for receiving knowledge regarding the chosen subjects. To address these issues, we develops and designs a game-based educational…

  5. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  6. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mendes, Renio S; Lenzi, Ervin K; del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Amaral, Luís A N

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  7. The Assessment of Restaurants’ Authenticity from the Perspective of Young Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Boșcor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the elements that assess the authenticity of a restaurant. Theanalysis was realized from the young population perspective. This segment of population has beenchosen following the idea that in Romania, like in all developed countries, representatives of thisage group will use the restaurants services at a much greater extent than older generations. In thisrespect, it was conducted a quantitative marketing research based on a sample of 228 studentsfrom the Faculty of Economic Sciences and Business Administration, from the TransilvaniaUniversity of Brașov. The results have enabled a hierarchy of factors that are considered relevantfor evaluating the authenticity of a restaurant and, also, to identify the profile of an idealrestaurant.

  8. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  9. The Work Ethic Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kate

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of "The Work Ethic Game" that focuses on integrity in the workplace. Explains that the game is divided into three categories: legal, judgment, and policy issues. Discusses different personality types in the typical employee population. Includes possibilities for use at different education levels. (DK)

  10. Learning through a Game - Exploring Fun and Learning in a Project Management Game

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Daniel Sollie; Storjord, David

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to explore the teaching capabilities of games by motivating players through fun. We do this by first exploring perspectives of fun and learning in games; project management concepts and previous games. From these findings we implement our own game prototype where the player learns project management concepts simultaneously as they learn the game. This prototype is then evaluated through a number of experiments. Finally we discuss the results of the experiments and c...

  11. The impacts of a GO-game (Chinese chess intervention on Alzheimer disease in a Northeast Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao eLin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A GO game can enhance mental health, but its effects on Alzheimer Disease (AD remains unknown. To address the issue, 147 AD patients were randomly assigned into control (without GO-game intervention, Short-time GO-Game Intervention (SGGI, one hour daily and Long-time GO-game Intervention (LGGI, two hours daily groups. After 6-month follow-up, the game reduced the mean score of Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales (MADRS of 4.72(95% CI, 0.69 to 9.12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS of 1.75 (95% CI, 0.17 to 3.68, and increased the mean score of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF of 4.95 (95% CI, -1.37 to 9.18 and RAND-36 of 4.61 (95% CI, -2.75 to 11.32 (P < 0.05 via controls. A GO-game intervention improved 9 of 11 items of KICA-dep (Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment of Depression. Meanwhile, serum levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were higher in SGGI and LGGI groups (24.02 ± 7.16 and 28.88 ± 4.12 ng/ml respectively, P = 0.051 than those in controls (17.28 ± 7.75 ng/ml (P < 0.001. The serum levels of BDNF showed a negative relation with MADRS and a positive relation with RAND-36 (P < 0.01. A GO-game intervention ameliorates AD manifestations by up-regulating BDNF levels.

  12. Game theory : Noncooperative games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Wright, J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe noncooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  13. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  14. Promoting sales of online games through customer engagement.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, C. M. K.; Shen, A. X. L.; Lee, Z. W. Y.; Chan, T. K. H.

    2015-01-01

    With keen competition in the online game industry, game developers and publishers are finding new ways to induce players’ to spend money on subscriptions and virtual items. As the online game itself provides a highly engaging environment, this study examines online sales from the perspective of customer engagement. We propose a research model that examines why game players actively engage in playing online games, and how such engagement can contribute to sales of online games, empirically tes...

  15. Foundations of Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Jan L.; Homer, Bruce D.; Kinzer, Charles K.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we argue that to study or apply games as learning environments, multiple perspectives have to be taken into account. We first define game-based learning and gamification, and then discuss theoretical models that describe learning with games, arguing that playfulness is orthogonal to learning theory. We then review design elements…

  16. Convex games versus clan games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games. We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games. Furthermore, each monotonic

  17. Convex Games versus Clan Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games.We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games.Furthermore, each monotonic

  18. Game on! : Evaluation malaria games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Willems

    2014-01-01

    The goal of GameOn! is to develop a serious video game. The object: to develop a serious game that aims to change behavior through awareness. The setup A multidisciplinary group which unites expertise from didactic and game production backgrounds produces an educational game for an international

  19. Game mechanics : advanced game design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Ernest; Dormans, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Game Mechanics is aimed at game design students and industry professionals who want to improve their understanding of how to design, build, and test the mechanics of a game. Game Mechanics will show you how to design, test, and tune the core mechanics of a game—any game, from a huge role-playing

  20. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Hyatt, Douglas; Ching, Andrew T; Fournier, Rachel; Dembo, Ron S

    2016-01-28

    ,000 (95% CI 3850, 4150) at time of redemption, and 50.4% (n=61) of exchanges were for fitness or outdoor products, while 4.1% (n=5) were for food-related items. Participants were most likely to complete challenges when rewards were between 201-300 GOODcoins. The purpose of this study is to form a baseline for future research. Overall, results indicate that challenges and incentives may be effective for connected and active members, and may play a role in achieving daily-recommended activity guidelines. Registrants were typically younger, walking was the primary activity, and rewards were mainly exchanged for fitness or outdoor products. Remaining to be determined is whether members were already physically active at time of registration and are representative of healthy adherers, or were previously inactive and were incentivized to change their behavior. As challenges are gamified, there is an opportunity to investigate the role of superusers and healthy adherers, impacts on behavioral norms, and how cooperative games and incentives can be leveraged across stratified populations. Study limitations and future research agendas are discussed.

  1. SusClime. A simulation game on population and development in a resource- and climate-constrained two-country world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, B.

    1995-10-01

    In this report we introduce simulation-gaming as a tool to explore long-term futures. The model world of SusClime is a simple world with two capital stocks, one producing goods ('goods producing capital') and one providing services including consumption ('population capital') for the people. The necessary energy is delivered by two capital stocks, one based on oil ('carbon-energy') and one on renewable energy ('alternative'). Investments in energy efficiency bring down the required energy. The important decisions in the game are about investments, that is, the allocation of the goods produced among these five capital stocks. Moreover, the two countries can trade oil and make loans. The major challenge is to go through the demographic transition by increasing the welfare per person and to make the transition from oil to renewable energy. The latter is needed to avoid negative impacts on the economy due to rising CO 2 -concentrations. After the description of the game, some suggestions for systematic experiments are made as a way to gain a better understanding about how cultural bias affects people's perception of and behaviour with regard to aspects of the quest for sustainable development. 10 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs., 6 appendices

  2. Analysis Of Vaccination Campaign Against Hpv And The Perspective Of Vaccinated Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Palmeira Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  The Ministry of Health has provided for the girls population aged nine to 13 years, the quadrivalent vaccine against Human Papillomavirus as a preventive measure for cancer of the cervix, with the initial proposal to achieve 80% of this population.  Objective:  To analyze the vaccine coverage and the perspective of the target population about the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus.  Methods:  This was a quantitative and qualitative field research in descriptive character, conducted through the Information System of the National Program for Immunization and with a sample of 86 adolescents in the city of São José do Egito/PE/BR.  Results:  The vaccination coverage showed a reduction in sequence of the vaccination schedules of 19,53% in the first phase of the campaign and of 24.07% in the second phase. It was also noted that lack accurate information for more than 50% of respondents, 15.11% had local and / or systemic reactions and 89,53% of them expect positive results with the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus.  Conclusion: The results showed a discontinuity in the prophylaxis scheme, but for the teenagers who took the vaccine there is confidence that the immunobiological has the desired effect, protecting them against viruses and future cancer of the cervix. Keywords: Health services; Vaccine; Adolescents; Human Papillomavirus.

  3. #GoAllOut: A Physician's Reflection on Gay Games 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry H

    2015-03-01

    The article addresses the author's perspectives on the Gay Games on individual, community and public health. Using the Gay Games motto of "Participation, Inclusion, Personal Best," the author will explore the many benefits and effects of the Gay Games.

  4. Introduction: games and subcultural theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Benoit Carbone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue of GAME Journal offers a recognition and a series of case studies on video games from the point of view of subcultural theory. Game studies have hitherto focused little on their object from this perspective, which offers a theoretical frame for the historical and ever growing complexity of the audiences involved with the medium of the video game. The study of subcultures on the other hand has a long standing and complex tradition which culminates in what has been recently defined as the “post-subcultural” theoretical scenario.

  5. The Recent Judicial Activism in Brazil: Desaposentação From the Perspective of Discursive Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica da Silva Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The desaposentação is a topic that for some time has raised heated debate in the Brazilian legal field. Decisions related to it constitute itself as judicial activism, in that are given by the interference of the courts in the effectiveness of this right. This article aims to analyze some discursive movements that are established in discussions on the concept of judicial activism, taking as an example the desaposentação in Brazil. It analyzes initially discursive aspects of the historical constitution of the concept of judicial activism. Then it talks about the struggles that are established around the senses built on the concept of desaposentação considering that all knowledge is made from games of speeches taken as a set of strategies that are part of social practices born in the plots history. The theoretical framework is guided in Foucault's principles speech about the concepts, wording and your order (Foucault, 1996; 2008. Methodologically assess up concepts of judicial activism, judicial and parliamentary speeches. At last, it turns out that the activist discourse in enforcing rights is permeated by strategy games, action and reaction, of domination and avoidance, as well as struggles.

  6. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  7. Games for Health, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    videogame-based approaches to professional development, elearning , and simulation. A key goal for establishing this event was to provide a better...perspective Paul Ballas Games for Global Health : Examples & Discussion Jackson Stakeman, USC Safe2Live: Using Virtual Worlds Tools to Engage AT

  8. Can your country make you sick? Multi-level explorations of population health and human rights in a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Research investigating health and human rights from a socio-epidemiological perspective is emerging. Still there is a noticeable paucity of research that empirically links population health to human rights concerns. In this thesis, three examples relevant to human rights are explored. We investigate

  9. Game theory decisions, interaction and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, James N

    2007-01-01

    This introduction to game theory is written from a mathematical perspective. Its primary purpose is to be a first course for undergraduate students of mathematics, but it also contains material which will be of interest to advanced students or researchers in biology and economics. The outstanding feature of the book is that it provides a unified account of three types of decision problem: Situations involving a single decision-maker: in which a sequence of choices is to be made in "a game against nature". This introduces the basic ideas of optimality and decision processes. Classical game theory: in which the interactions of two or more decision-makers are considered. This leads to the concept of the Nash equilibrium. Evolutionary game theory: in which the changing structure of a population of interacting decision makers is considered. This leads to the ideas of evolutionarily stable strategies and replicator dynamics. An understanding of basic calculus and probability is assumed but no prior knowledge of gam...

  10. Personalised gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes, S.; Tan, C.T.; Pisan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific

  11. Game Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raessens, J.F.F.

    2016-01-01

    This entry describes game studies as a dynamic interdisciplinary field of academic study and research that focuses on digital games and play in a wide variety of social and cultural contexts. It examines the history of game studies from its prehistory, when games were looked at as part of other

  12. Game theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  13. Gaming science innovations to integrate health systems science into medical education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Earla J; Lewis, Joy H; McCoy, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Health systems science (HSS) is an emerging discipline addressing multiple, complex, interdependent variables that affect providers' abilities to deliver patient care and influence population health. New perspectives and innovations are required as physician leaders and medical educators strive to accelerate changes in medical education and practice to meet the needs of evolving populations and systems. The purpose of this paper is to introduce gaming science as a lens to magnify HSS integration opportunities in the scope of medical education and practice. Evidence supports gaming science innovations as effective teaching and learning tools to promote learner engagement in scientific and systems thinking for decision making in complex scenarios. Valuable insights and lessons gained through the history of war games have resulted in strategic thinking to minimize risk and save lives. In health care, where decisions can affect patient and population outcomes, gaming science innovations have the potential to provide safe learning environments to practice crucial decision-making skills. Research of gaming science limitations, gaps, and strategies to maximize innovations to further advance HSS in medical education and practice is required. Gaming science holds promise to equip health care teams with HSS knowledge and skills required for transformative practice. The ultimate goals are to empower providers to work in complex systems to improve patient and population health outcomes and experiences, and to reduce costs and improve care team well-being.

  14. University Prosperity Game. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, K.W.; Berman, M.

    1996-03-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the University Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Anderson Schools of Management at the University of New Mexico. This Prosperity Game was initially designed for the roadmap making effort of the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI) of the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee under the aegis of the National Science and Technology Council. The game was modified to support course material in MGT 508, Ethical, Political, and Social Environment of Business. Thirty-five students participated as role players. In this educational context the game`s main objectives were to: (1) introduce and teach global competitiveness and business cultures in an experiential classroom setting; (2) explore ethical, political, and social issues and address them in the context of global markets and competition; and (3) obtain non-government views regarding the technical and non-technical (i.e., policy) issues developed in the NEMI roadmap-making endeavor. The negotiations and agreements made during the game, along with the student journals detailing the players feelings and reactions to the gaming experience, provide valuable insight into the benefits of simulation as an advanced learning tool in higher education.

  15. Perspectives of the use of experience of preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines in the system of the long-term training in team games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimenko I.G.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work to define approaches to the construction of long-term preparation of reserve in cyclic disciplines. Also to ground perspective directions of their use in a training process in the playing types of sport. Questioning, conversations and questionnaires of leading specialists (17 trainers and sportsmen is conducted (80 athletes. It is marked that one of lacks of the traditional system of preparation of sportsmen is the insufficient providing of training process information technologies. It is set that in the cyclic types of sport the sharp is enough there is a problem of planning of loadings in macrocycle of training of young sportsmen. It is rotined that to the features of construction of training process in cyclic kinds it is necessary to take application of individual approach. The possible ways of decision of problem of optimization of long-term training of reserve are presented in sporting games. Attention is accented on the necessity of realization in practice of theoretical positions which are related to all of the stages of the long-term training.

  16. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner’s Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games. PMID:26308326

  17. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  18. The implementation of DRG-based hospital reimbursement in Switzerland: A population-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, André; von Below, Georg

    2010-10-16

    Switzerland introduces a DRG (Diagnosis Related Groups) based system for hospital financing in 2012 in order to increase efficiency and transparency of Swiss health care. DRG-based hospital reimbursement is not simultaneously realized in all Swiss cantons and several cantons already implemented DRG-based financing irrespective of the national agenda, a setting that provides an opportunity to compare the situation in different cantons. Effects of introducing DRGs anticipated for providers and insurers are relatively well known but it remains less clear what effects DRGs will have on served populations. The objective of the study is therefore to analyze differences of volume and major quality indicators of care between areas with or without DRG-based hospital reimbursement from a population based perspective. Small area analysis of all hospitalizations in acute care hospitals and of all consultations reimbursed by mandatory basic health insurance for physicians in own practice during 2003-2007. The results show fewer hospitalizations and a relocation of resources to outpatient care in areas with DRG reimbursement. Overall burden of disease expressed as per capita DRG cost weights was almost identical between the two types of hospital reimbursement and no distinct temporal differences were detected in this respect. But the results show considerably higher 90-day rehospitalization rates in DRG areas. The study provides evidence of both desired and harmful effects related to the implementation of DRGs. Systematic monitoring of outcomes and quality of care are therefore essential elements to maintain in the Swiss health system after DRG's are implemented on a nationwide basis in 2012.

  19. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Sherrilene; Lopez, Ellen DS; Winter, Sandra; Awadzi, Kezia D; Ferree, Nita; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2007-01-01

    The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research), and views (qualitative research) of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long-term outcomes. After completing the detailed plan we will test the effectiveness of this intervention on multiple levels. PMID:18225470

  20. Do the Youth Olympic Games promote Olympism? Analysing a mission (im)possible from a local youth perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Martin; Walde, Janette; Scheiber, Sabrina; Nagiller, Roman; Tappeiner, Gottfried

    2018-04-23

    On the basis of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), we assess if and how the youth in the communities of the YOG host cities have been influenced concerning their perception of the Olympic values (OV) and the Olympic movement (OM). Special attention of the study is paid to the analysis of intervention mechanisms which the local youth underwent (e.g. attending the YOG on-site, participating in school programmes). Our study was conducted among 1004 adolescents living in the host region three years after the Innsbruck 2012 YOG had been staged. Our analyses extend the corresponding literature by (1) showing that the YOG and the involvement of the local youth in such an event have the power of creating an interest in the OM and its events, but do not have the power to influence the young citizens' perception of the OV significantly; (2) illustrating that the perception adolescents have of the OV depend mainly on their socio-demographic background, their a priori interest in sports events, social capital (norms, institutional trust) and the extent to which the youngsters follow the event in the different media; and (3) corroborating the hypothesis that intervention programmes (e.g. school programmes) for promoting (Olympic) values and ideals should not be single, obligatory and isolated activities. We conclude that it is not surprising that the International Olympic Committee has reformulated the goals for the YOG in the Olympic Agenda 2020, as some goals relating to the promotion of the OV might have been a mission impossible.

  1. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  2. Writerly Gaming: Political Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    software for private entertainment (looking/feeling real) or they can be pragmatic software used for training of professionals (affecting soldiers’, pilots’, etc. perception of the real). A third, and less debated game-reality relationship, based on public awareness and typically a socio-political agenda...

  3. Understanding herding based on a co-evolutionary model for strategy and game structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Keke; Cheng, Yuan; Zheng, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We model herding effect in emergency from perspective of evolutionary game theory. •Rational subpopulation survives only when the game parameter is significantly large. •Herding effect may arise if the relative rewarding for rational agents is small. •Increasing the relative rewarding for rational agents will prevent herding effect. •The evolution result is unstable if the game parameter approaches critical points. -- Abstract: So far, there has been no conclusion on the mechanism for herding, which is often discussed in the academia. Assuming escaping behavior of individuals in emergency is rational rather than out of panic according to recent findings in social psychology, we investigate the behavioral evolution of large crowds from the perspective of evolutionary game theory. Specifically, evolution of the whole population divided into two subpopulations, namely the co-evolution of strategy and game structure, is numerically simulated based on the game theoretical models built and the evolutionary rule designed, and a series of phenomena including extinction of one subpopulation and herding effect are predicted in the proposed framework. Furthermore, if the rewarding for rational agents becomes significantly larger than that for emotional ones, herding effect will disappear. It is exciting that some phase transition points with interesting properties for the system can be found. In addition, our model framework is able to explain the fact that it is difficult for mavericks to prevail in society. The current results of this work will be helpful in understanding and restraining herding effect in real life

  4. SURVEILLANCE FOR VIRAL AND PARASITIC PATHOGENS IN A VULNERABLE AFRICAN LION (PANTHERA LEO) POPULATION IN THE NORTHERN TULI GAME RESERVE, BOTSWANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Kimberly R; Snyman, Andrei; Verreynne, Frederick J; Carroll, John P; Penzhorn, Banie L; Yabsley, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    African lion ( Panthera leo ) numbers are decreasing rapidly and populations are becoming smaller and more fragmented. Infectious diseases are one of numerous issues threatening free-ranging lion populations, and low-density populations are particularly at risk. We collected data on the prevalence and diversity of viral and parasitic pathogens in a small lion population in eastern Botswana. During 2012 and 2014, blood samples were collected from 59% (n=13) of the adult-subadult lions in the Northern Tuli Game Reserve in eastern Botswana. One lion had antibodies to feline panleukopenia virus, two had antibodies to canine distemper virus, and two had feline calicivirus antibodies. Ten of the 13 had antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus and 11 had feline herpesvirus antibodies. All lions were negative for antibodies to feline coronavirus. Blood samples from all lions were negative for Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Theileria, and Ehrlichia spp. by molecular testing; however, all lions were positive for Babesia spp. by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Sequencing of amplicons from four lions revealed four groups of Babesia spp. including several genetic variants of Babesia felis , Babesia lengau, and Babesia canis and a group of novel Babesia sequences which were only 96% similar to other Babesia spp. Six lions were infested with four species of ticks (Rhipicentor nuttalli, Rhipicephalus simus, Rhipicephalus sulcatus, and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus). These data provide the first health assessment of this population and can be used to identify management and conservation strategies to decrease the impact of pathogens on this population. This is particularly important as there is an initiative to incorporate this population into a larger metapopulation of lions from adjacent South Africa and Zimbabwe.

  5. The Peace Game: A Data-Driven Evaluation of a Software-Based Model of the Effects of Modern Conflict on Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Most of these early computer games were just digital depictions of a board game. The computers were generally used as a giant calculator that helped...limitless. Digital output of “what happened” allows game players and decision makers to collect and analyze every part of the game without transcription...there was a dispute over voter eligibility. Missiriya nomads , who are loyal to Sudan, spend several months of the year in Abyei grazing their cattle

  6. Analysis of the "naming game" with learning errors in communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-07-16

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches consensus asymptotically. We study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, with error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed. Then, a strategy for agents to prevent learning errors is suggested. To that end, three typical topologies of communication networks, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed to investigate the effects of various learning errors. Simulation results on these models show that 1) learning errors slightly affect the convergence speed but distinctively increase the requirement for memory of each agent during lexicon propagation; 2) the maximum number of different words held by the population increases linearly as the error rate increases; 3) without applying any strategy to eliminate learning errors, there is a threshold of the learning errors which impairs the convergence. The new findings may help to better understand the role of learning errors in naming game as well as in human language development from a network science perspective.

  7. (ludo) game

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    participants make decisions with or without the intervention of ... formulation of game theory started in 1944 with the publication of the book ... Nearly all games require seeing patterns, making plans, searching ..... utility/ outcome. •. Players will ...

  8. [Game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  9. Casual Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....

  10. Environmental Prosperity Game. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Environmental Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Silicon Valley Environmental Partnership. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in environmental technologies including small and large companies, government, national laboratories, universities, environmentalists, the legal profession, finance, and the media. The primary objectives of this game were to: investigate strategies for developing a multi-agency (national/state/regional), one-step regulatory approval process for certifying and implementing environmental technologies and evaluating the simulated results; identify the regulatory hurdles and requirements, and the best approaches for surmounting them; identify technical problems and potential resources (environmental consultants, labs, universities) for solving them. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning environmental issues, including the development, licensing, and commercialization of new technologies.

  11. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  12. Population-based health promotion perspective for older driver safety: Conceptual framework to intervention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherrilene Classen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sherrilene Classen1,2, Ellen DS Lopez3, Sandra Winter2, Kezia D Awadzi4, Nita Ferree5, Cynthia W Garvan61Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Public Health and Health Professions (CPHHP, University of Florida (UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2PhD Program in Rehabilitation Science, CPHHP, UF Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 4Department of Health Services Research, Management, and Policy, CPHHP, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 5Health Science Center Libraries, UF, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Biostatistics, College of Medicine, UF, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: The topic of motor vehicle crashes among the elderly is dynamic and multi-faceted requiring a comprehensive and synergistic approach to intervention planning. This approach must be based on the values of a given population as well as health statistics and asserted through community, organizational and policy strategies. An integrated summary of the predictors (quantitative research, and views (qualitative research of the older drivers and their stakeholders, does not currently exist. This study provided an explicit socio-ecological view explaining the interrelation of possible causative factors, an integrated summary of these causative factors, and empirical guidelines for developing public health interventions to promote older driver safety. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to compare and integrate main findings from a national crash dataset with perspectives of stakeholders. We identified: 11 multi-causal factors for safe elderly driving; the importance of the environmental factors - previously underrated in the literature- interacting with behavioral and health factors; and the interrelatedness among many socio-ecological factors. For the first time, to our knowledge, we conceptualized the fundamental elements of a multi-causal health promotion plan, with measurable intermediate and long

  13. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  14. Experiential narrative in game environments

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, Gordon; Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2009 Conference

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the contentious notion of experiential narrative and proposes the first step in a narrative framework for game environment. It argues for a shift in emphasis from story-telling, the dominant mode of narrative in literature and cinema, to story generation. To this effect the paper forwards a perspective on experiential narrative that is grounded in the specific qualities of the game. This avoids the over-generalization that tends to accompany discussions of experiential nar...

  15. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  17. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  18. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  19. Power and Surveillance in Video Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Puente Bienvenido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explore the history of video games (focusing on multiplayer ones, from the perspective of power relationships and the ways in which authority has been excesiced by the game industry and game players over time. From a hierarchical system of power and domain to the increasing flatness of the current structure, we address the systems of control and surveillance. We will finish our display assessing the emergent forms of production and relationships between players and developers.

  20. Game-Like Technology Innovation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the methodological challenges and perspectives of designing game-like scenarios for the implementation of innovation processes in school science education. This paper presents a design-based research study of a game-like innovation scenario designed for technology education for Danish public school students aged 13-15. Students…

  1. Video Games as Tillers of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Video games are pervasive in today's culture, and the time kids spend playing them may seem, from a teacher's perspective, as time that is lost to education. Sometimes, sadly, this is true. But many good video games, although not explicitly educational in focus, provide powerful experiences that are rich fodder for subsequent instruction. Looking…

  2. The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanmore, Emma; Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; de Bruin, Eling D; Firth, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    Physically-active video games ('exergames') have recently gained popularity for leisure and entertainment purposes. Using exergames to combine physical activity and cognitively-demanding tasks may offer a novel strategy to improve cognitive functioning. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to establish effects of exergames on overall cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinical and non-clinical populations. We identified 17 eligible RCTs with cognitive outcome data for 926 participants. Random-effects meta-analyses found exergames significantly improved global cognition (g=0.436, 95% CI=0.18-0.69, p=0.001). Significant effects still existed when excluding waitlist-only controlled studies, and when comparing to physical activity interventions. Furthermore, benefits of exergames where observed for both healthy older adults and clinical populations with conditions associated with neurocognitive impairments (all p<0.05). Domain-specific analyses found exergames improved executive functions, attentional processing and visuospatial skills. The findings present the first meta-analytic evidence for effects of exergames on cognition. Future research must establish which patient/treatment factors influence efficacy of exergames, and explore neurobiological mechanisms of action. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Video games as a multifaceted medium: a review of quantitative social science research on video games and a typology of video game research approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ivory, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a vast and useful body of quantitative social science research dealing with the social role and impact of video games, it is difficult to compare studies dealing with various dimensions of video games because they are informed by different perspectives and assumptions, employ different methodologies, and address different problems. Studies focusing on different social dimensions of video games can produce varied findings about games' social function that are often difficult...

  4. Structure coefficients and strategy selection in multiplayer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary processes based on two-player games such as the Prisoner's Dilemma or Snowdrift Game are abundant in evolutionary game theory. These processes, including those based on games with more than two strategies, have been studied extensively under the assumption that selection is weak. However, games involving more than two players have not received the same level of attention. To address this issue, and to relate two-player games to multiplayer games, we introduce a notion of reducibility for multiplayer games that captures what it means to break down a multiplayer game into a sequence of interactions with fewer players. We discuss the role of reducibility in structured populations, and we give examples of games that are irreducible in any population structure. Since the known conditions for strategy selection, otherwise known as [Formula: see text]-rules, have been established only for two-player games with multiple strategies and for multiplayer games with two strategies, we extend these rules to multiplayer games with many strategies to account for irreducible games that cannot be reduced to those simpler types of games. In particular, we show that the number of structure coefficients required for a symmetric game with [Formula: see text]-player interactions and [Formula: see text] strategies grows in [Formula: see text] like [Formula: see text]. Our results also cover a type of ecologically asymmetric game based on payoff values that are derived not only from the strategies of the players, but also from their spatial positions within the population.

  5. Playing games at the Library: Seriously?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Swiatek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years, libraries have been developing gaming activities from library board games to mystery games and immersive roleplaying games. This article aims at giving a general overview of gaming issues in French academic libraries. General gaming theories are quickly reviewed, basic keys are given about how and why to set up a gaming service and department at the academic library, concrete and recent initiatives are presented. This article focuses on non-virtual and public-oriented games that were already organised in and by libraries. More generally, it underlines how to use gaming activities for promoting organisational innovation. It concludes on the necessity to settle a strategy for gaming activities, to enforce management practices, and on the importance to publicise the initiatives by establishing a public gaming policy and programme, and by formalising communication plans, staff training and knowledge management. The results of this fact study highlight how gaming activities are becoming a new reality for libraries, which requires a proper management perspective.

  6. Utilizing Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaize, L.

    Almost from its birth, the computer and video gaming industry has done an admirable job of communicating the vision and attempting to convey the experience of traveling through space to millions of gamers from all cultures and demographics. This paper will propose several approaches the 100 Year Starship Study can take to use the power of interactive media to stir interest in the Starship and related projects among a global population. It will examine successful gaming franchises from the past that are relevant to the mission and consider ways in which the Starship Study could cooperate with game development studios to bring the Starship vision to those franchises and thereby to the public. The paper will examine ways in which video games can be used to crowd-source research aspects for the Study, and how video games are already considering many of the same topics that will be examined by this Study. Finally, the paper will propose some mechanisms by which the 100 Year Starship Study can establish very close ties with the gaming industry and foster cooperation in pursuit of the Study's goals.

  7. Teaching About The Nexus of Energy, Water and Climate Through Traditional Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. K.; Mayhew, M. A.; Kaminsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    , are played in an educational context (formal or informal), learning can be furthered when game playing is supported by related lecturers and discussions before or after. At the same time, people who participated in focus groups acknowledged that only a subset of the population would be willing to play such games by choice on their own time. This last point is probably due more to broader cultural perspectives on education and learning in the United States than anything intrinsic to the game. Although those indicating that they'd play the game on their own time were in the minority, most participants could see playing the game in class, emphasizing that the game made learning both more fun, more meaningful, and more durable.

  8. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  9. Population Genomics and the Statistical Values of Race:An Interdisciplinary Perspective on the Biological Classification of Human Populations and Implications for Clinical Genetic Epidemiological Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi N. Maglo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological status and biomedical significance of the concept of race as applied to humans continue to be contentious issues despite the use of advanced statistical and clustering methods to determine continental ancestry. It is thus imperative for researchers to understand the limitations as well as potential uses of the concept of race in biology and biomedicine. This paper deals with the theoretical assumptions behind cluster analysis in human population genomics. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it demonstrates that the hypothesis that attributes the clustering of human populations to frictional effects of landform barriers at continental boundaries is empirically incoherent. It then contrasts the scientific status of the cluster and cline constructs in human population genomics, and shows how cluster may be instrumentally produced. It also shows how statistical values of race vindicate Darwin’s argument that race is evolutionarily meaningless. Finally, the paper explains why, due to spatiotemporal parameters, evolutionary forces and socio-cultural factors influencing population structure, continental ancestry may be pragmatically relevant to global and public health genomics. Overall, this work demonstrates that, from a biological systematic and evolutionary taxonomical perspective, human races/continental groups or clusters have no natural meaning or objective biological reality. In fact, the utility of racial categorizations in research and in clinics can be explained by spatiotemporal parameters, socio-cultural factors and evolutionary forces affecting disease causation and treatment response.

  10. Emotional Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Filipa; Arriaga, Patrícia; Adrião, Joana; Lopes, Ricardo; Esteves, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research on the psychology of gaming has examined the negative and positive outcomes of playing video games. Thus far, a variety of affective phenomena have been investigated. In this chapter we will continue this exploration by examining the emotions elicited by the act of playing video games. Because the study of emotions must rely on different type of methods, including subjective self-reports (e.g., description of feelings), neuropsychophysiological measurements ...

  11. Simulation games

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines the conventions and pleasures of simulation games as a category, and explores the complicated and contested term simulation. This concept goes to the heart of what computer games and video games are, and the ways in which they articulate ideas, processes, and phenomena between their virtual worlds and the actual world. It has been argued that simulations generate and communicate knowledge and events quite differently from the long-­dominant cultural mode of narrative. Th...

  12. Game physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eberly, David H

    2010-01-01

    ""Game Physics, 2nd Edition"" provides clear descriptions of the mathematics and algorithms needed to create a powerful physics engine - while providing a solid reference for all of the math you will encounter anywhere in game development: quaternions, linear algebra, and calculus. Implementing physical simulations for real-time games is a complex task that requires a solid understanding of a wide range of concepts from the fields of mathematics and physics. Previously, the relevant information could only be gleaned through obscure research papers. Thanks to ""Game Physics"", all this informa

  13. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    T hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....

  14. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand....... Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design...

  15. Video games

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...

  16. Games of multicellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Kamran; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A

    2016-08-21

    Evolutionary game dynamics are often studied in the context of different population structures. Here we propose a new population structure that is inspired by simple multicellular life forms. In our model, cells reproduce but can stay together after reproduction. They reach complexes of a certain size, n, before producing single cells again. The cells within a complex derive payoff from an evolutionary game by interacting with each other. The reproductive rate of cells is proportional to their payoff. We consider all two-strategy games. We study deterministic evolutionary dynamics with mutations, and derive exact conditions for selection to favor one strategy over another. Our main result has the same symmetry as the well-known sigma condition, which has been proven for stochastic game dynamics and weak selection. For a maximum complex size of n=2 our result holds for any intensity of selection. For n≥3 it holds for weak selection. As specific examples we study the prisoner's dilemma and hawk-dove games. Our model advances theoretical work on multicellularity by allowing for frequency-dependent interactions within groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bedtime procrastination: a self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; Adriaanse, Marieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; de Ridder, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2016-01-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having

  18. Examining the Characteristics of Digital Learning Games Designed by In-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Jo; Cao, Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand teachers' perspectives on the design and development of digital game-based learning environments, this study examined the characteristics of digital learning games designed by teachers. In addition, this study explored how game design and peer critique activities influenced their perceptions of digital game-based…

  19. Planning start-up: digital educational game solutions provider

    OpenAIRE

    Paschalis, Antreas; Ibironke, Fakinkunmi; Essa, Lubna; Alsatrawi, Ali Jawad

    2015-01-01

    Game-based learning is a growing field that provides education with a new perspective of teaching through games. Game based learning is still considered an emerging field due to problems that have been identified in its real applications in official education in classes. The research conducted shows a very attractive market ahead for game based learning around the world. However the businesses success in this domain lie in providing value proposition that addresses the real barriers faced tod...

  20. Computational Aspects of Cooperative Game Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiadakis, Georgios; Wooldridge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative game theory is a branch of (micro-)economics that studies the behavior of self-interested agents in strategic settings where binding agreements among agents are possible. Our aim in this book is to present a survey of work on the computational aspects of cooperative game theory. We begin by formally defining transferable utility games in characteristic function form, and introducing key solution concepts such as the core and the Shapley value. We then discuss two major issues that arise when considering such games from a computational perspective: identifying compact representation

  1. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  2. The Sociality of Gaming : A mixed methods approach to understanding digital gaming as a social leisure activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploration of the practice of social digital gaming, using a mixed methods approach with complementary data and analytical methods. The main themes are the prevalence and meaning of gamers’ experiences of social gaming and the underlying structures limiting or assisting social gaming, both material and social. Applying an everyday perspective, focus is on gamers’ day-to-day practices and experiences. Studies I and II enquire into relational aspects of social gaming ba...

  3. Experts' Perspectives Toward a Population Health Approach for Children With Medical Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S; Coller, Ryan J; Nelson, Bergen B; Thompson, Lindsey R; Chan, Vincent; Padilla, Cesar; Klitzner, Thomas S; Szilagyi, Moira; Chung, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Because children with medical complexity (CMC) display very different health trajectories, needs, and resource utilization than other children, it is unclear how well traditional conceptions of population health apply to CMC. We sought to identify key health outcome domains for CMC as a step toward determining core health metrics for this distinct population of children. We conducted and analyzed interviews with 23 diverse national experts on CMC to better understand population health for CMC. Interviewees included child and family advocates, health and social service providers, and research, health systems, and policy leaders. We performed thematic content analyses to identify emergent themes regarding population health for CMC. Overall, interviewees conveyed that defining and measuring population health for CMC is an achievable, worthwhile goal. Qualitative themes from interviews included: 1) CMC share unifying characteristics that could serve as the basis for population health outcomes; 2) optimal health for CMC is child specific and dynamic; 3) health of CMC is intertwined with health of families; 4) social determinants of health are especially important for CMC; and 5) measuring population health for CMC faces serious conceptual and logistical challenges. Experts have taken initial steps in defining the population health of CMC. Population health for CMC involves a dynamic concept of health that is attuned to individual, health-related goals for each child. We propose a framework that can guide the identification and development of population health metrics for CMC. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epistemic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2005-01-01

    In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to…

  5. Naming game with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network topology. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches a consensus state asymptotically. In this paper, we study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, where errors are represented by error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed....

  6. Dependence theory via game theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossi, D.; Turrini, P.

    2011-01-01

    In the multi-agent systems community, dependence theory and game theory are often presented as two alternative perspectives on the analysis of social interaction. Up till now no research has been done relating these two approaches. The unification presented provides dependence theory with the sort

  7. Evolutionary Game Theory and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on the article Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past by Van Vugt, Hogan, and Kaiser. This article offers a fresh perspective on leaders, followers, and their possible origins in nonhuman and primitive human behavior patterns. The connections between group coordination, leadership, and game theory have some…

  8. Game theory and plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNickle, Gordon G; Dybzinski, Ray

    2013-04-01

    The fixed and plastic traits possessed by a plant, which may be collectively thought of as its strategy, are commonly modelled as density-independent adaptations to its environment. However, plant strategies may also represent density- or frequency-dependent adaptations to the strategies used by neighbours. Game theory provides the tools to characterise such density- and frequency-dependent interactions. Here, we review the contributions of game theory to plant ecology. After briefly reviewing game theory from the perspective of plant ecology, we divide our review into three sections. First, game theoretical models of allocation to shoots and roots often predict investment in those organs beyond what would be optimal in the absence of competition. Second, game theoretical models of enemy defence suggest that an individual's investment in defence is not only a means of reducing its own tissue damage but also a means of deflecting enemies onto competitors. Finally, game theoretical models of trade with mutualistic partners suggest that the optimal trade may reflect competition for access to mutualistic partners among plants. In short, our review provides an accessible entrance to game theory that will help plant ecologists enrich their research with its worldview and existing predictions. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Core and Peripheral Criteria of Video Game Addiction in the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, St?le

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16?74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted...

  10. Stereoscopic game design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Joe; Holliman, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    We report on a new game design where the goal is to make the stereoscopic depth cue sufficiently critical to success that game play should become impossible without using a stereoscopic 3D (S3D) display and, at the same time, we investigate whether S3D game play is affected by screen size. Before we detail our new game design we review previously unreported results from our stereoscopic game research over the last ten years at the Durham Visualisation Laboratory. This demonstrates that game players can achieve significantly higher scores using S3D displays when depth judgements are an integral part of the game. Method: We design a game where almost all depth cues, apart from the binocular cue, are removed. The aim of the game is to steer a spaceship through a series of oncoming hoops where the viewpoint of the game player is from above, with the hoops moving right to left across the screen towards the spaceship, to play the game it is essential to make decisive depth judgments to steer the spaceship through each oncoming hoop. To confound these judgements we design altered depth cues, for example perspective is reduced as a cue by varying the hoop's depth, radius and cross-sectional size. Results: Players were screened for stereoscopic vision, given a short practice session, and then played the game in both 2D and S3D modes on a seventeen inch desktop display, on average participants achieved a more than three times higher score in S3D than they achieved in 2D. The same experiment was repeated using a four metre S3D projection screen and similar results were found. Conclusions: Our conclusion is that games that use the binocular depth cue in decisive game judgements can benefit significantly from using an S3D display. Based on both our current and previous results we additionally conclude that display size, from cell-phone, to desktop, to projection display does not adversely affect player performance.

  11. Evolutionary games under incompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnina, Maria; Filar, Jerzy A; Ejov, Vladimir; McKerral, Jody C

    2018-02-26

    The adaptation process of a species to a new environment is a significant area of study in biology. As part of natural selection, adaptation is a mutation process which improves survival skills and reproductive functions of species. Here, we investigate this process by combining the idea of incompetence with evolutionary game theory. In the sense of evolution, incompetence and training can be interpreted as a special learning process. With focus on the social side of the problem, we analyze the influence of incompetence on behavior of species. We introduce an incompetence parameter into a learning function in a single-population game and analyze its effect on the outcome of the replicator dynamics. Incompetence can change the outcome of the game and its dynamics, indicating its significance within what are inherently imperfect natural systems.

  12. Demographic perspectives on agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations': supply-side banalities versus redistributive imperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper frames the discussion of agrarian transformations and 'surplus populations' in the Global South within a political economy and macro-structural consideration of the developmental challenges faced in the context of contemporary rapid population growth. The case is made that the

  13. Impact of assisted reproductive technology on the incidence of multiple-gestation infants: a population perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Irma; Chambers, Georgina M.; van Loendersloot, Laura; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Gianotten, Judith; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Ledger, William; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the value of a population view in assessing assisted reproductive technology (ART) multiple-gestation infants. Descriptive comparison of ART treatment and population statistics in seven developed countries (United States [U.S.], South Korea, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia,

  14. THE POPULATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA: PAST, PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES (1900–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN PLĂIAŞ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the phenomena that drew attention to the Apuseni Mountains area, the population dynamics recorded over time has a prominent place. The present article carries out research regarding the evolution of this phenomenon over the last 110 years. The information the article relies upon was gathered from the censuses that were started in 1900 and continued in the years 1910, 1930, 1941, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 and 2011. The problem that requires attention nowadays concerning the population of the Apuseni Mountains is the constant and gradual population decline, which registered different intensities in all villages of the area included in the perimeter. The period we analyze witnessed different types of intervals: some of them were characterized by significant increases in population, others by relative stagnations and the last ones (since the 1966 census by a dramatic reduction in the number of inhabitants. The demographic decline which has taken place in the Apuseni Mountains area over the last 60 year has, among other consequences, that of modifying the age structure of the population in an unfavorable direction with regards to the population stability in the area on the medium and long term. The changes in the population structure have led, and will continue to do so, to acceleration in the demographic decline over time. As it stands, the prognosis for the year 2030 underlines an increasingly worrisome situation

  15. Are Statisticians Cold-Blooded Bosses? A New Perspective on the "Old" Concept of Statistical Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonggang; Henning, Kevin S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spurred by recent writings regarding statistical pragmatism, we propose a simple, practical approach to introducing students to a new style of statistical thinking that models nature through the lens of data-generating processes, not populations. (Contains 5 figures.)

  16. An Overview of Structural Characteristics in Problematic Video Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D; Nuyens, Filip

    2017-01-01

    There are many different factors involved in how and why people develop problems with video game playing. One such set of factors concerns the structural characteristics of video games (i.e., the structure, elements, and components of the video games themselves). Much of the research examining the structural characteristics of video games was initially based on research and theorizing from the gambling studies field. The present review briefly overviews the key papers in the field to date. The paper examines a number of areas including (i) similarities in structural characteristics of gambling and video gaming, (ii) structural characteristics in video games, (iii) narrative and flow in video games, (iv) structural characteristic taxonomies for video games, and (v) video game structural characteristics and game design ethics. Many of the studies carried out to date are small-scale, and comprise self-selected convenience samples (typically using self-report surveys or non-ecologically valid laboratory experiments). Based on the small amount of empirical data, it appears that structural features that take a long time to achieve in-game are the ones most associated with problematic video game play (e.g., earning experience points, managing in-game resources, mastering the video game, getting 100% in-game). The study of video games from a structural characteristic perspective is of benefit to many different stakeholders including academic researchers, video game players, and video game designers, as well as those interested in prevention and policymaking by making the games more socially responsible. It is important that researchers understand and recognize the psycho-social effects and impacts that the structural characteristics of video games can have on players, both positive and negative.

  17. Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune K.L.; Aarseth, Espen; Poulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we outline the proposed PhD project: "Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis". The project aims to bridge gaps between the perspectives, theories and data of current research trajectories that engage with the concept of game addiction; from psychology, psychiatry......, cognitive neuroscience to media and game studies. The project has several proposed outcomes. Based on a review of the literature, the adequacy of 'game addiction' as a concept is questioned. The concept is further discussed in a historical perspective of game related pathologies and media/moral panics....... The validity of the prevalent instruments used to assess the prevalence of computer game addiction is examined in a cross-disciplinary context. The argument of the project is that research on computer game addiction is limited by mono-disciplinary approaches that fail to capture significant nuances at the cost...

  18. Systematizing game learning analytics for serious games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Fernandez, Cristina; Calvo Morata, Antonio; Freire, Manuel; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Applying games in education provides multiple benefits clearly visible in entertainment games: their engaging, goal-oriented nature encourages students to improve while they play. Educational games, also known as Serious Games (SGs) are video games designed with a main purpose other than

  19. Industrial Partnership Prosperity Game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyak, K.; Berman, M.; Beck, D.

    1998-02-01

    Prosperity Games TM are an outgrowth and adaptation move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games TM are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education, and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games TM are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Industry Partnership Prosperity Game sponsored by the Technology Partnerships and Commercialization Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Players came from the Sandia line organizations, the Sandia business development and technology partnerships organizations, the US Department of Energy, academia, and industry The primary objectives of this game were to: explore ways to increase industry partnerships to meet long-term Sandia goals; improve Sandia business development and marketing strategies and tactics; improve the process by which Sandia develops long-term strategic alliances. The game actions and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to what Sandia can do to meet these objectives.

  20. Population growth and economic development: two new U.S. perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D; Klitsch, M

    1986-01-01

    This report compares the research paths of economic development reports by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the American Assembly of Columbia University. The NAS group, made up principally of economists and demographers, refrained from recommending population reduction targets, in contrast to the stronger terms of its 1971 report. A 1965 report by the Assembly spoke of population as a serious negative influence for economic development, political stability, and world peace, while the new report speaks of negative socioeconomic effects, and of the limiting of a person's right to control family size. The NAS agenda was established before the US delegation to the UN population conference in Mexico City retreated from declaring population growth to be a necessarily negative influencer of socioeconomic progress. The Assembly took the position that possible benefits of population growth would be far outweighed by factors such as resource depletion and women's health. The NAS maintained that growth might provide incentives for institutional adjustments (market development, investment in education) and control of growth should not be considered a substitute for such interventions. Both reports agree that control of fertility is a human right, but the NAS report examined the question of the acceptable degree of compulsion to be used to encourage couples. The Assembly objected to limiting access to family planning by defunding abortion programs oversease. Differences exist between the 2 reports in questins such as the negative impact of 1950's population growth, the synergistic effect of growth on many areas of human activity, the extent to which welfare of future generations is considered relevant today, and the adequacy of pure economic analysis in assessing need. Much study of population/development linkages is still required.

  1. Natural games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-10-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem.

  2. Teachers' Beliefs about the Impact of Games on the Academic and Social Experiences of Diverse and At-Risk Children in Schools: A Deleuzian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Leonie

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' beliefs about the ways in which the use of digital games in schooling contexts impacted upon students who they believed to be in some way at risk of educational or social alienation or failure. Drawing upon the theoretical resources provided by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, the paper explores opportunities…

  3. Focusing on Presentation Instead of Representation: Perspectives on Representational and Non-Representational Language-Games for Educational History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Lynn; Smeyers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. This article addresses non-representational theory. It is a branch of newer approaches to cultural geography that strive to get a handle on spatial relationships not by representing them, but rather by presenting them. In this case, present connotes…

  4. Bet-hedging in bacteriocin producing Escherichia coli populations: the single cell perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Bihter; Toubiana, David; van Vliet, Simon; Inglis, R. Fredrik; Shnerb, Nadav; Gillor, Osnat

    2017-02-01

    Production of public goods in biological systems is often a collaborative effort that may be detrimental to the producers. It is therefore sustainable only if a small fraction of the population shoulders the cost while the majority reap the benefits. We modelled this scenario using Escherichia coli populations producing colicins, an antibiotic that kills producer cells’ close relatives. Colicin expression is a costly trait, and it has been proposed that only a small fraction of the population actively expresses the antibiotic. Colicinogenic populations were followed at the single-cell level using time-lapse microscopy, and showed two distinct, albeit dynamic, subpopulations: the majority silenced colicin expression, while a small fraction of elongated, slow-growing cells formed colicin-expressing hotspots, placing a significant burden on expressers. Moreover, monitoring lineages of individual colicinogenic cells showed stochastic switching between expressers and non-expressers. Hence, colicin expressers may be engaged in risk-reducing strategies—or bet-hedging—as they balance the cost of colicin production with the need to repel competitors. To test the bet-hedging strategy in colicin-mediated interactions, competitions between colicin-sensitive and producer cells were simulated using a numerical model, demonstrating a finely balanced expression range that is essential to sustaining the colicinogenic population.

  5. Golden Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is not expected to sweep the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games the way it dominated the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.However,it has made Chinese Olympic history after winning three gold medals when the Games passed the halfway point of scheduled competition on February 20.On that day,18-year-old Zhou Yang overcame three South Korean rivals to win the women's short-track speed skating 1,500-meter final.

  6. Playing Games with Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. Following the example of timed simulation between timed automata, we define timed alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata......, which preserves controllability. We define a method to reduce the timed alternating simulation problem to a safety game. We show how timed alternating simulation can be used to control efficiently a partially observable system. This method is illustrated by a generic case study....

  7. Thermodynamic perspectives on genetic instructions, the laws of biology, diseased states and human population control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saier, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines in a broad perspective entropy and some examples of its relationship to evolution, genetic instructions and how we view diseases. Many knowledge gaps abound, hence our understanding is still fragmented and incomplete. Living organisms are programmed by functional genetic instructions (FGI), through cellular communication pathways, to grow and reproduce by maintaining a variety of hemistable, ordered structures (low entropy). Living organisms are far from equilibrium with their surrounding environmental systems, which tends towards increasing disorder (increasing entropy). Organisms must free themselves from high entropy (high disorder) to maintain their cellular structures for a period of time sufficient enough to allow reproduction and the resultant offspring to reach reproductive ages. This time interval varies for different species. Bacteria, for example need no sexual parents; dividing cells are nearly identical to the previous generation of cells, and can begin a new cell cycle without delay under appropriate conditions. By contrast, human infants require years of care before they can reproduce. Living organisms maintain order in spite of their changing surrounding environment, that decreases order according to the second law of thermodynamics. These events actually work together since living organisms create ordered biological structures by increasing local entropy. From a disease perspective, viruses and other disease agents interrupt the normal functioning of cells. The pressure for survival may result in mechanisms that allow organisms to resist attacks by viruses, other pathogens, destructive chemicals and physical agents such as radiation. However, when the attack is successful, the organism can be damaged until the cell, tissue, organ or entire organism is no longer functional and entropy increases. PMID:21262480

  8. Natural games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anttila, Jani; Annila, Arto

    2011-01-01

    A course of a game is formulated as a physical process that will consume free energy in the least time. Accordingly, the rate of entropy increase is the payoff function that will subsume all forms of free energy that motivate diverse decisions. Also other concepts of game theory are related to their profound physical counterparts. When the physical portrayal of behavior is mathematically analyzed, the course of a game is found to be inherently unpredictable because each move affects motives in the future. Despite the non-holonomic character of the natural process, the objective of consuming free energy in the least time will direct an extensive-form game toward a Lyapunov-stable point that satisfies the minimax theorem. -- Highlights: → Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process. → The rate of entropy increase, derived from statistical physics of open systems, is identified as the payoff function. → Entropy as the payoff function also clarifies motives of collaboration and subjective nature of decision making. → Evolutionary equation of motion that accounts for the course of a game is inherently unpredictable.

  9. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu; Shamma, Jeff S.; Martins, Nuno C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  10. Passivity and Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Shinkyu

    2018-03-21

    This paper investigates an energy conservation and dissipation -- passivity -- aspect of dynamic models in evolutionary game theory. We define a notion of passivity using the state-space representation of the models, and we devise systematic methods to examine passivity and to identify properties of passive dynamic models. Based on the methods, we describe how passivity is connected to stability in population games and illustrate stability of passive dynamic models using numerical simulations.

  11. Game development tool essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.

  12. Pengaruh Kecanduan Game Online terhadap Perilaku Remaja di Mabes Game Center Jalan Hr.subrantas Kecamatan Tampan Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Ulfa, Mimi; ", Risdayati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of online games on the behavior of students at Police Game Center Street Subrantas Handsome District of Pekanbaru, and the response of parents to the child's behavior. The method used in this research is quantitative descriptive, where the population is taken that students who love to play games online games center at headquarters. To determine the population of researchers using accidental sampling and deployment techniques kesioner with ...

  13. Problematic computer game use as expression of Internet addiction and its association with self-rated health in the Lithuanian adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinavičienė, Ruta; Škėmienė, Lina; Lukšienė, Dalia; Radišauskas, Ričardas; Kalinienė, Gintarė; Vasilavičius, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Computers and the Internet have become an integral part of today's life. Problematic gaming is related to adolescent's health. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of Internet addiction among 13-18-year-old schoolchildren and its relation to sex, age, and time spent playing computer games, game type, and subjective health evaluation. A total of 1806 schoolchildren aged 13-18 years were interviewed. The evaluation of Internet addiction was conducted by the Diagnostic Questionnaire according to Young's methodology. The relation between the choice of computer games type, time spent while playing computer games and respondents' Internet addiction were assessed by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. One-tenth (10.6%) of the boys and 7.7% of the girls aged 13-18 years were Internet addicted. Internet addiction was associated with the type of computer game (action or combat vs. logic) among boys (OR=2.42; 95% CI, 1.03-5.67) and with the amount of time spent playing computer games per day during the last month (≥5 vs. <5h) among girls (OR=2.10; 95% CI, 1.19-3.70). The boys who were addicted to the Internet were more likely to rate their health poorer in comparison to their peers who were not addicted to the Internet (OR=2.48; 95% CI, 1.33-4.62). Internet addiction was significantly associated with poorer self-rated health among boys. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Some Thoughts on Mexican Poverty Viewed from the Perspective of the World Population Plan of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serron, Luis A.

    The paper summarizes findings of a study of Mexican poverty (SO 010 522), and relates these findings to guidelines of the World Population Plan of Action. The study indicated that poverty in Mexico is based upon national and international economic, political, and social factors. Included among these factors are exploitation of labor, rapid…

  15. Cambodian Inclusive Education for Vulnerable Populations: Toward an Ecological Perspective Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Jacob D.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; West, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Sharan E.

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia is a dynamic country in transition and its population is committed to improve an economic, social, and educational system (Chandler, 2008). An imperial legacy and traumatic history involving a genocide specifically targeted at Cambodian intellectual elite continue to affect Cambodian schools with the most impact being felt by vulnerable…

  16. Game mechanics engine

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Lars V

    2011-01-01

    Game logic and game rules exists in all computer games, but they are created di erently for all game engines. This game engine dependency exists because of how the internal object model is implemented in the engine, as a place where game logic data is intermingled with the data needed by the low- level subsystems. This thesis propose a game object model design, based on existing theory, that removes this dependency and establish a general game logic framework. The thesis the...

  17. Genetic perspective of uniparental mitochondrial DNA landscape on the Punjabi population, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Shahzad; Abbas, Sana; Aslamkhan, Muhammad; Attimonelli, Marcella; Trinidad, Magali Segundo; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; de Souza, Erica Martinha Silva; Gonzalez, Gerardo Rodriguez

    2017-07-26

    To investigate the uniparental genetic structure of the Punjabi population from mtDNA aspect and to set up an appropriate mtDNA forensic database, we studied maternally unrelated Punjabi (N = 100) subjects from two caste groups (i.e. Arain and Gujar) belonging to territory of Punjab. The complete control region was elucidated by Sanger sequencing and the subsequent 58 different haplotypes were designated into appropriate haplogroups according to the most recently updated mtDNA phylogeny. We found a homogenous dispersal of Eurasian haplogroup uniformity among the Punjab Province and exhibited a strong connotation with the European populations. Punjabi castes are primarily a composite of substantial South Asian, East Asian and West Eurasian lineages. Moreover, for the first time we have defined the newly sub-haplogroup M52b1 characterized by 16223 T, 16275 G and 16438 A in Gujar caste. The vast array of mtDNA variants displayed in this study suggested that the haplogroup composition radiates signals of extensive genetic conglomeration, population admixture and demographic expansion that was equipped with diverse origin, whereas matrilineal gene pool was phylogeographically homogenous across the Punjab. This context was further fully acquainted with the facts supported by PCA scatterplot that Punjabi population clustered with South Asian populations. Finally, the high power of discrimination (0.8819) and low random match probability (0.0085%) proposed a worthy contribution of mtDNA control region dataset as a forensic database that considered a gold standard of today to get deeper insight into the genetic ancestry of contemporary matrilineal phylogeny.

  18. Gaming for Safer Sex: Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people

  19. Population dynamics of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Spruce Creek Pennsylvania: A quarter-century perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gary D.; Carline, Robert F.; Wagner, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between density-independent and density-dependent factors on the demography of a dense, relatively unexploited population of brown trout in Spruce Creek Pennsylvania between 1985 and 2011.Individual PCAs of flow and temperature data elucidated groups of years with multiple high flow versus multiple low flow characteristics and high versus low temperature years, although subtler patterns of variation also were observed.Density and biomass displayed similar temporal patterns, ranging from 710 to 1,803 trout/ha and 76–263 kg/ha. We detected a significantly negative linear stock-recruitment relationship (R2 = .39) and there was no evidence that flow or water temperature affected recruitment.Both annual survival and the per-capita rate of increase (r) for the population varied over the study, and density-dependent mechanisms possessed the greatest explanatory power for annual survival data. Temporal trends in population r suggested it displayed a bounded equilibrium with increases observed in 12 years and decreases detected in 13 years.Model selection analysis of per-capita rate of increase data for age 1, and adults (N = eight interpretable models) indicated that both density-dependent (five of eight) and negative density-independent processes (five of eight, i.e. high flows or temperatures), affected r. Recruitment limitation also was identified in three of eight models. Variation in the per-capita rate of increase for the population was most strongly affected by positive density independence in the form of increasing spring–summer temperatures and recruitment limitation.Model selection analyses describing annual variation in both mean length and mass data yielded similar results, although maximum wi values were low ranging from 0.09 to 0.23 (length) and 0.13 to 0.22 (mass). Density-dependence was included in 15 of 15 interpretable models for length and all ten interpretable models for mass. Similarly, positive density

  20. Helicobacter pylori Infection in the general population: A Middle Eastern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedmat, Hossein; Karbasi-Afshar, Reza; Agah, Shahram; Taheri, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection is probably the most important factor that has been associated with the development of gastric cancers in human populations. However, there are no reliable data on the prevalence of this infection in the Middle East. In this article, based on a comprehensive literature review, we aimed to evaluate the situation in this region. The literature has been searched for the incidence and prevalence of H.pylori infection by Pubmed and Google Scholar. Search was repeated for each of the Middle Eastern countries, and to empower the method, citations of each found article were searched for the related studies. Seventy seven reports from the countries of the Middle East region had been reviewed and they all indicated a high rate of infection either in the general population or in the dyspeptic patients, the rate seemed to be higher in patients with dyspepsia, in patients with histologically confirmed gastritis and in patients of older age groups.

  1. Population-based imaging and radiomics. Rational and perspective of the German National Cohort MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlett, C.L.; Weckbach, S.; Hendel, T.

    2016-01-01

    The MRI study within the German National Cohort, a large-scale, population-based, longitudinal study in Germany, comprises comprehensive characterization and phenotyping of a total of 30 000 participants using 3-Tesla whole-body MR imaging. A multi-centric study design was established together with dedicated core facilities for e.g. managing incidental findings or providing quality assurance. As such, the study represents a unique opportunity to substantially impact imaging-based risk stratification leading to personalized and precision medicine. Supported by the developments in the field of computational science, the newly developing scientific field of radiomics has large potential for the future. In the present article we provide an overview on population-based imaging and Radiomics and conceptualize the rationale and design of the MRI study within the German National Cohort.

  2. Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehdonvirta, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling virtual goods for real money is an increasingly popular revenue model for massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs, social networking sites (SNSs and other online hangouts. In this paper, we argue that the marketing of virtual goods currently falls short of what it could be. Game developers have long created compelling game designs, but having to market virtual goods to players is a relatively new situation to them. Professional marketers, on the other hand, tend to overlook the internal design of games and hangouts and focus on marketing the services as a whole. To begin bridging the gap, we propose that the design patterns and game mechanics commonly used in games and online hangouts should be viewed as a set of marketing techniques designed to sell virtual goods. Based on a review of a number of MMOs, we describe some of the most common patterns and game mechanics and show how their effects can be explained in terms of analogous techniques from marketing science. The results provide a new perspective to game design with interesting implications to developers. Moreover, they also suggest a radically new perspective to marketers of ordinary goods and services: viewing marketing as a form of game design.

  3. Virtual Reality Rehabilitation from Social Cognitive and Motor Learning Theoretical Perspectives in Stroke Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Imam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT and Motor Learning (MLT theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading. Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P<0.05. Ten VR interventions followed the principle of performance accomplishment. All the eleven VR interventions directed subject’s attention externally, whereas nine provided training in an unpredictable and variable fashion. Conclusions. The results of this review suggest that VR applications used for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population predominantly mediate learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  4. Gamers on Games and Gaming : Implications for Educational Game Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staalduinen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a steadily increasing interest in the use of games for educational purposes. This has led to an increased design, use and study of educational games; games where the players learn through playing. However, experiments with the educational use of games have not

  5. Serious Games for Health: Spielend lernen und heilen mit Computerspielen? / Serious Games for Health: Learning and healing with video games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sostmann, Kai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious Games (SG are a new medium in the context of e-learning. Serious Games use the multimedial advantages of computer and video games to fulfil the didactic requirements to teach target groups in classical and new learning scenarios. Serious Games for Health (SGH can be applied in the domains of medical therapy, continuing medical education and in the fields of prevention and health promotion. From a didactic and instructional psychology perspective the impact of Serious Games is based on their integration into motivational and multimedia aspects of computer and video games from different genres in learning scenarios. Serious Games in the domain of therapy can be a meaningful endorsement to existing therapies for both patients and relatives to improve the therapeutic outcome and to foster the compliance of patients. In the field of continually medical education studies show the positive impact of Serious Games on learning outcomes. Serious Games in prevention and health promotion are mostly applied in the framework of public communication campaigns.

  6. The Evaluation of CEIT Teacher Candidates in Terms of Computer Games, Educational Use of Computer Games and Game Design Qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı BAĞCI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer games have an important usage potential in the education of today’s digital student profile. Also computer teachers known as technology leaders in schools are the main stakeholders of this potential. In this study, opinions of the computer teachers about computer games are examined from different perspectives. 119 computer teacher candidates participated in this study, and the data were collected by a questionnaire. As a result of this study, computer teacher candidates have a positive thinking about the usage of computer games in education and they see themselves qualified for the analysis and design of educational games. But they partially have negative attitudes about some risks like addiction and lose of time. Also the candidates who attended the educational game courses and play games from their mobile phones have more positive opinions, and they see themselves more qualified than others. Males have more positive opinions about computer games than females, but in terms of educational games and the analysis and design of the computer games, there is no significant difference between males and females.

  7. Microscopic activity patterns in the naming game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The models of statistical physics used to study collective phenomena in some interdisciplinary contexts, such as social dynamics and opinion spreading, do not consider the effects of the memory on individual decision processes. In contrast, in the naming game, a recently proposed model of language formation, each agent chooses a particular state, or opinion, by means of a memory-based negotiation process, during which a variable number of states is collected and kept in memory. In this perspective, the statistical features of the number of states collected by the agents become a relevant quantity to understand the dynamics of the model, and the influence of topological properties on memory-based models. By means of a master equation approach, we analyse the internal agent dynamics of the naming game in populations embedded on networks, finding that it strongly depends on very general topological properties of the system (e.g. average and fluctuations of the degree). However, the influence of topological properties on the microscopic individual dynamics is a general phenomenon that should characterize all those social interactions that can be modelled by memory-based negotiation processes

  8. Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chory, Rebecca M; Goodboy, Alan K

    2011-04-01

    Based on the uses and gratifications perspective, personality was expected to relate to violent video game play frequency and game preferences. Participants completed measures of personality and frequency of violent video game play, and identified their most frequently played video games. Results indicate that individuals higher in openness but lower in agreeableness played violent video games more frequently. In addition, more open and extroverted but less agreeable and neurotic individuals generally preferred to play video games that are more violent. Results suggest personality may be more predictive of violent video game use than traditional media use, though the predictive personality dimensions may be consistent across media types.

  9. Situational and gender comparisons of digital game players' preferences for game features and gratifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.; Dervin, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    As with “new media” fifty years ago, today's “new media” are scrutinized from the uses and gratifications perspective to understand peoples’ reasons for engaging with them. The new media of interest in this paper are digital games.  Research is in the early stages with this medium, exploring player...... gratifications from game playing and preferences for game playing features.  This research has consistently found gender differences for both, with men more preferring competition gratifications and violent games, and women preferring socializing gratifications and puzzles.  Past research has mostly looked...... preferences.  In addition, 64,3% of the gender by situation interactions were also significant, showing that introducing game playing situation complicated the picture with some gender differences disappearing depending on the game situation.  These results showed a tendency for male players to be receiving...

  10. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  11. Collaborative virtual gaming worlds in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Whitton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of virtual gaming worlds in education, supported by the increased use of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs for collaborative learning. However, this paper argues that collaborative gaming worlds have been in use much longer and are much wider in scope; it considers the range of collaborative gaming worlds that exist and discusses their potential for learning, with particular reference to higher education. The paper discusses virtual gaming worlds from a theoretical pedagogic perspective, exploring the educational benefits of gaming environments. Then practical considerations associated with the use of virtual gaming worlds in formal settings in higher education are considered. Finally, the paper considers development options that are open to educators, and discusses the potential of Alternate Reality Games (ARGs for learning in higher education. In all, this paper hopes to provide a balanced overview of the range of virtual gaming worlds that exist, to examine some of the practical considerations associated with their use, and to consider their benefits and challenges in learning and teaching in the higher education context.

  12. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  13. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  14. Virtual reality rehabilitation from social cognitive and motor learning theoretical perspectives in stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Jarus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR) interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT) and Motor Learning (MLT) theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion) and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading). Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  15. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    Serious Games er et nyt it-forretningsområde, der siden årtusindskiftet er vokset frem, først i USA og dernæst i Vesteuropa og and i-lande. Til forskel fra computerspil er serious games ikke underholdning, men tænkt som et værktøj til støtte for statens og erhvervslivets forskellige funktioner. Det...... amerikanske militær har været fødselshjælper for den nye teknologi. Herfra har serious games bredt sig til andre sektorer og og i-lande, inkl. Danmark. Bogen skildrer, hvordan det nye forretningsområde er i færd med at blive udkrystalliseret af en række beslægtede industrigrene, og hvordan udviklingen er...

  16. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    There has recently been considerable attention paid to the gamification of digital journalism. Where the current technological and social affordances of web 2.0 storytelling have proved less attractive to younger users, the persuasive features of game logics have added new dimensions to interactive......, participatory journalism. This notion refers to realitybased news games that can act both as an independent medium for news content and as a supplement to traditional forms of coverage. Simultaneously, persuasive logics of gamification offer new ways to engage actuality through media space’s augmented reality....... This paper1 explores the new spatio-epistemological realities of two journalistic games, asking how the spatial, operational, and procedural realities of storytelling change through ‘gamification’. It reflects on the spatial dimension of digital journalism in order to challenge the traditional, generic...

  17. Extending the experiences of learning games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses the question on whether learning games should be thought as realistic, content-rich and fun, based on the disadvantages that these follows these understandings, as well as addressing the advantages of their alternatives. From a discourse analytical perspective......, the opportunities held by other appraoches to 'participatory incentives, understanding of the learning process, and finally the quality of the experience offered by the game-based learning setting....

  18. Video gaming and gaming addiction in transgender people: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Jones, Bethany Alice; Richards, Christina; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    Background There is anecdotal clinical evidence that transgender people use the online world - such as forums and online video gaming - for the purpose of experiencing their gender identity in a safe, non-threatening, non-alienating, non-stigmatizing, and non-critical environment. Aims To describe gaming behavior, degree of problematic gaming behavior and associated factors with problematic gaming in a comparatively large group of transgender people accessing transgender health services. Methods Every individual referred to a national transgender health service in the United Kingdom during a 12-month period was invited to complete a series of questionnaires to measure gaming behavior, interpersonal functioning, severity of autistic features, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results A total of 245 people agreed to participate in the study with 154 (62.9%) describing themselves as current gamers. Gaming behavior in the transgender population attending transgender health services was prevalent, but less than 1% of them presented with clinical scores for Internet Gaming Disorder, with no differences according to gender. Problematic gaming behavior was associated with general interpersonal problems, depression, and young age. Discussion and conclusions Transgender people who engage in problematic gaming behavior are younger, and present with high interpersonal problems, and depression, which can affect a successful transition. In view of the high levels of gaming activity in this population games that are designed to address these psychological problems may be well received by transgender people.

  19. Who Uses the Internet as a Source of Nutrition and Dietary Information? An Australian Population Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Pulker, Claire Elizabeth; Meng, Xingqiong; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Scott, Jane Anne

    2015-08-26

    The Internet contains a plethora of nutrition information. Health organizations are increasingly using the Internet to deliver population-wide health information and interventions. Effective interventions identify their target population and their needs; however, little is known about use of the Internet as a source of nutrition information. The aim was to assess the change in prevalence and demographic characteristics of Western Australian adults accessing the Internet as a source of nutrition information and identify specific information needs. Data were pooled from the Western Australian Department of Health's 3-yearly Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone survey between 1995 and 2012 of 7044 participants aged 18 to 64 years. Outcome variables were the main sources of nutrition information used in the last year and yes/no responses to 4 suggestions to what would make it easier to eat a healthy diet. Sociodemographic variables were collected. The proportion of respondents using the Internet for nutrition information increased from Internet for this information increased significantly in 2009 (OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.07-3.88) and 2012 (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.86-7.02, PInternet as a source were more likely to be female (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P=.02), live in a metropolitan area (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P=.03), born in countries other than Australia/UK/Ireland (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85, P=.02), more educated (university: OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.77-3.42, PInternet for nutrition information were more likely than nonusers to want to know quicker ways to prepare healthy foods (83.0% vs 78.1%, P=.005) and information on choosing healthy foods (76.3% vs 67.3%, PUse of the Internet as a main source of nutrition information has grown rapidly since 2004; one-third of Western Australian adults reported using the Internet for this purpose in 2012. Information on preparing healthy foods (ideas, quicker ways), choosing ingredients, and knowing more about cooking would make it

  20. Who Uses the Internet as a Source of Nutrition and Dietary Information? An Australian Population Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet contains a plethora of nutrition information. Health organizations are increasingly using the Internet to deliver population-wide health information and interventions. Effective interventions identify their target population and their needs; however, little is known about use of the Internet as a source of nutrition information. Objective The aim was to assess the change in prevalence and demographic characteristics of Western Australian adults accessing the Internet as a source of nutrition information and identify specific information needs. Methods Data were pooled from the Western Australian Department of Health’s 3-yearly Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone survey between 1995 and 2012 of 7044 participants aged 18 to 64 years. Outcome variables were the main sources of nutrition information used in the last year and yes/no responses to 4 suggestions to what would make it easier to eat a healthy diet. Sociodemographic variables were collected. Results The proportion of respondents using the Internet for nutrition information increased from Internet for this information increased significantly in 2009 (OR 2.84, 95% CI 2.07-3.88) and 2012 (OR 5.20, 95% CI 3.86-7.02, PInternet as a source were more likely to be female (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P=.02), live in a metropolitan area (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P=.03), born in countries other than Australia/UK/Ireland (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85, P=.02), more educated (university: OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.77-3.42, PInternet for nutrition information were more likely than nonusers to want to know quicker ways to prepare healthy foods (83.0% vs 78.1%, P=.005) and information on choosing healthy foods (76.3% vs 67.3%, PInternet as a main source of nutrition information has grown rapidly since 2004; one-third of Western Australian adults reported using the Internet for this purpose in 2012. Information on preparing healthy foods (ideas, quicker ways), choosing ingredients, and knowing more

  1. Prosperity Game: Advanced Manufacturing Day, May 17, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.

    1994-12-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents a 90-minute Prosperity Game conducted as part of Advanced Manufacturing Day on May 17, 1994. This was the fourth game conducted under the direction of the Center for National Industrial Alliances at Sandia. Although previous games lasted from one to two days, this abbreviated game produced interesting and important results. Most of the strategies proposed in previous games were reiterated here. These included policy changes in international trade, tax laws, the legal system, and the educational system. Government support of new technologies was encouraged as well as government-industry partnerships. The importance of language in international trade was an original contribution of this game. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  2. [Population-based breast cancer screening: certainties, controversies, and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesteguía Ciriza, Luis; Pina Insausti, Luis Javier

    2014-01-01

    Population-based breast cancer screening programs based on mammography must maintain a high level of quality, so the results must be constantly monitored. Although most authors consider that these programs have decreased the mortality due to breast cancer by about 30%, others claim that the mortality has decreased by only about 12% due to errors in the randomization of patients, because the rate of advanced tumors has hardly decreased and because adjuvant treatment also improves survival. Other criticisms focus on overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We believe that despite the unquestionable value of mammographic screening, we should be open to certain changes such as the stratification of patients by their level of risk and the introduction of complementary techniques like tomosynthesis, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging in selected cases. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Achieving glycemic control in special populations in hospital: perspectives in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice Y Y

    2014-04-01

    Achieving and maintaining glycemic control in patients with diabetes admitted to hospital is challenging because of the many competing factors of nutrition, pharmacotherapy and other patient-related and systemic factors. For patients receiving enteral or parenteral feeding, eating irregularly or receiving glucocorticoid therapy, the challenges are even greater. The basic principles to follow when managing glycemia in these populations are as follows: 1) Recognition of those at risk for hyperglycemia; 2) frequent bedside glucose monitoring; 3) a proactive approach with routine insulin administration based on the predicted glucose patterns; 4) constant reassessment of the glycemic status and titration of the routine insulin accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Vitamin D Insufficiency in a Hospital Population: A Photograph from the Laboratory Perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Joana; Fernandes, Vera; Garcia, Fernando Mota

    2015-01-01

    Although vitamin D deficiency is increasingly recognized around the world, there are few studies on the Portuguese reality. This study aims to analyse vitamin D levels in the assays performed in our hospital and their relationship with age, genre, requesting specialty and moment of sample collection. Cross-sectional study of measurements of 25(HO)D performed in our Hospital between June 2012 and November 2014. Included variables: gender, age, requesting specialty, month of sample collection. Vitamin D status classified as: 'Deficiency' (≤ 20 ng/mL), 'Insufficiency' (21 - 29 ng/ml) and 'Sufficiency' (≥ 30 ng/mL). We included 5 439 assays; 55.0% from women; the median age was 64.0 years. Sixty per cent had 'Deficiency', 20.7% 'Insufficiency' and 18.9% 'Sufficiency'. We found a negative correlation between age and vitamin D level (p vitamin D levels between genres. Nine specialties requested 98% of the assays, namely Nephrology (56.2%). We found differences between specialties based on age and vitamin D level (p Vitamin D levels changed throughout the year, with higher levels in the summer, followed by autumn, spring and winter (p vitamin D sufficiency was only present in a minority of assays (27.8% in summer and 9.2% in winter). Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in this population, affects individuals of all ages and is not offset by the seasonal variation of sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency is a real and prevalent problem in our population that needs further attention and action, given its clinical implications.

  5. 21 century perspective in radiation protection of humans and human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 21 century ionizing radiation is applied in all field of human activities. In parallel, the radiobiology and radiation medicine are developing as separate branches for the purposes of the radiation protection: for risk estimation and regulation of the human irradiation. Main features of radiation protection at the beginning of the century are: 1.Well developed conservative theoretical background, based on the linear non-threshold concept 'dose-effect' towards the carcinogenesis and genetic effects; 2. Developed international and national structures, including organizations as ICRP, UNSCEAR, ICRU, IAEA, WHO, FAO, BEIR, OECD/NEA, ILO, NCRP, NRPB etc. 3. Detailed regulative legislation for all cases of human irradiation, combines with effective control structures. Ionizing radiation is the most strictly regulated factor affecting humans among the all adverse impacts of the living environment. The expectations for the radiation protection in 21 century are: 1. A radical reassessment of the concept for low doses and the linear non-threshold concept since data for existing of a threshold on the human population level. 2. Taking into consideration of the the adaptation to the irradiation, comparable with the natural radiation background. 3. Taking into consideration of the radiation hormesis, which are now ignored by the risk theory. 4. Clarification of the questions of the genetic effects, which are not yet determined for the human population. 5. Radical solutions of the radioactive waste problem, which will be crucial for the future of the nuclear energy production. 6. Gradual overcoming of the fear from ionizing radiation, which is an important social factor

  6. How Does Neighborhood Quality Moderate the Association Between Online Video Game Play and Depression? A Population-Level Analysis of Korean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of our study is to assess the relationship between playing online video games and mental wellbeing of adolescents based on a nationally representative sample. Data come from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), a government-funded multiyear research project. Through a secondary analysis of W2 and W3 of data collected in 2011 and 2012, we examine the extent to which time spent playing online games is related to depression, as measured by a battery of items modeled after the abridged version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R). For proper temporal ordering, the outcome variable is drawn from the latter wave (W3), whereas all time-lagged covariates are taken from the earlier wave (W2). Multilevel regression models show that more game playing is associated with greater depression. Findings also indicate that, net of individual-level variables (e.g., gender, health, family background), living in a community with more divorced families adds to adolescent depression. Finally, a cross-level interaction is observed: the positive association between game playing and depression is more pronounced in an area characterized by a lower aggregate divorce rate.

  7. An Inclusive Framework for Developing Video Games for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaquim, Moyen; Nyström, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Games are a type of vehicle with which society is changing at present-day. But how the games themselves will be changed by society, is an interesting question to ask for enhancing and initiating better design of games. As participation in gaming upsurges around the world and across a larger part of the population, it is obvious that games are not only an entertainment medium for children or young people anymore. Games can be used to accomplish different purposes for different groups of people...

  8. Game-like Technology Innovation Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2011-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to discuss the first results and methodological challenges and perspectives of designing game-inspired scenarios for implementation of innovation processes into schools' science education. This paper comprises and report on a case study of a game-inspired innovation...... scenario designed for technology education in grades 7 - 9 in Danish schools. In the paper, methodological challenges of doing design-based research into technology innovation education are discussed. The preliminary results from the first studies of a game-inspired technology innovation camp are also...... presented, along with discussions of the future of development of these educational spaces....

  9. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  10. Static and evolutionary quantum public goods games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Zeyang; Qin Gan; Hu Lingzhi; Li Songjian; Xu Nanyang [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)], E-mail: djf@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-05-12

    We apply the continuous-variable quantization scheme to quantize public goods game and find that new pure strategy Nash equilibria emerge in the static case. Furthermore, in the evolutionary public goods game, entanglement can also contribute to the persistence of cooperation under various population structures without altruism, voluntary participation, and punishment.

  11. Essays on nonlinear evolutionary game dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochea, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has been viewed as an evolutionary repair of rational actor game theory in the hope that a population of boundedly rational players may attain convergence to classic rational solutions, such as the Nash Equilibrium, via some learning or evolutionary process. In this thesis

  12. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  13. Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics, have we got it right yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Bergerud

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The roles of food, weather and predation are compared between sedentary and migratory caribou herds. Sedentary herds disperse (space out at calving time while the cows of migratory herds move in masse (space away to calving grounds to reduce predation risk. The sedentary ecotype calves on ranges near open water if tree cover is present or in rugged topography in the absence of tree cover. The migratory ecotype aggregates on calving grounds located on alpine mountain plateaus or on the tundra north of the Arctic tree line. The two herds with the greatest densities in North America, the sedentary Slate Islands Herd and the migratory George River Herd both had changes in abundance that followed summer food problems. The hypothesis that winter lichen supplies determine abundance and set the carrying capacity is rejected. Lichens are not a necessary food for caribou. A review of the mortality of young calves documented in the past 30 years provides no support for the hypothesis that hypothermia is a common mortality problem. Young calves documented can be born inviable at birth if their dams are severely malnourished. The migratory caribou in North America reached peak numbers in the 1980s after wolf populations were heavily harvested in the 1970s. The sedentary ecotype is frequently regulated by wolf predation that affects both recruitment (R and the mortality of adults (M. The balance between R/M schedules commonly occurs when R (calves represents, about 15% of the herd and when numbers (prorated to the area of the dispersed annual range approximate 0.06 caribou/km2. Population limitation of migratory herds by predation has occurred in the NWT and in several herds in Alaska but only when wolf densities were > 6.5/1000 km2. Wolf predation halted the growth of the George River Herd in 1980 but then wolves contracted rabies and the herd again increased and degraded spring/summer ranges. The reduced summer phytomass resulted in lower birth rates and

  14. Influenza virus drug resistance: a time-sampled population genetics perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Foll

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of distinguishing genetic drift from selection remains a central focus of population genetics. Time-sampled data may provide a powerful tool for distinguishing these processes, and we here propose approximate Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and analytical methods for the inference of demography and selection from time course data. Utilizing these novel statistical and computational tools, we evaluate whole-genome datasets of an influenza A H1N1 strain in the presence and absence of oseltamivir (an inhibitor of neuraminidase collected at thirteen time points. Results reveal a striking consistency amongst the three estimation procedures developed, showing strongly increased selection pressure in the presence of drug treatment. Importantly, these approaches re-identify the known oseltamivir resistance site, successfully validating the approaches used. Enticingly, a number of previously unknown variants have also been identified as being positively selected. Results are interpreted in the light of Fisher's Geometric Model, allowing for a quantification of the increased distance to optimum exerted by the presence of drug, and theoretical predictions regarding the distribution of beneficial fitness effects of contending mutations are empirically tested. Further, given the fit to expectations of the Geometric Model, results suggest the ability to predict certain aspects of viral evolution in response to changing host environments and novel selective pressures.

  15. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  16. Differences in the workforce experiences of women and men with arthritis disability: a population health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Simone A; Gignac, Monique A M; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2009-05-15

    To examine the employment status characteristics of people with arthritis disability, with a focus on gender differences and who remains in the workforce. Analyses were based on cross-sectional, self-reported data of the Canadian Participation and Activity Limitation Survey, administered in 2001-2002 (n = 28,908). Labor force status was categorized into employed, unemployed, and not in the labor force. Prevalence estimates were derived from descriptive analyses, and logistic regression determined the factors associated with being out of the labor force. Chi-square and sex-stratified analyses examined gender differences. An estimated 2.3% of the working-age population (ages 25-64 years) reported arthritis disability, and >50% were out of the labor force. Being female, single, older, and having less education and more severe pain and disability were associated with being out of the labor force. Employed women with arthritis disability required more accommodations in the workplace and reported more activity limitations than men. Perceived discrimination was more likely to be reported by employed men, and men reported more changes to their work than women. This study underscores the importance of looking more closely at differences in the employment experiences of women and men. Specifically, the results suggest that arthritis may marginalize women and men in different ways. Women may be more likely to leave employment, whereas men may be more likely to remain working and report negative workplace experiences.

  17. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  18. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  19. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  20. Urban Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Løssing, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    Games, er ikke produktudvikling i traditionel forstand, men derimod en reflekteret designproces, der forsøger at optage spilteoretiske og HCI-relaterede problemstillinger. I denne artikel vil vi koncentrere os om udvalgte principielle overvejelser i udviklingen af især forhandlings- og debatspil, som...

  1. Gaming conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of digital (video and computer) games in the rise of what Büscher (2014) calls "nature 2.0": new web-related media that allow users to move beyond passive voyeurism to actively "co-create" or "prosume" the images and processes promoted by organizations committed to

  2. The Relationship Between Online Video Game Involvement and Gaming-Related Friendships Among Emotionally Sensitive Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones. PMID:24660878

  3. The relationship between online video game involvement and gaming-related friendships among emotionally sensitive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowert, Rachel; Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones.

  4. [Lecture Games] Python programming game

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Andreas Lyngstad; Ushakov, Georgy

    2011-01-01

    Pythia is a programming game that allows the player to change pieces of theirenvironment through use of the programming language Python. The idea is that thegame could be used as a part of teaching simple programming to first year universitystudents. The game should be fun enough for the students to keep playing, teachenough for it to earn a place as a teaching tool, and it should be usable by allstudents. It should also be possible for a teacher to create their own content for theg...

  5. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  6. PROBLEM PENDIDIKAN VIDEO GAMES DALAM PERSPEKTIF TEORI SIMULACRA JEAN BAUDRILLARD

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Murtiningsih, Joko Siswanto, M. Mukhtasar Syamsudin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Education Problems of Video Games in the Perspective of Jean Baudrillard’s Theory of Simulacra. In the era of digital age, we are witnessing how video games penetrate children’s daily life and it is believed to have some impacts on their cognitive and affective processes. Referring to hermeneutical approach, the present library research seeks to answer the question whether video games create a real identity or simply forge false consciousness in children. In the first step, the data...

  7. Dental care and children with special health care needs: a population-based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W

    2009-01-01

    This paper grew out of a project reviewing progress in children's oral health after Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General was published in 2000. It includes a summary of advances in national surveillance of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and presents more recent data on unmet dental care need among CSHCN. To that end, we used the 2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs to determine the prevalence of unmet dental care need among CSHCN and to compare this within subgroups of CSHCN, as well as to children without special health care needs, and to results from the previous iteration of this survey. Dental care remains the most frequently cited unmet health need for CSHCN. More CSHCN had unmet needs for nonpreventive than preventive dental care. CSHCN who are teens, poorer, uninsured, had insurance lapses, or are more severely affected by their condition had higher adjusted odds of unmet dental care needs. CSHCN who were both low income and severely affected had 13.4 times the adjusted odds of unmet dental care need. In summary, CSHCN are more likely to be insured and to receive preventive dental care at equal or higher rates than children without special health care needs. Nevertheless, CSHCN, particularly lower income and severely affected, are more likely to report unmet dental care need compared with unaffected children. Despite advances in knowledge about dental care among CSHCN, unanswered questions remain. Recommendations are provided toward obtaining additional data and facilitating dental care access for this vulnerable population.

  8. The Association between Sleep Problems and Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Ai; Stickley, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of sleep problems and their association with psychotic symptoms using a global database. Community-based cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (WHS), a population-based survey conducted in 70 countries between 2002 and 2004. 261,547 individuals aged ≥ 18 years from 56 countries. N/A. The presence of psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months was established using 4 questions pertaining to positive symptoms from the psychosis screening module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Sleep problems referred to severe or extreme sleep problems in the past 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. The overall prevalence of sleep problems was 7.6% and ranged from 1.6% (China) to 18.6% (Morocco). Sleep problems were associated with significantly higher odds for at least one psychotic symptom in the vast majority of countries. In the pooled sample, after adjusting for demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, and chronic medical conditions, having sleep problems resulted in an odds ratio (OR) for at least one psychotic symptom of 2.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.65). This OR was 1.59 (1.40-1.81) when further adjusted for anxiety and depression. A strong association between sleep problems and psychotic symptoms was observed globally. These results have clinical implications and serve as a basis for future studies to elucidate the causal association between psychotic symptoms and sleep problems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Awareness and perceived fairness of Option B+ in Malawi: A population-level perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2017-03-08

    Policies for rationing antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been subject to on-going ethical debates. Introduced in Malawi in 2011, Option B+ prioritized HIV-positive pregnant women for lifelong ART regardless of the underlying state of their immune system, shifting the logic of allocation away from medical eligibility. Despite the rapid expansion of this policy, we know little about how it has been understood and interpreted by the people it affects. We assessed awareness and perceived fairness of the prioritization system for ART among a population-based sample of young women (n = 1440) and their partners (n = 574) in southern Malawi. We use a card-sort technique to elicit understandings of who gets ART under Option B+ and who should be prioritized, and we compare perceptions to actual ART policy using sequence analysis and optimal matching. We then use ordered logistic regression to identify the factors associated with policy awareness. In 2015, only 30.7% of women and 21.1% of male partners understood how ART was being distributed. There was widespread confusion around whether otherwise healthy HIV-positive pregnant women could access ART under Option B + . Nonetheless, more young adults thought that the fairest policy should prioritize such women than believed the actual policy did. Women who were older, more educated or had recently engaged with the health system through antenatal care or ART had more accurate understandings of Option B + . Among men, policy awareness was lower, and was patterned only by education. Although most respondents were unaware that Option B+ afforded ART access to healthy-pregnant women, Malawians support the prioritization of pregnant women. Countries adopting Option B+ or other new ART policies such as universal test-and-treat should communicate the policies and their rationales to the public - such transparency would be more consistent with a fair and ethical process and could additionally serve to clarify confusion and

  10. Impact of risk factors on cardiovascular risk: a perspective on risk estimation in a Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Sigrun A; Chrubasik, Cosima A; Piper, Jörg; Schulte-Moenting, Juergen; Erne, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In models and scores for estimating cardiovascular risk (CVR), the relative weightings given to blood pressure measurements (BPMs), and biometric and laboratory variables are such that even large differences in blood pressure lead to rather low differences in the resulting total risk when compared with other concurrent risk factors. We evaluated this phenomenon based on the PROCAM score, using BPMs made by volunteer subjects at home (HBPMs) and automated ambulatory BPMs (ABPMs) carried out in the same subjects. A total of 153 volunteers provided the data needed to estimate their CVR by means of the PROCAM formula. Differences (deltaCVR) between the risk estimated by entering the ABPM and that estimated with the HBPM were compared with the differences (deltaBPM) between the ABPM and the corresponding HBPM. In addition to the median values (= second quartile), the first and third quartiles of blood pressure profiles were also considered. PROCAM risk values were converted to European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk values and all participants were assigned to the risk groups low, medium and high. Based on the PROCAM score, 132 participants had a low risk for suffering myocardial infarction, 16 a medium risk and 5 a high risk. The calculated ESC scores classified 125 participants into the low-risk group, 26 into the medium- and 2 into the high-risk group for death from a cardiovascular event. Mean ABPM tended to be higher than mean HBPM. Use of mean systolic ABPM or HBPM in the PROCAM formula had no major impact on the risk level. Our observations are in agreement with the rather low weighting of blood pressure as risk determinant in the PROCAM score. BPMs assessed with different methods had relatively little impact on estimation of cardiovascular risk in the given context of other important determinants. The risk calculations in our unselected population reflect the given classification of Switzerland as a so-called cardiovascular "low risk country".

  11. A game is a game is a game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff

    2017-01-01

    Recently self-referentiality have occurred as a trend among game designers and have also enjoyed sporadic attention in academia. However, in academia, discussions of self-referential games often rest on proceduralist arguments and a too exclusive focus on the game object. This paper draws...... on the typology of meta-pictures developed by art historian J.W.T. Mitchell. Based on this typology, this paper discusses the notion of meta-games and suggest a broad conception of such games that includes not only the game object, but also the player and the discourse in which it is interpreted....

  12. Multi-language naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Tang, Wallace K. S.

    2018-04-01

    Naming game is a simulation-based experiment used to study the evolution of languages. The conventional naming game focuses on a single language. In this paper, a novel naming game model named multi-language naming game (MLNG) is proposed, where the agents are different-language speakers who cannot communicate with each other without a translator (interpreter) in between. The MLNG model is general, capable of managing k different languages with k ≥ 2. For illustration, the paper only discusses the MLNG with two different languages, and studies five representative network topologies, namely random-graph, WS small-world, NW small-world, scale-free, and random-triangle topologies. Simulation and analysis results both show that: 1) using the network features and based on the proportion of translators the probability of establishing a conversation between two or three agents can be theoretically estimated; 2) the relationship between the convergence speed and the proportion of translators has a power-law-like relation; 3) different agents require different memory sizes, thus a local memory allocation rule is recommended for saving memory resources. The new model and new findings should be useful for further studies of naming games and for better understanding of languages evolution from a dynamical network perspective.

  13. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnin Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc. are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. Methods In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS, the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS. For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. Results The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS and DAS positivity (27.5%. Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85, marital (OR: 4.61, family (OR: 4.69 and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42 since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional

  14. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games: comparing characteristics of addict vs non-addict online recruited gamers in a French adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achab, Sophia; Nicolier, Magali; Mauny, Frédéric; Monnin, Julie; Trojak, Benoit; Vandel, Pierre; Sechter, Daniel; Gorwood, Philip; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2011-08-26

    Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are a very popular and enjoyable leisure activity, and there is a lack of international validated instruments to assess excessive gaming. With the growing number of gamers worldwide, adverse effects (isolation, hospitalizations, excessive use, etc.) are observed in a minority of gamers, which is a concern for society and for the scientific community. In the present study, we focused on screening gamers at potential risk of MMORPG addiction. In this exploratory study, we focused on characteristics, online habits and problematic overuse in adult MMORPG gamers. In addition to socio-demographical data and gamer behavioral patterns, 3 different instruments for screening addiction were used in French MMORPG gamers recruited online over 10 consecutive months: the substance dependence criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth revised edition (DSM-IV-TR) that has been adapted for MMORPG (DAS), the qualitative Goldberg Internet Addiction Disorder scale (GIAD) and the quantitative Orman Internet Stress Scale (ISS). For all scales, a score above a specific threshold defined positivity. The 448 participating adult gamers were mainly young adult university graduates living alone in urban areas. Participants showed high rates of both Internet addiction (44.2% for GIAD, 32.6% for ISS) and DAS positivity (27.5%). Compared to the DAS negative group, DAS positive gamers reported significantly higher rates of tolerance phenomenon (increased amount of time in online gaming to obtain the desired effect) and declared significantly more social, financial (OR: 4.85), marital (OR: 4.61), family (OR: 4.69) and/or professional difficulties (OR: 4.42) since they started online gaming. Furthermore, these gamers self-reported significantly higher rates (3 times more) of irritability, daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation due to play, low mood and emotional changes since online gaming onset. The DAS

  15. Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau: a multiethnic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobling Mark A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographic and ethnolinguistic differentiation of many African Y-chromosomal lineages provides an opportunity to evaluate human migration episodes and admixture processes, in a pan-continental context. The analysis of the paternal genetic structure of Equatorial West Africans carried out to date leaves their origins and relationships unclear, and raises questions about the existence of major demographic phenomena analogous to the large-scale Bantu expansions. To address this, we have analysed the variation of 31 binary and 11 microsatellite markers on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in Guinea-Bissau samples of diverse ethnic affiliations, some not studied before. Results The Guinea-Bissau Y chromosome pool is characterized by low haplogroup diversity (D = 0.470, sd 0.033, with the predominant haplogroup E3a*-M2 shared among the ethnic clusters and reaching a maximum of 82.2% in the Mandenka people. The Felupe-Djola and Papel groups exhibit the highest diversity of lineages and harbor the deep-rooting haplogroups A-M91, E2-M75 and E3*-PN2, typical of Sahel's more central and eastern areas. Their genetic distinction from other groups is statistically significant (P = 0.01 though not attributable to linguistic, geographic or religious criteria. Non sub-Saharan influences were associated with the presence of haplogroup R1b-P25 and particular lineages of E3b1-M78. Conclusion The predominance and high diversity of haplogroup E3a*-M2 suggests a demographic expansion in the equatorial western fringe, possibly supported by a local agricultural center. The paternal pool of the Mandenka and Balanta displays evidence of a particularly marked population growth among the Guineans, possibly reflecting the demographic effects of the agriculturalist lifestyle and their putative relationship to the people that introduced early cultivation practices into West Africa. The paternal background of the Felupe-Djola and Papel

  16. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  17. Models and games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Väänänen, J.

    2011-01-01

    This gentle introduction to logic and model theory is based on a systematic use of three important games in logic: the semantic game; the Ehrenfeucht–Fraïssé game; and the model existence game. The third game has not been isolated in the literature before but it underlies the concepts of Beth

  18. Teaching Using Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2011-01-01

    Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

  19. Alena Lidzhieva, About Games

    OpenAIRE

    Dovurkaev, Karu; Churyumov, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Alena talks about traditional games, including khorma khotn, tsagan monda, mongn bus, nyarn shinj, and games played with ankle bones. Tsagan monda was a game played at night by several people. The rule is simple: A ball made of white cow skin is pushed into a hole. Games with ankle bones were reserved only for boys. Girls did not play such games. Arcadia

  20. Finding social optima in congestion games with positive externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, B.; Schäfer, G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a variant of congestion games where every player i expresses for each resource e and player j a positive externality, i.e., a value for being on e together with player j. Rather than adopting a game-theoretic perspective, we take an optimization point of view and consider the problem of

  1. Interactive Music Video Games and Children's Musical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Lily; McDowall, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Interactive music video games are a readily available, mainstream technology but they are not generally seen as educative tools. Nor are they established within school teaching and learning environments. This study investigated children's use of these games from a music education perspective. Nine children, aged 9-11 years, and two specialist…

  2. Background Music in Educational Games: Motivational Appeal and Cognitive Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Stephanie B.; Marte, Birgit; Albert, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Most game-designers likely stick to the assumption that background music is a design feature for fostering fun and game play. From a psychological point of view, these (intuitive) aspects act upon the intrinsic motivation and the flow experience of players. However, from a pure cognitive perspective on instructional design, background music could…

  3. On Advertising Games and Spillover in Service Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the industry cases, we model the advertising competition between the dominant service provider and small service providers in one service market, where the dominant service provider has a major market share and the other small service providers share the remainder of market equally. Based on this setting, we discuss three advertising game models, that is, cooperative game, Boxed Pig game, and Prisoner’s game, derive the conditions for different advertising games, and characterize their equilibria. To be specific, it is found that the advertising spillover and the number of the small service providers directly determines the advertising game equilibria, while other market parameters, to some extent, can affect the results of the advertising game equilibria. According to our theoretical findings, some management insights and suggestions are given from both the academic and practical perspectives.

  4. Game Cinematography: from Camera Control to Player Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Building on the definition of cinematography (Soanes and Stevenson, Oxford dictionary of English. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 2005), game cinematography can be defined as the art of visualizing the content of a computer game. The relationship between game cinematography and its...... traditional counterpart is extremely tight as, in both cases, the aim of cinematography is to control the viewer’s perspective and affect his or her perception of the events represented. However, game events are not necessarily pre-scripted and player interaction has a major role on the quality of a game...... experience; therefore, the role of the camera and the challenges connected to it are different in game cinematography as the virtual camera has to both dynamically react to unexpected events to correctly convey the game story and take into consideration player actions and desires to support her interaction...

  5. The game of go as a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgeot, Bertrand; Giraud, Olivier; Kandiah, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the game of go, one of the most ancient and complex board games, from a complex network perspective. We have defined a proper categorization of moves taking into account the local environment, and shown that in this case Zipf's law emerges from data taken from real games. The network shows differences between professional and amateur games, different level of amateurs, or different phases of the game. Certain eigenvectors are localized on specific groups of moves which correspond to different strategies (communities of moves). The point of view developed should allow to better modelize such games and could also help to design simulators which could in the future beat good human players. Our approach could be used for other types of games, and in parallel shed light on the human decision making process.

  6. Within the Mainstream. An Ecocritical Framework for Digital Game History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    corpus of digital games through a descriptive matrix for identifying and analyzing the ecological dimension of digital games. It proposes an extension of the ecocritical toolkit by including a more user-centered, ethics-based theoretical framework based on Sicart’s Ethics of Computer Games (2009...... methods for a more historically and generically diverse exploration of ecological thinking vis-à-vis digital games. The majority of discussions of games from an ecocritical perspective has applied concepts and frameworks borrowed from literature and film studies, thus privileging surface semiotics over...... around a small number of games with apparent ecocritical potential, such as Myst (Cyan 1993) or Farmville (Zynga 2009), resulting in a selective, a-historic and therefore distorted discussion of ecology in the diverse medium of digital games. This essay discusses strategies for dealing with a larger...

  7. The Game as the Way of Personal Identity Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Belyayeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper suggests the game interpretation as the universal and phenomenal way of developing personal identity by a relaxed participation in game activity. Unlike the extended definitions of game as a culturalogical and pedagogical phenomenon, the authors suggest the game analysis in philosophical perspective revealing its existential status. Being the active form of personal existence, the game facilitates self-awareness by means of self-understanding and self-determination in the course of game activity developing the attitude of «I am another one», and giving a chance to experiment with personal identity, taking and playing various social and cultural roles. The existential significance of games activating self-understanding and meaning of self-existence is growing nowadays, given pluralism and reassessment of values. 

  8. Active Gaming to Promote Physical Activity: Questions to Consider for Your School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyler, Tim; Banks, Sarah; Wilson, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The physical activity potential and physiological and motivational benefits of active gaming have been a hot topic in the past few years. It is easy to see why active games are popular among certain populations, particularly those with prior or current video game experience. Video games are fun to play and challenging, give a player total control,…

  9. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Literature and previous studies show that creative play is easy to emerge when children interact with tangible, low-tech toys and games than with digital games. This paradoxical situation is linked to the long-standing problem of end-users (or players) authoring of digital contents and systems. We...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....... propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...

  11. Effects of gender and game type on autonomic nervous system physiological parameters in long-hour online game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tung-Cheng

    2013-11-01

    Online game playing may induce physiological effects. However, the physical mechanisms that cause these effects remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological effects of long-hour online gaming from an autonomic nervous system (ANS) perspective. Heart rate variability (HRV), a valid and noninvasive electrocardiographic method widely used to investigate ANS balance, was used to measure physiological effect parameters. This study used a five-time, repeated measures, mixed factorial design. Results found that playing violent games causes significantly higher sympathetic activity and diastolic blood pressure than playing nonviolent games. Long-hour online game playing resulted in the gradual dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system due to physical exhaustion. Gaming workload was found to modulate the gender effects, with males registering significantly higher sympathetic activity and females significantly higher parasympathetic activity in the higher gaming workload group.

  12. Recommendations for the Design of Serious Games in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sadoun, Grégory; Manera, Valeria; Alvarez, Julian; Sacco, Guillaume; Robert, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    The use of Serious Games (SG) in the health domain is expanding. In the field of Neurodegenerative Diseases (ND) such as Alzheimer's Disease, SG are currently employed to provide alternative solutions for patients' treatment, stimulation, and rehabilitation. The design of SG for people with ND implies collaborations between professionals in ND and professionals in SG design. As the field is quite young, professionals specialized in both ND and SG are still rare, and recommendations for the design of SG for people with ND are still missing. This perspective paper aims to provide recommendations in terms of ergonomic choices for the design of SG aiming at stimulating people with ND, starting from the existing SG already tested in this population: "MINWii", "Kitchen and Cooking", and "X-Torp". We propose to rely on nine ergonomic criteria: eight ergonomic criteria inspired by works in the domain of office automation: Compatibility, Guidance, Workload, Adaptability, Consistency, Significance of codes, Explicit control and Error management; and one ergonomic criterion related to videogame: the game rules. Perspectives derived from this proposal are also discussed.

  13. Recommendations for the Design of Serious Games in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Ben-Sadoun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of Serious Games (SG in the health domain is expanding. In the field of Neurodegenerative Diseases (ND such as Alzheimer’s Disease, SG are currently employed to provide alternative solutions for patients’ treatment, stimulation, and rehabilitation. The design of SG for people with ND implies collaborations between professionals in ND and professionals in SG design. As the field is quite young, professionals specialized in both ND and SG are still rare, and recommendations for the design of SG for people with ND are still missing. This perspective paper aims to provide recommendations in terms of ergonomic choices for the design of SG aiming at stimulating people with ND, starting from the existing SG already tested in this population: “MINWii”, “Kitchen and Cooking”, and “X-Torp”. We propose to rely on nine ergonomic criteria: eight ergonomic criteria inspired by works in the domain of office automation: Compatibility, Guidance, Workload, Adaptability, Consistency, Significance of codes, Explicit control and Error management; and one ergonomic criterion related to videogame: the game rules. Perspectives derived from this proposal are also discussed.

  14. Violent video games: The effects of narrative context and reward structure on in-game and postgame aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, James D; Drummond, Aaron; Nova, Natalie

    2015-09-01

    The potential influence of video game violence on real-world aggression has generated considerable public and scientific interest. Some previous research suggests that playing violent video games can increase postgame aggression. The generalized aggression model (GAM) attributes this to the generalized activation of aggressive schemata. However, it is unclear whether game mechanics that contextualize and encourage or inhibit in-game violence moderate this relationship. Thus, we examined the effects of reward structures and narrative context in a violent video game on in-game and postgame aggression. Contrary to GAM-based predictions, our manipulations differentially affected in-game and postgame aggression. Reward structures selectively affected in-game aggression, whereas narrative context selectively affected postgame aggression. Players who enacted in-game violence through a heroic character exhibited less postgame aggression than players who enacted comparable levels of in-game violence through an antiheroic character. Effects were not attributable to self-activation or character-identification mechanisms, but were consistent with social-cognitive context effects on the interpretation of behavior. These results contradict the GAM's assertion that violent video games affect aggression through a generalized activation mechanism. From an applied perspective, consumer choices may be aided by considering not just game content, but the context in which content is portrayed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Flow Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Lind

    2003-01-01

    Flow Game er et dialogspil, der kan bruges som ledelsesværktøj, ledertræning, samtaletræning, coachingtræning og ideudvikling m.m. Gennem dilemmakort provokeres en dialog og teori-U inspireret afklaring- og udviklingsproces, hvor der enten arbejdes på en gruppes eller et individs vision/innovatio......Flow Game er et dialogspil, der kan bruges som ledelsesværktøj, ledertræning, samtaletræning, coachingtræning og ideudvikling m.m. Gennem dilemmakort provokeres en dialog og teori-U inspireret afklaring- og udviklingsproces, hvor der enten arbejdes på en gruppes eller et individs vision...

  16. The Game of Tri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Gary; Schonberger, Ann Koch

    1977-01-01

    The paper-and-pencil game "Tri" is described. The authors argue that students gain logical skills by playing the game, and that the game lends itself to the introduction of diverse mathematical ideas. (SD)

  17. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  18. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. Negotiation Games

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever)?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for...

  20. Sovereignty Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas

    This book offers an in-depth examination of the strategic use of State sovereignty in contemporary European and international affairs and the consequences of this for authority relations in Europe and beyond. It suggests a new approach to the study of State sovereignty, proposing to understand th...... the use of sovereignty as games where States are becoming more instrumental in their claims to sovereignty and skilled in adapting it to the challenges that they face....

  1. Board game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, N.S.

    1982-01-01

    A board game comprises a board, a number of counters and two dice. The board is marked to provide a central area, representing the nucleus of an atom, and six or more annular rings extending concentrically around the central area, the rings being divided into 2,8,18,32,48 and 72 squares. Each ring represents an electron shell, and some of the squares are numbered, the number representing the atomic number of different elements. (author)

  2. A game magically circling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2011-01-01

    This chapter analyses the relationship between players, the game world, and the ordinary world in alternative reality games (ARGs) and location-based games (LBGs). These games use technology to create a game world in the everyday scene. The topic of this chapter is the concept of the 'magic circle......', which defines the relationship between play and the ordinary world, and how this concept relates to a new kind of game....

  3. Computer Games and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

  4. PROOF BY GAMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Robot, in order to explore automated strategies ). The Game Client receives level data from the Game Server and implements the game as the player sees...formal verification domain. If formal verification problems could be turned into entertaining video games , those games could be crowd- sourced to a large...style gates that would destroy the Circuitbots. As the game evolved we found no good strategies for constraint ordering that worked significantly

  5. Mechanizing Exploratory Game Design

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Game design is an art form that deals with inherently interactive artifacts. Game designers craft games (assembled from rule systems and content), but they really seek to manipulate play: the interaction between games and players. When developing new games that are similar to past games, a designer may rely on previous experience with related designs and relatively easy access to players familiar with conventional design choices. When exploratorily venturing into uncharted territory, uncoveri...

  6. Evolutionary Game Theory Analysis of Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Sturm, James; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary game theory applied to two interacting cell populations can yield quantitative prediction of the future densities of the two cell populations based on the initial interaction terms. We will discuss how in a complex ecology that evolutionary game theory successfully predicts the future densities of strains of stromal and cancer cells (multiple myeloma), and discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression. Supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Cancer Institute.

  7. Punishment in a complementarity game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Q. A.

    2006-05-01

    We study the effects arisen from the punishment in an evolutionary complementarity game. Each round one member of population “buyers” deals with a randomly chosen member of population “sellers”. When the buyer's offer is greater than the seller's, a deal is done and both players are rewarded by gaining some points. Otherwise the transaction is not successful and both will lose certain points as punishment. Our simulations indicate that the resulting equilibrium of the game with punishment embedded is remarkably time-delayed compared to the counterpart of the non-punishment game. However, the median fee and the success rate of deals at the equilibrium remain nearly unchanged in various cases of games with different degrees of punishment, whether severe or not. Symmetry, between the two populations, and the equilibrium value can still be maintained when the members of both of them are punished fairly in any failed transaction. If they are done in a different manner, namely, the members of one population are subject to very severe punishment whereas their opponents receive less or no punishment at all, the latter in most cases will be better off.

  8. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes (“USER-CONTROL” and “AUTO”) were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training. PMID:26635681

  9. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes ("USER-CONTROL" and "AUTO") were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training.

  10. Game engines: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andrade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to hardware limitations at the origin of the video game industry, each new game was generally coded from the ground up. Years later, from the evolution of hardware and the need for quick game development cycles, spawned the concept of game engine. A game engine is a reusable software layer allowing the separation of common game concepts from the game assets (levels, graphics, etc.. This paper surveys fourteen different game engines relevant today, ranging from the industry-level to the newcomer-friendlier ones.

  11. Games, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, L C

    2011-01-01

    Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

  12. The mathematics of games

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, John D

    2006-01-01

    ""Mind-exercising and thought-provoking.""-New ScientistIf playing games is natural for humans, analyzing games is equally natural for mathematicians. Even the simplest of games involves the fundamentals of mathematics, such as figuring out the best move or the odds of a certain chance event. This entertaining and wide-ranging guide demonstrates how simple mathematical analysis can throw unexpected light on games of every type-games of chance, games of skill, games of chance and skill, and automatic games.Just how random is a card shuffle or a throw of the dice? Is bluffing a valid poker strat

  13. Metabolic responses to Wii Fit™ video games at different game levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jennifer R; Rogers, Sharon N; Kraemer, Robert R

    2011-03-01

    The Wii Fit™ is a form of interactive gaming designed to elicit health and fitness benefits to replace sedentary gaming. This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of Wii Fit™ fitness games. The purpose of the study was to determine the %VO2max and energy expenditure from different Wii Fit™ games at different levels including the step and hula games. Eight healthy young women completed a preliminary trial to determine VO2max and later played the Wii Fit™ during 2 separate counterbalanced trials. During each session, subjects played levels of Wii Fit™ games for 10 minutes each level. One session involved beginning and intermediate hula, and the other session involved beginning and intermediate steps. The VO2 was measured continuously via metabolic cart, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed at the end of each game level. The lowest %VO2max, kcal·min, and RPE occurred during the beginning step game and the highest values occurred during the intermediate hula game. Respiratory exchange ratio was significantly higher in the intermediate hula than beginning hula game but was not significantly different between step game levels. The intermediate hula and step games produced the greatest energy expenditure with an equivalent effect of a walking speed of >5.63 km·h (>3.5 miles·h). This is the first study to determine the percentage of VO2max and caloric expenditure elicited by different Wii Fit™ video games at different game levels in adults. Findings suggest that the Wii Fit™ can be used as an effective activity for promoting physical health in this population.

  14. ELECTRONIC SPORT: HOW PRO-GAMING NEGOTIATES TERRITORIAL BELONGING AND GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Maric

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the phenomenon of electronic sport (e-sport), which refers to organised and competitive video gaming. It is approached as a 'social world' and a specific culture of gaming, which produces organised groups, events and broadcasting. Located at the intersection of gaming and sports, e-sport adopts elements from both areas. From a grounded theory perspective, the article discusses the contexts, meanings and practices of pro-gaming within e-sport as researched in a study consi...

  15. Gaming Horror’s horror: Representation, Regulation and Affect in Horror Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Krzywinska, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    This position article outlines a personal perspective on the way that Horror games create affect in a complex play between representation and performance and that, in some cases, operate against the usual Vitruvian coordinates of games that are used in order to work with the types of affect associated with pleasure, agency and assuredness. The author argues that against the usual informative pleasures of self-affirmation and a clockwork universe, Horror games configured against normative game...

  16. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  17. Training for vigilance on the move: a video game-based paradigm for sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, J L; Daly, T N; Teo, G W L; Hancock, G M; Hancock, P A

    2018-04-01

    The capacity for superior vigilance can be trained by using knowledge of results (KR). Our present experiments demonstrate the efficacy of such training using a first-person perspective movement videogame-based platform in samples of students and Soldiers. Effectiveness was assessed by manipulating KR during a training phase and withdrawing it in a subsequent transfer phase. Relative to a no KR control condition, KR systematically improved performance for both Soldiers and students. These results build upon our previous findings that demonstrated that a video game-based platform can be used to create a movement-centred sustained attention task with important elements of traditional vigilance. The results indicate that KR effects in sustained attention extend to a first person perspective movement based paradigm, and that these effects occur in professional military as well as a more general population. Such sustained attention training can save lives and the present findings demonstrate one particular avenue to achieve this goal. Practitioner Summary: Sustained attention can be trained by means of knowledge of results using a videogame-based platform with samples of students and Soldiers. Four experiments demonstrate that a dynamic, first-person perspective video game environment can serve to support effective sustained attention training in professional military as well as a more general population.

  18. Genetic health and population monitoring of two small black bear (Ursus americanus populations in Alabama, with a regional perspective of genetic diversity and exchange.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Draper

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin. Recently a second population has naturally re-established itself in northeastern Alabama. We sought to determine size, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity for these two populations in relation to other regional populations. Both populations of black bears in Alabama had small population sizes and had moderate to low genetic diversity, but showed different levels of connectivity to surrounding populations of bears. The Mobile River Basin population had a small population size at only 86 individuals (76-124, 95% C.I., the lowest genetic diversity of compared populations (richness = 2.33, Ho and He = 0.33, and showed near complete genetic isolation from surrounding populations across multiple tests. The newly recolonizing population in northeastern Alabama had a small but growing population doubling in 3 years (34 individuals 26-43, 95% C.I., relatively moderate genetic diversity compared to surrounding populations (richness = 3.32, Ho = 0.53, He = 0.65, and showed a high level of genetic connectivity with surrounding populations.

  19. Genetic health and population monitoring of two small black bear (Ursus americanus) populations in Alabama, with a regional perspective of genetic diversity and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John P; Waits, Lisette P; Adams, Jennifer R; Seals, Christopher L; Steury, Todd D

    2017-01-01

    One of the major concerns in conservation today is the loss of genetic diversity which is a frequent consequence of population isolation and small population sizes. Fragmentation of populations and persecution of carnivores has posed a substantial threat to the persistence of free ranging carnivores in North America since the arrival of European settlers. Black bears have seen significant reductions in range size from their historic extent, which is most pronounced in the southeastern United States and even more starkly in Alabama where until recently bears were reduced to a single geographically isolated population in the Mobile River Basin. Recently a second population has naturally re-established itself in northeastern Alabama. We sought to determine size, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity for these two populations in relation to other regional populations. Both populations of black bears in Alabama had small population sizes and had moderate to low genetic diversity, but showed different levels of connectivity to surrounding populations of bears. The Mobile River Basin population had a small population size at only 86 individuals (76-124, 95% C.I.), the lowest genetic diversity of compared populations (richness = 2.33, Ho and He = 0.33), and showed near complete genetic isolation from surrounding populations across multiple tests. The newly recolonizing population in northeastern Alabama had a small but growing population doubling in 3 years (34 individuals 26-43, 95% C.I.), relatively moderate genetic diversity compared to surrounding populations (richness = 3.32, Ho = 0.53, He = 0.65), and showed a high level of genetic connectivity with surrounding populations.

  20. Studies in the Theory of Quantum Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2005-03-01

    Theory of quantum games is a new area of investigation that has gone through rapid development during the last few years. Initial motivation for playing games, in the quantum world, comes from the possibility of re-formulating quantum communication protocols, and algorithms, in terms of games between quantum and classical players. The possibility led to the view that quantum games have a potential to provide helpful insight into working of quantum algorithms, and even in finding new ones. This thesis analyzes and compares some interesting games when played classically and quantum mechanically. A large part of the thesis concerns investigations into a refinement notion of the Nash equilibrium concept. The refinement, called an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), was originally introduced in 1970s by mathematical biologists to model an evolving population using techniques borrowed from game theory. Analysis is developed around a situation when quantization changes ESSs without affecting corresponding Nash equilibria. Effects of quantization on solution-concepts other than Nash equilibrium are presented and discussed. For this purpose the notions of value of coalition, backwards-induction outcome, and subgame-perfect outcome are selected. Repeated games are known to have different information structure than one-shot games. Investigation is presented into a possible way where quantization changes the outcome of a repeated game. Lastly, two new suggestions are put forward to play quantum versions of classical matrix games. The first one uses the association of De Broglie's waves, with travelling material objects, as a resource for playing a quantum game. The second suggestion concerns an EPR type setting exploiting directly the correlations in Bell's inequalities to play a bi-matrix game.

  1. A Tripartite Neurocognitive Model of Internet Gaming Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Playing Internet games has emerged as a growing in prevalence leisure activity. In some cases, excess gaming can lead to addiction-like symptoms and aversive outcomes that may be seen by some as manifestations of a behavioral addiction. Even though agreement regarding the pathologizing of excessive video gaming is not yet achieved and perhaps because the field requires more research, many works have examined the antecedents and outcomes of what is termed internet gaming disorder (IGD. In this article, we aim at summarizing perspectives and findings related to the neurocognitive processes that may underlie IGD and map such findings onto the triadic-system that governs behavior and decision-making, the deficits in which have been shown to be associated with many addictive disorders. This tripartite system model includes the following three brain systems: (1 the impulsive system, which often mediates fast, automatic, unconscious, and habitual behaviors; (2 the reflective system, which mediates deliberating, planning, predicting future outcomes of selected behaviors, and exerting inhibitory control; and (3 the interoceptive awareness system, which generates a state of craving through the translation of somatic signals into a subjective state of drive. We suggest that IGD formation and maintenance can be associated with (1 a hyperactive “impulsive” system; (2 a hypoactive “reflective” system, as exacerbated by (3 an interoceptive awareness system that potentiates the activity of the impulsive system, and/or hijacks the goal-driven cognitive resources needed for the normal operation of the reflective system. Based on this review, we propose ways to improve the therapy and treatment of IGD and reduce the risk of relapse among recovering IGD populations.

  2. A Tripartite Neurocognitive Model of Internet Gaming Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Zhang, Shuyue; Turel, Ofir; Bechara, Antoine; He, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Playing Internet games has emerged as a growing in prevalence leisure activity. In some cases, excess gaming can lead to addiction-like symptoms and aversive outcomes that may be seen by some as manifestations of a behavioral addiction. Even though agreement regarding the pathologizing of excessive video gaming is not yet achieved and perhaps because the field requires more research, many works have examined the antecedents and outcomes of what is termed internet gaming disorder (IGD). In this article, we aim at summarizing perspectives and findings related to the neurocognitive processes that may underlie IGD and map such findings onto the triadic-system that governs behavior and decision-making, the deficits in which have been shown to be associated with many addictive disorders. This tripartite system model includes the following three brain systems: (1) the impulsive system, which often mediates fast, automatic, unconscious, and habitual behaviors; (2) the reflective system, which mediates deliberating, planning, predicting future outcomes of selected behaviors, and exerting inhibitory control; and (3) the interoceptive awareness system, which generates a state of craving through the translation of somatic signals into a subjective state of drive. We suggest that IGD formation and maintenance can be associated with (1) a hyperactive “impulsive” system; (2) a hypoactive “reflective” system, as exacerbated by (3) an interoceptive awareness system that potentiates the activity of the impulsive system, and/or hijacks the goal-driven cognitive resources needed for the normal operation of the reflective system. Based on this review, we propose ways to improve the therapy and treatment of IGD and reduce the risk of relapse among recovering IGD populations. PMID:29312016

  3. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide....... This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. I will examine how games make use of space, and show that the magic circle not only is a viable, though criticized, concept but should be understood as a spatial concept. In order to do this several games are examined, leading...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games....

  4. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  5. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale: Development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematic Literature Review Terhadap Evaluasi Perangkat Lunak Tentang Serious Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhik Ampuh Yunanto

    2017-04-01

    Game is a software that is popular among children, adolescents, and adults. In addition, there are games that have a specific purpose other than as a medium of entertainment which called Serious Games. The amount of research on serious games can help developers in research, management, and software development in game. So it is necessary to Review the literature about the serious game so that information can be classified and categorized systematically. This study aims to provide an update by the Systematic Literature Review (SLR to the recent studies on the evaluation of serious games from 2015 until October 2016. The proposed SLR method has three stages of Review that is external, internal, and nine quality assessment (QA. The final results obtained in this study indicate there are 34 research on serious games. From the studies that were Reviewed also show that research on the evaluation of serious games have educational applications domain, the type of computer games, methods of evaluation questionnaires, evaluation of the quality of learning outcomes, evaluation procedures are simple, and the number of populations ranging from 1 to 50 people. The results that have been obtained SLR is expected to contribute and important information to the researcher or developer interested in the field of serious games. This research can also improve the quality of the serious game for education and counseling in community. Keywords: Serious game, Evaluation, Systematic Literature Review

  7. The standard set game of a cooperative game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Hoede, C.

    2003-01-01

    We show that for every cooperative game a corresponding set game can be defined, called the standard set game. Values for set games can be applied to this standard game and determine allocations for the cooperative game. On the other hand, notions for cooperative games, like the Shapley value, the

  8. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  9. Sales Simulation Games: Student and Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This study combines the perspective of students (n = 137) and sales instructors (n = 248). It compares how well selling and sales management simulation games, case discussions, and traditional lectures are perceived to conform to the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. The study further compares each method's performance…

  10. Verified Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games......In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...

  11. Network characteristics for server selection in online games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypool, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Online gameplay is impacted by the network characteristics of players connected to the same server. Unfortunately, the network characteristics of online game servers are not well-understood, particularly for groups that wish to play together on the same server. As a step towards a remedy, this paper presents analysis of an extensive set of measurements of game servers on the Internet. Over the course of many months, actual Internet game servers were queried simultaneously by twenty-five emulated game clients, with both servers and clients spread out on the Internet. The data provides statistics on the uptime and populations of game servers over a month long period an an in-depth look at the suitability for game servers for multi-player server selection, concentrating on characteristics critical to playability--latency and fairness. Analysis finds most game servers have latencies suitable for third-person and omnipresent games, such as real-time strategy, sports and role-playing games, providing numerous server choices for game players. However, far fewer game servers have the low latencies required for first-person games, such as shooters or race games. In all cases, groups that wish to play together have a greatly reduced set of servers from which to choose because of inherent unfairness in server latencies and server selection is particularly limited as the group size increases. These results hold across different game types and even across different generations of games. The data should be useful for game developers and network researchers that seek to improve game server selection, whether for single or multiple players.

  12. Rehabilitative Games for Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pyae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the major problems in medical and healthcare that can cause severe disability and death of patients especially for older population. Rehabilitation plays an important role in stroke therapy. However, most of the rehabilitative exercises are monotonous and tiring for the patients. For a particular time, they can easily get bored in doing these exercises. The role of patient’s motivation in rehabilitation is vital. Motivation and rehabilitative outcomes are strongly related. Digital games promise to help stroke patients to feel motivated and more engaged in rehabilitative training through motivational gameplay. Most of the commercial games available in the market are not well-designed for stroke patients and their motivational needs in rehabilitation. This study aims at understanding the motivational requirements of stroke patients in doing rehabilitative exercises and living in a post-stroke life. Based on the findings from the literature review, we report factors that can influence the stroke patients’ level of motivation such as social functioning, patient-therapist relationship, goal-setting, and music. These findings are insightful and useful for ideating and designing interactive motivation-driven games for stroke patients. The motivational factors of stroke patients in rehabilitation may help the game designers to design motivation-driven game contexts, contents, and gameplay. Moreover, these findings may also help healthcare professionals who concern stroke patient’s motivation in rehabilitative context. In this paper, we reported our Virtual Nursing Home (VNH concept and the games that we are currently developing and re-designing. Based on this literature review, we will present and test out the ideas how we can integrate these motivational factors in our future game design, development, and enhancement.

  13. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  14. Maximizing the Impact of e-Therapy and Serious Gaming: Time for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theresa M; de Beurs, Derek; Khazaal, Yasser; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Aschieri, Filippo; Bavin, Lynda M; Kleiboer, Annet; Merry, Sally; Lau, Ho Ming; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs, and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS) was formed. In this perspectives' paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions toward the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: (1) increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modularization; (2) Increased emphasis on engagement utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology; (3) Increased collaboration in program development, testing, and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach; and (4) Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement, and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers, and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  15. Maximizing the impact of e-therapy and serious gaming: Time for a paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Fleming

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS was formed. In this perspectives paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions towards the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: 1. Increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modulariziation. 2. Increased emphasis on engagement; utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology. 3. Increased collaboration in program development, testing and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach. 4. Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  16. Our games our health: a cultural asset for promoting health in indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth; Meiklejohn, Beryl; Patterson, Carla; Edwards, Ken; Preece, Cilia; Shuter, Patricia; Gould, Trish

    2006-08-01

    Indigenous Australians have higher morbidity and mortality rates than non-Indigenous Australians. Until recently, few health promotion interventions have had more than limited success in Indigenous populations. This community-based health promotion initiative introduced traditional Indigenous games into schools and community groups in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island (Queensland, Australia). A joint community forum managed the project, and the Indigenous community-based project officers co-ordinated training in traditional games and undertook community asset audits and evaluations. The games have been included in the activities of a range of community organisations in Cherbourg and Stradbroke Island. Several other organisations and communities in Australia have included them in their projects. A games video and manual were produced to facilitate the initiative's transferability and sustainability. Conventional approaches to health promotion generally focus on individual risk factors and often ignore a more holistic perspective. This project adopted a culturally appropriate, holistic approach, embracing a paradigm that concentrated on the communities' cultural assets and contributed to sustainable and transferable outcomes. There is a need for appropriate evaluation tools for time-limited community engagement projects.

  17. A survey of static and dynamic potential games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONZLEZ-SNCHEZ David; HERNNDEZ-LERMA Onsimo

    2016-01-01

    Potential games are noncooperative games for which there exist auxiliary functions, called potentials,such that the maximizers of the potential are also Nash equilibria of the corresponding game. Some properties of Nash equilibria, such as existence or stability, can be derived from the potential, whenever it exists. We survey different classes of potential games in the static and dynamic cases, with a finite number of players, as well as in population games where a continuum of players is allowed. Likewise, theoretical concepts and applications are discussed by means of illustrative examples.

  18. Minority game with arbitrary cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.; Zheng, Dafang; Tai, C. W.

    1999-07-01

    We study a model of a competing population of N adaptive agents, with similar capabilities, repeatedly deciding whether to attend a bar with an arbitrary cutoff L. Decisions are based upon past outcomes. The agents are only told whether the actual attendance is above or below L. For L∼ N/2, the game reproduces the main features of Challet and Zhang's minority game. As L is lowered, however, the mean attendances in different runs tend to divide into two groups. The corresponding standard deviations for these two groups are very different. This grouping effect results from the dynamical feedback governing the game's time-evolution, and is not reproduced if the agents are fed a random history.

  19. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock-Lopez, Enrique, E-mail: epeacock@williams.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-08-15

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.

  20. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock-Lopez, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.

  1. Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  2. Nested Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Uno

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new class of potential games, the nested potential games, which generalize the potential games defined in Monderer and Shapley (1996), as well as the pseudo-potential games defined in Dubey et al. (2006). We show that each maximizer of a nested potential is a Nash equilibrium.

  3. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  4. Learning with Calculator Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  5. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  6. Gas and electricity providers. Offensive of alternate providers, launching of green offers, price-based conquest: which perspectives for the market and the competitive game by 2019?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    As the end of regulated tariffs for industries and local communities resulted in a total new deal on the electric power and gas providing market, notably with newcomers who decided to cut prices, this study aims at identifying actual perspectives for the power and gas markets by 2019, and actual levers of action for providers to gain market shares. After a synthesis and a proposal of some strategic conclusions, the report proposes an analysis of the activity and of its perspectives: determining factors, overview of the activity until 2016 (power and gas provisions in France, production and consumption prices for gas and for electric power, regulated tariffs), and provisional scenario by 2019 regarding electricity and gas provisions in France. A second part analyses the external environment through a discussion of external drivers and brakes, and an analysis of demand. The third part reports an analysis of the competitive landscape (market shares per strategic groups, in power providing and in gas providing, and switch rate between residential and non-residential customers). The last part addresses development axes and proposes a discussion of offensive conquest strategies, a discussion of actor positioning on green energies, a discussion of supply adaptation and targeting depending on customers with an analysis of three specific segments (mobility, data centres, and self-consumption), and a discussion of the diversification of services

  7. Autogenerator-based modelling framework for development of strategic games simulations: rational pigs game extended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabac, Robert; Radošević, Danijel; Magdalenić, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants' decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, "the tramp," one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players.

  8. Computer Games and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sukhov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article devoted to the search of relevant sources (primary and secondary and characteristics of computer games that allow to include them in the field of art (such as the creation of artistic games, computer graphics, active interaction with other forms of art, signs of spiritual aesthetic act, own temporality of computer games, “aesthetic illusion”, interactivity. In general, modern computer games can be attributed to commercial art and popular culture (blockbuster games and to elite forms of contemporary media art (author’s games, visionary games.

  9. The ‘taking place’ of learning in computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    In the long-standing tradition for discounting digital technologies as a learning resource within the formal educational setting, computer games have often either been marked as distraction or totally ignored. However, as argued in the paradigmatic text by Shaffer, Squire, Halverson and Gee, Video...... Games and The Future of Learning, computer games do not only offer an interesting perspective on how “learners can understand complex concepts without losing the connection between abstract ideas and the real problems”, but can as well cast “a glimpse into how we might create new and more powerful ways...... to learn in schools, communities, and workplaces – new ways to learn for a new Information Age” [1].  In line with this general approach to seeing computer games as a reservoir of learning strategies and potentials, this paper aims to examine how a specific computer game teach us how to play the game. [1...

  10. Game Preferences of 3 Generations From The Eye of Students’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazime TUNCAY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology has provoked the concept of game to be viewed from different perspectives by generations. The most careful observers of these are the most adapted ones, which are students. This research study aims to find the similarities and differences of video game playing preferences of 3 Generations from the students’ eye. The study sample consists of 50 students from whom data was collected. Univariate one-way Anova is used to compare group means of Game Genre groups (“Building”, “Cars”, “Cards”, “Cartoon”, “Educational”, “Simulation”, “Spor”, “Strategy” and “War”, which are formed by metaphorical analysis of students’ narratives. Independent sample ttest is used to find if there is a significant difference between girls and boys game genre playing preferences. This paper is orientated towards anyone interested in video games; especially game designers, teachers, instructors, students and educational organizations, such as primary.

  11. The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubik, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)

  12. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  13. Games on Games. Game Design as Critical Reflexive Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Caruso; Riccardo Fassone; Gabriele Ferri; Stefano Gualeni; Mauro Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Can video game design be compared to more formalized practices of scientific research or speculation within game studies? And, by virtue of an intellectual leap that in itself calls for discussion, can video games be considered as an efficient vehicle for the presentation of certain kinds of knowledge, in the same way in which papers, conference presentations, and books are? What Ratto defines as critical making (2011), the practice of producing artifacts of different sorts in order to supple...

  14. War-gaming application for future space systems acquisition: MATLAB implementation of war-gaming acquisition models and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienhage, Paul; Barcomb, Heather; Marshall, Karel; Black, William A.; Coons, Amanda; Tran, Hien T.; Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.; Yoh, James; Kizer, Justin; Rogers, Blake A.

    2017-05-01

    The paper describes the MATLAB (MathWorks) programs that were developed during the REU workshop1 to implement The Aerospace Corporation developed Unified Game-based Acquisition Framework and Advanced Game - based Mathematical Framework (UGAF-AGMF) and its associated War-Gaming Engine (WGE) models. Each game can be played from the perspectives of the Department of Defense Acquisition Authority (DAA) or of an individual contractor (KTR). The programs also implement Aerospace's optimum "Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) and associated acquisition" strategy that combines low Total Ownership Cost (TOC) with innovative designs while still meeting warfighter needs. The paper also describes the Bayesian Acquisition War-Gaming approach using Monte Carlo simulations, a numerical analysis technique to account for uncertainty in decision making, which simulate the PTB development and acquisition processes and will detail the procedure of the implementation and the interactions between the games.

  15. PROBLEM PENDIDIKAN VIDEO GAMES DALAM PERSPEKTIF TEORI SIMULACRA JEAN BAUDRILLARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Murtiningsih, Joko Siswanto, M. Mukhtasar Syamsudin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Education Problems of Video Games in the Perspective of Jean Baudrillard’s Theory of Simulacra. In the era of digital age, we are witnessing how video games penetrate children’s daily life and it is believed to have some impacts on their cognitive and affective processes. Referring to hermeneutical approach, the present library research seeks to answer the question whether video games create a real identity or simply forge false consciousness in children. In the first step, the data were collected from bibliographi­cal sources that related to data. In the second step, the data were analyzed to examine the pedagogical-philosophical properties of the video games. The results indicate that video games change the way children view the world. Video games present the world as hiper-reality. Bu putting aside the negative values and maximizing the positive ones, the understanding of hiper-reality allows for the inculcation of children. Abstrak: Problem Pendidikan Video Games dalam Perspectif Teori Simulacra Jean Baudrillard. Permainan video games diyakini berdampak positif sekaligus negatif pada proses kognitif dan afektif anak.-anak. Terutama, video games berpengaruh pada proses internalisasi nilai-nilai dan pembentukan identitas mereka. Teknologi virtual yang disajikan oleh video games, seperti didekati oleh teori simulacra Jean Baudrillard, menyuguhkan jebakan akan realitas palsu. Melalui riset pustaka dengan metode "filsafat her­meneutis", dianalisis data untuk membangun refleksi filsafat pendidikan atas permainan video games itu. Hasil penelitian ini menyatakan video games menyuguhkan sebuah hiper-realitas dari simulasi realitas, atau simulacra dalam teori Jean Baudrillard. Simulacra adalah dunia yang terbentuk dari salinan realitas, yang menjadi acuan melebihi realitas asli. Disimpulkan bahwa video games menjadi semacam “ruang konseptual”, yang dibentuk oleh simulacra. Dengan mengenali hakikat hiper-realitas, video games dapat

  16. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  17. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  18. The Cognitive Psychopathology of Internet Gaming Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.

  19. Negotiation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Hoffmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Negotiations, a model of concurrency with multi party negotiation as primitive, have been recently introduced by J. Desel and J. Esparza. We initiate the study of games for this model. We study coalition problems: can a given coalition of agents force that a negotiation terminates (resp. block the negotiation so that it goes on forever?; can the coalition force a given outcome of the negotiation? We show that for arbitrary negotiations the problems are EXPTIME-complete. Then we show that for sound and deterministic or even weakly deterministic negotiations the problems can be solved in PTIME. Notice that the input of the problems is a negotiation, which can be exponentially more compact than its state space.

  20. Game Changers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    at forsøge at beskrive nogle af de mekanismer, som gør, at nogle af disse kreative industrier bliver netop kreative og innovative, at de ikke alene kan klare sig, men også ændre og udvikle både indhold, form og organisering – at de bliver det der på managementsprog hedder game changers.......Den kreative industri er en statistisk kategori, der omfatter virksomheder, der beskæftiger sig med produktion af krea- tive produkter. Det kan være film, computerspil, grafisk de- sign etc. Men det er ikke nødvendigvis virksomheder, som er særligt kreative. Det, der er anliggendet her, er...