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Sample records for pome fruits produced

  1. Gamma irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment for fresh pome fruits produced in Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J.; Lires, C.; Horak, C.; Pawlak, E.; Docters, A.; Kairiyama, E.

    2009-07-01

    Argentina produces 1.8 million tons/year of apples ( Malus domestica L.) and pears ( Pyrus communis L.) in the Patagonia region. Cydia pomonella, codling moth, and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth, ( Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are quarantine pests in pome fruits. Irradiation is a promising phytosanitary treatment because a dose of 200 Gy completely prevents pest adult emergence. A pilot irradiation process of commercially packaged 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears was performed in an irradiation facility with a Cobalt 60 source. Quality analyses were carried out at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months of storage (1 °C, RH 99%) to evaluate fruit tolerance at 200, 400 and 800 Gy. Irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy had no undesirable effects on fruit quality (pulp firmness, external colour, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and sensory evaluations). Irradiation of 'Red Delicious' apples and 'Packham's Triumph' pears can be applied as a commercial quarantine treatment with a minimum absorbed dose of 200 Gy (to control codling moth and Oriental fruit moth) and <800 Gy (according to quality results).

  2. Growth of locally isolated microalga in POME to produce lipid as alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitriana; Munir, E.; Delvian; Wahyuningsih, H.

    2018-04-01

    Purpose of this study was to find the best growth of locally isolated microalgae that produce lipids from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as an alternative energy source. Microalgae was cultivated in POME in glass vessel at room temperature using a lighting intensity of 13,000 lux and continuously aeration for 24 and 12 hours, respectively. Biomass of microalgae were analyzed daily to get their growth by spectrophotometry at 624 nm wavelength, whereas Modified Bligh and Dyer method determined lipid content. Results show that the best growth occurred at 10% inoculum with lighting cycle and aeration of 24 hours (on/off) and resulting highest biomass content of 0.99 g dry weight/L followed by the decrease of organic substances in POME. The percentage reduction of COD, BOD, TSS, and oil at POME reached above 92%, while phosphate concentration reached 89.2%. Cultivation of microalgae in POME for 12 days showed its ability to reduce organic substances and nutrients in POME and produced biomass with lipid content of 35%. These results reached to the conclusion that locally isolated microalgae has an ability to treat POME safely for environment and POME can be used as a growing medium of microalgae that produces lipids.

  3. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references

  4. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  5. Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis--a new species associated with pome fruits from Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, C L; Rogers, J D; Kim, Y K; Liu, Q

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Phacidiopycnis associated with pome fruits is described. The fungus causes fruit rot on apples during storage and is associated with a twig dieback and canker disease of crabapple trees and dead twigs of pear trees. To characterize the biology of the fungus and compare it with Ph. piri, the type species of the genus, effects of nine media and light on mycelial growth and pycnidial production, mycelial growth in response to temperature and mode of conidial germination in response to nutrient were determined. Apple-juice agar, pear-juice agar, prune-juice agar, potato-dextrose agar (PDA) and malt-extract agar, Czapek-Dox agar and oatmeal agar (OMA) favored mycelial growth. Cornmeal agar (CMA) did not favor mycelial growth. Light effect on pycnidial formation was medium dependent. Abundant pycnidia with mature conidia formed in 14 d old PDA and OMA cultures at 20 C, regardless of light, whereas none or very few pycnidia formed on other media in the dark. Fluorescent light stimulated formation of pycnidia except on CMA. The fungus grew at -3-25 C, with optimum growth at 15-20 C. Conidia germinated either by forming germ tubes or less often by budding. Budding of conidia occurred in 1 and 10% pear-juice solutions but not in 100% pear-juice solution. Six isolates of Ph. washingtonensis from different species of pome fruits had identical ITS sequences. The sizes of the ITS region were the same for both Ph. washingtonensis and Ph. piri, and four polymorphic nucleotide sites were found in the ITS region between Ph. washingtonensis and Ph. piri. The similarity in ITS sequences between these two taxa is confirmatory evidence for the erection of the new species of Phacidiopycnis associated with pome fruits we describe here.

  6. Development of a polyprobe to detect six viroids of pome and stone fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liming; Li, Ruhui; Mock, Ray; Kinard, Gary

    2011-01-01

    A simple and sensitive dot blot hybridization assay using a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA polyprobe was developed for the simultaneous detection of six viroids that infect pome and stone fruit trees. The polyprobe was constructed by cloning sequentially partial sequences of each viroid into a single vector, with run-off transcription driven by the T7 promoter. All six viroids were detectable within a dilution range of 5(-3) to 5(-4) in total nucleic acid extracts from infected trees. Individual trees were co-inoculated to create mixed infections and all four pome fruit viroids and both stone fruit viroids could be detected in pear and peach trees, respectively, using the polyprobe. The results of the assays using the polyprobe were comparable to those using single probes. The methods were validated by testing geographically diverse isolates of viroids, as well as field samples from several collections in the US. The assay offers a rapid, reliable and cost-effective approach to the simultaneous detection of six fruit trees viroids and has the potential for routine use in quarantine, certification, and plant genebank programs where many samples are tested and distributed worldwide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Induction of antimicrobial 3-deoxyflavonoids in pome fruit trees controls fire blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbwirth, Heidrun; Fischer, Thilo C; Roemmelt, Susanne; Spinelli, Francesco; Schlangen, Karin; Peterek, Silke; Sabatini, Emidio; Messina, Christian; Speakman, John-Bryan; Andreotti, Carlo; Rademacher, Wilhelm; Bazzi, Carlo; Costa, Guglielmo; Treutter, Dieter; Forkmann, Gert; Stich, Karl

    2003-01-01

    Fire blight, a devastating bacterial disease in pome fruits, causes severe economic losses worldwide. Hitherto, an effective control could only be achieved by using antibiotics, but this implies potential risks for human health, livestock and environment. A new approach allows transient inhibition of a step in the flavonoid pathway, thereby inducing the formation of a novel antimicrobial 3-deoxyflavonoid controlling fire blight in apple and pear leaves. This compound is closely related to natural phytoalexins in sorghum. The approach does not only provide a safe method to control fire blight: Resistance against different pathogens is also induced in other crop plants.

  8. PHYTOPLASMAS IN POME FRUIT TREES: UPDATE OF THEIR PRESENCE AND THEIR VECTORS IN BELGIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Peusens; K, De Jonghe; I, De Roo; S, Steyer; T, Olivier; F, Fauche; F, Rys; D, Bylemans; T, Beliën

    2015-01-01

    Among the numerous diseases that can attack pome fruit trees, apple proliferation and pear decline, both caused by a phytoplasma ('Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' (AP) and 'Ca. P. pyri' (PD), respectively), may result into important losses of quality and quantity of the crop. Until a few years ago, no scientific and reliable data on their presence in Belgium was available and so a 2-year survey was organised to obtain more detailed information on the status of both pathogens. Root and leaf samples collected in commercial orchards were analysed using molecular detection tools and tested positive for both phytoplasmas. Additionally, the presence and infectivity of Psyllidae, vectors of AP and PD, was assessed during this survey but no infected Cacopsylla-species were found. Lab trials revealed its vector capacity at the end of summer and autumn and its migration pattern 80 m in line and 10.5 m across trees in an orchard.

  9. Functions and origin of plasmids in Erwinia species that are pathogenic to or epiphytically associated with pome fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Pablo; Barbé, Silvia; López, María M

    The genus Erwinia includes plant-associated pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. Among them, all species pathogenic to pome fruit trees ( E. amylovora, E. pyrifoliae, E. piriflorinigrans, Erwinia sp. from Japan) cause similar symptoms, but differ in their degrees of aggressiveness, i.e. in symptoms, host range or both. The presence of plasmids of similar size, in the range of 30 kb, is a common characteristic that they possess. Besides, they share some genetic content with high homology in several genes associated with exopolysaccharide production and hence, with virulence, as well as in some other genes. Knowledge of the content of these plasmids and comparative genetic analyses may provide interesting new clues to understanding the origin and evolution of these pathogens and the level of symptoms they produce. Furthermore, genetic similarities observed among some of the plasmids (and genomes) from the above indicated pathogenic species and E. tasmaniensis or E. billingiae , which are epiphytic on the same hosts, may reveal associations that could expose the mechanisms of origin of pathogens. A summary of the current information on their plasmids and the relationships among them is presented here.

  10. Genetic islands in pome fruit pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia species and related plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo eLlop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available New pathogenic bacteria species belonging to the genus Erwinia associated with pome fruit trees (Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. piriflorinigrans, E. uzenensis have been increasingly described in the last years, and comparative analyses have found that all these species share several genetic characteristics. Studies at different level (whole genome comparison, virulence genes, plasmid content, etc. show a high intraspecies homogeneity (i.e. among E. amylovora strains and also abundant similarities appear between the different Erwinia species: presence of plasmids of similar size in the pathogenic species; high similarity in several genes associated with exopolysaccharide production and hence, with virulence, as well as in some other genes, in the chromosomes. Many genetic similarities have been observed also among some of the plasmids (and genomes from the pathogenic species and E. tasmaniensis or E. billingiae, two epiphytic species on the same hosts. The amount of genetic material shared in this genus varies from individual genes to clusters, genomic islands and genetic material that even may constitute a whole plasmid. Recent research on evolution of erwinias point out the horizontal transfer acquisition of some genomic islands that were subsequently lost in some species and several pathogenic traits that are still present. How this common material has been obtained and is efficiently maintained in different species belonging to the same genus sharing a common ecological niche provides an idea of the origin and evolution of the pathogenic Erwinia and the interaction with nonpathogenic species present in the same niche, and the role of the genes that are conserved in all of them.

  11. Erwinia gerundensis sp. nov., a cosmopolitan epiphyte originally isolated from pome fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Born, Yannick; Blom, Jochen; Frey, Jürg E; Goesmann, Alexander; Cleenwerck, Ilse; de Vos, Paul; Bonaterra, Anna; Duffy, Brion; Montesinos, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    A survey to obtain potential antagonists of pome fruit tree diseases yielded two yellow epiphytic bacterial isolates morphologically similar to Pantoea agglomerans , but showing no biocontrol activity. Whole-cell MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analysis of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB sequences suggested the possibility of a novel species with a phylogenetic position in either the genus Pantoea or the genus Erwinia . Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) placed the two strains in the genus Erwinia and supported their classification as a novel species. The strains showed general phenotypic characteristics typical of this genus and results of DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed that they represent a single novel species. Both strains showed a DNA G+C content, as determined by HPLC, of 54.5 mol% and could be discriminated from phylogenetically related species of the genus Erwinia by their ability to utilize potassium gluconate, potassium 2-ketogluconate, maltose, melibiose and raffinose. Whole-genome sequencing of strain EM595 T revealed the presence of a chromosomal carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster similar to those found in species of the genera Cronobacter and Pantoea that explains the pigmentation of the strain, which is atypical for the genus Erwinia . Additional strains belonging to the same species were recovered from different plant hosts in three different continents, revealing the cosmopolitan nature of this epiphyte. The name Erwinia gerundensis sp. nov. is proposed, with EM595 T ( = LMG 28990 T  = CCOS 903 T ) as the designated type strain.

  12. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proverbs, M.D.; Newton, J.R.; Logan, D.M.; Brinton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  13. Taxonomy, phylogeny and identification of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with pome and stone fruit trees in South Africa and other regions of the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slippers, B.; Smit, W.A.; Crous, P.W.; Coutinho, T.A.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Species of Botryosphaeria are well-recognized pathogens of pome and stone fruit trees. The taxonomy of these fungi, however, has been confused in the past. Recent taxonomic changes to the Botryosphaeriaceae further influence the literature pertaining to these fungi. This study reviews the taxonomic

  14. One-step multiplex quantitative RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of viroids and phytoplasmas of pome fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Ioanna; Varveri, Christina; Olmos, Antonio; Vassilakos, Nikon

    2015-03-01

    A one-step multiplex real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based on TaqMan chemistry was developed for the simultaneous detection of Pear blister canker viroid and Apple scar skin viroid along with universal detection of phytoplasmas, in pome trees. Total nucleic acids (TNAs) extraction was performed according to a modified CTAB protocol. Primers and TaqMan MGB probes for specific detection of the two viroids were designed in this study, whereas for phytoplasma detection published universal primers and probe were used, with the difference that the later was modified to carry a MGB quencher. The pathogens were detected simultaneously in 10-fold serial dilutions of TNAs from infected plant material into TNAs of healthy plant up to dilutions 10(-5) for viroids and 10(-4) for phytoplasmas. The multiplex real-time assay was at least 10 times more sensitive than conventional protocols for viroid and phytoplasma detection. Simultaneous detection of the three targets was achieved in composite samples at least up to a ratio of 1:100 triple-infected to healthy tissue, demonstrating that the developed assay has the potential to be used for rapid and massive screening of viroids and phytoplasmas of pome fruit trees in the frame of certification schemes and surveys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Orchards for edible cities: cadmium and lead content in nuts, berries, pome and stone fruits harvested within the inner city neighbourhoods in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hoffen, Laura Pauline; Säumel, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Today's urban gardening focuses mainly on vegetable production and rarely includes fruit trees. Health effects of consuming urban crops are questioned due to high local pollution loads. Here, we determined cadmium and lead content in the edible parts of nuts, berries, pome, and stone fruits harvested from fruit trees and shrubs within inner city neighbourhoods of Berlin, Germany. We analysed how local settings at sampling sites shaped the trace metal content. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, fruit type, local traffic, and parameters related to barriers between the sampling site and neighbouring roads. Higher overall traffic burden and proximity to roads increased whereas buildings or vegetation as barriers reduced trace metal content in the edible biomass. We demonstrate, that the consumption of non-vegetable fruits growing in inner city sites in Berlin does not pose a risk on human health as long as the fruits are thoroughly washed and it is provided that site pollutions and impacts are considered in garden concepts and guidelines. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Simultaneous detection of three pome fruit tree viruses by one-step multiplex quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Ioanna; Beris, Despoina; Isaioglou, Ioannis; Olmos, Antonio; Varveri, Christina; Vassilakos, Nikon

    2017-01-01

    A one-step multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) based on TaqMan probes was developed for the simultaneous detection of Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) in total RNA of pome trees extracted with a CTAB method. The sensitivity of the method was established using in vitro synthesized viral transcripts serially diluted in RNA from healthy, virus-tested (negative) pome trees. The three viruses were simultaneously detected up to a 10-4 dilution of total RNA from a naturally triple-infected apple tree prepared in total RNA of healthy apple tissue. The newly developed RT-qPCR assay was at least one hundred times more sensitive than conventional single RT-PCRs. The assay was validated with 36 field samples for which nine triple and 11 double infections were detected. All viruses were detected simultaneously in composite samples at least up to the ratio of 1:150 triple-infected to healthy pear tissue, suggesting the assay has the capacity to examine rapidly a large number of samples in pome tree certification programs and surveys for virus presence.

  17. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozowicka, B., E-mail: B.Lozowicka@iorpib.poznan.pl [Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok (Poland); Mojsak, P.; Jankowska, M.; Kaczynski, P.; Hrynko, I.; Rutkowska, E.; Szabunko, J. [Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok (Poland); Borusiewicz, A. [Department of Agronomy, The Academy of Agrobusiness in Łomza (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005–2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01–0.81 mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor < 2.9% and < 10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. - Highlights: • Health risk assessment of insecticide via dietary intake of fruit was estimated. • Sixteen residues in pome, stone, berries and small fruit ranged from 0.01 to 0.8 mg/kg. • Organophosphates were the most frequently occurring group with common MoA. • Dietary exposures for adults and children were below the safety reference values. • Toxicological study provided important date of human health.

  18. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozowicka, B.; Mojsak, P.; Jankowska, M.; Kaczynski, P.; Hrynko, I.; Rutkowska, E.; Szabunko, J.; Borusiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005–2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01–0.81 mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor < 2.9% and < 10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. - Highlights: • Health risk assessment of insecticide via dietary intake of fruit was estimated. • Sixteen residues in pome, stone, berries and small fruit ranged from 0.01 to 0.8 mg/kg. • Organophosphates were the most frequently occurring group with common MoA. • Dietary exposures for adults and children were below the safety reference values. • Toxicological study provided important date of human health.

  19. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  20. Bioconversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study shows the performance of Trichoderma virens as an activator for conversion of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) into compost. EFB and POME are two abundant wastes produced by oil palm industries which keep accumulating. Since there is no proper way to dispose these wastes, ...

  1. Application of DEXiPM as a tool to co-design pome fruit systems towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaphilippe, A.; Angevin, F.; Buurma, J.; Caffi, T.; Capowiez, Y.; Fortino, G.; Heijne, B.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Holb, I.; Mayus, M.; Rossi, V.; Simon, S.; Strassemeyer, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of fruit production systems considering the latest innovations is a real challenge. Before being tested in an experimental station or in real farm conditions, the global sustainability of these newly designed orchards needs to be evaluated. Based on the DEXiPM® model, the DEXiPM-pomefruit

  2. Investigation on the Influence of Bio-catalytic Enzyme Produced from Fruit and Vegetable Waste on Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasit, Nazaitulshila; Chee Kuan, Ooi

    2018-04-01

    Pre-consumer waste from supermarkets, such as vegetables and fruits dreg are always discarded as solid waste and disposed to landfill. Implementing waste recovery method as a form of waste management strategy will reduce the amount of waste disposed. One of the ways to achieve this goal is through fermentation of the pre-consumer supermarket waste to produce a solution known as garbage enzyme. This study has been conducted to produce and characterize biocatalytic garbage enzyme and to evaluate its influence on palm oil mill effluent as a pre-treatment process before further biological process takes place. Garbage enzyme was produced by three-month long fermentation of a mixture of molasses, pre-consumer supermarket residues, and water in the ratio of 1:3:10. Subsequently, the characterization of enzyme was conducted based on pH, total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and enzyme activities. The influence of produced enzyme was evaluated on oil & grease (O&G), TSS and COD of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Different levels of dilution of garbage enzyme to POME samples (5%, 10%, 15%) were explored as pre-treatment (duration of six days) and the results showed that the garbage enzyme contained bio-catalytic enzyme such as amylase, protease, and lipase. The pre-treatment showed removal of 90% of O&G in 15% dilution of garbage enzyme. Meanwhile, reduction of TSS and COD in dilution of 10% garbage enzyme were measured at 50% and 25% respectively. The findings of this study are important to analyse the effectiveness of pre-treatment for further improvement of anaerobic treatment process of POME, especially during hydrolysis stage.

  3. Effects of palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, co-composting of pressed-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from 500 m3 closed anaerobic methane digested tank was carried out. High nitrogen and nutrients content were observed in the POME anaerobic sludge. The sludge was subjected to the ...

  4. RISK MANAGEMENT OF GERMAN FRUIT PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annkatrin PORSCH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Horticultural farms in Germany face substantial business risks. However, fruit farms often struggle to implement appropriate risk management processes, and the risk management literature widely has ignored this farm type. The aim of the study was to improve the assessment of risks by farmers and the choice of suitable risk management instruments. Therefore, a risk management process based on subjective probabilities and suitable for small and medium-sized farms was developed, considering the specific needs of family run businesses. An online survey was conducted to achieve a comprehensive view of the risk perception and risk management practices of German fruit producers. Price and production risks are the most relevant risk categories for fruit farmers. However, among single risk sources, those in the people risk category were seen as the most important. Results show significant interactions among risk categories and a significant correlation between loss experience and the rating of risk categories. The assumption that risk averse farmers generally rate risks higher than risk neutral or risk seeking farmers cannot be confirmed. Diversification seems to be the most important risk management instrument for many fruit producers, especially diversification of marketing channels, farm income, and production activities. Further research should focus on the apparent inconsistency between the satisfaction with instruments reported by farmers and the actual implementation of many of them (e.g., hail insurance and anti-hail net. Furthermore, there is a need for research, to develop decision models considering the interactions of risks and risk management instruments, loss experience and risk seeking attitudes.

  5. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  6. Evaluasi Pertumbuhan Mikroalga Dalam Medium Pome : Variasi Jenis Mikroalga, Medium Dan Waktu Penambahan Nutrient

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Muhammad Zaini; Titisari, Yasinta Nikita; Hadiyanto, H

    2012-01-01

    POME is a liquid waste produced by crude palm oil industry. POME has not been processed optimally and therefore it is problem for environment due to high level of COD and BOD. Algae is known as bioabsorbent which can neutralize pollutants components in the liquid waste. For its growth, microalgae needs nutrients containing carbon, nitrogen, and phosphor. These nutrients are required for photosynthetic to convert carbon source into biomass. POME contains large amount of C, N, P and therefore t...

  7. Identification and Differentiation of Monilinia Species Causing Brown Rot of Pome and Stone Fruit using High-Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasileiou, Antonios; Madesis, Panagiotis B; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2016-09-01

    Brown rot is a devastating disease of stone fruit caused by Monilinia spp. Among these species, Monilinia fructicola is a quarantine pathogen in Europe but has recently been detected in several European countries. Identification of brown rot agents relies on morphological differences or use of molecular methods requiring fungal isolation. The current study was initiated to develop and validate a high-resolution melting (HRM) method for the identification of the Monilinia spp. and for the detection of M. fructicola among other brown rot pathogens. Based on the sequence of the cytb intron from M. laxa, M. fructicola, M. fructigena, M. mumecola, M. linhartiana, and M. yunnanensis isolates originating from several countries, a pair of universal primers for species identification and a pair of primers specific to M. fructicola were designed. The specificity of the primers was verified to ensure against cross-reaction with other fungal species. The melting curve analysis using the universal primers generated six different HRM curve profiles, each one specific for each species. Τhe HRM analysis primers specific to M. fructicola amplified a 120-bp region with a distinct melt profile corresponding to the presence of M. fructicola, regardless of the presence of other species. HRM analysis can be a useful tool for rapid identification and differentiation of the six Monilinia spp. using a single primer pair. This novel assay has the potential for simultaneous identification and differentiation of the closely related Monilinia spp. as well as for the differentiation of M. fructicola from other common pathogens or saprophytes that may occur on the diseased fruit.

  8. an assessment of timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is observed that most of the timber trees producing valuable fruits and seeds have low ... sector of the economy by providing major raw materials (saw logs, ... the trees also produce industrial raw materials like latex, ... villagers while avoiding some of the ecological costs of ..... enzymes of rats with carbon tetrachloride.

  9. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries.

  10. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using bio-methane potential (BMP) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nur Izzah Hamna A.; Hanafiah, Marlia M.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is a promising sustainable and renewable energy alternative to reduce the dependence on fossil fuel. In Malaysia, the conversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to bioenergy has recently been expanded due to its high potential in generating energy. However, without a proper treatment and management, POME could be harmful to environment because it emits greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere and could also pollutes the watercourses if discharge directly due to the high acidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. Many initiatives have been taken by the government towards sustainable development. Therefore, more efforts need to be practiced to improve and upscale the technology for a better waste management. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of POME was carried out using Bio-methane potential (BMP) test in batch and laboratory scales. Physicochemical characteristics and the biogas production of POME were measured. The BMP test under mesophilic condition was conducted for 23 consecutive days to measure the biogas production. The POME produced 721.3 cm3 of biogas by using anaerobic sludge as inoculum. The results also found that the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases produced with 360.65 cm3 and 288.52 cm3, respectively.

  12. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  13. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  14. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. FRUITFUL: Integrated supply-chain information system for fruit produce between South Africa and the Netherlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Polderijk, JJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available and improved quality performance, which would strengthen the market position of South-African fruit and that of related fruit supply 130 J.J. POLDERDIJK ET AL. chains on the world market. As a result of this, stakeholders in the fruit export supply chain... choice between an overarching system that would replace existing systems and a decentralized system focusing on interfaces between existing facilities. SOUTH-AFRICAN FRUIT EXPORT INDUSTRY South Africa’s climate and soil condition provide ideal...

  16. The effect of natural zeolite as microbial immobilization media in anaerobic digestion at various concentrations of palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu, Erika Dyah; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is one of the solutions in POME treatment because it generates energy in the form of biogas. Nevertheless, high concentration of POME fed into the digester will cause high acidification level and eventually cause process failure. The failure can also be affected by high inhibitor concentration contained in POME, one of which is long chain fatty acid. The addition of immobilization media is commonly used to increase the bacteria resistance to inhibitor. Natural zeolite is considered as appropriate immobilization media for waste treatment purpose since it is cheap, has high mechanical strength, high immobilization capacity, and its ability as cation exchanger. The digested biodiesel waste was used as starter inoculum for its good capability in digesting oil-containing feed such as POME. This research was conducted to evaluate critical concentration of POME fed to digester where the natural zeolite could not reduce the inhibitory effect. The concentrations of POME evaluated were 10,000 mg sCOD/L and 17,000 mg sCOD/L, which were higher than previous studies(5,000 to 8,000 mg sCOD/L). The research showed that at such high sCOD concentrations, the addition of zeolite did not significantly increase COD reduction nor biogas production rate, for both POME concentrations to be compared to control. The biogas produced by digester fed by 10,000 mg/L POME and 17,000 mg/L POME was 751 and 100 mL/g sCOD, respectively, indicating higher inhibitor effect in the digester with 17,000 mg SCOD/L initial concentration.

  17. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  18. Ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Valiuškaitė, Alma; Survilienė, Elena; Lugauskas, Albinas; Levinskaitė, Loreta

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ecological aspects of distribution of potential toxin-producing micromycetes on stored apple fruit was investigated at the Lithuanian Institute of Horticulture and Institute of Botany in 2004–2005. Fungi of twenty species belonging to eight genera were isolated from rotten and healthy apple fruits. Penicillium expansum and Penicillium italicum showed a high frequency of occurrence and were isolated from 50% and 17% healthy apples and from 83% and 67% of rotten fruits respectivel...

  19. Guild of Frugivores on three fruit-producing tree species Polyscias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guild of Frugivores on three fruit-producing tree species Polyscias fulva, Syzyguim Guineensis SUBSP. Bamensdae and Pouteria Altissima ) in Ngel Nyaki Forest Reserve, a Montane Forest Ecosystem in Nigeria.

  20. Characterization of modified zeolite as microbial immobilization media on POME anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyono, Rochim B.; Ismiyati, Sri; Ginting, Simparmin Br; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2018-03-01

    As the world’s biggest palm oil producer, Indonesia generates also huge amount of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) wastewater and causes serious problem in environment. In conventional method, POME was converted into biogas using lagoon system which required extensive land area. Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) proposes more effective biogas producing with smaller land area. In the proposed system, a immobilization media would be main factor for enhancing productivity. This research studied on characterization of Lampung natural zeolite as immobilization media in the AFBR system for POME treatment. Various activation method such as physical and chemical were attempted to create more suitable material which has larger surface area, pore size distribution as well as excellent surface structures. The physical method was applied by heating up the material till 400°C while HCl was used on the chemical activation. Based on the result, the chemical activation increased the surface area significantly into 71 m2/g compared to physical as well as original zeolite. The strong acid material was quite effective to enforce the impurities within zeolite pore structure compared to heating up the material. According to distribution data, the Lampung zeolite owned the pore size with the range of 3 – 5 μm which was mesopore material. The pore size was appropriate for immobilization media as it was smaller than size of biogas microbial. The XRD patterns verified that chemical activation could maintain the zeolite structure as the original. Obviously, the SEM photograph showed apparent structure and pore size on the modified zeolite using chemical method. The testing of modified zeolite on the batch system was done to evaluate the characterization process. The modified zeolite using chemical process resulted fast reduction of COD and stabilized the volatile fatty acid as the intermediate product of anaerobic digestion, especially in the beginning of the process. Therefore, the

  1. Acclimatization Study for Biohydrogen Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in Continuous-flow System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Lutpi, N. A.; Wong, Y. S.; Tengku Izhar, T. N.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to study the acclimatization phase for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by adapting the microorganism to the new environment in continuous-flow system of thermophilic bioreactor. The thermophilic fermentation was continuously loaded with 0.4 L/day of raw POME for 35 days to acclimatize the microorganism until a steady state of biohydrogen production was obtained. The significance effect of acclimatization phase on parameter such as pH, microbial growth, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and alkalinity were also studied besides the production of biogas. This study had found that the thermophilic bioreactor reach its steady state with 1960 mL/d of biogas produced, which consist of 894 ppm of hydrogen composition.

  2. Preparation And Characterization Of Modified Sago Waste Super absorbent For Pome Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norzita Yacob; Nurul Hidayah Ahmad Zahari; Maznah Mahmud; Norhashidah Talip; Kamaruddin Hashim; Zahid Abdullah; Norafifah Ahmad Fabillah; Mohamad Nalrazmi Mohamad Shukri; Nurul Aizam Idayu Mat Sani

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) was treated using adsorption technique as a good alternative sustainable management practice of this waste. The adsorbent used is a modified sago waste by grafting technique. Graft polymerization and crosslinking using radiation processing technology are the attractive techniques for modification of chemical and physical properties of polymers. One example of this technique is to produce super adsorbent from agriculture waste, as described in this paper. Super adsorbent polymer from sago waste was prepared using gamma irradiation throughout of this study. The fibre from sago waste mixed with monomer, water soluble polymer and alkaline solution prior to radiation process. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were carried out to confirm the chemical structure and morphology of the super adsorbent. The result obtained showed that this super adsorbent can be used to treat POME. (author)

  3. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  4. Isolation and identification of biocellulose-producing bacterial strains from Malaysian acidic fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, W W Y; Rukayadi, Y; Meor Hussin, A S

    2016-05-01

    Biocellulose (BC) is pure extracellular cellulose produced by several species of micro-organisms that has numerous applications in the food, biomedical and paper industries. However, the existing biocellulose-producing bacterial strain with high yield was limited. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the potential biocellulose-producing bacterial isolates from Malaysian acidic fruits. One hundred and ninety-three bacterial isolates were obtained from 19 local acidic fruits collected in Malaysia and screened for their ability to produce BC. A total of 15 potential bacterial isolates were then cultured in standard Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium statically at 30°C for 2 weeks to determine the BC production. The most potent bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, morphological and biochemical characteristics. Three new and potent biocellulose-producing bacterial strains were isolated from soursop fruit and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42, Pantoea vagans WAUPM45 and Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42 was the most potent biocellulose-producing bacterial strain that produced the highest amount of BC 0·58 g l(-1) in standard HS medium. Whereas, the isolates P. vagans WAUPM45 and B. fluminensis WAUPM53 showed 0·50 and 0·52 g l(-1) of BC production, respectively. Biocellulose (BC) is pure extracellular cellulose that is formed by many micro-organisms in the presence of carbon source and acidic condition. It can replace plant-based cellulose in multifarious applications due to its unique characteristics. In this study, three potential biocellulose-producing bacterial strains were obtained from Malaysian acidic fruits and identified as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia WAUPM42, Pantoea vagans WAUPM45 and Beijerinckia fluminensis WAUPM53. This study reports for the first time the new biocellulose-producing bacterial strains isolated from Malaysian acidic fruits. © 2016 The

  5. PURE progress in innovative IPM in pome fruit in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, B.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Caffi, T.; Köhl, J.; Riemens, M.M.; Simon, S.; Buurma, J.S.; Hennen, W.H.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on innovative Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tools is done onstation and on-farm in the PURE project. The idea is that IPM tools are tested under well-defined conditions in experimental orchards. Subsequently, they are tested in commercial orchards as part of a total IPM system where

  6. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  7. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  8. Kinetics of Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in Double-Stage Batch Bioreactor with Recirculation and Fluidization of Microbial Immobilization Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, L. I.; Damayanti, S. I.; Sudibyo, H.; Budhijanto, W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) becomes big problem for palm oil industries, especially for Crude Palm Oil (CPO) industry since it produces 3 tons of POME for every ton of CPO production.The high amount of organic loading in POME makes it potential as a substrate in anaerobic digestion to generate biogas as renewable energy source. The most common but conventional method by using open lagoon is still preferred for most CPO industry in Indonesia to treat POME because of its simplicity and easiness. However, this method creates new major problem for the water bodies since it has no significant chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and needs wide area. Besides, greenhouse gas (CH4) is also released during the process. An innovation was made in this study by designing vertical column process equipment to run an anaerobic digestion of POME. The vertical column was functioned as anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). To enhance the digestion rate in AFBR, natural zeolite was used as the immobilization media and the inoculum was taken from digested biodiesel waste. This research aimed to determine the kinetic constants of double-stage anaerobic POME digestion for COD removal and biogas production. To get close to the real condition, the POME used in this experiment had 8,000 mg/L of sCOD (the real sCOD was ±16,000 mg/L). The experiment was conducted under room temperature with up-flow velocity between 1.75 and 2.3 cm/s for optimum fluidization of immobilization media.

  9. Chemical constituents, radical scavenging activity and enzyme inhibitory capacity of fruits from Cotoneaster pannosus Franch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les, Francisco; López, Víctor; Caprioli, Giovanni; Iannarelli, Romilde; Fiorini, Dennis; Innocenti, Marzia; Bellumori, Maria; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-05-24

    Cotoneaster pannosus (Rosaceae) is a semievergreen shrub, producing globose dark red pomes, native to China and widely used as an ornamental plant all over the world. Despite its extensive cultivation, little information is available on the chemical composition and biological activities of its fruits. In this work, the analysis of the chemical composition of C. pannosus fruits, in terms of phenolic components, carotenoids and ascorbic acid by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/ESI-MS and MS/MS as well as in terms of macro- and micro-nutrients was performed. The fruits proved to be a good source of shikimic acid and caffeoylquinic acids, whereas β-carotene, pelargonidin-3-O glucoside and cyanidin-3,5-rutinoside gave an important contribution to the color of the fruit. Both the polar and apolar fruit extracts showed noteworthy radical scavenger activity and inhibitory effects against monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), tyrosinase (TYR) and α-glucosidase, making C. pannosus red pomes a promising candidate ingredient in functional foods and dietary supplements.

  10. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire M.; Mestrot, Adrien; Feldmann, Joerg; Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes

  11. Cadmium and lead in vegetable and fruit produce selected from specific regional areas of the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Gareth J., E-mail: g.norton@abdn.ac.uk [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Deacon, Claire M. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Mestrot, Adrien [Soil Science Group, Institute of Geography, Universität Bern, Hallerstrasse 12, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Feldmann, Joerg [Department of Chemistry, School of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Paul; Baskaran, Christina [Food Standards Agency, Aviation House, Kingsway, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Meharg, Andrew A. [Institute for Global Food Security, Queen' s University Belfast, David Keir Building, Malone Road, Belfast BT9 5BN (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium and lead were determined in fruit and vegetable produce (~ 1300 samples) collected from a field and market basket study of locally grown produce from the South-West of Britain (Devon and Cornwall). These were compared with similarly locally grown produce from the North-East of Britain (Aberdeenshire). The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the market basket produce were compared to the maximum levels (ML) set by the European Union (EU). For cadmium 0.2% of the samples exceeded the ML, and 0.6% of the samples exceeded the ML for lead. The location of cadmium and lead in potatoes was performed using laser ablation ICP-MS. All tested samples exhibited higher lead concentrations, and most exhibited increased concentrations of cadmium in the potato skin compared to the flesh. The concentrations of cadmium and lead found in fruits and vegetables sampled during this study do not increase concern about risk to human health. - Highlights: • Cadmium and lead concentrations determined in fruit and vegetable produce • 0.2% of the samples exceeded guideline values for cadmium. • 0.6% of the samples exceeded guideline values for lead. • Higher concentrations of cadmium and lead were found in the skins of potatoes.

  12. A holistic approach to managing palm oil mill effluent (POME): biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2009-01-01

    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products.

  13. Fumonisin contamination and fumonisin producing black Aspergilli in dried vine fruits of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Suri, K; Szigeti, Gy; Szekeres, A; Varga, M; Tóth, B; Bartók, T

    2010-10-15

    Aspergillus niger isolates are able to produce fumonisins in high quantities on agar media with a low water activity. Several agricultural products fit this criterion, including dried vine fruits, dates and figs. Data on the occurrence and role of this species in fumonisin contamination of agricultural products with high sugar content are needed to clarify the importance of A. niger in human health. The mycobiota and fumonisin contamination of various dried vine fruit samples collected from different countries were examined to clarify the role of black Aspergilli in fumonisin contamination of such products. All except two of the examined samples were contaminated with black Aspergilli. Species assignment of the isolates was carried out using sequence analysis of part of the calmodulin gene. The range of fumonisin isomers present in the raisins samples, and produced by A. niger isolates collected from dried vine fruits was also examined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/ESI-ITMS). Among the 30 A. niger/A. awamori isolates identified, 20 were found to be able to produce fumonisins (average contamination: 5.16 mg/kg; range: 0.017-19.6 mg/kg). The average fumonisin content of the 7 dried vine fruit samples which were found to be contaminated by potential fumonisin producing black Aspergilli was 7.22 mg/kg (range: 4.55-35.49 mg/kg). The isolates produced several fumonisin isomers also present in the dried vine fruit samples, including fumonisins B(1-4), 3-epi-FB(3), 3-epi-FB(4), iso-FB(1), and two iso-FB(2,3) forms. Fumonisin B(1) was detected for the first time in A. niger cultures. Most of these isomers have previously only been identified in Fusarium species. Our data indicate that A. niger and A. awamori are responsible for fumonisin contamination of dried vine fruits worldwide. The observed levels of contamination are alarming and pose a new threat for food safety. Copyright

  14. Biohythane system using two steps of POME fermentation process for supplying electrical energi : economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuldian, P.; Hastuti, Z. D.; Murti, S. D. S.; Adiarso

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia as the largest producer of palm oil in the world has the prospective to generate additional benefits such as electricity by utilizing Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) content of 35,000 ppm POME is a great potential for conversion to hydrogen and methane through a fermentation process. In this study, two stages of fermentation using a microbial consortium have been performed in the 1 m3 BioHythane reactor system to produce biohydrogen and biomethane. After two-stage fermentation process for 24 hours in this system, the microbial consortium succeeds in producing biohydrogen and biomethane of 32 and 60 vol. %, respectively. This gas product after the purification process could be converted to electricity to be 0.02 and 0.75 kWe, respectively. Furthermore, as result of economic calculation analysis, this biohythane system showed up the value of Capital Expenditures (CAPEX) of US 26,39540 and Operating Expenses (OPEX) of US 14,712 per year, and resulted total generated electricity cost of US 2.478 / kWh.

  15. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor for thermophilic palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, P.E.; Chong, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor was developed with the aim to minimize operational problems in the anaerobic treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions. The performance of UASB-HCPB reactor on POME treatment was investigated at 55 °C. Subsequent to start-up, the performance of the UASB-HCPB reactor was evaluated in terms of i) effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT); ii) effect of organic loading rate (OLR); and iii) effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on thermophilic POME treatment. Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days, removing 88% COD and 90% BOD respectively at an OLR of 28.12 g L −1  d −1 , producing biogas with 52% of methane. Results from the performance study of the UASB-HCPB reactor on thermophilic POME treatment indicated that HRT of 2 days, OLR of 27.65 g L −1  d −1 and MLVSS concentration of 14.7 g L −1 was required to remove 90% of COD and BOD, 80% of suspended solid and at the same time produce 60% of methane. - Highlights: • UASB-HCPB was proposed for POME treatment under thermophilic conditions. • Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days. • 88% COD and 90% BOD were removed at an OLR of 28.12 g COD/L.day during start-up. • HRT of 2 days and OLR of 27.65 g COD/L.day was required to produce 60% methane. • Methanosarcina sp. forms the majority of microbial population in the UASB section

  16. Impact of certification on fruit producers in the Sao Francisco Valley in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina DÖRR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Producers and exporters of fresh fruits and vegetables from developingcountries like Brazil are increasingly required to demonstrate the safety andtraceability of their produce up to the consumption stage. In fact, the Brazilianexport market is still relatively underdeveloped, with an export share of only2.4% of the total produced volume. However, certification may also have theeffect of a non-tariff trade barrier, undermining the capability and financialability of especially small-scale farmers in exporting to international markets.This study, therefore, aims at providing an economic analysis of certification onmango and grapes producers. A survey of 303 grapes and mango farmers wasconducted in 2006 in the Juazeiro and Petrolina regions of the Sao FranciscoValley in Brazil. Certified and non-certified farmers as well as those in processto obtain certification were included in the sample. Empirical analysis using alogit model shows that grapes farmers have higher probability to certify thanmango growers. There are two variables which have a positive and significanteffect: education and experience. However, small-scale farms, the dependencyon non-agricultural income and a trust-based arrangement have a negative butsignificant effect.

  17. Neosartorya glabra polygalacturonase produced from fruit peels as inducers has the potential for application in passion fruit and apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Elisa Pinheiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Polygalacturonases are enzymes with the biotechnological potential for use in fruit juice clarification and for the enhancement of filtration efficiency. The aim of this work was to assess the production of polygalacturonase by the fungus Neosartorya glabra by means of solid-state and submerged fermentation using fruit peel residues as the carbon source, and also apply the enzyme in the clarification and decrease in viscosity of passion fruit and apple juices. The highest polygalacturonase (4.52 U/g/h production was obtained by means of submerged fermentation in Vogel´s medium (1964 containing orange peel – Bahia variety (Citrus sinensis, at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v, dried mass at 30-35°C for 72 h. The polygalacturonase of the crude extract presented optimal activity at 60°C and pH 5.5. The enzyme retained around 90% of the initial activity after 180 minutes at 40°C, and 50% of the initial activity after 150 minutes at 50°C. The enzyme was shown to be stable at acid pH values (3.0-6.5 after 120 minutes at 25oC. All these favourable enzymatic properties make the polygalacturonase attractive for potential uses in the industry of pectin-rich fruit juices, since the application of the crude extract to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis juice caused an 80% reduction in viscosity and 75% decrease in light absorbance. In the processing of apple pulp juice (Malus domestica, there was a 50% reduction in viscosity and 78% decrease in light absorbance.

  18. Fruit and seed characteristics of diploid seedless watermelon (citrullus lanatas) cultivars produced by soft-X-irradiated pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Keita; Morishita, Masami [National Research Insti. of Vegetables, Ornamental Plants and Tea, Fukuoka (Japan). Kurume Branch

    2000-11-01

    We compared the differences in number of seeds, size of normal and empty seeds, and fruit quality of seedless fruit induced by soft- X- irradiated pollen to determine which cultivars are best suited for breeding and producing high quality seedless watermelon. Two wild types, eleven Japanese, one Chinese, and three American watermelon cultivars were studied. We also observed the effect of soft- X- rays on pollen germination and elongation of the pollen tube. The germination rates of pollen treated with 1000 to 2000 Gy of soft-X-ray were almost the same as those of the control, whereas the rate was significantly reduced at 3000 Gy. Soft-X- irradiated pollen germinated on a stigma, and the pollen tube elongated in the embryo sac. Watermelon fruit pollinated with pollen irradiated with 800 Gy of soft-X-ray had no normal seeds but only empty ones. To delineate the varietal differences by the number of empty seeds and seed size in seedless fruit, wild types, Japanese, Chinese, and American watermelon cultivars were investigated. The number and size of empty seeds varied among cultivars. A low correlation (r=0.272) existed between the total number of seeds in the control fruit and the number of empty seeds in the seedless fruit. Whereas, a high correlation (seed length: r=0.943, P<0.001, seed width: r=0.883, P < 0.001) was found between the size of normal seeds in control fruit and empty seeds in seedless fruit. Diploid seedless fruit was similar to control fruit in size, shape, color, rind thickness, sugar content, and days from pollination to maturity. (author)

  19. Fruit and seed characteristics of diploid seedless watermelon (citrullus lanatas) cultivars produced by soft-X-irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Keita; Morishita, Masami

    2000-01-01

    We compared the differences in number of seeds, size of normal and empty seeds, and fruit quality of seedless fruit induced by soft- X- irradiated pollen to determine which cultivars are best suited for breeding and producing high quality seedless watermelon. Two wild types, eleven Japanese, one Chinese, and three American watermelon cultivars were studied. We also observed the effect of soft- X- rays on pollen germination and elongation of the pollen tube. The germination rates of pollen treated with 1000 to 2000 Gy of soft-X-ray were almost the same as those of the control, whereas the rate was significantly reduced at 3000 Gy. Soft-X- irradiated pollen germinated on a stigma, and the pollen tube elongated in the embryo sac. Watermelon fruit pollinated with pollen irradiated with 800 Gy of soft-X-ray had no normal seeds but only empty ones. To delineate the varietal differences by the number of empty seeds and seed size in seedless fruit, wild types, Japanese, Chinese, and American watermelon cultivars were investigated. The number and size of empty seeds varied among cultivars. A low correlation (r=0.272) existed between the total number of seeds in the control fruit and the number of empty seeds in the seedless fruit. Whereas, a high correlation (seed length: r=0.943, P<0.001, seed width: r=0.883, P < 0.001) was found between the size of normal seeds in control fruit and empty seeds in seedless fruit. Diploid seedless fruit was similar to control fruit in size, shape, color, rind thickness, sugar content, and days from pollination to maturity. (author)

  20. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Jongchun

    2008-07-01

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  1. Monitoring, genomic study and control of patulin producing fungi in Korean fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongho; Lim, Sangyong; Joe, Minho; Yun, Hyejung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [KBSI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongchun [Seonam Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    This study was intended to apply irradiation technology for the degradation of patulin from apples and apple juices by investigating their physical, mechanical, biological, and pharmacochemical properties in view of potential uses in the bio-industry. The patulin producing fungi was separated from in Korean apples. Totally, 16 morphological types of fungi were isolated from the apples and a patulin producing fungi was identified. The isolated patulin producing fungus was found to a represent species of Penicillium crustosum. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin was remained at apple juice. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependant. The effects of a gamma irradiation on the physiochemical and physical characteristics of apple was investigated during a post-irradiation storage at 4 and 25. Gamma irradiation dose not affect stability of the nutritional contents, functional properties and physical characteristics of apples, especially in the condition of a cold storage after a radiation treatment. The degradation condition characteristics of patulin in apple juice and functional properties of corresponding condition were monitored by response surface methodology (RSM)

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions of imported and locally produced fruit and vegetable commodities: A quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalský, Marián; Hooda, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Green house gas (GHG) emission of selected fruit and vegetables (SFVs) estimated. • Production and transport – most energy-intensive life cycle stages considered. • Sourcing SFVs from non-European countries causes much GHG emissions. • Increased UK production of SFVs offers considerable emission savings. • Sourcing SFVs from Europe can help make considerable GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Today considerable efforts are being made in identifying means of further energy efficiencies within the UK food system. Current air importation of fruit and vegetables (FVs) generates large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions part of which could be avoided. Local food production has been recognized as an environmentally feasible alternative production option and could help reduce GHG emissions, as required under the legally binding emissions targets stipulated by the UK Climate Change Act 2008. Climate change impacts of FVs importation were determined for a selection of five indigenous FV commodities, namely: apples, cherries, strawberries, garlic and peas. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) emissions associated with the production and transport stages were calculated using the sample of selected fruit and vegetables (SFVs). The latter stage includes three diverse geographic locations/regions for emissions comparison, namely the UK, Europe and non-European (NE) countries. On average (across the five SFVs), NE commodities, all in fresh/chilled state, were found to contain embedded (arising from production, air freighting and distribution within the UK) GHG emissions of 10.16 kg CO 2 e/kg. This is 9.66 kg more CO 2 e emissions compared to a kilogram of these commodities produced and supplied locally. A scenario-based approach determined the level of emissions savings that could be achieved by local FVs production in the UK. The least dramatic change of SCENARIO-1 (25% reduction in NE SFVs imports by increasing their local production by the same

  3. The impact of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) application on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is considered an efficient soil conditioner due to its high organic contents but the presence of phenol compounds limits their widespread use in agriculture. In the present study, POME was subjected to both aerobic and anaerobic decomposition to reduce its organic strength and degrade its ...

  4. ESR detection of free radicals produced in irradiated fresh fruits and dried foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos G, E.; Gomes, V.; Garcia, F.; Azorin, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to measure the stability of free radicals produced by the irradiation treatment in mangoes and in four spices: black pepper, oregano, 'guajillo' chili and 'morron' chili. The ESR spectra for mangoes were scanned in three different parts from the seeds and were recorded in fresh and dried tissues. The ESR spectra in fresh tissue of no irradiated mangoes, were a sextet line signal produced by Mn 2+ ion and a singlet centered at g = 2.00 produced by the endogenous radical. New resonances were observed in the irradiated samples at 1.5 mT and 3 mT respects to the center line for right and left side. These new resonance signals were-observed for eight days in mangoes treated at 1.00 kGy, and for three days at 0.15 kGy. The resonance due to the irradiation was observed in Iyophilized mangoes only one day after the treatment, in the vacuum dried samples, no new resonances were observed. The triplet signal, as well as the central single line appeared after irradiation in black pepper, morron chili and guajillo chili. These signals were also observed in the irradiated spices at any radiation dose higher than 1.0 kGy. The signals decrease promptly, in ten days after the 'irradiation. It was not possible to observe the triplet signal in oregano, even when the samples were analyzed immediately after irradiation treatment. The only signal observed in irradiated spice was the endogenous radical. This signal increased as the radiation dose increased and decreased during storage time at room temperature. Results showed that free radicals produced in irradiated fresh fruits or dried foods have a quick recombination. It was observed that in the spices the signal remains for several weeks meanwhile only eight days in mangoes. (Author)

  5. Mesophilic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Choi, Seon-Mi; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Jung, Jin-Young

    2013-01-01

    The palm oil mill industry generates palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) as by-products. This study reports the mesophilic co-digestion of POME with EFB. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of POME and EFB was 0.397 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 0.264 L CH4/g VS, respectively. In a series of batch tests at various EFB to POME ratios, the maximum methane production rate was achieved at an EFB:POME ratio of 0.25-0.31:1. Performance data from lab-scale digesters confirmed the positive synergism by the addition of EFB to POME, which was attributed to the balanced chemical composition, for example the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio. The EFB addition enhanced the acceptable organic loading rate, methane production, COD removal, and microbial activity. The mesophilic co-digestion of POME and EFB promises to be a viable recycling method to alleviate pollution problems and recover renewable energy in the palm oil mill industry.

  6. Chlorophyll Fluorescence Sorting Method to Improve Quality of Capsicum Pepper Seed Lots Produced from Different Maturity Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenanoglu, B.B.; Demir, I.; Jalink, H.

    2013-01-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the efficacy of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) sorting to improve seed germination, seedling emergence, and vigor of seeds produced from different maturity fruits of four different cultivars. Four harvest dates from each cultivar were evaluated by harvesting

  7. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  8. Optimal moment determination in POME-copula based hydrometeorological dependence modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengfeng; Wang, Dong; Singh, Vijay P.; Wang, Yuankun; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun; Zou, Xinqing; Chen, Yuanfang; Chen, Xi

    2017-07-01

    Copula has been commonly applied in multivariate modelling in various fields where marginal distribution inference is a key element. To develop a flexible, unbiased mathematical inference framework in hydrometeorological multivariate applications, the principle of maximum entropy (POME) is being increasingly coupled with copula. However, in previous POME-based studies, determination of optimal moment constraints has generally not been considered. The main contribution of this study is the determination of optimal moments for POME for developing a coupled optimal moment-POME-copula framework to model hydrometeorological multivariate events. In this framework, margins (marginals, or marginal distributions) are derived with the use of POME, subject to optimal moment constraints. Then, various candidate copulas are constructed according to the derived margins, and finally the most probable one is determined, based on goodness-of-fit statistics. This optimal moment-POME-copula framework is applied to model the dependence patterns of three types of hydrometeorological events: (i) single-site streamflow-water level; (ii) multi-site streamflow; and (iii) multi-site precipitation, with data collected from Yichang and Hankou in the Yangtze River basin, China. Results indicate that the optimal-moment POME is more accurate in margin fitting and the corresponding copulas reflect a good statistical performance in correlation simulation. Also, the derived copulas, capturing more patterns which traditional correlation coefficients cannot reflect, provide an efficient way in other applied scenarios concerning hydrometeorological multivariate modelling.

  9. Produce from Africa?s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; G?lvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the A...

  10. Modeling Lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment: from Batch to Continuous Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti Azis, Muhammad; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is aiming to produce 30 million tones/year of crude palm oil (CPO) by 2020. As a result, 90 million tones/year of POME will be produced. POME is highly polluting wastewater which may cause severe environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Due to the limitation of open pond treatment, the use of AFBR has been considered as a potential technology to treat POME. This study aims to develop mathematical models of lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) in batch and continuous processes. In addition, the AFBR also utilized natural zeolite as an immobilized media for microbes. To initiate the biomass growth, biodiesel waste has been used as an inoculum. In the first part of this study, a batch AFBR was operated to evaluate the COD, VFA, and CH4 concentrations. By comparing the batch results with and without zeolite, it showed that the addition of 17 g/gSCOD zeolite gave larger COD decrease within 20 days of operation. In order to elucidate the mechanism, parameter estimations of 12 kinetic parameters were proposed to describe the batch reactor performance. The model in general could describe the batch experimental data well. In the second part of this study, the kinetic parameters obtained from batch reactor were used to simulate the performance of double column AFBR where the acidogenic and methanogenic biomass were separated. The simulation showed that a relatively long residence time (Hydraulic Residence Time, HRT) was required to treat POME using the proposed double column AFBR. Sensitivity analyses was conducted and revealed that μm1 appeared to be the most sensitive parameter to reduce the HRT of double column AFBR.

  11. Lignin recovery and it effects quality of anaerobic treated palm oil mill effluent (AT-POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqi Ibrahim, Abdul; Fahmi Ridwan, Muhammad; Zulzikrami Azner Abidin, Che; Ong, Soon Ann; Shian Wong, Yee; Wazira Azhari, Ayu; Norruhaidawati Ozir, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Lignin is one of the main structural polymers present in plant tissue. It can also be found as an isolated product of the pulp and paper industry. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been known as high strength industrial wastewater that is difficult to treat due to its large variety of inorganic and organic contents. The main purpose of this study is to recover soluble lignin from anaerobically treated palm oil mill effluent (AT-POME) and indirectly improves the quality of AT-POME. AT-POME was adjusted to different pH using different type of acids. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was utilized to obtain the optimum operating parameters as well as to analyse the interaction between them. Model shows that 74.67 % of lignin can be recovered from AT-POME after 5 minutes reaction time using sulfuric acid (H2S04) at pH 5. Hence from the experiment, it was proved that simple pH adjustment could precipitate the soluble lignin from AT-POME.

  12. Do sun- versus shade-grown kiwifruits perform differently upon storage? An overview of fruit maturity and nutraceutical properties of whole and fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Marco; Tardelli, Francesca; Remorini, Damiano; Massai, Rossano; Guidi, Lucia

    2014-05-14

    Fresh-cut produce represents a good method to save about 25% of the kiwifruit not useful to meet the fresh fruit-marketing standard due to improper size and shape. For that reason, fresh-cut kiwifruit has been extensively studied. However, the comprehension of the influence of some aspects of cultivation might further increase the shelf life as well as the nutritional values of that fruit. This study explored the hypothesis that kiwifruits grown fully exposed to sunlight or partially shaded differently perform upon storage as whole fruit and as minimally processed produce. Flesh firmness (FF), total solids soluble (SSC), ascorbate (AAT), flavonoids (TFO), and phenols (TF) contents were evaluated in sliced and whole fruit upon 3 days of storage at 4 °C after 75 days of cold chamber storage at 0 °C. The activities of two enzymes related to the softening process, polygalacturonase (PG) and pectinmethylesterase (PME), were evaluated as well. FF and SSC were constitutively higher in sun-exposed fruit, and those characteristics remained higher during the storage as whole fruit. Greater constitutive content of AAT, TFO, and TP was found in sun-exposed whole fruit, although after cutting the reduction in their content was significantly lower in shaded fruits. PME and PG activities were higher only in whole shaded fruits, whereas no relevant differences occurred after cutting. In summary, sun-exposed fruits were more suitable for the fresh-fruit market, whereas the shaded counterpart displayed a good predisposition for use as fresh-cut produce, maintaining similar fruit maturity properties but higher nutraceutical values when sliced than fruit grown under full sun.

  13. First web-based database on total phenolics and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speisky, Hernan; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Gómez, Maritza; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristian

    2012-09-12

    This paper reports the first database on antioxidants contained in fruits produced and consumed within the south Andes region of South America. The database ( www.portalantioxidantes.com ) contains over 500 total phenolics (TP) and ORAC values for more than 120 species/varieties of fruits. All analyses were conducted by a single ISO/IEC 17025-certified laboratory. The characterization comprised native berries such as maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ), murtilla ( Ugni molinae ), and calafate ( Barberis microphylla ), which largely outscored all other studied fruits. Major differences in TP and ORAC were observed as a function of the fruit variety in berries, avocado, cherries, and apples. In fruits such as pears, apples, apricots, and peaches, a significant part of the TP and ORAC was accounted for by the antioxidants present in the peel. These data should be useful to estimate the fruit-based intake of TP and, through the ORAC data, their antioxidant-related contribution to the diet of south Andes populations.

  14. Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Moitinho, Maria da Luz R.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.

    2005-01-01

    Penicillium janthinellum, isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach, was cultivated over 20 days on ground and autoclaved white corn, where the known polyketides citrinin, emodin, 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone, and a new modified anthraquinone, named janthinone, were produced and isolated by classical chromatographic procedures and identified by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antibacterial properties of these polyketides were investigated. Citrinin inhibited 100% of Leishmania growth after 48h at a concentration of 40 μg mL -1 . (author)

  15. Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Moitinho, Maria da Luz R. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Santos, Lourivaldo S. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br

    2005-04-01

    Penicillium janthinellum, isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach, was cultivated over 20 days on ground and autoclaved white corn, where the known polyketides citrinin, emodin, 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone, and a new modified anthraquinone, named janthinone, were produced and isolated by classical chromatographic procedures and identified by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antibacterial properties of these polyketides were investigated. Citrinin inhibited 100% of Leishmania growth after 48h at a concentration of 40 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi; Murni lndarwatmi; Nasution, Indah Arastuti

    2004-01-01

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  17. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Angelidaki, Irini, E-mail: ria@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  18. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH 4 /gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  19. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH(4)/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential antioxidant peptides produced from whey hydrolysis with an immobilized aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Gabriela Fernanda; Kise, Francisco; Rosso, Adriana Mabel; Parisi, Mónica Graciela

    2017-12-15

    An aspartic protease from Salpichroa origanifolia fruits was successfully immobilized onto an activated support of glutaraldehyde agarose. The immobilized enzyme presented higher thermal stability than the free enzyme from 40°C to 50°C and high reusability, retaining 54% of the initial activity after ten cycles of the process. Whey protein concentrates (WPC) were hydrolyzed with both free and immobilized enzyme, reaching a similar degree of hydrolysis of approximately 6-8% after 20h. In addition, the immobilized derivate hydrolyzed α-lactalbumin protein with a higher affinity than β-lactoglobulin. The hydrolysate was ultra-filtrated, and the fractions were evaluated for antioxidant activities with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method. The fraction containing peptides with a molecular mass below 3kDa demonstrated a strong radical quenching effect (IC 50: 0.48mg/ml). These results suggest that hydrolyzed WPC could be considered as a promising source of natural food antioxidants for the development of functional food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  2. Cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide produces severe neurological impairment in fruit bats: protection by methionine and aggravation by folates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Westhuyzen, J.; Fernandes-Costa, F.; Metz, J.

    1982-11-01

    Nitrous oxide, which inactivates cobalamin when administered to fruit bats, results in severe neurological impairment leading to ataxia, paralysis and death. This occurs after about 6 weeks in animals depleted of cobalamin by dietary restriction, and after about 10 weeks in cobalamin replete bats. Supplementation of the diet with pteroylglutamic acid caused acceleration of the neurological impairment--the first unequivocal demonstration of aggravation of the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency by pteroylglutamic acid. The administration of formyltetrahydropteroylglutamic acid produced similar aggravation of the neurological lesion. Supplementation of the diet with methionine protected the bats from neurological impairment, but failed to prevent death. Methionine supplementation protected against the exacerbating effect of folate, preventing the development of neurological changes. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that the neurological lesion in cobalamin deficiency may be related to a deficiency in the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine which follows diminished synthesis of methionine.

  3. Combustion kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation of Karanj (Pongamia pinnata) fruit hulls via thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Azharul; Kabir, G; Asif, M; Hameed, B H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the combustion profile and kinetics of hydrochar produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of Karanj fruit hulls (KFH). The HTC-KFH hydrochar combustion kinetics was investigated at 5, 10, and 20°C/min by thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetics model, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose revealed the combustion kinetics parameters for the extent of conversion from 0.1 to 0.8; the activation energy varies from 114 to 67 kJ/mol respectively. The hydrochar combustion followed multi-steps kinetics; the Coats-Redfern models predicted the activation energies and pre-exponential constants for the hydrochar combustion zones. The diffusion models are the effective mechanism in the second and third zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of pressed shredded empty fruit bunch (EFB)-palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pressed-shredded empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge from a 500 m3 closed anaerobic digester system was utilized for the co-composting treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the shredding-pressing treatment on EFB gave better results in ...

  5. The entry of Brazilian fresh fruit small and medium producers into the global market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify some elements which contribute to the entry of small and medium producers into the global market. Specifically, it analyses the case of the greatest Brazilian mango and grape exported region - the Petrolina-Juazeiro (P-J. The conceptual background consists of two approaches. The first conceptual framework is the Global Value Chain (GVC approach which is mainly concerned with the entry of local economies, from developing countries, into the global market. The second approach is the dynamic capability which is mainly concerned with the way the firm could acquire capabilities. The method selected for the empirical part was the multiple-case studies which were made viable by means of semi-structured questionnaires conducted with mango and grape producer agents from P-J Region in Brazil and European buyers. This study indicates that some institutions have been supporting the export activities in terms of irrigation techniques, new techniques of cultivation, financial support and the introduction of some certificates such as EurepGap. Lastly, the mango and grape producers have been undertaking upgrading of product, process and functional.O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar os elementos que contribuem para a entrada de pequenos e médios produtores no mercado global. Especificamente foi analisado o caso da maior região brasileira exportadora de manga e uva in natura, a de Petrolina (PE e Juazeiro (BA. Os aportes teóricos utilizados neste artigo foram: cadeia de valor global e capacitações dinâmicas. O método selecionado para a realização da parte empírica foi o estudo de casos múltiplos. Para a coleta de dados, foram elaborados questionários semi-estruturados e realizadas entrevistas presenciais com produtores de manga e uva, associações de produtores, instituições de apoio localizadas em Petrolina e Juazeiro e compradores europeus de manga e uva. O estudo indicou que algumas institui

  6. Effects Of Palm Oil Mill Effluents (Pome) On Soil Bacterial Flora And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sandy loam soil in Egbema, Rivers State was impacted with POME at different levels and analyzed for bacteriological quality and soil enzyme activities. Light application caused significant increase in total heterotrophic, phosphate solibilizing, nitrifying and lipolytic bacterial counts while heavy application caused a decrease ...

  7. Enhancement of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass Cultivated in POME Medium as Biofuel Feedstock under Mixotrophic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Azimatun Nur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae cultivated in mixotrophic conditions have received significant attention as a suitable source of biofuel feedstock, based on their high biomass and lipid productivity. POME is one of the wastewaters generated from palm oil mills, containing important nutrients that could be suitable for mixotrophic microalgae growth. The aim of this research was to identify the growth of Chlorella vulgaris cultured in POME medium under mixotrophic conditions in relation to a variety of organic carbon sources added to the POME mixture. The research was conducted with 3 different carbon sources (D-glucose, crude glycerol and NaHCO3 in 40% POME, monitored over 6 days, under an illumination of 3000 lux, and with pH = 7. The biomass was harvested using an autoflocculation method and dry biomass was extracted using an ultrasound method in order to obtain the lipid content. The results show that C. vulgaris using D-glucose as carbon source gained a lipid productivity of 195 mg/l/d.

  8. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing.

  9. C25 steroid epimers produced by Penicillium janthinellum, a fungus isolated from fruits Melia azedarach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Lourivaldo S. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-11-15

    A plant-derived fungus, Penicillium janthinellum, obtained from Melia azedarach, produced ergosterol and ergosterol 5a,8a-peroxide along with a mixture of rare C25 steroid epimers. The C25 steroids, named neocyclocitrinols, shows exactly the same tetracyclic ring system present in cyclocitrinol, which was isolated from a sponge-derived Penicillium citrinum, with the same bicyclo [4:4:1] skeleton at A/B rings, but showing different side chains. The P. janthinellum was cultid over white corn and the three steroids were isolated by several silica gel based chromatographic procedures and identified by extensive NMR methods, mainly {sup 1}H - {sup 13}C correlations and {sup 1}H - {sup 1}H COSY and TOCSY. The biosynthetic origin of the cyclocitrinols is also discussed. (author)

  10. C25 steroid epimers produced by Penicillium janthinellum, a fungus isolated from fruits Melia azedarach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Santos, Lourivaldo S.

    2005-01-01

    A plant-derived fungus, Penicillium janthinellum, obtained from Melia azedarach, produced ergosterol and ergosterol 5a,8a-peroxide along with a mixture of rare C25 steroid epimers. The C25 steroids, named neocyclocitrinols, shows exactly the same tetracyclic ring system present in cyclocitrinol, which was isolated from a sponge-derived Penicillium citrinum, with the same bicyclo [4:4:1] skeleton at A/B rings, but showing different side chains. The P. janthinellum was cultivated over white corn and the three steroids were isolated by several silica gel based chromatographic procedures and identified by extensive NMR methods, mainly 1 H - 13 C correlations and 1 H - 1 H COSY and TOCSY. The biosynthetic origin of the cyclocitrinols is also discussed. (author)

  11. Scale-up fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce ruminant feed by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Deres, R.M.; Kume, Tamikazu.

    1992-01-01

    Scale-up fermentation and irradiation conditions of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were examined to produce a large amount of fermented products for animal feeds. The EFB substrates pasteurized by irradiation were inoculated with Coprinus cinereus. After 1 month incubation, the crude fiber contents decreased to 20 - 38% and crude protein contents increased to 9 - 13% in small scale fermentation using conical flask (6 - 20 g EFB). In the case of fermentation using polypropylene bags with 400 g EFB, crude fiber and protein contents were 32 - 34% and 11 - 14%, respectively. A larger plastic container packed with 1.5 kg EFB fiber of 10cm thickness was used for mushroom cultivation. After harvest of mushroom (yields were about 250 g per container), the quality of residual substrates improved further as reflected by its crude fiber content of only 16 - 20%, crude protein content of 6 - 8%. These results show that a large volume of products are available under the good aeration by increasing the number of plastic bags or containers. For the irradiation of a lot of fermentation substrates, the advantage of 60 Co gamma-ray and electron beam irradiator was also discussed. (author)

  12. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankari, R; Kumaran, P; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim

    2013-01-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  13. Reusability Performance of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of POME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifah Zainuri, Nur; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Abu Bakar Sidik, Dilaelyana; Misdan, Nurasyikin; Yusof, Norhaniza; Wahab Mohammad, Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Performance and reusability of different zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-PVP and ZnO-PEG) for photocatalytic degradation of palm-mill oil effluent (POME) has been studied. The nanoparticles properties were characterised with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM results show that ZnO-PEG nanoparticles exhibit the smaller size than ZnO-PVP with less agglomeration. It was found that ZnO-PEG shows better effectiveness than ZnO-PVP in reducing turbidity, colour and increasing the dissolved oxygen (DO). By using two types of reusability methods: (a) oven drying (b) hot water rinsing, the oven drying method portrayed the most efficient route for POME treatment. This research would be a solution to the palm oil industry for photocatalyst recovering as well as reduction of the chemical usage in order to meet the development of advanced and greener technologies.

  14. Application of drip irrigation technology for producing fruit of Salak ‘Gula Pasir’ (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir off season on dry land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I N Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Naturally, Salak Gula Pasir (Salacca zalacca var. Gula Pasir is flowering every three months or four times a year, but only one or two flowering seasons that the flowers can develop into fruit. The condition causes Salak Gula Pasir is available in the market in a short period (only 2-3 months i.e. at the time of harvest (on-season from December to February. This seasonal nature of Salak Gula Pasir occurs because Salak Gula Pasir is planted on dry land where irrigation depends only on rainfall, and drought occurs when water is shortage so that the plant internal water content is low that causes a high failure development rate of flower to become fruit (fruit-set failure. This study was aimed to overcome the fruit-set failure by providing drip irrigation. Two treatments (with drip irrigation and without drip irrigation/control with sixteen replicates were tested at Salak Gula Pasir production centre (at Sibetan village, Bebandem District, of Karangasem Regency, Bali at two harvest seasons, i.e. Gadu (July and Sela II (October. The results showed that the plant provided with drip irrigation significantly yielded fruit-set percentage higher that that without drip irrigation, both in Gadu and Sela II seasons. The percentages of fruit-set in Gadu and Sela II seasons provided with drip irrigation were 75.30% and 93.13%, respectively, while those without drip irrigation were only 59.94% and 61.67%, respectively. The increase of fruit-set observed for drip irrigation treatment associated with the increase of leaf chlorophyll content, relative water content (RWC of leaves, and leaf N, P, and K contents. The increase of fruit-set led to higher number of fruits and fruit weight per plant under drip irrigation than that without drip irrigation. Based on the results of this study, drip irrigation can be applied to produce Salak Gula Pasir planted out of season on dry land.

  15. Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Irvan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4, palm oil mill effluent (POME, anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG

  16. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F < 0.01. The optimum performance was obtained at the current density of 56 mA/cm(2), contact time of 65 min and initial pH of 4.5, rendering complete removal of colour and turbidity with COD removal of 75.4%. The pH of post-treated POME of 7.6 was achieved, which is suitable for direct discharge. These predicted outputs were subsequently confirmed by insignificant standard deviation readings between predicted and actual values. This optimum condition also permitted the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, and various metal ions, signifying the superiority of the electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  17. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose–response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6–227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level. - Highlights: • Dose–response tests were conducted on eggs and all larval stages. • Fifth instar is the most tolerant stage that could be shipped in fruits. • None normal-looking adult emerged from 30,850 fifth instars in confirmatory tests. • A minimum of 228 Gy is suggested for phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...... and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.......8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co...

  19. Detection and identification of six Monilinia spp. causing brown rot using TaqMan real-time PCR from pure cultures and infected apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rot is a severe disease affecting stone and pome fruits. This disease was recently confirmed to be caused by the following six closely related species: Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa, Monilinia fructigena, Monilia polystroma, Monilia mumecola and Monilia yunnanensis. Because of differenc...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHANE-FREE, CONTINUOUS BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCTION SYSTEM FROM PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME IN CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIATUL FADZILLAH MANSOR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the start-up experiment for producing biological hydrogen in 2 L continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR from palm oil mill effluent (POME by the use of mixed culture sludge under non-sterile conditions. Besides using different source of starter culture, the effects of acid treated culture and various operating temperature from 35 °C to 55 °C were studied against the evolved gas in terms of volumetric H2 production rate (VHPR and soluble metabolite products (SMPs. The formation of methane was closely observed throughout the run. Within the studied temperature, VHPR was found as low as 0.71 L/L.d and ethanol was the main by-products (70-80% of total soluble metabolites. Attempts were made to produce biohydrogen without methane formation at higher thermophilic temperature (45-55 °C than the previous range. The average of 1.7 L H2 of 2 L working volume per day was produced at 55 oC with VHPR of 1.16 L/L.d. The results of soluble metabolites also are in agreement with the volatile fatty acids (VFAs which is higher than ethanol. Higher VFAs of 2269 mg/L was obtained with acetic acid being the main by-product. At this time methanogen has been deactivated and no methane was produced. From this study, it can be concluded that thermophilic environment may offer a better option in a way to eliminate methane from the biogas and at the same time improving hydrogen production rate as well.

  1. Preliminary Study on Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Sand Filtration-DBD Plasma System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadi Hazmi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the palm oil industry, open ponding, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration are generally applied as conventional treatments of palm oil mill effluent (POME. In this study, a sand filtration-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD system was investigated as an alternative process for treating POME. This system can reduce land usage, processing time and costs compared to conventional systems. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, and oil-grease in relation to the applied voltage were studied. Furthermore, the pH and temperature profiles were investigated. The obtained results indicate that the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5, and oil-grease increased with an increase of the applied voltage. The electrical energy consumption needed is about 10.56 kWh/L of POME.

  2. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

    2011-01-01

    and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436–438mL-CH4/g......VS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled...

  3. Influence of Nutrient Impregnated into Zeolite Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellyanawaty, M.; Chusna, F. M. A.; Sudibyo, H.; Nurjanah, N.; Budhijanto, W.

    2018-03-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) was wastewater generated from palm oil milling activities which was brownish liquid, acidic with pH 3-4, and contained soluble materials which were hazardous to the environment. It was characterized by high organic loading (COD 40,000–60,000 mg/L). According to its characteristics, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable energy through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable energy production would be an additional advantage to the palm oil industries. Methanogenesis was the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. In the conventional anaerobic digester, it required large reactors and long retention time. The addition of microbial immobilization media was to improve anaerobic reactor performance in term of higher organic removal and methane production. Additionally, better performance could lead to reduction of reactor volume and shorter retention time in high rate anaerobic digester. The loading of essential microorganism nutrient into the media might increase the affinity of bacteria to attach and grow on the media surface. Activating or inhibition effects of natural and modified zeolite addition in anaerobic digestion of POME was studied in batch reactors using erlenmeyer of 1,000 mL at COD concentrations of about 8,000 mg/L. Zeolite was impregnated with nickel and magnesium at concentrations of 0.0561 mg Ni/g zeolite and 0.0108 mg Mg/g zeolite. The effect of the different zeolite addition was determined by the measurement of soluble COD (sCOD), Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs) and biogas production. Greater effect of modified zeolite was observed in zeolite impregnated with nickel with a 54% increase of biogas production. Meanwhile, the modified zeolite impregnated with magnesium had no positive impact to the methanogenic bacteria activities.

  4. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  5. Performance of cellulose acetate membrane with different additives for palm oil mill effluent (POME) liquid waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprilia, N. A. S.; Fauzi; Azmi, N.; Najwan, N.; Amin, A.

    2018-03-01

    Performance of cellulose acetate membrane for treatment of POME liquid has studied with different additives. Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared with different additive ie formamide and polyethylene glycol and used acetone as solvent. The function of formamide and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is to increase the porosity of the membrane surface. Performance of the membrane were included SEM, FT-IR and coefficient permeability. Membrane performance has been performed for percent rejection of total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity of POME liquid waste. Cellulose acetate with formamide shows an increased percentage of rejection in removing TSS and turbidity than cellulose acetate with PEG.

  6. Treatment and Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent through Production of Food Grade Yeast Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Joy O. Iwuagwu; J. Obeta Ugwuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is high strength wastewater derived from processing of palm fruit. It is generated in large quantities in all oil palm producing nations where it is a strong pollutant amenable to microbial degradation being rich in organic carbon, nitrogen, and minerals. Valorization and treatment of POME with seven yeast isolates was studied under scalable conditions by using POME to produce value-added yeast biomass. POME was used as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and the ...

  7. Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Using Electrocoagulation as an Alternative Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzana Che Sayuti; Abdul Aziz Mohd Azoddein

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a crucial stage to prevent from environmental pollution. An alternative method should be implemented to replace the conventional wastewater treatment method. Concentration required by the Department of Environment (DOE) is 200 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 100 mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS). Electrocoagulation was used to reduce the amount of COD and TSS in POME. The performance of COD and TSS removal using electrocoagulation was scrutinized. Electrocoagulation reactor was used and the optimum operating parameters were determined. The voltage parameter was manipulated in order to identify the effect on the removal efficiency of COD and TSS. The highest removal efficiency obtained were 95.71 % for COD and 99.25 % for TSS in which COD reduced from 4900 mg/L to 210 mg/L meanwhile TSS from 4000 mg/L to 30 mg/L. The final COD almost meets the requirement of DOE of 200 mg/L while TSS fulfil the requirement of 100 mg/L for standard B. The highest efficiency obtained at optimum pH 7.44, electrocoagulation time 25 min and voltage of 100 V by using aluminium electrodes. This method was found to be efficient and capable to reduce time of treatment compared to standard conventional method. (author)

  8. Effects of Mesophilic and Thermophilic Temperature Condition to Biogas Production (Methane from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME with Cow Manures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fajar Fajar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is an environmentally friendly renewable energy source. Biogas can be used using Palm Oil Mill Effluents (POME. However, the % yield of biogas productivity is still not optimum due to the low conversion. The biogas productivity can be optimized by adding methanogen bacteria which increase the methane production through the anaerobic fermentation process. This study aims to utilize cow manures as the source of methanogen bacteria in methane production from POME. Furthermore, this study specifically aims to obtain the optimum productivity condition of biogas production by the composition ratio of POME and cow manures to the amount of fermentation time at 35oC and 50oC for mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, respectively. The ratio of POME and cow mature were A1 (100:0, A2 (80:20, A3 (70:30, A4 (60:40, and A5 (0:100. The highest yield of biogas production was A2 ratio using the thermophilic condition which showed 51.33% mol with the total solid decline of 73.43%, COD removal of 77.01%, and BOD removal of 70.02%.

  9. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera philippinensis for SIT programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resilva, Sotero S.; Obra, Glenda B.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes different quality control tests necessary to monitor the behavior of oriental fruit fly, B. philippinensis from the mass rearing facility to the release site. Results of routine quality control tests revealed that pupal size, emergence, fliers, sex ration, stress tests, mating index and fertility tests were all above satisfactory levels in pre-and post-irradiation treatment. Tests at the release site showed similar findings except for mating index where poor performance of flies were observed. Fertility and fecundity tests indicate that complete sterility of OFF was achieved at dose ranging from 68-104 Gy. Standard specifications required for weekly and monthly quality control tests was not yet established because release of sterile flies in Guimaras started only last April, 2001. In determining eye color changes in relation to physiological development, eye appearance of the pupae is dark yellowish brown (HUE 10 YR 3/6) at 7 days old where irradiation is to be applied for sterilization. Cross correlation of results showed large pupae had great advantage over medium and small pupae in terms of flight dispersal. Poor emergence and fliers of small pupae were observed when irradiated and chilled for 24 hours. However, no significant difference was observed on mating preference, longevity and fertility among the three pupal size groups. (Author)

  10. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  11. Morphological Characterization of Photosynthetic Microbial Granule from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najib, M.Z.M.

    2013-01-01

    Presently, global warming is the most highlighted subjects in the environmental issues which relates closely to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assigns only methane (CH 4 ) emissions to wastewater treatment rather than GHG emissions specifically carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas from the aerobic treatment processes. Focusing on the palm oil industry in Malaysia, the most commonly used treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is the conventional pounding system, has caused excessive generation of GHG such as CH 4 and CO 2 gases. To develop a novel, innovative and environmental-friendly mitigation method, this study explores into the possibility of growing the photosynthetic bacteria in the form of granules via the aerobic granulation process with potential applications in reducing CO 2 gases. The cultivation of photosynthetic microbial granules was investigated using POME as the substrate in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system via the sequencing cycle of feeding, reacting, settling and decanting. Evidence of the formation of granule was based on microscopic examination of the morphological changes during the development of the granule in the SBR system over a period of 90 days. It shows changes from dispersed loose structure of the sludge merging into small flocs of irregular shapes and finally into dense and compact granular form. The granule was formed by applying an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.75 kg COD/ m 3 .day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 4 h and superficial air velocity of 2.07 cm/ s. The biomass concentration began to decreased first (initial sludge biomass = 16750 mg/ L) and then increased steadily to a constant value of 32000 mg/ L after 90 days. Besides, the results also demonstrated a good accumulation of biomass as the settleability between raw sludge and granule increased from 0.03 cm/ s to 0.94 cm/ s. The maximum settling velocity obtained in the reactor was approximately 2

  12. A Mathematical Model of the Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP System for the Gas Transmission Rate of Fruit Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to predict oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour exchanges in non-perforated and micro-perforated modified atmosphere packaging films has successfully been proposed. The transmission rate of gases was measured for films with thickness of 0.03 and 0.05 mm, perforation diameters of 0.5 and 2.0 mm, and temperatures of 0, 10 and 20 °C. Under most conditions, the increase in temperature and perforation diameter increased the transmission rate of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapour, whereas the increase in film thickness decreased the transmission rate of the various gases. Validation of the proposed modified atmosphere packaging model was found to yield good prediction for gas concentrations and percentage losses in the mass of the produce after comparison with the experimental results of modified atmosphere packaging for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum.

  13. Kinetic study of Escherichia coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 to produce recombinant cellulase for ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoes, S.; Rahman, S. F.; Setyahadi, S.; Gozan, M.

    2018-03-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) is an abundant biomass resource in Indonesia, which contains 46,77% (w/w) of cellulose. The high cellulose content of OPEFB can be used as a substrate for bacteria cultivation to produce cellulase. By using OPEFB as an alternative substrate, the production cost of cellulase in industrial scale can be suppressed. However, currently there are no available research that simulate a cellulase production plant design. Prior to simulating the cellulase plant design, kinetic studies of bacteria used in cultivation are needed to create an accurate simulation. In this research, kinetic studies of E. coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 growth were examined with the Monod approach to get the Monod constant (Ks) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax). This study found that E. coli BPPTCC-EgRK2 have μmax and Ks of 1.581 and 0.0709 respectively. BPPTCC-EgRK2 produced intracellular cellulase, thus gave linear correlation between cell concentration and cellulase production.

  14. Challenges of Reducing Fresh Produce Waste in Europe—From Farm to Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Blanke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper summarizes key “hotspots” for waste generation along the food supply chain and identifies a range of existing solutions/measures that can help producers, retailers and consumers reduce the amount of food that is wasted. The majority of food waste of 71–92 kg/head/year in Western Europe was found to originate from private households (61%, followed by restaurants and canteens (17% and then supermarkets (5%; 59%–65% (of this food waste (71–92 kg can be avoided and 54% thereof are fruit and vegetables. Since ethylene accelerates fruit ripening and its accumulation can lead to fruit decay and waste and new portable instruments now enable continuous in-situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, there is a possible key to reducing food waste of perishable, fresh produce. Hence, suggested countermeasures at the field level are use of ethylene inhibitors (AVG as “Retain” or MCP as “Harvista”, the former prevents pre-mature fruit drop in pome fruit, incentives for processing fruit of industrial grade and whole crop purchase (“WCP”. Along the supply chain, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g., 1-MCP as “SmartFresh” absorber strips (e.g., “It’s Fresh”, Sensitech, bags (e.g., “Peakfresh” as well as simply cooling and venting, and shading to avoid sun exposure. Countermeasures also include superstores no longer promoting multi-packs, e.g., “two strawberry punnets for the price of one”, abandon the “Display until” or “Sell by” date, conservative consumer shopping behavior, and sale of class II produce (“Wunderlinge” in Billa or “Kleine Äpfel” in REWE, “Ünique” in Coop, collection (rather than wasting of perishable food by volunteers (“Die Tafel”, or “Food Sharing” of private household left-over perishable on social media, or any combination of the above to aid reducing fresh produce waste.

  15. Improvement of producer gas of Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch in a 50 kg/ hr prototype down draft gasifier by palletization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdsuwan, Somrat; Cherdphong, Somphot; Uthaikiattikul, Tada

    2010-01-01

    The main residue from palm oil industry is Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch (PEFB) which was considered as null-waste, can be rethinking and used as renewable or alternative fuel, since there is still hiding energy storage within. The proper technology for converting PEFB to renewable energy carrier is gasification technology. The gasification process of PEFB with and without feedstock preparation was investigated and compared in order to improve the efficiency of gasification process by pelletizing PEFB and to characterize the gasification reaction of pelletized PEFB. As received PEFB is solar dried and pelletized in a cylindrical form. The proximate and ultimate analysis of pelletized PEFB is investigated. Thereafter, the gasification process of as-received PEFB and pelletized PEFB was carried out in a 50 kg/ hr prototype down draft gasifier with varying the operating conditions, to characterize the gasification behavior of pelletized PEFB. From the experiments, the feedstock preparation, in this case pelletizing, can improve the performance of PEFB gasification. The results of experiment reveals that the heating value of producer gas and cold gas efficiency increases from 5.18 MJ/ Nm 3 for PEFB gasification without preparation to 6.5 MJ/ Nm 3 with feedstock preparation and from 61.72% to 79.73% respectively. (author)

  16. Investigating the effectiveness of using agricultural wastes from empty fruit bunch (EFB), coconut fibre (CF) and sugarcane baggasse (SB) to produce low thermal conductivity clay bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Mohamad Hazmi; Deraman, Rafikullah; Saman, Nor Sarwani Mat

    2017-12-01

    In Malaysia, 45% of the average household electricity was consumed by air conditioners to create an acceptable indoor environment. This high energy consumption was mostly related to poor thermal performance of the building envelope. Therefore, selecting a low thermal conductivity of brick wall was of considerable importance in creating energy efficient buildings. Previously, numerous researchers reported the potential used of agricultural waste as an additive in building materials to enhance their thermal properties. The aim of this study is to examine how agricultural wastes from empty fruit bunch (EFB), coconut fibre (CF) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) can act as additive agents in a fired clay brick manufacturing process to produce a low thermal conductivity clay brick. In this study, these agricultural wastes were individually mixed with clay soil in different proportions ranging from 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% by weight. Physical and mechanical properties including soil physical properties, as well as thermal conductivity were performed in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990, BS 3921: 1985 and ASTM C518. The results reveal that incorporating 5% of EFB as an additive component into the brick making process significantly enhances the production of a low thermal conductivity clay brick as compared to other waste alternatives tested. This finding suggests that EFB waste was a potential additive material to be used for the thermal property enhancement of the building envelope.

  17. Evaluation of meat, fruit and vegetables from retail stores in five United Kingdom regions as sources of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L P; Lodge, M P; Elviss, N C; Lemma, F L; Hopkins, K L; Teale, C J; Woodford, N

    2017-01-16

    We determined the prevalence and types of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli in raw retail beef, chicken, pork, fruit and vegetables in five UK regions in 2013-14. Raw meat (n=397), and fruit and vegetable samples (n=400) were purchased from retail stores in London, East Anglia, North West England, Scotland and Wales. Samples were tested for the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli by plating enriched samples on CHROMagar CTX and CHROMagar ESBL, for AmpC-type E. coli by plating on "CHROMagar FOX" (CHROMagar ECC+16mg/L cefoxitin), and for carbapenem-resistant E. coli by plating on CHROMagar KPC. Additionally, pre-enrichment counts were performed on the above agars, and on CHROMagar ECC. Isolates of interest were characterised by MALDI-ToF to confirm identification, by PCR for bla CIT, bla CTX-M, bla OXA , bla SHV and bla TEM genes; ESBL or bla CIT genes were sequenced. Only 1.9% and 2.5% of beef and pork samples, respectively were positive for ESBL-producing E. coli after enrichment compared with 65.4% of chicken samples. 85.6% positive samples from chicken meat carried bla CTX-M-1 ; bla CTX-M-15 was not detected. None of the fruits or vegetables yielded ESBL-producing E. coli and none of the meat, fruit or vegetable samples yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Retail chicken was more frequently a source of ESBL-producing E. coli than were beef, pork, fruit or vegetables. None of the foodstuffs yielded E. coli with CTX-M-15 ESBL, which dominates in human clinical isolates in the UK, and none yielded carbapenem-resistant E. coli. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Fe Concentration on the Quality and Quantity of Biogas Produced From Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the effect of Fe concentration as a trace metal on the quality and quantity of biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Raw POME as feed was obtained from one of the palm oil mills belong to PTPN IV, other materials used were hydrochloric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and trace metals. Observed variables were volume of biogas, concentration of Fe in raw POME and biodigester, degradation rate of total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS, M-Alkalinity, pH, H2S and CO2 concentration in biogas at hydraulic retention time (HRT 6 days. Before HRT of 6 days reached, initial trace metal compositions were 25.2 mg/L of Fe, 0.42 mg/L of Co, and 0.49 mg/L of Ni. After that, composition of trace metal were consisted only Co and Ni. The results showed that Fe as a trace metal did not affect the production or quantity of biogas. When Fe concentration reached over to 330 mg/L then concentration of CH4, total solid (TS and volatile solid (VS decreased. Moreover, the higher the Fe contents the smaller of H2S production. Fe content in POME from the same mill had different concentration, as the consequence biogas with different H2S concentrations were produced as well. Thus, Fe in the trace metals is no longer required if high concentration of Fe already existed in POME because it can reduce the formation of H2S. In addition, too high concentration of Fe in POME can be toxic for microorganism in the fermentation of biogas.

  19. Quality Of Cloudy Plum Juice Produced From Fresh Fruit Of Prunus Domestica L. – The Effect Of Cultivar And Enzyme Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrzeźniak Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cloudy juices produced from two plum cultivars varied in chemical characteristics and native polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, and was studied in relation to specific pectinolytic activity of enzyme preparations used for fresh fruit maceration before pressing. Process effectiveness expressed as juice yield, turbidity and the rate of transfer of anthocyanins and polyphenols were determined for five different enzyme preparations, whose activity was also analysed. Juice yields obtained after 1 hour mash maceration (50 ºC, 100 g·t−1 were between 86.6 and 95.4%. The anthocyanins content of the obtained juices strongly depended on the cultivar and ranged from 26 to 50 mg·L−1 for ‘Promis’, and from 269 to 289 mg·L−1 for ‘Čačanska Najbolja’, which could be related to the differences in the measured PPO activity (175.4 and 79.8 nkat·g−1, respectively. The type of enzyme preparation strongly affected the degradation rate of anthocyanins during juice processing. Peonidin-3-rutinoside proved to be the most stable during plum juice production in contrast to cyanidin-3-glucoside. Irrespectively of the cultivar, the juice prepared with the mixture of Rohapect PTE + Rohament PL (2 : 1 showed the highest turbidity among the investigated combinations. The results suggest that for the production of cloudy plum juice use of a preparation with low pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase activities and high pectin lyase activity could be recommended.

  20. (Forssk) Fiori Fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This fruit-producing deciduous shrub or small tree is prevalent in African and Southeast. Asian countries, with ... Gezira State, Sudan and then placed in plastic bags and ..... Eastern Africa. Rome: FAO ... International. Washington, DC, USA 1995.

  1. Utilization of Cocoa Peel as Biosorbent for Oil and Color Removal in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Hutagalung, A. T.; Siahaan, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to discover the effectiveness of cocoa peel as biosorbents for oil and color removal in POME. This study used biosorbent from cocoa peel with variation of particle size which passed through 70 mesh, 100 mesh, and 120 mesh and was activated with the ratio of biosorbent and 0,6 M HNO3 of 1:2, 1:4, and 1:6 (m/v). The adsorption process was carried out using biosorbent with the highest iodine number in varying biosorbent mass and contact time. The highest iodine number was 596,684 mg/g and obtained at particle size 120 mesh and the ratio of biosorbent : HNO3 as 1 : 4. The resulting biosorbents were analyzed for their characterization, such as vapor content, ash content, and volatile matter, including FT-IR and SEM-EDX. The POME were analyzed for their oil and color content, using gravimetric method and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The best removal is were 80,88% for oil and 83.45% for color at 1.5 g biosorbent mass and 3 h contact time. The resullt for oil removal was close to the standard of Indonesian Environment Minister for oil in effluent. Also the adsorption of oil and color behaves as a pseudo-second-order kinetic models.

  2. As transações entre supermercados europeus e produtores brasileiros de frutas frescas The transactions between European supermarkets and Brazilian fresh fruit producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Castro Souza

    2009-09-01

    paper is to investigate the transactions between European supermarkets and Brazilian fresh fruit producers and the structure of the Brazilian mango and grape value chain to Europe. The element pointed out in this paper is the characteristic of the distributor segment. There are indications that the structures of the retail sector affect the strategies of developing countries producers in global markets. In addition, the procurement strategies of the retail sector are different when compare the United Kingdom and Germany. The Global Value Chain and Transaction Costs Economy approaches were used as theoretical background. The method selected for this study was the multiple case studies which were made viable by means of semi-structured questionnaires conducted with mango and grape producer's agents in Brazil and with mango and grape imported agents located in the United Kingdom and Germany.

  3. MEMPELAJARI KARAKTERISTIK SARI BUAH DARI MENGKUDU (Morinda citrifolia Linn. YANG DIHASILKAN MELALUI FERMENTASI [Characteristic of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn Fruit Juice Produced by Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne P Kusuma3

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the methods to get noni juice. In this research, noni is fermented in hanged system and submerged system for 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The result showed the longer fermentation increased pH, alcohol content, turbidity, viscosity, microbial content, and decrease ascorbic acid and acid content, soluble solid content, color and flavor acceptance. Differennt system fermentation affected percent yield, soluble solid content, turbidity of juice, panels opinion to color significantly. Noni juice of submerged system has higher percent yield, higher soluble solid content, turbidity, but provided lighter color than noni juice of hanged system. Juice of submerged system is better than hanged system. Juice from three weeks fermentation indicated changes of metabolism activity which is shown by some characteristic changes. Fruit juice made by submerged fermentation system had more diverse compounds than fruit juice without fermentation.

  4. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the l...

  5. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  7. Qualidade dos frutos de tipos de melão,produzidos em ambiente protegido Quality of melon fruit type produced under protected system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Tavares Paduan

    2007-01-01

    pelo teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acima de 12ºBrix.The interest for melon culture in Brazil has increased in the last years, due to growing exportations and increment for the internal market consumption. The aim of this work was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of five melon types (Cucumis melo L., produced under protected system, in the municipal district of Centenário do Sul - PR. The types studied were Valenciano ('Amarelo Ouro', Caipira ('Gaúcho Caipira', Net Melon ('Net Galia', Orange ('Orange Melon' e Pele de Sapo ('Filipo', with five repetitions, in a completely randomized design. The Valenciano and Pele de Sapo stood out in weight terms, with values of 2.02 and 2.07 kg, respectively, and elongated formats; while the others types showed round formats and weight around 1.4 kg. The Pele de Sapo showed pulp thickness of 43.36 mm, statistically higher than Valenciano, 38.98 mm. The smallest pulp thickness, 24.78 mm, and the largest thickness of the peel, 9.74 mm, had been found in the Caipira and it is statistically differed from other types. The pH values had not shown statistically differences among themselves, ranging between 6.24 and 6.48. The Net Melon showed pulp with 12.3ºBrix, and statistically differed from the Orange, Valenciano and Pele de Sapo with levels of 11.12, 10.34 and 9.94ºBrix, respectively. The Caipira reached 5.06ºBrix and also the smallest acidity, 0.10g citric acid per 100g of juice, which would not turned out for its commercialization. The pectin methyl esterase pulp activity in the fruits was very low, inferior of 0,005 PEu x 10(4 mL-1, in the five evaluated types. In the north of the state of Paraná (Paranapanema Valle, under protect system conditions, the melons types: Net Melon, Orange, Valenciano and Pele de Sapo showed good physical and chemical characteristics, standing out the Net Melon for its total soluble solids over 12ºBrix.

  8. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  9. fruit juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  10. Postharvest quality of strawberry fruits produced in organic and conventional systems Qualidade pós-colheita de frutos de morangueiro produzidos em sistemas orgânico e convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia KP Camargo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some physicochemical characteristics of fruits of eight strawberry cultivars (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei and Ventana cultivated in organic and conventional systems. The evaluated characteristics were soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/AT ratio and anthocyanins. Evaluated sensory characteristics were flavor and appearance. The cultivars had a differential performance between themselves and among the systems for the evaluated characteristics. Generally, the conventional system produced fruit with higher levels of soluble solids and, organic system produced higher concentrations of anthocyanins. The fruits of the cultivar Toyonoka had the best soluble solids content in both systems and the anthocyanins content of 'Tudla-Milsei' and 'Camino Real' were proeminent in comparison to the other cultivars. The fruits from the organic system of production were preferred by judges on the sensorial attributes. The highest notes were given to the appearance of the cultivar Ventana in the conventional system and 'Tudla-Milsei' in the organic system.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar as características químicas e sensoriais de frutos de oito cultivares de morangueiro (Aromas, Camino Real, Campinas, Dover, Oso Grande, Toyonoka, Tudla-Milsei e Ventana provenientes de sistemas orgânico e convencional de cultivo. As características químicas avaliadas foram sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT e teor de antocianinas. As características sensoriais avaliadas foram sabor e aparência. As cultivares apresentaram um comportamento diferenciado entre si e frente aos sistemas de produção para as características avaliadas. De modo geral, o sistema convencional produziu frutos com maiores teores de sólidos solúveis e o sistema orgânico, maiores valores de acidez titulável e maiores concentrações de antocianinas. Os frutos da

  11. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  12. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, D; Sadallah, S; Larous, L

    2004-01-01

    A survey of bacterial diseases due to Pseudomonas on rosaceous fruit trees was conducted. In forty two orchards located in the Constantine region ( East Algeria). Pseudomonas isolates were identified on the bases of their cultural and biochemical characteristics . A total of fifty nine phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased pome and stone fruit trees. Thirty one strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from cherry (Prunus avium L.), plum (P. domestica L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), almond (P. dulcis L.) and pear trees (Pirus communis L.); sixteen strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum were obtained from samples of cherry and plum. Twelve strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava were isolated from cherry, apricot and peach (Prunus persica L.).

  13. Evaluation of the in vitro glycemic index of a fiber-rich extruded breakfast cereal produced with organic passion fruit fiber and corn flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Vernaza Leoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of process parameters and Passion Fruit Fiber (PFF addition on the Glycemic Index (GI of an extruded breakfast cereal. A 2³ Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD was used, with the following independent variables: raw material moisture content (18-28%, 2nd and 3rd barrel zone temperatures (120-160 ºC, and PFF (0-30%. Raw materials (organic corn flour and organic PFF were characterized as to their proximate composition, particle size, and in vitro GI. The extrudates were characterized as to their in vitro GI. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to analyze the results. Corn flour and PFF presented 8.55 and 7.63% protein, 2.61 and 0.60% fat, 0.52 and 6.17% ash, 78.77 and 78.86% carbohydrates (3 and 64% total dietary fiber, respectively. The corn flour particle size distribution was homogeneous, while PFF presented a heterogeneous particle size distribution. Corn flour and PFF presented values of GI of 48 and 45, respectively. When using RSM, no effect of the variables was observed in the GI of the extrudates (average value of 48.41, but PCA showed that the GI tended to be lower when processing at lower temperatures (158 ºC. When compared to white bread, the extrudates showed a reduction of the GI of up to 50%, and could be considered an interesting alternative in weight and glycemia control diets.

  14. Phenolics composition and antioxidant activity of wine produced from spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx.) fruits from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiangfei; Fang, Yulin; Gao, Jinshan; Qiao, Lingling; Zhang, Ang; Guo, Zhijun; Qin, Minyang; Huang, Jizhuang; Hu, Ying; Zhuang, Xifu

    2012-01-01

    Wines made from 3 spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) genotypes-Junzi 1# (JZ 1#), Junzi 2# (JZ 2#), and Liantang (LT)-and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx., CR) were evaluated for their phenolics composition and antioxidant activities by several assays, including 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS scavenging capacity, cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity, and metal-chelating capacity). The results showed that CR wine had higher contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and oligomeric proanthocyanidins than the 3 spine grape genotype wines and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) wine. Among the 3 varieties of spine grape wines, JZ 1# had higher contents than the 2 other genotypes. Moreover, the total monomeric anthocyanins in JZ 1# was about 4.5-fold higher than those in CS wine and CR wine. A significance analysis demonstrated that the antioxidant capacity (as measured by the ABTS scavenging capacity and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) of CR wine was significantly higher than that of the control and spine grape wines. With respect to metal-chelating capacity, the CR wine was the strongest amongst all the wine samples tested, followed by JZ 1#. This indicates that CR and JZ 1# wines can potentially be considered as wild fruit wines with abundant phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. Spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) and Cherokee rose (Rosa laevigata Michx.) are 2 species of important wild plants in South China. However, they have not yet been effectively developed and utilized. Recently, some researchers attempted to convert their juice to wine. We anticipate that this research will provide sufficient experimental evidence for their good antioxidant activity and potential for further development and utilization. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Prospect and policy of palm oil mill effluents for future electricity in east kalimantan (utilization of pome as renewable energy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aipassa, M. I.; Kristiningrum, R.; Tarukan, V. Y.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan economy for four decades was mainly based on natural resources extraction and dominated by primary sectorwith the six highest GDP in 2013. But, the contribution of oil and gas were decreasing production due to the absence of new wells.One of the mission was create natural resources and renewable energy based economic people oriented. The Goverment of EK Province chose a strategy of socio-economic transformation based on renewable natural resources. This strategy has been applied in the regional development plan by mainstreaming climate change issues. Data related to energy source and its potential, remote rural electrification, bioenergy feedstock, etc including from the Palm Oil company was collected and subsequently analized in line with the EK Governor Letter. Currently (2014) available of Biogas-Pome as bioenergy feedstock is 162 million m3year-1, where as currently utilized is only 22 millionm3year-1. Power demand supply status in January 2015 indicated as available capacity is 467 MW where the peak demand is 444 MW. About 22% of households without electricity are difficult to be electrified without breakthrough efforts. About 215 thousand households are un-electrified, with more power need about 150 MW in total capacity. As business opportunity, high demand for rural electrification, particularly in Kutai Kartanegera, Kutai Timur, Kutai Barat, Berau and Paser.

  16. Implementing a free school-based fruit and vegetable programme: barriers and facilitators experienced by pupils, teachers and produce suppliers in the Boost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Krølner, Rikke; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Evans, Alexandra; Due, Pernille; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2014-02-11

    Multi-component interventions which combine educational and environmental strategies appear to be most effective in increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in adolescents. However, multi-component interventions are complex to implement and often poorly implemented. Identification of barriers and facilitators for implementation is warranted to improve future interventions.This study aimed to explore implementation of two intervention components which addressed availability and accessibility of FV in the multi-component, school-based Boost study which targeted FV intake among Danish 13-year-olds and to identify barriers and facilitators for implementation among pupils, teachers and FV suppliers. We conducted focus group interviews with 111 13-year-olds and 13 teachers, completed class observations at six schools, and conducted telephone interviews with all involved FV suppliers. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using qualitative analytical procedures. FV suppliers affected the implementation of the FV programme at schools and thereby pupils' intake through their timing of delivery and through the quality, quantity and variety of the delivered FV. Teachers influenced the accessibility and appearance of FV by deciding if and when the pupils could eat FV and whether FV were cut up. Different aspects of time acted as barriers for teachers' implementation of the FV programme: time spent on having a FV break during lessons, time needed to prepare FV and time spent on pupils' misbehaviour and not being able to handle getting FV. Teacher timing of cutting up and serving FV could turn into a barrier for pupils FV intake due to enzymatic browning. The appearance of FV was important for pupils' intake, especially for girls. FV that did not appeal to the pupils e.g. had turned brown after being cut up were thrown around as a part of a game by the pupils, especially boys. Girls appreciated the social dimension of eating FV together to a larger extent than boys

  17. Consumer Preference Towards Fruit Leather Attributes of Madurese Exotic Tropical Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elys Fauziyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Madura island has high potential for producing tropical fruits, but it still not being well managed especially concerning with the value added Fruit leather is a product created by using various fruits and simple technology application. Fruit leather is categorized as new product on the market, therefore it is important to know consumer preference towards fruit leather attributes so that producer can design an acceptable product in the market. The research investigated attributes within the levels that become consumer preference in purchasing fruit leather product. There were 60 samples respondents taken accidentally at Bangkalan Plaza Shopping area. Method being used was conjoint analysis. Result showed that fruit leather being chosen by consumers as preference are gummy, mixed fruit taste, yellow color small roll shape, at 100 grams and in a plastic tube package.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of PR genes in some pome fruit species with the emphasis on transcriptional analysis and ROS response under Erwinia amylovora inoculation in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Maryam; Salami, Seyed Alireza; Nasiri, Jaber; Abdollahi, Hamid; Ghahremani, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Attempts were made to identify eight pathogenesis related (PR) genes (i.e., PR-1a, PR3-ch1, PR3-Ch2, PR3-Ch3, PR3-Ch4, PR3-Ch5, PR-5 and PR-8) from 27 genotypes of apple, quince and pear, which are induced in response to inoculation with the pathogen Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Totally, 32 PR genes of different families were obtained, excepting PR3-Ch2 (amplified only in apple) and PR3-Ch4 (amplified only in apple and pear), the others were successfully amplified in all the genotypes of apple, quince and pear. Evolutionary, the genes of each family exhibited significant homology with each other, as the corresponded phylogenetic neighbor-joining-based dendrograms were taken into consideration. Meanwhile, according to the expression assay, it was deduced that the pathogen activity can significantly affect the expression levels of some selected PR genes of PR3-Ch2, PR3-Ch4, PR3-Ch5 and particularly Cat I in both resistant (MM-111) and semi-susceptible (MM-106) apple rootstocks. Lastly, it was concluded that the pathogen E. amylovora is able to stimulate ROS response, particularly using generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both aforementioned apple rootstock.

  19. Electro persulphate oxidation for polishing of biologically treated palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wei, Chong Jia; Aun, Ng Choon; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2017-05-15

    Malaysia alone produces more than 49 million m 3 palm oil mill effluent per year. Biological treated palm oil mill effluent via ponding system often fails to fulfill the regulatory discharge standards. This is due to remaining of non-biodegradable organics in the treated effluent. Thus, the aim of this study was to resolve such issue by using electro persulphate oxidation process, for the first time, as a post treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Central composite design in response surface methodology was used to analyze and optimize the interaction of operational variables (i.e., current density, contact time, initial pH and persulphate dosage) targeted on maximum treatment efficiency. The significance of quadratic model of each response was determined by analysis of variance, where all models indicated sufficient significance with p-value < 0.0001. Optimum operational conditions with 45 mA/cm 2 of current density, 45 min of contact time, pH 4 and 0.892 g of S 2 O 8 2- proved that 77.70% of Chemical Oxygen Demand, 97.96% of colour as well as 99.72% of Suspended Solids removal were achieved. The final pH of 5.88 of the effluent was obtained that fulfilled the limit and suitable for direct discharge to the natural environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of Rosaceae Fruit Types Based on Nuclear Phylogeny in the Context of Geological Times and Genome Duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yezi; Huang, Chien-Hsun; Hu, Yi; Wen, Jun; Li, Shisheng; Yi, Tingshuang; Chen, Hongyi; Xiang, Jun; Ma, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Fruits are the defining feature of angiosperms, likely have contributed to angiosperm successes by protecting and dispersing seeds, and provide foods to humans and other animals, with many morphological types and important ecological and agricultural implications. Rosaceae is a family with ∼3000 species and an extraordinary spectrum of distinct fruits, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry prized by their consumers, as well as dry achenetum and follicetum with features facilitating seed dispersal, excellent for studying fruit evolution. To address Rosaceae fruit evolution and other questions, we generated 125 new transcriptomic and genomic datasets and identified hundreds of nuclear genes to reconstruct a well-resolved Rosaceae phylogeny with highly supported monophyly of all subfamilies and tribes. Molecular clock analysis revealed an estimated age of ∼101.6 Ma for crown Rosaceae and divergence times of tribes and genera, providing a geological and climate context for fruit evolution. Phylogenomic analysis yielded strong evidence for numerous whole genome duplications (WGDs), supporting the hypothesis that the apple tribe had a WGD and revealing another one shared by fleshy fruit-bearing members of this tribe, with moderate support for WGDs in the peach tribe and other groups. Ancestral character reconstruction for fruit types supports independent origins of fleshy fruits from dry-fruit ancestors, including the evolution of drupes (e.g., peach) and pomes (e.g., apple) from follicetum, and drupetum (raspberry and blackberry) from achenetum. We propose that WGDs and environmental factors, including animals, contributed to the evolution of the many fruits in Rosaceae, which provide a foundation for understanding fruit evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Possible factors which produce fruit drop of Myrciaria dubia (HBK Mc Vaugh, "camu camu" during the reproductive phenology in the collection “cinco cuencas” from the San Miguel experimental centerIIAP, Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Farro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "Camu camu" plants were evaluated in five basins in Loreto (Peru, according to the percentage of fruits with symptoms of pest infestation, retention of flowers and fruits in each basin, diameters of branches, and the influence of precipitation and temperature in the process of falling fruit as the phenological stage. In the genetic factor, the Putumayo river basin highlighted by a longer retention of fruit, higher yield and average fruit weight and less attack by pests. During the phenological process that lasted 12 weeks, the critical stage of flower and fruit drop occurred during the first seven, with the retention of flowers of 5.12%. The pests are causing the observed fall 9.27%, 9.15% being caused by Edessa sp., And 0.12% for Conotrachellus dubiae. The other 90.73% was caused by other undetermined factors such as physiological, nutritional, competition, wind, rain. Environmental factors of temperature and precipitation have a direct influence and inversely proportional to the fall of fruits, respectively.

  2. A possible dose-response association between distance to farmers' markets and roadside produce stands, frequency of shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index among customers in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Hinkley, Jedediah; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Lyonnais, Mary Jane; Rafferty, Ann P; Whitt, Olivia R; Winterbauer, Nancy; Phillips, Lisa

    2017-01-11

    The association between farmers' market characteristics and consumer shopping habits remains unclear. Our objective was to examine associations among distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that the relationship between frequency of farmers' market shopping and BMI would be mediated by fruit and vegetable consumption. In 15 farmers' markets in northeastern North Carolina, July-September 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 263 farmers' market customers (199 provided complete address data) and conducted farmers' market audits. To participate, customers had to be over 18 years of age, and English speaking. Dependent variables included farmers' market shopping frequency, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Analysis of variance, adjusted multinomial logistic regression, Poisson regression, and linear regression models, adjusted for age, race, sex, and education, were used to examine associations between distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Those who reported shopping at farmers' markets a few times per year or less reported consuming 4.4 (standard deviation = 1.7) daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and those who reported shopping 2 or more times per week reported consuming 5.5 (2.2) daily servings. There was no association between farmers' market amenities, and shopping frequency or fruit and vegetable consumption. Those who shopped 2 or more times per week had a statistically significantly lower BMI than those who shopped less frequently. There was no evidence of mediation of the relationship between frequency of shopping and BMI by fruit and vegetable consumption. More work should be done to understand factors within farmers' markets that encourage fruit and vegetable purchases.

  3. A possible dose–response association between distance to farmers’ markets and roadside produce stands, frequency of shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index among customers in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between farmers’ market characteristics and consumer shopping habits remains unclear. Our objective was to examine associations among distance to farmers’ markets, amenities within farmers’ markets, frequency of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index (BMI. We hypothesized that the relationship between frequency of farmers’ market shopping and BMI would be mediated by fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods In 15 farmers’ markets in northeastern North Carolina, July–September 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 263 farmers’ market customers (199 provided complete address data and conducted farmers’ market audits. To participate, customers had to be over 18 years of age, and English speaking. Dependent variables included farmers’ market shopping frequency, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Analysis of variance, adjusted multinomial logistic regression, Poisson regression, and linear regression models, adjusted for age, race, sex, and education, were used to examine associations between distance to farmers’ markets, amenities within farmers’ markets, frequency of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Results Those who reported shopping at farmers’ markets a few times per year or less reported consuming 4.4 (standard deviation = 1.7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and those who reported shopping 2 or more times per week reported consuming 5.5 (2.2 daily servings. There was no association between farmers’ market amenities, and shopping frequency or fruit and vegetable consumption. Those who shopped 2 or more times per week had a statistically significantly lower BMI than those who shopped less frequently. There was no evidence of mediation of the relationship between frequency of shopping and BMI by fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusions More work should be done to understand

  4. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  5. A Trustworthiness Evaluation Method for Software Architectures Based on the Principle of Maximum Entropy (POME and the Grey Decision-Making Method (GDMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As the early design decision-making structure, a software architecture plays a key role in the final software product quality and the whole project. In the software design and development process, an effective evaluation of the trustworthiness of a software architecture can help making scientific and reasonable decisions on the architecture, which are necessary for the construction of highly trustworthy software. In consideration of lacking the trustworthiness evaluation and measurement studies for software architecture, this paper provides one trustworthy attribute model of software architecture. Based on this model, the paper proposes to use the Principle of Maximum Entropy (POME and Grey Decision-making Method (GDMM as the trustworthiness evaluation method of a software architecture and proves the scientificity and rationality of this method, as well as verifies the feasibility through case analysis.

  6. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  7. Electronic-nose applications for fruit identification, ripeness, and quality grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuela Baietto; Dan Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Fruits produce a wide range of volatile organic compounds that impart their characteristically distinct aromas and contribute to unique flavor characteristics. Fruit aroma and flavor characteristics are of key importance in determining consumer acceptance in commercial fruit markets based on individual preference. Fruit producers, suppliers and retailers traditionally...

  8. An analysis of the influence of logistics activities on the export cold chain of temperature sensitive fruit through the Port of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila L. Goedhals-Gerber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa exports a large variety of different fruit types and cultivars worldwide. Yet, there is concern in the South African fruit industry that too much fruit and money is lost each year due to breaks along the fresh fruit export cold chain. Objective: The objective of this article was to identify the influence of logistics activities on breaks along the South African fruit export cold chain. The focus is specifically on temperature sensitive fruit, exported in refrigerated containers to Europe and the United Kingdom through the Port of Cape Town. This supply chain was selected as this was the most accessible supply chain in terms of retrieving the necessary temperature data. Method: The cold chain was investigated from the cold store, through all segments, until the Port of Cape Town. Temperature data collected with temperature monitoring devices from different fruit export supply chains of grapes, plums and pome fruit (apples and pears were analysed to identify the percentage of temperature breaks and the length of temperature breaks that occur at each segment of the cold chain. Results: The results show that a large number of breaks are experienced along South Africa’s fruit export cold chain, specifically at the interface between the cold store and the truck. In addition, the findings also show that there has been an improvement in the number of breaks experienced in the Port of Cape Town following the implementation of the NAVIS and Refcon systems. Conclusion: This article concludes by providing the fruit industry with areas that require addressing to improve operational procedures along the fruit export cold chain to help ensure that the fruit arrives at its final destination at optimal quality.

  9. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  10. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ..., ornamentals (herbaceous and woody), pistachio, pome fruits, root and tuber vegetables, small fruit vine... (herbaceous and woody), pistachio, pome fruits, root and tuber vegetables, small fruit vine climbing (except...), pistachio, pome fruits, root and tuber vegetables, small fruit vine climbing (except fuzzy kiwifruit...

  11. Controle biológico da mancha-aquosa do melão por compostos bioativos produzidos por Bacillus spp. Biocontrol of bacterial fruit blotch of melon by bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizama Roza Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha-aquosa, causada por Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac causa grandes prejuízos à cultura do melão. O controle dessa doença foi estudado in vivo, com microbiolização de sementes de melão Amarelo infectadas, com líquidos fermentados de Bacillus subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 e Bacillus sp. MEN2, com e sem células bacterianas. O mecanismo de ação dos isolados foi estudado in vitro pelo método de difusão em ágar e os compostos bioativos parcialmente caracterizados por testes de hemólise e atividade surfactante. Nos testes in vivo, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com e sem células, indicando que o controle ocorreu devido à presença de compostos bioativos produzidos durante as fermentações. Todos os tratamentos diferiram da testemunha sem diferir entre si (P=0,05%. B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7 proporcionou redução da incidência (89,1% e do índice de doença (92,7%, elevou o período de incubação da mancha-aquosa de 9,8 para 11,9 dias e reduziu a AACPD de 3,36 para 0,17. In vitro, todos isolados apresentaram antibiose contra Aac e os compostos bioativos foram parcialmente caracterizados como lipopeptídeos.The bacterial fruit blotch, caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, is responsible for great losses in melon production. The control of this disease was investigated in vivo by treating infected yellow melon seeds with fermented broths of B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 and Bacillus sp. MEN2, with and without bacterial cells. The mechanism of action of the strains was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion technique. The bioactive compounds produced were partially characterized by hemolysis test and surfactant activity. Regarding the tests conducted in vivo there was no statistical difference between the treatments with and without bacterial cells, which indicated that the control was due to the

  12. World temperate fruit production: characteristics and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years world population has increased 70% but per capita global fruit consumption is only 20% higher. Even though tropical and temperate fruit have similar contributions to the 50 kg/person/year of US consumption of fresh fruit, in the last 30 years this has been slightly greater for temperate fruit. Within fruit consumption, the largest expansion has been for organic fruit which increased more than 50% in the 2002-2006 period. The largest expansion of area planted in the 1996-2006 has been for kiwi (29% and blueberries (20%, while apples (-24% and sour cherries (-13% have had the largest reductions. Nearly 50% of the total global volume of fruit is produced by 5 countries: China, USA, Brazil, Italy and Spain. The main producer (China accounts for 23% of the total. While the main exporters are Spain, USA and Italy, the main importers are Germany, Russia and UK. Demands for the industry have evolved towards quality, food safety and traceability. The industry faces higher productions costs (labor, energy, agrichemicals. The retailers are moving towards consolidation while the customers are changing preferences (food for health. In this context there is greater pressure on growers, processors and retailers. Emerging issues are labor supply, climate change, water availability and sustainability. Recent developments in precision agriculture, molecular biology, phenomics, crop modelling and post harvest physiology should increase yields and quality, and reduce costs for temperate fruit production around the world.

  13. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  14. Revestimentos alternativos na conservação pós-colheita de maracujá-amarelo Alternative covering in the shelf life conservation of yellow passion fruit produced in organic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Januária Beiruth da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes substancias: cera de carnaúba, látex de seringueira, cloreto de cálcio e fécula de mandioca na conservação pós-colheita do maracujá-amarelo armazenado sob temperatura ambiente. Frutos colhidos, selecionados, lavados e sanitizados com água clorada a 150 mg L-1 foram submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: 1 - controle, lavados e sanitizados; 2 - cera de carnaúba; 3 - látex de seringueira diluído 1:3 (v/v; 4 - cloreto de cálcio a 1%; 5 - fécula de mandioca a 2%. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, sendo a parcela principal formada pelo tempo de armazenamento, e as subparcelas pelos tratamentos, com 3 repetições de 4 frutos cada. O revestimento do maracujá-amarelo com cera de carnaúba, látex de seringueira, cloreto de cálcio e fécula de mandioca não influenciou nos resultados de massa fresca do fruto e da polpa, AT, SS, SS/AT e ácido ascórbico. O látex de seringueira, semelhantemente ao produto comercializado cera de carnaúba foram as coberturas mais eficientes, reduzindo a perda de massa e o índice de murchamento, e aumentando em 4 e 3 dias, respectivamente, a vida de prateleira dos frutos.The present work had the objective to evaluate different substances: carnauba's wax, latex rubber tree, solution of calcium chloride and cassava starch in the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit stored under temperature atmosphere. Fruits selected, washed and sanitized with chlorinated water in 150 mg L-1, were submitted by the following treatment: 1 - control, washed and sanitized; 2 - immerse in carnauba´s wax (Fruit Wax; 3 - immerse in rubber tree latex, diluted in proportion of 1:3 (v/v; 4 - solution of calcium chloride in 1%; 5 - cassava starch in 2%. The experimental design was completely randomized in split-plot arrangement. The plot corresponded to the storage period (0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days and the split-plot by the treatments, with 3

  15. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Activities of Spray-dried Pitaya Fruit Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yangyang; Lin, Lijing; Li, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Pitaya commonly known as dragon fruit is very popular in China due to its intense color, constituent minerals, vitamins, and antioxidant properties. In the present study, physiochemical properties and antioxidant activities of fruit powder from two pitaya cultivars (namely red flesh and white flesh) and fruit peel were observed. Compared with the fruit powder of fruit flesh, the fruit powder made from fruit peel showed a higher antioxidant activity. The current study provides insights to produce spray-dried pitaya fruit powders that could potentially be used as functional food ingredients in various food fields.

  16. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  17. Impact of a focused nutrition educational intervention coupled with improved access to fresh produce on purchasing behavior and consumption of fruits and vegetables in overweight patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Eleanor; Galindo, Rodolfo J; Fried, Martin; Rucker, Lisa; Davis, Nichola J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the impact of distributing coupons redeemable at farmers markets plus an educational intervention on fruit and vegetable (F&V) purchase and consumption in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Seventy-eight participants with T2DM being followed at Jacobi Medical Center, a large public hospital in the Bronx, New York, were randomized to receive the standard of care or a 1-hour session focused on benefits of F&V consumption and $6 in coupons. Questionnaires assessed demographics, F&V intake, and farmers market purchasing at baseline and 12 weeks. Clinical parameters were obtained through chart review at baseline and at 12 weeks. Participants were predominantly Latino, females, and low income. At 12 weeks, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of participants in the intervention arm who reported purchasing from a farmers market. In addition, there was a minimal increase in fresh fruit intake in the intervention arm at 12 weeks. Focused education combined with a small economic incentive resulted in an increase in purchasing behavior and fresh fruit intake per day. A more intense behavioral intervention combined with increased access may result in a significant impact on obesity and diabetes, particularly among low-income and racially diverse communities.

  18. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  19. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  20. The role of leaves and fruits in determining the specific cultivar characters of peach fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolov, P.; Petrov, A.

    1982-01-01

    At the Institute of Fruit Growing, Plovdiv, triple buds were grafted on the crowns of 6 year-old peach trees in the following cultivar combinations: 1. Springtime (early8 ripening in the second half of June, white fleshed) on Rio oso gem (late, ripening in the first half of September, yellow fleshed); 2. Fillette (early, ripening in the second half of June, yellow fleshed) on Rio oso gem; 3. Rio oso gem on Springtime; 4. Rio oso gem on Fillette. At the begining of the following growing period the development of the grafted generative organs was fully dependent on assimilates produced by the leaves of the other cultivar. The interrelations between the leaves and the fruits in the various combinations were followed by biometrical and radio-isotopic ( 14 C) methods. Results substantiated the conclusion that the genetic information on the development of the specific cultivar characters such as flavour, arome, skin colour, fruit flesh texture and colour, fruit size and date of ripening was borne by the fruits themselves. The synthetic processes of the leaves during photosynthesis are not directly related with the synthetic processes producing the fruits' organic matter. The basic constructing substances were produced in the leaves and were transported to the fruits, where they were subjected to metabolic transformations in accordance with the biological characteristics of the cultivar and the phase of fruit development

  1. Biodegradation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by composite micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusri Atan; Mat Rasol Awang; Mohammed Omar; Azizah Hashim; Tamikazu Kume; Shoji Hashimoto

    1998-01-01

    A comparison study on the comparative biodegradation ability on EFB by five groups of composite micro-organisms [Organomine, Thomas, Ohres C, Ohres II and micro-organisms from POME (palm oil mill effluent)] has been performed with the aim of producing a compost at a faster rate than that by natural biodegradation. The experiment was carried out by mixing 50 gram EFB (dry weight basis) with 3% ammonium sulphate to which was added 1% composite micro-organisms and water to produce a composting media of moisture content about 60%. Respiration of composite micro-organisms as well as from decomposition of EFB releasing CO sub 2. The choice of useful micro-organisms was based on its ability to degrade EFB as reflected by higher evolution rate of CO sub 2 released and retaining higher percentage of nitrogen in the final product

  2. Ionizing energy treatment of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using palm oil mill effluent (POME): a low-cost and eco-friendly viable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Pei Pei; Ng, Shi Han; Huang, Yan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2012-06-01

    The present study reports the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) from gold precursor using palm oil mill effluent (POME) without adding external surfactant, capping agent or template. The biosynthesized AuNps were characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the image analysis performed on a representative TEM micrograph by counting 258 particles, the obtained AuNps are predominantly spherical with an average size of 18.75 ± 5.96 nm. In addition, some triangular and hexagonal nanoparticles were also observed. The influence of various reaction parameters such as reaction pH, concentration of gold precursor and interaction time to the morphology and size of biosynthesized AuNps was investigated. This study shows the feasibility of using agro waste material for the biosynthesis of AuNps which is potentially more scalable and economic due to its lower cost. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Country-wine making from Eembe fruit (Berchemia discolor) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Country-wine was made from dried Eembe fruit purchased from Katima Mulilo open market using commercial wine yeast. The fruit produced a wine with 8.6% alcohol content when no sugar was added. Fermentation to produce the wine was carried out at 22ºC. The clarity, aroma, colour and acceptability of the wine was ...

  5. Assessment of the strategies of organic fruit production and fruit drying in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Pillot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture in Uganda is developing at a fast pace and despite this trend Uganda is still unable to produce enough fresh and dry organic fruits mainly pineapple to meet the exporters demand. This current research investigated the strategies of farmers at production level by assessing the pros and cons of fruit growing, organic agriculture and fruit drying in order to understand the underlying causal factor for the low production of organic dry fruits in a major fruit producing district of Uganda.The study was carried out in two separate and distinctive areas; one which only produces and export fresh organic pineapple and the other which exports dried fruits (mainly pineapple and papaya. About 10% of the farmers in the two study areas were surveyed using questionnaires which were further followed by semi-structured interviews and participatory rural appraisals activities with various types of farmers in order to understand the different decisions and strategies of farmers.82% and 74% of farmers in the two study areas grew fruits as it gave better economic returns and for 77% and 90% respectively in the two study areas, the reasons for growing fruit was the ease of selling compared to other crops. All the farmers were relying on coffee husk for growing organic pineapples. However, 50% of the farmers want to grow pineapples (either organic or conventional but couldn't afford to buy coffee husk. Fruit drying was mainly a strategy to utilize cheap fruits during harvesting seasons for value addition. 71% and 42% of farmers in the two study areas wanted to dry fruits but it was beyond their economic capacity to buy the driers.Decision of the farmers whether to grow fruits or cereals, organic or conventional agriculture and selling the fruits as fresh or dry were dependent mainly on the economic, knowledge and resource availability of each type of practices. It is concluded that the main barrier for an increase in the production of organic dried

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF GAS-UPGRADING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOHYDROGEN PRODUCED FROM TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZZATI NADIA MOHAMAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, a high energy demand has led to massive research efforts towards improved gas-separation techniques for more energy-efficient and environmenttally friendly methods. One of the potential alternative energies is biogas produced from the fermentation of liquid waste generated from the oil-extraction process, which is known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. Basically, the gas produced from the POME fermentation process consists mainly of a CO2 and H2 gas mixture. CO2 is known as an anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which contributes towards the climate change phenomenon. Hence, it is crucial to determine a suitable technique for H2 separation and purification with good capability for CO2 capture, as this will reduce CO2 emission to the environment as well. This paper reviewed the current gas-separation techniques that consist of absorption, adsorption and a membrane in order to determine the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques towards the efficiency of the separation system. Crucial aspects for gas-separation techniques such as energy, economic, and environmental considerations are discussed, and a potential biohydrogen and biogas-upgrading technique for industrial POME application is presented and concluded in this paper. Based on the comparison on these aspects, water scrubbing is found to be the best technique to be used in the biogas-upgrading industry, followed by membrane and chemical scrubbing as well as PSA. Hence, these guidelines are justified for selecting the best gas-upgrading technique to be used in palm oil mill industry applications.

  7. Caracterização físico-química dos frutos de genótipos de bananeira produzidos em Botucatu-SP Fruit physicochemical characterization of banana genotypes produced in Botucatu-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana Portes Ramos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos atributos pós-colheita dos frutos de novos genótipos é uma importante informação que auxilia o melhorista em sua tomada de decisão. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as características físico-químicas de frutos de genótipos de 3 grupos genômicos de bananeira: 'Nanicão-IAC-2001', 'Grande Naine', 'Caipira' e 'Nam' (AAA; 'Maçã', 'Thap Maeo', 'Prata Anã' e 'Prata Zulu' (AAB; 'Fhia 01', 'Fhia 18', 'Prata Graúda' e 'Tropical' (AAAB, no município de Botucatu-SP. As características avaliadas foram: textura, pH, acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, açúcares solúveis totais, teores de amido e potássio. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos (genótipos, cinco repetições, sendo que em cada repetição utilizaram-se cinco frutos. Utilizou-se o teste de tukey (Pd" 0,05 para a comparação entre médias de genótipos, dentro de cada grupo genômico. Os resultados mostraram que no grupo AAA, Nam se destacou apresentando frutos mais firmes, com maior teor de sólidos solúveis e amido. Do grupo AAB, 'Prata Zulu' apresentou frutos mais firmes, com maior teor de açúcares solúveis totais e amido e menor acidez. No grupo dos híbridos AAAB, 'Tropical' apresentou maior teor de potássio e amido, no entanto, menor teor de sólidos solúveis e açúcares solúveis totais.The knowledge of the post-harvest characteristics of new banana genotypes is important an information that helps the breeder in making a decision. This work had the objective of evaluating the fruit physical and chemical characteristics of genotypes of three banana genomic groups: 'Nanicão-IAC-2001', 'Grande Naine', 'Caipira', and 'Nam' (AAA; 'Maçã', 'Thap Maeo', 'Prata Anã', and 'Prata Zulu' (AAB; 'Fhia 01', 'Fhia 18', 'Prata Graúda', and 'Tropical' (AAAB in Botucatu region, São Paulo state, Brazil. The evaluated characteristics were: firmness, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, total soluble

  8. Comparação de métodos para a produção de frutos autofecundados em pimenteiras ornamentais Testing methods for producing self-pollinated fruits in ornamental peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizanilda R do Rêgo

    2012-12-01

    peppers, including those of ornamental relevance. The use of protected cultivation is raising the demand for high-yielding hybrids, with higher commercial value, so as to turn this production system into a profitable investment. Hybrid seeds are obtained by crossing endogamic lines, which, in their turn, result from successive self-pollinations. The objective of this study was to compare two methods of protecting selfed flower buds from contamination with exogenous pollen in ornamental peppers. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, on a laboratory of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba. We took plants of 15 hybrids and their reciprocals to test two methods to protect selfed flower buds: 1= bud covering with aluminum foil; and 2= bud sealing with white glue. We carried out ten self-pollinations per hybrid, in pre-anthesis, for each method. We evaluated the average fruit set rate per method within each hybrid. The general fruit setting average in method 1 (16% was lower than in method 2 (51%; with not a single hybrid in which fruit set rate of method 1 has exceeded that of method 2. A few hybrids showed up to 90% fruit set after self-pollination when flower buds were sealed with white glue (method 2, in contrast to a maximum of 40% fruit set when using method 1. The direction of the cross, direct or reciprocal, also affected fruit set rate, causing either reduction or increase, but with no effects of the selfed bud protecting method. Considering our results, we indicate the use of white glue to seal selfed flower buds to secure the success of controlled selfing in pepper.

  9. Quality properties of fruits as affected by drying operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolola, Adewale O; Jideani, Afam I O; Kapila, Patrick F

    2017-01-02

    The increasing consumption of dried fruits requires further attention on the quality parameters. Drying has become necessary because most fruits are highly perishable owing to their high moisture content and the need to make them available all year round and at locations where they are not produced. In addition to preservation, the reduced weight and bulk of dehydrated products decreases packaging, handling and transportation costs. Quality changes associated with drying of fruit products include physical, sensory, nutritional, and microbiological. Drying gives rise to low or moderate glycemic index (GI) products with high calorie, vitamin and mineral contents. This review examines the nutritional benefits of dried fruits, protective compounds present in dried fruits, GI, overview of some fruit drying methods and effects of drying operations on the quality properties such as shrinkage, porosity, texture, color, rehydration, effective moisture diffusivity, nutritional, sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of fruits.

  10. Serbia on the international fruit market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a comparative analysis of some of the most important indicators of both global and domestic fruit market. It shows the results of a study on the volume, dynamics and the structure of production, as well as the trade of fruit at the global level, that is continents and some countries. It also defines leading producers, trends in the international trade, and leading exporters and importers of these products. Besides, it analyses the position of Serbia in the international fruit market based on the spectre of the aforementioned criteria. Subsequently, balances, structure and regional trends in Serbian foreign trade exchange of fresh and processed fruit has been analyzed. Additionally, attention has been focused on the requirements, possibilities, measures and development trends of domestic production and export of analyzed products. .

  11. Genetic dissimilarity of putative gamma-ray-induced 'Preciosa-AAAB-Pome type' banana (Musa sp) mutants based on multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, R K N; Amorim, E P; Ferreira, C F; Amorim, V B O; Oliveira, L S; Ledo, C A S; Silva, S O

    2011-10-25

    Bananas are among the most important fruit crops worldwide, being cultivated in more than 120 countries, mainly by small-scale producers. However, short-stature high-yielding bananas presenting good agronomic characteristics are hard to find. Consequently, wind continues to damage a great number of plantations each year, leading to lodging of plants and bunch loss. Development of new cultivars through conventional genetic breeding methods is hindered by female sterility and the low number of seeds. Mutation induction seems to have great potential for the development of new cultivars. We evaluated genetic dissimilarity among putative 'Preciosa' banana mutants generated by gamma-ray irradiation, using morphoagronomic characteristics and ISSR markers. The genetic distances between the putative 'Preciosa' mutants varied from 0.21 to 0.66, with a cophenetic correlation coefficient of 0.8064. We found good variability after irradiation of 'Preciosa' bananas; this procedure could be useful for banana breeding programs aimed at developing short-stature varieties with good agronomic characteristics.

  12. Pheromone produced by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, K; Hegeman, G D; White, D

    1982-01-01

    An extracellular, diffusible signaling molecule (pheromone) was produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca during fruiting body formation. The pheromone decreased the aggregation period in both the light and the dark and substituted for light in stimulating the maturation of aggregates into fruiting bodies. The cells were more sensitive to lower concentrations of pheromone in the light than in the dark, possibly explaining the stimulation of aggregation and fruiting body formation by light. The phero...

  13. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica; Vasić Mirjana; Milić Dragan; Červenski Janko

    2011-01-01

    Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The li...

  14. Potential use of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment for fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of the investigations Technology. Considering the potentiality of the country, to export non traditional and exotic fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and ornamental fresh cut flowers, studies ares initiated to use ionizing radiation as quarantine treatments. This paper reports the initial data obtained with two species of fruit fly of high incidence in the fruit producer zones of Ecuador, whose stable and permanent microclimates allow to produce a sort of fruits along all year

  15. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  17. Brave new fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, N.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma rays are being used for artificially inducing mutations in deciduous fruits, so that improvements in characteristics and quality can be developed and new fruit cultivars sent out to compete on international markets. Progress in this field of research at Stellenbosch is described

  18. Prunus fruit juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  19. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  20. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  1. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  2. Modelling the South African fruit export infrastructure: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A description is provided of work performed as part of the fruit logistics infrastructure project commissioned by the South African Deciduous Fruit Producers' Trust and coordinated by the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, as described in Van Dyk FE & Maspero E, 2004, An analysis of the South ...

  3. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  4. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bianco

    Full Text Available Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes.In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies.This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  5. Proteome regulation during Olea europaea fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process.

  6. LAMP-based group specific detection of aflatoxin producers within Aspergillus section Flavi in food raw materials, spices, and dried fruit using neutral red for visible-light signal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Ludwig; Bechtner, Julia; Fodil, Sihem; Taniwaki, Marta H; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-02-02

    Aflatoxins can be produced by 21 species within sections Flavi (16 species), Ochraceorosei (2), and Nidulantes (3) of the fungal genus Aspergillus. They pose risks to human and animal health due to high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Detecting aflatoxin producers can help to assess toxicological risks associated with contaminated commodities. Species specific molecular assays (PCR and LAMP) are available for detection of major producers, but fail to detect species of minor importance. To enable rapid and sensitive detection of several aflatoxin producing species in a single analysis, a nor1 gene-specific LAMP assay was developed. Specificity testing showed that among 128 fungal species from 28 genera, 15 aflatoxigenic species in section Flavi were detected, including synonyms of A. flavus and A. parasiticus. No cross reactions were found with other tested species. The detection limit of the assay was 9.03pg of A. parasiticus genomic DNA per reaction. Visual detection of positive LAMP reactions under daylight conditions was facilitated using neutral red to allow unambiguous distinction between positive and negative assay results. Application of the assay to the detection of A. parasiticus conidia revealed a detection limit of 211 conidia per reaction after minimal sample preparation. The usefulness of the assay was demonstrated in the analysis of aflatoxinogenic species in samples of rice, nuts, raisins, dried figs, as well as powdered spices. Comparison of LAMP results with presence/absence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin producing fungi in 50 rice samples showed good correlation between these parameters. Our study suggests that the developed LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and user-friendly tool for surveillance and quality control in our food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An inventory of recent innovations in fruit and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zajac, J.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to make an inventory of recent and ongoing fruit and fruit product innovations, to assess what novelty or improvement they offer, and whether consumers could identify and/or recognise them. Researchers from 11 European countries submitted 386 examples of fruit and fruit

  8. A brief history of fruits and frugivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theodore H.; John Kress, W.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we briefly review the evolutionary history of the mutualistic interaction between angiosperms that produce fleshy fruits and their major consumers: frugivorous birds and mammals. Fleshy fruits eaten by these vertebrates are widely distributed throughout angiosperm phylogeny. Similarly, a frugivorous diet has evolved independently many times in birds and mammals. Bird dispersal is more common than mammal-dispersal in all lineages of angiosperms, and we suggest that the evolution of bird fruits may have facilitated the evolution of frugivory in primates. The diets of fruit-eating bats overlap less with those of other kinds of frugivorous vertebrates. With a few exceptions, most families producing vertebrate-dispersed fruit appeared substantially earlier in earth history than families of their vertebrate consumers. It is likely that major radiations of these plants and animals have occurred in the past 30 Ma, in part driven by geological changes and also by the foraging behavior of frugivores in topographically complex landscapes. Overall, this mutualistic interaction has had many evolutionary and ecological consequences for tropical plants and animals for most of the Cenozoic Era. Loss of frugivores and their dispersal services will have a strong negative impact on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of tropical and subtropical communities.

  9. Coatings for minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetables are gaining increasing popularity and market share. Techniques to enhance stability of fresh cut produce are reviewed. Among these techniques, edibles coatings can provide protection against dehydration, microbial decay and decrease events related to physiological sene...

  10. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and

  11. Diallel cross analysis for fruit traits in watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdanović-Varga Jelica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current demands of consumers and thus producers are important when targeting watermelon breeding programs, especially in programs aimed at improvement of fruit traits. A complete diallel set has been investigated for breeding values of six watermelon lines, via general and specific combining ability, relationships between general and specific combining ability, heritability and heterosis for fruit size, rind thickness, soluble solids and fruit shape. The lines P2 and P4 were good general combiners for fruit size. These lines also had high values of specific combining ability in direct and reciprocal crosses. The lines with negative general combining ability for fruit size (P1 and P5 can be used in breeding for small fruits (4-6 kg, good taste (high sugar content, desired rind thickness, desired fruit form and high fruit ratio. Relationships between general and specific combining ability indicated that the additive effect played an important role in the expression of fruit weight, rind thickness and sugar content, while fruit shape was inherited incompletely dominantly.

  12. Effect of temperature on methanogenesis stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) into biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Irvan, Mahdalena; Taslim; Turmuzi, M.

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of temperature on methanogenesis stage of conversion of palm oil mill effluent into biogas. Methanogenesis is the second stage of methanogenic anaerobic digestion. Improved performance of the methanogenesis process was determined by measuring the growth of microorganisms, degradation of organic materials, biogas production and composition. Initially, the suitable loading up was determined by varying the HRT 100, 40, 6, and 4.0 days in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with mixing rate 100 rpm, pH 6.7-7.5 at room temperature. Next, effect of temperature on the process was determined by varying temperature at mesophilic range (30-42°C) and thermophilic range (43-55°C). Analysis of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were conducted in order to study the growth of microorganisms and their abilities in converting organic compound to produce biogas. Degradation of organic content i.e. VS decomposition and COD removal increased with the increasing of temperature. At mesophilic range, VS decomposition and COD removal were 51.56 ± 8.30 and 79.82 ± 6.03, respectively. Meanwhile at thermopilic range, VS decomposition and COD removal were 67.44 ± 3.59 and 79.16 ± 1.75, respectively. Biogas production and its methane content also increased with the increasing of temperature, but CO2 content also increased. Biogas production at mesophilic range was 31.77 ± 3.46 L/kg-ΔVS and methane content was 75 . Meanwhile, biogas production at thermopilic range was 37.03 ± 5.16 L/kg-ΔVS and methane content was 62.25 ± 5.50 .

  13. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  14. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  15. Hydroalcohol Fruit Peel Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L) fruit peel using 80 % ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Methods: Male ... Conclusion: The study shows indicates the antiulcer properties of the methanol extracts of north white ... experimentation, Cimetidine was obtained from.

  16. Regularities in the supply of young peach fruits with 14C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.; Manolov, P.

    1977-01-01

    A well expressed independence may be observed in nurturing young fruits of the Rio Ozo Gem variety with newly produced 14 C assimilates within a fruit-bearing branchlet. For an effective link between the individual lateral shoots and fruits both their around location and linear nearness to each other are of importance. Since the phloem fibre direction within several internaodes is nearly parallel to the branchlet axis, as a rule fruits are supplyed by the shoots situated on the same branchlet side. The negative influence of the distance between fruit and shoot is due mainly to the competition of near fruits located on the same phloem strip. Under the complex effect of these factors certain specialization is formed of the shoots arranged along the fruit-bearing branchlet, namely the upper shoots do service mainly to the upper part and the bottom ones to the basic part of it. At the same time, shoot removal tests showed that the said independence is not absolute in the carbohydrate nurture of the young fruits within the fruit-bearing branchlet. The function of an absent donor organ (a shoot) is taken over in this case by other donor organs to a greater degree than in a vegetative growth even if it would be exigently to go over from a longitudinal to a transversal transport. This shows that the young peach fruits about a month after blossoming have a greater mobilizing strength than the young growing leaves. (author)

  17. Effect of saline conditions on the maturation process of Clementine clemenules fruits on two different rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J. M.; Gomez-Gomez, A.; Perez-Perez, J. G.; Botia, P.

    2010-07-01

    The production of mandarins is important in the Mediterranean area, where the continued use of saline water reduces fruit yield and modifies fruit quality. Grafted trees of Clemenules mandarin scion on Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks, two of the most common citrus rootstocks employed in this area, were irrigated with two saline treatments (control and 30 mM NaCl). The fruit quality was studied through the last two months before the fruit harvest. Salinity reduced both the fruit number and the mean fruit weight on Carrizo trees whereas no fruit weight reduction was observed on Cleopatra. The decrease of fruit weight on Carrizo trees is probably due to the lower water content and consequently the lower juice percentage. Although the saline treatment produced significant differences in some fruit quality variables (shape and thickness indices) throughout the maturation process, they were minimal at the harvest time. Total soluble solids (TSS) were significantly higher in fruits from the saline treatments, probably due to a passive dehydration. It is also possible that de novo synthesis of sugars occurred, since fruits from Cleopatra trees receiving the saline treatment had similar water contents but higher TSS than control fruits. The external fruit colour indicated that the saline treatment accelerated the maturation process; however, the maturity index showed that the high acidity of these fruits delayed the internal maturation with respect to the control fruits. (Author) 41 refs.

  18. Chemical composition of Chinese palm fruit and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl user 4

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... (PK) of oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis S.L.Dura) produced in Hainan, China were investigated. The ..... MS conditions: ionization type, .... number of fatty acids of low molecular weight.

  19. Effect of time of harvest, stage of fruit ripening, and post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds were extracted from half of the fruits harvested from each stage immediately after harvest while the other halves were stored at room temperature to ripen to the soft-red stage before seed extraction. Fruit weight in both cultivars decreased with plant age. Fruits harvested at the yellow-ripe stage produced the highest ...

  20. From root to fruit: RNA-Seq analysis shows that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect tomato fruit metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Chialva, Matteo; Novero, Mara; Miozzi, Laura; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Bonfante, Paola

    2014-03-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) establishes a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The formation of the mycorrhizal association in the roots leads to plant-wide modulation of gene expression. To understand the systemic effect of the fungal symbiosis on the tomato fruit, we used RNA-Seq to perform global transcriptome profiling on Moneymaker tomato fruits at the turning ripening stage. Fruits were collected at 55 days after flowering, from plants colonized with Funneliformis mosseae and from control plants, which were fertilized to avoid responses related to nutrient deficiency. Transcriptome analysis identified 712 genes that are differentially expressed in fruits from mycorrhizal and control plants. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of these genes showed 81 overrepresented functional GO classes. Up-regulated GO classes include photosynthesis, stress response, transport, amino acid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism functions, suggesting a general impact of fungal symbiosis on primary metabolisms and, particularly, on mineral nutrition. Down-regulated GO classes include cell wall, metabolism and ethylene response pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the RNA-Seq results for 12 genes out of 14 when tested at three fruit ripening stages, mature green, breaker and turning. Quantification of fruit nutraceutical and mineral contents produced values consistent with the expression changes observed by RNA-Seq analysis. This RNA-Seq profiling produced a novel data set that explores the intersection of mycorrhization and fruit development. We found that the fruits of mycorrhizal plants show two transcriptomic "signatures": genes characteristic of a climacteric fleshy fruit, and genes characteristic of mycorrhizal status, like phosphate and sulphate transporters. Moreover, mycorrhizal plants under low nutrient conditions produce fruits with a nutrient content similar to those from non-mycorrhizal plants under high nutrient conditions

  1. Gamma irradiation of fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1983-08-01

    At a Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) meeting held in 1976, recommendations were made to rationalize the unnecessarily elaborate wholesomeness evaluation procedures for irradiated foodstuffs. Irradiation at the commercially recommended doses did not adversely affect the constituents of mangoes, papayas, litchis and strawberries at the edible-ripe stage. These favourable radiation-chemical results justified the development of a theoretical model mango which could be used for extrapolation of wholesomeness data from an individual fruit species to all others within the same diet class. Several mathematical models of varying orders of sophistication were evolved. In all of them, it was assumed that the radiant energy entering the system reacted solely with water. The extent of the reaction of the other components of the model fruit with the primary water radicals was then determined. No matter which mathematical treatment was employed, it was concluded that the only components which would undergo significant modification would be the sugars. In order to extrapolate these data from the mango to other fruits, mathematical models of three fruits containing less sugar than the mango, viz. the strawberry, tomato and lemon, were compiled. With these models, the conclusion was reached that the theoretical degradation spectra of these fruits were qualitatively similar to the degradation pattern of the model mango. Theory was again substantiated by the practical demonstration of the protective effect of the sugars in the tomato and lemon. The decrease in radiation damage was enhanced by the mutual protection of the components of the whole synthetic fruits with ultimate protection being afforded by the biological systems of the real fruits

  2. Induced polyploidy dramatically increases the size and alters the shape of fruit in Actinidia chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-Hu; Ferguson, A. Ross; Murray, Brian G.; Jia, Yilin; Datson, Paul M.; Zhang, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Some otherwise promising selections of Actinidia chinensis (kiwifruit) have fruit that are too small for successful commercialization. We have therefore made the first detailed study in diploid kiwifruit of the effects of chromosome doubling induced by colchicine on fruit size, shape and crop loading. Methods Flow cytometric analysis of young leaves and chromosome analysis of flower buds and root tips was used to confirm the stability of induced autotetraploids. Fruit weight, size and crop load were measured in the third year after planting in the field and for three consecutive years. DNA fingerprinting was used to confirm the origin of the material. Key Results There was a very significant increase in fruit size in induced autotetraploids of different genotypes of A. chinensis. With the commercially important diploid cultivar ‘Hort16A’, most regenerants, Type A plants, had fruit which were much the same shape as fruit of the diploid but, at the same fruit load, were much larger and heavier. Some regenerants, Type B plants, produced fruit similar to ‘fasciated’ fruit. Fruit of the autotetraploids induced from three female red-fleshed A. chinensis selections were also 50–60 % larger than fruit of their diploid progenitors. The main increase in fruit dimensions was in their diameters. These improved fruit characteristics were stable over several seasons. Conclusions Chromosome doubling has been shown to increase significantly fruit size in autotetraploid A. chinensis, highlighting the considerable potential of this technique to produce new cultivars with fruit of adequate size. Other variants with differently shaped fruit were also produced but the genetic basis of this variation remains to be elucidated. Autoploids of other Actinidia species with commercial potential may also show improved fruit characteristics, opening up many new possibilities for commercial development. PMID:21980192

  3. Are regional and remote Western Australian children eating for good health? An investigation into fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrich, Stephanie L; Lo, Johnny; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Issue addressed Little is known about the fruit and vegetable (F&V) habits of regional and remote Western Australian (WA) children beyond quantities consumed. This study aimed to ascertain the proportion of regional and remote WA children who met the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) for F&V; the types and varieties of F&V consumed; and whether consumption behaviour was associated with remoteness. Methods Caregiver and child dyads (n=256 dyads) completed similar paper-based surveys, 196 of these children completed 24-h dietary records. Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS (version 23). Results Overall, children were less likely to adhere to vegetables (15.4%) than fruit (65.8%) guidelines. Adherence to the ADG did not significantly differ between regional and remote locations. However, a higher proportion of remote children consumed dried fruit compared with regional children, while significantly more regional children compared with remote children consumed from the 'pome, tropical and stone fruit' group and the 'starchy vegetables', 'red/orange vegetables' and 'dark green leafy vegetables' groups. Conclusions Many regional and remote WA children consumed F&V in suboptimal amounts. Further research should aim to ascertain factors that increase or decrease the likelihood of ADG adherence across regional and remote WA and determine why certain F&V variety groups and types differed in consumption across Remoteness Areas. So what This study provided closer scrutiny of WA children's F&V consumption habits, highlighting the differences in consumption behaviours due to remoteness and identifying specific areas that require further investigation.

  4. 78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... subgroup 13-07B; globe artichoke; pome fruit group 11-10; fruiting vegetable group 8-10; citrus fruit group..., Except Strawberry and Lowbush Blueberry; Bushberry Subgroup 13-07B; Artichoke, Globe; Vegetable, Fruiting...; Artichoke, Globe; Vegetable, Fruiting, Group 8-10; Fruit, Pome, Group 11-10; Fruit, Citrus, Group 10-10...

  5. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  6. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  8. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  9. Impact of Fruit Smoothies on Adolescent Fruit Consumption at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Dylan; Price, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of serving fruit smoothies during school breakfast on fruit consumption among middle school and high school students. We draw on observational plate-waste data over a 10-week period during which fruit smoothies were introduced for breakfast at two Utah schools. Our total sample includes 2,760 student-day observations. We find…

  10. Focus on Fruits: 10 Tips to Eat More Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy to carry and convenient for lunch. 7 Enjoy fruit at dinner, too At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw ...

  11. Integrated management of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This film introduces species of fruit-flies and their reproduction cycle and suggests various methods for controlling insect pests (insect traps, treatment of infested fruits, chemical, legal, and biological control -sterile male technique

  12. Emerging fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundreds of fruit species with commercial potential are currently in a status of low economic importance. Some, such as quince (Cydonia oblonga L.), pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), and figs (Ficus carica L.) , have been cultivated for thousands of years. Others have only been locally collected an...

  13. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  14. Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Marn, Mojca Virscek

    2017-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content. Infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Fruit antioxidants during vinegar processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakir, Sena; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple

  16. Effect of culture medium on polymer production and temperature on recovery of polymer produced from newly identified Rhyzopus oryzae ST29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipparat Hongpattarakere

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermotolerant fungal isolate ST29 was identified by observing on cell morphology and molecular technique based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene to be Rhizopus oryzae. Among four culture media tested, the strain exhibited the highest growth in yeast malt extract (YM medium (4.87 g/l, followed by Sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB (4.25 g/l, potato dextrose broth (PDB (4.10 g/l and palm oil mill effluent (POME (3.29 g/l, respectively, after 4 days cultivation at 45oC. However, the strain was found to produce polymer only in POME medium at 45oC, but not in the three synthetic media tested. Effect of temperature on separation of the biopolymer produced by this fungal strain was studied by incubating the culture broth in water bath with temperatures in the range of room temperature to 70oC. The biopolymer was recovered by filtration, centrifugation, and precipitation by adding 4 volumes of 95% ethanol, then freeze-drying. These temperatures therefore had no influence on the biopolymer yields (5.58-5.78 g/l or on biomass yields (2.90-3.29 g/l.

  17. Effects of solar radiation on grape (Vitis vinifera L.) composition and dried fruit colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Most sun-exposed fruit (Vitis vinifera L.) produced dark brown berries with low L-values, whereas most dried berries from shade fruit were acceptable in lightness although some had a green tinge. Fruit shaded by the natural vine canopy or exposed to direct solar radiation had similar drying ratios. However, berry weights were significantly higher in the shade than in the sun for both cultivars. The difference in berry weight between the two positions was less pronounced in the heat affected year. Solar radiation changed the composition of fresh berries and the colour of the dried fruit. The soluble-solid concentration was higher in fresh fruit exposed to direct solar radiation than in fruit grown in shaded conditions within the canopy. In the heat affected year the berries from both positions had the same soluble-solid concentrations, possibly due to dehydration of the fruit. No significant difference was found between the pH of sun fruit and shade fruit, but the titratable acidity was higher in shade fruit. Malate and tartrate concentrations in berry skin and the polyphenol oxidase activities had carotenoid concentrations in whole fresh berries were not significantly different for sun and shade fruit. Total phenol concentrations in berry skin were higher in sun fruit and chlorophyll concentrations in whole, fresh berries were higher in shade fruit. (author)

  18. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawito, M.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in M ontakhab El-Kanater g uavas and H achiya p ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments

  19. Multiplex PCR in determination of Opiinae parasitoids of fruit flies, Bactrocera sp., infesting star fruit and guava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, S; Ibrahim, N J; Md-Zain, B M; Idris, A B; Suhana, Y; Roff, M N; Yaakop, S

    2014-01-23

    Malaysia is a tropical country that produces commercial fruits, including star fruits, Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidales: Oxalidaceae), and guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae). There is a high demand for these fruits, and they are planted for both local consumption and export purposes. Unfortunately, there has been a gradual reduction of these fruits, which has been shown to be related to fruit fly infestation, especially from the Bactrocera species. Most parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) are known as parasitoids of fruit fly larvae. In this study, star fruits and guavas infested by fruit fry larvae were collected from the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute. The parasitized larvae were reared under laboratory conditions until the emergence of adult parasitoids. Multiplex PCR was performed to determine the braconid species using two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b. Two benefits of using multiplex PCR are the targeted bands can be amplified simultaneously using the same reaction and the identification process of the braconid species can be done accurately and rapidly. The species of fruit flies were confirmed using the COI marker. The results obtained from our study show that Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Fopius arisanus (Sonan), and Pysttalia incisi (Silvestri) were parasitoids associated with Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infested star fruits. Fopius arisanus was also the parasitoid associated with Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) infested guavas. Maximum parsimony was been constructed in Opiinae species to compare tree resolution between these two genes in differentiating among closely related species. The confirmation of the relationship between braconids and fruit fly species is very important, recognized as preliminary data, and highly necessary in biological control programs. This is an

  20. Influence of Alternate Bearing on Leaf and Fruit Mineral Composition at Different Developmental Stages of Date Palm Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O. El-Mardi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of leaflets and fruits at different stages were collected from 6 “on-palms” and 6 “off-palms” (15-16 years of the Fard Cultivar. Samples were dried, ashed and digested. Macro and micronutrient concentrations of K, Ca, Mg,Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mg were determined by ICP-AES and N was measured by Kjeldhal method. Significant changes in the elemental concentrations of leaf and fruit occurred between Kimri (green color and Bisir (yellowish-red color development stages. Potassium and Mg concentration was reduced in leaf and fruit. Calcium and Na were reduced in the fruit and increased in the leaf. Iron, Zn and Mn were not significantly different between Bisir and Kimi. However, Fe in the fruit and leaf increased between Kimri and Bisir and decreased from Bisir to Rutab stages. The concentration of Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn was higher in the leaf than fruit. In contrast K, Zn and Cu were higher in the fruit. Higher Ca and Mg in leaves through the developmental stages were associated with higher concentration of K in the fruit than the leaf. These variations in the leaf and fruit elemental concentration were associated with physiological and biochemical changes during fruit development. Significant differences in the fruit elemental concentrations between the “on” (high yield producing and “off” (low yield producing palms during the developmental stages were in Ca, K, Mn and Fe and in the leaf in Mg and K. However, the general trend during Rutab (honey color, soft tissue indicates that “off-palm” leaves have higher N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn than “on-palm” leaves. Potassium and Na were higher in the “on-palm” leaves than “off-palm” leaves. But in the fruit, Rutab Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn content followed similar trends as in the “off-palm” leaves; in contrast to leaves, K and Na were higher in “off-palms” fruits and Cu and Mn higher in “on-palm” fruits. The results indicate the need for further research.

  1. (Solanum aethiopicum L.) fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eggplant is grown in almost every region and is one of the most traded indigenous vegetables in local markets (Chadha, 2006). African eggplant fruits have relatively higher carbohydrate. (7.2 g/100g), fibers (2.0g/100g), calcium (28 mg/100g), iron (1.5 mg/100g) and considerable amount of beta carotene (0.35 mg/100g),.

  2. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  3. Automatic produce quality monitoring in Reefer containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Sanders, M.G.; Kramer, de J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Current day perishable supply chains require intermediate points for manual produce quality inspection. Over the last decade international seatransport of fruit and vegetables in reefer containers has grown tremendously. Reefer containers may completely close the cold chain only if produce quality

  4. Field population studies of the Oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) for the SIT programme in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawchoung, P.; Limohpasmanee, V.; Dokmaihom, R.; AImyim, A.; Meecheepsom, S.

    2000-01-01

    Pakchong district is a large area in the Nakornrajchasima province in Thailand which produces many kinds of tropical fruits. As fruit flies are serious pests in fruit plantations in the area, the Department of Agriculture Extension has tried to control them by using the sterile insect technique (SIT) with complementary technology from the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). In order to obtain data required to plan the SIT programme to eradicate the fruit flies, subsequent field population studies were conducted

  5. Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson M. Enes; Juliana A. Fracarolli; Inácio M. Dal Fabbro; Silvestre Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing an...

  6. Fruits of neutron research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, C.

    1994-01-01

    Car windshields that don't break during accidents and jets that fly longer without making a refueling stop. Compact discs, credit cards, and pocket calculators. Refrigerator magnets and automatic car window openers. Beach shoes, food packaging, and bulletproof vests made of tough plastics. The quality and range of consumer products have improved steadily since the 1970s. One of the reasons: neutron research. Industries, employing neutron scattering techniques, to study materials properties, to act as diagnostics in tracing system performance, or as sources for radioactive isotopes used in medical fields for diagnostics or treatment, have all benefited from the fruits of advanced work with neutron sources

  7. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fruit production in Chile: bright past, uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 (the last agricultural census, Chile had 308, 445 ha of fruit orchards: an increase of almost 32% from the previous census (1997. The most important species were table grapes (20%, avocados (13% and apples (12%. Some 22% of the fruit crops growing area corresponded to juvenile orchards; within the species with higher proportion of juvenile orchards were prunes (42% and blueberries (56%. Most orchards are located between latitude 27º18` S (Copiapó and 40º36´S (Puerto Varas. The industry is driven by the export component which accounts for more than 50% of the fruits produced. In the crop season 2009-2010, approximately 254 million boxes (around 2.5 million tons were exported, representing over US$ 3.5 million. Processed and fresh fruits represented 8.2 and 26.7% of the total forest and agricultural Chilean exports in 2008, respectively. The main markets for this fruits were USA/Canada (42% and Europe (32%. The fruit grower receives, on average, 12-16% of the total price of the fruit in its final destination. Each year the fruit industry employs 450.000 people directly, of which 1/3 are permanent. Even though the fruit industry employs the highest proportion of the agricultural labor and the growing area has increased in the last 20 years, the proportion of agricultural employment has decreased from 19.5% in 1989 to 10.8% in 2008. It might also be noted that Chile invests only 0.7% of the GDP in research. In the last 40 years, the fruit industry has been a motor for the Chilean economic development, but the lower rates of currency exchange, the rising costs of energy (oil, electricity, and the increasing scarcity of hand labor have drastically reduced the profitability and are putting at risk the viability of a large proportion of the fruit orchards in Chile. It is estimated that this season around 65% of the orchards will have a negative economic balance in their operations. Higher investment in research, improvements in fruit quality

  9. Vertical stratification of the nutritional value of fruit: macronutrients and condensed tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Alain; Conklin-Brittain, Nancy L; Wrangham, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Competing successfully for the best feeding sites is an important behavioral strategy but little is known about how feeding sites vary nutritionally within a fruit tree. To answer this question we tested how the nutritional value of a fruit is influenced by its ripeness and its height within the tree crown. A complementary objective was to assess the nutritional value of the midripe fruit, a food item rarely mentioned in the literature despite being exploited on a daily basis by many frugivores. We measured how the dry weight of pulp, water content, and concentration of macronutrients and condensed tannins varied within the tree crowns of 15 fruit species. Collections occurred early in the fruiting cycle, so as to assess the amount of food in the tree before its exploitation by primates. We found that (1) the upper crown produced fruit densities 4.2 times higher, and a fruit crop 4.8 times larger, than the lower crown of the same tree; (2) considering only midripe and ripe stages, upper-crown fruits contained 28.6% more dry pulp, 21.1% more water, and 13.5% more sugars per dry matter than lower-crown fruits of the same tree; (3) midripe fruits contained 80% of the concentrations of sugars of ripe fruits, making them a sweeter food item than one would expect from the intermediate color of their epidermis; (4) cellulose, hemicellulose, proteins, and ash proportionally decreased in concentration while dry pulp and sugars increased during ripening; and (5) ripe fruits were usually rare in the tree (<0.5% of all fruit available) compared to midripe fruits (3-8%). Overall, upper-crown feeding sites produced a higher density and quality of food than lower-crown sites of the same tree. Our data therefore provide a clear nutritional explanation for why tree-feeding frugivores compete for the highest feeding sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mass rearing methods for fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Gordillo, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The most common rearing methods used for mass rearing of fruit flies, with emphasis on those of economic importance in Mexico such as Anastrepha ludens (the Mexican fruit fly). Anastrepha obliqua (the mango and plum fruit fly) and the exotic fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (the Mediterranean fruit fly) are described here. (author)

  11. Radiation processing of temperate fruits of Kashmir valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.; Wani, Ali M.

    2011-01-01

    Kashmir valley is famous for its temperate horticulture. Main temperate fruits grown commercially in the valley include apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, strawberry and apricot. These fruits being perishable and susceptible to microbial spoilage, have a short shelf-life. The short shelf-life in an impediment in their transportation and marketing and results in huge losses. Study was carried out at NRL, Srinagar to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the keeping quality of most of these fruits. The effect of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with other techniques like controlled low temperature storage, edible polysaccharide coating and calcium chloride treatment was studied in detail. The results revealed that there is a great potential for the use of radiation in extending the storage life of most of the temperate fruits produced in the valley of Kashmir. (author)

  12. Farm and product carbon footprints of China's fruit production--life cycle inventory of representative orchards of five major fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Cheng, Kun; Yue, Qian; Yan, Yu; Rees, Robert M; Pan, Genxing

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the environmental impacts of fruit production will provide fundamental information for policy making of fruit consumption and marketing. This study aims to characterize the carbon footprints of China's fruit production and to figure out the key greenhouse gas emissions to cut with improved orchard management. Yearly input data of materials and energy in a full life cycle from material production to fruit harvest were obtained via field visits to orchards of five typical fruit types from selected areas of China. Carbon footprint (CF) was assessed with quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the individual inputs. Farm and product CFs were respectively predicted in terms of land use and of fresh fruit yield. Additionally, product CFs scaled by fruit nutrition value (vitamin C (Vc) content) and by the economic benefit from fruit production were also evaluated. The estimated farm CF ranged from 2.9 to 12.8 t CO2-eq ha(-1) across the surveyed orchards, whereas the product CF ranged from 0.07 to 0.7 kg CO2-eq kg(-1) fruit. While the mean product CFs of orange and pear were significantly lower than those of apple, banana, and peach, the nutrition-scaled CF of orange (0.5 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc on average) was significantly lower than others (3.0-5.9 kg CO2-eq g(-1) Vc). The income-scaled CF of orange and pear (1.20 and 1.01 kg CO2-eq USD(-1), respectively) was higher than apple, banana, and peach (0.87~0.39 kg CO2-eq USD(-1)). Among the inputs, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer contributed by over 50 % to the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, varying among the fruit types. There were some tradeoffs in product CFs between fruit nutrition value and fruit growers' income. Low carbon production and consumption policy and marketing mechanism should be developed to cut down carbon emissions from fruit production sector, with balancing the nutrition value, producer's income, and climate change mitigation.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of the acoustic impulse-response of apples as a measure of fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Landahl, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The acoustic impulse-response technique is a means to evaluate apple quality. In this work the effect of physiological changes in the fruit on the physical measurements of fruit quality are examined. In the acoustic impulse-response technique the fruit is mechanically excited by an impact force and starts to vibrate at its own natural frequency. The resulting sound waves are then recorded and analysed. It is a fast method and yields a produce-averaged value: the stiffness factor. Experimen...

  14. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design...... reliability, and relative price are dimensions of price satisfaction that affect producers’ trust in the buyer. Moreover, trust between the producer and the buyer is found to be a strong mediator between price satisfaction and producer loyalty. The findings support recent studies about trust and its mediating...... between the multi-dimensional nature of price satisfaction and producer loyalty with trust as a mediating variable in the business-to-business (B2B) context. Although B2B relationships have been shown to be of great importance for smallholders in enhancing business performance with their buyers, little...

  15. Fruit development of the diploid kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis 'Hort16A'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Annette C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomic tools, it is now possible to undertake detailed molecular studies of individual species outside traditional model organisms. Combined with a good understanding of physiological processes, these tools allow researchers to explore natural diversity, giving a better understanding of biological mechanisms. Here a detailed study of fruit development from anthesis through to fruit senescence is presented for a non-model organism, kiwifruit, Actinidia chinensis ('Hort16A'. Results Consistent with previous studies, it was found that many aspects of fruit morphology, growth and development are similar to those of the model fruit tomato, except for a striking difference in fruit ripening progression. The early stages of fruit ripening occur as the fruit is still growing, and many ripening events are not associated with autocatalytic ethylene production (historically associated with respiratory climacteric. Autocatalytic ethylene is produced late in the ripening process as the fruit begins to senesce. Conclusion By aligning A. chinensis fruit development to a phenological scale, this study provides a reference framework for subsequent physiological and genomic studies, and will allow cross comparison across fruit species, leading to a greater understanding of the diversity of fruits found across the plant kingdom.

  16. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Jane

    Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

  17. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  18. Mandarin fruit quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Porat, Ron; Carmi, Nir

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption and global marketing of fresh, easy-to-peel mandarins, with current annual production of nearly 29 million tons. Nevertheless, most of the existing knowledge on quality traits of citrus fruit comes from research conducted on oranges and grapefruit, which are the main products for the citrus juice manufacturing industry; relatively little is yet known regarding the unique fruit quality traits of mandarins, nor about the great diversity in these traits among the various natural sub-groups and varieties of mandarins. In the present review we discuss the physiological, biochemical, and molecular factors governing key fruit quality attributes of mandarins, including fruit colour, size and shape, ease of peeling, seedlessness, flavour, and nutritional quality. Fruit colour, size, and shape contribute to external appearance; peelability and seedlessness to ease of consumption; and flavour and nutritional quality to internal quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ita, A; Flores, G; Franco, F

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different

  20. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  1. Fruit specific variability in capsaicinoid accumulation and transcription of structural and regulatory genes in Capsicum fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhaninejad, Neda; Curry, Jeanne; Romero, Joslynn; O'Connell, Mary A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissue of ripening chile (Capsicum spp.) fruit follows the coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic enzymes producing the substrates for capsaicin synthase. Transcription factors are likely agents to regulate expression of these biosynthetic genes. Placental RNAs from habanero fruit (Capsicum chinense) were screened for expression of candidate transcription factors; with two candidate genes identified, both in the ERF family of transcription factors. Characterization of these transcription factors, Erf and Jerf, in nine chile cultivars with distinct capsaicinoid contents demonstrated a correlation of expression with pungency. Amino acid variants were observed in both ERF and JERF from different chile cultivars; none of these changes involved the DNA binding domains. Little to no transcription of Erf was detected in non-pungent Capsium annuum or C. chinense mutants. This correlation was characterized at an individual fruit level in a set of jalapeño (C. annuum) lines again with distinct and variable capsaicinoid contents. Both Erf and Jerf are expressed early in fruit development, 16-20 days post-anthesis, at times prior to the accumulation of capsaicinoids in the placental tissues. These data support the hypothesis that these two members of the complex ERF family participate in regulation of the pungency phenotype in chile. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Characterization and distribution of a Potyvirus associated with passion fruit woodiness disease in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the incidence and etiology of viral infection on passion fruit in Uganda. Viral disease symptoms, including those characteristic of Passion fruit woodiness disease (PWD), were observed in producing areas with an overall mean infection level of 27%. Electron microscopic observati...

  3. Effect of Baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) Fruit Pulp Drink on Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of consuming baobab fruit pulp drink with the diet on iron status of school children. Materials and Methods: Baobab fruit pulp was scrapped from the seeds and mixed with water in the ratio of 1:2 (w/v) to produce a refreshing drink. One hundred and forty two school children 6-8 yrs involved ...

  4. IAD value at harvest as a predictor for ‘Anjou’ fruit storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjou pears produced in the PNW are single picked and can have considerable fruit maturity variability at harvest. Assessment of chlorophyll in and several mm below the peel using differential absorbance (IAD) is a means to identify populations of fruit of varying maturity within single trees. Thi...

  5. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern states produce about 50% of the watermelons in the United States (U.S.) where conditions are optimal for development of Phytophthora fruit rot prevail. Phytophthora fruit rot significantly limits watermelon production by causing serious yield losses to growers before and after harvest. ...

  6. Medicinal Fruits in Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are one of the oldest forms of food known to man. There are many references to fruits in ancient literature. According to Quran, the fruits like grape, date, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenly fruits of God.  Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food of man. They contain substantial quantities of essential nutrients in a rational proportion. Persons subsisting on this natural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, fresh and dry fruits are thus not only a good food but also a good medicine. Holy Quran is one of the reference books describing the importance of plants used for different ailments in various verses. There are several verses in Quran talking about the fruits in Paradise, including; date, olive, pomegranate, grape, banana and fig. What has been mentioned in the Quran is what scientists have achieved over the time, since the Quran is governed by logic. Although we do not know the reasons for many things in the Quran, we consider it as the foundation.

  7. The role of fruit colour in avian fruit selection: an objective approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Veronika

    2002-01-01

    To explain the prevalence of red and black fruits in fruit colour patterns, the following hypotheses were addressed, using reflectance spectra of fruits as colour assessment: 1. Birds prefer red and black fruits, or these hues are cues for food recognition in migrants or fledglings. 2. Fruit colours correlate with chemical compounds. 3. Fruit colours serve as advertisement for ripe fruits. Reflectance spectra are the most objective colour assessment currently possible. Birds show no colour pr...

  8. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  9. Kinetics of exoglucanase and endoglucanase produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Zn2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ enhanced the crude activity of EXG and EG ... processes for producing fuels and chemicals from plant ... increasing the yield of the fruit juices, oil extraction and in ... Trichoderma, Humicola and Aspergillus species were .... observation that stability of the fungal cellulases is.

  10. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  11. Histopathology of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Raquel Gomes Moraes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, produces brown lesions on guava fruits, causing severe losses on postharvest. In this study, the infection and colonization of guava fruits by C. gloeosporioides has been examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Fruits at the physiologically mature stage were inoculated with a 10(5 conidia/mL spore suspension. Afterward, fruits were incubated at 25 °C in a wet chamber for periods of 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 120 h to allow examination of the infection and colonization process. Conidia germination and appressoria formation occurred six hours after inoculation (h.a.i. Penetration occurred directly via penetration pegs from appressoria, which penetrated the host cuticle 48 h.a.i. Notably, the appressoria did not produce an appressorial cone surrounding the penetration pore. Infection vesicles were found in epidermal cells 96 h.a.i. The same fungal structures were found in epidermal and parenchymal cells of the host 120 h.a.i. Colonization strategy of C. gloeosporioides on guava fruit was intracellular hemibiotrophic.

  12. Diversity of Local Fruit Trees and Their Contribution in Sustaining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The northern Cameroon ecosystems harbor a diversity of useful tree species producing non wood forest products (NWFPs). Indigenous fruit trees are very important for the nutritional quality of rural population and contribute to their income. A better knowledge of the potential utilization of these species and the constraints ...

  13. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  14. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Evolution, Fruit Flies and Gerontology Evolutionary Biology Helps Unravel the Mysteries of Ageing. Amitabh Joshi. General Article Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 51-63 ...

  15. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  16. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  17. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  18. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici on resistant and susceptible watermelon fruit of different ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown in 44 states in the United States. Phytophthora fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is a serious disease in the southeastern U.S., where over 50% of the watermelons are produced. The disease has resulted in severe losses to watermelon growers, especially in...

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake among participants in a District of Columbia farmers' market incentive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Sara; Bost, Anna; McGonigle, Meghan; Rosen, Lillie; Peterson-Kosecki, Amelia; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan; Robien, Kim

    2018-02-01

    Limited research is available on whether participation in healthy food incentive programmes is associated with higher fruit and vegetable intake. The objective of the present study was to determine fruit and vegetable intake among participants in the Produce Plus Program, a farmers' market-based healthy food incentive programme in Washington, DC, and identify demographic and behavioural factors associated with higher fruit and vegetable intake. Using a cross-sectional survey, programme participants were interviewed at markets across DC between June and September 2015. Questions included the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) fruit and vegetable module. Fruit and vegetable intake among 2013 DC BRFSS participants reporting annual household incomes of ≤$US 35 000 was calculated for context. Washington, DC, USA. Participants (n 288) in the Produce Plus Program. On average, participants reported consuming both fruits (interquartile range: 1·0-3·0) and vegetables (interquartile range: 1·3-3·5) two times/d. Participants who reported eating home-cooked meals ≥3 times/week also reported higher median fruit (2·0 v. 0·8) and vegetable (2·3 v. 1·3) intake compared with those eating home-cooked meals less frequently. No statistically significant differences in reported median fruit or vegetable intake were observed over the course of the farmers' market (June v. August/September) season. Produce Plus Program participants reported higher median fruit and vegetable intake compared with DC BRFSS respondents with similar incomes, but still below recommended levels. More frequent home-cooked meals were associated with higher fruit and vegetable intake. Thus, efforts to increase home cooking may represent an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable intake among healthy food incentive participants.

  20. Nutritional, Medicinal and Toxicological Attributes of Star-Fruits (Averrhoa carambola L.): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Narmataa; Lee, Su Yin; Phua, Kia Kien; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-01-01

    Plants are very complex organisms that produce medicinally important natural products. The Star-fruit producing plant (Averrhoa carambola L.) is a species of woody plant in the family Oxalidaceae native to the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; but, cultivated in many parts of the world. Star-fruits are popular tropical fruits and used commonly in Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in India, China, and Brazil to relieve ailments such as chronic headache, fever, cough, gastro-enteritis, diarrhoea, ringworm infections, and skin inflammations. However, this fruit contains high amount of oxalate, which is hazardous for uremic patients, and caramboxin (CBX), which is neurotoxic. The aim of this review is to highlight the nutritional, medicinal and toxicological traits of the star-fruits.

  1. 253 some biochemical effects of a mainly fruit diet in man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -carbohydrate diet. Conn" made similar observations. Insulin Secretion. The fruit diet produced a statistically significant reduc- tion in the plasma insulin response after glucose intake in some Bantu while in some Whites there was an inex-.

  2. Long-term patterns of fruit production in five forest types of the South Carolina upper coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H.; Levey, Douglas J.; Kwit, Charles; Mccarty, John P.; Pearson, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Fleshy fruit is a key food resource for many vertebrates and may be particularly important energy source to birds during fall migration and winter. Hence, land managers should know how fruit availability varies among forest types, seasons, and years. We quantified fleshy fruit abundance monthly for 9 years (1995–2003) in 56 0.1-ha plots in 5 forest types of South Carolina's upper Coastal Plain, USA. Forest types were mature upland hardwood and bottomland hardwood forest, mature closed-canopy loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf pine (P. palustris) plantation, and recent clearcut regeneration harvests planted with longleaf pine seedlings. Mean annual number of fruits and dry fruit pulp mass were highest in regeneration harvests (264,592 ± 37,444 fruits; 12,009 ± 2,392 g/ha), upland hardwoods (60,769 ± 7,667 fruits; 5,079 ± 529 g/ha), and bottomland hardwoods (65,614 ± 8,351 fruits; 4,621 ± 677 g/ha), and lowest in longleaf pine (44,104 ± 8,301 fruits; 4,102 ± 877 g/ha) and loblolly (39,532 ± 5,034 fruits; 3,261 ± 492 g/ha) plantations. Fruit production was initially high in regeneration harvests and declined with stand development and canopy closure (1995–2003). Fruit availability was highest June–September and lowest in April. More species of fruit-producing plants occurred in upland hardwoods, bottomland hardwoods, and regeneration harvests than in loblolly and longleaf pine plantations. Several species produced fruit only in 1 or 2 forest types. In sum, fruit availability varied temporally and spatially because of differences in species composition among forest types and age classes, patchy distributions of fruiting plants both within and among forest types, fruiting phenology, high inter-annual variation in fruit crop size by some dominant fruit-producing species, and the dynamic process of disturbance-adapted species colonization and decline, or recovery in recently harvested stands. As a result, land managers could enhance fruit

  3. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  4. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  5. TIF film, substrates and nonfumigant soil disinfestation maintain fruit yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Fennimore

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year project to facilitate the adoption of strawberry production systems that do not use methyl bromide initially focused on fumigant alternatives and resulted in increased use of barrier films that reduce fumigant emissions. The focus shifted in year 3 to evaluating and demonstrating nonfumigant alternatives: soilless production, biofumigation, anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD and disinfestation with steam. In the 2010–2011 strawberry production season, fruit yields on substrates were comparable to fruit yields using conventional methods. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and steam disinfestation also resulted in fruit yields that were comparable to those produced using conventionally fumigated soils. Additional work is in progress to evaluate their efficacy in larger-scale production systems in different strawberry production districts in California.

  6. Economic feasibility of fruit and vegetable irradiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, B.B.; Wiblin, B.

    1983-01-01

    The cost of treatment of fruit and vegetables in an Ionising Radiation Treatment (IRT) facility can be quite low. However, other circumstances mitigate against its overall economic feasibility. Research has determined that irradiation treatments are technically successful in three general areas. These are: prevention of fungal wastage in strawberries, prevention of sprouting in potatoes and onions, and disinfestation of fruit and vegetables from insect pests. The strawberry industry in Australia is very small and marketing of the crop will continue regardless of the availability of an IRT facility. On the other hand the potato industry is large but does not see sprouting as a marketing problem. The third area is disinfestation against Queensland fruit fly for interstate and export markets. Recent changes in Victorian quarantine legislation give a much greater number of alternatives for produce going into that State

  7. Natural Field Infestation of Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa by Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Sylva, Charmaine D; Liquido, Nicanor J

    2017-01-01

    Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives”) which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa. Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported. PMID:28890657

  8. Effect of safe environmental pre and post harvest treatments and irradiation on handling of some fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawito, M A.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present study was carried out during two successive seasons of 2005 and 2006 seasons on{sup M}ontakhab El-Kanater{sup g}uavas and{sup H}achiya{sup p}ersimmons.two different experiments were studied, the first one for pre harvest and second post harvest. Regarding pre harvest experiment,hand or chemical flower thinning by urea or ethrel and date of fruit picking (maturity) were evaluated on both guavas and persimmons.All flower thinning treatments increased fruit set,total yield,average fruit weight and decreased fruit abscission.However,a great effect on fruit quality and chemical compositions were also found with flower thinning treatments. Chemical flower thinning was more effective than hand thinning in improving yield and quality in {sup M}ontakhab El-Kanater{sup g}uavas and {sup H}achiya{sup p}ersimmons. However,early maturation(120 and 150 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced poor fruit quality.Whereas, medium maturity(130 and 180 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruit with high quality.However,late picking(140 and 210 days for guava and persimmon respect.) produced fruits with less marketability. On the other side, post harvest treatments including irradiation of fruits with or without pre-cooling process at 0.2,0.4,and 0.8 K.Gy for guavas and 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 K.Gy for persimmons. Also,hot water at 45 degree C, fungicide at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L.and ethanol vapor at 25 and 50% were evaluated on both fruits. The obtained data were evaluated on discarded fruits %, weight loss %, fruit firmness,fruit marketability, total soluble solids,acidity,L-ascorbic acid (guava), tannins (persimmon), total sugars and fruit respiration. All supplementary refrigeration treatments improved fruit quality during cold storage but ethanol vapor either 25 or 50 % were more effective than other treatments.

  9. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Joko Prasetyo; Titik Nur Aeny

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial...

  10. The use of electron accelerators for fresh fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.

    2000-01-01

    There are presented the results of tests concerning the effects of accelerated electron-beam to some early fresh fruits like strawberries, cherries, sour-cherries and apples. The irradiation were performed on common varieties, in normal conditions, to the NILPRP-Electron Accelerator Laboratory facility consisting in electron-beam accelerators which have the following parameters: - mean beam current, 5 μA; - electron mean energy approximately, 7 MeV; - pulse period, 3.5 μs. The doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rate was about 1500 Gy/min. It was determined the fruit shelf life and there were analysed the main organoleptic and nutritional properties, as: size, shape, colour, dry weight, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and other. For the electron-beam treated fruits it was pointed out an increase in freshness and shelf life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and more than two weeks for cherries. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the fruit characteristic values. These results lead to the conclusion that the electron accelerators could be successfully used as a technological solution for the fresh fruits processing, in view of shelf life extension. There are presented also some technical and economical considerations on the feasibility of this technology and on the use of electron-beam machines for food irradiation. (authors)

  11. Behaviour of some fresh fruits under electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Stroia, A.L.; Potcoava, A.; Cojocaru, M.; Mihnea, R.; Oproiu, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in preservation of fruits and vegetables is widely recognized. In this paper it is presented a study of the effect of electron-beam irradiation of some fresh, early and perishable fruits, like strawberries, cherries, and sour cherries concerning their shelf-life time extension. The irradiations were performed on common varieties in normal conditions to the IPTRD's electron-beam accelerator (Bucharest-Magurele) having the following parameters: flow current 10 μA, power 60 W and electron mean energy 6.23 MeV. The irradiation doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rates between 100-1500 Gy/min. It was observed the fruit preservation capability of the treatment and it was analysed the main characteristics as organoleptic properties, weight of dry component, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and others. It was evidenced an increase in freshness and shelf-life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and up to two weeks for cherries without any significant changes in the values of the considered parameters. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the values of fruit characteristic parameters. The results lead to the conclusion that the electron-beam irradiation is a good technological solution for fresh fruit processing. (Author) 1 Tab., 7 Refs

  12. Radiation preservation of subtropical fruits in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations on the radiation treatment of subtropical fruits were conducted over several seasons at the Atomic Energy Board in conjunction with the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, Nelspruit. In the case of mangoes irradiation, in combination with hot-water or heated-fungicide treatment, by controlling fungal and insect attack, makes possible the transport of fruits to Europe by sea and, with the additional advantage od delayed ripening, a marked improvement in national distribution is also achieved. A commercial feasibility study for mango processing is summarized and a pilot-plant operation for mangoes is also described. Promising results have also been obtained with respect to disease control and delayed senescence in papayas, and similar benefits to those described for mangoes can be achieved under local-market and export conditions. In the case of litchis, although work is in an early stage, effective disease control has been obtained with irradiation treatment. With regard to avocados, a greatly reduced dose with a mild heat treatment produced delayed ripening without significant adverse effects, and resulted in a shelf-life extension of several days. The results given in the report show that the irradiation of subtropical fruits holds considerable promise in terms of reduced losses, improved fruit quality, better distribution and large-scale exports. With the possibility of international clearances within the foreseeable future, commercialization of the process should follow in due course. (author)

  13. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Maribela; Beja, Pedro; Correia, Pedro José; de Varennes, Amarilis; Faria, Eugénio Araújo

    2005-06-01

    To determine if flower nutrient composition can be used to predict fruit quality, a field experiment was conducted over three seasons (1996-1999) in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. 'Valencia Late', budded on Troyer citrange rootstock) established on a calcareous soil in southern Portugal. Flowers were collected from 20 trees during full bloom in April and their nutrient composition determined, and fruits were harvested the following March and their quality evaluated. Patterns of covariation in flower nutrient concentrations and in fruit quality variables were evaluated by principal component analysis. Regression models relating fruit quality variables to flower nutrient composition were developed by stepwise selection procedures. The predictive power of the regression models was evaluated with an independent data set. Nutrient composition of flowers at full bloom could be used to predict the fruit quality variables fresh fruit mass and maturation index in the following year. Magnesium, Ca and Zn concentrations measured in flowers were related to fruit fresh mass estimations and N, P, Mg and Fe concentrations were related to fruit maturation index. We also established reference values for the nutrient composition of flowers based on measurements made in trees that produced large (> 76 mm in diameter) fruit.

  14. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  15. YIELD AND QUALITY OF YELLOW PASSION FRUITS ACCORDING TO ORGANIC FERTILIZATION AND ALTERNATIVE PHYTOSANITARY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália Lúcia Vieira Pacheco

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing yellow passion fruit is a profitable activity, with a high demand for labor, and it is practiced especially by family-based farmers. However, the production cost is rather high and a significant part of this cost is associated with the expenses related to fertilization and phytosanitary treatments necessary for obtaining satisfactory yields and high commercial quality fruit. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using organic compound in fertilization of plants and alternative products in phytosanitary treatments on the yield and quality of fruits. Yellow passion fruits were submitted to three types of fertilization (mineral, organic and organic-mineral and two types of phytosanitary treatment (‘conventional’ and ‘alternative’. This experiment evaluated fruit yield (kg/plant and fruit quality by using the following evaluations: seedless pulp yield, soluble solids content (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content. The different types of fertilization did not interfere in fruit yield, however, plants under conventional phytosanitary treatment displayed higher yields. The SS content and TA of the fruits were influenced only by fertilization, where plants that received mineral and organic-mineral fertilization produced fruit with higher contents of SS and TA. Pulp yield, SS/TA ratio and vitamin C content were not influenced by any of the evaluated factors. Regarding cultivation of passion fruit, it is possible to substitute some mineral fertilizers for organic fertilizers with no negative effects on the fruit yield or quality. However, the substitution of pesticides for alternative products compromises fruit yield.

  16. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphometric and phytochemical characterization of chaura fruits (Gaultheria pumila: a native Chilean berry with commercial potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Villagra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For the first time, a morphometric characterization of chaura (Gaultheria pumila fruits has been conducted between natural populations growing in the Villarrica National Park, Araucania Region, Chile. Chaura is a native Ericaceae from Chile that produces aromatic and tasty fruits which could be of agricultural interest. RESULTS: To influence the decision for a further domestication of G. pumila, both the fruit sizes (indicator of productivity and the nutritional properties of the fruits have been determined from different subpopulations. Samples were a total of 74 plants and 15 fruits per plant which were randomly harvested following its natural distribution around the Villarrica volcano. Altogether, fresh weight, shape, color, diameter in the pole and the equatorial dimensions were determined as phenotypic traits of the G. pumila fruits. Meanwhile the total soluble solids, anthocyanin and pectin contents were calculated as nutritional traits of the Chaura fruits. Results showed a high phenotypic diversity between the sampled population with three main fruit shapes and three predominant colors. The round shapes were the most abundant, whereas a significant correlation was found among fruit size with weight and color. The highest fresh weight (597.3 mg, pole diameter (7.1 mm and equatorial diameter (6.5 mm were estimated in the pink color fruits. CONCLUSIONS: The total amount of anthocyanin was higher in red fruits, while the maximum pectin content was obtained in the round white fruits. Overall results must pave the way for a further domestication and introduction of the Chaura species in the agro-productive system in Chile.

  18. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  19. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  20. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  1. COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED STUFF FOR ADDITIONAL FEEDING IN INFANTS’ NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Ya. Kon’

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a problem of rational nutrition of infants with commercially produced additional feeding stuff containing fruits and vegetables. Equally with traditional form of fruits and vegetables in infants’ nutrition (juices, nectars, mashed products, there are new types of food — combined mush products containing fruits, cereals and milk. The article analyzes compound, properties of these products and peculiarities of their use in infants’ nutrition. Authors give recommendations on terms of inclusion these products in diet of infants.Key words: infants, nutrition, additional feeding, mashed products.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:119-123

  2. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  3. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  4. 21 CFR 150.110 - Fruit butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., seeds, pits, and cores: Factor Referred to in Paragraph (d)(2) of This Section Name of fruit Apple 7.5.... Each such fruit ingredient in any such combination is an optional ingredient. (c) The following safe...

  5. Volatile sulfur compounds in tropical fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Cannon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Global production and demand for tropical fruits continues to grow each year as consumers are enticed by the exotic flavors and potential health benefits that these fruits possess. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs are often responsible for the juicy, fresh aroma of tropical fruits. This poses a challenge for analytical chemists to identify these compounds as most often VSCs are found at low concentrations in most tropical fruits. The aim of this review is to discuss the extraction methods, enrichment techniques, and instrumentation utilized to identify and quantify VSCs in natural products. This will be followed by a discussion of the VSCs reported in tropical and subtropical fruits, with particular attention to the odor and taste attributes of each compound. Finally, the biogenesis and enzymatic formation of specific VSCs in tropical fruits will be highlighted along with the contribution each possesses to the aroma of their respective fruit. Keywords: Tropical fruits, Volatile sulfur compounds, Extraction methods

  6. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds,…

  7. Sorbitol, Rubus fruit, and misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear how the misunderstanding that Rubus fruits (e.g., blackberries, raspberries) are high in sugar alcohol began, or when it started circulating in the United States. In reality, they contain little sugar alcohol. Numerous research groups have reported zero detectable amounts of sugar alco...

  8. Genetic control of fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walder, J.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The sterile-insect technique for control of fruit-flies is studied. A brief historic of the technique is presented, as well as a short description of the methodology. Other aspects are discussed: causes of sterility in insects and the principles of insect population suppression by sterile-insect technique. (M.A.C.)

  9. Heterosis for flower and fruit traits in tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... heterosis; LSD, least significant difference; CV, co-variance. ... The North West Frontier Province of the country .... Mean squares for flowers per cluster, fruits per cluster, fruit length, fruit width, fruit weight and yield per plant.

  10. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from

  11. Radiation processing of foods: fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Post-harvest irradiation of fruits and vegetables improves their shelf-life by: (1) delaying ripening and senescence of fruits, (2) controlling fungal diseases, (3) inhibiting sprouting, and (4) disinfestation. Nutritional and quality aspects of irradiated fruits and vegetables are discussed. Commercial prospects are briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  12. 77 FR 56128 - Polyoxin D Zinc Salt; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... vegetables, fruiting vegetables, ginseng, grapes, pistachios, pome fruits, potatoes, and strawberries by..., pistachios, pome fruits, potatoes, and strawberries. The toxicological data submitted to support the previous..., potatoes, and strawberries is amended by establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for...

  13. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed.

  14. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nicodeme eFassinou Hotegni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown and internal quality attributes (total soluble solids, pH, translucent flesh. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The association between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots, explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed.

  15. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R.; Watzl, B.; Bub, A.; Miller, E.R., III; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Pasman, W.J.; Hof, K. van het; Chopra, M.; Karlsen, A.; Dragsted, L.O.; Winkels, R.; Itsiopoulos, C.; Brazionis, L.; O'Dea, K.; Loo-Bouwman, C.A. van; Naber, T.H.J.; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C

  16. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mushroom's spore size and time of fruiting are strongly related: is moisture important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Boddy, Lynne; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-04-23

    Most basidiomycete fungi produce annual short-lived sexual fruit bodies from which billions of microscopic spores are spread into the air during a short time period. However, little is known about the selective forces that have resulted in some species fruiting early and others later in the fruiting season. This study of relationships between morphological and ecological characteristics, climate factors and time of fruiting are based upon thorough statistical analyses of 66 520 mapped records from Norway, representing 271 species of autumnal fruiting mushroom species. We found a strong relationship between spore size and time of fruiting; on average, a doubling of spore size (volume) corresponded to 3 days earlier fruiting. Small-spored species dominate in the oceanic parts of Norway, whereas large-spored species are typical of more continental parts. In separate analyses, significant relationships were observed between spore size and climate factors. We hypothesize that these relationships are owing to water balance optimization, driven by water storage in spores as a critical factor for successful germination of primary mycelia in the drier micro-environments found earlier in the fruiting season and/or in continental climates.

  18. Effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Alpana; Chouksey, Swati; Deshmukh, Reena; Thakur, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted with the objective to see the effect of different post harvest treatments on physical characteristics of custard apple fruits. Fruits were treated with different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.75 kGy in combination with antioxidant i.e. Benzyl Adenine (BA) at the rate of 50 and 100 ppm and stored for 12 days at ambient temperature (25 ± 5 deg C, RH 90 ± 2 %) during winter season. Fruits treated with low doses of gamma radiation i.e. upto 1.00 kGy along with 50 ppm benzyl adenine extended the shelf life of fruits up to 6 days as compared to untreated fruits as well as fruits treated with higher doses of radiation. A decreasing trend in physiological weight loss (PLW) and percentage of marketable fruits was observed with increase in radiation doses. This promises to provide advantage to producers for transhipment of custard apple fruits in good and acceptable condition. (author)

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill) in the Interaction System Fruit-Chitosan-Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xoca-Orozco, Luis-Ángel; Cuellar-Torres, Esther Angélica; González-Morales, Sandra; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Porfirio; López-García, Ulises; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Chacón-López, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Avocado ( Persea americana ) is one of the most important crops in Mexico as it is the main producer, consumer, and exporter of avocado fruit in the world. However, successful avocado commercialization is often reduced by large postharvest losses due to Colletotrichum sp., the causal agent of anthracnose. Chitosan is known to have a direct antifungal effect and acts also as an elicitor capable of stimulating a defense response in plants. However, there is little information regarding the genes that are either activated or repressed in fruits treated with chitosan. The aim of this study was to identify by RNA-seq the genes differentially regulated by the action of low molecular weight chitosan in the avocado-chitosan- Colletotrichum interaction system. The samples for RNA-seq were obtained from fruits treated with chitosan, fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum and fruits both treated with chitosan and inoculated with the fungus. Non-treated and non-inoculated fruits were also analyzed. Expression profiles showed that in short times, the fruit-chitosan system presented a greater number of differentially expressed genes, compared to the fruit-pathogen system. Gene Ontology analysis of differentially expressed genes showed a large number of metabolic processes regulated by chitosan, including those preventing the spread of Colletotrichum . It was also found that there is a high correlation between the expression of genes in silico and qPCR of several genes involved in different metabolic pathways.

  20. Comparative analysis of cells and proteins of pumpkin plants for the control of fruit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yumiko; Taniguchi, Go; Takazaki, Shinya; Oda-Ueda, Naoko; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-09-01

    Common pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima) produce fruits of 1-2 kg size on the average, while special varieties of the same species called Atlantic Giant are known to produce a huge fruit up to several hundred kilograms. As an approach to determine the factors controlling the fruit size in C. maxima, we cultivated both AG and control common plants, and found that both the cell number and cell sizes were increased in a large fruit while DNA content of the cell did not change significantly. We also compared protein patterns in the leaves, stems, ripe and young fruits by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and identified those differentially expressed between them with mass spectroscopy. Based on these results, we suggest that factors in photosynthesis such as ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, glycolysis pathway enzymes, heat-shock proteins and ATP synthase play positive or negative roles in the growth of a pumpkin fruit. These results provide a step toward the development of plant biotechnology to control fruit size in the future. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  2. Survey of mycoflora and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Argentina markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Astoreca, A; Ponsone, L; Combina, M; Palacio, G; Rosa, C A R; Dalcero, A M

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this work were to identify the mycoflora and to evaluate the natural occurrence of OA in dried vine fruits. Likewise, the capacity to produce OA by Aspergillus section Nigri was studied. Fifty samples of dried vine fruits were obtained from Mendoza and San Juan provinces. The surface disinfection method was used for mycoflora determination using the medium dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18) and dichloran Rose Bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). Statistical analysis demonstrated that the species A. niger var. niger and Aspergillus niger var. awamori were isolated in higher frequency from black dried vine fruits from DRBC and DG18 media (P < 0.01). OA was found in 74% of the dried vine fruits samples. Sixty-two strains (28%) of Aspergillus section Nigri, were OA producers. In the species A. carbonarius the highest percentages of ochratoxigenic strains were detected (82.6%). The presence of ochratoxigenic strains of Nigri section in dried vine fruits suggests that they may be an important source of OA in this substrate. Dried vine fruits can also be an important source of OA people who consume large amounts. The dried vine fruits contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri and OA was significant.

  3. Testing fruit quality by photoacoustic spectroscopy assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, C; Dumitras, D C; Patachia, M; Banita, S

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis that raspberry and strawberry fruits from nonorganic farming release more ethylene gas compounds compared to organic ones. At the same time, the experiments focused on evaluation of the potential and capabilities of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) method in the assessment of fruit quality related to the effects of nitrogen. Ethylene gas can be harmful and carcinogenic, because it can accelerate the natural ripening process of physiologically mature fruits and makes the fruits more consistent in size. With the advantages of LPAS, we demonstrate that the concentration of ethylene from nonorganic raspberry and strawberry fruits is greater than from organic ones. (paper)

  4. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  5. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  6. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    Between August 1999 and January 2001, samples of various fruits and vegetables obtained within Norway were analyzed by published methods for parasite contamination. Neither Cyclospora oocysts nor Ascaris (or other helminth) eggs were detected on any of the samples examined for these parasites. However, of the 475 samples examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, 29 (6%) were found to be positive. No samples were positive for both parasites. Of the 19 Cryptosporidium-positive samples. 5 (26%) were in lettuce, and 14 (74%) in mung bean sprouts. Of the 10 Giardia-positive samples, 2 (20%) were in dill, 2 (20%) in lettuce, 3 (30%) in mung bean sprouts, 1 (10%) in radish sprouts, and 2 (20%) in strawberries. Mung bean sprouts were significantly more likely to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts than the other fruits and vegetables. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detected were generally low (mean of approximately 3 [oo]cysts per 100 g produce). Although some of the contaminated produce was imported (the majority, if sprouted seeds are excluded), there was no association between imported produce and detection of parasites. Crvptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were also detected in water samples concerned with field irrigation and production of bean sprouts within Norway. This is the first time that parasites have been detected on vegetables and fruit obtained in a highly developed. wealthy country, without there being an outbreak situation. These findings may have important implications for global food safety.

  7. Fruit quality: new insights for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    At ripening fruits undergo many changes which include the development of color and aroma and improvements in flavor and texture that make them attractive to potential consumers. Fruits provide an important source of health-related substances, plus minerals and vitamins, and the quality of a fruit is influenced by variety, nutritional status, and environmental conditions during plant growth and fruit development. Ripening is considered to be the main process in fruit development, and all studies had been focused on this process which included physicochemical, biochemical, and molecular analysis. With the development of genomic analysis the strategies to study fruit ripening have been changing and now there are new perspectives and opportunities. The objective of this review is to describe the state of the art in the studies related to fruit ripening with emphasis in molecular studies.

  8. Pollutant in palm oil production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan; Abdul Wahid, Mazlan

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a by-product of the palm industry and it releases large amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl. In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills (POMs) located in Malaysia. Strategies for reducing pollution and technologies for GHG reduction from the wet extraction POMs were also proposed. Average GHG emissions produced from processing 1 ton of crude palm oil (CPO) was 1100 kg CO2eq. This amount can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. The amount of GHG emissions from open ponds could be decreased from 225 to 25 kg CO2eq/MT CPO by covering the ponds. Installation of biogas capturing system can decrease the average of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to about 17,100 mg/L and stabilizing ponds in the final step could decrease COD to 5220 mg/L. Using a biogas capturing system allows for the reduction of COD by 80% and simultaneously using a biogas capturing system and by stabilizing ponds can mitigate COD by 96%. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0.87 m3 POME is produced per 1 ton palm fruit milled. POME consists of around 2% oil, 2-4% suspended solid, 94-96% water. In palm oil mills, more than 90% of GHGs were emitted from POME. From 1 ton crude palm oil, 1100 kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to 200 kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

  9. Utilization of Passion fruit hulls (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg as component of complete feed for growing Kacang goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiston Simanihuruk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Processing of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis Deg to produce passion fruit juice produce passion fruit hulls that is potential for feedstuff. Twenty male kacang goats (average initial body weight 17±1.24 kg were used in an experiment to study the effect of utilization of passion fruit hulls as feed component in the complete pellet ration on their growth. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design consisting of 4 diets and 5 replications. Animal were randomly allocated into 4 diets (0, 15, 30, 45% level of passion fruit hulls. Each diet contained 14% crude protein and 2550 Kcal kg-1 metabolism energy. The ration was offered at 3.8% of body weight based on dry matter. The result of the experiment showed that all variables observed were not affected by level of passion fruit hulls (P>0.05. Average daily gain and feed efficiency tended to decrease with the increase level of passion fruit hulls. The highest dry matter, organic matter and N intake (768,78 g h-1 d-1; 687,37 g h-1 d-1 and 17,22 g h-1 d-1 respectively were found from R1 treatment (15% level of passion fruit hulls. It was concluded that passion fruit hulls can be used till 45% level in the diet of Kacang goat.

  10. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  11. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  12. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  13. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  14. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Potamitis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  15. An FSPM approach for modeling fruit yield and quality in mango trees

    OpenAIRE

    Boudon , Frédéric; Persello , Severine; Jestin , Alexandra; Briand , Anne-Sarah; Fernique , Pierre; Guédon , Yann; Léchaudel , Mathieu; Grechi , Isabelle; Normand , Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Research focus-Mango (Mangifera indica L.), the fifth most cultivated fruit in the world, is mainly produced in tropical and subtropical regions. Its cultivation raises a number of issues: (i) mango yield is irregular across years, (ii) phenological asynchronisms within and between trees maintain long periods with phenological stages susceptible to pests and diseases, and (iii) fruit quality and maturity are heterogeneous at harvest. To address these issues, we develop...

  16. Aleuria aurantia - indole metabolites of fruit bodies, mycelial culture and culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Węgiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate and compare indole metabolites of fruit bodies, mycelium cultivated in vitro and culture medium of the fungus Aleuria aurantia (Fr. Fuck. By use of a number of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods several indole metabolites have been detected and identified among other the 3-indolebutyric acid was produced and extracted to the culture medium. Furthermore 3-indoleatonitrile and tryptophane degradative products have been found both in fruit bodies and mycelium.

  17. Managing Sustainability in Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Taragola, N.; Van Passel, S.; Zwiekhorst, W.

    2012-01-01

    As fruit growers are faced with a growing need for sustainable development, it is important to integrate sustainability into their management processes. This research applies and evaluates a self-analysis tool for entrepreneurs called the ‘sustainability scan’. The scan identifies 23 sustainability themes, divided according to the 3P-framework (People, Planet and Profit). In the scan, it is assumed that the management of these themes is at the core of sustainable entrepren...

  18. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  19. Irradiated produce reaches Midwest market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszczola, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In March 1992, the Chicago-area store gave its shoppers a choice between purchasing irradiated and nonirradiated fruits. The irradiated fruits were treated at Vindicator Inc., the first U.S. food irradiation facility (starting up on January 10, 1992). The plant, located in Mulberry, Fla., then shipped the fruits in trucks to the store where they were displayed under a hand-lettered sign describing the irradiated fruits and showing the irradiation logo

  20. Genetic transformation of fruit trees: current status and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Giorgio; Gribaudo, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Genetic transformation has emerged as a powerful tool for genetic improvement of fruit trees hindered by their reproductive biology and their high levels of heterozygosity. For years, genetic engineering of fruit trees has focussed principally on enhancing disease resistance (against viruses, fungi, and bacteria), although there are few examples of field cultivation and commercial application of these transgenic plants. In addition, over the years much work has been performed to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, to induce modifications of plant growth and habit, to produce marker-free transgenic plants and to improve fruit quality by modification of genes that are crucially important in the production of specific plant components. Recently, with the release of several genome sequences, studies of functional genomics are becoming increasingly important: by modification (overexpression or silencing) of genes involved in the production of specific plant components is possible to uncover regulatory mechanisms associated with the biosynthesis and catabolism of metabolites in plants. This review focuses on the main advances, in recent years, in genetic transformation of the most important species of fruit trees, devoting particular attention to functional genomics approaches and possible future challenges of genetic engineering for these species in the post-genomic era.

  1. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

  2. Radiation processing of fruits: application to strawberries and prunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, M.

    1986-10-01

    Extending the shelf-life of fresh fruit by means of low-dose irradiation (radurization) is not a new idea: experiments in that field started in the early sixties. These experiments have actually proved that, in some cases, irradiation can achieve shelf-life extension, either through a delay in ripening (bananas), or through rot inhibition (soft cherries, apricots, tomatoes, strawberries). Alas, they have also highlighted the intolerance showed by a number of fruits when radurized: irradiation is apt to have them ripen more rapidly (peaches, nectarines) or to soften them too much (pears, table grapes, oranges, apples, plums, grapefruit, melons, honeydew melons). Even in those cases where irradiation results in a benefit, this benefit varies depending on the variety of fruit involved, as can be seen from a deep survey of the irradiation of strawberries. Preservation of dehydrated fruit is a different matter. Prunes, for instance, would be contamined by molds, wasn't it for the addition of sorbic acid during the fabrication process. Ionization of prunes can allow producers to avoid the use of a chemical, and to keep the prunes at a greater degree of humidity [fr

  3. Effect of irradiation as quarantine treatment on citrus fruit quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancurt, Pablo; Montalban, Antonio; Arcia, Patricia; Borthagaray, Maria D.; Curutchet, Ana; Pica, Leticia; Soria, Alejandra; Abreu, Anibal V.; Ares, M. Ines

    2009-01-01

    Gamma radiations have been used to improve sanitation treatments without significant effects on fresh fruit quality. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fruit quality characteristics of citrus variety Valencia (Valencia Late), main variety produced and exported in Uruguay. All samples were stored at 3-5 deg C, 80% RH, for 20 and 40 days. Irradiation doses used were 0,35 kGy min. and 0,80 kGy max. (doses that also eliminate the fruit fly). Irradiation experiments were conducted using irradiation equipment from Atomic Center (CAE), year 1968, Co60 source, 800.000 Ci. The effects of irradiation on sensory qualities and physical characteristics were studied. The attributes evaluated were visual appearance (1- 4 hedonic scale, expert), overall acceptance (1-9 hedonic scale, consumers), texture (TAB Stevens, speed: 2m/s, distance: 2mm), yield of juice and colour (Hunter values). In general, no significant changes in these parameters were observed after irradiation. Quality was not significantly affected by doses usually applied to decrease the viability of pathogen that cause citrus Scab. This is an important contribution for the protocols that would allow citrus fruit exportation. (author)

  4. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  5. 75 FR 4384 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... fruit and nut trees, ornamentals, turfgrass, peppers (bell and non-bell), tomatoes, and rice. Contact..., stone fruits, pome fruits, grapes, tree nuts, pistachios, olives, and also for sugarcane grown in and...

  6. EFFECT OF THE TIME OF POULTRY MANURE APPLICATION AND GENOTYPE ON THE GROWTH, YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PLANTAINS (MUSA spp. AAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie Ndukwe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of time of poultry manure application: no application, at planting, 1, 2 and 3 months after planting (MAP were determined on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two plantain (Musa spp. AAB cultivars (PITA 17 and French Reversion. PITA 17 significantly produced more standing leaves, fruits with longer green and shelf life. French Reversion significantly produced taller plants, heavier bunches and fruits, wider and longer fruits. Dry matter partitioning to the pulp, pulp degree of lightness and redness were also higher for French Reversion than PITA 17. The application of poultry manure at 2 MAP produced heaviest bunches and the highest yield components while pulp dry matter and fruit shelf life duration were highest with manure application at 3 MAP. Bunch and fruit weights were heaviest in French Reversion plots applied with poultry manure at 2 MAP whereas shelf life was longest with PITA 17 that received manure application at planting.

  7. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  8. Ecological factors affecting the fruiting success of a Tibouchina trichopoda (DC. Baill. (Melastomataceae flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of resources for pollinators modulate the reproduction of plants. This study attempted to determine whether and how the fruiting success of Tibouchina trichopoda flowers varies due to plant size, number of flowers produced, distance between individuals and cardinal orientation of the flowers. From July 2009 to February 2010, we conducted monthly evaluations of 21 plants in an area of regenerating forest within the Atlantic Forest biome, located near the municipality of Antonina, in southern Brazil. Floral density was monitored weekly. During the study period, the species bloomed twice: once during the cool, dry season, showing an extended flowering period with scattered flowering individuals; and once during the hot, rainy season, showing a brief flowering period with a high density of flowering individuals. Plant size was not found to influence fruiting success. There was greater production of flowers and fruits during the brief flowering period. The extent of the floral display positively affected the fruiting success of the flowers, the effect being greater when the density of flowers was low and tending to stabilize at higher densities. The northern-facing portions of tree crowns produced more flowers and therefore had greater fruiting success than did the southern-facing portions. However, the proportion of fruits produced per flower was the same.

  9. Frozen fruit skin prick test for the diagnosis of fruit allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Teresa; Guilarte, Mar; Luengo, Olga; Guillén, Mercé; Labrador-Horrillo, Moisés; Fadeeva, Tatiana; Sala, Anna; Cardona, Victória

    2010-12-01

    Diagnosis of fruit sensitisation by skin prick test (SPT) is fast and easy to perform. Nevertheless, some fruit is not available throughout the year. Freezing aliquots of these fresh fruits to be defrosted would be a good solution to perform SPT at any time. To compare the reproducibility of SPT with Rosaceae and Cucurbitaceae frozen fruit with fresh and commercial fruit extracts. SPT with the following fruit were performed: apricot, cherry, strawberry, nectarine, Japanese medlar, peach, (peel and pulp), yellow and red plum, melon and watermelon. We compared fresh fruit, commercial extract and fruit which had been frozen at -18 degrees C. Results were read by planimetry (Inmunotek prick-film) after 15 minutes. The study group comprised 48 patients (9 males, 39 females) with a mean age of 31, 6 +/- 2.0 years. Concordance of positive and negative results was extremely high and significant in all cases. Correlation between frozen fruit and commercial extract, frozen fruit and fresh and commercial extract and fresh fruit was statistically significant in all cases except for strawberry. The use of frozen fruit is a valid method, as the performance of the SPT is similar to that of fresh fruit. This enables diagnostic procedures with seasonal fruit at any time of the year.

  10. Monitoring of Erwinia amylovora in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Radunović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of Erwinia amylovora in Montenegro, conducted from 2012 to 2014, indicated that the bacterium was widespread in the northern, continental part of the country, where the most important fruit-growing regions are situated. The presence of the bacterium was confirmed on quince, pear, apple, medlar and hawthorn. Pathogenic, cultural and biochemical characteristics of E. amylovora strains sampled from pome fruit species and indigenous flora in Montenegro had been studied previously. In the present study, serological tests were used for identification of E. amylovora strains originating from pome fruit trees and indigenous plants. Monitoring of E. amylovora and collection of samples with symptoms of bacterial fire blight from different hosts and locations were performed in Montenegro from 2012 to 2014. Isolation of the bacterium on nutrient medium produced a large number of isolates, whose pathogenicity was confirmed on immature pear fruits. Twenty-seven strains of the bacterium, originating from three pome fruit species (quince, pear and apple and one indigenous species (hawthorn were selected for serological analyses. Two applied serological methods, ELISA and IF test, enabled rapid detection of the bacterium and simultaneous examination of a large number of samples over a short period of time. Serological analyses showed high homogeneity in antigenic structure of the studied E. amylovora strains sampled from quince, pear, apple and hawthorn from nine locations in Montenegro.

  11. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... The fungal strain of T. virens was procured from Universiti. Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The fungal culture was maintained by subculturing it on potato dextrose agar and keeping it at room temperature for 7 days. Lignocellulosic content. Lignocellulosic content was analysed using Datta's method (1981).

  12. Influence of ecological variation across Pistacia altantica on fruit oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefi Bayzid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the western and central parts of Iran, there are more than eight million female trees of Pistacia atlantica Desf. with approximately 20,000 tons of fruit oil production ability. In order to evaluate the influence of select ecological characteristics, fruit samples of seven P. atlantica habitats in Kurdistan (Iran were collected in late October over two years (2013-14. Fruit oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction. The results showed a relatively small variation in oil content in fruit across plants of P. atlantica. The fruit oil content ranged from 25.4% to 28.4%, with a mean of 27.3%. Most habitats belonged to temperate and semi-arid regions, with higher longitude and altitude but less latitude and slope, higher soil electrical conductivity, total neutralizing value, organic carbon and clay, medium yearly rainfall, evaporation and sunny hours and also trees with medium ages such as Borban and Kashtar producing higher fruit oil yield than those that belonged to cool and semi-humid regions. Cluster analysis classified habitats into four distinct groups at 50% similarity; four habitats belonging to forest areas were located in the first, Borban and Kashtar in the second and third and Abdolmomen, with the coldest climate and the oldest trees, was in the fourth group. The results of principal component analysis (PCA revealed that habitats with low fruit oil showed extreme values of PC1 and PC2 but ones with high fruit oil were located mainly in the central zones of the bi plot, which suggest that habitats with medium ecological conditions produce higher fruit oil.

  13. Fruit Trees and Tamarisk Brooms: Grafting a Unique Perspective of American History in Willa Cather's Death Comes for the Archbishop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Despain, Martha J

    2005-01-01

    .... Employing the unique metaphor of grafting fruit trees, Cather produces new varieties of Americans in "Death Comes for the Archbishop" that highlight her unique perspective on the formation of America...

  14. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES ON STONE FRUIT GROWING ON SANDY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Durău

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions in the sandy soils of southern Oltenia encourage cultivation of tree species in terms of applying specific technologies. Possibility of poor sandy soils fertile capitalization, earliness in 7- 10 days of fruit ripening , high yields and quality are the main factors supporting the development of fruit growing in the sandy soils of southern Oltenia. The main objectives of the research were to CCDCPN Dăbuleni. Establish and improve stone fruit species assortment, adapted to the stress of the sandy soils, establishment and evaluation of the influence of stress on trees and their influence on the size and quality of production, development of technological links (planting distances, forms management, fertilization, getting high and consistent annual production of high quality, containing low as pesticide residues, to establish a integrated health control program of the trees with emphasis on biotechnical. Research has shown good stone species behavior, and their recommended proportion is 75% of all fruit trees (peach 36%, 14% apricot, plum15%, sweet and sour cherry fruit growing 10% of the total area. Results on peach varieties revealed: ’Redhaven’, ’Suncrest’, ’Loring’ with yields ranging from (24.8 t / ha to 29.0 t/ha with maturation period from July to August, and varieties ’NJ 244’, ’Fayette’, ’Flacara’ with productions ranging from (19.7 t / ha to 23.0 t/ha with maturation period from August to September. The sweet cherry varieties ’Van’, ’Rainier’, ’Stella’, with yields ranging from 17. 2 to 24.4 t / ha. In the range studied sour cherry were found ’Oblacinska’ varieties of 11.0 t / ha, ’Cernokaia’ with 10.5 t / ha, ’Schatten Morelle’ with 9.1 t / ha. Optimum planting density and shape of the peach crown found that the highest yields of fruit are produced in the form of vertical cordon crown, with values ranging from 15.9 t / ha at a distance of 2 m, 10.3 t / ha at a distance

  15. Augmentative biological control in the Mexican national fruit fly campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, P [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico); Cancino, J; Gutierrez, J M; Santiago, G [Campana Nacional Moscas de la Fruta, DGSV-SAGARPA (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Tephritid fruit flies are some of the most economically important species of insects worldwide. In Mexico, the native Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, A. serpentina and A. striata, are among the most important problems because of the great number of commercial fruits they attack. In an attempt to solve the Anastrepha fruit flies problems, the Mexican Government created the National Campaign against Fruit Flies in 1992. Using an area-wide approach and an integrated pest management framework, that included the use of environment-friendly strategies to suppress/eradicate fruit flies, the Mexican Campaign has integrated different technologies such as the application of specific toxic bait, the use of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), and the release of the endoparasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), which attacks preferably third instar larvae of fruit flies. Since 1995, the Moscafrut mass-rearing facility has the capacity to produce an average of 50 millions of parasitised pupae per week, with 65-70% of parasitoid emergence using irradiated A. ludens larvae as host. The mass-rearing procedures of D. longicaudata have been fully described by Cancino. Parasitised pupae are sent via commercial flights to several states of the country (i.e. Michoacan, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Tamaulipas), according to a yearly national plan. This plan derives from industry requirements and/or availability of biological material. In the target zones, parasitoids are released in specific periods and specific areas where the environmental, biological and social conditions are considered as adequate. Packing and release procedures of parasitoids follow those that Montoya et al used. The releases are focused on Anastrepha spp. host trees located in marginal areas (i.e backyard orchards), with the objective to prevent the migration of fruit fly populations into commercial orchards. The impact of parasitoids on fruit fly populations is evaluated through

  16. What makes a good neighborhood? Interaction of spatial scale and fruit density in the predator satiation dynamics of a masting juniper tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, Eduardo T; Olano, José Miguel

    2013-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variability in fruit production (masting) has been regarded as a key mechanism to increase plant fitness by reducing seed predation. However, considerably more effort has been devoted into understanding the consequences of temporal rather than spatial variations in fruit crop for plant fitness. In order to simultaneously evaluate both components, we quantify fruit production and pre-dispersal damage by three arthropod species (mites, chalcid wasps and moths) in the Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) during 3 years in a spatially explicit context. Our aims were to assess (1) the interaction between fruit production and pre-dispersal fruit damage by arthropods, (2) the potential interference or competition between arthropods, and (3) the form of the phenotypic selection exerted by arthropods on fruit traits considering the spatial context. Arthropods damaged a substantial fraction of fruits produced by Spanish juniper with levels of damage showing sharp inter-annual variations. Fruit damage by mites was negatively related to yearly fruit crop and positively correlated at individual trees fruiting in consecutive years. Increased interspecific interference was an additional consequence of reduced fruit availability during small crop years. During a masting year, fruit damage by less mobile species such as mites was negatively affected by tree crop size, and no spatial structure was observed for mite damage. The incidence of chalcid wasps was low, so the spatial pattern of seed predation was unclear, and no preferences for fruit or seed traits were detected. Conversely, moths selected larger fruits and their incidence on trees was spatially aggregated up to 20 m, with predation levels being negatively affected by fruit abundance at the patch level, suggesting a positive density-dependent effect of neighbors on fruit output. These results highlight the importance of including the spatial component to understand complex species interactions at local

  17. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Feygenberg, Oleg; Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect 'Hass' and 'Ettinger' avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine.

  18. Combined Treatments Reduce Chilling Injury and Maintain Fruit Quality in Avocado Fruit during Cold Quarantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maorer, Dalia; Zaaroor, Merav; Fallik, Elazar; Alkan, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine treatment enables export of avocado fruit (Persea americana) to parts of the world that enforce quarantine against fruit fly. The recommended cold-based quarantine treatment (storage at 1.1°C for 14 days) was studied with two commercial avocado cultivars ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ for 2 years. Chilling injuries (CIs) are prevalent in the avocado fruit after cold-quarantine treatment. Hence, we examined the effect of integrating several treatments: modified atmosphere (MA; fruit covered with perforated polyethylene bags), methyl jasmonate (MJ; fruit dipped in 2.5 μM MJ for Hass or 10 μM MJ for Ettinger for 30 s), 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; fruit treated with 300 ppb 1-MCP for 18 h) and low-temperature conditioning (LTC; a gradual decrease in temperature over 3 days) on CI reduction during cold quarantine. Avocado fruit stored at 1°C suffered from severe CI, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of chilling-responsive genes of fruit peel. The combined therapeutic treatments alleviated CI in cold-quarantined fruit to the level in fruit stored at commercial temperature (5°C). A successful therapeutic treatment was developed to protect ‘Hass’ and ‘Ettinger’ avocado fruit during cold quarantine against fruit fly, while maintaining fruit quality. Subsequently, treated fruit stored at 1°C had a longer shelf life and less decay than the fruit stored at 5°C. This therapeutic treatment could potentially enable the export of avocado fruit to all quarantine-enforcing countries. Similar methods might be applicable to other types of fruit that require cold quarantine. PMID:26501421

  19. [The acerola fruit: composition, productive characteristics and economic importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezadri, Tatiana; Fernández-Pachón, Ma Soledad; Villaño, Débora; García-Parrilla, Ma Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    The acerola (Malpighia emarginata Sessé y Mociño ex DC) is a wild plant grown in zones of tropical and subtropical climate. Acerola is origin from South of Mexico, Central America and Septentrional area of South America. Its scientific name was adopted in 1986 by the International Council of Vegetable Genetic Resources. Malpighia emarginata has a subglobulose drupa fruit with three seeds which account between the 19 - 25% of the total weight. The diameter and weight of the fruit varies between 1 - 4 cm and 2 - 15 g, respectively. The fruit shows green color when it is developing, which changes to yellow and red tones when it is mature. Each plant produces annually 20 - 30 kg of fruits. This fruit contents macro and micronutrients: proteins (0.21-0.80 g/100 g), fats (0.23-0.80 g/100 g), carbohydrates (3.6-7.80 g/100 g), mineral salts (iron 0.24, calcium 11.7, phosphorus 17.1 mg/100 g) and vitamins (thiamine 0.02, riboflavine 0.07, piridoxine 8.7 mg/100 g). Its high content in vitamin C (695 a 4827 mg/100 g) is remarkable, therefore acerola has an increasing economic value by its great consume during last years. Acerola also presents carotenoids and bioflavonoids which provide important nutritive value and its potential use as antioxidant. Brazil has a climate and soil appropriate for the culture of acerola, thus this country is the main mundial productor. Acerola is commercialised as juices, jams, ices, gelatins, sweets or liquors. Bibliographical data have been mainly supplied by Electronic Resources of the University of Seville and the University do Vale do Itajaí (Santa Catarina, Brazil).

  20. The market chain of fruit production in Serbia: A case study of raspberry and sour cherry cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Katica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The trade in fresh and frozen fruit is complex and fragmentary. Currently producers are forced to use a variety of marketing channels - farmers' markets, processing industries, trade companies and brokers. To increase quality, production, profitability and exports, it is essential to maximize cooperation between producers, processors, wholesalers and retailers. Vertically and laterally integrated fruit marketing channels demand the smallest number of intermediaries and direct relations with consumers. In past decades, fruit production in Serbia was characterized by irrational resource allocation. Neglect of the agribusiness marketing concept led to supply shortages. As a result, prices increased while quality decreased. Only integrated marketing concepts can boost quality, yields, profitability and competitiveness.

  1. Fungal and Oomycete Diseases of Tropical Tree Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, André; Guest, David I

    2016-08-04

    The tropics produce a range of fruit from tree crops that cannot be grown in colder climates. Bananas, mangos, several nuts, spices, coffee, and cacao are widely traded and much sought after around the world. However, the sustainable production of these tropical tree fruit crops faces significant challenges. Among these, losses due to pests and diseases play a large part in reducing yields, quality, and profitability. Using bananas and cacao as key examples, we outline some of the reasons fungal and oomycete diseases cause such significant losses to tropical tree crops. Cultivation of monocultures derived from limited genetic diversity, environmental conditions conducive for disease development, high levels of disease incidence and severity, a lack of disease resistance in planting materials, shortages of labor, and inadequate infrastructure and investment pose significant challenges, especially for smallholder producers. The expansion of travel and trade has given rise to emerging infectious plant diseases that add further insecurity and pressure. We conclude that holistic actions are needed on multiple fronts to address the growing problem of disease in tropical fruit tree crops.

  2. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  3. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  4. Development of passion fruit juice beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang-hao; Duan, Zhen-hua; Yang, Yu-xia; Huang, Xin-hui; Xu, Cheng-ling; Huang, Zhi-zhuo

    2017-12-01

    In this experiment, the whole fruit of passion fruit was used as raw material. The effects of the ratio of material to liquid (RML), the amount of sucrose addition and the pH on the quality of passion fruit juice beverage were investigated by single factor test. And the optimum process conditions of passion fruit juice beverage were determined by orthogonal test. The results show that the optimum process paramenters were as follow: RML was 1:3, pH was 4.0 and sucrose addition was 8%. Under such optimal conditions, the color of passion fruit juice beverage was red, the flavor of passion fruit was rich and it tasted pleasant.

  5. 137Cs behaviour in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.; Quaggia, S.; Pompei, F.; Fratarcangeli, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of measurements carried out during the period 1987-1988, to evaluate the levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs contamination in fruit samples and in various components of fruit-trees have been reported. It has been demonstrated that, in the case of an accidental contamination of the air, the contamination of fruit is mainly due to the foliar translocation of radionuclide. Data of radioactivity content in fruits collected through a period of three years show that the radioactivity content in fruit diminishes exponentially. Rough estimates of ''translocation coefficient'' defined as the ratio (radionuclide concentration in fruit)/(radionuclide deposition on soil), and of the ''biological half time'' have been carried out in the case of hazel-nut, walnut, apple, chestnut and olive

  6. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  7. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  8. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Chidananda; Sargent, Daniel James; Velasco, Riccardo; Maffei, Massimo E; Malnoy, Mickael

    2015-02-01

    The availability of genome sequences for many fruit crops has redefined the boundaries of genetic engineering and genetically modified (GM) crop plants. However commercialization of GM crops is hindered by numerous regulatory and social hurdles. Here, we focus on recently developed genome-editing tools for fruit crop improvement and their importance from the consumer perspective. Challenges and opportunities for the deployment of new genome-editing tools for fruit plants are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phenolic Composition of Fruit Tea Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Şahin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of fruit tea is increasing in the world because of its antioxidant properties and attractive taste. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the antioxidant property and phenolic composition of 16 different fruit teas. The antioxidant property and total phenol content of fruit teas depending on the extraction condition (water temperature were examined using the ABTS (2,2-azinobis[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] method and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin of fruit teas was determined by using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. The phenolic composition was determined and quantified by using high performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA. The highest total phenol content and antioxidant capacity were determined in pomegranate (I. The highest contents of total flavonoid and total anthocyanin were determined in peach (III and blackberry (I, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, myricetin, rutin, rosmarinic acid and ferulic acid were determined in fruit teas. A water temperature of 100 °C was the most effective to extract the highest contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and the highest antioxidant capacity in 16 different fruit teas. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water temperature on the extraction and quantify the various phenolic compounds in fruit teas by HPLC method for industrial application in producing the extracts.

  10. De novo assembly, characterization and functional annotation of pineapple fruit transcriptome through massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wen Dee; Voo, Lok-Yung Christopher; Kumar, Vijay Subbiah

    2012-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus), is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throughput transcriptome sequencing to profile the pineapple fruit transcripts is therefore needed. To facilitate this, we have performed transcriptome sequencing of ripe yellow pineapple fruit flesh using Illumina technology. About 4.7 millions Illumina paired-end reads were generated and assembled using the Velvet de novo assembler. The assembly produced 28,728 unique transcripts with a mean length of approximately 200 bp. Sequence similarity search against non-redundant NCBI database identified a total of 16,932 unique transcripts (58.93%) with significant hits. Out of these, 15,507 unique transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database identified 13,598 unique transcripts (47.33%) which were mapped to 126 pathways. The assembly revealed many transcripts that were previously unknown. The unique transcripts derived from this work have rapidly increased of the number of the pineapple fruit mRNA transcripts as it is now available in public databases. This information can be further utilized in gene expression, genomics and other functional genomics studies in pineapple.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on bitter pit of apple fruits (Malus Domestica Borkh)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bachir, M.; Farah, S.

    2000-12-01

    Tow varieties of apple fruits Golden and Starking were irradiated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kGy and with 0, 1.0, 1.5 kGy respectively. Irradiated and unirradiated fruits were stored at 1 to 2 centigrade and relative humidity of 80 to 90%. Fruit quality (firmness, skin thickness and bitter pit) and juice characteristics (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, organic acids, Ph, and viscosity), were determined during storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months). The used doses of gamma irradiation significantly decreased the percentage and intensity of bitter pit. Irradiated fruits were softer immediately after irradiation and through storage periods, there were no differences in firmness between irradiated and unirradiated fruits. Gamma irradiation increased the thickness of skin in Golden fruits and decreased it in Starking. Juice production from both varieties immediately after irradiation was not affected by gamma irradiation. However the juice produced from irradiated fruits had higher organic acids (citric and malic acids), viscosity and Ph values than the control. (author)

  12. Bio-phenolic resin from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zuhaili; Zakaria, Sarani; Roslan, Rasidi; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Amran, Umar Adli

    2018-04-01

    Utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in the production of bio-phenolic resin is an alternative way to reduce the dependency of petroleum-based phenol. In this study, resol type bio-phenolic resin (BPR) was synthesized from EFB fibers using sulfuric acid as the catalyst to produce liquefied empty fruit bunches (LEFB) followed by resinification reaction with formaldehyde in alkaline condition. The SEM image of LEFB residue showed separation of fiber bundles into individual fibers. This indicate that lignin was destroyed during the liquefaction process. The increased of formaldehyde/LEFB molar ratio has resulted an increase of viscosity, solid content and pH of the resin. The obtained FTIR spectra confirmed that functional groups of BPR resins was almost similar with commercial resin.

  13. Optimization of fruit punch using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Bharath; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G

    2010-01-01

    A highly acceptable dehydrated fruit punch was developed with selected fruits, namely lemon, orange, and mango, using a mixture design and optimization technique. The fruit juices were freeze dried, powdered, and used in the reconstitution studies. Fruit punches were prepared according to the experimental design combinations (total 10) based on a mixture design and then subjected to sensory evaluation for acceptability. Response surfaces of sensory attributes were also generated as a function of fruit juices. Analysis of data revealed that the fruit punch prepared using 66% of mango, 33% of orange, and 1% of lemon had highly desirable sensory scores for color (6.00), body (5.92), sweetness (5.68), and pleasantness (5.94). The aroma pattern of individual as well as combinations of fruit juices were also analyzed by electronic nose. The electronic nose could discriminate the aroma patterns of individual as well as fruit juice combinations by mixture design. The results provide information on the sensory quality of best fruit punch formulations liked by the consumer panel based on lemon, orange, and mango.

  14. Potential of Tropical Fruit Waste Biomass for Production of Bio-Briquette Fuel: Using Indonesia as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brunerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within developing countries, there is an appeal to use waste biomass for energy generation in the form of bio-briquettes. This study investigated the potential use of bio-briquettes that are produced from the waste biomass of the following tropical fruits: durian (Durio zibethinus, coconut (Cocos nucifera, coffee (Coffea arabica, cacao (Theobroma cacao, banana (Musa acuminata and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum. All fruit waste biomass samples exhibited an extremely high level of initial moisture content (78.22% in average. Fruit samples with the highest proportion of fruit waste biomass (of total unprocessed fruit mass were represented by cacao (83.82%, durian (62.56% and coconut (56.83%. Highest energy potentials (calorific value of fruit waste biomass were observed in case of coconut (18.22 MJ∙kg−1, banana (17.79 MJ∙kg−1 and durian (17.60 MJ∙kg−1 fruit samples, whereas fruit waste biomass with the lowest level of ash content originated from the rambutan (3.67%, coconut (4.52%, and durian (5.05% fruit samples. When investigating the energy demands to produce bio-briquettes from such feedstock materials, the best results (lowest amount of required deformation energy in combination with highest level of bio-briquette bulk density were achieved by the rambutan, durian and banana fruit waste biomass samples. Finally, all investigated bio-briquette samples presented satisfactory levels of bulk density (>1050 kg∙m−3. In conclusion, our results indicated the practicability and viability of such bio-briquette fuel production, as well as supporting the fact that bio-briquettes from tropical fruit waste biomass can offer a potentially attractive energy source with many benefits, especially in rural areas.

  15. Chemical and Biological Studies on Cumin Fruits Irradiated by GAMMA Rays for Conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSANEIN, R.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 KGy) and different storage periods (0, 3 and 6 months) in different package materials (cotton or polyethylene bags) on essential oil quality and chemical composition of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) fruits. On the other hand antimicrobial activity of treated cumin fruits essential oil and its extracts at 0, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 40000 ppm were investigated. Results showed that the highest essential oil % was obtained from fruits stored for 3 months in cotton bag without gamma irradiation. Concerning the effect of essential oil as antimicrobial agent, the highest antibacterial activity was obtained by essential oil isolated from irradiated polyethylene packed fruits at 5 KGy then stored for 3 months (Staphylococcus aureus) or irradiated polyethylene packed ones at 15 KGy without storage (Salmonella typhimurium). On the other hand, the highest antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum was obtained by essential oil isolated from unirradiated packed in polyethylene fruits then stored for 6 months. Non-stored packed in cotton bag fruits irradiated with gamma rays at 10 KGy produced essential oil with highest antiyeastal activity. Cumin fruits extract at 40000 ppm when combined with different treatments presented the highest antimicrobial activity (represents as inhibition zone) against all studied microbes except with P. digitatum. Cumin extract at 40000 ppm when extracted from irradiated packed fruits in polyethylene bags with gamma rays at 5 KGy without storage or with 6 months storage or irradiated at 15 KGy of packed fruits in cotton bag with storage for 3 months presented the highest significant inhibition zones against S. aureus. The same concentration of extracted cumin from uni radiated packed in cotton bag fruits and storage for 6 months presented the highest inhibition zone of S. typhimurium. Also, with the same concentration

  16. Mutation breeding in Philippine fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espino, R.R.C.

    1987-09-01

    Studies were made to establish standard conditions for mutation induction by gamma-irradiation to be performed in combination with in-vitro culture for banana and citrus spp. Besides this, radio-sensitivity of seeds and/or plantlets of mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit was investigated and primary observation on the occurrence of mutation was made. For the mutagenesis of banana shoot tip cultures, radio-sensitivity of plantlets derived from the culture as well as fresh-cultured shoots was examined and phenotypes indicative of mutation, such as chlorophyl streaking, slow growth, pigmentation and varied bunch orientation were recorded. Isozyme analysis for mutated protein structure was not conclusive. In the in-vitro culture of Citrus spp., seeds placed on fresh media as well as germinating seeds and two-leaf stage seedlings in test tubes were examined for their radio-sensitivity. Irradiated materials were propagated for further observation. In these two crops, basic methodology for mutation induction with combined use of in-vitro culture and gamma-irradiation was established. In mango, sugar apple, soursop, lanzones and Jack fruit, basic data on radiosensitivity were obtained. In mango, leaf abnormalities were observed after the treatment of scions

  17. [Spectral navigation technology and its application in positioning the fruits of fruit trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Min

    2010-03-01

    An innovative technology of spectral navigation is presented in the present paper. This new method adopts reflectance spectra of fruits, leaves and branches as one of the key navigation parameters and positions the fruits of fruit trees relying on the diversity of spectral characteristics. The research results show that the distinct smoothness as effect is available in the spectrum of leaves of fruit trees. On the other hand, gradual increasing as the trend is an important feature in the spectrum of branches of fruit trees while the spectrum of fruit fluctuates. In addition, the peak diversity of reflectance rate between fruits and leaves of fruit trees is reached at 850 nm of wavelength. So the limit value can be designed at this wavelength in order to distinguish fruits and leaves. The method introduced here can not only quickly distinguish fruits, leaves and branches, but also avoid the effects of surroundings. Compared with the traditional navigation systems based on machine vision, there are still some special and unique features in the field of positioning the fruits of fruit trees using spectral navigation technology.

  18. ProfitFruit: Decision Support System for Evaluation of Investments in Fruit Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Groot, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Innovative techniques were developed in the Isafruit project in order to create a more ecological sustainable way of fruit growing. Before fruit growers will consider implementation of these innovations they need information concerning their economic sustainability. The economic model ProfitFruit is

  19. Yield and fruit quality traits of dragon fruit lines and cultivars grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon fruit or pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus and Selenicereus megalanthus) is a member of the Cactaceae family and native to the tropical forest regions of Mexico, Central, and South America. The fruit was practically unknown 15 years ago but it occupies a growing niche in Europe’s exotic fruit mar...

  20. Oxidative Stress Associated with Chilling Injury in Immature Fruit: Postharvest Technological and Biotechnological Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Juan Luis; Manzano, Susana; Palma, Francisco; Carvajal, Fátima; Garrido, Dolores; Jamilena, Manuel

    2017-07-08

    Immature, vegetable-like fruits are produced by crops of great economic importance, including cucumbers, zucchini, eggplants and bell peppers, among others. Because of their high respiration rates, associated with high rates of dehydration and metabolism, and their susceptibility to chilling injury (CI), vegetable fruits are highly perishable commodities, requiring particular storage conditions to avoid postharvest losses. This review focuses on the oxidative stress that affects the postharvest quality of vegetable fruits under chilling storage. We define the physiological and biochemical factors that are associated with the oxidative stress and the development of CI symptoms in these commodities, and discuss the different physical, chemical and biotechnological approaches that have been proposed to reduce oxidative stress while enhancing the chilling tolerance of vegetable fruits.

  1. Comparative analysis and nutritional composition of mulberry fruit morus alba plus seabuckthorn (hippophae) and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.; Rehman, S.; Shah, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The fruits of mulberry produced in Northern Pakistan were subjected to hot air dehydration to preserve without losing its natural flavour and nutrients. The dehydrated mulberry powder which is called mulberry beverage base (MBB) yielded good fruit tasty drink when mixed with suitable amount of water Shelf-life assessment was also conducted. The fresh fruit extract and the dehydrated mulberry beverage base (MBB) were analysed for juice/pulp, MBB, moisture, acidity as citric acid, total soluble solids, sugars, ascorbic acid and ash minerals like calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium and iron in fresh fruit extract was also determined. Mulberry pulp was mixed with seabuckthorn pulp prior to dehydration. Dehydrated product was found better in taste, colour and flavour. (author)

  2. PaCYP78A9, a Cytochrome P450, Regulates Fruit Size in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Qi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an important fruit crop in which fruit size is strongly associated with commercial value; few genes associated with fruit size have, however, been identified in sweet cherry. Members of the CYP78A subfamily, a group of important cytochrome P450s, have been found to be involved in controlling seed size and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, and tomato. However, the influence of CYP78A members in controlling organ size and the underlying molecular mechanisms in sweet cherry and other fruit trees remains unclear. Here, we characterized a P. avium CYP78A gene PaCYP78A9 that is thought to be involved in the regulation of fruit size and organ development using overexpression and silencing approaches. PaCYP78A9 was significantly expressed in the flowers and fruit of sweet cherry. RNAi silencing of PaCYP78A9 produced small cherry fruits and PaCYP78A9 was found to affect fruit size by mediating mesocarp cell proliferation and expansion during fruit growth and development. Overexpression of PaCYP78A9 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased silique and seed size and PaCYP78A9 was found to be highly expressed in the inflorescences and siliques of transgenic plants. Genes related to cell cycling and proliferation were downregulated in fruit from sweet cherry TRV::PaCYP78A9-silencing lines, suggesting that PaCYP78A9 is likely to be an important upstream regulator of cell cycle processes. Together, our findings indicate that PaCYP78A9 plays an essential role in the regulation of cherry fruit size and provide insights into the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating traits such as fruit size in P. avium.

  3. Anatomy and fruit development in Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesprini, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Schinopsis balansae Engl. is a dioecious tree; reproduction is by woody samaras containing a single seed. Fruit set is high, even in isolated trees, empty fruits are frequent and account for a high proportion of the total fruit production. To describe the anatomy and the ontogeny of seeded and seedless fruits, flowers and fruits at different development stages from bagged and pollen exposed flowers were studied. The development and the anatomy of the pericarp in seeded and parthenocarpic fruits did not differ. It consisted in an exocarp formed sensu lato from the external epidermis of the ovary and some layers of the underlying parenchyma. The mature mesocarp was constituted by a sclerified tissue and lysigenous channels. The fruit is of Anacardium type: the endocarp presented three sclerenchymatic and a crystalliferous layer. The endocarp development was also sensu lato because it was formed from the epidermis and the hypodermis of the carpel. This organization agrees with the only species described in the genus: S. haenkeana Engl. Schinopsis balansae is able to produce parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Empty fruits from free exposed flowers presented embryos arrested at different stages, although total absence of an embryo was the most common condition. Parthenocarpy seems to be a plesiomorphic trait within the Anacardiaceae, but regardless of its origin, the maintenance of empty fruit production in a wind-dispersed samara is difficult to explain. Whether parthenocarpy has an adaptive value, or is an evolutionary constraint remains unclear in Schinopsis.Schinopsis balansae Engl. es un árbol dioico, cuya reproducción se realiza a través de sámaras uniseminadas. La producción de frutos es muy alta y una gran proporción de los mismos son vanos. Con la finalidad de describir la anatomía y ontogenia de los frutos, con y sin semillas, se trabajó con flores y frutos en distintos estados de desarrollo. Se utilizaron

  4. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Fruitful Endeavor: Modeling ALS in the Fruit Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casci, Ian; Pandey, Udai Bhan

    2014-01-01

    For over a century Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, has been instrumental in genetics research and disease modeling. In more recent years, it has been a powerful tool for modeling and studying neurodegenerative diseases, including the devastating and fatal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The success of this model organism in ALS research comes from the availability of tools to manipulate gene/protein expression in a number of desired cell-types, and the subsequent recapitulation of cellular and molecular phenotypic features of the disease. Several Drosophila models have now been developed for studying the roles of ALS-associated genes in disease pathogenesis that allowed us to understand the molecular pathways that lead to motor neuron degeneration in ALS patients. Our primary goal in this review is to highlight the lessons we have learned using Drosophila models pertaining to ALS research. PMID:25289585

  6. Fruit and vegetables on prescription: a brief intervention in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktuncer, Z; Kearney, M; Ryan, C L; Thurston, M; Ellahi, B

    2014-04-01

    Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a goal for the U.K. Therefore, the effectiveness of a fruit and vegetable voucher scheme coupled with key 'five-a-day' consumption messages as a brief intervention in primary care consultations was assessed in the present study. One thousand one hundred and eighty-eight vouchers as a prescription for fruits and vegetables were routinely distributed to patients attending a primary healthcare centre in a deprived area, and 124 volunteer patients routinely attending the centre were included. Telephone-based questionnaires were used to examine changes in consumption over the short and medium term. Other key aspects assessed in the evaluation related to fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviour, knowledge relating to what constitutes a portion size, the relationship between food and health, and barriers to consumption. Although 76.2% of participants used the prescription vouchers when purchasing fruits and vegetables, a significant change in the consumption or purchasing behaviour was not observed (P > 0.05). Participants' level of knowledge relating to the number of portions recommended and the portion size of different fruits and vegetables showed a moderate increase from baseline over the short and medium term. The primary barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption were reported as 'the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables' and 'the money available to spend on food'. The use of 'the fruit and vegetable on prescription' scheme was an effective method of engaging participants in improving awareness of key diet-related health messages. However, further intervention is required to produce a significant impact on the actual behaviour change. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Tree age affects physicochemical, functional quality and storability of Amrapali mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Nirmal Kumar; Asrey, Ram

    2017-12-12

    The effect of tree age on physicochemical quality attributes and storage behaviour of Amrapali mango fruit was evaluated. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested from 6-, 18- and 30-year-old trees and kept for ripening under ambient conditions (temperature 35 ± 3 °C, relative humidity 60 ± 5%). Observations were recorded at 3-day intervals. Highest total soluble solids and total sugars were found in the fruit sourced from 18-year-old trees. At the end of storage, least titratable acidity (0.17%) and higher carotenoids (10.86 mg 100 g -1 ) were found in 30-year-old tree fruits during the last day of storage. Highest total phenols (TP) (251.33 μg gallic acid g -1 ), antioxidant capacity (AC) (5.63 μmol Trolox g -1 ) and ascorbic acid (AA) (31.13 mg 100 g -1 ) were reported in fruits from younger trees of 6 years old. Maximum respiratory and ethylene evolution peak was observed in fruits obtained from oldest trees, whereas least activities of pectin methyl esterase (0.31 μmol min -1 g -1 fresh weight) and polygalacturonase (53.67 μg galacturonic acid g -1 h -1 ) were observed in 6-year-old tree fruits at the end of the 9-day storage period. Higher total soluble solids and total sugars were found in fruit harvested from middle-age-group (18-year-old) trees during the entire storage period of 9 days. Most of the functional parameters, such as TP, AC and AA, were observed to be higher in fruits from younger (6-year-old) trees. The obtained results revealed that produce from middle-age-group (18-year-old) Amrapali mango orchards suit consumers' and processors' requirements. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Supply chain planning and management method:the fruit purchasing company case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Kyosen Nakatani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On the world stage, Brazil is the third largest world fruit producer. However, purchasing fruit companies are suffering from the effects of fluctuations in production and demand, inefficiency in production and information trade, lack of understanding of the dynamics of supply and reduction in profitability for all members of the fruit production chain. The supply chain management has been touted as one of the ways to reduce this volatility and improve outcomes for all involved with the supply chain. However, results of recent researches do not relate it directly to the fruit industry. To solve this problem, the present research aimed to analyze the planning and management of the supply chain of a fruit purchasing company and identify contributions and improvements to the theories and methods related to supply chain management to propose a method for planning and management the supply chain of fruit purchasing companies. It was conducted a case study from a mango fruit purchasing company using interviews with industry experts to assess the applicability, functionality and usefulness from the managerial point of view of the proposed method. Data analysis was done through the cross analysis of the methods of the supply chain management and the description of the case. The results of the study allowed the development of a method for planning and management the supply chain of fruit purchasing company. With the proposition of this method is expected to contribute with a sequence of steps to assist in planning and management of supply chain managers and specialists from a fruit purchasing company.

  9. Interactions between terrestrial mammals and the fruits of two neotropical rainforest tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Sanabria, Angela A.; Mendoza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mammalian frugivory is a distinctive biotic interaction of tropical forests; however, most efforts in the Neotropics have focused on cases of animals foraging in the forest canopy, in particular primates and bats. In contrast much less is known about this interaction when it involves fruits deposited on the forest floor and terrestrial mammals. We conducted a camera-trapping survey to analyze the characteristics of the mammalian ensembles visiting fruits of Licania platypus and Pouteria sapota deposited on the forest floor in a well preserved tropical rainforest of Mexico. Both tree species produce large fruits but contrast in their population densities and fruit chemical composition. In particular, we expected that more species of terrestrial mammals would consume P. sapota fruits due to its higher pulp:seed ratio, lower availability and greater carbohydrate content. We monitored fruits at the base of 13 trees (P. sapota, n = 4 and L. platypus, n = 9) using camera-traps. We recorded 13 mammal species from which we had evidence of 8 consuming or removing fruits. These eight species accounted for 70% of the species of mammalian frugivores active in the forest floor of our study area. The ensemble of frugivores associated with L. platypus (6 spp.) was a subset of that associated with P. sapota (8 spp). Large body-sized species such as Tapirus bairdii, Pecari tajacu and Cuniculus paca were the mammals more frequently interacting with fruits of the focal species. Our results further our understanding of the characteristics of the interaction between terrestrial mammalian frugivores and large-sized fruits, helping to gain a more balanced view of its importance across different tropical forests and providing a baseline to compare against defaunated forests.

  10. Ecosystems effects 25 years after Chernobyl: pollinators, fruit set and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Barnier, Florian; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2012-12-01

    Animals are assumed to play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their effects on seed set, seed consumption, seed dispersal, and maintenance of plant communities. However, there are no studies investigating the consequences of animal scarcity on seed set, seed consumption and seed dispersal at large geographical scales. We exploited the unprecedented scarcity of pollinating bumblebees and butterflies in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine, linked to the effects of radiation on pollinator abundance, to test for effects of pollinator abundance on the ecosystem. There were considerably fewer pollinating insects in areas with high levels of radiation. Fruit trees and bushes (apple Malus domestica, pear Pyrus communis, rowan Sorbus aucuparia, wild rose Rosa rugosa, twistingwood Viburnum lantana, and European cranberry bush Viburnum opulus) that are all pollinated by insects produced fewer fruit in highly radioactively contaminated areas, partly linked to the local reduction in abundance of pollinators. This was the case even when controlling for the fact that fruit trees were generally smaller in more contaminated areas. Fruit-eating birds like thrushes and warblers that are known seed dispersers were less numerous in areas with lower fruit abundance, even after controlling for the effects of radiation, providing a direct link between radiation, pollinator abundance, fruit abundance and abundance of frugivores. Given that the Chernobyl disaster happened 25 years ago, one would predict reduced local recruitment of fruit trees if fruit set has been persistently depressed during that period; indeed, local recruitment was negatively related to the level of radiation and positively to the local level of fruit set. The patterns at the level of trees were replicated at the level of villages across the study site. This study provides the first large-scale study of the effects of a suppressed pollinator community on ecosystem functioning.

  11. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation...

  12. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio [Comision Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas.

  13. The Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, Jesus; Santiago M, Guillermo; Hernandez M, Porfirio

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Mexican Fruit Fly Eradication Programme is to control, suppress or eradicate from Mexico four species of fruit flies of economic and quarantine importance (Anastrepha ludens Loew, A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wied. and A. striata Schiner). These pests cause damage amounting to US$710 million per year. In addition to this cost, there are other expenses from pest control actions and the loss of international markets, because fruit importing countries have established stringent quarantine measures to restrict the entry of these pests. For purposes of the programme's implementation, Mexico was divided into three working zones, defined by agro-ecological characteristics, the number of fruit fly species present and the size of fruit growing regions. In addition, a cost:benefit analysis was carried out which indicated that the rate of return, in a 12-year time frame, might be as much as 33:1 in Northern Mexico, and 17:1 in the rest of the country, for an area over 100,000 hectares. Eradication technology involves: 1) surveys of pest populations by trapping and host fruit harvesting to monitor the presence and density of fruit flies, 2) reduction of pest populations applying cultural practices and using selective bait sprays, 3) mass release of sterile flies and augmentative release of parasitoids to eliminate populations and, 4) enforcement of quarantine measures to protect fruit fly free areas

  14. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  15. 7 CFR 917.4 - Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 917.4 Fruit. Fruit means the edible product of the following kinds of trees: (a) All varieties of peaches grown in the production area; (b) All hybrids grown in the... as recommended by the committee and approved by the Secretary; and (c) All varieties of pears except...

  16. Lepidoptera associated with avocado fruit in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of about 1,098 specimens representing 10 moth species from four families were reared from harvested avocado fruit in Guatemala. Two species were reared from small immature avocados and grown to maturity on unopened avocado flower clusters after small fruit desiccated: (1) Argyrotaenia urbana...

  17. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya P. Sharma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc., which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPENING STAGES OF MYRTLE FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYALLA RIBEIRO DE ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The myrtle (Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk. is a native fruit species in the Chapada of Araripe, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The fruits are collected from the wild and are consumed fresh or processed as pulp, juice, jelly, liquor or desserts. Myrtle fruit production is of significant socioeconomic value for the region and, therefore, the description of myrtle fruit ripening stages may contribute to the development of its production chain. As a result, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physical, quality and ripening changes of myrtle fruits at different developmental stages. The fruits were picked at five distinctive stages and evaluated for longitudinal and transverse diameters; fresh, dry and water mass; water contents; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; pH; SS/TA ratio; carbohydrates (starch, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars; ascorbic acid; total pectin, soluble pectins and percentage of pectin solubilization; polymeric, oligomeric and dimeric phenolics; total anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll; and yellow flavonoids. Along fruit ripening processes increases in SS, anthocyanins and carotenoids, in the SS/TA ratio and of percentages of pectin solubilization were determined. On the other hand, decreases in TA and total chlorophyll were observed. The ripening stage at which peel color is completely dark red (ripening stage 4 is most appropriate to harvest myrtle fruits for human consumption.

  19. Parthenocarpic fruit development in Capsicum annuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Parthenocarpy, Capsicum, fruit set, hormones, cell division, cell expansion,

    auxin, gibberellin, temperature, carpel-like structures, genotype

    Parthenocarpy (fruit set without fertilization) is a much desired trait in sweet pepper

    (Capsicum

  20. Determining Appropriate Harvesting Date and Storage Life of Kinnow Mandarine Fruits in Jiroft County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Mehdi Miri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Citrus is one of the most commercially important horticultural crops grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. They are classified as non-climacteric fruits. Harvesting date and storage can influence citrus fruit quality and shelf life. In Iran, some members of citrus family including sweet orange and mandarin are produced as an export crop, so research on fruit quality and storage life is needed. There is no available scientific literature regarding the effect of harvesting date and storage duration on retaining the postharvest physicochemical properties of Kinnow mandarin under cold storage. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of harvesting date and storing time on shelf life and quality of Kinnow mandarin fruits under Jiroft weather conditions. Materials and Methods. Investigations were carried out on mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Kinnow grafted on sour orange rootstock in an orchard located in Jiroft and Kahnooj Agricultural Research Center, Jiroft, Iran. Fruits were harvested on 6th December, 21th December, 5th January, 20th January and 4th February. After cold storage for 30-90 days at 4-6 °C, the fruit was analyzed for quantitative and qualitative characteristics including weight of fruit, peel, meat, pulp and juice, fruit weight loss, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and TSS/TA. Experiment was arranged in a split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD. Data analysis and similarity coefficient (Pearson's method were performed using SPSS.16 software, and means comparison was performed by using Duncan's multiple range test at 1 and 5% probability levels. Results and Discussion. The results showed that the interaction effect of harvesting date and storage period on the weight of the fruit, meat, pulp and juice and TSS, TA and TSS/TA was significant at 1% probability level. Weight of harvested fruits from 6th December to 5th January was constant

  1. Availability of Fresh Produce in Nutrition Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Alexandria, VA. Office of Analysis and Evaluation.

    Noting that fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a balanced diet consistent with the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans" and the Food Guide Pyramid, this report fulfills a request from the Appropriations Committee Directives to analyze current levels of fresh produce in Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional…

  2. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  3. Consumption patterns and demographic factors influence on fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consumption pattern variables (Table 3) of the different fruit juice classifications were ..... Elepu G, Nabisubi J, Sserunkuuma D. Segmentation of processed fruit juice consumers in urban .... Liquid fruit market report. [homepage on the ...

  4. FCDD: A Database for Fruit Crops Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rupal; Jasrai, Yogesh; Pandya, Himanshu; Chaudhari, Suman; Samota, Chand Mal

    2014-01-01

    Fruit Crops Diseases Database (FCDD) requires a number of biotechnology and bioinformatics tools. The FCDD is a unique bioinformatics resource that compiles information about 162 details on fruit crops diseases, diseases type, its causal organism, images, symptoms and their control. The FCDD contains 171 phytochemicals from 25 fruits, their 2D images and their 20 possible sequences. This information has been manually extracted and manually verified from numerous sources, including other electronic databases, textbooks and scientific journals. FCDD is fully searchable and supports extensive text search. The main focus of the FCDD is on providing possible information of fruit crops diseases, which will help in discovery of potential drugs from one of the common bioresource-fruits. The database was developed using MySQL. The database interface is developed in PHP, HTML and JAVA. FCDD is freely available. http://www.fruitcropsdd.com/

  5. FRUIT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BLUEBERRY GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.

  6. Fruit Sorting Using Fuzzy Logic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Sinnadurai, Rajendran; Aftab Ahmed Khan, Mohamed Khan; Vasant, Pandian

    2009-08-01

    Fruit and vegetables market is getting highly selective, requiring their suppliers to distribute the goods according to very strict standards of quality and presentation. In the last years, a number of fruit sorting and grading systems have appeared to fulfill the needs of the fruit processing industry. However, most of them are overly complex and too costly for the small and medium scale industry (SMIs) in Malaysia. In order to address these shortcomings, a prototype machine was developed by integrating the fruit sorting, labeling and packing processes. To realise the prototype, many design issues were dealt with. Special attention is paid to the electronic weighing sub-system for measuring weight, and the opto-electronic sub-system for determining the height and width of the fruits. Specifically, this paper discusses the application of fuzzy logic techniques in the sorting process.

  7. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  8. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  9. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  10. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedova, G.; Mamatkulov, O.B.; Hushmuradov, Sh.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of γ-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K natural radionuclides and product of 137 Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40 K have most specific activity and 137 Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40 K > 232 Th > 226 Ra > 137 Cs

  11. A programme for the eradication of the Mediterranean fruit fly from Algeria, the Libyan and Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is the only fruit fly of economic importance affecting a large number of fruits and vegetables in the Maghreb (Algeria, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia). The medfly causes losses of fresh fruit and vegetables in this region of about US $90 million each year. Therefore, eradication of this pest at this time would be very beneficial. Technologies are available to eradicate the medfly which will have no significant negative environmental impacts, and they can be used to accomplish eradication at reasonable cost. This report outlines the procedures available to eradicate the medfly from the Magherb with primary reliance on the use of sterile flies. A large fruit fly rearing facility, of modular design, must be constructed in the Mediterranean Basin and outside the Maghreb to produce and sterilize flies. Refs, 2 tabs

  12. A Programme for the Eradication of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly from Algeria, the Libyan and Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) is the only fruit fly of economic importance affecting a large number of fruits and vegetables in the Maghreb (Algeria, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Tunisia). The medfly causes losses of fresh fruit and vegetables in this region of about US $90 million each year. Therefore, eradication of this pest at this time would be very beneficial. Technologies are available to eradicate the medfly which will have no significant negative environmental impacts, and they can be used to accomplish eradication at reasonable cost. This report outlines the procedures available to eradicate the medfly from the Magherb with primary reliance on the use of sterile flies. A large fruit fly rearing facility, of modular design, must be constructed in the Mediterranean Basin and outside the Maghreb to produce and sterilize flies.

  13. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  14. Comparative analysis of pigments in red and yellow banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiumin; Cheng, Sihua; Liao, Yinyin; Huang, Bingzhi; Du, Bing; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Ziyin

    2018-01-15

    Color is an important characteristic determining the fruit value. Although ripe bananas usually have yellow peels, several banana cultivars have red peels. As details of the pigments in banana fruits are unknown, we investigated these pigments contents and compositions in the peel and pulp of red cultivar 'Hongjiaowang' and yellow cultivar 'Baxijiao' by UPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS and HPLC-PDA techniques. The 'Hongjiaowang' peel color was mainly determined by the presence of anthocyanin-containing epidermal cells. Rutinoside derivatives of cyanidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin were unique to the red peel, and possibly responsible for the red color. 'Hongjiaowang' contained higher total content of carotenoids than 'Baxijiao' in both pulp and peel. Lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene were main carotenoids, which might play a more important role than flavonoids in producing the yellow banana color owing to the properties and distribution in the fruit. The information will help us understand a complete profile of pigments in banana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  16. Ozone Effects on Fruit Productivity and Photosynthetic Response of Two Tomato Cultivars in Relation to Stomatal Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    Full Text Available An Open-Top Chamber experiment on two tomato cultivars (cv. Oxheart and cv. San Marzano was carried out in Curno (Northern Italy between June and September 2007. Two ozone treatments were applied for a 3.5 months period: Non-Filtered OTC (NF-OTC, 95% of ambient ozone and Charcoal-Filtered OTC (CF-OTC, 50% of ambient ozone. Diurnal cycles of porometry measurements were performed during the season and allowed to draw a stomatal conductance model for each cultivar in order to calculate the ozone stomatal fluxes taken up by plants. Assessments on fruits yield were performed during the season, taking into account the number of fruits, their fresh weight and their marketability. In addition, measurements on the chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystems were carried out to assess possible negative effects on photosynthetic efficiency. Despite the two cultivars absorbed a similar ozone stomatal dose during the season (with an 8% difference, their responses to ozone treatments were totally divergent in relation to both fruits yield and photosynthetic efficiency. Plants of cv. Oxheart grown in NF-OTCs showed significant yield loss in the total weight of fruits (-35.9% which is exclusively related to a decrease in the number of fruits produced (-35.7% of total fruits; -30.6% of marketable fruits, since mean fresh weight of fruits remained unaffected. Moreover the same plants displayed low values (in comparison to CF-OTCs plants of the photosynthetic efficiency index (PIabs during the most intense period of ozone stress (July occurred in the flowering stage of plants and at the beginning of fructification. Plants of the cv. San Marzano had an opposite response behaviour with an increase of the mean fresh weight of fruits in plants grown in NF-OTC (even if not statistically significant and no difference in the number of fruits produced and in the values of photosynthetic efficiency.

  17. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Daniele F.; Batalha, Erika Y.; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pat...

  18. Furfural production from fruit shells by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-01-21

    Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric acid (0.05 to 0.200 mol/l), at high temperature (450-525 K), and short reaction times (from 30 to 600 s). (author)

  19. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  1. Fruit evolution and diversification in campanulid angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    With increases in both the size and scope of phylogenetic trees, we are afforded a renewed opportunity to address long-standing comparative questions, such as whether particular fruit characters account for much of the variation in diversity among flowering plant clades. Studies to date have reported conflicting results, largely as a consequence of taxonomic scale and a reliance on potentially conservative statistical measures. Here we examine a larger and older angiosperm clade, the Campanulidae, and infer the rates of character transitions among the major fruit types, emphasizing the evolution of the achene fruits that are most frequently observed within the group. Our analyses imply that campanulids likely originated bearing capsules, and that all subsequent fruit diversity was derived from various modifications of this dry fruit type. We also found that the preponderance of lineages bearing achenes is a consequence of not only being a fruit type that is somewhat irreversible once it evolves, but one that also seems to have a positive association with diversification rates. Although these results imply the achene fruit type is a significant correlate of diversity patterns observed across campanulids, we conclude that it remains difficult to confidently and directly view this character state as the actual cause of increased diversification rates. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. [Nutrition value of tropical and subtropical fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubtsov, G G; Bessonov, V V; Baĭkov, V G; Makhova, N N; Sheviakova, L V; Bogachuk, M N; Baĭgarin, E K; Iao Bru, Lazar

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the study of the chemical composition of tropical and subtropical fruit (avocado, papaya and mango), which are now in great numbers are on the appeared on the Russian market. Due to use technology tropical and subtropical fruits can be implemented in almost all areas and regions of the country. Relatively low cost makes these products quite popular among the people. In domestic scientific literature there are no systematic data describing the chemical composition of these tropical and subtropical fruits sold in the domestic market, while the information needed to calculate food and energy value of diets and culinary products derived from tropical and subtropical fruit. Avocado fruits are sources of insoluble dietary fiber content of which was equal to 12.2%, as well as minerals. The study of the fatty acid composition of lipids avocados showed high content of oleic acid fruit, which accounts for 53.2% of total fatty acids in these fruits. Which makes them a valuable source of unsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Quality evaluation of frozen guava and yellow passion fruit pulps by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamar, Priscila D; Caramês, Elem T S; Poppi, Ronei J; Pallone, Juliana A L

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the application of near infrared spectroscopy as a green, quick, and efficient alternative to analytical methods currently used to evaluate the quality (moisture, total sugars, acidity, soluble solids, pH and ascorbic acid) of frozen guava and passion fruit pulps. Fifty samples were analyzed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and reference methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to develop calibration models to relate the NIR spectra and the reference values. Reference methods indicated adulteration by water addition in 58% of guava pulp samples and 44% of yellow passion fruit pulp samples. The PLS models produced lower values of root mean squares error of calibration (RMSEC), root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), and coefficient of determination above 0.7. Moisture and total sugars presented the best calibration models (RMSEP of 0.240 and 0.269, respectively, for guava pulp; RMSEP of 0.401 and 0.413, respectively, for passion fruit pulp) which enables the application of these models to determine adulteration in guava and yellow passion fruit pulp by water or sugar addition. The models constructed for calibration of quality parameters of frozen fruit pulps in this study indicate that NIR spectroscopy coupled with the multivariate calibration technique could be applied to determine the quality of guava and yellow passion fruit pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pequi: a Brazilian fruit with potential uses for the fat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes Andréa Madalena Maciel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is a native fruit from Brazil, found in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest regions. It is one of the main plants with great potential for sustainable use in Central Brazil. Among 16 species comprising Caryocar genus, three are highlighted: C. brasiliense, C. villosum, and C. coriaceum, of economic importance for families in small communities of Brazilian Cerrado. They are generally organized in cooperatives and use the leaves for preparing medicinal extracts, and the fruits for culinary purposes. When the sale of fresh fruits is reduced, they produce and commercialize fruit preserves, and liqueur products, as well as extract the oil. Harvesting of mature fruits after falling from the tree while keeping some fruits at the plant is the best way for its sustainable production. The internal mesocarp contains from 36 to 66% dry weight of oil having traditional culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. This oil has 60% of oleic acid and 35% palmitic acid, thus suitable for industrial fat hardstocks. The presence of the triacylglycerols POO and POP makes the oil of interest for cosmetic and food industries. Both pulp and kernel oils have been studied for their health effects. By physical, enzymatic or chemical modification, the oil has shown potential uses as cocoa butter substitute and zero trans fat product.

  5. Current status of the South African research program on the radiation preservation of subtropical fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1977-05-01

    In July 1976, the Atomic Energy Board (AEB) entered into a Research Agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This was done at the invitation of the Agency, as part of its function of coordinating research programs and assisting in broadening the contact of scientific investigators with similar interests. The relevant AEB research project is that involving radiation preservation of subtropical fruits, which forms part of the IAEA's coordinated program on Technological and Economic Feasibility of Food Irradiation. The report describes the results of several season's research carried out at the AEB in conjunction with the Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, Nelspruit, on the radiation treatment of subtropical fruits. A commercial feasibility study for mango processing is summarised and plans for pilot-plant operation are described. Equally promising results have been obtained with respect to disease control and delayed senescence in papayas. Disease in litchis was also markedly reduced by irradiation treatment, but work on this fruit is still at an early stage. In the case of avocados, a greatly reduced dose, with a mild heat treatment, produced delayed ripening without significant adverse effects, and results in a shelf-life extention of about six days. The results obtained show that the irradiation of subtropical fruits holds considerable promise in terms of reduced losses, better fruit quality, improved distribution and large-scale exports [af

  6. Characterization of the mechanical properties of the cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Javier Llanos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is the world’s leading producer of the cape gooseberry and it is a crop of great importance due to its high demand in the international market. The fruit, the part that is sold, is an ovoid-shaped, juicy berry, and its harvest starts when the fruit is orange-colored and the cap surrounding the fruit is yellowcolored. This labor is done manually. During this phase of collection, subsequent handling and transport to the places of packaging and marketing, the fruit is subjected to multiple loads which may deteriorate it in different ways, resulting in significant product losses. Rheological tests of unidirectional compression, punctures, and cuts at the peduncle were performed in order to characterize the mechanical response of the fruit to the type of forces exerted at harvest and post-harvest handling. It was found that the fruit’s firmness in unidirectional compression in the axial direction, with a ripeness grade of four, was 38.6 N, while the force required to separate the fruit from the peduncle was 15.1 N. The mechanical behavior of the cape gooseberry corresponds to a viscoelastic, anisotropic, highly variable material

  7. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Saudreau, Marc; Joas, Jacques; Génard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  8. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... dorsalis), peach fruit fly (Anastrepha zonata), and sapote fruit fly (Anastrepha serpentina) in the... obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico. J. Econ. Entomol...

  9. Model-assisted analysis of spatial and temporal variations in fruit temperature and transpiration highlighting the role of fruit development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Nordey

    Full Text Available Fruit physiology is strongly affected by both fruit temperature and water losses through transpiration. Fruit temperature and its transpiration vary with environmental factors and fruit characteristics. In line with previous studies, measurements of physical and thermal fruit properties were found to significantly vary between fruit tissues and maturity stages. To study the impact of these variations on fruit temperature and transpiration, a modelling approach was used. A physical model was developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations of fruit temperature and transpiration according to the spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and thermal and physical fruit properties. Model predictions compared well to temperature measurements on mango fruits, making it possible to accurately simulate the daily temperature variations of the sunny and shaded sides of fruits. Model simulations indicated that fruit development induced an increase in both the temperature gradient within the fruit and fruit water losses, mainly due to fruit expansion. However, the evolution of fruit characteristics has only a very slight impact on the average temperature and the transpiration per surface unit. The importance of temperature and transpiration gradients highlighted in this study made it necessary to take spatial and temporal variations of environmental factors and fruit characteristics into account to model fruit physiology.

  10. Satisfying America's Fruit Gap: Summary of an Expert Roundtable on the Role of 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Fulgoni, Victor L; Murray, Robert; Pivonka, Elizabeth; Wallace, Taylor C

    2017-07-01

    The 2015 to 2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs) recognize the role of 100% fruit juice in health and in helping people meet daily fruit recommendations and state that 100% fruit juice is a nutrient-dense beverage that should be a primary choice, along with water and low-fat/fat-free milk. The DGAs note that children are consuming 100% fruit juice within recommendations (that is, 120 to 180 mL/d for children aged 1 to 6 y and 236 to 355 mL/d for children aged 7 to 18 y). Evidence shows that compared to nonconsumers, those who consume 100% fruit juice come closer to meeting daily fruit needs and have better diet quality. In children, 100% fruit juice is associated with increased intakes of nutrients such as vitamin C, folate, and potassium. When consumed within the DGA recommendations, 100% fruit juice is not associated with overweight/obesity or childhood dental caries and does not compromise fiber intake. Preliminary data suggest that polyphenols in some 100% fruit juices may inhibit absorption of naturally occurring sugars. Given its role in promoting health and in helping people meet fruit needs, experts participating in a roundtable discussion agreed that there is no science-based reason to restrict access to 100% fruit juice in public health nutrition policy and programs such as the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Reducing or eliminating 100% fruit juice could lead to unintended consequences such as reduced daily fruit intake and increased consumption of less nutritious beverages (for example, sugar-sweetened beverages). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Anthropogenic edges, isolation and the flowering time and fruit set of Anadenanthera peregrina, a cerrado savanna tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, Eduardo Anversa; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation exposes plants to extreme environmental conditions with implications for species phenology and reproduction.We investigated whether isolation and edge effects influence size, flowering time, fruit set, and seedling establishment of Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata. We compared trees in the interior (n =85), and on the edge (n =74) of a cerrado savanna fragment as well as in a pasture (n =26) with respect to size, flowering phenology, flower and fruit production, fruit and seed set, predispersal seed predation, and seedling establishment. Trees in the pasture were larger and produced a higher number of flowers and fruits than trees on the edge and interior, yet seed set did not differ across environments. The plant size structure explained the flower and fruit production, and the self-compatibility breeding system caused a similar seed set regardless of the environment. First flowering was later and fruit set higher in the interior. We argue that time of first flower influenced the fruit set of Anadenathera. Edge and isolated trees started to flower earlier as a response to microclimatic conditions--mainly temperature--reducing the fruit set. Predispersal seed predation was lower among pasture trees. Conversely, we found seedlings only on the edge and in the interior of cerrado, suggesting that the pasture was of poor quality habitat for Anadenanthera recruitment. Isolation affected the plant size structure and reproduction of Anadenanthera trees. Studies comparing plant phenology under contrasting environmental conditions may offer clues on how global change may affect plant reproduction in the tropics.

  12. Bio-energy conversion performance, biodegradability, and kinetic analysis of different fruit residues during discontinuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Yan, Hu; Liu, Yan; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Ruihong; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-06-01

    Huge amounts of fruit residues are produced and abandoned annually. The high moisture and organic contents of these residues makes them a big problem to the environment. Conversely, they are a potential resource to the world. Anaerobic digestion is a good way to utilize these organic wastes. In this study, the biomethane conversion performances of a large number of fruit residues were determined and compared using batch anaerobic digestion, a reliable and easily accessible method. The results showed that some fruit residues containing high contents of lipids and carbohydrates, such as loquat peels and rambutan seeds, were well fit for anaerobic digestion. Contrarily, residues with high lignin content were strongly recommended not to be used as a single substrate for methane production. Multiple linear regression model was adopted to simulate the correlation between the organic component of these fruit residues and their experimental methane yield, through which the experimental methane yield could probably be predicted for any other fruit residues. Four kinetic models were used to predict the batch anaerobic digestion process of different fruit residues. It was shown that the modified Gompertz and Cone models were better fit for the fruit residues compared to the first-order and Fitzhugh models. The first findings of this study could provide useful reference and guidance for future studies regarding the applications and potential utilization of fruit residues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling Chemical Preservation of Plantain Hybrid Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available New plantain hybrids plants have been developed but not much has been done on the post-harvest keeping quality of the fruits and how they are affected by microbial colonization. Hence fruits from a tetraploid hybrid PITA 2 (TMPx 548-9 obtained by crossing plantain varieties Obino l’Ewai and Calcutta 4 (AA and two local triploid (AAB plantain landraces Agbagba and Obino l’Ewai were subjected to various concentrations of acetic, sorbic and propionic acid to determine the impact of chemical concentration, chemical type and plantain variety on ripening and weight loss of plantain fruits. Analysis of titratable acidity, moisture content and total soluble solids showed that there were no significant differences between fruits of hybrid and local varieties. The longest time to ripening from harvest (24 days was achieved with fruits of Agbagba treated with 3% propionic acid. However, fruits of PITA 2 hybrid treated with propionic and sorbic acid at 3% showed the longest green life which indicated that the chemicals may work better at higher concentrations. The Obino l’Ewai cultivar had the highest weight loss for all chemical types used. Modelling data obtained showed that plantain variety had the most significant effect on ripening and indicates that ripening of the fruits may depend on the plantain variety. It appears that weight loss of fruits from the plantain hybrid and local cultivars was not affected by the plantain variety, chemical type. The chemicals at higher concentrations may have an effect on ripening of the fruits and will need further investigation.

  14. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  15. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  16. [Study on Flavonoids in Buddleja lindleyana Fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Ren, Ya-shuo; Wu, De-ling; Xu, Feng-qing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    To study the flavonoids in the fruits of Buddleja lindleyana. The compounds were separated by repeated silica gel, RP-18 and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical evidence and spectral data. Five flavonoids were isolated and identified as luteolin (1), tricin (2), acacetin (3), acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and linarin(5). Compounds 3,4 and 5 are isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time. Compound 2 is isolated from fruits of Buddleja lindleyana for the first time.

  17. [Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) toxic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signaté, A; Olindo, S; Chausson, N; Cassinoto, C; Edimo Nana, M; Saint Vil, M; Cabre, P; Smadja, D

    2009-03-01

    Ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) can induce severe intoxication in subjects with chronic renal failure. Oxalate plays a key role in the neurotoxicity of star fruit. We report the cases of two patients with unknown chronic renal insufficiency who developed severe encephalopathy after ingestion of star fruit. The two patients developed intractable hiccups, vomiting, impaired consciousness and status epilepticus. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging showed cortical and thalamic hyperintense lesions related to epileptic status. They improved after being submitted to continuous hemofiltration which constitutes the most effective treatment during the acute phase.

  18. Phenolic compounds and vitamins in wild and cultivated apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruits grown in irrigated and dry farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tuncay; Gundogdu, Muttalip; Ercisli, Sezai; Muradoglu, Ferhad; Celik, Ferit; Gecer, Mustafa Kenan; Kodad, Ossama; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2014-09-23

    Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali) and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi') grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 μg in irrigated and 6952 μg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacıhaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 μg and 15251 μg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.

  19. Phenolic compounds and vitamins in wild and cultivated apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. fruits grown in irrigated and dry farming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi' grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. RESULTS: The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 µg in irrigated and 6952 µg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacıhaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 µg and 15251 µg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.

  20. EVALUATION OF THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL SCHEME OF APPLE CHIPS AND DRIED FRUITS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of thermodynamic perfection of separate technological processes is executed at heat-moisture of handling of fruit and a line of manufacture of fruit apple chips and dried fruits. The technological scheme of a line of processing of fruits and manufactures of fruit chips on the basis of convection and the microwave-dryings suggested resource-saving. The technique is made and results of calculation of thermal expenses for various schemes of manufacture of apple chips are resulted. For the offered scheme material, thermal and power streams on the basis of balance parities of technological processes are certain. The comparative thermal production efficiency of apple chips for a base foreign variant and the offered technological scheme with the closed cycle of use of the heat-carrier and the combined convection-microwave-drying is shown. In this paper we define the thermal and energy flows for the processes of convective drying, pre-microwave drying, hydrothermal treatment and final microwave drying plant material, which are one of the main stages of the production of all kinds of fruit and vegetable concentrates, including fruit apple chips. Resource-saving ways moisture-heat of handling (hydration, blanching, drying, etc. produce raw materials in the production of food concentrates suggested a reduced water flow with a high degree of use of its potential power and microwave sources. To assess the thermal efficiency of the various processes and production schemes used as indicators of thermal efficiency and proposed value of specific heat (kJ / kg given mass productivity per unit of feedstock and translational moisture. The values of the mass fraction of the heat of material flows for the base and the proposed resource-saving production scheme fruit chips, for example, apple, based on a combination of convection-microwave drying each control surface.

  1. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Unexplored Brazilian Native Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Juliana; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Lazarini, Josy Goldoni; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC—MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·−, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods. PMID:27050817

  2. Effect of drying parameters on physiochemical and sensory properties of fruit powders processed by PGSS-, Vacuum- and Spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feguš, Urban; Žigon, Uroš; Petermann, Marcus; Knez, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this experimental work was to investigate the possibility of producing fruit powders without employing drying aid and to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the final powder characteristics. Raw fruit materials (banana puree, strawberry puree and blueberry concentrate) were processed using three different drying techniques each operating at a different temperature conditions: vacuum-drying (-27-17 °C), Spray-drying (130-160 °C) and PGSS-drying (112-152 °C). Moisture content, total colour difference, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the processed fruit powders were analysed. The results obtained from the experimental work indicate that investigated fruit powders without or with minimal addition of maltodextrin can be produced. Additionally, it was observed that an increase in process temperature results in a higher loss of colour, antioxidant activity and intensity of the flavour profile.

  3. The Role of Rootstock in Antioxidant Activity of Citrus Fruit: Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of The Fruits of Two Commercial Citrus Varieties With The Fruits of Four Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N . Hemmati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: all fruits that called citrus are from rutaceae family and aurantioideae subfamily. This subfamily have more than 33 different genus that only three of its genus (citrus, poncirus and fortunella have economic aspects and in citrus producing country are important. It's reported that orange skin has a phenolic compounds which play a role in natural defense mechanism. Also various compounds of phenolic and antioxidant have a major role in fruit tolerance to stressful condition suh as cold and drought. Metabolites found in citrus fruits have antioxidant properties and it's very useful in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. Oranges, like other citrus fruits, are an excellent source of vitamin C; Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the blood. Various factors such as rootstock type can effect on quality and quantity of citrus fruits. Also, the usage of rootstock causes the change in plant characteristics such as flowering time, ripening time, fruit quality and antioxidant characters of the fruits. Other factors except the rootstock such as scion, geographical and climate factors are effective on producing secondary metabolites. Also active substances or secondary metabolites are producing by the conduction of genetic processes, but their production are being effected by other factors obviously. The aim of this study is to investigating the biochemical changes grafted tree fruit that affected by rootstock with study the correlation between grafted tree and rootstock changes. Materials and Methods: This study was done to compare the amount of total phenol, total flavonoids and antioxidant features of fruit flesh and skin with investigating the effect of cultivar and rootstock on these parameters based on completely randomized factorial design with three replications

  4. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Rece...

  5. Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence and group I introns within the Leucostoma species L. cinctum, L. persoonii, and L. parapersoonii sp. nov., ascomycetes that cause Cytospora canker of fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gerard C; Surve-Iyer, Rupa S; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2002-01-01

    Leucostoma species that are the causal agents of Cytospora canker of stone and pome fruit trees were studied in detail. DNA sequence of the internal transcribed spacer regions and the 5.8S of the nuclear ribosomal DNA operon (ITS rDNA) supplied sufficient characters to assess the phylogenetic relationships among species of Leucostoma, Valsa, Valsella, and related anamorphs in Cytospora. Parsimony analysis of the aligned sequence divided Cytospora isolates from fruit trees into clades that generally agreed with the morphological species concepts, and with some of the phenetic groupings (PG 1-6) identified previously by isozyme analysis and cultural characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis inferred that isolates of L. persoonii formed two well-resolved clades distinct from isolates of L. cinctum. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA, isozyme analysis, and cultural characteristics supported the inference that L. persoonii groups PG 2 and PG 3 were populations of a new species apparently more genetically different from L. persoonii PG 1 than from isolates representative of L. massariana, L. niveum, L. translucens, and Valsella melastoma. The new species, L. parapersoonii, was described. A diverse collection of isolates of L. cinctum, L. persoonii, and L. parapersoonii were examined for genetic variation using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS rDNA and the five prime end of the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU rDNA). HinfI and HpaII endonucleases were each useful in dividing the Leucostoma isolates into RFLP profiles corresponding to the isozyme phenetic groups, PG 1-6. RFLP analysis was more effective than isozyme analysis in uncovering variation among isolates of L. persoonii PG 1, but less effective within L. cinctum populations. Isolates representative of seven of the L. persoonii formae speciales proposed by G. Défago in 1935 were found to be genetically diverse isolates of PG 1. Two large insertions, 415 and 309 nucleotides long, in

  6. Cytosolic monoterpene biosynthesis is supported by plastid-generated geranyl diphosphate substrate in transgenic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, Michael; Orlova, Irina; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Sitrit, Yaron; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2013-08-01

    Geranyl diphosphate (GPP), the precursor of most monoterpenes, is synthesized in plastids from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate by GPP synthases (GPPSs). In heterodimeric GPPSs, a non-catalytic small subunit (GPPS-SSU) interacts with a catalytic large subunit, such as geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, and determines its product specificity. Here, snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus) GPPS-SSU was over-expressed in tomato fruits under the control of the fruit ripening-specific polygalacturonase promoter to divert the metabolic flux from carotenoid formation towards GPP and monoterpene biosynthesis. Transgenic tomato fruits produced monoterpenes, including geraniol, geranial, neral, citronellol and citronellal, while exhibiting reduced carotenoid content. Co-expression of the Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase (GES) gene with snapdragon GPPS-SSU led to a more than threefold increase in monoterpene formation in tomato fruits relative to the parental GES line, indicating that the produced GPP can be used by plastidic monoterpene synthases. Co-expression of snapdragon GPPS-SSU with the O. basilicum α-zingiberene synthase (ZIS) gene encoding a cytosolic terpene synthase that has been shown to possess both sesqui- and monoterpene synthase activities resulted in increased levels of ZIS-derived monoterpene products compared to fruits expressing ZIS alone. These results suggest that re-direction of the metabolic flux towards GPP in plastids also increases the cytosolic pool of GPP available for monoterpene synthesis in this compartment via GPP export from plastids. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A novel fungal fruiting structure formed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Cristina; Nguyen, Trang Thoaivan; Gubler, Walter Douglas

    2015-09-01

    Sour rot, is a pre-harvest disease that affects many grape varieties. Sour rot symptoms include initial berry cracking and breakdown of berry tissue. This is a disease complex with many filamentous fungi and bacteria involved, but is usually initiated by Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus carbonarius. Usually, by the time one sees the rot there are many other organisms involved and it is difficult to attribute the disease to one species. In this study two species of Aspergillus were shown to produce a previously unknown fruiting structure in infected berries. The nodulous morphology, bearing conidia, suggests them to be an 'everted polymorphic stroma'. This structure forms freely inside the berry pulp and assumes multiple shapes and sizes, sometimes sclerotium-like in form. It is composed of a mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of the host containing spores or fruiting bodies bearing spores. Artificially inoculated berries placed in soil in winter showed the possible overwintering function of the fruiting body. Inoculated berry clusters on standing vines produced fruiting structures within 21 d post inoculation when wounds were made at veraison or after (July-September). Histological studies confirmed that the fruiting structure was indeed fungal tissue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  9. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Silva, J.M.; Cruz, J.N.; Broisler, P.O.; Rela, P.R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-01-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 o C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 o C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 o C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  10. SIFAT KIMIA SELAI BUAH NAGA, KOMPOSISI MIKROFLORA DAN PROFIL SCFA FESES RELAWAN [Chemical Properties of Drugon Fruit Jam, Microflora Composition and SCFA Profile of Human Volunteer Faecal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dragon fruit contains oligosaccharides, Including prebiotic ingredients, that are namely raffinose, stachyose, and fructo-oligosaccharides. The heat treatment process like jam producing can affect the functional properties of a food material. The aim of the research wereto know the effect of jam processing on chemical properties, and their prebiotic properties. Evaluation of the prebiotic properties was conducted by in vivo method i.e. probiotic and enterobacteria population of volunteers faecal (microflora composition, prebiotic index (PI value and Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA profile. The result showed that the processing of dragon fruit into jams decreased water content, β-sianin and dissolved particles but increased the Insoluble Indigestible Fraction (IIF. The PI value of dragon fruit jam were 1.70 for white dragon jam and 1.18 for red dragon fruit. The jam processing decreased PI value up to 0.49 (red dragon fruit jam and 0.54 (white dragon fruit jam. The fresh dragon fruit and the jam produced short chain fatty acid (SCFA i.e. acetic and propionic acid. It can be concluded that prebiotic properties of white dragon fruit better than red dragon fruit.

  11. Feasibility of eradicating Ceratitis spp. fruit flies from the Western Cape of South Africa by the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Brian N.; Eyles, David K.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit production (deciduous fruit, table and wine grapes, and citrus) is a major export-based industry in the Western Cape, with more than 200,000 ha under cultivation. The gross value of these fruits (excluding wine) exceeds US$400 million per annum. Deciduous fruit and table grapes make up the major portion of the industry, with approximately 110,000 ha under production. The Western Cape is host to two species of fruit flies, the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and the Natal fruit fly, C. rosa Karsch. One or both of these species attack at least 19 species of fruits in this area. Both species have very similar life cycles and habits, and can cause enormous crop losses especially to fruits, but also to some vegetables. Both commercial and resource-limited farmers are affected by fruit flies. Control of fruit flies is currently based on ground applications of insecticides, either as full-cover foliar sprays or low-volume bait sprays. Control costs and crop losses for deciduous fruit and table grapes alone are estimated at US$4 million annually. South Africa is the only southern hemisphere deciduous fruit-exporting country that is not fruit fly-free or is not currently engaged in a project to eradicate fruit flies. Unless similar steps are taken, this situation is likely to threaten the competitiveness of the Western Cape's industry. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the United Nations recently approved funding for the INFRUITEC Centre of the ARC-Fruit, Vine and Wine Research Institute in Stellenbosch to undertake a study to determine the feasibility of eradicating fruit flies from the Western Cape by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Most fruits in the Western Cape are produced in valley systems, and many valleys are isolated from one another to a greater or lesser extent. The Western Cape is itself well isolated from other areas with fruit fly hosts: by the ocean on the eastern, southern and

  12. Sperm depletion in singly mated females of the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Mexican fruit flies, or mexflies, have the capacity to produce more than a thousand eggs over their lifetime but fertility of the eggs will depend on the female’s capacity to store semen and/or to replenish semen through remating. The two parameters are interrelated in that sexual receptivity...

  13. Quantification of Sugars in Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices by Density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The amount of sugar in soft drinks and fruit juices has been quantified by density, refractometric and infrared spectroscopic ... Introduction. Sugars are major sources of energy for all living entities. Plants produce sugars by photosynthesis and convert them into various disaccharides such as sucrose, or convert them into.

  14. Dealing with frost damage and climate change in tree fruit crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year, the U.S. produces about 15 million tons of deciduous fruit crops that have a combined value of >$10 billion. Unpredictable cold damage to these nutritionally important crops is a major threat to industry profitability. Over the last six years, cold damage has accounted for almost half o...

  15. Functional analysis of mating type genes and transcriptome analysis during fruiting body development of botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Sander Y.A.; Terhem, Razak B.; Veloso, Javier; Stassen, Joost H.M.; Kan, van Jan A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus producing apothecia as sexual fruiting bodies. To study the function of mating type (MAT) genes, single-gene deletion mutants were generated in both genes of the MAT1-1 locus and both genes of the MAT1-2 locus. Deletion mutants in two MAT genes were

  16. Simulation of fruit pallet movement in the port of Durban: A case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives an overview of a discrete-event simulation study that was performed on pallet movement at Fresh Produce Terminals in the port of Durban, South Africa. The study formed part of an extended study of the logistics infrastructure of the South African fresh fruit industry and its export supply chain. The focus in ...

  17. Influence of nitrogen rate and drip application method on pomegranate fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. Developing more efficient methods of water and fertilizer application are important in reducing production costs. In 2012, a pomegranate orchard established in 2010 with a den...

  18. Influence of white plastic and water replacement rates on pomegranate orchard phenology, fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, 98% of domestic commercial pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) are produced in California on over 13,000 ha. In 2013, a pomegranate orchard, established in 2010 with a density of 558 trees/ha, was irrigated at water replacement rates of 35, 50 and 100% based on rainfall, tree water r...

  19. Yeasts associated with fresh and frozen pulps of Brazilian tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria Aparecida; Silva, Claudia M; Rosa, Carlos A

    2002-08-01

    The occurrence of yeasts on ripe fruits and frozen pulps of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L), mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gom.), umbu (Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.), and acerola (Malpighia glaba L) was verified. The incidence of proteolytic, pectinolytic, and mycocinogenic yeasts on these communities was also determined. A total of 480 colonies was isolated and grouped in 405 different strains. These corresponded to 42 ascomycetous and 28 basidiomycetous species. Candida sorbosivorans, Pseudozyma antarctica, C. spandovensis-like, C. spandovensis, Kloeckera apis, C. parapsilosis, Rhodotorula graminis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Metchnikowia sp (isolated only from pitanga ripe fruits), Issatchenkia occidentalis and C. krusei (isolated only from mangaba frozen pulps), were the most frequent species. The yeast communities from pitanga ripe fruits exhibited the highest frequency of species, followed by communities from acerola ripe fruits and mangaba frozen pulps. Yeast communities from frozen pulp and ripe fruits of umbu had the lowest number of species. Except the yeasts from pitanga, yeast communities from frozen pulp exhibited higher number of yeasts than ripe fruit communities. Mycocinogenic yeasts were found in all of the substrates studied except in communities from umbu ripe fruits and pitanga frozen pulps. Most of the yeasts found to produce mycocins were basidiomycetes and included P. antarctica, Cryptococcus albidus, C. bhutanensis-like, R. graminis and R. mucilaginosa-like from pitanga ripe fruits as well as black yeasts from pitanga and acerola ripe fruits. The umbu frozen pulps community had the highest frequency of proteolytic species. Yeasts able to hydrolyse casein at pH 5.0 represented 38.5% of the species isolated. Thirty-seven percent of yeast isolates were able to hydrolyse casein at pH 7.0. Pectinolytic yeasts were found in all of the communities studied, excepted for those of umbu frozen pulps. The highest frequency of

  20. Relationships between spur- and orchard-level fruit bearing in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, Sergio; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel; DeJong, Theodore M

    2011-12-01

    Almond is often considered to be a moderately alternate-bearing species but historical yield data typically do not exhibit clear patterns of alternate bearing at the orchard level, while research has indicated that spurs (the main fruit bearing unit in almond trees) rarely produce fruit in two subsequent years. The objective of the present work was to analyze the bearing behavior of almond trees at both the orchard level and the individual spur level over multiple years to explain this apparent paradox. The 10-year yield patterns of three almond cultivars grown at three different sites within California were analyzed for tendencies of alternate bearing at the orchard level. At the individual spur level, data on spur viability, and number of flowers and fruits per spur were collected on 2400 individually tagged spurs that were observed over 6 years to characterize bearing at that level. At the orchard level one cultivar (Nonpareil) did exhibit a tendency for alternate bearing at one site (Kern) but other cultivars and sites did not. The orchard and the individual trees in which the spur population study was conducted showed tendencies for alternate bearing but the spur population did not. Only a relatively small percentage of the total tagged spur population bore fruit in any given year and therefore while individual fruiting spurs exhibited a high level of non-bearing after fruiting the previous year the spurs that did produce fruit in any year generally did not constitute enough of the total spur population to exhibit alternate bearing at the whole population level. Our results suggest that annual bearing fluctuations in almond are probably mainly due to year-to-year variations of parameters affecting fruit set and that high rates of fruit set in a given year may involve a larger-than-normal percentage of a spur population in fruit bearing. This would limit the size of the spur population available for flowering in the subsequent year and could cause alternate

  1. Radioactivity distribution in each part of the fruit trees from radioactive fall out (8). Prediction of peach fruit radiocaesium concentration by thinning fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Sato, Mamoru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    To explore the predictability of radiocaesium concentration in the mature peach fruits based on the radiocaesium concentration in the young superfluous fruits picked at the fruit thinning period, the change in the radiocaesium concentration as well as potassium ("4"0K) in peach fruits associated with fruit growth was monitored during the second year after the accident of the nuclear power plant in Fukushima. Radiocaesium concentration was found to be highest in the fruit 15 days after the full bloom stage, followed by the gradual decrease before harvest. In addition, variation of radiocaesium and "4"0K concentration with time was shown to be different in leaves and fruits. Finally, the young fruits 60 days after the full bloom date and the ripe fruits were taken from 24 orchards in Fukushima to compare their radiocaesium levels. The predictability of radiocaesium concentration and some considerations for practical use are discussed. (author)

  2. Sustainability as Sales Argument in the Fruit Juice Industry? An Analysis of On-Product Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Klink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Purpose/Value – The objective of this paper is to determine (1 the extent to which sustainability serves as a sales argument and (2 which areas of sustainability are communicated in the fruit juice industry. This seems promising against the background that there are several ethical challenges the fruit juice chain is increasingly confronted with and consumers demand for sustainable products is also rising. Design/Methodology – A market investigation at the Point-of Sale (POS was conducted in July 2013. On-product communication of all fruit juice products (‘not from concentrate (NFC’ fruit juices, ’reconstituted (RECON’ fruit juices, fruit nectars and smoothies from five retailers (two full-range retailers, two discounters, one organic supermarket was analyzed. The data was evaluated using content analysis. Results/Findings – Overall, 562 fruit juices were examined. Results reveal that nearly one quarter of the products has labels signaling sustainable aspects. However, most of those products were found in the organic food retailer and are organic juices. Only a small number of products consider other areas of sustainability, such as social concerns or regional production. Discussion/Conclusion – Communicating sustainability aspects of fruit juice production via on-package labels is scarce in conventional retail stores. In view of the ethical challenges present in the fruit juice chain and discussed in the paper, the increasing demand of consumers for sustainable products and the high competition in the sector, communicating different sustainability aspects can be an opportunity for fruit juice producers and retailers to differentiate their products on the highly saturated fruit juice market.  Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  3. Global gene expression analysis of apple fruit development from the floral bud to ripe fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McArtney Steve

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apple fruit develop over a period of 150 days from anthesis to fully ripe. An array representing approximately 13000 genes (15726 oligonucleotides of 45–55 bases designed from apple ESTs has been used to study gene expression over eight time points during fruit development. This analysis of gene expression lays the groundwork for a molecular understanding of fruit growth and development in apple. Results Using ANOVA analysis of the microarray data, 1955 genes showed significant changes in expression over this time course. Expression of genes is coordinated with four major patterns of expression observed: high in floral buds; high during cell division; high when starch levels and cell expansion rates peak; and high during ripening. Functional analysis associated cell cycle genes with early fruit development and three core cell cycle genes are significantly up-regulated in the early stages of fruit development. Starch metabolic genes were associated with changes in starch levels during fruit development. Comparison with microarrays of ethylene-treated apple fruit identified a group of ethylene induced genes also induced in normal fruit ripening. Comparison with fruit development microarrays in tomato has been used to identify 16 genes for which expression patterns are similar in apple and tomato and these genes may play fundamental roles in fruit development. The early phase of cell division and tissue specification that occurs in the first 35 days after pollination has been associated with up-regulation of a cluster of genes that includes core cell cycle genes. Conclusion Gene expression in apple fruit is coordinated with specific developmental stages. The array results are reproducible and comparisons with experiments in other species has been used to identify genes that may play a fundamental role in fruit development.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PASSION FRUIT C03 PROGENIES UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRITIONAL LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS LACY SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate different fertilization-management strategies in ten progenies of passion fruit from the third recurrent selection cycle and their effects on yield and fruit-quality traits. For this purpose, we adopted the strategy of correlations analysis, using the phenotypic and path correlations in different environmental conditions characterized by three levels of fertilization. The trial was set up as a randomized-block design in a split-plot arrangement with progenies representing the plots and three levels of potassium-nitrogen fertilization as the sub-plots, with three replicates. Path analysis showed that number of fruits was the variable of highest correlation with fruit diameter at fertilization I. Fruit weight and pulp weight were correlated with each other and with other traits like fruit length and fruit diameter at the three fertilization levels, except for number of fruits, which was correlated with nitrogen and potassium only at fertilization II. Path analysis also revealed that fruit diameter (3.125 showed the highest direct effect on yield at fertilization I. However, fruit weight and number of fruits showed, at fertilization II, the highest direct effects of 2.964 and 1.134 on yield, respectively, and number of fruits had a high phenotypic correlation and direct effect on yield at the three fertilization levels: 0.528 at fertilization I; 2.206 at fertilization II; and 0.928 at fertilization III. The results demonstrate the greater direct effect obtained with fertilization II, suggesting that the level adopted at fertilization II can provide satisfactory gains in yield and is thus recommended for the population in question.

  5. Smart Shopping for Veggies and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make it easier to pass on the tempting snack foods. You’ll have more of your food budget for vegetables and fruits. Try canned or frozen Compare the price and the number of servings from fresh, canned, ...

  6. Enhanced Preservation of Fruits Using Nanotechnology (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Taking new technologies to market Research on scaling up will identify suitable, ... volumes of fruits -packaging for different market requirements -extending the ... A new IDRC-supported project will help improve water conservation and use for ...

  7. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  8. Gamma-ray induced mutation breeding in tree fruit crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    In many vegetatively propagated crops and tree fruit crops, spontaneous mutations have played an important role in the development of cultivars. Thus, induced mutation breeding has been thought to be a promising way to improve commercially important cultivars. At the Institute of Radiation Breeding (IRB), studies on induced mutation breeding of temperate zone fruit trees using gamma-rays have been performed since 1962. Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most serious diseases of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia NAKAI var. culta NAKAI) in Japan. It is known that some Japanese pear cultivars are completely resistant to the disease. The pathogenic fungi produces host-specific toxins (named AK-toxin) (Tanaka 1993, Otani et al. 1973). The susceptibility of Japanese pear is controlled by a single dominant gene (Kozaki 1973). To improve the Japanese pear cultivar 'Nijisseiki', which is highly susceptible to black spot disease, young grafted plants of 'Nijisseiki' have been irradiated chronically in the Gamma Field of the IRB since 1962. In 1981, one twig of a tree planted at a distance of 53 m from the 60 Co source with an exposure rate of 0.138 Gy/day (20hr-irradiation) was selected as the first resistant mutant. It was designated as cultivar 'Gold Nijisseiki' and released in 1990. A selection method for mutants resistant to black spot disease using the pathogen produced toxin and pear leaf disks was established. It is a simple and stable selection method. Up to the present, three mutant cultivars resistant to black spot disease have been bred at the IRB by chronic and acute gamma-ray irradiation. They showed intermediate resistance compared with the completely resitan cultivar 'Choujuurou' and highly susceptible cultivar 'Nijisseiki'. We obtained some apple mutants resistant to alternaria leaf blotch disease using toxin and leaf disks and are also attempting to obtain mutant resistant to some disease in other temperate

  9. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo

    2001-01-01

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  10. The sterile insect technique: Cost-effective control of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Riera, Pablo [INTA La Consulta, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    Fruit flies are one of the most important plant pests of the world, in terms of the number of fly species involved, the regions in which they are present, and the variety of hosts they infest. Anastrepha is present in the Americas; Bactrocera in Asia and Ceratitis in Africa; Dacus in Africa and South East Asia, Australia and South Pacific Islands; and Rhagoletis in Chile, Peru, Eastern and Western USA, Europe and Asia (from Sweden to Kyrgystan and from Russia to France). There is an important species of Bactrocera, the Olive Fruit Fly (B.oleae), present in all olive-growing regions of Africa, Europe, the Middle East and Arab countries. Seventy five species of plants of economic importance are infested by fruit flies. Among them are tropical fruits such mango, guava, banana, papaya, fig, passion fruit and avocado; temperate fruits such as citrus (orange, grapefruit, tangerine, etc.), stone fruits (peach, apricot, cherry, etc.), nuts, grape, apple and pear; and vegetable crops such as cucurbits (squash, melon, watermelon), tomato, and eggplant. Fruit flies are present in 178 countries and islands; they are ubiquitous throughout the world between 45 deg. North and 45 deg. South latitude. Twenty species of fruit flies are the most harmful because of the range of hosts they infest and the many countries affected. These 20 are subject to quarantine: trade in fresh produce is restricted to avoid the introduction of any one of these species. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, or simply Med Fly, (Ceratitis capitata Weid.) is the most harmful of all. It is present in 77 countries and infests 22 hosts of economic importance. From its origin in Central Africa, it has invaded northern Africa, Mediterranean Europe, the Middle East, all the Americas, and Australia. All the countries affected devote major efforts to eradicate this pest or greatly reduce its prevalence. The Med Fly has been eradicated from the USA (except Hawaii), Mexico, and Chile. Nevertheless, ongoing reintroductions

  11. Computer vision for automatic inspection of agricultural produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molto, Enrique; Blasco, Jose; Benlloch, Jose V.

    1999-01-01

    Fruit and vegetables suffer different manipulations from the field to the final consumer. These are basically oriented towards the cleaning and selection of the product in homogeneous categories. For this reason, several research projects, aimed at fast, adequate produce sorting and quality control are currently under development around the world. Moreover, it is possible to find manual and semi- automatic commercial system capable of reasonably performing these tasks.However, in many cases, their accuracy is incompatible with current European market demands, which are constantly increasing. IVIA, the Valencian Research Institute of Agriculture, located in Spain, has been involved in several European projects related with machine vision for real-time inspection of various agricultural produces. This paper will focus on the work related with two products that have different requirements: fruit and olives. In the case of fruit, the Institute has developed a vision system capable of providing assessment of the external quality of single fruit to a robot that also receives information from other senors. The system use four different views of each fruit and has been tested on peaches, apples and citrus. Processing time of each image is under 500 ms using a conventional PC. The system provides information about primary and secondary color, blemishes and their extension, and stem presence and position, which allows further automatic orientation of the fruit in the final box using a robotic manipulator. Work carried out in olives was devoted to fast sorting of olives for consumption at table. A prototype has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of a machine vision system capable of automatically sorting 2500 kg/h olives using low-cost conventional hardware.

  12. Pineapple Fruit Collapse: Newly Emerging Disease of Pineapple Fruit in Lampung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Prasetyo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pineapple fruit collapse: newly emerging disease of pineapple fruit in Lampung, Indonesia Recently, a new disease on pineapple fruit has occurred in Lampung. Symptoms of the disease are complex. Fruits rotted and exuded copious liquid from the inter- fruitlet tissues accompanied by gas bubbles. Open spaces were formed inside the rotten fruit. Dissection of diseased fruit showed many cavities within its sceletal fibres and bad odour was exerted from the rotten tissues. A bacterial entity was isolated  from the diseased materials. In a pathogenicity test, the isolated bacteria caused the same symptom as mentioned. In the growing-on test the crown of the heavily infected fruit  showed  heart rot symptom.  Those  indicated that the disease was pineapple fruit collapse. Both symptoms were known related to the same causal agent, Erwinia chrysanthemi (pineapple strain Dickeya sp.. In our opinion, this is the first report of pineapple fruit collapse in Indonesia.

  13. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  14. Becquerel in raw fruit and vegetables?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilgeist, M.

    1989-01-01

    After a general introduction and definition of the basic terms, the quantity of radionuclides of natural and artificial origin in our environment is shown. The specific activity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in fruit and vegetables before and after the accident in Chernobyl is demonstrated. Finally, the quantity of the radioactivity consumed by the human being with fruit and vegetable is compared with the values of the total food consumption. (orig./HP) [de

  15. High hydrostatic pressure processing of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Lúcia M; Valente Mesquita, Vera L; Chiaradia, Ana Cristina N; Fernandes, Antônio Alberto R; Fernandes, Patricia M B

    2010-02-01

    Interest in the nonthermal method of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for food preservation has increased recently due to the possibility of inactivating microorganisms and enzymes while maintaining product sensorial and nutritional properties. This work deals with HHP use for the preservation of tropical fruit products. HHP is shown to be a practical approach to obtaining high-quality tropical fruit products that are both nutritive and safe.

  16. Dehydration of core/shell fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Yang, Xiaosong; Cao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Chen, B.; Zhang, Jian J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated core/shell fruits, such as jujubes, raisins and plums, show very complex buckles and wrinkles on their exocarp. It is a challenging task to model such complicated patterns and their evolution in a virtual environment even for professional animators. This paper presents a unified physically-based approach to simulate the morphological transformation for the core/shell fruits in the dehydration process. A finite element method (FEM), which is based on the multiplicative decomposition...

  17. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  18. An overview of quarantine for fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    What is meant by 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The Collins dictionary describes 'quarantine' as a period of isolation or detention, especially of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease. In providing an overview of quarantine for fruit flies, a broader definition needs to be applied, that is, the combination of activities required to maintain the fruit fly status of a particular geographical area - perhaps better referred to as a 'quarantine system'. Familiarity with New Zealand's quarantine system for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provides a useful basis for subsequent comparison with other countries' systems where some fruit fly species may be present. But, why have 'quarantine for fruit flies'? The multivoltine life history of many species. combined with a relatively long-lived adult stage and highly fecund females, results in a high potential for rapid population increase (Bateman 1979, Fletcher 1987). These factors and the close association of fruit flies with harvested fruit or vegetables explain the high quarantine profile of these insects. However, there is no international requirement for a country to have a quarantine system and unless there are natural quarantine barriers (e.g., mountain range, oceans, deserts) that can be utilised, effective quarantine by an individual country may be an impossible task. The implementation of a successful quarantine system is very expensive and therefore, it would be expected that any benefits attained outweigh the costs (Ivess 1998). Ivess (1998) listed the following benefits from the implementation of an effective quarantine system: minimising production costs (including post harvest treatments), maintaining competitive advantages for market access due to the ongoing freedom from particular pests of quarantine significance, an environment free from many pests harmful to plant health, the maintenance of ecosystems

  19. Investigation of fruit irradiation: bibliographical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    It was carried out a bibliographical review that embraces the years 1984-1987, on the relating works to the irradiation of some fruits like the apple, date, peach, plum, cherry, papaya, grape, banana, pear and strawberry. The purpose is to have a reference on the doses and the conditions used by several investigators for some fruits, as for its disinfestation and extension of shelf life. (Author)

  20. Trichoderma rot on ‘Fallglo’ Tangerine Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2009, brown rot symptoms were observed on ‘Fallglo’ fruit after 7 weeks of storage. Fourteen days prior to harvest, fruit were treated by dipping into one of four different fungicide solutions. Control fruit were dipped in tap water. After harvest, the fruit were degreened with 5 ppm et...

  1. Understanding the effects of slip pruning on pineapple fruit quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple fruit quality is important especially when fruits are exported to international markets. Fruits should meet minimum requirements such as a weight of at least 0.7 kg, a ratio between the crown length and infructescence (fruit without the crown) length ranging from 0.5 to 1.5, and a Brix

  2. 9578 influence of fruit maturity on antioxidant potential and chilling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Fruits harvested earlier (OHD-7) recorded the highest ... associated with fruit consumption, the production and sale of fruits is a source of ... inducing CI resistance in carbon dioxide (CO2) treated peach fruits stored at 7 oC for ..... is used as a signal to trigger other defence mechanisms in plants, sometimes protecting.

  3. Evaluation of the postharvest quality of Cagaita fruits ( Eugenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cagaita fruits are subject to seasonality and perishability. This work aims to use scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics, texture, color and physical structure of cagaita fruits coated with different chitosan concentrations. The fruits were divided as follows: T0 (uncoated fruits), ...

  4. Surface survival and internalization of salmonella through natural cracks on developing cantaloupe fruits, alone or in the presence of the melon wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Gautam

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of foodborne illness attributed to the consumption of Salmonella-tainted cantaloupe have occurred repeatedly, but understanding of the ecology of Salmonella on cantaloupe fruit surfaces is limited. We investigated the interactions between Salmonella enterica Poona, the plant pathogenic bacterium Erwinia tracheiphila, and cantaloupe fruit. Fruit surfaces were inoculated at the natural cracking stage by spreading S. enterica and E. tracheiphila, 20 µl at 107 cfu/ml, independently or together, over a 2×2 cm rind area containing a crack. Microbial and microscopic analyses were performed at 0, 9 and 24 days post inoculation (DPI. Even at 24 DPI (fruit maturity S. enterica was detected on 14% and 40% of the fruit inoculated with S. enterica alone and the two-pathogen mixture, respectively. However, the population of S. enterica declined gradually after initial inoculation. E. tracheiphila, inoculated alone or together with Salmonella, caused watersoaked lesions on cantaloupe fruit; but we could not conclude in this study that S. enterica survival on the fruit surface was enhanced by the presence of those lesions. Of fruit inoculated with E. tracheiphila alone and sampled at 24 DPI, 61% had watersoaked lesions on the surface. In nearly half of those symptomatic fruits the watersoaking extended into the sub-rind mesocarp, and E. tracheiphila was recovered from that tissue in 50% of the symptomatic fruit. In this work, E. tracheiphila internalized through natural cracks on developing fruits. S. enterica was never detected in the fruit interior (ca. 2-3 mm below rind surface under the limited conditions of our experiments, but the possibility that it, or other human pathogens that contaminate fresh produce, might also do so should be investigated under a wider range of conditions and produce types.

  5. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  6. Current trends of tropical fruit waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Choon Yoong; Mohd Adzahan, Noranizan; Abdul Rahman, Russly; Zainal Abedin, Nur Hanani; Hussain, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Rabiha; Chong, Gun Hean

    2018-02-11

    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.

  7. Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Debbie L; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Larsen, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Few people on Prince Edward Island meet the goal of consuming five or more servings of vegetables and fruit a day. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of the nutritional benefits and barriers to vegetable and fruit intake among adult women in Prince Edward Island. Participants were 40 women aged 20-49, with or without children at home, who were or were not currently meeting the objective of eating five or more fruit and vegetable servings a day. In-home, one-on-one interviews were used for data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Data were examined for trustworthiness in the context of credibility, transferability, and dependability. Most participants identified one or more benefits of eating fruit and vegetables; however, comments tended to be non-specific. The main barriers that participants identified were effort, lack of knowledge, sociopsychological and socioenvironmental factors, and availability. Internal influences, life events, and food rules were identified as encouraging women to include vegetables and fruit in their diets. Given the challenges of effecting meaningful dietary change, dietitians must look for broader dietary behavioural interventions that are sensitive to women's perceptions of benefits and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake.

  8. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  9. School-level factors associated with increased fruit and vegetable consumption among students in California middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosliner, Wendi

    2014-09-01

    This study assessed associations between selective school-level factors and students' consumption of fruits and vegetables at school. Better understanding of school factors associated with increased produce consumption is especially important, as students are served more produce items at school. This cross-sectional study included 5439 seventh- and ninth-grade students from 31 schools in California in 2010. Multilevel regression models estimated whether the odds of consuming fruits or vegetables at school among students eating the school lunch were associated with the length of the lunch period, quality/variety of produce options, or other factors. A longer lunch period was associated with increased odds of a student eating fruits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40) and vegetables (OR = 1.54) at school. Better fruit quality increased the odds of a student consuming fruit (OR = 1.44). Including a salad bar and involving students in food service decisions increased a student's odds of consuming vegetables (OR = 1.48 and OR = 1.34, respectively). This study suggests that institutional factors in schools are positively associated with middle and high school students' consumption of produce items at school. Additional efforts to structure school meal environments to enhance students' consumption of produce items can benefit students' nutrition and health. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  11. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kharousi, Zahra S.; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Al-Bulushi, Ismail M.; Shaharoona, Baby

    2016-01-01

    Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman) for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR) and bioc...

  12. Empowerment Strategy Through Salak Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sucihatiningsih Dian Wisika Prajanti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This articles aims to understand the practice of empowerment through assistance to salak farmers. The study includes 60 salak fruit farmers which are taken as the samples. Descriptive analysis is used to analyze the obtained data from the study. The research result shows that most respondents have the relative low level of empowerment. The empowerment level from business aspect explain that most of the respondent (73% are never and could not got the financial assistant to develop their business. Likewise, it could be happen in the technological access, most of the respondent (56,7% explain that in the production process the technology that used is base on traditional and hereditary. So, it is depend on labour relieves when the production and harvest process. Furthermore, the research shows that a low level of a capability to access the market information. It could be seen that most of the farmers (38,3% directly selling their product to the consumers and 33,3% sell their product to the broker. The empowerment from non economic aspect could be seen from the low ability of lobbying aspect, like the asking for a relieves from their colleagues at the local government officer (10%, financial institution like cooperation, bank and etc (25%, society figures (32,1%, employees (32,1%, non government institution/ academision (10% and a families (93,3%. To empower the farmers in order to make them sustainable, it is necessary to built a partnership by empowerment strategy. The empowerment strategy that involves industry as the farmers’ partner is carried out to improve the empowerment of the farmers of salak fruits.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi praktek pemberdayaan melalui pendampingan petani buah salak. Sebanyak 60 orang petani salak diambil sebagai sampel. Analisis deskriptif telah digunakan untuk menganalisis data dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar masyarakat di daerah penelitian mengaku pada

  13. Coordinated regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit by a R2R3 MYB transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shan-Shan; Xu, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Wang-Shu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C; Chen, Kun-Song

    2010-03-01

    Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) is a fruit crop with cultivars producing fruit ranging from white (Shuijing, SJ) to red (Dongkui, DK) and dark red-purple (Biqi, BQ), as a result of different levels of anthocyanin accumulation. Genes encoding the anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), as well as MrMYB1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor homologous to known activators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, were isolated from ripe fruit of BQ. Differences in mRNA abundance of MrF3H, MrF3'H, MrDFR1, MrANS and MrUFGT were highly correlated with differential accumulation of anthocyanins between cultivars, suggesting coordinated regulation by transcription factors. The transcript level of MrMYB1 was strongly associated with the anthocyanin content in ripe fruit of the three cultivars, as well as different anthocyanin containing tissues of BQ fruit. Fruit bagging strongly inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in fruit as well as the expression of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and MrMYB1. Overexpression of MrMYB1 stimulated both anthocyanin accumulation and activated an Arabidopsis-DFR promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). MrMYB1d, an allele with a 1 bp deletion at nucleotide 30 of coding sequence, was observed in SJ and DK fruit, suggesting that a nonsense mutation of the MYB1 protein may be responsible for no or low expression of MYB1 in the white and red fruit. These results show that coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic genes is involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Chinese bayberry fruit, and this is regulated by MrMYB1.

  14. Quantification of patulin in fruit leathers by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, Chris M; Busman, Mark; Ma, Liang; Bobell, John

    2015-01-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin commonly found in certain fruit and fruit products. For this reason many countries have established regulatory limits pertaining to, in particular, apple juice and apple products. Fruit leathers are produced by dehydrating fruit puree, leaving a sweet product that has a leathery texture. A recent report in the literature described the detection of patulin at substantial levels in fruit leathers. To investigate this further, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (UPLC-PDA) method was developed for the sensitive detection of patulin in fruit leathers. Investigations were also made of the suitability of direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) for detection of patulin from the surface of fruit leathers. Results indicated DART-MS was insufficiently sensitive for quantification from the surface of home-style apple leathers, although patulin spiked onto the surface of leather or peel could be detected. The UPLC-PDA method was used to determine the fate of patulin during the preparation of home-made fruit leathers. Interestingly, when a home-style process was used, the patulin was not destroyed, but rather increased in concentration as the puree was dehydrated. The UPLC-PDA method was also used to screen for patulin in commercial fruit leathers. Of the 36 products tested, 14 were above the limit of detection (3.5 μg kg(-1)) and nine were above the limit of quantification (12 μg kg(-1)). Positive samples were confirmed by UPLC-MS/MS. Only one sample was found above the US regulatory limit for single-strength apple juice products (50 μg kg(-1)). These results suggest patulin can be concentrated during preparation and can be found in fruit leathers. The limited survey suggests that patulin is fairly prevalent in such commercial products, but that the levels are usually low.

  15. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  16. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  17. Characterization of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) components with valorization potential

    OpenAIRE

    Liaotrakoon, Wijitra

    2013-01-01

    Dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.), also known as pitaya or pitahaya, is increasingly gaining interest in many countries, including Thailand which is a country with a climate ideal for breeding different varieties of tropical and subtropical fruits in general, and dragon fruit more specifically. The benefits of dragon fruit for human health can be explained by its essential nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, dietary fibres and antioxidants. Dragon fruit is also an essent...

  18. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Momordica charantia L Fruit Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahira, S; Hussain, F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and pancreatic beta cell regeneration activities of Momordica charantia L fruits (MC). Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were treated with methanolic and ethanolic MC extract. Effects of plant extracts and the drug glibenclamide on serum glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic beta cell were determined after two weeks of treatment. Serum glucose and lipid profiles were assayed by kit methods. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was performed to study pancreatic beta cell regeneration. Momordica charantia extracts produced significant hypoglycaemic effects (p Momordica charantia supplementations were unable to normalize glucose and lipid profiles. Glibenclamide, a standard drug, not only lowered hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia but also restored the normal levels. Regeneration of pancreatic beta cells by MC extracts was minimal, with fractional improvement produced by glibenclamide. The most significant finding of the present study was a 28% reduction in hyperglycaemia by MC ethanol extracts. To determine reliable antidiabetic potentials of MC, identification of the relevant antidiabetic components and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25429471

  19. Timing and abundance of flowering and fruiting of woody plants in the Hørsholm Arboretum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leverenz, Jerry

    The Arboretum in Hørsholm has an extensive collection of woody plant species of known origin. There are approximately 2200 woody plant taxa in the collection, representing 295 genera and 101 plant families. This collection is used to study how plants from different parts of the world thrive...... flowers (pollen) and fruit (seed) in order to have a clearer understanding of the negative results. As a first step we have begun to record if, and when, the taxa in the collection produce flowers (and thus pollen), and fruits (and thereby seed). In this Working Paper we present and analyse the results...

  20. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kaori; Washitani, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula). We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study) to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study).

  1. Do Small Canopy Gaps Created by Japanese Black Bears Facilitate Fruiting of Fleshy-Fruited Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Takahashi

    Full Text Available Japanese black bears often break branches when climbing trees and feeding on fruit in canopies, thereby creating small canopy gaps. However, the role of black bear-created canopy gaps has not been evaluated in the context of multiple forest dynamics. Our hypothesis was that small canopy gaps created by black bears improve light conditions, which facilitates fruiting of adult fleshy-fruited plants located beneath the gaps, and also that this chain interaction depends on interactions among the size of gaps, improved light conditions, forest layers, and life form of plants. The rPPFD, size of black bear-created canopy gaps, and fruiting/non-fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants were investigated in five forest layers beneath black-bear-created canopy gaps and closed canopies of Mongolian oak (Quercus crispula. We found that light conditions improved beneath black bear-disturbed trees with canopy gaps of large size, and the effect of improvement of light conditions was reduced with descending forest layers. Fruiting of fleshy-fruited plants, especially woody lianas and trees, was facilitated by the improvement of light conditions accompanied by an increase in the size of black-bear-created gaps. Data from this study revealed that canopy disturbance by black bears was key for improving light conditions and accelerating fruiting of fleshy-fruited trees and woody lianas in the canopy layers in particular. Therefore, our hypothesis was mostly supported. Our results provide evidence that Japanese black bears have high potential as ecosystem engineers that increase the availability of resources (light and fruit in this study to other species by causing physical state changes in biotic materials (branches of Q. crispula in this study.

  2. Glycemic Index values of some Jaffna fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selladurai Pirasath

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of diabetes mellitus has recently increased in developing countries. Scientific data on glycemic index values of common meals is essential to modify the diets for diabetes mellitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the glycemic index (GI values of fruits such as ‘Kathali’ (Yellow plantain, ‘Kappal’ (Golden plantain, and ‘Itharai’ (Green plantain varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya. The results will be helpful to physicians and the general public to decide the benefits ofthe consumption of fruits, particularly by diabetic and coronary heart disease patients.Methods: Healthy volunteers (20 Nos. of 21.05(±0.92 years, 53.90 (±9.36 kg body weights, 153.92 (±9.15 m heights, and 20.55 (±2.22 kgm-2body mass indexes were selected with their written consent. After overnight fasting, 75g glucose and each test fruit containing 75g digestible carbohydrate were administered at different instances and blood glucose levels were measured half hourly for two hours. The glycemic response and GI values were calculated and analyzed by Randomized Complete Block Design using SAS analytical package.Results: The mean GI values of the ‘Kathali’, ‘Kappal’, ‘Itharai’ varieties of plantains, jack fruit and papaya were 54.45 (±9.26, 50.43 (±5.79, 48.47 (±10.13, 65.36 (±8.00 and 34.80 (±12.78 % respectively. The GI value of papaya differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits. The GI value of ‘Itharai’ variety of plantain differed significantly (P<0.05 from other fruits except the ‘Kappal’ varietyof plantain.Conclusion: The three varieties of plantains and papaya were low GI fruits, and jack fruit was found to be an intermediate GI fruit. The presence of dietary fiber, esp. soluble fiber, reduces the glycemicresponse and glycemic index of foods.

  3. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  4. A mast fruiting episode of the tropical tree Peltogyne purpurea(Caesalpinaceaein the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un episodio de fructificación en masa en una población de Peltogyne purpurea de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica. En febrero y marzo de 2000, la mayor parte de los árboles de esta especie tuvo una gran cosecha de frutos. En los años anteriores, desde 1995, ninguno o muy pocos árboles produjeron frutos y la producción por árbol fue escasa. La cosecha del año 2000 fue masiva y todos los árboles examinados produjeron frutos abundantes. Este patrón reproductivo podría producir extinciones locales si la extracción maderera no lo toma en cuentaThe existence of mast fruiting has not been well documented in the Neotropics. The occurrence of a mast fruiting episode in the population of the tree Peltogyne purpurea in the Osa Peninsula of Costa Rica is described. In February and March of 2000 most of the trees of this species produced a large fruit crop, compared with 1995-1999, when the number of fruit producing trees was very low or zero and those that did bear fruit, did so at a low intensity. In contrast, the fruit crop of 2000 was massive, all trees examined produced fruits and the intensity of fruiting was maximal. There is not enough information on the event for a hypothesis to be formed because the climatic or biological cues that triggered this sporadic flowering are unknown and there is no meteorological data available for this area. Populations with this mode of reproduction may experience local extinction bacause of logging operations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1151-1155. Epub 2006 Dec. 15

  5. Economic indicators of the production of important fruit-specific species in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač-Bulatović Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the basic economic and production results of important fruit species (apple, pear, peach, sour cherry and plum on agricultural farms of Vojvodina. The aim of the research is to evaluate the most important parameters of cost-effectiveness of these productions, and propose measures to improve the existing situation. Comparative analysis clearly shows that the most cost-effective is pears production, followed by apple, cherry, peach and plum. Pear production gives the largest coverage margin per unit capacity (1,261,786 din /ha, which is 16.5% better than in apple production (1,083,160 din /ha, or about 7.8 times better in relation to plums production (161,796 din /ha. The highest coefficient of economy (3.19 is, also, recorded in the production of pear (for apples 2.94, cherry 2.27, peach 2.17 and plum 1.44. Further development of fruit production in Vojvodina involves raising intensive farms with quality fruit varieties, firmer vertical linking of producers and processors, ensurement of economic safety of producers in the long run, making of fruit producing regions, etc.

  6. Myrciaria dubia, an Amazonian fruit: population structure and its implications for germplasm conservation and genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C F; Setotaw, T A; Pasqual, M; Chagas, E A; Santos, E G; Santos, D N; Lima, C G B; Cançado, G M A

    2017-03-22

    Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) is an Amazon tree that produces a tart fruit with high vitamin C content. It is probably the fruit with the highest vitamin C content among all Brazilian fruit crops and it can be used to supplement daily vitamin C dose. This property has attracted the attention of consumers and, consequently, encouraged fruit farmers to produce it. In order to identify and select potential accessions for commercial exploitation and breeding programs, M. dubia has received considerable research attention. The identification and characterization of genetic diversity, as well as identification of the population structure of accessions preserved in germplasm banks are fundamental for the success of any breeding program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of 10 M. dubia populations obtained from the shores of Reis Lake, located in the municipality of Caracaraí, Roraima, Brazil. Fourteen polymorphic inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to study the population genetic diversity, which resulted in 108 identified alleles. Among the 14 primers, GCV, UBC810, and UBC827 produced the highest number of alleles. The study illustrated the suitability and efficiency of ISSR markers to study the genetic diversity of M. dubia accessions. We also revealed the existence of high genetic variability among both accessions and populations that can be exploited in future breeding programs and conservation activities of this species.

  7. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lidia Nogueira; Santos, Mírian Silva; Dutra, Vivian Siqueira; Araujo, Elton Lucio; Costa, Marco Antonio; Silva, Janisete Gomes

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sor...

  8. Using implicit associations towards fruit consumption to understand fruit consumption behaviour and habit strength relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.-J.; Keer, M.; Conner, M.; Rhodes, R.

    2012-01-01

    An implicit association test (IAT) was used to investigate how habit strength, implicit attitudes and fruit consumption interrelate. Fifty-two participants completed a computerized IAT and provided measures of fruit consumption and related habit strength. Implicit attitudes moderated the habit

  9. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  10. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  11. 76 FR 11971 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable... create liquidity problems for some producers. The marketing order was designed to reduce the price... 4, 2011 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 11971

  12. 75 FR 13445 - Marketing Order Regulating the Handling of Spearmint Oil Produced in the Far West; Salable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Manager, Northwest Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and Vegetable... creation of the marketing order, can create liquidity problems for some producers. The marketing order was... 22, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 13445

  13. Pectic polysaccharides are attacked by hydroxyl radicals in ripening fruit: evidence from a fluorescent fingerprinting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airianah, Othman B; Vreeburg, Robert A M; Fry, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Many fruits soften during ripening, which is important commercially and in rendering the fruit attractive to seed-dispersing animals. Cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolases may contribute to softening, but sometimes appear to be absent. An alternative hypothesis is that hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) non-enzymically cleave wall polysaccharides. We evaluated this hypothesis by using a new fluorescent labelling procedure to 'fingerprint' (•)OH-attacked polysaccharides. We tagged fruit polysaccharides with 2-(isopropylamino)-acridone (pAMAC) groups to detect (a) any mid-chain glycosulose residues formed in vivo during (•)OH action and (b) the conventional reducing termini. The pAMAC-labelled pectins were digested with Driselase, and the products resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Strawberry, pear, mango, banana, apple, avocado, Arbutus unedo, plum and nectarine pectins all yielded several pAMAC-labelled products. GalA-pAMAC (monomeric galacturonate, labelled with pAMAC at carbon-1) was produced in all species, usually increasing during fruit softening. The six true fruits also gave pAMAC·UA-GalA disaccharides (where pAMAC·UA is an unspecified uronate, labelled at a position other than carbon-1), with yields increasing during softening. Among false fruits, apple and strawberry gave little pAMAC·UA-GalA; pear produced it transiently. GalA-pAMAC arises from pectic reducing termini, formed by any of three proposed chain-cleaving agents ((•)OH, endopolygalacturonase and pectate lyase), any of which could cause its ripening-related increase. In contrast, pAMAC·UA-GalA conjugates are diagnostic of mid-chain oxidation of pectins by (•)OH. The evidence shows that (•)OH radicals do indeed attack fruit cell wall polysaccharides non-enzymically during softening in vivo. This applies much more prominently to drupes and berries (true fruits) than to false fruits (swollen receptacles). (•)OH radical attack on polysaccharides

  14. Isolation and identification of fungi associated with spoilt fruits vended in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mailafia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Annual reports have shown that 20% of fruits and vegetables produced are lost to spoilage. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify fungi that are associated with spoilt fruits commonly sold in Gwagwalada market, Abuja, and recommend appropriate control measure. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Gwagwalada metropolis, Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 100 spoilt fruits which include pawpaw (Carica papaya, orange (Citrus sinensis, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, pineapple (Ananas comosus, and watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris were purchased and examined for the presence of fungal organisms using standard methods. The data collected were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics (frequency and mean and analysis of variance (p<0.05. Results: Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence in pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes with a frequency of 38%. Fusarium avenaceum followed with the frequency of occurrence of 31% in fruits such as pineapple, watermelon, oranges, pawpaw, and tomatoes while Penicillium digitatum and Rhizopus stolonifer had the least frequency of 4% each in tomato; and orange and tomato, respectively. Other fungal species were identified as yeast (Saccharomyces species (10%, Fusarium solani (8%, and Aspergillus flavus (5%. The highest prevalence rate was 70% of A. niger from orange followed by F. avenaceum of which 65% isolates were recovered from pawpaw. Other fungal organisms such as yeast (Saccharomyces species, P. digitatum and R. stolonifer were isolated with varying prevalence (40%, 20%, and 5% from watermelon, tomato, and orange, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the fungal load of the various fruits studied (analysis of variance=478.2857, p<0.05, F=4.680067 and df=34. Conclusion: The pathogenic fungi species associated with fruits spoilage in this study are of economical and public health

  15. Altered Levels of Aroma and Volatiles by Metabolic Engineering of Shikimate Pathway Genes in Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vered Tzin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum fruit is an excellent source of antioxidants, dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins and therefore has been referred to as a “functional food”. Ripe tomato fruits produce a large number of specialized metabolites including volatile organic compounds. These volatiles serve as key components of the tomato fruit flavor, participate in plant pathogen and herbivore defense, and are used to attract seed dispersers. A major class of specialized metabolites is derived from the shikimate pathway followed by aromatic amino acid biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We attempted to modify tomato fruit flavor by overexpressing key regulatory genes in the shikimate pathway. Bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive variants of 3-Deoxy-D-Arabino-Heptulosonate 7-Phosphate Synthase (DAHPS; AroG209-9 and bi-functional Chorismate Mutase/Prephenate Dehydratase (CM/PDT; PheA12 were expressed under the control of a fruit-specific promoter. We crossed these transgenes to generate tomato plants expressing both the AroG209 and PheA12 genes. Overexpression of the AroG209-9 gene had a dramatic effect on the overall metabolic profile of the fruit, including enhanced levels of multiple volatile and non-volatile metabolites. In contrast, the PheA12 overexpression line exhibited minor metabolic effects compared to the wild type fruit. Co-expression of both the AroG209-9 and PheA12 genes in tomato resulted overall in a similar metabolic effect to that of expressing only the AroG209-9 gene. However, the aroma ranking attributes of the tomato fruits from PheA12//AroG209-9 were unique and different from those of the lines expressing a single gene, suggesting a contribution of the PheA12 gene to the overall metabolic profile. We suggest that expression of bacterial genes encoding feedback-insensitive enzymes of the shikimate pathway in tomato fruits provides a useful metabolic engineering tool for the modification of

  16. Characterization of transcriptome dynamics during watermelon fruit development: sequencing, assembly, annotation and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Liu, Jingan; Zheng, Yi; Huang, Mingyun; Zhang, Haiying; Gong, Guoyi; He, Hongju; Ren, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2011-09-21

    Cultivated watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is an important agriculture crop world-wide. The fruit of watermelon undergoes distinct stages of development with dramatic changes in its size, color, sweetness, texture and aroma. In order to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of these changes and significantly expand the watermelon transcript catalog, we have selected four critical stages of watermelon fruit development and used Roche/454 next-generation sequencing technology to generate a large expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset and a comprehensive transcriptome profile for watermelon fruit flesh tissues. We performed half Roche/454 GS-FLX run for each of the four watermelon fruit developmental stages (immature white, white-pink flesh, red flesh and over-ripe) and obtained 577,023 high quality ESTs with an average length of 302.8 bp. De novo assembly of these ESTs together with 11,786 watermelon ESTs collected from GenBank produced 75,068 unigenes with a total length of approximately 31.8 Mb. Overall 54.9% of the unigenes showed significant similarities to known sequences in GenBank non-redundant (nr) protein database and around two-thirds of them matched proteins of cucumber, the most closely-related species with a sequenced genome. The unigenes were further assigned with gene ontology (GO) terms and mapped to biochemical pathways. More than 5,000 SSRs were identified from the EST collection. Furthermore we carried out digital gene expression analysis of these ESTs and identified 3,023 genes that were differentially expressed during watermelon fruit development and ripening, which provided novel insights into watermelon fruit biology and a comprehensive resource of candidate genes for future functional analysis. We then generated profiles of several interesting metabolites that are important to fruit quality including pigmentation and sweetness. Integrative analysis of metabolite and digital gene expression

  17. A workplace feasibility study of the effect of a minimal fruit intervention on fruit intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    intake would affect vegetable, total energy and nutrient intake. Design: A 5-month, controlled, workplace study where workplaces were divided into an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). At least one piece of free fruit was available per person per day in the IG. Total fruit and dietary...... intake was assessed, using two 24 h dietary recalls at baseline and at endpoint. Setting: Eight Danish workplaces were enrolled in the study. Five workplaces were in the IG and three were in the CG. Subjects: One hundred and twenty-four (IG, n 68; CG, n 56) healthy, mainly normal-weight participants were....... Vegetable, total energy and macronutrient intake remained unchanged through the intervention period for both groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that it is feasible to increase the average fruit intake at workplaces by simply increasing fruit availability and accessibility. Increased fruit intake...

  18. Irrigation and fruit canopy position modify oil quality of olive trees (cv. Frantoio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Sifola, Maria Isabella; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    Fruit development and oil quality in Olea europaea L. are strongly influenced by both light and water availability. In the present study, the simultaneous effects of light environment and irrigation on fruit characteristics and oil quality were studied in a high-density orchard over two consecutive years. Olive fruits were harvested from three canopy positions (intercepting approximately 64%, 42% and 30% of above canopy radiation) of fully-productive trees subjected to full, deficit or complementary irrigation. Fruits receiving 61-67% of above canopy radiation showed the highest fruit weight, mesocarp oil content and maturation index, whereas those intercepting only 27-33% showed the lowest values. Palmitoleic and linoleic acids increased in oils obtained from fruits exposed to high light levels, whereas oleic acid and the oleic-linoleic acid ratio decreased. Neither canopy position, nor irrigation affected K 232 , K 270 , ΔK and the concentration of lignan in virgin olive oils (VOOs). Total phenols, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA [2-(3,4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl (3S,4E)-4-formyl-3-(2-oxoethyl)hex-4-enoate] and p-HPEA-EDA (decarboxymethyl ligstroside-aglycone) increased in VOOs produced from fruits harvested from the top of the canopy, whereas full irrigation decreased total phenols and 3,4-DHPEA-EDA concentrations with respect to the complementary irrigation treatment. Light and water availability are crucial not only for tree productivity, but also they clearly affect olive oil quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Postprandial glucose response to selected tropical fruits in normal glucose-tolerant Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, A; Eregie, A; Adediran, O; Ohwovoriole, A; Ebengho, S

    2011-01-01

    The glycemic response to commonly eaten fruits in Nigeria has not been reported. Therefore, this study assessed the plasma glucose response to selected fruits in Nigeria. Ten normal glucose-tolerant subjects randomly consumed 50 g carbohydrate portions of three fruits: banana (Musa paradisiaca), pineapple (Ananus comosus), and pawpaw (Carica papaya), and a 50-g glucose load at 1-week intervals. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and half-hourly over a 2-h period post-ingestion of the fruits or glucose. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose concentrations. Plasma glucose responses were assessed by the peak plasma glucose concentration, maximum increase in plasma glucose, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level, and incremental area under the glucose curve and glycemic index (GI). The results showed that the blood glucose response to these three fruits was similar in terms of their incremental areas under the glucose curve, maximum increase in plasma glucose, and glycemic indices (GIs). The 2-h postprandial plasma glucose level of banana was significantly higher than that of pineapple, P < 0.025. The mean ± SEM GI values were as follows: pawpaw; 86 ± 26.8%; banana, 75.1 ± 21.8%; pineapple, 64.5 ± 11.3%. The GI of glucose is taken as 100. The GI of pineapple was significantly lower than that of glucose (P < 0.05). Banana, pawpaw, and pineapple produced a similar postprandial glucose response. Measured portions of these fruits may be used as fruit exchanges with pineapple having the most favorable glycemic response.

  20. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telias, Adriana; White, James R; Pahl, Donna M; Ottesen, Andrea R; Walsh, Christopher S

    2011-04-21

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water) when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an important step forward towards the development of science