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Sample records for pomacea canaliculata gastropoda

  1. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  2. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  3. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

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    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved by a thin conjunctive layer that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  4. THE USE OF Pomacea canaliculata SNAILS IN FEED TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF ALABIO DUCK (Anas plathyrinchos Borneo MEAT

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    A. Subhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to improve the physical and chemical quality of Alabio ducks which was fed with Pomacea canaliculata snails. Those ducks were raised intensively. There were nine treatments  included R0 (control feed, R1 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R2 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area, R3 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R4 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from swampy area R5 (control feed + 2.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R6 (control feed + 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, R7 (control feed + 7.5% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area, and R8 (control feed + 10% Pomacea canaliculata snails from tidal swampy area. The variables observed included meat chemical and physical quality. A Completely Randomized Design was used in this study. Analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to analyze data. The research results revealed that using Pomacea canaliculata snails in duck feed had a significant effect (P<0.05 towards the physical characteristics (water holding capacity, cooking loss, and tenderness, and chemical characteristics of Alabio duck meat (water, protein, collagen, fat, and cholesterol content. However, there was no significant effect towards meat pH. It can be concluded that using 5% Pomacea canaliculata snails in a mixture of Alabio duck feed decreased cooking loss and meat cholesterol content.

  5. Characterizations of cholinesterases in golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).

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    Zou, Xiang-Hui; Xie, Heidi Qun-Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Chen, Vicky Ping; Sun, Yan-Jie; Zheng, Yu-Zhong; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Luk, Wilson Kin-Wai

    2014-07-01

    Cholinesterases (ChEs) have been identified in vertebrates and invertebrates. Inhibition of ChE activity in invertebrates, such as bivalve molluscs, has been used to evaluate the exposure of organophosphates, carbamate pesticides, and heavy metals in the marine system. The golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is considered as one of the worst invasive alien species harmful to rice and other crops. The ChE(s) in this animal, which has been found recently, but poorly characterized thus far, could serve as biomarker(s) for environmental surveillance as well as a potential target for the pest control. In this study, the tissue distribution, substrate preference, sensitivity to ChE inhibitors, and molecular species of ChEs in P. canaliculata were investigated. It was found that the activities of both AChE and BChE were present in all test tissues. The intestine had the most abundant ChE activities. Both enzymes had fair activities in the head, kidney, and gills. The BChE activity was more sensitive to tetra-isopropylpyrophosphoramide (iso-OMPA) than the AChE. Only one BChE molecular species, 5.8S, was found in the intestine and head, whereas two AChE species, 5.8S and 11.6S, were found there. We propose that intestine ChEs of this snail may be potential biomarkers for manipulating pollutions. PMID:24217797

  6. Pengendalian Hama Keong Mas (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) Dengan Ekstrak Biji Pinang Pada Tanaman Padi

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    Yunidawati, Wiwik

    2012-01-01

    Wiwik Yunidawati, 2012. Pest Control of Golden Snails (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) by Areca Extract On Rice Plants. Application of Areca extract can be used to control Golden snail in rice planting. The purpose of this research is to obtain the suitable concentration of Areca extracts to control Golden snail. The research was conducted on December 2010 to April 2011 at the screen house of Observation Laboratory of Plant Disease and Biological Agents and “Balai Benih Induk Murni” Deli Se...

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata

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    Yan Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata.

  8. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

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    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  9. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

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    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment.

  10. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Pomacea canaliculata

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    Zhuo MingMing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis in humans. The most common source of infection with A. cantonensis is the consumption of raw or undercooked mollusks (e.g., snails and slugs harbouring infectious third-stage larvae (L3. However, the parasite is difficult to identify in snails. The purpose of this study was to develop a quick, simple molecular method to survey for A. cantonensis in intermediate host snails. Findings We used a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay, which was performed using Bst DNA polymerase. Reactions amplified the A. cantonensis 18S rRNA gene and demonstrated high sensitivity; as little as 1 fg of DNA was detected in the samples. Furthermore, no cross-reactivity was found with other parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium falciparum, Schistosoma japonicum, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani and Anisakis. Pomacea canaliculata snails were exposed to A. cantonensis first-stage larvae (L1 in the laboratory, and L3 were observed in the snails thirty-five days after infection. All nine samples were positive as determined by the LAMP assay for A. cantonensis, which was identified as positive by using PCR and microscopy, this demonstrates that LAMP is sensitive and effective for diagnosis. Conclusions LAMP is an appropriate diagnostic method for the routine identification of A. cantonensis within its intermediate host snail P. canaliculata because of its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity. It holds great promise as a useful monitoring tool for A. cantonensis in endemic regions.

  11. Lethal and non-lethal effects of multiple indigenous predators on the invasive golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Nils; Kestrup, A; Mårtensson, M.; Nyström, Per

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the individual and combined effects of two predators (the climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, and the wetland crab, Esanthelphusa nimoafi) indigenous to wetlands in Laos, on the behaviour and survival of the invasive South American golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). The snail is considered a pest, consuming large amounts of rice and other aquatic vegetation in the region. 2. Snail avoidance reactions to released predator chemical cues were investigated in aquaria wh...

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of Pomacea canaliculata isolates collected from rice fields in different origins of China by combined mitochondrial 12S and 16S genes.

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    Li, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2015-02-01

    To study the genetic relationships of Pomacea canaliculata collected from rice fields in China, the mitochondrial (mt) 12S and 16S of 9 P. canaliculata isolates from 5 southern provinces in China were sequenced and analyzed. The intra-specific sequence variations of P. canaliculata were 0-1.1% for 12S and 0--0.6% for 16S, while the inter-specific variations among common Pomacea species in mt 12S and 16S were 3.0-11.7% and 2.3-10.1%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S revealed complex genetic structure of P. canaliculata in China. Two phylogenetic groups of P. canaliculata were indicated in China with one group sistered to P. canaliculata isolates from USA, and two groups were even found in the same province. The phylogenetic relationships of Pomacea spp. also could be effectively inferred by combined sequences of mt 12S and 16S. These findings provided basic information for further study of population genetics and diffusion pattern of P. canaliculata in China as well as in the world.

  13. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

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    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da fam

  14. Backbone cyclised peptides from plants show molluscicidal activity against the rice pest Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail).

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    Plan, Manuel Rey R; Saska, Ivana; Cagauan, Arsenia G; Craik, David J

    2008-07-01

    Golden apple snails ( Pomacea canaliculata) are serious pests of rice in South East Asia. Cyclotides are backbone cyclized peptides produced by plants from Rubiaceae and Violaceae. In this study, we investigated the molluscicidal activity of cyclotides against golden apple snails. Crude cyclotide extracts from both Oldenlandia affinis and Viola odorata plants showed molluscicidal activity comparable to the synthetic molluscicide metaldehyde. Individual cyclotides from each extract demonstrated a range of molluscicidal activities. The cyclotides cycloviolacin O1, kalata B1, and kalata B2 were more toxic to golden apple snails than metaldehyde, while kalata B7 and kalata B8 did not cause significant mortality. The toxicity of the cyclotide kalata B2 on a nontarget species, the Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), was three times lower than the common piscicide rotenone. Our findings suggest that the existing diversity of cyclotides in plants could be used to develop natural molluscicides. PMID:18557620

  15. Characteristics of Feeding Preference and Nutrients Utilization of Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata on Macrophytes in Paddy Fields

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    Benliang Zhao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Golden apple snail was a harmful invasive gastropod in Asian wetlands. In order to clarify the effect of Pomacea canaliculata on macrophytes in paddy fields, feeding preference and nutrients utilization of snail were studied. Feeding preference of snail was Alternanthera philoxenoides>Monochoria vaginalis>Oryza sativa L. Snail showed a higher approximate digestion coefficient on Oryza sativa L. than that on Monochoria vaginalis. Nitrogen utilization coefficient of snail on Alternanthera philoxenoides was significantly higher than that on Oryza sativa L. Snail exhibited a higher calcium utilization coefficient on Alternanthera philoxenoides and Monochoria vaginalis than that on Oryza sativa L. Oryza sativa L. was not preferred among three plants under the same available and exposure condition.

  16. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

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    Shengzhang Dong; Guowan Zheng; Xiaoping Yu; Changhuan Fu

    2012-01-01

    The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field condi...

  17. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

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    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  18. Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines

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    Carlo Stephen O. Moneva; Mark Anthony J. Torres; Takashi Wada; Ravindra Joshi; Cesar G. Demayo

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM) ana...

  19. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

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    Yam, Rita S. W.; Yen-Tzu Fan; Tzu-Ting Wang

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feedin...

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) egg on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot.

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    Yang, Song; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Yue; Zhao, Liu-Lan; Wang, Yan; Yang, Shi-Yong; Du, Zong-Jun; Zhang, Jia-En

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of supplementing golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) eggs powder (EP) in the diet as a source of natural carotenoids on survival, pigmentation and antioxidant activity of Blood parrot. A total of 90 fish were divided into three treatment groups with three replicates per treatment. Blood parrot were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 5 % (EP 5 %), and 15 % (EP 15 %) dry powder of golden apple snail egg for 60 days, and nine fish per group were sampled at 20, 40, and 60 days. No differences in survival of the fish among treatments were found throughout the experiment. The body coloration of Blood parrot was enhanced in the skin and caudal fin with increasing content of golden apple snail egg powder in the diet. At the end of the experiment, the carotenoid content in the caudal fin and the number of scale chromatophores of the fish fed dietary with EP were higher (P  0.05) in CAT activities. Results demonstrated that golden apple snail eggs can be used as a colorant to promote the pigmentation efficacy of Blood parrot. PMID:27652129

  1. Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Mn2+ in Freshwater Snail Shells: Pomacea Canaliculata Lamarck and Fossilized Snail Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Udomkan; S. Meejoo; P. Limsuwan; P. Winotai; Y. Chaimanee

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study paramagnetic Mn2+ ions present in the nowadays shells of univalve freshwater snails of Pomacea canaliculata lamarck (PCL) and the fossilized freshwater snail (FFS), Viviparus. All these shells are abundant in Thailand. The PCL shells were ground into fine powder. A set of seven samples were then separately annealed for 2 h in air atmosphere at different annealing temperatures while the FFS powder was characterized as-received.The PCL shells mainly consist of aragonite and a fraction of calcite. The heat treatments of the PCL powder samples at temperature higher than 450 ℃ resulted in an irreversible phase transformation from aragonite to calcite. However, it is found that the FFS shell is mainly made of calcite, with a minor fraction of aragonite. The crystal structure of the high-temperature-annealed PCL samples are quite similar to that of FFS, which indicates that the metamorphosis (aragonite → calcite) in the FFS shell had occurred but was not yet completed, although it had remained under the pressure and temperature of the Earth's crusts over millions of years. Our detailed ESR spectral analyses of PCL and FFS show that Mn2+ ions enter the Ca2+ sites during a biomineralization process. Simulated ESR parameters of PCL-500 of Mn2+ at a uniaxial site of calcite are reported. It is surprising to find that the ratio of Mn2+ concentration present in FFS to those in PCL shells evaluated from ESR spectra is as much as 10:1.

  2. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata in a West Sumatra Rice Field

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    Jabang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characteristics of the shell remains and spraints are described.

  3. 莲田福寿螺发生规律及防控措施%Occurrence and control measures of Pomacea canaliculata in lotus seed fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江福祥; 陈传聪

    2011-01-01

    介绍了建宁县莲田福寿螺的形态特征及发生规律,通过实践探索防治方法,提出应以农业防治、物理防治为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施。%This paper introduced morphological characteristics and occurrence regularity of Pomacea canaliculata in lotus seed fields.Based on the practice of cultivation and management,integrated controlling measures that relied mainly on agronomic and physical control while chemical methods subsidiary,were put forward.

  4. Insights into embryo defenses of the invasive apple snail Pomacea canaliculata: egg mass ingestion affects rat intestine morphology and growth.

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    Marcos S Dreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology.Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days.Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to the toxic effect of plant antipredator strategies

  5. New approaches to the management of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck): An invasive alien pest species of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Golden apple snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) is native to South America. It was introduced to farmers in the Philippines in the 1980s from Argentina via Taiwan, and to other countries in Asia to increase their income and to enrich the protein intake in their diet, and also as an aquarium pet. The Global Invasive Species (IAS) FAO report that it causes 1.2 billion USD losses to aquatic crops particularly rice, taro and morning glory in Asian countries and the USA. Aside from being a serious agricultural pest, it is also an environmental pest. In an attempt to control GAS resource-poor-farmers resort to 'shot-gun approach' of using toxic and non specific agrochemicals thereby aggravating ecosystem pollution, risking their health and causing loss of aquatic biodiversity. GAS is expanding its distribution westwards in Asia and poses new threats of its invasion in Australia, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. At the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), my team focuses on two approaches. First we have to understand the field ecology of the GAS and identify weak-links in their life cycle. Then we use this basic information to manage GAS at the village level within the community in an ecologically sustainable socially acceptable and economically viable ways. I shall discuss how this LAS in transplanted lowland irrigated rice ecologies can be managed using locally available attractants during the vulnerable stage(s) of rice crop growth. New approaches will highlight the innovative and applied techniques on how to prevent the rampant abuse/misuse of agrochemicals, as well as GAS utilisation in weed management in rice fields and as aqua feed. In future, it is necessary to develop collaborative exploratory research with the IAEA and the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) to develop an effective area-wide management of GAS in direct-seeded rice systems that will capitalise on an integrated approach and environment-friendly technologies

  6. Relative warp and correlation analysis based on distances of the morphological shell shape patterns of Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck from Japan and the Philippines

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    Carlo Stephen O. Moneva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Apple Snail (GAS, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is considered one of the serious agricultural pests of rice in Asia. Itis being argued that rapid invasion of this species in many variable habitats suggests genetic variability and differentiation which could be expressedat the level of the phenotype. It is therefore the major objective of the study to explore possible phenotypic differentiation in the organismespecially in the shape of the shell using geometric morphometric (GM analysis. Specifically, this study aimed to determine conchologicalvariation in populations of GAS in the Philippines and Japan. Three aspects of the shell shape were studied, which includes the ventral/aperture,dorsal and the top/whorl portion of the shell using correlation analysis based on distances (CORIANDIS. CORIANDIS was used in order tovisualize congruence of multivariate traits among P. canaliculata populations. The results showed that P. canaliculata shell varies in shape andvariability may signify distinctive genotypes or adaptation to varying environments exhibited by Japan and the Philippines.

  7. Immune Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae: Phagocytic Hemocytes in the Circulation and the Kidney.

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    Juan A Cueto

    Full Text Available Hemocytes in the circulation and kidney islets, as well as their phagocytic responses to microorganisms and fluorescent beads, have been studied in Pomacea canaliculata, using flow cytometry, light microscopy (including confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Three circulating hemocyte types (hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes were distinguished by phase contrast microscopy of living cells and after light and electron microscopy of fixed material. Also, three different populations of circulating hemocytes were separated by flow cytometry, which corresponded to the three hemocyte types. Hyalinocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, and no apparent granules in stained material, but showed granules of moderate electron density under TEM (L granules and at least some L granules appear acidic when labeled with LysoTracker Red. Both phagocytic and non-phagocytic hyalinocytes lose most (if not all L granules when exposed to microorganisms in vitro. The phagosomes formed differed whether hyalinocytes were exposed to yeasts or to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria. Agranulocytes showed a large nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and few or no granules. Granulocytes showed a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio and numerous eosinophilic granules after staining. These granules are electron dense and rod-shaped under TEM (R granules. Granulocytes may show merging of R granules into gigantic ones, particularly when exposed to microorganisms. Fluorescent bead exposure of sorted hemocytes showed phagocytic activity in hyalinocytes, agranulocytes and granulocytes, but the phagocytic index was significantly higher in hyalinocytes. Extensive hemocyte aggregates ('islets' occupy most renal hemocoelic spaces and hyalinocyte-like cells are the most frequent component in them. Presumptive glycogen deposits were observed in most hyalinocytes in renal islets (they also occur in the circulation but less frequently and may mean that

  8. 不同生境福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)的营养成分及其利用价值%Nutritional components and utilization values of golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗渡; 牟希东; 宋红梅; 顾党恩; 杨叶欣; 汪学杰; 罗建仁; 胡隐昌; 章家恩

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the nutritional components and amino acids composition of black and white flesh-colored golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) collected from different habitats ( fish pond, ditch, and paddy field) , aimed to compare the differences in the nutritional components of these snails and explore the potential utilization values of the snails during the process of integrated control. The snails in fish pond had the highest contents of water and crude fat, those in ditch had the highest ash content, while those in paddy field had the lowest contents of water, crude fat, and crude protein. The crude protein content of the snails in ditch and pond was higher than 13% , and the snails in pond had the highest contents of total amino acids, essential amino acids, and flavor amino acids and the highest index of essential amino acids, but the proportion of essential amino acids was the lowest. The snails in paddy field had higher contents of essential amino acids and flavor amino acids than the snails in ditch, and the index of the essential amino acids of the snails in different habitats was in the order of fish pond > paddy field > ditch. Overall, white flesh snails had higher nutritional values than black flesh ones, and the nutritional composition of the snails essential amino acids was similar to that of fish meal ( CP 53. 5% ). It was suggested that in the utilization of golden apple snails, their flesh color and origin should be fully considered.%为比较不同生境和不同肉色福寿螺的营养成分组成差异以探讨其在综合防治中的潜在利用价值,分析了鱼塘、沟渠和水田3种生境福寿螺以及黑白肉色福寿螺的一般营养成分和氨基酸组成.结果表明:鱼塘福寿螺的水分和粗脂肪含量最高,沟渠福寿螺的灰分含量最高,水田福寿螺的水分、粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量最低,沟渠和鱼塘福寿螺的粗蛋白含量都高于13%,鱼塘福寿螺的总氨基酸、必需氨基酸、

  9. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents. PMID:26927135

  10. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  11. Importance of Macrophyte Quality in Determining Life-History Traits of the Apple Snails Pomacea canaliculata: Implications for Bottom-Up Management of an Invasive Herbivorous Pest in Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Rita S W; Fan, Yen-Tzu; Wang, Tzu-Ting

    2016-02-24

    Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) has extensively invaded most Asian constructed wetlands and its massive herbivory of macrophytes has become a major cause of ecosystem dysfunctioning of these restored habitats. We conducted non-choice laboratory feeding experiments of P. canaliculata using five common macrophyte species in constructed wetlands including Ipomoea aquatica, Commelina communis, Nymphoides coreana, Acorus calamus and Phragmites australis. Effects of macrophytes on snail feeding, growth and fecundity responses were evaluated. Results indicated that P. canaliculata reared on Ipomoea had the highest feeding and growth rates with highest reproductive output, but all individuals fed with Phragmites showed lowest feeding rates and little growth with poorest reproductive output. Plant N and P contents were important for enhancing palatability, supporting growth and offspring quantity of P. canaliculata, whilst toughness, cellulose and phenolics had critically deterrent effects on various life-history traits. Although snail offspring quality was generally consistent regardless of maternal feeding conditions, the reduced growth and offspring quantity of the poorly-fed snails in constructed wetlands dominated by the less-palatable macrophytes could limit the invasive success of P. canaliculata. Effective bottom-up control of P. canaliculata in constructed wetlands should involve selective planting strategy using macrophytes with low nutrient and high toughness, cellulose and phenolic contents.

  12. Acute toxic effect of calcium cyanamide on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata).%石灰氮对福寿螺的急性毒性效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵本良; 章家恩; 代魏; 罗明珠; 宋春秀

    2011-01-01

    福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)是世界自然保护联盟认定的世界100种恶性外来入侵物种之一,在华南地区已对水稻生产造成严重危害.本研究将福寿螺按照壳高(H)分为小螺(5 mm≤H<15 mm)、中螺(15 mm≤H<25 mm)、大螺(25 mm≤H<35 mm)和超大螺(35 mm≤H<45 mm),通过室内毒性试验,探讨了化学肥料石灰氮(氰氨化钙)对不同体型福寿螺的毒性效应.结果表明:石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺毒性效应显著,尤其是对中小福寿螺具有很强的抑制和杀灭作用;石灰氮处理7 d后,最低浓度0.2 g·L-1处理造成71%死亡率,其他处理死亡率均在95%以上,其中3.0和5.0 g·L-1处理中福寿螺全部死亡;石灰氮对不同大小福寿螺的半抑制浓度(24 h)和半致死浓度(96 h)大小顺序均为小螺<中螺<大螺<超大螺;石灰氮对福寿螺的抑制效应显著,其对福寿螺的平均半抑制浓度为0.08~0.39 g·L-1;1.0和5.0 g·L-1浓度的石灰氮处理24 h后,福寿螺鳃组织SOD酶活性呈极显著下降,分别为对照的41%和60%.本研究表明,石灰氮在入侵生物福寿螺的防治方面有一定应用潜力,有望成为一种新型的"杀螺肥料".%Golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species cognized by World Conservation Union, and has been resulting in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In this study, the snails according to their shell height ( H) were divided in to four groups, i. e. , small size (5 mm ≤ H<15 mm), medium size (15 mm ≤ H<25 mm), large size (25 mm≤H<35 mm) , and extra large size (35 mm≤ H<45 mm) , and a laboratory toxicity test was conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chemical fertilizer calcium cyanamide ( CaCN2) in controlling different sizes P. canaliculata. Calcium cyanamide had signifi cant molluscicidal effect on different sizes, especially small and medium sizes P. canaliculata. After treated one week, 0. 2 g

  13. First report of Temnocephala haswelli (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida in Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae from Brazil: description update based on specimens from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the discovery of Temnocephala haswelli Ponce de Léon, 1989, described as ectosymbionts of ampullariid apple snails outside of Uruguay, motivated us to collect a large number of specimens of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 from several localities in the southern portion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. This species was recorded three times after its description: in a study of chromosomes, in a study about the ultrastructure of the collar receptor cells, and in a study of the Haswell glands, all conducted in Uruguay. A total of 301 specimens of P. canaliculata were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity were identified as T. haswelli, which occurred in single infestations or concurrently with Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893. Helminths usually showed a light-orange body pigmentation and conspicuous, intense red-eye pigment. Many taxonomic characters evidenced by several techniques were documented photographically for the first time. The typical curved cirrus, approximately 90°, typical of the species, showed some variation in the width of the shaft base, whereas the first longitudinal row of spines of the introvert appeared with shorter spines. The vagina was found to be thick-walled, but not very muscular, and to have a single, large and slightly asymmetrical sphincter, with the posterior portion of slightly larger diameter. Eggs were observed in the umbilicus and along the suture, but predominantly in the body whorl of the shell. Egg peduncles were found to be very short or, most of the time, the eggs were sessile, always with a long apical filament. The rounded shape of the dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates had external margins reaching the ventrolateral region of the body and eccentric nephridiopores. This is the first record of the species outside Uruguay and in Brazil.

  14. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

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    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  15. Comparison on main morphologic characters for different varieties of Pomacea canaliculata in China%中国不同品系福寿螺主要形态比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志坚; 曾清香; 张波; 彭东觉; 曲振宇; 杨潇; 詹希美; 吴瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的 描述我国广州地区福寿螺的形态差异,期望为广州管圆线虫病防治的研究及福寿螺蔓延控制的研究提供证据.方法 对广州地区黑色福寿螺、黄色福寿螺、灰色福寿螺的螺壳、软体部、呼吸管、足、齿舌进行观察,描述三类福寿螺的形态学差异.结果 对三类福寿螺的足及呼吸管进行HE染色分析,显示软体部颜色不同的原因主要是黑色颗粒的有无和沉积数量的多少.对福寿螺齿舌的观察显示,灰色福寿螺第一、第二突起与中央齿宽的比值明显大于黑色福寿螺和黄色福寿螺;在扫描电镜下,三类福寿螺的齿舌未见明显不同.结论 我国广州地区的福寿螺存在三种变异.%Based on the characteristics of Pomacea canaliculata's external shell and its soft part, they were divided into 3 types: black P. canaliculata, yellow P. canaliculata, and grey P. canaliculata. HE staining of their breathing tubes and feet proved that the different colors of the soft parts mainly resulted from the existence of melanin granules and the number of deposition. During the observation of the radula of P. canaliculata, the ratios of the first and second cusp to the centre radula of grey P. canaliculata largely exceeded that of the black and grey P. canaliculata. The differences of the three types were difficult to judge under scanning electron microscope. It's suggested that the analysis of the above differences of P. canaliculata would provide evidence in the researches about the treatment of angiostrongyliasis and the control of spread of P. canaliculata.

  16. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  17. 入侵生物金苹果螺在滇池流域的首次记录%A Record of the Invasive Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜; Jonathan Davies; 陈小勇; 崔桂华; 杨君兴

    2007-01-01

    2004年10月,中国科学院昆明动物研究所首次发现金苹果螺(Pomacea canaliculata)入侵重要的水源保护区嵩明白邑黑龙潭.金苹果螺起源于中南美洲,在亚洲,它通过有意或无意的传播而逐渐扩散到菲律宾、越南、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、马来西亚、印尼、巴布几内亚、韩国、日本和中国的南部.金苹果螺已成为水稻产区的最大害虫,给农业生产带来巨大的损失.为防止金苹果螺在云南扩散,目前已经实施了严格的预防、控制措施,同时开展了公众保护教育宣传活动.%The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck 1819) was first recorded at Black Dragon Spring, Dianchi Basin, Baiyi Township, Songming County, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China, in October 2004. The water from the spring flows into the Songhuaba Reservoir, the major drinking water resource for Kunming City, and part of the Dianchi Lake basin. This is the first record of this invasive snail in the Dianchi Lake Basin. Pomacea canaliculata originates from Central and South America, and in Asia the snail has spread through deliberate and accidental introductions to the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Korea, Japan and South China. It has become a major pest in rice-growing areas, resulting in huge damage to crops. Strict prevention and control measures have to be implemented to prevent the spread of the snail in Yunnan, together with public awareness campaigns to inform the public of the dangers of this invasive snail.

  18. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  19. Occurrence and control technology of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in rice field in Sichuan%四川稻田福寿螺的发生与防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓娟; 何忠全; 郎冬梅; 汪世元; 毛建辉; 何树林

    2013-01-01

    采用问卷和实地调查相结合的方法调查了福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)在四川稻区的分布和危害,并就现有化学杀螺剂进行了药效评价和综合防控技术的效果评价.结果表明,福寿螺目前在四川省16个地区均有分布,以成都、乐山、泸州等地福寿螺的危害较为严重.田间药效试验发现,杀螺胺乙醇胺盐对稻田福寿螺防效最高,达86.74%,而杀螺胺、四聚乙醛等防效相对较差.综合防控措施的灭螺效果为89.73%~93.64%,保苗率56.13%~80.36%,每667m2挽回经济损失553.21元.福寿螺在四川省分布广,化学杀螺剂需交替使用,综合防治技术措施行之有效.

  20. 不同浓度下四种除草剂对福寿螺和坑螺的生态毒理效应%Eco-toxicological effects of four herbicides on typical aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata and Crown conchs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰; 骆世明; 黎华寿; 贺鸿志; 陈桂葵; 秦俊豪

    2011-01-01

    以化学除草剂应用为前提的水稻免耕抛秧栽培技术是近年来推广的节本栽培新技术.为更好地评价除草剂的环境风险,为防治除草剂的负效应提供科学依据,采用室内静水模拟实验研究了4种免耕稻田除草剂丁草胺、苄嘧N磺隆、丁苄混剂和氯酸钾的3种浓度梯度下对典型水生动物福寿螺、坑螺的影响.结果表明,各除草剂对水生动物的代谢都有不同程度的影响,氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对2种水生动物的呼吸作用影响不大,而丁草胺和丁苄混剂对3种水生动物的呼吸作用的影响有显著的抑制作用,且呈现一定的剂量效应;在本实验染毒剂量下,丁草胺和丁苄混剂对2种水生动物的存活率影响很大,而氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对其存活率影响较小.丁草胺和丁苄混剂处理对福寿螺的氮代谢影响远远大于氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆处理,而从水体总氮和总磷含量的影响来看,4种除草剂对其影响都较大.总之,从4种除草剂对实验用螺存活率和主要代谢生理指标的综合影响大小来看,丁草胺>丁苄混剂>苄嘧磺隆>氯酸钾.%There has been an increase in the use of other herbicides for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. The use of herbicides in China also has increased faster than that of insecticides and fungicides since last 30 years. The new technique of rice seedling-broadcasting with no-tillage ( RSB-NT) is widely used and it was based on the applition of herbicides. The increasing pollution of herbicides in soil and water has been of concerns. The effect of four herbicides including butachlor, bensulfuron-methyl, the mixture of bensulfuron and butachlor, potassium chlorate on typical aquatic animals (Pomacea canaliculata Spix, Tunnel snail) in rice paddy wetland were studied in laboratory. In the immersion experiment, both of the aquatic animals divided into four groups with three concentrations. The results showed that the

  1. Injury and Yield Loss by the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck in Rice%福寿螺对水稻的为害及其产量损失研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 林贤文; 祝增荣

    2015-01-01

    为了明确不同螺口密度和为害始期福寿螺为害与水稻产量损失的关系,于2007—2009年分别在早稻、单季晚稻和连作晚稻田通过人工定量投放福寿螺进行为害损失试验。结果表明:投放的时间越早,危害损失越大;投放的数量越多,危害损失越重。所有这些损失率与福寿螺密度之间的关系,均可采用幂函数方程来描述,以5%产量损失作为经济允许水平计算,秧苗移栽后早稻田福寿螺密度宜控制在1只/m2以下,晚稻宜在3.5只/m2以下。福寿螺在早稻田的存活率在低密度下较高,而在晚稻田的存活率都不高,但是低密度下产卵量明显增多。建议要特别加强对水稻移栽后小苗期田间福寿螺的防控,最好能在移栽前对本田进行必要的防治,另外一旦断垄发生后要及时补苗,减少损失。%To investigate the relationship among rice yield loss, the golden apple snail (GAS) (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) density and damage beginning time, the GAS was added to early rice field, late hybrid rice field and single late rice field artificially from 2007 to 2009. The results showed that, the earlier GAS was added to field, the more damage GAS caused. It was also identified that the more GAS added to the field, the more damage GAS caused. The power function equations could be used to describe the relationship between GAS density and yield loss. There should be less than 1 per m2 in early rice and field or 3.5 per m2 in late rice field if the yield loss was expected blow 5%. In early rice field, lower density was beneficial for higher survival rate. Although the survival rate was low in late rice field, the oviposition capacity would be higher with low density. It was important to control GAS after rice transplant. And preventing GAS before rice transplant would be better. To reduce yield loss, rice seedling should be added in time if seedlingless ridges happened.

  2. 水旱轮作防控福寿螺的效果及对水稻产量的影响%Effects of paddy-upland rotation on control of Pomacea canaliculata and rice yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 罗颢; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To investigate the influence of paddy-upland rotation on controlling Pomacea canal-iculata and rice yield.[Method] Four farming measures including winter potato rotation system , winter ryegrass rotation system , and two winter fallow rice fields treatments with water cover or without any water cover ( two controls ) were employed .The field population structure of snails in the previous and subse-quent rice field , and early rice yield in the subsequent season were investigated .[Result and conclusion]The results showed that winter potato rotation treatment was helpful for snails control and rice yield in-crease in the subsequent farming season , but the snail population recovery accelerated in the early rice growing period because of this rotation treatment .Winter ryegrass rotation treatment was unsatisfactory for snails control while it was beneficial for the early rice output of the next season .Winter-planting rotation was negative for controlling snail eggs , while the eggs were relatively few and most of them were distribu-ted on weeds along field ridges .The eggs could be collected conveniently and efficiently at the beginning of the early rice growing season .%目的探索2种冬种作物水旱轮作对来年早稻田福寿螺的控制效果及对水稻产量的影响。方法对冬种马铃薯和冬种黑麦草这2种控螺方式下前后茬稻田中福寿螺种群和后茬水稻产量进行调查,并与冬闲干田和冬闲淹水处理的前后茬稻田进行对比。结果和结论冬种马铃薯能够有效减少来年早稻田福寿螺的发生量,且能提高来年早稻产量,但早稻生长后期福寿螺种群恢复速度加快。冬种黑麦草处理的控螺效果不理想,但有利于来年早稻增产。冬种水旱轮作模式下对福寿螺卵块的控制效果不明显,但在来年早稻种植的初期,绝大部分卵块产在田埂杂草上且数量较少,此时人工摘卵较为方便省时。

  3. Influence of drying-wetting alternation on feed and growth of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)%干湿交替对福寿螺摄食和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭靖; 章家恩; 罗颢; 刘文; 彭莉; 梁开明

    2013-01-01

    Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is one of the 100 worst invasive alien species in the black list of World Conservation Union, and has resulted in a mass loss of rice production in South China. In order to develop water regulation method for controlling golden apple snails, we investigated the influences of drying-wetting alternation on the feed and growth of golden apple snails. Our results showed that weight growth rate, feeding rate, food conversion ratio and specific growth rate of the snails were significantly inhibited by the alternative drying-wetting treatments, sometimes with even negative effects. The shell height of the snails increased with water, but this increase is slow once the water disappear. The snail exhibited a compensation effect during the alternative drying-wetting process within a short-term, and this effect may result from the increase of feeding amount after a period starvation of the snails and would not appear when the drought stress on snails exceeded a certain extent. To recap, the snails would fail to grow normally under drought stress and the degree of influence would be enhanced with prolonged drought period. Moreover, the snails would come out again generally when their habitat becomes rewetting after drought within 180 minutes, so we can control them in this special period (opportunity) to avoid the injure of aquatic plants by snails. The research results may provide a theoretical reference for an integrated control of golden apple snail and water utilization and management.%  福寿螺(Pomacea canaliculata)被世界自然保护联盟列入世界100种恶性外来入侵物种黑名单,在我国南方已对水稻生产造成严重危害。为了探索通过水分调控来防治福寿螺的方法,本研究模拟福寿螺野外生存条件,探讨不同干湿交替条件下福寿螺摄食和生长的情况,来分析干旱胁迫对其体重增长率(Weight growth rate,WGR)、摄食率(Feeding rate

  4. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3615 Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimate the acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  5. Control effects of garlic on Pomacea canaliculata and its influences on the growth of rice seedlings%大蒜对福寿螺的控制效果及其对水稻苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬静华; 马伟; 钟裕; 胡飞

    2016-01-01

    在实验室和盆栽条件下研究了大蒜植株、蒜瓣(鳞茎)和大蒜素对福寿螺和水稻苗生长的影响。结果表明,大蒜植株、蒜瓣中的大蒜素对福寿螺均具有致死效果,大蒜素只是大蒜植株和蒜瓣中致福寿螺死亡的物质之一。福寿螺在大蒜素溶液中出现逃逸现象,在0.025和0.0125 g/mL 浓度下全部逃逸,而在0.05 g/mL 浓度下逃逸率仅为60%,死亡率达40%。福寿螺在大蒜种植密度为9、14、18株/盆时,含有大蒜根分泌物的盆中均出现逃逸现象,密度越大逃逸越快,数量越多,而在大蒜植株混入土壤的盆中,密度为9株/盆中的福寿螺全部逃逸,密度为14、18株/盆中则只有部分逃逸,没有逃逸的福寿螺出现死亡或失去取食能力。试验浓度下的大蒜素溶液对水稻生长影响较小,0.0125 g/mL 的大蒜素溶液对水稻还有促进作用。在种植不同密度大蒜的盆中,仅混合大蒜植株,密度为18株/盆的处理中水稻的分蘖数有显著的减少(P<0.05),其他无论是含有根分泌物还是混合大蒜植株的盆中,水稻生长均未受到不利的影响。表明大蒜植株和蒜瓣中的大蒜素对福寿螺具有抑制取食为害、甚至毒杀的效果,在对福寿螺有效的浓度下对水稻苗的生长没有不利影响。%The control effects of garlic plants,its bulbs and allicin on Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail, GAS)and their influences on the growth of rice seedlings were studied in the laboratory and pot culture.The re-sults showed that allicin in garlic plants and its bulblets were the main effective components for killing GAS,but not one component alone.All GASs escaped from pots filled with allicin solutions at the concentrations of 0.025 g/mL and 0.012 5 g/mL,but only 60% GASs escaped at 0.05 g/mL,while 40% were killed.GASs escaped from the pots with garlic planted at the density of 9,14,18 plants

  6. 剑麻提取物对福寿螺的毒理效应%Toxicological effect of Agave sisalana Perrine extract on golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 徐武兵; 钟秋华; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良; 秦钟

    2012-01-01

    Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck is an invasive alien species that is very harmful to the ecosystem and rice production in South China.To verify the toxicity and related mechanism of Agave sisalana Perrine to golden apple snail,the toxic effects of aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana were tested via the snail-immersed method.The effects of n-butanol (59 mg·L-1,96 mg·L-1) and ethanol (180 mg·L-1,325 mg·L-1) extracts on cholinesterase (ChE),superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities in hepatic tissue of golden apple snails were also investigated.Based on the results,aqueous,n-butanol and ethanol extracts of A.Sisalana had toxic effects on golden apple snail.Their semi-lethal concentrations (LC50) on golden apple snail for 72 h toxicity exposure were 35.3 g·L-1,93.3 mg·L-1 and 298.6 mg·L-1,respectively.The corresponding 95%confidence interval ranges were 32.9~37.7 g·L~1,87.6~99.7 mg·L~1 and 272.9~318.7 mg·L-1,respectively.When treated with n-butanol and ethanol extracts for 12 h,SOD activity in snail hepatic tissues showed no obvious change at low concentrations.SOD activity,however,increased significantly at high concentrations.After treatment for 48 h,SOD activity at high concentrations of n-butanol extract was significantly higher than that of the control.However,SOD activity did not show any obvious change in both low and high concentrations of ethanol extract.All A.Sisalana extracts somehow increased ChE activity,with n-butanol extract exhibiting higher effect on ChE activity.When treated with 96 mg·L-1 n-butanol extract for 48 h,ChE activity significantly exceededthat of the control (P < 0.05).Overall,n-butanol extract treatment enhanced ATPase activity at low concentrations and suppressed it at high concentrations.Irrespectively,no obvious pattern change was noted under ethanol extract treatment.In conclusion,A.Sisalana was somehow toxic to golden apple snail.A better mode of application was

  7. Spatial distribution pattern of egg masses of the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, and a sampling plan for their detection invaded in subtropical transplanted rice fields%入侵移栽稻田的福寿螺卵块空间分布型及其抽样技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符明龙; 谢淑玲; 祝增荣; 陈辉珍; 王华弟

    2008-01-01

    福寿螺Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck是重要外来入侵有害生物,严重危害水稻苗期至分蘖期的秧苗植株.为明确福寿螺在水稻田的空间分布,以1、4丛水稻为取样单位(样方)调查了14块移栽稻、每块田300个样方的福寿螺卵块密度,并利用聚集度指标法、Taylor幂法则和Iwao的M-m回归法进行分析.结果表明,移栽稻田中的福寿螺卵块主要呈聚集分布,部分田块呈随机或均匀分布.根据福寿螺卵块的分布型,通过计算抽样时间和抽样准确率的关系、不同样方和误差条件下的理论抽样数,确定以准确估计田间卵块密度为目标的最佳抽样方法,以横(行)向平行线跳跃法间隔30~45行调查1行,共调查6行90个4丛水稻样方,即两人以常规速度按上述方法取样18min以上,可达85%以上的取样准确率.

  8. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  9. Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil. (Prosobranchia, Pilidae Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848. Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8% B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526 dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352; em 1977, 16,1% (377 e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87 do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG, adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956 - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827, P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822 e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae were

  10. Desarrollo morfológico e histológico del sistema reproductor de Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae Morphological and histological development of the reproductive system of Pomacea patula catemacensis (Baker 1922 (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURA CARREÓN-PALAU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El "tegogolo" Pomacea patula catemacensis es un gasterópodo dulceacuícola comestible, endémico del Lago de Catemaco en Veracruz, México. En los últimos años las poblaciones naturales se han visto diezmadas debido a que su captura se realiza sin control, a lo que se suma el alto grado de deterioro ambiental que presenta el lago, producto del "azolvamiento", así como por la contaminación por plaguicidas y detergentes. El objetivo del presente estudio fue caracterizar histológica y morfológicamente el sistema reproductor de P. patula catemacensis y determinar las etapas de madurez gonádica en condiciones de laboratorio. Se determinó que la maduración depende de la talla y no de la edad de los organismos, y se identificaron cuatro etapas principales en el desarrollo de machos y hembras: Los estadios y sus longitudes promedio ± intervalo de confianza del 95 % son (1 inmadura o indiferenciada (talla de 0,72 a 7 mm, (2 maduración temprana (18,95 ± 1,96 mm, (3 maduración intermedia (29,29 ± 4,9 mm y (4 madurez total (35,89 ± 3,92 mm. En este molusco los sexos están separados, la fertilización es interna y el desarrollo es ovovivíparo. En las hembras la secreción de albúmina y de carbonato de calcio se realiza en la glándula de la albúmina, característica en la que difiere de otras especies como P. paludosa y P. canaliculata, las cuales poseen además glándula de la cápsula. Es posible identificar el grado de madurez de los caracoles utilizando criterios anatómicos visuales, como la glándula de la albúmina, en el caso de la hembra, y el órgano copulador en el machoThe "apple snail" Pomacea patula catemacensis is an edible freshwater mollusc, endemic to the Catemaco Lake in Veracruz, Mexico. During the past few years, the natural populations of this species have been depleted mainly by uncontrolled fishery, and because of environmental degradation and pollution by pesticides and detergents. In the present study, we carried

  11. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  12. Controlling golden apple snail,Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck for no-tillage cultivation in rice%免耕稻福寿螺防除技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金旺; 周海; 卢曦

    2004-01-01

    田间调查发现,每年4~6月和8~10月是福寿螺产卵和孵化高峰期,也是成螺和高龄幼螺集中危害的盛期,主要是吞食小苗稻叶,造成少苗缺株.不同杀螺剂防除试验表明,最经济、安全的方法是在免耕稻抛栽前,每hm2用45~75kg茶麸饼浸出液喷施田面,防效达90.49%左右,hm2用2.25kg85%五氯酚钠杀螺颗粒剂、0.75kg 70%贝螺杀、0.75kg 45%百螺敌可湿性粉剂喷施田面,防效也较好.

  13. Ranking Population Structure and Sex Ratio of Pomacea canaficulata (Lamarck)in Different Control Approaches%不同控螺方式下稻田福寿螺种群的螺级结构及性比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦钟; 方丽; 章家恩; 罗明珠; 赵本良

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to research population structure of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) and to provide a scientific basis not only for grasping the dynamics and developmental tendency of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck), but also for evaluating the performance of snail control measures. [Method] Twelve experimental plots for four treatments with three replicates were set in double cropping rice area of Guangdong province, each plot covered an area of 100 m2. Three control measures including raising ducks in the rice field, application of molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake, together with blank control plot were arranged randomly in the plots, in which information on ranking population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) and sex ratio were collected and analyzed. [Result] Molluscicides application treatment was helpful for immature snails control but noneffective for mature ones. Camellia oleifera cake could be effectively used for control of immature snails, but not as effective as for medium and adult snails. Variation of population structure of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) over the time in both molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments exhibited greater instability when compared with the rice-duck integrated farming treatment and blank control plot, especially during the growth period of early rice. P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) in the rice-duck farming plot was comprised primarily of mature snails, making a descent style group from a whole during early rice-growing period. Sex ratio of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) under the same treatment changed over time, while differed considerably among four treatments at the same time. For molluscicides and camellia oleifera cake treatments, sex ratios (female to male) of P. Canaliculata (Lamarck) were relatively high, with greater fluctuations as time passed. [ Conclusion ] Rice-duck farming could provide a sustainable controlling on population of golden apple snails especially to the young and

  14. Assessment of Toxic Metals and feed habits of the snail Pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis an assesment of cadmium, cooper, cromium VI, and lead was made in samples of snail pomacea specie from the Amatitlan Lake. We conclude that the comsuption of this mollusk is toxic for human health. The concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, cooper shows that are not recomended for human comsuption according to Spanish and FAO/PAHO standards

  15. Biological Control of Yellow Nutsedge with the Indigenous Rust Fungus Puccinia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, S C; Sumner, D R; Wells, H D; Bell, D K; Glaze, N C

    1983-03-25

    Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) is a serious weed problem in the United States and other countries. An indigenous rust fungus [Puccinia canaliculata (Schw.) Lagerh.], pathogenic on yellow nutsedge, was released in early spring as a potential biological control agent. The fungus inhibited nutsedge flowering and new tuber formation. The fungus also dehydrated and killed nutsedge plants. The successful control of yellow nutsedge by a rust epiphytotic under experimental conditions demonstrates the potential use of the rust in an integrated weed management system. PMID:17735196

  16. Gender-based differences in Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-Darby, P. L.; Darby, P.C.; Percival, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Gastropod movements have been studied in the context of habitat selection, finding food and mates, and avoiding predation. Many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory, where constraints on spatial scale influence behavior. We conducted a field study of Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) movements using telemetry. We hypothesized that Florida apple snail movements were driven by reproductive activity, and that gender differences would be evident. We documented male and female directions and distances traveled. We also conducted a trapping study that included conspecific bait to test if the presence of females attracted more males as measured by M:F ratios in traps. The greatest distances traveled were by males, and males were more likely to maintain a consistent bearing compared to females. Male distances peaked in what typically corresponds to peak breeding season. M:F ratios in traps were positively associated with reproductive activity in the study population as measured by egg cluster counts. Conspecific bait had no effect on the number of males or females captured. However, if a female crawled into the trap, we observed greater numbers of males compared to those with no trapped females. Males may have tracked females to increase mating encounters, following slime trails, as seen in other aquatic (including other Pomacea) snails. The capacity for mate finding has implications for reproductive success in the relatively low density populations often seen for Pomacea paludosa.

  17. De nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior in Nederland (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyne, de R.

    2002-01-01

    The narrow whorlsnail Vertigo angustior in the Netherlands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In June and July 2001, a special survey was held in several coastal areas in the province of Zuid- Holland, the Netherlands. The main objective was retrieving additional data on the occurrence of Vertigo angustior Jeff

  18. Queue up, please! Spermathecal filling in the rove beetle Drusilla canaliculata (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Gack, Claudia; Speck, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Most studies on insect sperm motility have been conducted in vitro using artificial environments outside the animal’s body. Only little is known about the function of motile insect sperm at different sites within the male or female genital tracts. We dissected genital tracts of female rove beetles ( Drusilla canaliculata) to show that spermatozoa use their own motility to migrate from the spermatophore into the spermatheca. Our dissection method allowed direct observation and filming of the spermathecal filling process inside the female’s genital tract. Spermatozoa were found to enter the spermatheca individually, sometimes in groups of two or three. Although exhibiting only weak motility and no progressive motion in buffer solution, the spermatozoa inside the female show vigorous lashing and reach an average velocity of 47.5 μm s-1. To gain mobility and speed, the spermatozoa likely utilize the relatively small diameter of the spermathecal duct to push themselves off the duct walls, rather than swimming freely in seminal fluid. The spermatozoa (approximately 1,250 μm) are considerably longer than the distance they have to travel along the spermathecal duct (approximately 800 μm). Our study provides the first direct observation of active sperm migration within the female of an insect stressing the importance of the genital tract as a prerequisite for functional sperm motility.

  19. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  20. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar) sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck), plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa) en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA) con cuatro tratamientos ...

  1. Acción patogénica de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar sobre el caracol manzana (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, plaga de los cultivos de arroz (Oriza sativa en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Guayas, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Salcedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos de arroz en la cuenca baja del río Daule, Ecuador, son afectados por el caracol manzana. La pérdida estimada es de 40 al 60% de la producción/ha. El agricultor, para evitar pérdidas considerables, aplica agroquímicos en dosis elevadas, desequilibrando la fauna y microfauna nativa, agravando el problema. Razón por la cual, se evaluó la patogenicidad de H. bacteriophora sobre el caracol manzana, con tres dosis; mediante un diseño completamente al azar (DCA con cuatro tratamientos y cinco repeticiones. Los resultados muestran el 100% de mortalidad por septicemia a las 96 horas de la inoculación, con relación al testigo.

  2. The Marine Mollusca of Suriname (Dutch Guiana) Holocene and recent Part III. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1975-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction, systematic survey and page references....... 3 2. Gastropoda and Cephalopoda............. 8 3. List of corrections of and additions to Part II......... 89 4. References.................. 92 5. Plates ................... 100 1. INTRODUCTION, SYSTEMATIC SURVEY AND PAGE REFERE

  3. Application of the Nernst-Planck approach to lead ion exchange in Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana F de Sá S; Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; da Silva, Eduardo A B; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2010-07-01

    Ca-loaded Pelvetia canaliculata biomass was used to remove Pb(2+) in aqueous solution from batch and continuous systems. The physicochemical characterization of algae Pelvetia particles by potentiometric titration and FTIR analysis has shown a gel structure with two major binding groups - carboxylic (2.8 mmol g(-1)) and hydroxyl (0.8 mmol g(-1)), with an affinity constant distribution for hydrogen ions well described by a Quasi-Gaussian distribution. Equilibrium adsorption (pH 3 and 5) and desorption (eluents: HNO(3) and CaCl(2)) experiments were performed, showing that the biosorption mechanism was attributed to ion exchange among calcium, lead and hydrogen ions with stoichiometry 1:1 (Ca:Pb) and 1:2 (Ca:H and Pb:H). The uptake capacity of lead ions decreased with pH, suggesting that there is a competition between H(+) and Pb(2+) for the same binding sites. A mass action law for the ternary mixture was able to predict the equilibrium data, with the selectivity constants alpha(Ca)(H)=9+/-1 and alpha(Ca)(Pb)=44+/-5, revealing a higher affinity of the biomass towards lead ions. Adsorption (initial solution pH 4.5 and 2.5) and desorption (0.3M HNO(3)) kinetics were performed in batch and continuous systems. A mass transfer model using the Nernst-Planck approximation for the ionic flux of each counter-ion was used for the prediction of the ions profiles in batch systems and packed bed columns. The intraparticle effective diffusion constants were determined as 3.73x10(-7)cm(2)s(-1) for H(+), 7.56x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Pb(2+) and 6.37x10(-8)cm(2)s(-1) for Ca(2+). PMID:20605620

  4. A Pilot Study Testing a Natural and a Synthetic Molluscicide for Controlling Invasive Apple Snails (Pomacea maculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M; Jenkins, Jill A; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-03-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal(®), 2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L). PMID:26687501

  5. A pilot study testing a natural and a synthetic Molluscicide for controlling invasive apple snails (Pomacea maculata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Heather M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Berhow, Mark; Carter, Jacoby

    2016-01-01

    Pomacea maculata (formerly P. insularum), an apple snail native to South America, was discovered in Louisiana in 2008. These snails strip vegetation, reproduce at tremendous rates, and have reduced rice production and caused ecosystem changes in Asia. In this pilot study snails were exposed to two molluscicides, a tea (Camellia sinensis) seed derivative (TSD) or niclosamide monohydrate (Pestanal®, 2′,5-dichloro-4′-nitrosalicylanilide, CAS #73360-56-2). Mortality was recorded after exposure to high or low concentrations (0.03 and 0.015 g/L for TSD, 1.3 and 0.13 mg/L for niclosamide). The TSD induced 100 % mortality at both concentrations. Niclosamide caused 100 % and 17 % mortality at high and low concentrations respectively. These molluscicides were also tested on potential biocontrol agents, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus). No crayfish mortalities occurred at either concentration for either chemical, but sunfish experienced 100 % mortality with TSD (0.03 g/L), and 21 % mortality with niclosamide (0.13 mg/L).

  6. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Gümüs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  7. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina Relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados y peces en un arroyo de la llanura pampeana (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.Se evaluó la dieta y las relaciones tróficas entre los macroinvertebrados Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 y Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae y los peces Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae y Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae en un ecosistema lótico pampásico, sobre la base del contenido estomacal y el análisis de isótopos estables. La estrategia alimentaria fue analizada mediante el método de AMUNDSEN. La contribución relativa de cada categoría alimenticia para los taxa estudiados indicó que

  8. Inventarisatie van de landslakken van de Zeeuwse kust, met de nadruk op de nauwe korfslak Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, A.

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the land snails of the province of Zeeland, with special emphasis on Vertigo angustior (Mollusca: Gastropoda) In 2005 the land snail fauna of the coast of the province of Zeeland was mapped. In total 98 soil and litter samples were taken and on 54 localities records were gathered

  9. Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia in Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty-one exotic mollusc taxa were assessed for Santa Catarina State (SC, fifteen Gastropoda andsix Bivalvia (twelve terrestrial, five limnic/freshwater - three gastropods and two bivalves, and four marinebivalves. Of these, fourteen are confirmed as invasive species (nine terrestrial, three limnic/freshwater, andtwo marine.

  10. Record of Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia after 42 years from Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matwal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies available on Opisthobranch fauna of Gujarat coast. Field surveys were carried out along the Mithapur reef under the “Coral reef restoration programme” of Wildlife Trust of India funded by Tata chemicals and supported by Gujarat State Forest Department and Marine National Park authorities. A species of nudibranch Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia was recorded for Gujarat after 42 years. This species was last reported by Narayanan in 1968 at Pirotan Islands, Gulf of Kutch Gujarat.

  11. Morphological Description of a Newly Recorded Strombus luhuanus (Strombidae: Gastropoda from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Strombus Linne, 1758 is a genus of marine mollusks belonging to the class Gastropoda, and is distributed in the tropical waters of the world. Typically, the family Strombidae includes five extant genera (Strombus, Lambis, Terebellum, Tibia, and Rimella, all of which are mostly found in tropical waters. Five individuals of Strombus luhuanus Linne, 1758 were collected from Uljin, Gyeongsangbuk-do province for the first time. In this study, we describe details of shell morphology and radula characters of the species with scanning electron microscopy images of the radula. This is a new record of Strombus luhuanus Linne, 1758 from Korean waters.

  12. LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VERGARA

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

  13. Original molluscan radula: comparisons among Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Kerth, Klaus; Kuzirian, Alan M

    2003-08-01

    As the original molluscan radula is not known from direct observation, we consider what the form of the original radula may have been from evidence provided by neomenioid Aplacophora (Solenogastres), Gastropoda, Polyplacophora, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthews). Conclusions are based on direct observation of radula morphology and its accessory structures (salivary gland ducts, radular sac, anteroventral radular pocket) in 25 species and 16 genera of Aplacophora; radula morphogenesis in Aplacophora; earliest tooth formation in Gastropoda (14 species among Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and Pulmonata); earliest tooth formation in four species of Polyplacophora; and the morphology of the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. The existence of a true radula membrane and of membranoblasts and odontoblasts in neomenioids indicates that morphogenesis of the aplacophoran radula is homologous to that in other radulate Mollusca. We conclude from p redness of salivary gland ducts, a divided radular sac, and a pair of anteroventral pockets that the plesiomorphic state in neomenioids is bipartite, formed of denticulate bars that are distichous (two teeth per row) on a partially divided or fused radula membrane with the largest denticles lateral, as occurs in the genus Helicoradomenia. The tooth morphology in Helicoradomenia is similar to the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. We show that distichy also occurs during early development in several species of gastropods and polyplacophorans. Through the rejection of the null hypothesis that the earliest radula was unipartite and had no radula membrane, we conclude that the original molluscan radula was similar to the radula found in Helicoradomena species. PMID:12833382

  14. From sea to land and beyond – New insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Bruno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Euthyneura are considered to be the most successful and diverse group of Gastropoda. Phylogenetically, they are riven with controversy. Previous morphology-based phylogenetic studies have been greatly hampered by rampant parallelism in morphological characters or by incomplete taxon sampling. Based on sequences of nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA as well as mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI DNA from 56 taxa, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Euthyneura utilising Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The evolution of colonization of freshwater and terrestrial habitats by pulmonate Euthyneura, considered crucial in the evolution of this group of Gastropoda, is reconstructed with Bayesian approaches. Results We found several well supported clades within Euthyneura, however, we could not confirm the traditional classification, since Pulmonata are paraphyletic and Opistobranchia are either polyphyletic or paraphyletic with several clades clearly distinguishable. Sacoglossa appear separately from the rest of the Opisthobranchia as sister taxon to basal Pulmonata. Within Pulmonata, Basommatophora are paraphyletic and Hygrophila and Eupulmonata form monophyletic clades. Pyramidelloidea are placed within Euthyneura rendering the Euthyneura paraphyletic. Conclusion Based on the current phylogeny, it can be proposed for the first time that invasion of freshwater by Pulmonata is a unique evolutionary event and has taken place directly from the marine environment via an aquatic pathway. The origin of colonisation of terrestrial habitats is seeded in marginal zones and has probably occurred via estuaries or semi-terrestrial habitats such as mangroves.

  15. A Comparative Study of Distribution of Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Pomacea insularum Collected from Polluted and Unpolluted Sites of the Freshwater Ecosystem in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Franklin Berandah Edward; Bin Huan Pang

    2009-01-01

    The snails (Pomacea insularum) were collected from polluted and unpolluted sites at Juru River and the Universiti Putra Malaysia Lake, respectively. Besides the shells, the soft tissues of snails were dissected into 6 different parts: intestine, operculum, foot, pennial sac, lung sac and the remainder. They were analyzed for the concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe. The present study found 6 interesting points. First, all the metal levels found in the different parts of P. insularum collected from Juru River were significantly (p0.05) between the different sizes (small sizes: 30.5-33.2 mm; large sizes: 37.7-40.4 mm) of P. insularum. The first 5 points supported the use of different soft tissues of P. insularum as biomonitoring organs of heavy metal pollution in the freshwater ecosystem in Malaysia although further validation is required.

  16. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes of Pomacea canaliculata%福寿螺18S rRNA和28S rRNA基因片段的克隆与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘颖瑛; 董胜张; 俞晓平

    2009-01-01

    为从分子水平上明确入侵我国的福寿螺在分类学上的地位,采用分子克隆和序列比对的方法,对来自菲律宾及我国广东、广西、浙江等不同地理种群福寿螺的18S rRNA基因和28S rRNA基因片段进行扩增、克隆和序列测定,并同瓶螺科、田螺科和环口螺科相关物种进行系统发育分析.结果表明,获得的福寿螺18S rRNA基因和28S rRNA基园片段长度分别为602 bp、325 bp,且不同地理种群间碱基序列无差异.通过邻接法(NJ)和最大筒约法(MP)构建的系统树基本一致,证实福寿螺隶属于瓶螺科,与田螺科物种亲缘关系较近,而与环口螺科亲缘关系较远.

  17. Trophic relationships between macroinvertebrates and fish in a pampean lowland stream (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V. López van Oosterom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The diet and trophic relationships between the macroinvertebrates Phyllogomphoides joaquini Rodrigues Capítulo, 1992 and Coenagrionidae (Odonata, Chironomidae (Diptera, Diplodon delodontus (Lamarck, 1919 (Bivalvia: Hyriidae, and Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Gastropoda: Ampulariidae and the fishes Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann, 1917 (Heptapteridae and Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 (Characidae in a temperate lowland lotic system in Argentina were assessed on the basis of gut contents and stable-isotope analyses. The feeding strategies were analyzed by the AMUNDSEN method. Relative food items contribution for the taxa studied indicated a generalist-type trophic strategy. In macroinvertebrates, in general, the values of stable isotope confirmed the result of the analysis of gut contents. With the fish, stable-isotope analysis demonstrated that both species are predators, although B. iheringii exhibited a more omnivorous behaviour. These feeding studies allowed us to determine the trophic relationships among taxa studied. Detritus and diatoms were a principal source of food for all the macroinvertebrates studied. In La Choza stream the particulate organic matter is a major no limited food resource, has a significant influence upon the community.

  18. Influence of water quality on zinc toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and sensitivity of freshwater snails to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Tong, Xin

    2015-03-01

    The present study characterized the influence of water-quality characteristics on zinc (Zn) toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) and the sensitivity of freshwater snails to Zn. Standard 96-h renewal acute toxicity tests were conducted with Zn and juvenile P. paludosa under 3 conditions of pH and alkalinity, water hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Median lethal effect concentrations (96-h LC50s), no-observed- effect concentrations, lowest-observed-effect concentrations, LC10s, and LC20s were determined for each test. The results showed that Zn toxicity to P. paludosa decreased linearly with increasing hardness, pH, and DOC. A multiple linear regression model based on pH, hardness, and DOC was able to explain 99% of the observed variability in LC50s. These results are useful for the development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for P. paludosa and Zn. Zinc acute toxicity data were collected from the literature for 12 freshwater snail species in a wide range of water-quality characteristics for species sensitivity distribution analysis. The results showed that P. paludosa is the second most sensitive to Zn. The present study also suggested that aqueous ZnCO3 and ZnHCO3 (-) can be bioavailable to P. paludosa. Therefore, bioavailability models (e.g., BLM) should take these Zn species into consideration for bioavailability when applied to snails.

  19. Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca ,Gastropoda) from the coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Suping

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Naticidae (Mollusca,Gastropoda) collected from the coast of China are described:Cryptonaitca huanghaien- sis sp.nov.and Sinum vittatum sp.nov.The morphological characteristics between the new species were described and the relat- ed information was provided.The similarities and differences between the new species and related species were also compared and discussed.The new species Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis differed from Cryptonaitca hirasei and Cryptonaitca andoi in outer shape, operculum and radula.The new species Sinum vittatum is similar to Sinum japonicum (Lischke,1869),but the shell of the for- mer is flat-elliptical in shape,spire very small,slightly convex.While the latter is flat-globular in shape,apex light brown in col- or,without a brown band on the body whorl.The comparison results revealed that Cryptonaitca huanghaiensis and Sinum vittatum were two new species from the coast of China.Specimens studied were obtained from collections in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M S; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M; Vilela, Ana P; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-02-15

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies.

  1. Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Byers

    Full Text Available Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5 are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas, which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

  2. Efecto de la depuración en la biomasa del caracol Pomacea patula [Baker, 1922] usando el índice de condición

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Ulloa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La depuración de organismos acuáticos en cultivo es una práctica común. El tiempo de exposición de los animales al agua tratada es uno de los factores más importantes para su eficiencia, pudiendo afectar su biomasa. Se evaluó el efecto de la depuración en adultos de Pomacea patula mediante la aplicación del índice de condición (IC, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Caracoles adultos obtenidos en cultivo se mantuvieron en peceras (Grupo 1 expuestos a un flujo de agua constante, tratada con radiación ultravioleta y limpieza diaria y en condiciones normales de mantenimiento (Grupo 2, con 5 réplicas por grupo. Se obtuvo el peso húmedo y longitud total individualmente, al inicio y después de una depuración de 10 días. El valor promedio del coeficiente de correlación (animales iniciales y de los Grupos 1 y 2 fue mayor a 0.90. El IC entre el valor inicial (771.81 ± 40.41 y los Grupos 1 y 2 (763.527 ± 25.24 y 765.465 ± 38.59, respectivamente, no mostró diferencias significativas (P > 0.05 al final del experimento. Los resultados sugieren que el proceso de depuración usado no afectó la biomasa de adultos de P. patula. El IC se mostró como una herramienta práctica de evaluación sin considerar la diferencia inicial de tallas de caracoles adultos

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) supports the monophyly of opisthobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2002-10-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence (14,472 bp) of the mitochondrial genome of the nudibranch Roboastra europaea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) was determined. This highly compact mitochondrial genome is nearly identical in gene organization to that found in opisthobranchs and pulmonates (Euthyneura) but not to that in prosobranchs (a paraphyletic group including the most basal lineages of gastropods). The newly determined mitochondrial genome differs only in the relative position of the trnC gene when compared with the mitochondrial genome of Pupa strigosa, the only opisthobranch mitochondrial genome sequenced so far. Pupa and Roboastra represent the most basal and derived lineages of opisthobranchs, respectively, and their mitochondrial genomes are more similar in sequence when compared with those of pulmonates. All phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian) based on the deduced amino acid sequences of all mitochondrial protein-coding genes supported the monophyly of opisthobranchs. These results are in agreement with the classical view that recognizes Opisthobranchia as a natural group and contradict recent phylogenetic studies of the group based on shorter sequence data sets. The monophyly of opisthobranchs was further confirmed when a fragment of 2,500 nucleotides including the mitochondrial cox1, rrnL, nad6, and nad5 genes was analyzed in several species representing five different orders of opisthobranchs with all common methods of phylogenetic inference. Within opisthobranchs, the polyphyly of cephalaspideans and the monophyly of nudibranchs were recovered. The evolution of mitochondrial tRNA rearrangements was analyzed using the cox1+rrnL+nad6+nad5 gene phylogeny. The relative position of the trnP gene between the trnA and nad6 genes was found to be a synapomorphy of opisthobranchs that supports their monophyly. PMID:12270894

  4. Homology and homoplasy of swimming behaviors and neural circuits in the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, James M; Sakurai, Akira; Lillvis, Joshua L; Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2012-06-26

    How neural circuit evolution relates to behavioral evolution is not well understood. Here the relationship between neural circuits and behavior is explored with respect to the swimming behaviors of the Nudipleura (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opithobranchia). Nudipleura is a diverse monophyletic clade of sea slugs among which only a small percentage of species can swim. Swimming falls into a limited number of categories, the most prevalent of which are rhythmic left-right body flexions (LR) and rhythmic dorsal-ventral body flexions (DV). The phylogenetic distribution of these behaviors suggests a high degree of homoplasy. The central pattern generator (CPG) underlying DV swimming has been well characterized in Tritonia diomedea and in Pleurobranchaea californica. The CPG for LR swimming has been elucidated in Melibe leonina and Dendronotus iris, which are more closely related. The CPGs for the categorically distinct DV and LR swimming behaviors consist of nonoverlapping sets of homologous identified neurons, whereas the categorically similar behaviors share some homologous identified neurons, although the exact composition of neurons and synapses in the neural circuits differ. The roles played by homologous identified neurons in categorically distinct behaviors differ. However, homologous identified neurons also play different roles even in the swim CPGs of the two LR swimming species. Individual neurons can be multifunctional within a species. Some of those functions are shared across species, whereas others are not. The pattern of use and reuse of homologous neurons in various forms of swimming and other behaviors further demonstrates that the composition of neural circuits influences the evolution of behaviors. PMID:22723353

  5. The long way to diversity--phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinapoli, Angela; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-04-01

    Heterobranchia are one of the most species rich groups within Gastropoda, with poorly resolved phylogenetic relationships especially in basal taxa. In order to resolve phylogenetic relationships within the Heterobranchia, we pursued a molecular systematic approach by sequencing and analysing a variety of genetic markers (including nuclear 28S rDNA+18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA+COI sequences). Maximum likelihood as well as Bayesian inference methods were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, data quality was estimated for the purpose of proving the plausibility of the novel phylogenetic hypothesis using a variety of statistical tests as well as network analyses. Finally, a case study was conducted in order to estimate divergence ages using a "relaxed" molecular clock approach with fossils as minimum age constraints. All phylogenetic analyses revealed the Heterobranchia as monophyletic. Within the Heterobranchia, several well supported clades could be resolved. However, the traditional classification based on morphological data could not be confirmed due to paraphyletic Euthyneura as well as paraphyletic Pulmonata and polyphyletic Opisthobranchia. The estimation of data quality yielded a high degree of substitution saturation in many of the nucleotide positions while the Relative-Rate-Test revealed the highest evolution rates within the "Lower Heterobranchia". Although the dataset shows much conflict, many of the proposed hypotheses are supported by splits of the network analysis. The molecular clock approach was able to confirm some evolutionary hypotheses based on fossils such as the late occurrence of Pulmonata and Stylommatophora, respectively, during the Mesozoic. However, large 95% highest posterior density (HPD) intervals at some of the nodes made a precise dating of these nodes difficult. This molecular phylogenetic investigation provides the most comprehensive molecular study of relationships within the Heterobranchia to date. Due to the

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Galba pervia (Gastropoda: Mollusca, an intermediate host snail of Fasciola spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genomes and the gene rearrangements are increasingly used as molecular markers for investigating phylogenetic relationships. Contributing to the complete mt genomes of Gastropoda, especially Pulmonata, we determined the mt genome of the freshwater snail Galba pervia, which is an important intermediate host for Fasciola spp. in China. The complete mt genome of G. pervia is 13,768 bp in length. Its genome is circular, and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA, 22 genes for tRNA. The mt gene order of G. pervia showed novel arrangement (tRNA-His, tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Tyr change positions and directions when compared with mt genomes of Pulmonata species sequenced to date, indicating divergence among different species within the Pulmonata. A total of 3655 amino acids were deduced to encode 13 protein genes. The most frequently used amino acid is Leu (15.05%, followed by Phe (11.24%, Ser (10.76% and IIe (8.346%. Phylogenetic analyses using the concatenated amino acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and bayesian analysis, all revealed that the families Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae are closely related two snail families, consistent with previous classifications based on morphological and molecular studies. The complete mt genome sequence of G. pervia showed a novel gene arrangement and it represents the first sequenced high quality mt genome of the family Lymnaeidae. These novel mtDNA data provide additional genetic markers for studying the epidemiology, population genetics and phylogeographics of freshwater snails, as well as for understanding interplay between the intermediate snail hosts and the intra-mollusca stages of Fasciola spp..

  7. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  8. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the pest risk analysis on Pomacea insularum, the island apple snail, prepared by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Rural and Marine Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2012-01-01

    The Panel considers the Spanish pest risk analysis (PRA) to be clear and to provide appropriate supporting evidence. However, (i) the environmental impact assessment is incomplete and (ii) the estimates for the potentially endangered area are too limited. The Panel points out that large areas...... environmental conditions in the PRA area and (ii) the probability of entry of the organism to be high. Regarding risk reduction options the Panel agrees with the Spanish PRA that no single risk reduction method is sufficient to halt the introduction and spread of Pomacea spp. snails in the PRA area. However...... of the organism for rice crops are major; (ii) the probability for establishment of the organism is very likely and (iii) the probability of spread is estimated as likely. The Panel disagrees with the Spanish PRA on the following points and considers (i) the effects on the environment to be massive under suitable...

  9. A new record of Morula anaxares with a description of the radula of three other species from Goa, Central West Coast of India (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumbhar, J.V.; Rivonker, C.U.

    of Madras. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 42: 323-341, pls. 1-4. Egorov, R. V. 1993. Trophoninae (Muricidae) of Russian and adjacent waters. Ruthenica Supplement, 48 pp. Gravely, F. H. 1942. Shells and other animal remains found... of Lakshadweep, Mollusca: State Fauna ser., 2: 273-362, 3 pls. Rao, N. V. S. 2003. Indian seashells (Part- I): Polyplacophora and Gastropoda, Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 19: 416 pp. Rao, N. V. S. and Rao, K. V. S. 1993...

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on mitochondrial cox 1, trnV, and rrnL genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, Josè; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 37 species representing seven main lineages within Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) based on a mitochondrial fragment that included partial cox 1, complete trnV, and partial rrnL genes (about 2500 bp). Phylogenetic analyses confirmed tentatively that all studied main opisthobranch lineages conformed monophyletic groups except Nudibranchia. The sacoglossan Ascobulla was placed as the most basal lineage of opisthobranchs. The basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was recovered within Opisthobranchia between Ascobulla and the remaining opisthobranchs. The latter were divided into two different lineages that await formal description: on one side, Cephalaspidea, Tylodinoidea, and Anaspidea (sharing features in the reproductive, digestive, and circulatory systems) were grouped together and, on the other Architectibranchia and Nudipleura (sharing similarities in the circulatory system) were recovered as sister group taxa. Two well-supported clades were recovered within Nudipleura: Pleuroanthobranchia (new taxon) and Cladobranchia. Pleuroanthobranchia (Pleurobranchoidea plus Anthobranchia) was defined by the presence of blood gland, the presence of calcareous spicules in the integument and the presence of a caecum with an opening directly into the stomach. The new molecular phylogeny provided a robust framework for comparative studies, and prompted a revision of the morphological synapomorphies diagnosing the main clades within opisthobranchs. PMID:15336672

  11. Nyctemeral variations of magnesium intake in the calcitic layer of a Chilean mollusk shell ( Concholepas concholepas, Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareth, Claire E.; Guzman, Nury; Poitrasson, Franck; Candaudap, Frederic; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-11-01

    Mollusk shells are increasingly used as records of past environmental conditions, particularly for sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstructions. Many recent studies tackled SST (and/or sea-surface salinity) tracers through variations in the elementary (Mg and Sr) or stable isotope (δ 18O) composition within mollusk shells. But such attempts, which sometimes include calibration studies on modern specimens, are not always conclusive. We present here a series of Mg and Sr analyses in the calcitic layer of Concholepas concholepas (Muricidae, Gastropoda) with a very high time-resolution on a time window covering about 1 and a half month of shell formation, performed by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA). The selected specimen of this common Chilean gastropod was grown under controlled environmental conditions and precise weekly time-marks were imprinted in the shell with calcein staining. Strontium variations in the shell are too limited to be interpreted in terms of environmental parameter changes. In contrast, Mg incorporation into the shell and growth rate appear to change systematically between night and day. During the day, Mg is incorporated at a higher rate than at night and this intake seems positively correlated with water temperature. The nightly reduced Mg incorporation is seemingly related to metabolically controlled processes, formation of organic-rich shell increments and nocturnal feeding activity of the animals. The nyctemeral Mg changes in the C. concholepas shell revealed in this study might explain at least part of the discrepancies observed in previous studies on the use of Mg as a SST proxy in mollusk shells. In the case of C. concholepas, Mg cannot be used straightforwardly as a SST proxy.

  12. Development of an Intelligent Robot for an Agricultural Production Ecosystem : New Concept of Robot and Dynamics of a Golden Apple Snail in Paddy

    OpenAIRE

    Luna Maldonado, Alejandro Isabel; Nakaji, Kei

    2008-01-01

    A new concept of an intelligent robot for agriculture was discussed from the viewpoint of agricultural production ecosystem. In the case of the paddy field in temperate and subtropical zones, a mollusk named golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck)) often causes serious damage to the rice plant seedlings, however, the snail is very useful in the control of weeds that cause also detriment of the production of rice, especially in organic agriculture. After the golden apple snails in...

  13. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  14. New location for Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium and its distribution in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana, Elías D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new population of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae found in the province of Almería (Southeast Spain. B. truncatus is an intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the trematode which causes urinary schistosomiasis in humans. Individuals were identified to species level by double-nested PCR, resulting in 100% homology. This population is located under the driest climate conditions of the Iberian Peninsula. Data on the distribution of this species in the Iberian Peninsula was gathered and is provided in this paper. Improved knowledge of the distribution of Bulinus truncatus is key to assess the risk of new outbreaks of schistosomiasis in the Iberian Peninsula.En este trabajo se reporta una nueva población de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae en la provincia de Almería (Sureste de España. Se trata de una especie que presenta considerable interés tanto zoológico como epidemiológico por su papel como hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma haematobium, responsable de la esquistosomiasis urogenital humana. Los ejemplares fueron determinados a nivel específico mediante PCR doble anidada, con un 100% de homología. Se trata de la población localizada más al Sureste y en condiciones de mayor aridez en la península Ibérica. Se recopilaron los datos de presencia publicados para conocer su distribución en la península. El conocimiento de la distribución de Bulinus truncatus es una pieza clave para evaluar el riesgo de nuevos focos de esquistosomiasis en la península Ibérica.

  15. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI. Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los moluscos. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems. Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional.

  16. The Cylindrobulla/Ascobulla complex--unraveling problems in identification and adding to Cylindrobulla diversity (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Sacoglossa) by describing a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laetz, Elise; Christa, Gregor; Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) are generally considered a monophyletic group, previously associated within the now defunct "Opisthobranchia", but now basally located within Panpulmonata. In the light of this new phylogenetic hypothesis, detailed knowledge of the most basal groups within Sacoglossa is of paramount importance. This study focuses on the genus Cylindrobulla, which is usually considered the most basal group within the Sacoglossa from a morphological point of view, because it does not share the typical elongate radula teeth of all other Sacoglossa. We describe a new species, Cylindrobulla schuppi sp. nov., and provide data on its food. We reexamined and clarify the radula of the type species C. beauii, review the genus with all other valid species, provide new characters to aid in the proper identification of species within this genus, compare it to the very similar genus Ascobulla, present a determination key using external characters to ensure proper identification of the two similar genera, and discuss phylogenetic relationships within the shelled sacoglossan, the Oxynoacea. PMID:25544526

  17. Incorporated nematocysts in Aeolidiella stephanieae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Aeolidoidea) mature by acidification shown by the pH sensitive fluorescing alkaloid Ageladine A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermann, Dana; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Wägele, Heike

    2012-11-01

    The sequestration of nematocysts (a special group of cnidocysts) from cnidarian prey with subsequent use in defence is described for few metazoan phyla. Members of the taxon Aeolidoidea (Nudibranchia, Gastropoda) are well-known for this. Questions regarding the reasons some nematocysts do not discharge when the gastropod feeds and how these same nematocysts can be transported along the digestive tract into specialized morphological structures called cnidosacs, remain unanswered. Within the cnidosac, nematocysts are incorporated in cells and finally be used for defence against predators. The most plausible explanation for this phenomenon suggests there are immature and therefore non-functional nematocysts in the food. A recent study by Berking and Herrmann (2005) on cnidarians suggested that the nematocysts mature by acidification via proton transfer into the nematocyst capsule. According to this hypothesis only immature nematocysts are transported into the cnidosac where they are then made functional through an accumulation of protons. In this study we present a fluorescence staining method that tests the hypothesis by Berking and Herrmann (2005) and detects changes in the pH values of incorporated nematocysts, interpreted as changes in maturation stages. This marker, the fluorescent dye Ageladine A, stains nematocyst capsules according to their pH values. With Ageladine A we were able to show that kleptocnides indeed change their pH value after incorporation into the aeolidoidean cnidosac. PMID:22910369

  18. Present status of the endangered limpet Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae in Ceuta: how do substrate heterogeneity and area accessibility affect population structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae is a threatened giant patellid limpet found on the North African coast from Namibia to Algeria. The objective of this study was to estimate the total number of individuals present in Ceuta (Strait of Gibraltar and to determine the effect of certain physical parameters on population structure and abundance. Between 2006 and 2010 we conducted an exhaustive census in the area. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to 48,473 individuals. The most important populations were recorded on the North Bay, characterized by its Atlantic influence. While for other similar species, such as Patella ferruginea, human accessibility to the area plays an important role in determining the structure of populations, we found that substrate roughness (small scale topographic heterogeneity is the main determining factor in this species. Populations located on medium to low topographic heterogeneity substrates showed higher percentages of medium and large size individuals. However, recruitment rates did not differ between substrata of different roughness. Finally, and through the analysis of the C. nigra populations located on some recently constructed jetties, we obtained interesting new data regarding individual growth rates, thus contributing to our knowledge of the population structure of the species.

  19. Relationship between anti-oxidant capacity and manganese accumulation in the soft tissues of two freshwater molluscs: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar RAVERA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese is an element of great importance in the life cycle of plants and animals. For example, it plays an essential role as an activator of various enzymatic systems such as isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase. Freshwater Unionidae concentrate relatively large amounts of manganese in their tissues, but little is known about the physiological role of this metal. The aim of this research is to acquire a better knowledge of the role of manganese in molluscs which accumulate large amounts of this metal and in those with low manganese concentrations. As manganese is one of the metals present in the superoxide molecule, the possible relationship between manganese concentration in the soft tissues of molluscs and the antioxidant capacity of the metal can usefully be tested. To this end two species of molluscs were analysed: Unio pictorum mancus (Lamellibranchia, Unionidae, which is very rich in manganese, and Viviparus ater (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia which has a low manganese content. The adults of both species were analysed for manganese concentration by ICP, and for antioxidant capacity as RAC (Relative Antioxidant Capacity by a superoxide dismutase method. The results clearly demonstrate the active role played by manganese against free radicals and consequently the important role of the metal in protecting Unio against oxidative stress. The low concentration of manganese in Viviparus may be the result of the effective excretion of this metal, as was found for ruthenium.

  20. Supercooling ability in two populations of the land snail Helix pomatia (Gastropoda: Helicidae) and ice-nucleating activity of gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Annegret; Vernon, Philippe; Lee, Marcia; Ansart, Armelle; Charrier, Maryvonne

    2005-02-01

    The land snail Helix pomatia (Gastropoda: Helicidae) is widely distributed in Northern and Central Europe where it may experience subzero temperatures during winter months. Its supercooling ability was studied in two populations of H. pomatia. One population originated from Southern Sweden (Gotaland) and the other from Central France (Auvergne). In the experimental design, they were acclimated, over 2 weeks, to artificial winter conditions (hibernation, T=5 degrees C). The Swedish snails showed a rather limited supercooling ability (temperature of crystallization, T(c)=-6.4+/-0.8 degrees C), significantly greater, however, than the supercooling capacity of the population from France (T(c)=-4.6+/-1.4 degrees C). In artificial spring conditions (3 months of hibernation followed by a progressive acclimation, over 2 weeks, to activity at T=20 degrees C), both populations exhibited a similar high T(c) (-2.0+/-1.0 degrees C). The lower T(c) of hibernating Swedish snails could be due to a greater loss of body water, accompanied by a higher concentration of solutes in the hemolymph. In both populations, the variation in hemolymph osmolality measured between hibernating (250-270 mOsm kg(-1)) and active (165-215 mOsm kg(-1)) snails may be explained by the variation in body water mass and did not suggest the production of colligative cryoprotectants. Moreover, the three bacterial strains, Buttiauxella sp., Kluyvera sp., and Tatumella sp. (Enterobacteriaceae) which were isolated from fed snails, but absent in starved snails, did not show any ice-nucleating activity at temperatures higher than -9 degrees C. Only the strain Kluyvera sp. initiated nucleation at -9 degrees C. This strain, therefore, is a weak, also termed a Type III or Class C ice-nucleating active bacterium, but with no influence on the supercooling ability of individual snails. In summary, fluctuations in body water mass of hibernating snail populations, triggering changes in osmolyte concentration, rather than

  1. The potential utility of nested PCR for investigation ofCoxiella burnetii in Iranian snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mina Dehghani-Samani; Abbas Doosti; Asghar Arshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To detect the prevalence ofCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in two species of snails consisted ofLymnaea palustris (L. palustris) andPomacea canaliculata (P. canaliculata) by using nestedPCR method in Chaharmahel Va Bakhtiari Province which is located in the southwest of Iran. Methods:A total of160 snail samples consisted of 100L. palustris and 60P. canaliculata were collected from 4 rice paddy fields in the southwest of Iran between June and August 2014. Snails'DNA was extracted by a genomicDNA purification kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Detection of the presence ofC. burnetii'sDNA was carried out by using a nested PCR assay with [specific primers outer membrane protein 1 (OMP1)-OMP2 and OMP3-OMP4] targeting the com1 gene. Results: In this study, a total of 160 snail samples were tested and 15 (9.37%) samples were found positive forC. burnetii, 15 samples were positive from theL. palustris and there were no positive samples fromP. canaliculata. Conclusions: Snails are kind of gastropods which seem to be harmless in life, but these small gastropods can be very dangerous for farmers, especially in humid climates. Also,C. burnetii in snails showed that this bacterium can be a factor of transmission of contamination to human beings and animals.

  2. Role of Golden Apple Snail in Organic Rice Cultivation and Weed Management

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Joshi; Martin, E. C.; Wada, T.; Sebastian, L. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Golden Apple Snail (GAS), Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck), is a major pest of rice and other aquatic crops in many Asian farms. Farmers’ first line of defense is to use non-specific chemicals for “instant” kill of GAS, without considering its effect on their health, the environment, and non-target organisms. However, some organic rice farmers in Japan, Korea, and the Philippines do not kill GAS but manage them as bio-weeders in rice fields. We evaluated organic farmers’ innovation at the P...

  3. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE NERITIDAE (GASTROPODA: NERITIMORPHA BASED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENES CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I (COI AND 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Fernando Quintero Galvis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Neritidae has representatives in tropical and subtropical regions that occur in a variety of environments, and its known fossil record dates back to the late Cretaceous. However there have been few studies of molecular phylogeny in this family. We performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Neritidae using the COI (722 bp and the 16S rRNA (559 bp regions of the mitochondrial genome. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were performed.The best phylogenetic reconstruction was obtained using the COI region, and we consider it an appropriate marker for phylogenetic studies within the group. Consensus analysis (COI +16S rRNA generally obtained the same tree topologies and confirmed that the genus Nerita is monophyletic. The consensus analysis using parsimony recovered a monophyletic group consisting of the genera Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita, and Clithon, while in the Bayesian analyses Theodoxus is separated from the other genera. The phylogenetic status of the species from the genus Nerita from the Colombian Caribbean generated in this study was consistent with that reported for the genus in previous studies. In the resulting consensus tree obtained using maximum parsimony, we included information on habitat type for each species, to map the evolution by habitat. Species of the family Neritidae possibly have their origin in marine environments, which is consistent with conclusions from previous reports based on anatomical studies.Filogenia molecular de la familia Neritidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha con base en los genes mitocondriales citocromo oxidasa I (COI y 16S rRNALa familia Neritidae cuenta con representantes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales adaptadas a diferentes ambientes, con un registro fósil que data para finales del Cretáceo. Sin embargo no se han realizado estudios de filogenia molecular en la familia. En este estudio se realizó una reconstrucción filogen

  4. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

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    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  5. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

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    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  6. In What Form Does Global Capital Flow Leave Behind Memories? The Story of the Apple Snail Caught Between the Green Revolution and the Organic Food Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingling Wo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on a study of Taiwan’s United News Daily archive and the shifting discourses of the Green Revolution and the organic food movement, the project analyzes the narrative frameworks produced on the apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata in Taiwan. Apple snail has become invasive to many East Asian countries since the 1980s; it is considered among the world’s 100 most invasive species. During the era of the Green Revolution, the economy of killing the apple snail with pesticide was generated by a narrative of how greedy merchants imported invasive apple snail and led to the systematic disruption of Taiwan’s ecology. The paper explores how the organic food movement responded to and was shaped by such a narrative of innocence lost, and emphasizes the importance of going beyond the hyper-real narratives of irreparable ecological destructions by recognizing sites of memories left behind by global capital flow.

  7. First proteome of the egg perivitelline fluid of a freshwater gastropod with aerial oviposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2012-08-03

    Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail that deposits eggs on solid substrates above the water surface. Previous studies have emphasized the nutritional and protective functions of the three most abundant perivitelline fluid (PVF) protein complexes (ovorubin, PV2, and PV3) during its embryonic development, but little is known about the structure and function of other less abundant proteins. Using 2-DE, SDS-PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF, and LC-MS/MS, we identified 59 proteins from the PVF of P. canaliculata, among which 19 are novel. KEGG analysis showed that the functions of the majority of these proteins are "unknown" (n = 34), "environmental information processing" (10), 9 of which are related to innate immunity, and "metabolism" (7). Suppressive subtractive hybridization revealed 21 PVF genes to be specific to the albumen gland, indicating this organ is the origin of many of the PVF proteins. Further, the 3 ovorubin subunits were identified with 30.2-35.0% identity among them, indicating their common origin but ancient duplications. Characterization of the PVF proteome has opened the gate for further studies aiming to understand the evolution of the novel proteins and their contribution to the switch to aerial oviposition. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of euthyneura (mollusca: gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Cristina; Templado, José; Cervera, J Lucas; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-02-01

    A new phylogenetic hypothesis for Euthyneura is proposed based on the analysis of primary sequence data (mitochondrial cox1, trnV, rrnL, trnL(cun), trnA, trnP, nad6, and nad5 genes) and the phylogenetic utility of two rare genomic changes (the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene, and an insertion/deletion event in a conserved region of the mitochondrial Cox1 protein) is addressed. Both sources of phylogenetic information clearly rejected the monophyly of pulmonates, a group of gastropods well supported so far by morphological evidence. The marine basommatophoran pulmonate Siphonaria was placed within opisthobranchs and shared with them the insertion of a Glycine in the Cox 1 protein. The marine systellommatophoran pulmonate Onchidella was recovered at the base of the opisthobranch + Siphonaria clade. Opisthobranchs, Siphonaria, and Onchidella shared the relative position of the mitochondrial trnP gene between the mitochondrial trnA and nad6 genes. The land snails and slugs (stylommatophoran pulmonates) were recovered as an early split in the phylogeny of advanced gastropods. The monophyly of the Euthyneura (Opisthobranchia + Pulmonata) was rejected by the inclusion of the heterostrophan Pyramidella. PMID:14660702

  9. Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from western New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1956-01-01

    During the zoological exploration of Netherlands New Guinea sponsored by the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, in 1954-1955, four specimens of Clausiliidae were found. There are no previous records of the occurrence of Clausiliidae in New Guinea; the most eastern locality in the Indo-Aus

  10. Current Situation of Edible Snails in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 7, 1995 to April 16, 1995 du ring the rainy season the utilisation of edible snails was investigated in Indonesia. To assess the current situation, the focus was put to answer the following questions : - Is it feasible under the present circumstances to domesticate these snails with the aim to conserve the natural resources ? - Could any individual or private initiative be enhanced or utilized ? - Would local disadvantaged groups (traditional animal farmers, women oryouths be benefitted through domestication of these snails ? - Is there any existing private organisation or NGO, which already gathers and trades the snails or would be interested to do this in the future ? Snails gatherers, -dealers and -farmers were visited and interviewed on the following topics using standardised questionnaires : Spreading and ecology ways of marketing, consumption habits, breeding and rearing. Diotopes were also visited and investigated. Results Spreading and ecology : Achatina fulica, Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea and Bellamia javanica are eaten. The snails can be found ail overJava. Ways of marketing : The snails gathered in the biotope are either marketed directly or through various marketing paths. A. fulica is exported in large quantifies. The population is therefore endangered. Consumption habits : Snails are not eaten regularly. Snail meat is known to be healthy. The consumption depends on the consumer's ethnie background. Breeding and rearing experience : with simple breeding systems for A. fulica and P. canaliculata are seldom found. The breeding of P. canaliculata is forbidden in Indonesia. There is no interest in breeding P. ampullacea or B. javanica. The breeding of A. fulica can ben-efit disadvantaged groups financially and help to conserving the natural snail population.

  11. Understanding the regulation of estivation in a freshwater snail through iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The apple snail Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater gastropod with a remarkable ability to withstand seasonal or unpredictable dry conditions by entering estivation. Studies of P. canaliculata using conventional biochemical and the individual gene approaches have revealed the expressional changes of several enzymes and antioxidative genes in response to estivation and arousal. In this study, we applied iTRAQ-coupled two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify the global protein expression during the estivation and arousal of P. canaliculata. A total of 1040 proteins were identified, among which 701 proteins were quantified and compared across four treatments (i.e., control, active snails; short-term estivation, 3 days of exposure to air; prolonged estivation, 30 days of exposure to air; and arousal, 6 h after resubmergence in water) revealing 53 differentially expressed proteins. A comparison of protein expression profiles across treatments indicated that the proteome of this species was very insensitive to initial estivation, with only 9 proteins differentially expressed as compared with the control. Among the 9 proteins, the up-regulations of two immune related proteins indicated the initial immune response to the detection of stress cues. Prolonged estivation resulted in many more differentially expressed proteins (47 compared with short-term estivation treatment), among which 16 were down-regulated and 31 were up-regulated. These differentially expressed proteins have provided the first global picture of a shift in energy usage from glucose to lipid, prevention of protein degradation and elevation of oxidative defense, and production of purine for uric acid production to remove toxic ammonia during prolonged estivation in a freshwater snail. From prolonged estivation to arousal, only 6 proteins changed their expression level, indicating that access to water and food alone is not a necessary condition to reactivate whole-sale protein expression. A

  12. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  13. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp. as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra, AB.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The different meal forms that can be extracted are golden snail meal (30 % calcium and 15 % crude protein, golden snail meat meal (62 % crude protein and 3336 kcal/kg and golden shell meal (35 % calcium. Feeding trials indicate that golden snail meal can be a part of swine and chicken layer diets up to 15 %. Golden snail meat meal can be a part of broiler chicken diet up to 12 %. Feeding fresh and ground golden snail to ducks can replace 50 % of their diet under total confinement system. Whereas, golden snail meat meal (75 % of the diet plus rice bran can be beneficially fed to tilapia. With the information collated, golden snail can be a promising animal feed in the Philippines.

  14. The Use of Golden Snail (Pomacea sp.) as Animal Feed in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, AB

    1997-01-01

    The golden snail is introduced to the Philippines in early 80's for culture as food source. This herbivorous snail, a voracious feeder of live and fresh plant materials become a serious rice pest. Its elimination in the ecosystems is impossible. To use them as animal feed is much better alternative for their control and more environmentally friendly than the use of chemicals. Thus, this mini review paper aimed to collate any existing information on the use of golden snail as animal feed. The ...

  15. The radular morphology of Nassariidae (Gastropoda:Caenogastropoda) from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingwen; ZHANG Suping

    2011-01-01

    The family Nassariidae includes a number of species that are distributed throughout the world.Each species has a characteristic shell shape,tooth shape,and behavior.However,the classification of species in this family of the Rhachiglossa is controversial.We describe the radulae of 22 species from China in detail using optical and scanning electron microscopy.These species are considered to be representatives of two subfamilies,two genera,and 10 subgenera.Our results suggest that the morphology of the central tooth and the pair of lateral teeth and the presence or absence of a pair of intermediate accessory lateral teeth could be used to distinguish among species.We found no support for the subgeneric differentiation of the species.However,the presence or absence of the intermediate lateral accessory plate was characteristic of species divisions.We noted sexual dimorphism in the shape of the teeth in some species,and considerable variability of the shape of teeth within a single species.Based on our results,the genus Nassarius cannot be split into subgenera using radula morphology.

  16. Phylogenetics, development, and Cenozoic paleontology of Buccinidae (Mollusca:Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Vendetti, Jann Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The buccinid gastropods (family Buccinidae) are a species-rich clade of mostly North Pacific taxa with an abundant fossil record that dates to the Cretaceous. Here, the evolution, systematics, and biology of fossil and extant members of this family are treated using a variety of analytical and methodological approaches. In chapter one, a new fossil species of Bruclarkia, an endemic eastern Pacific buccinid from the Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene, is described from the Astoria Formation of the...

  17. A cladistic phylogeny of the family Patellidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    A phylogenetic hypothesis for the patellid limpets is reconstructed by cladistic analysis of morphological characters from 37 species, representing all but one of the living members of the family. Characters included in the analysis are derived from shell shape and microstructure, headfoot and pallial complex, radula and sperm. The species fall into four clades, providing the basis for a new phylogenetic classification into four monophyletic genera: Helcion (four species; southern Africa), Cymbula (eight species; southern Africa, eastern Atlantic, southern Indian Ocean), Scutellastra (17 species; southern and southwestern Africa, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Eastern Pacific) and Patella (nine species; northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean). The analysis suggests sister-group relationships between Helcion and Cymbula, and between Scutellastra and Patella. In combination with present-day patterns of geographical distribution, this phylogenetic hypothesis is used to discuss the historical biogeography of the Patellidae. Scutellastra may have originated in southern Africa and dispersed across the Pacific, or alternatively may be a primitively Tethyan group. Both Helcion and Cymbula appear to have originated in southern Africa, but three Cymbula species have dispersed respectively to northwest Africa, St Helena and the southern Indian Ocean. The patellids of the northeastern Atlantic form a single clade, Patella (including P. pellucida), which may have arrived by northward dispersal of an ancestor from southern Africa, or possibly by vicariance of a widespread ancestral Tethyan distribution. The known fossil record of patellids is too fragmentary to permit choice between these alternatives.

  18. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships among Atlantic Ovulidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Reijnen, B.T.; Hoeksema, B.W.; Gittenberger, E.

    2010-01-01

    Ovulid gastropods and their octocoral hosts were collected along the leeward coast of Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles. New molecular data of Caribbean and a single Atlantic species were combined with comparable data of Indo-Pacific Ovulidae and a single East-Pacific species from GenBank. Based on two DNA markers, viz. CO-I and 16S, the phylogenetic relationships among all ovulid species of which these data are available are reconstructed. The provisional results suggest a dichotomy between the ...

  19. Variation in Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) (Gastropoda: Pteropoda: Euthecosomata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.; Pierrot-Bults, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) proves not to be composed of subspecies or formae, or to show clinal variation. Maximum shell length varies between 4 and 7 mm, shell width between 2 and 4 mm, length/width ratio between 0.51 and 0.81. A geographic pattern in the occurrence of different length/width

  20. Variation in Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) (Gastropoda: Pteropoda: Euthecosomata)

    OpenAIRE

    Spoel, van der, S.; Pierrot-Bults, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 1813) proves not to be composed of subspecies or formae, or to show clinal variation. Maximum shell length varies between 4 and 7 mm, shell width between 2 and 4 mm, length/width ratio between 0.51 and 0.81. A geographic pattern in the occurrence of different length/width ratios, on which the subdivision of this species was always based in literature, could not be found. Frequency analyses of length for all samples combined did not show subdivision in local populat...

  1. The phylogeny and systematics of the Nassariidae revisited (Gastropoda, Buccinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Lee Ann; Puillandre, Nicolas; Utge, José; Lozouet, Pierre; Bouchet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Nassariidae are a group of scavenging, predominantly marine, snails that are diversified on soft bottoms as well as on rocky shores, and are the subject of numerous research papers in ecology, ecotoxicology or paleontology. A weak and/or apparently continuous variation in shell characters has resulted in an intimidating taxonomy, with complex synonymy lists. Over 1320 extant nominal species have been described, of which 442 are currently regarded as valid. Above species level, the state of the art is equally hazy, with four subfamilies and twelve genera currently accepted, and many other names in the graveyard of synonymy. A molecular analysis based on three mitochondrial (COI, 16S, 12S) and two nuclear (28S, H3) markers was conducted. Our dataset includes 218 putative nassariid species, comprising 9 of the 12 valid genera, and 25 nominal genera represented by their type species. The monophyly of the Nassariidae as classically construed is not confirmed. Species of Antillophos, Engoniophos, Phos, Nassaria, Tomlinia and Anentome (formerly considered Buccinidae) are included inside the Nassariidae clade. Within the Nassariinae, the tree unexpectedly demonstrates that species from the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific form different clades which represent several independent diversification events. Through an integrative approach, the reconstruction of ancestral states was addressed for eight characters supposedly informative for taxonomy. Using numerous fossil calibration points, Nassariidae appear to have originated 120 MYA ago in Atlantic temperate waters during the Lower Cretaceous. Our results have a profound impact on nassariid taxonomy, especially with regard to the validity of subfamily- and genus-level names. PMID:27012605

  2. Acid phosphatase localization in neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, L J; Fisher, S K

    1975-01-01

    The organization of the ganglia and the ultrastructure of the neurons of Bulla gouldiana are similar to those described for other molluscs. Acid phosphatase positive reactions were found in the large pigmented granules, small dense bodies, multivesicular bodies, and Golgi lamellae and associated vesicles. The small dense bodies and multivesicular bodies may be stages in the formation of the larger pigmented granules which are interpreted as lysosomes. Comparison is made between the pigmented granules in Bulla and the lipofuscin bodies of vertebrate neurons. The possible involvement of these pigmented granules in the hyperpolarization of Bulla and Aplysia neurons to light is discussed. PMID:1122539

  3. La familia Acmaeidae (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan siete especies de la familia Acmaeidae de la zona litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima: Scurria viridula (Lamarck, S. parasitica (Orbigny, S. variabilis (Sowerby, S. zebrina (Lesson, Collisella orbignyi (Dall, C. ceciliana (Orbigny y C. araucana (Orbigny. Se amplía el límite norte de la distribución geográfica de las dos últimas especies y asimismo para S. zebrina y S. parasitica. Se informa sobre la zonación vertical de las especies, su dominancia relativa y otras observaciones ecológicas. De la revisión de la literatura y los resultados del presente estudio se concluye que, conjuntamente con Scurria scurra (Lesson, 1830, son ocho las especies de Acmaeidae presentes en la Provincia Peruana.

  4. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

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    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  5. Distribution of the Strombus gibberulus complex in Indonesia (Gastropoda, Strombidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Henry E.; Amsterdam, van Mieke L.M.

    1970-01-01

    Strombus gibberulus gibberulus L. is living in Indonesia at the western coast of Sumatra from Sabang to the Straits Sunda, and via the Straits in the Java Sea as far as Djakarta Bay. In all the rest of the Indonesian Archipelago the subspecies gibbosus (Röding) is found. The differences between gibb

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of Babylonia borneensis (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chia-Hsuan; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wang, Liang-Jong; Li, Yu-Chi; Lu, Jenn-Kan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Babylonia borneensis is reported for the first time in this study. The length of genome was 15 556 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. The nucleotide composition of the mitogenome showed AT-rich feature, with the AT content of 68.2%. Comparison of the identity of the B. borneensis mitogenome with B. areolata, B. lani and B. lutosa was 87.5%, 87.4% and 86.9%, respectively. The construction of phylogenetic tree showed high bootstrap support value. Babylonia borneensis grouped together with other Babylons and the lineages of Buccinidae was strongly supported. In this study, our results could provide a further understanding in the phylogenetic relationships of the Neogastropoda. PMID:27158871

  7. New data on southern African Achatinidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1972-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the genital anatomy of the species of the African land snail family Achatinidae has greatly improved our understanding of the delimitation of the species and the intricate interrelationships of the various taxa (Mead, 1950). The genitalia of many achatinids are still unknown

  8. Helicopsis persica n. sp. from northern Iran (Gastropoda: Geomitridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausdorf, Bernhard; Bössneck, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Helicopsis Fitzinger, 1833 is a mainly eastern European genus of the xerophilous Helicellinae (Geomitridae, Helicoidea; for family systematics see Razkin et al. 2015) that is characterized by two symmetrical dart and accessory sacs. This is probably the plesiomorphous character state within the Geomitridae and Hygromiidae. Therefore, the delimitation and relationships of Helicopsis remained questionable (Hausdorf 1996). Most Helicopsis species are characterized by a lateral attachment of the outer layer of the penial papilla at the penis wall so that a cavity is separated in the proximal part of the penis (Schileyko 1978; Giusti et al. 1992; Hausdorf 1996). However, a similar cavity is present in some other Helicellinae (e.g., Pseudoxerophila, Xerolenta, Xeromunda). Giusti et al. (1992) considered these cavities artefacts, but it cannot be excluded that they are actually homologous to the cavity of Helicopsis. Therefore, it is doubtful whether such a cavity can be considered as an autapomorphy of Helicopsis. About ten species of Helicopsis are spread from Turkey and Bulgaria to the Ukraine with a centre of diversity on the Crimean peninsula. Only the type species, Helicopsis striata (Müller, 1774) is more widespread from Alsace in the west, the island Öland in the Baltic Sea in the north to Bulgaria and Turkey in the south and western Russia in the east. Furthermore, species from Morocco, Greece, Cyprus, Iran and the Kopetdag were classified as Helicopsis. The relationships between these species have to be examined in more detail. Here we describe a new Helicopsis species from Iran. PMID:27395547

  9. Transferência do gênero monotípico Parodizia Medina de Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia Transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina from Bithyniidae Gray (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae Gray (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Propõe-se a transferência do gênero monitípico Parodizia Medina, 1959 de Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia para Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia. A proposta está baseada em dados morfológicos de espécimens de P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 procedentes da bacia do rio Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina, 1959 from Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia to Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia is proposed. The proposal is based on some morphological data of P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 from Tramandaí river basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  10. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

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    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  11. On a new Andinia (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae) from Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1957-01-01

    Some time ago Prof. Dr. W. Weyrauch at Lima, Peru, sent to me specimens of a species of the subfamily Neniinae that proved to be new to science. Already about 70 species of the subfamily have become known from Peru, for an important part discovered by Prof. Weyrauch himself. Andinia (Ehrmanniella) f

  12. Some Anatomical, systematical and Geographical data on Neniinae (Gastropoda, Clausiliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.A.; Loosjes-van Bemmel, A.C.W.

    1966-01-01

    I. INTRODUCTION Up to the moment more than one hundred species and subspecies of Neniinae are known from Central and South America. They are incorporated into 22 genera and subgenera, almost exclusively based on characters of the shells. Only little is known of the anatomy of the animals (Binney, 18

  13. Description of the ootheca of Turbinella laevigata (Mollusca, Gastropoda

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella laevigata is found since the intertidal zone up to 40 m depth, being endemic of Brazil where it occurs from the state of Amapá to the state of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to describe the ootheca of this species. Fifteen samples collected in the Olho d'Água Beach, City of Icapuí and Fleixeiras Beach, City of Trairí, both in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil, were studied. The spawns were composed by 15 +/- 1.4 SD capsules and had 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm of length with 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm of width. They had a convex and a concave surface, and plaited edges that drew out until the basal membrane, to which they joined forming a medial ridge. This species apparently produced a high amount of nurse eggs. The early juveniles measured 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm of length and they presented a protoconch with three whorls.Turbinella laevigata é encontrada desde a zona entre marés até 40 m de profundidade, sendo endêmica do Brasil onde ocorre desde o Estado do Amapá até o Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ooteca de Turbinella laevigata. Quinze amostras foram coletadas na Praia de Olho d'Água, Município de Icapuí e na Praia de Flexeiras, Município do Trairí, ambos no Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, foram estudadas. As desovas de T. laevigata foram compostas por 15 +/- 1.4 SD cápsulas e mediram 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm de comprimento e 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm de largura. Todas as cápsulas estavam fixadas pela membrana basal, a qual tinha a extremidade modificada para se prender ao substrato. Elas possuem uma superfície concava e outra convexa, apresentando margens pregueadas, que se prolongavam até a membrana basal, à qual se uniam formando uma prega. Esta espécie aparentemente produz uma grande quantidade de ovos nutritivos. A concha dos juvenis mediu 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm de comprimento e apresentou uma protoconcha com 3 voltas.

  14. Hydrocarbons in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Oudejans, R.C.H.M.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons in the snail Cepaea nemoralis was studied after injection of the 14C-labelled precursors acetate, valine, isoleucine and palmitic acid. 2. 2. The highest incorporation was achieved with palmitic acid, although with the other precursors the hydrocarbons were al

  15. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  16. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Tham C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Rogevich, Emily C. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States); Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Rand, Gary M. [Florida International University, Department of Environmental Studies, Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment, Southeast Environmental Research Center, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181 (United States)], E-mail: randg@fiu.edu; Gardinali, Piero R. [Florida International University, Department of Chemistry, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Frakes, Robert A.; Bargar, Timothy A. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida Ecological Services Office, Vero Beach, FL 32960 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 {mu}g/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail.

  17. Copper desorption in flooded agricultural soils and toxicity to the Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa): Implications in Everglades restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (Cu) desorption and toxicity to the Florida apple snail were investigated from soils obtained from agricultural sites acquired under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Copper concentrations in 11 flooded soils ranged from 5 to 234 mg/kg on day 0 and from 6.2 to 204 mg/kg on day 28 (steady-state). The steady-state Cu concentration in overlying water ranged from 9.1 to 308.2 μg/L. In a 28-d growth study, high mortality in snails occurred within 9 to 16 d in two of three soil treatments tested. Growth of apple snails over 28 d was affected by Cu in these two treatments. Tissue Cu concentrations by day 14 were 12-23-fold higher in snails exposed to the three soil treatments compared to controls. The endangered Florida snail kite and its main food source, the Florida apple snail, may be at risk from Cu exposure in these managed agricultural soil-water ecosystems. - Copper desorbs from agricultural soils and is toxic to the Florida apple snail

  18. ПОВЫШЕНИЕ ВИТАЛИТЕТА У БРЮХОНОГИХ МОЛЛЮСКОВ (GASTROPODA) В УСЛОВИЯХ НЕФТЯНОГО ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЯ ПОСРЕДСТВОМ ВОЗДЕЙСТВИЯ ЭЛЕКТРОМАГНИТНЫМИ ПОЛЯМИ

    OpenAIRE

    Гордеева, Мария; Ильминских, Николай; Гашев, Сергей

    2011-01-01

    Исследовано стимулирующее воздействие электромагнитных полей на брюхоногих моллюсков (Gastropoda) в условиях нефтяного загрязнения (1,5 и 2 мг/л). Показаны повышение выживаемости моллюсков и кратное увеличение численности их потомства в сравнении с контролем, оценивается в целом как повышение виталитета. Рассматриваются механизмы токсикорезистентности....

  19. Comparative Functional Responses Predict the Invasiveness and Ecological Impacts of Alien Herbivorous Snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Mu, Xidong; Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Fang, Miao; Gu, Dangen; Luo, Du; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Jianren; Hu, Yinchang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding determinants of the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien species is amongst the most sought-after and urgent research questions in ecology. Several studies have shown the value of comparing the functional responses (FRs) of alien and native predators towards native prey, however, the technique is under-explored with herbivorous alien species and as a predictor of invasiveness as distinct from ecological impact. Here, in China, we conducted a mesocosm experiment to compare the FRs among three herbivorous snail species: the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a highly invasive and high impact alien listed in “100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species”; Planorbarius corneus, a non-invasive, low impact alien; and the Chinese native snail, Bellamya aeruginosa, when feeding on four locally occurring plant species. Further, by using a numerical response equation, we modelled the population dynamics of the snail consumers. For standard FR parameters, we found that the invasive and damaging alien snail had the highest “attack rates” a, shortest “handling times” h and also the highest estimated maximum feeding rates, 1/hT, whereas the native species had the lowest attack rates, longest handling times and lowest maximum feeding rates. The non-invasive, low impact alien species had consistently intermediate FR parameters. The invasive alien species had higher population growth potential than the native snail species, whilst that of the non-invasive alien species was intermediate. Thus, while the comparative FR approach has been proposed as a reliable method for predicting the ecological impacts of invasive predators, our results further suggest that comparative FRs could extend to predict the invasiveness and ecological impacts of alien herbivores and should be explored in other taxa and trophic groups to determine the general utility of the approach. PMID:26771658

  20. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques.

  1. Diquat associated with copper sources for algae control: Efficacy and ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Nathalia; Da Cruz, Claudinei; Da Silva, Adilson F; Carraschi, Silvia P; Malaspina, Igor C; Pitelli, Robinson A; Bianco, Silvano

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this research were to evaluate the efficacy of copper oxychloride (CuCl2.3Cu(OH)2), copper hydroxide (Cu(OH)2) and diquat (1.1'-ethylene-2.2'-bipyridyldiylium dibromide), isolated and in association with 0.1% of both copper sources, in the control of the unicellular algae Ankistrodesmus gracilis and the filamentous algae Pithophora kewesis, and to determine the acute toxicity of the tested chemicals in Hyphressobrycon eques, Pomacea canaliculata, Lemna minor and Azolla caroliniana. The efficacy was estimated by the methods of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a readings, changed into growth inhibition percentage. Both algae were exposed to the following concentrations: 0.2; 0.4; 0.8; 1.2 mg L(-1) of diquat and its association with the copper sources; and 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) in the isolated applications of copper hydroxide and copper oxychloride. An untreated control was kept. The acute toxicity was estimatedby 50% lethal concentration (LC50). The copper sources were effective for A. gracilis control, at rates as high as 0.1 mg L(-1) (>95% efficacy). Isolated diquat and its association with copper hydroxide were both effective at rates as high as 0.4 mg L(-1), with 95 and 88% control efficacy, respectively. The copper oxychloride was effective at 0.2 mg L(-1), with 93% efficacy. None of the tested chemicals and associations was effective on P. kewesis control. The most sensitive non target organism to the tested chemicals was L. minor; the less sensitive was H. eques. PMID:26766580

  2. Estructura y neotectónica de Las Lomas de Olmedo, zona de transición entre los Sistemas Subandino y de Santa Bárbara, provincia de Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra las evidencias de deformación neotectónica en la región del noroeste argentino de lomas de Olmedo, provincia de Salta. Esta región ubicada en el frente orogénico a los 24°S de latitud comprende la zona de transición entre las Sierras Subandinas al norte, de tipo epidérmico con vergencia al este, o Sistema Subandino sensu stricto, y un segmento austral correspondiente al Sistema de Santa Bárbara producido por inversión tectónica de fallas normales con vergencia al oeste. Entre estos dos segmentos con diferente comportamiento se ubican las lomas de Olmedo, que muestran un complejo diseño de fallas activas. Depósitos de edad paleógena que constituyen las facies de hundimiento térmico de las fases finales del rift del Grupo Salta y los depósitos sinorogénicos neógenos de la cuenca de antepaís subandina, se hallan plegados y corridos sobre depósitos cuaternarios en el anticlinal de lomas de Olmedo. Los sedimentos terciarios están corridos sobre los depósitos lacustres de la Formación El Chorro de edad cuaternaria. Las edades 14C en conchillas de gasterópodos de esta unidad pertenecientes a Pomacea canaliculata arrojaron una edad de 7.962 ± 45 BP años para estos depósitos. Las fallas inversas con vergencia al este indican para la mayor parte del Holoceno una tasa de acortamiento orogénico de 2,34 mm/a para el frente tectónico en la zona de transición entre los dos sistemas de la faja plegada y corrida subandina.

  3. Development of a new sediment bioassay with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia); Entwicklung eines Sedimentbiotests mit der Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duft, M.; Tillmann, M.; Markert, B. [Internationales Hochschulinstitut Zittau (Germany). Lehrstuhl Umweltverfahrenstechnik; Schulte-Oehlmann, U.; Oehlmann, J. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zoologisches Inst.

    2002-07-01

    Currently, only few organismic biotest systems are available for the assessment of effects on reproduction, which consider an exposure toward whole sediments. A well-suited test organism is the parthenogenetic mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. This ovoviviparous prosobranch snail lives in the upper layers of freshwater and brackish sediments. The number of (unshelled) embryos turned out to be a very sensitive parameter for the indication of sediment components affecting reproduction. Additionally, this endpoint allows to signal possible estrogenic sediment compounds. With this 28-day bioassay, laboratory tests on the effects of various chemicals on P. antipodarum were performed, e.g. triphenyltin and bisphenol A, in relevant environmental concentration ranges. Furthermore, the suitability of our test system for the investigation of complex and multiple level ranged contaminations was examined by means of various natural sediments from the Neisse and Odra rivers. (orig.) [German] Derzeit bestehen nur wenige etablierte organismische Testverfahren zur Erfassung von reproduktionstoxischen Effekten, die eine Exposition gegenueber Gesamtsedimenten beruecksichtigen. Ein hierfuer gut geeigneter Testorganismus ist die parthenogenetische Zwergdeckelschnecke Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Sie gehoert zu den ovoviviparen (lebendgebaerenden) Prosobranchiern und lebt in den obersten Schichten von Suess- und Brackwassersedimenten. Als empfindlicher Parameter zur Indikation reproduktionstoxisch wirkender Sedimentkomponenten erwies sich die Anzahl der (neugebildeten) Embryonen im Brutraum - dieser Endpunkt vermag zudem auf eventuell vorhandene oestrogene Wirkstoffe im Sediment hinzuweisen. Mit Hilfe dieses 28 Tage umfassenden Biotests wurden in Laboruntersuchungen die Wirkungen verschiedener Umweltchemikalien, wie z.B. Triphenylzinn und Bisphenol A, auf P. antipodarum in umweltrelevanten Konzentrationsreihen getestet. Darueber hinaus wurde die Eignung des Biotests fuer die Ermittlung und Untersuchung der Wirkung komplexer Kontaminanten anhand von verschiedenen realen Flusssedimenten unterschiedlichen Belastungsgrades - aus Neisse und Oder - erprobt. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of the use of Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) and Hastula cinerea (Gastropoda, Terebridae) as TBT sentinels for sandy coastal habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Berenguel, Thayana Amorim; de Arruda, Noelle C L Patrício; del Matto, Lygia A; Amado, Lílian Lund; Corbisier, Thais Navajas; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Turra, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) contamination is still recorded in the environment even after its ban in antifouling paints. Since most biomonitors of TBT contamination, through imposex evaluation, are hard-bottom gastropods, the identification of soft-bottom sentinels has become useful for regions where rocky shores and coral reefs are absent. Thus, an evaluation of Olivella minuta and Hastula cinerea as monitors of TBT contamination was performed in two sandy beaches located under influence area of São Sebastião harbor (São Paulo state, Brazil), where previous and simultaneous studies have reported environmental contamination by TBT. In addition, the imposex occurrence in H. cinerea was assessed in an area with low marine traffic (Una beach), also located in São Paulo State. A moderate imposex incidence in O. minuta was detected in Pernambuco (% I = 9.36, RPLI = 4.49 and RPLIstand = 4.27) and Barequeçaba (% I = 2.42, RPLI = 0.36 and RPLIstand = 0.81) beaches, indicating TBT contamination. In contrast, more severe levels of imposex were recorded for H. cinerea in Una beach (% I = 12.45) and mainly in Barequeçaba beach (% I = 98.92, RPLI = 26.65). Our results suggest that O. minuta and H. cinerea have good potential as biomonitors for TBT based on their wide geographical distribution, common occurrence in different coastal sediment habitats, easy collection, and association with TBT-contaminated sediments. PMID:26085280

  5. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata Histology of the salivary glands of the Limacoidea and Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774, Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774, Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774 and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774, and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881 is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a cell type which is probably undifferentiated. The secretory cell types are classified into two groups, mucous and serous cells. Two types of mucous cells and two to three types of serous cells are distinguished. The salivary glands of the herein studied Limacoidea and Milacidae show a duct system composed of intralobular, interlobular and main ducts, each one presenting a characteristic type of epithelial lining. The results are comparatively discussed with the data available in the literature, in order to verify the correspondence between the different cell types described for other Pulmonata.

  6. Macrocyclis peruvianus (Gastropoda, Acavidae, an endemic land snail from Chile Macrocyclis peruvianus (Gastropoda, Acavidae, um caracol terrestre endêmico do Chile

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    Leticia F. da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclis peruvianus (Lamarck, 1822 is a large terrestrial snail which is endemic in Chile. A detailed description of its shell structure, jaw, radula, palial cavity and reproductive system is presented here for the first time.Macrocyclis peruvianus (Lamarck, 1822 é um grande caracol terrestre endêmico do Chile. Uma descrição detalhada da esculturação de sua concha, rádula, mandíbula, cavidade palial e sistema reprodutor são apresentados aqui pela primeira vez.

  7. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    neogastropod species Cronia konkanensis (Melvill, 1893) (Fa: Muricidae) collected from Goa waters located along the west coast of India. The frequency of imposex was found to be in the range of 90-100% in the animals collected from Marmugao Harbour while...

  8. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  9. A new genus and species of Aclididae (Gastropoda) from off Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Warén, A.

    1987-01-01

    Dr. Manuel Carrillo Pèrez (Universidad de la Laguna) has sent some dredge-samples to the first author. This material contained many interesting molluscs, not mentioned by Nordsieck & Talavera (1979). Amongst them was a very peculiar gastropod species, which was difficult to identify. Based on some s

  10. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  11. Reproductive biology of Oxychilus(Atlantoxychilus) spectabilis (Milne-Edwards, 1885) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): a gametogenic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana Filipa; Martins, António M. de Frias; Cunha, Regina Tristão da; Melo, Paulo Jorge; A.R. Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic status and anatomy of Oxychilus (Atlantoxychilus) spectabilis (Milne-Edwards, 1885), an endemic land snail from Santa Maria Island, Azores, has been subject of detailed study, yet information about its life history is wanting. This study describes the reproductive cycle of O. (A.) spectabilis and assesses the validity of three morphometric shell parameters as maturation diagnostic characters. Our results indicate that individuals are reproductively more active from May to Novemb...

  12. Systematics and Distribution of Siphocypraea mus and Propustularia surinamensis (Gastropoda, Cypraeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1963-01-01

    The systematic place of “Cypraea” mus Linné is discussed, and it is concluded that the species belongs in Siphocypraea (Akleistostoma). The “varieties” tuberculata Gray and bicornis Sowerby should be withdrawn; they are only forms with callosities. Callus formations are often found in Cypraeidae. Th

  13. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  14. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

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    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  15. Atlanta ariejansseni, a new species of shelled heteropod from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone (Gastropoda, Pterotracheoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Palmer, Deborah; Burridge, Alice K.; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantidae (shelled heteropods) is a family of microscopic aragonite shelled holoplanktonic gastropods with a wide biogeographical distribution in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate waters. The aragonite shell and surface ocean habitat of the atlantids makes them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and atlantids are likely to be useful indicators of these changes. However, we still lack fundamental information on their taxonomy and biogeography, which is essential for monitoring the effects of a changing ocean. Integrated morphological and molecular approaches to taxonomy have been employed to improve the assessment of species boundaries, which give a more accurate picture of species distributions. Here a new species of atlantid heteropod is described based on shell morphology, DNA barcoding of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene, and biogeography. All specimens of Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. were collected from the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans suggesting that this species has a very narrow latitudinal distribution (37–48°S). Atlanta ariejansseni sp. n. was found to be relatively abundant (up to 2.3 specimens per 1000 m3 water) within this narrow latitudinal range, implying that this species has adapted to the specific conditions of the Southern Subtropical Convergence Zone and has a high tolerance to the varying ocean parameters in this region. PMID:27551204

  16. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

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    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  17. Ecomorphological Analyses of Marine Mollusks' Shell Thickness of Rapana venosa (VALENCIENNES, 1846 (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    Igor P. Bondarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shell thickness of Rapana venosa was investigated from ecologically different places of the Azov – Black Sea basin. In the formation of the shell thickness there are two major trends: thickening with age, and inversely proportional to the size of the thickening of even-aged individuals of the same population. Shell thickness formation was analyzed in connection with biotic and abiotic environmental factors of influence. R. venosa ontogeny is not conducive to the rapid succession newly acquired characters in local populations. The formation of a thick shell is mainly the individual response of bions to the environment. Individuals’ of the same type reaction is the cause of formation of specific conchological characters of separate populations or parts thereof. Mechanical impacts (e.g. damage by breaking predators and storm waves hitting on rocks have no significant effect on the increasing of thickness of shells. Comparative analysis of the thickness of the shell of R. venosa from areas with different salinity shows that the direct relationship between these parameters is absent. R. venosa is capable of forming its own salinity medium in the mantle cavity, which is different from the external environment. The main factor influencing the formation of a thick-walled shell is the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the locality. Shell thickness of R. venosa was considered as ecomorphological character in comparison with the same feature of shell-bearing mollusks from the World Ocean at different latitude zones. It is shown that high temperature gradient is one of the most important factors of forming a thick shell. The greatest show this intertidal species and ecomorphs of temperate and high latitudes, where the temperature gradients are most expressed.

  18. Well-known and little-known: miscellaneous notes on Peruvian Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; Mogollón Avila, V.

    2010-01-01

    The family Orthalicidae is well represented in Peru but, like in other families, some species are wellknown and others have not been reported on since their original descriptions. In this paper we present new records for well-known species and elucidate the status of several lesser known taxa. Four

  19. Alien Planorbid (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata) from South West Africa erroneously recorded as Biomphalaria Pfeifferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1970 I published a record of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1848) (fam. Planorbidae) for South West Africa: "Sandamap Farm, Spitzkoppe" (Van Bruggen, 1970: 45, figs. 1-13). Dr. D. S. Brown of the Medical Research Council (London) kindly drew my attention to the fact that jud

  20. New ultrastructural aspects of the spermatozoon of Aplysia depilans (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, P; Corral, L; Azevedo, C

    2001-01-01

    The spermatozoon of the sea hare Aplysia depilans was studied under scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Previous descriptions of this sperm and related species, both from light and electron microscopy, were inconsistent with each other. These descriptions include A. depilans, A. punctata, A. fasciata, A. kurodai and Bursatella leachiplei. Several detailed micrographs provide a new ultrastructural model and reveal new aspects such as the presence of acrosome and the absence of a glycogen piece, therefore the modified dense ring is the terminal structure. Results also show that previous models are incorrect in many aspects. The spermatozoon is a long slender uniflagellated cell with a complex helical structure and a length of approximately 165 microm. Observed in SEM the spermatozoon has an undifferentiated head and tail. The nucleus is cord-shaped and helically intertwined with the axoneme/mitochondrial derivative complex. The mitochondrial derivative has only one glycogen helix. Glycogen presence was demonstrated by Thiéry's method. Typical heterobranchia spermatozoa features are recognised. From bibliographic analysis, a high degree of similarity was found with the sperm of Pleurobranchea maculata (Notaspidea). PMID:11686398

  1. An annotated checklist of opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia of the Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Sreeraj

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 52 species of opisthobranchs recorded from the Nicobar group of Islands. Of these, Aldisa erwinkoehleri, Dermatobranchus rodmani, Glossodoris pallida, Noumea simplex, Pectenodoris trilineata, Okenia kendi, Tambja morosa, Phyllidia elegans, Phyllidiopsis annae, Flabellina riwo and Phidiana indica represent new records for Indian waters.

  2. Microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of two pelagic opisthobranch species (Gastropoda: Gymnosomata and Thecosomata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrner, A; Haszprunar, G

    2000-04-01

    The microanatomy and ultrastructure of the excretory system of Pneumoderma sp. (Gymnosomata) and Creseis virgula Rang, 1828 (Thecosomata) have been investigated by means of semithin serial sections, reconstructions and transmission electron microscopy. The studies revealed a functional metanephridial system consisting of a heart with a single ventricle and auricle in a pericardial cavity and a single kidney in both species. Podocytes in the atrial wall of the pericardial epithelium are the site of ultrafiltration, whereas the flat epithelium of the kidney with numerous basal infoldings and a dense microvillous border on the luminal surface suggests modification of the ultrafiltrate. In Pneumoderma sp., additional loci of ultrafiltration with identical fine structure (meandering slits with diaphragms covered by extracellular matrix) occur in the solitary rhogocytes (pore cells). The presence of podocytes situated on the atrial wall in representatives of two higher opisthobranch taxa contradicts former ideas on the loss of the primary site of ultrafiltration in the ancestors of the Opisthobranchia. PMID:11085207

  3. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception. PMID:17881026

  4. Sperm tail differentiation in the nudibranch mollusc Hypselodoris tricolor (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Moreno, F J; García-Herdugo, G

    1988-06-01

    The sperm axoneme of Hypselodoris tricolor forms from a single centriole that is located initially beneath the plasma membrane and then migrates to the nuclear surface. A conspicuous centriolar adjunct-like formation is present in the neck of midspermatids, but it becomes very reduced at the end of spermiogenesis. In spermatocyte and spermatid mitochondria, intracristal bodies originate from the accumulation of a dense material in some cristae. From our observations and foregoing reports, it may be concluded that the process of sperm tail differentiation in opisthobranchs resembles that in pulmonates, whereas it differs in many respects from that occurring in prosobranchs. The appearance of intracristal bodies in modified mitochondria seems to be a special feature of spermatogenesis in the opisthobranchs that does not occur in the two other groups of gastropod molluscs. PMID:3235038

  5. Catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in metamorphosing larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A; Coon, S L; Hadfield, M G

    1997-09-01

    The content of catecholamines and dihydroxyphenylalanine in larvae of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine and dopamine were identified in larvae of all ages examined (5 through 12 days post-fertilization). Dihydroxyphenylalanine could be accurately quantified only in larvae of ages 8 through 12 days, when its average concentration increased from 0.62 to 6.71 x 10(-2) pmol micrograms protein-1. Between ages 5 and 12 days dopamine rose from 0.081 to 0.616 pmol microgram protein-1, and norepinephrine from 0.45 to 2.17 x 10(-2) pmol micrograms protein-1. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine and norepinephrine were also measured at different stages of metamorphic progress in 10- to 12-day larvae. Dihydroxyphenylalanine increased by a factor of 2.4 between the onset and completion of metamorphosis, but levels of dopamine and norepinephrine remained stable. One millimolar alpha-methyl-DL-m-tyrosine, an inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis, inhibited natural metamorphosis and depleted endogenous norepinephrine and especially dopamine, respectively, to 75% and 35% of control values. The existence of unexpectedly high levels of catecholamines in metamorphically competent larvae, and the association of catecholamine depletion with inhibition of metamorphosis, indicate that these compounds may participate in the control of gastropod development. PMID:9309865

  6. Larval rearing, metamorphosis, growth and reproduction of the eolid nudibranch hermissenda crassicornis (eschscholtz, 1831) (gastropoda: opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, J F; Alkon, D L

    1978-06-01

    1. Hermissenda crassicornis is a subannual nudibranch species that reproduces year-round. 2. There is a significant positive relationship between adult weight, diameter of the egg mass, estimated number of eggs per egg mass, and average number of eggs per capsule. 3. There is a planktonic veliger stage of 34 days minimum at 13 degrees -15 degrees C. 4. Larvae metamorphose on at least three species of hydroids. 5. To develop in reasonable numbers to a state competent to metamorphose veligers require a diet that includes phytoplankton of larger cell size (10-11 microm) than the commonly used Isochrysis and Monochrysis (5 microm). 6. Although Hermissenda feeds on a wide variety of sessile invertebrate species in the ocean, a diet of tunicate alone (Ciona intestinalis) promotes good growth and survival in the laboratory. 7. Egg mass deposition is initiated only after first copulation, except in the last month of life, and continues from about one-month post-metamorphosis to death, at about four months post-metamorphosis. Generation time (egg-to-egg) may be as short as 2.5 months. 8. A laboratory strain of Hermissenda is being established to provide animals of known history for research on the neural correlates of behavior. Animals, at least initially, are being selected for fast growth rate. PMID:20693369

  7. COMPARATIVE SPERM ULTRASTRUCTURE IN FIVE GENERA OF THE NUDIBRANCH FAMILY CHROMODORIDIDAE (GASTROPODA: OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, NERIDA G.; Healy, JOHN M.

    2002-05-01

    Sperm ultrastructure is examined in representatives of five genera of the nudibranch gastropod family Chromodorididae: (Chromodoris, Hypselodoris, Glossodoris, Risbecia and Pectenodoris) and the results compared with previous work on other gastropods, especially other nudibranchs. As chromodoridid phylogeny is still incompletely understood, this study partly focuses on the search for new and as yet untapped sources of informative characters. Like spermatozoa of most other heterobranch gastropods, those of the Chromodorididae are elongate, complex cells composed of an acrosomal complex (small, rounded acrosomal vesicle, and columnar acrosomal pedestal), a condensed nucleus, sub-nuclear ring, a highly modified mid-piece (axoneme + coarse fibres surrounded by a glycogen-containing, helically-coiled mitochondrial derivative) and terminally a glycogen piece (or homologue thereof). The finely striated acrosomal pedestal is a synapomorphy of all genera examined here, but interestingly also occurs in at least one dorid (Rostanga arbutus). Substantial and potentially taxonomically informative differences were also observed between genera in the morphology of the nucleus, the neck region of the mid-piece, and also the terminal glycogen piece. The subnuclear ring is shown for the first time to be a segmented, rather than a continuous structure; similarly, the annular complex is shown to consist of two structures, the annulus proper and the herein-termed annular accessory body. PMID:12011239

  8. Reexamination of the gill withdrawal reflex of Aplysia californica Cooper (Gastropoda; Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J L; Edstrom, J; Lukowiak, K

    1989-06-01

    The gill withdrawal reflex (GWR), an important model system for neural mechanisms of learning, varies in form and amplitude within as well as between preparations and is therefore a heterogeneous collection of action patterns, not a reflex. At least 4 action patterns occur in response to mechanical stimulation of the siphon. It is often impossible to categorize a particular movement unambiguously. All may occur spontaneously. Gill movements may be described as combinations of 10 actions; 4 involving vein movements are described here. All actions and action patterns can occur in preparations lacking the central nervous system. Some vein movements may generate considerable force without markedly altering gill area. It is suggested that this explains why some early studies failed to identify the important role of the peripheral nervous system in the GWR. Studies based on the assumption that the GWR involves a single type of movement controlled by cells of the parietovisceral ganglion require reevaluation. PMID:2544202

  9. New record of a headshield slug Phanerophthalmus smaragdinus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia from Andaman Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Opisthobranchs are the least studied group of marine gastropod molluscs in India. They are purely marine animals and display a wide array of colours and forms. This paper presents a new record of an opisthobranch, Phanerophthalmus smaragdinus, from Andaman Islands. The species was found inhabiting the intertidal area on rocks covered with green and brown algae.

  10. Pharyngeal movements during feeding sequences of Navanax inermis (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in successive stages of dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susswein, A J; Achituv, Y; Cappell, M S; Bennett, M V

    1987-03-01

    Feeding in Navanax inermis Cooper was filmed and analysed after various dissections. In preparations with a cut through the body wall exposing the pharynx and buccal ganglia, completely normal feeding was observed. In addition to seven motor acts previously described in intact animals, an eighth act, peristalsis, was observed. In preparations with the pharynx excised from the animal but attached to the buccal ganglia, four motor acts were observed: flaring, expansion, contraction and peristalsis. In addition to increasing information about the nature of feeding movements in Navanax, these data indicate that preparations suitable for neurophysiological studies are capable of producing a variety of feeding acts. PMID:3559467

  11. Slugs' last meals: molecular identification of sequestered chloroplasts from different algal origins in Sacoglossa (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händeler, Katharina; Wägele, Heike; Wahrmund, Ute; Rüdinger, Mareike; Knoop, Volker

    2010-11-01

    Some sacoglossan sea slugs have become famous for their unique capability to extract and incorporate functional chloroplasts from algal food organisms (mainly Ulvophyceae) into their gut cells. The functional incorporation of the so-called kleptoplasts allows the slugs to rely on photosynthetic products for weeks to months, enabling them to survive long periods of food shortage over most of their life-span. The algal food spectrum providing kleptoplasts as temporary, non-inherited endosymbionts appears to vary among sacoglossan slugs, but detailed knowledge is sketchy or unavailable. Accurate identification of algal donor species, which provide the chloroplasts for long-term retention is of primary importance to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms allowing long-term functionality of the captured chloroplast in the foreign animal cell environment. Whereas some sacoglossans forage on a variety of algal species, (e.g. Elysia crispata and E. viridis) others are more selective. Hence, characterizing the range of functional sacoglossan-chloroplast associations in nature is a prerequisite to understand the basis of this enigmatic endosymbiosis. Here, we present a suitable chloroplast gene (tufA) as a marker, which allows identification of the respective algal kleptoplast donor taxa by analysing DNA from whole animals. This novel approach allows identification of donor algae on genus or even species level, thus providing evidence for the taxonomic range of food organisms. We report molecular evidence that chloroplasts from different algal sources are simultaneously incorporated in some species of Elysia. NeigborNet analyses for species assignments are preferred over tree reconstruction methods because the former allow more reliable statements on species identification via barcoding, or rather visualize alternative allocations not to be seen in the latter. PMID:21565106

  12. Accumulation and identification of lipofuscin-like pigment in the neurons of Bulla gouldiana (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, L J

    1978-01-01

    A few reports suggest that pigmented granules found in molluscan neurons accumulate with age as do lipofuscin granules in vertebrate cells; however, no reports on molluscan neurons include detailed descriptions of granule accumulation or histochemical tests to identify the pigment as lipofuscin-like. In this study light microscope observations of living ganglia from 1.7, 2.7, and 3.0 cm and larger (shell length) sized Bulla gouldiana showed an increasing accumulation of orange-red pigment in the perikaryon corresponding to increasing shell size (i.e. age). With the electron microscope similar results were obtained, and lipofuscin-like granules were seen in the nerve cell cytoplasm of veliger larvae and in all adult sized Bulla. Staining with Sudan black B, Nile blue, chrome alum hematoxylin, PAS reagents, and exposure of the neurons to u.v. light to observe subsequent autofluorescence, yielded positive results in the areas of pigmented granule accumulation. Thus, the brillant orange-red granules that accumulate with age in the peripheral cytoplasm of adult Bulla neurons, and which are probably also present in larval stages, chemically resemble the lipofuscin granules of vertebrates. Similarities and differences between molluscan pigmented granules and vertebrate lipofuscin granules, in relation to structure and mechanisms of development and accumulation, are discussed. PMID:625150

  13. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

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    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  14. Vitrinellidae (Marine Mollusca Gastropoda) from Holocene deposits in Surinam (Dutch Guiana)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1966-01-01

    Five species of Vitrinellidae have been found in the Holocene shell ridges of Surinam. Of these, Vitrinella (Striovitrinella) cupidinensis,Cochliolepis surinamensis, and Solariorbis guianensis are new species, while Cyclostremiscus caraboboensis Weisbord is known from Pliocene beds in Venezuela and

  15. Milax Clerxi nov. spec., eine neue Nacktschnecke aus Südjugoslawien (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Milacidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Durch das Entgegenkommen von Herrn Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena, Leiden, erhielt der Verfasser eine Serie juveniler, fast erwachsener und erwachsener Nacktschnecken aus der Gattung Milax zur Bearbeitung, welche aus der Umgebung der Stadt Ohrid in Mazedonien stammen und dort im Sommer 1974 von Drs.

  16. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorded from Indian territory. But only basic information is known about their taxonomy and little is known of their population biology, ecology and their conservation status. In this paper, we briefly review status, threats and conservation strategies of land snails of India.

  17. Land snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of India: status, threats and conservation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, S.; Ravikanth, G; N.A. Aravind

    2012-01-01

    Land snails form an important component in the forest ecosystem. In terms of number of species, the phylum Mollusca, to which land snails belong, is the largest phylum after Arthropoda. Mollusca provide unique ecosystem services including recycling of nutrients and they provide a prey base for small mammals, birds, snakes and other reptiles. However, land snails have the largest number of documented extinctions, compared to any other taxa. Till date 1,129 species of land snails are recorde...

  18. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  19. Progenesis in the evolution of the nudibranch mollusks genus Dendronotus (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekimova, I A; Malakhov, V V

    2016-03-01

    The morphology and postlarval ontogenesis of the radula in 11 species of the genus Dendronotus Alder et Hancock, 1845, has been studied. Four types of radula are recognized in adult mollusks. Proposed evidence suggests that small species of Dendronotus have evolved by progenesis. PMID:27193883

  20. Mitochondrial DNA hyperdiversity and its potential causes in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Hardy, Olivier J.; Jordaens, Kurt; de Frias Martins, António Manuel; Backeljau, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We report the presence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hyperdiversity in the marine periwinkle Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758), the first such case among marine gastropods. Our dataset consisted of concatenated 16S-COI-Cytb gene fragments. We used Bayesian analyses to investigate three putative causes underlying genetic variation, and estimated the mtDNA mutation rate, possible signatures of selection and the effective population size of the species in the Azores archipelago. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is characterized by extremely high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.999 ± 0.001), high nucleotide diversity (π = 0.013 ± 0.001), and neutral nucleotide diversity above the threshold of 5% (πsyn = 0.0677). Haplotype richness is very high even at spatial scales as small as 100m2. Yet, mtDNA hyperdiversity does not affect the ability of DNA barcoding to identify M. neritoides. The mtDNA hyperdiversity in M. neritoides is best explained by the remarkably high mutation rate at the COI locus (μ = 5.82 × 10−5 per site per year or μ = 1.99 × 10−4 mutations per nucleotide site per generation), whereas the effective population size of this planktonic-dispersing species is surprisingly small (Ne = 5, 256; CI = 1,312–3,7495) probably due to the putative influence of selection. Comparison with COI nucleotide diversity values in other organisms suggests that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more frequently linked to high μ values and that mtDNA hyperdiversity may be more common across other phyla than currently appreciated. PMID:27761337

  1. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    The food of four species of Cephalaspidea (Philine aperta, Philine denticulata, Philine scabra and Cylichna cylindracea) was studied in animals collected on silty clay bottoms at 20-35 m depth on the west coast of Sweden. The specimens were dissected. Only calcareous foraminiferans were found in...... agglutinating foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a...... preadaptation for other purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough...

  2. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, van, J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia. Some ecological implications are discussed.

  3. Comparative reproductive anatomy in the South African giant land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Achatinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    The history and current taxonomic status of 62 nominal taxa are revised that have been associated in the literature with the subgenus Tholachatina Bequaert, 1950, of genus Archachatina Albers, 1850, and the genus Cochlitoma Férussac, 1821, in the land snail family Achatinidae Swainson, 1840. Tangibl

  4. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  5. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymesoda bengalensis, P. erosa and P. expansa  for bivalve and  Cerithidea rizophorarum, C. obtusa, Telescopium telescopium, Clithon retropictus, Nerita articulate, N. chamaeleon, N. albicilla, Ellobium aurisjuda, Trochus radiates, Planaxis sulcatus, Monodonta labio, Turbo crasus, Thais aculate  and Melo melo  for gastropod. The species number of bivalve was recorded highest (15 species in mollusc group from Sarawak. Mollusc diversity was found highest (14 species in Bintulu and lowest (1 species in the division of Sarikei. From this study, there is a wide chance of research to further explore both on the possibility of commercial value and ecosystem conservation.

  6. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability. PMID:11795173

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  8. Burnaia Miller, 2001 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia): a facelinid genus with an Aeolidiidae's outward appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several morphological and molecular analyses have been undertaken to study the phylogenetic systematics of Aeolidiidae members. The monospecific genus Burnaia could not be included in the previous analysis, due to the lack of material. This study includes two specimens of Burnaia helicochorda from Australia and places them in their systematic position using two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes (COI and 16S, and H3, respectively). A description of its anatomy is also included with colour pictures of the animal and scanning electron micrographs of radula and jaws. Based on our results, B. helicochorda does not belong to Aeolidiidae since it appears nested among some facelinids.

  9. Eine neue Deroceras-Art (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Agriolimacidae) von der Griechischen Insel Samos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rähle, W.

    1983-01-01

    Im Frühjahr 1982 sammelte Herr Jens Hemmen aus Wiesbaden (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) auf der Insel Samos zahlreiche Individuen einer noch unbekannten Deroceras-Art, die ihren anatomischen Merkmalen nach zur Untergattung Plathystimulus Wiktor, 1973 gehört. Die Tiere waren fast alle erwachsen und erm

  10. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  11. A nomenclator of extant and fossil taxa of the Melanopsidae (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This nomenclator provides details on all published names in the family-, genus-, and species-group, as well as for a few infrasubspecific names introduced for, or attributed to, the family Melanopsidae. It includes nomenclaturally valid names, as well as junior homonyms, junior objective synonyms, nomina nuda, common incorrect subsequent spellings, and as far as possible discussion on the current status in taxonomy. The catalogue encompasses three family-group names, 79 genus-group names, and 1381 species-group names. All of them are given in their original combination and spelling (except mandatory corrections requested by the Code), along with their original source. For each family- and genus-group name, the original classification and the type genus and type species, respectively, are given. Data provided for species-group taxa are type locality, type horizon (for fossil taxa), and type specimens, as far as available. PMID:27551193

  12. On Cyprian Helicellinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Helicidae), making a new start

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.

    1991-01-01

    Our fragmentary knowledge concerning the Cyprian Helicellinae is revised and summarized, while new data are added. "Helicella (Xerotricha) conspurcata distinguenda" Haas, 1936, is a Helicopsis species that has to be called H. cypriola (Westerlund, 1889) as a consequence of the selection of a neotype

  13. Summarizing data on the Inchoatia taxa, including Inchoatia megdova bruggeni subspec. nov. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Uit de Weerd, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    An annotated checklist for the genus Inchoatia is provided. The old distributional data are converted into modern geographical names and completed with UTM codes. A new subspecies is described as Inchoatia megdova bruggeni subspec. nov.

  14. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  15. The Model Organism Hermissenda crassicornis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) Is a Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Tabitha; Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Hermissenda crassicornis is a model organism used in various fields of research including neurology, ecology, pharmacology, and toxicology. In order to investigate the systematics of this species and the presence of cryptic species in H. crassicornis, we conducted a comprehensive molecular and morphological analysis of this species covering its entire range across the North Pacific Ocean. We determined that H. crassicornis constitutes a species complex of three distinct species. The name Hermissensa crassicornis is retained for the northeast Pacific species, occurring from Alaska to Northern California. The name H. opalescens is reinstated for a species occurring from the Sea of Cortez to Northern California. Finally, the name H. emurai is maintained for the northwestern species, found in Japan and in the Russian Far East. These three species have consistent morphological and color pattern differences that can be used for identification in the field. PMID:27105319

  16. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  17. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PRKIC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  18. Gymnodoris pattani, a new dorid nudibranch from Pattani Bay, Gulf of Thailand (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, C.

    1996-01-01

    Several specimens of a new dorid nudibranch have been found in Yaring River, Pattani Province in southern Thailand. The species clearly belongs to the genus Gymnodoris, and is described and named G. pattani. It can be distinguished from all other species described in the genus by its translucently g

  19. The aquatic molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda and Bivalvia of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILIAN GEORGIEV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Till now 13 species of aquatic molluscs are known to inhabit the park area: 11 species of snails and 2 species of clams. Even included in the list the species of Grossuana and Radix balthica has to be studied anatomically for sure identification. Nine species are of conservation statute classified as "Least Concern" or "Vulnerable", and four does not have any statute. Three stygobiotic snail species are local endemics.

  20. Notes on Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve, 1865) from Lampung, South Sumatra (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajasasmita, Machfudz; Coomans, Henry E.

    1980-01-01

    Specimens of the freshwater marginellid Rivomarginella electrum (Reeve) were collected in South Sumatra. The erroneous spelling of the type locality is corrected into Lake Jepara. The animal, radula and ecology are described for the first time; living specimens were observed in an aquarium. The spec

  1. Review of the geographic distribution of Hoffmannola hansi (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the Mexican Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Hernando Avila-Poveda; Quetzalli Yasú Abadia-Chanona; Raúl Herrera-Fragoso; Benoît Dayrat

    2014-01-01

    Hoffmannola hansi (Mexican intertidal leather slug) is traditionally reported as an endemic species to the Gulf of California, Mexico. However, its presence in the southern Mexican Pacific has been mentioned in regional checklists and reports. Here we provide new records of H. hansi populations from at least 3 locations from Oaxaca, Mexico. The anatomical characteristics useful for H. hansi identification are described for both, living and preserved specimens. Specimens reports from the Gulf ...

  2. The venomous cocktail of the vampire snail Colubraria reticulata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Franchini, Paolo; Oliverio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Hematophagy arose independently multiple times during metazoan evolution, with several lineages of vampire animals particularly diversified in invertebrates. However, the biochemistry of hematophagy has been studied in a few species of direct medical interest and is still underdeveloped in most invertebrates, as in general is the study of venom toxins. In cone snails, leeches, arthropods and snakes, the strong target specificity of venom toxins uniquely aligns them to industrial an...

  3. Sense organs in Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1964-01-01

    The sense organs: the labial tentacles, eyes, rhinophores, osphradium and statocysts of Spongiobranchaea australis d’Orbigny, 1835 are described together with their innervation. The descriptions are based on serial sections of three animals.

  4. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  5. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anseeuw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  6. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS) becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed...

  7. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klussmann-Kolb Annette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM. Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring. On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of rhinophoral ganglia and the lack of oral tentacle ganglia as well as the de novo formation of the adult muscle complex. On the other hand, the structure and arrangement of the serotonergic apical organ is similar to other caenogastropod and opisthobranch gastropods supporting their sister group relationship.

  8. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse ...

  9. Systematics of Ariantinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae), a new approach to an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Subai, P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new starting-point in Ariantinae systematics is presented by combining data on traditional shell morphology and genital anatomy, with phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequence data. For nearly all genera and subgenera one or more shells are depicted and drawings of the proximal part of the g

  10. Clausiliidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) collected by the Netherlands biological expedition to Turkey in 1959

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.

    1963-01-01

    The route of the Netherlands Biological Expedition to Turkey in 1959 is published elsewhere (Hennipman a.o., 1961; Anonymus, 1963). As is mentioned there also, the zoological material collected is preserved in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. I am greatly indebted to Dr. C. O. van

  11. Synopsis of Central Andean Orthalicoid land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora), excluding Bulimulidae

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham S.H. Breure; Avila, Valentín Mogollón

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A faunal overview is presented of the molluscan families Amphibulimidae , Megaspiridae , Odontostomidae , Orthalicidae , Simpulopsidae in Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. These Central Andean countries are known for their biodiverse malacofauna, of which the superfamily Orthalicoidea takes relatively a large share. In this paper the five families containing 103 (sub)species, for which systematic information (original publication, type locality, type depository, summarizing literature) and...

  12. Review of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 with description of five new species ( Gastropoda , Pulmonata , Plectopylidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry; Asami,Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All known taxa of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 (family Plectopylidae ) are reviewed. Altogether 23 Endothyrella species are recognized. All species are illustrated and whenever possible, photographs of the available type specimens are provided. Five new species are described: Endothyrella angulata Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n., Endothyrella dolakhaensis Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. and Endothyrella nepalica Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Nepal, Endothyrella robustistriata Pál...

  13. Review of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 with description of five new species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Plectopylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pall-Gergely, Barna; Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry; Asami,Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    All known taxa of the genus Endothyrella Zilch, 1960 (family Plectopylidae) are reviewed. Altogether 23 Endothyrella species are recognized. All species are illustrated and whenever possible, photographs of the available type specimens are provided. Five new species are described: E. angulata Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n., E. dolakhaensis Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. and E. nepalica Budha & Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from Nepal, E. robustistriata Páll-Gergely, sp. n. from the Naga Hills, India, and ...

  14. Systematics of Ariantinae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicidae), a new approach to an old problem

    OpenAIRE

    Groenenberg, D.S.J.; Subai, P.; Gittenberger, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new starting-point in Ariantinae systematics is presented by combining data on traditional shell morphology and genital anatomy, with phylogeny reconstructions based on DNA sequence data. For nearly all genera and subgenera one or more shells are depicted and drawings of the proximal part of the genital organs are shown to illustrate the morphological diversification within the subfamily. For as much as our material allowed it, partial sequences are presented for Histone H3 (H3), Cytochrome...

  15. Size clines and subspecies in the Streptaxid Genus Gulella PFR. (Mollusca, Gastropoda pulmonata) in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1980-01-01

    CONTENTS 1. Introduction.................. 3 2. Systematic part................. 6 Gulella adamsiana................. 7 Gulella darglensis................. 14 Gulella elliptica................. 19 Gulella farquhari................. 27 Gulella infrendens................ 33 Gulella planti.............

  16. Two new species of Thaumastus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Silva Pena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T. parvus sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups in the ovotestis and form of the fertilization complex. Thaumastus (T. caetensis sp. nov. is similar to T. (T. largillierti (Philippi, 1845 but differs by the width and the contour of the parietal side of the shell aperture. T. (T. caetensis is also closer to Thaumastus (T. baixoguanduensis but can be distinguished by the smaller dimensions (height, width and number of protoconch whorls, the lack of a transversal light band on the body whorl, the jaw with smaller number of plates, and the radula with 35 teeth. In the soft parts, this new species differs also in the number of follicle gatherings in ovotestis, fertilization complex with globose shape, and penian retractor muscle terminally and laterally attached to flagellum

  17. Influence of processing on the quality of pomaceas juice (Pyrus communis and Malus domestica - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15360

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Schaia Rocha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pear (Pyrus communis, which is intensively cultivated in subtropical and temperate climates, has recently attained the 3rd position in the world fruit ranking, just after apple and peach. This fruit exhibits certain similarities to apple with respect to the pulp, but pear is used as a raw material only when apple is no longer available, which suggests that the same technology line may be utilized. Both fruits do have processing compatibilities, and it is permissible to add pear juice to apple juice at levels defined by law. Quality indicators, such as pH, total acidity, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were used. The simple sugar analysis clearly defines fructose as the main component in pear juice, and lower figures were found when enzymatic processing was used. Color intensity measured instrumentally was much greater in pear juice with all processing methods and in apple juice when an enzymatic method was used. The results clearly indicate proper ways of processing pear and apple, aiming to have better products, as the grinding and extraction processing steps surely affect the fruit juice quality.

  18. Comparative study between the effects of hyaluronic acid and acid galactan purified from eggs of the mollusk Pomacea sp in wound healing Estudo comparativo entre os efeitos do ácido hialurônico e do galactano acídico purificado dos ovos do molusco Pomacea sp na cicatrização de feridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katarina Menezes da Cruz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the effect of hyaluronic acid (HA and of AG on the healing of intestine wounds. METHODS: The semi-purified extract of the eggs of the mollusc was obtained by fractionation with ammonium sulfate and purification for ion-exchange chromatography. The obtained galactans were eluted in water (neutral galactan and in 0.1 and 0.2M NaCl (acidic galactans. The in vivo study was performed with 45 "Wistar" rats, separated in three groups (n=15. Solutions containing HA 1%, GA 1% or saline solution 0,9%, was placed topically on the sutures of wounds in the small intestine of the rats. After 05, 10 and 21 days the animals were sacrificed and biopsy of the healing tissue was done. RESULTS: The hystologic grading was more significant for HA and AG groups when compared to the group C. AG stimulated the appearance of macrophages, giant cells and increase in the concentration of collagen in the area of the wound when compared to HA. CONCLUSION: The topical use of GA in intestinal wounds promoted the anticipation of events that are important in the wound healing.OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito de ácido hialurônico (AH e do GA na cicatrização de feridas intestinais. MÉTODOS: O extrato semipurificado dos ovos do molusco foi obtido por fracionamento com sulfato de amônio e purificação por cromatografia de troca-iônica. Os galactanos obtidos foram eluídos em água (galactano neutro e em 0.1 e 0.2M NaCl (galactanos acídicos. O estudo em vivo foi executado com 45 ratos Wistar, separados em três grupos (n=15. Soluções contendo AH 1%, GA 1% ou solução salina 0,9%, foram aplicadas topicamente nas suturas das feridas longitudinais localizadas no intestino delgado dos ratos. Depois de 05, 10 e 21 dias os animais foram sacrificados e biópsias dos tecidos cicatrizados foram realizadas. RESULTADOS: A graduação histológica foi mais significante para os grupos do AH e GA quando comparado ao grupo C. O GA estimulou o aparecimento de macrófagos, células gigantes e aumentou a concentração de colágeno na área da ferida quando comparado ao AH. CONCLUSÃO: O uso tópico de GA em feridas intestinais promoveu a antecipação de eventos que são importantes na cicatrização de feridas.

  19. Novel Animal Defenses against Predation: A Snail Egg Neurotoxin Combining Lectin and Pore-Forming Chains That Resembles Plant Defense and Bacteria Attack Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceolín, Marcelo; Ituarte, Santiago; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jin; Fernández, Patricia E.; Heras, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning) coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator. Capacity to resist digestion was assayed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectroscopy and simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. PcPV2 oligomer is antinutritive, withstanding proteinase digestion and displaying structural stability between pH 4.0–10.0. cDNA sequencing and protein domain search showed that its two subunits share homology with membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF)-like toxins and tachylectin-like lectins, a previously unknown structure that resembles plant Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and bacterial botulinum toxins. The protomer has therefore a novel AB toxin combination of a MACPF-like chain linked by disulfide bonds to a lectin-like chain, indicating a delivery system for the former. This was further supported by observing PcPV2 binding to glycocalix of enterocytes in vivo and in culture, and by its hemaggutinating, but not hemolytic activity, which suggested an interaction with surface oligosaccharides. PcPV2 is able to get into predator’s body as evidenced in rats and mice by the presence of circulating antibodies in response to sublethal oral doses. To our knowledge, a lectin-pore-forming toxin has not been reported before, providing the first evidence of a neurotoxic lectin in animals, and a novel function for ancient and widely distributed proteins. The acquisition of this unique neurotoxic/antinutritive/storage protein may confer the eggs a survival advantage, opening new

  20. The Gastropods of Lake Eğirdir

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Mehmet Zeki

    2004-01-01

    The Gastropoda species and its distribution was investigated in Lake Eğirdir. It was determined that 5 species belonging to Gastropoda, order Prosobranchia (Theodoxus heldreichi, Valvata naticina, Graecoanatolica lacustristurca, Falsipyrgula pfeiferi and Bithynia pseudemmericia) and 7 species belonging to the order Pulmonata (Radix peregra, Stagnicola palustris, Physa fontinalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis carinatus and Gyraulus albus) were present. Gastropoda species from 9 ...

  1. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata) no nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    FS. Albuquerque; MC. Peso-Aguiar; MJT. Assunção-Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and ho...

  2. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Digestive gland

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet; José Willibaldo Thomé; Josef Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in grou...

  3. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  4. Desenvolvimento de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae Development of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm, Class B (10.1-6.9 mm and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm. Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5% between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%. The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.

  5. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUBÉN E. SOTO

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 % y cirripedios (5 %. La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energéticaWe investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the level tide zero. In the field, A. monodon actively foraged at night preying mainly on mussels (95 % and barnacles (5 %. Temporal variation in diet composition of A. monodon was caused mostly by changes in the cover of different mussel species during the two years of sampling. In the laboratory, individual of A. monodon showed significant preference for the mussel Semimytilus algosus. In these experiments, A. monodon's foraging behavior maximized the net gain of energy by selecting species and sizes of prey that provided the greatest energy profitability

  6. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

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    DAVID VELIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  7. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

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    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of maturity throughout the year. Mature individuals were distributed between 5 and 13 m depth, forming aggregations at 5 m depth during much of the year. Periods of greater maturity were observed from July to August and November to January, with the most important aggregations at the end of both periods. A relationship was observed between the months with the greatest maturity and aggregations and the months with the highest daily temperature fluctuations. At the population level, the results allowed us to estimate 2.3*10(6 individuals, with 39% of this population over the minimum legal size (55 mm. The relatively slow growth estimated for this population was probably influenced by the high variability of the bottom temperature in this area. The critical size and size at first maturity of the population were higher than the minimal legal size, making it is necessary to review the current fishing regulation for this species. The effectiveness of the State marine reserves in the conservation of this marine resource was demonstrated.

  8. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae: V. Digestive gland

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    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  9. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

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    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  10. Registro de cópula cruzada e concomitante em Phyllocaulis boraceiensis Thomé (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae Record of the concomitant cross copulation by Phyllocaulis boraceiensis Thomé (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae

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    José Willibaldo Thomé

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens of Phyllocaulis boraceiensis were found in concomitant cross copulation on 19.VII.1997. Each was in the "U"-shape position. Both specimens were the same age. One was 100 mm. long and weighed 14.53 g.; the other was 129 mm long and weighed 16.08 g. Thirty-one days later the largest one laid 11 eggs; all hatched 64 days later. The other died in October, 1997 without laying.

  11. Anatomia e microanatomia do sistema reprodutor de Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: complexo fálico Anatomy and microanatomy of the reproductive system of Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: the phallus complex

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    Mônica Picoral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the anatomy and microanatomy of the phallus complex of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868. The complex is composed by a phallus, a diverticle of the phallus and an epiphallus, where the deferens duct is thrown in: the retractor muscle is splitted in two parts, inserted into the region of the epiphallus through a smaller branch, and at the extremity of the diverticle, through a longer and thiner branch. The lumen of the phallus, epiphallus and diverticle have corrugations and thorns. On the phallus the thorns are arranged in a protuberance and disposed alternately in rows, ali with an aculeus form and with a chestnut collor point and a yellow basis.

  12. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    MIRIAM FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1 the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2 the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos, (3 asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred, and (4 final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturation; normoxia; and hyperoxia: 150-160 %. More embryos remained in early stages at the end of the experimental period under hypoxia and at the highest experimental temperature. The mean number of developed embryos was significantly lower under hypoxia conditions than under normoxia and hyperoxia, but was not influenced by temperature. However, temperature negatively affected embryo size of developed embryos and the level of asynchrony (number of different developmental stages per capsule. This suggests that even when a comparable number of embryos develops at high temperature, subsequent survival may be affected, since developed embryos attained smaller sizes. The negative effect of high temperature on embryo aggregation has also been reported for Brachyuran crabs, affecting female patterns of oxygen provision and brooding costs. This evidence suggests that aggregating embryos in the ocean, even under optimum oxygen conditions, may be negatively affected at high temperatures. Spatial patterns of distribution of brooding species in the ocean tend to agree with this prediction. Our analysis is particularly relevant given the current increase in temperature and the proportion of anoxic areas in the world's oceansLos organismos marinos y dulceacuícolas muestran modelos similares de cuidado parental y están confrontados con similares restricciones para incubar, lo que sugiere que existen límites ambientales comparables guiando la evolución del cuidado parental en sistemas acuáticos. El bajo coeficiente de difusión y la baja solubilidad del oxígeno en ambientes acuáticos afecta la adquisición de oxígeno y por lo tanto la capacidad para agregar los embriones. El efecto de otras variables ambientales críticas, como la temperatura, es menos claro. Se evaluaron los efectos de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre (1 el número de embriones desarrollados y sin desarrollar, (2 la proporción de embriones que alcanza estados avanzados de desarrollo (contabilizando no solo embriones desarrollados y sin desarrollar sino también anormales, (3 la asincronía en el desarrollo (estimada solo cuando ocurrió desarrollo embrionario, y (4 el tamaño final, con el objetivo final de identificar las limitaciones que estos factores imponen sobre el cuidado parental en el mar. La especie modelo fue el gastrópodo Acanthina monodon. Cápsulas recientemente depositadas fueron colectadas e incubadas bajo diferentes condiciones experimentales de temperatura (7, 11, 15 y 19 °C y oxígeno (hipoxia: 50-60 % saturación de aire; normoxia; e hiperoxia: 150-160 %. Más embriones permanecieron en fases tempranas del desarrollo al final del experimento en hipoxia y a 19 °C. El número promedio de embriones desarrollados fue significativamente más bajo en hipoxia que bajo normoxia e hiperoxia, pero no fue influenciado por la temperatura. Sin embargo, la temperatura de incubación afectó otras variables de respuesta. Menores tamaños de los embriones y mayores niveles de asincronía al final del desarrollo fueron observados en las más altas temperaturas experimentales, lo que podría tener consecuencias negativas sobre la sobrevivencia posasentamiento. Las altas temperaturas también afectan el comportamiento y los costos asociados a la provisión de oxígeno a los embriones en braquiuros. Estas evidencias sugieren que agregar embriones en el océano, aun en condiciones óptimas de oxígeno, podría ser desfavorable a altas temperaturas. Los patrones espaciales de distribución de especies incubadoras tienden a apoyar esta predicción. Nuestro análisis también cobra relevancia en el escenario actual de aumento de la temperatura media de los océanos y de la proporción de zonas anóxicas

  13. Fluctuating helical asymmetry and morphology of snails (Gastropoda in divergent microhabitats at 'Evolution Canyons I and II,' Israel.

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    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developmental instability of shelled gastropods is measured as deviations from a perfect equiangular (logarithmic spiral. We studied six species of gastropods at 'Evolution Canyons I and II' in Carmel and the Galilee Mountains, Israel, respectively. The xeric, south-facing, 'African' slopes and the mesic, north-facing, 'European' slopes have dramatically different microclimates and plant communities. Moreover, 'Evolution Canyon II' receives more rainfall than 'Evolution Canyon I.' METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined fluctuating asymmetry, rate of whorl expansion, shell height, and number of rotations of the body suture in six species of terrestrial snails from the two 'Evolution Canyons.' The xeric 'African' slope should be more stressful to land snails than the 'European' slope, and 'Evolution Canyon I' should be more stressful than 'Evolution Canyon II.' Only Eopolita protensa jebusitica showed marginally significant differences in fluctuating helical asymmetry between the two slopes. Contrary to expectations, asymmetry was marginally greater on the 'European' slope. Shells of Levantina spiriplana caesareana at 'Evolution Canyon I,' were smaller and more asymmetric than those at 'Evolution Canyon II.' Moreover, shell height and number of rotations of the suture were greater on the north-facing slopes of both canyons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data is consistent with a trade-off between drought resistance and thermoregulation in snails; Levantina was significantly smaller on the 'African' slope, for increasing surface area and thermoregulation, while Eopolita was larger on the 'African' slope, for reducing water evaporation. In addition, 'Evolution Canyon I' was more stressful than Evolution Canyon II' for Levantina.

  14. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

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    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (K. gayi (Pfeiffer, 1857; Kuschelenia (K. tupacii (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus aquilus (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus caliginosus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus purpuratus (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Vermiculatus quechuarum (Crawford, 1939; Naesiotus cinereus (Reeve, 1849; Naesiotus dentritis (Morelet, 1863; Naesiotus fontainii (d’Orbigny, 1838; Naesiotus orbignyi (Pfeiffer, 1846; Protoglyptus pilosus (Guppy, 1871; Protoglyptus sanctaeluciae (E.A. Smith, 1889.Type material of the following taxa is figured herein for the first time: Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus coriaceus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimulus laxostylus Rolle, 1904; Bulimus pliculatus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus simpliculus Pfeiffer, 1855.

  15. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

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    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada, 1 desses aquários foi considerado como controle e os animas do mesmo alimentados com ostras obtidas de locais onde não se verificou a ocorrência de imposex em neogastrópodes nativos. Os animais nos outros 6 aquários foram alimentados com ostras obtidas em local onde a incidência de imposex entre os gastrópodes nativos revelou-se muito alta. A cada 15 dias, por um período total de 90 dias, os animais de um dos tanques eram retirados e analisados quanto à presença de imposex. Os níveis de imposex foram quantificados através da % de imposex e dos índices: RPLI, RPSI e VDSI. Observou-se a indução de imposex em S. haemastoma floridana através da dieta a partir de Crassostrea rhizophora e um aumento significativo dos índices com o decorrer do tempo de exposição. Os animais do aquário controle foram analisados ao fim do experimento não revelando qualquer indício de imposex.

  16. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme. PMID:26575636

  17. Hoenselaaria, a new genus with the description of a new species (Gastropoda: Eulimidae) from the Indo-Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Moolenbeek, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The type species of the genus Microstilifer, Stilifer auricula Hedley, 1907 is a rather common, but minute, Indo-Pacific micromollusc that needs a new generic and specific name due to misinterpretation of its identity. The genus Hoenselaaria new genus is introduced with its type species Hoenselaaria wareni new species. This species occurs nearly all over the tropical Indo-Pacific but it has been overlooked until now probably due to its extremely small size.

  18. Hoenselaaria, a new genus with the description of a new species (Gastropoda: Eulimidae) from the Indo-Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Moolenbeek

    2009-01-01

    The type species of the genus Microstilifer, Stilifer auricula Hedley, 1907 is a rather common, but minute, Indo-Pacific micromollusc that needs a new generic and specific name due to misinterpretation of its identity. The genus Hoenselaaria new genus is introduced with its type species Hoenselaaria

  19. Effects of parasitism and environment on shell size of the South American intertidal mud snail Heleobia australis (Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Pilar; Bonel, Nicolás; Cazzaniga, Néstor J.; Martorelli, Sergio R.

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of parasitism and certain environmental factors on the shell size of Heleobia australis (Hydrobiidae, Cochliopinae). We report sporocysts and metacercariae of Microphallus simillimus (Microphallidae, Trematoda) parasitizing the gonad and digestive gland of H. australis specimens from two sites of Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher (34.17% in winter and 68.14% in late spring) in snails from the outer estuary at Site 2 than in those from the inner estuary at Site 1 (5.88% and 4.71% respectively). The only known definitive host for this digenean is the white-backed stilt Himantopus melanurus (Recurvirostridae, Aves), most abundant in the estuary during winter. Parasitism by M. simillimus causes variations in the shell dimensions of H. australis, the shells of infected snails being narrower than those of uninfected snails. Snails from Site 2 were found in general to be significantly smaller than those at Site 1, possibly as a result of differences in environmental factors such as the degree of exposure to wave energy, the allocation of energy to reproduction rather than growth (induced by predation and/or parasitic castrators) and anthropogenic stressors.

  20. Actividad molusquicida in vitro de Momordica charantia L. (¨Cundeamor¨ contra Fossaria cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Fernández, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENObjetivo: determinar las perspectivas del uso del jugo vegetal extraído de Momordica charantia L. (Cundeamor, en el control de Fossaria cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 principal hospedero de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba.ABSTRACTTo determine the perspectives the use of the juice extracted from the Momordica charantia L.

  1. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-01-01

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data. PMID:27515632

  2. Revision of Partulidae (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) of Palau, with description of a new genus for an unusual ground-dwelling species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slapcinsky, John; Kraus, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new stylommatophoran land snail of the family Partulidae from Palau. The new species has a combination of morphological and ecological characters that do not allow its placement in any existing partulid genus, so we describe a new genus for it. The new genus is characterized by a large (18–23 mm) obese-pupoid shell; smooth protoconch; teleoconch with weak and inconsistent, progressively stronger, striae; last half of body whorl not extending beyond the penultimate whorl; widely expanded and reflexed peristome; relatively long penis, with longitudinal pilasters that fuse apically into a fleshy ridge that divides the main chamber from a small apical chamber; and vas deferens entering and penial-retractor muscle attaching at the apex of the penis. Unlike all other partulids, the new species is strictly associated with rocks in contact with the ground. Comparing the other three Palauan species – currently assigned to Partula – to our new genus and to other partulids makes it clear that they require their own genus because their morphology is quite different from that of true Partula and from that of all other genera. Hence, we resurrect the name Palaopartula Pilsbry for these snails. PMID:27667931

  3. The ibero-balearic region: one of the areas of highest Hydrobiidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Rissooidea diversity in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arconada, Beatriz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The prosobranch mollusc family Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 has a cosmopolitan distribution and is made up of small to minute species that inhabit permanent aquatic ecosystems. It is one of the largest families within the superfamily Rissooidea. The evolutionary relationships between members of this family are still unclear due to: 1 insufficient available information regarding the morphological characters of many of the described taxa, 2 uncertainty concerning which morphological characters are of greatest taxonomic and phylogenetic interest, and 3 the rare use of molecular characters to study evolutionary relationships. In this work, we examine the reasons for the confusing systematics of hydrobiids. We include a diagnosis of the 13 genera and a list of the 43 species described and accepted to date for the Ibero-balearic region, along with data regarding their geographic distribution and a compilation of the most relevant bibliographical references. The Iberian Peninsula is one of the areas of greatest hydrobiid diversity in Europe, and has a large number of endemic genera and species in addition to those that have a typically circummediterranean distribution. Numerous hydrobiid species and populations are threatened, and in some cases, in danger of extinction due to the fragile nature of many of the ecosystems they inhabit.

    La familia Hydrobiidae Troschel, 1857 de moluscos prosobranquios, tiene distribución cosmopolita y está constituida por especies de tamaño pequeño (o incluso diminuto que habitan ecosistemas acuáticos permanentes. Se trata de una de las familias con mayor número de especies de la superfamilia Rissooidea. Las relaciones evolutivas entre los miembros de esta familia son aún confusas debido a: (1 la insuficiente información disponible sobre los caracteres morfológicos de muchos de los táxones descritos, (2 la indefinición de los caracteres morfológicos de interés taxonómico y filogenético, y (3 la escasa aplicación de los caracteres moleculares para este fin. En este trabajo se revisa la confusa sistemática de los hidróbidos y sus causas. Además, se incluye una diagnosis de los 13 géneros y un listado de las 43 especies hasta ahora descritas y aceptadas en el ámbito ibero-balear, con datos sobre su distribución geográfica y la bibliografía más relevante. Se constata que la Península Ibérica constituye una de las áreas de mayor diversidad de hidróbidos en Europa, conteniendo un alto número de géneros y especies endémicos a los que se añaden otros de distribución circunmediterránea. La fragilidad de muchos de los ecosistemas en los que viven hace que muchas de sus especies y/o poblaciones se hallen amenazadas e incluso en peligro de extinción.

  4. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200 mg·L(-1) at 17 °C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6 μg·L(-1) (maximum 2.7 μg·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1 °C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21 d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21 d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116 mg MET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21 d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56 mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36 mg·L(-1) over 21 d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme.

  5. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  6. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608μgCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68test guidelines for invertebrates. The inter-laboratory reproducibility coefficient of variation (CV) for the Cd LC50-56d values was 8.19%. The inter-laboratory comparison of fecundity within the controls gave a CV of 29.12%, while exposure to Cd gave a CV of 25.49% based on the EC50-56d values. The OECD has acknowledged the success of this prevalidation exercise and a validation ring-test involving 14 laboratories in Europe, North- and South-America is currently being implemented using four chemicals (Cd, prochloraz, trenbolone and tributyltin).

  7. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-08-08

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data.

  8. Hemocyte-specific responses to the peroxidizing herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Jacqueline [UMR 6553 Ecobio CNRS Universite de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lefeuvre-Orfila, Luz [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France); Lagadic, Laurent [UMR 985 INRA-Agrocampus Ecobiologie et Qualite des Hydrosystemes Continentaux, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint-Brieuc CS 84215, F-35042 Rennes cedex 35042 (France)]. E-mail: laurent.lagadic@rennes.inra.fr

    2007-03-15

    Responses of circulating hemocytes were studied in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to 10, 30, 90, and 270 {mu}g/L fomesafen for 24 and 504 h. Flow cytometry was used to quantify fomesafen-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic activity on Escherichia coli, and oxidative burst when hemocytes were challenged by E. coli or phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Lysosomal membrane damage was assessed, using the neutral-red retention time (NRRT) assay. Exposure to fomesafen for 24 h resulted in increase in ROS levels and decreases in phagocytosis and the oxidative burst in PMA-stimulated hemocytes. After 504 h, intracellular levels of ROS returned to normal, but phagocytosis of E. coli was still inhibited and the associated oxidative burst significantly reduced. After both durations of exposure, decreases of NRRT indicated that lysosome membrane fragility increased with fomesafen concentration. Potential implications for the health and survival of the snails and consequences on populations are discussed. - Fomesafen inhibited phagocytosis and the associated oxidative burst, and increased lysosome fragility in L. stagnalis hemocytes.

  9. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attwood Stephen W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment. Predictions currently assume that the impacts will be the same as those observed in Africa (i.e., a worsening of the schistosomiasis problem; however, marked ecological differences between the snails involved suggest that region specific models are required. The present study was performed as an initial step in providing data, which could be useful in the planning of water resource development in the Mekong. Snail population density records were analyzed for populations close to, and far downstream of, the Nam Theun 2 (NT2 project in Laos in order to detect any changes that might be attributable to impoundment. Results The population immediately downstream of NT2 and that sampled 400 km downstream in Thailand both showed a long term trend of slow growth from 1992 to 2005; however, both populations showed a marked decline in density between 2005 and 2011. The decline in Thailand was to a value significantly lower than that predicted by a linear mixed model for the data, whilst the population density close to NT2 fell to undetectable levels in 2011 from densities of over 5000 m-2 in 2005. The NT2 dam began operation in 2010. Conclusions The impact of the NT2 dam on N. aperta population density could be more complex than first thought and may reflect the strict ecological requirements of this snail. There was no indication that responses of N. aperta populations to dam construction are similar to those observed with Bulinus and Schistosoma haematobium in Africa, for example. In view of the present findings, more ecological data (in particular population density monitoring and surveillance for new habitats are urgently required in order to understand properly the likely impacts of water resource development on Mekong schistosomiasis.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness.

  11. Subgeneric division of the genus Orcula Held 1837 with remarks on Romanian orculid data (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Pall-Gergely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genital anatomy of Orcula jetschini (Romania, O. zilchi (Bulgaria and O. wagneri (Albania is described. Based on anatomical features (morphology of the penial caecum, shell characters (sculpture and shape and unpublished molecular data, the genus Orcula is subdivided into three subgenera. O. zilchi was classified within the monotypic subgenus Orcula (Hausdorfia subgen. n.; O. jetschini, O. wagneri and O. schmidtii were classified to Orcula (Illyriobanatica subgen. n. (type species: Pupa Schmidtii, whereas the other Orcula species remain in the nominotypical subgenus. Orcula (Hausdorfia is known from South-Eastern Bulgaria and North-Western Turkey, Orcula (Illyriobanatica inhabits Western Romania, North-Western Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Kosovo and Montenegro. The nine species of Orcula (Orcula are known mainly from the Alps and the Western Carpathians (from Eastern France to Eastern Hungary and Slovakia.The occurrence of only one Orcula species, namely O. jetschini is verified from Romania. Available information suggests that data on the Romanian occurrence of Orcula dolium and O. gularis were based on wrongly identified specimens. Sphyradium dobrogicum (=Orcula dobrogica is considered as a synonym of S. doliolum.

  12. No evidence for a culturable bacterial tetrodotoxin producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvitti, Lauren R; Wood, Susanna A; McNabb, Paul; Cary, Stephen Craig

    2015-02-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia) and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes). Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0), suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely. PMID:25635464

  13. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) - more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wägele, Heike; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. RESULTS: Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. CONCLUSION: According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs), and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups. PMID:15715915

  14. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-07-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmission electron microscopy. Within the scope of the present study we investigated the myogenesis of premetamorphic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages of the anaspidean opisthobranch Aplysia californica using fluorescence F-actin-labeling in conjunction with modern confocal laser scanning microscopy. We categorized muscles with respect to their differentiation and degeneration and found three true larval muscles that differentiate during the embryonic and veliger phase and degenerate during or slightly after metamorphosis. These are the larval retractor, the accessory larval retractor, and the metapodial retractor muscle. While the pedal retractor muscle, some transversal mantle fibers and major portions of the cephalopedal musculature are continued and elaborated during juvenile and adult life, the buccal musculature and the anterior retractor muscle constitute juvenile/adult muscles which differentiate during or after metamorphosis. The metapodial retractor muscle has never been reported for any other gastropod taxon. Our findings indicate that the late veliger larva of A. californica shares some common traits with veligers of other gastropods, such as a larval retractor muscle. However, the postmetamorphic stages exhibit only few congruencies with other gastropod taxa investigated to date, which is probably due to common larval but different adult life styles within gastropods. Accordingly, this study provides further evidence for morphological plasticity in gastropod myogenesis and stresses the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns. PMID:18157859

  15. Digestive system of the sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia): light- and electron-microscopic observations with remarks on chloroplast retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi

    2005-08-01

    The sacoglossan Plakobranchus ocellatus feeds by sucking the cytoplasmic contents from algae and retains intact algal chloroplasts within the cells of the digestive gland. Morphology of the entire digestive system of this species was firstly described by means of a combination of histology and electron microscopy (both SEM and TEM). The short alimentary canal is confined to the head, and the anus opens at the anterior right corner of the pericardial swelling, as is the case in many non-shelled sacoglossans. The alimentary canal of the specimens examined rarely contained ingesta, suggesting that the retained chloroplasts provide sufficient nourishment to the sacoglossan hosts and that sea slugs with empty stomachs survive well in the field. The digestive gland, with the retained chloroplasts, branches from the stomach and is sparsely distributed throughout the body, including the head region, but is aggregated mainly in the dorsal lamellae. Chloroplasts were occasionally found in the epithelial cells in the transitional region from the stomach wall to the digestive gland, which may be a site at which chloroplasts are incorporated into the animal cells by endocytosis. Numerous microvilli filling the lumen of the digestive gland suggest that molecules are actively transferred within the gland. The sea slug thus apparently provides a favorable environment to support the long-term retention and function of chloroplasts. PMID:16141704

  16. Initial results on the molecular phylogeny of the Nudibranchia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) based on 18S rDNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollscheid, E; Wägele, H

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated nudibranch phylogeny on the basis of 18S rDNA sequence data. 18S rDNA sequence data of 19 taxa representing the major living orders and families of the Nudibranchia were analyzed. Representatives of the Cephalaspidea, Anaspidea, Gymnomorpha, Prosobranchia, and Pulmonata were also sequenced and used as outgroups. An additional 28 gastropod sequences taken from GenBank were also included in our analyses. Phylogenetic analyses of these more than 50 gastropod taxa provide strong evidence for support of the monophyly of the Nudibranchia. The monophyly of the Doridoidea, Cladobranchia, and Aeolidoidea within the Nudibranchia are also strongly supported. Phylogenetic utility and information content of the 18S rDNA sequences for Nudibranchia, and Opisthobranchia in general, are examined using the program SplitsTree as well as phylogenetic reconstructions using distance and parsimony approaches. 0Results based on these molecular data are compared with hypotheses about nudibranch phylogeny inferred from morphological data. PMID:10603252

  17. mtDNA ribosomal gene phylogeny of sea hares in the genus Aplysia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Anaspidea): Implications for comparative neurobiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy M.; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2000-08-10

    Sea hares within the genus Aplysia are important neurobiological model organisms, and as studies based on different Aplysia species appear in the literature, a phylogenetic framework has become essential. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this genus, based on portions of two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S). In addition, we reconstruct the evolution of several behavioral characters of interest to neurobiologists in order to illustrate the potential benefits of a phylogeny for the genus Aplysia. These benefits include the determination of ancestral traits, the direction and timing of evolution of characters, prediction of the distribution of traits, and identification of cases of independent acquisition of traits within lineages. This last benefit may prove especially useful in understanding the linkage between behaviors and their underlying neurological basis.

  18. No Evidence for a Culturable Bacterial Tetrodotoxin Producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Salvitti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes. Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0, suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely.

  19. Analysis of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cory D; Pires, Anthony; Norby, Shong-Wan; Boudko, Dmitri; Moroz, Leonid L; Hadfield, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    The gas nitric oxide (NO), and in some cases its downstream second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) function in different taxa to regulate the timing of life-history transitions. Increased taxonomic sampling is required to foster conclusions about the evolution and function of NO/cGMP signaling during life-history transitions. We report on the function and localization of NO and cGMP signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae. Pharmacological manipulation of NO or cGMP production in larvae modulated responses to a natural settlement cue from the coral Porites compressa in a manner that suggest inhibitory function for NO/cGMP signaling. However, these treatments were not sufficient to induce metamorphosis in the absence of cue, a result unique to this animal. We show that induction of metamorphosis in response to the settlement cue is associated with a reduction in NO production. We documented the expression of putative NO synthase (NOS) and the production of cGMP during larval development and observed no larval cells in which NOS and cGMP were both detected. The production of cGMP in a bilaterally symmetrical group of cells fated to occupy the distal tip of rhinophores is correlated with competence to respond to the coral settlement cue. These results suggest that endogenous NO and cGMP are involved in modulating responses of P. sibogae to a natural settlement cue. We discuss these results with respect to habitat selection and larval ecology. PMID:18460091

  20. mtDNA ribosomal gene phylogeny of sea hares in the genus Aplysia (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Anaspidea): implications for comparative neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Collins, T M; Walsh, P J

    2001-01-01

    Sea hares within the genus Aplysia are important neurobiological model organisms; as more studies based on different Aplysia species are appearing in the literature, a phylogenetic framework has become essential. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this genus, based on portions of two mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S). In addition, we reconstruct the evolution of several behavioral characters of interest to neurobiologists to illustrate the potential benefits of a phylogeny for the genus Aplysia. These benefits include determination of ancestral traits, direction and timing of evolution of characters, prediction of the distribution of traits, and identification of cases of independent acquisition of traits within lineages. This last benefit may prove especially useful in understanding the linkage between behaviors and their underlying neurological bases. PMID:12116938

  1. Surviving the Messinian Salinity Crisis? Divergence patterns in the genus Dendropoma (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Marta; Alda, Fernando; Oliverio, Marco; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2015-10-01

    Four genetically distinct clades were recently described under the name Dendropoma petraeum, a Mediterranean endemic vermetid gastropod. The aim of this work is to date the processes that drove to the diversification within this taxon and to relate them to the corresponding historical events occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers were obtained from specimens collected in 29 localities spanning over 4000km across the entire distribution range of D. petraeum species complex. The phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses confirmed the four well-supported and largely differentiated lineages of D. petraeum, clearly delimited geographically along a west-east axis within the Mediterranean Sea: Western, Tyrrhenian-Sicilian, Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages. Divergence time estimates, obtained using a range of known substitution rates for other marine gastropods, indicated two main stages of diversification. In the first period (between 9.5 and 4.5mya), the ancestral D. petraeum diverged into the current four lineages. The most recent period occurred between 3.72 and 0.66mya in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, and included the main within-lineage diversification events. Therefore, if the divergence time between the major lineages of Dendropoma in the Mediterranean actually predated or coincided with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then they should have survived to this dramatic period within the Mediterranean, as supported by Bayes Factors model comparison. Conversely, if the divergence started after the crisis, congruent with the idea that no true marine organism survived the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then our results indicate substitution rates of Dendropoma much higher than usual (5.16% per million years for COI, 3.04% for 16S). More recent climate changes seem to have conditioned the demographic history of each lineage differently. While Western and Tyrrhenian-Sicilian lineages both underwent an increase in their effective population sizes from 1.5 to 0.6mya coinciding with a long interglacial period, the Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages showed constant effective population sizes since 2-2.5mya, suggesting that these eastern lineages might represent small and relict populations surviving the subsequent Quaternary glaciations in isolated refugia. PMID:26002830

  2. Cryptic species in tropic sands--interactive 3D anatomy, molecular phylogeny and evolution of meiofaunal Pseudunelidae (Gastropoda, Acochlidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timea P Neusser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Towards realistic estimations of the diversity of marine animals, tiny meiofaunal species usually are underrepresented. Since the biological species concept is hardly applicable on exotic and elusive animals, it is even more important to apply a morphospecies concept on the best level of information possible, using accurate and efficient methodology such as 3D modelling from histological sections. Molecular approaches such as sequence analyses may reveal further, cryptic species. This is the first case study on meiofaunal gastropods to test diversity estimations from traditional taxonomy against results from modern microanatomical methodology and molecular systematics. RESULTS: The examined meiofaunal Pseudunela specimens from several Indo-Pacific islands cannot be distinguished by external features. Their 3D microanatomy shows differences in the organ systems and allows for taxonomic separation in some cases. Additional molecular analyses based on partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA markers revealed considerable genetic structure that is largely congruent with anatomical or geographical patterns. Two new species (Pseudunela viatoris and P. marteli spp. nov. are formally described integrating morphological and genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis using partial 16S rRNA, COI and the nuclear 18S rRNA markers shows a clade of Pseudunelidae species as the sister group to limnic Acochlidiidae. Within Pseudunela, two subtypes of complex excretory systems occur. A complex kidney already evolved in the ancestor of Hedylopsacea. Several habitat shifts occurred during hedylopsacean evolution. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptic species occur in tropical meiofaunal Pseudunela gastropods, and likely in other meiofaunal groups with poor dispersal abilities, boosting current diversity estimations. Only a combined 3D microanatomical and molecular approach revealed actual species diversity within Pseudunela reliably. Such integrative methods are recommended for all taxonomic approaches and biodiversity surveys on soft-bodied and small-sized invertebrates. With increasing taxon sampling and details studied, the evolution of acochlidian panpulmonates is even more complex than expected.

  3. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  4. A new member of troglobitic Carychiidae, Koreozospeum nodongense gen. et sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea is described from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Jochum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of troglobitic Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 is designated from Nodong Cave, North Chungcheong Province, Danyang, South Korea. This remarkable find represents a great range extension and thus, a highly distant distribution of troglobitic Carychiidae in Asia. The Zospeum-like, carychiid snails were recently included, without a formal description, in records documenting Korean malacofauna. The present paper describes Koreozospeum Jochum & Prozorova, gen. n. and illustrates the type species, K. nodongense Lee, Prozorova & Jochum, sp. n. using novel Nano-CT images, including a video, internal shell morphology, SEM and SEM-EDX elemental compositional analysis of the shell.

  5. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J. Russell; Nalugwa, Allen;

    2013-01-01

    and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22...

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  7. [Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; García de León, Francisco J; Tello Cetina, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over-fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F(ST) de 0.003, p = 0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. PMID:22017119

  8. Description and evaluation of imposex in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Strombidae): a potential bio-indicator of tributyltin pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cob, Zaidi Che; Arshad, Aziz; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan

    2011-07-01

    Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is an important gastropod species within the study area and was traditionally collected for food by the locals. The objective of the present study is to assess the incidence of imposex and its severity in this species. Adult conchs were sampled during their main reproductive period, from October 2005 to January 2006, at Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Straits, Malaysia. A total of 32.81% of adult females showed imposex characteristics, with varying degrees of severity though. The relative penis size (RPS) index ranged from 1.74 to 33.29 (mean = 13.40 ± 2.27, n = 21), while the relative penis length (RPL) index ranged from 6.28 to 55.19 (mean = 25.83 ± 3.33, n = 21). The use of vas deferens sequence (VDS) index was however cannot be applied as the presence of egg groove obscured any vas deferens development in affected females. Sequence of imposex (male penis) development in female conch, from merely a small stump to an advance male penis homologous was therefore carefully analyzed and described, and an alternative imposex classification scheme was proposed. S. canarium can be a good indicator for monitoring of organotin pollution within the study area. However, more studies are needed in order to further develop and test its validity and application, such as its correlation with levels of pollutant within the tissues and the environment, as well as its application on other Strombus species. PMID:20824325

  9. The marine Mollusca of the Kendeng Beds (East Java) Gastropoda Part V (Families Muricidae — Volemidae inclusive)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    Part IV of this monograph was published in volume 12 of this Journal, pp. 89—120, 1942. Since 1941 the author can devote only a small part of his time to these investigations. This fact, and the shortness of paper available for scientific publications, made him decide to alter the way of publication

  10. Impacts of Urbanization on the Biodiversity of the Imperiled Snail Fauna (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia: Pleuroceridae) of the Cahaba River, Alabama, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Jordan, L.; Huryn, A.

    2005-05-01

    The conservation of the Pleuroceridae is of concern in the Mobile River Basin (MRB) since 31 of 38 extinct gastropod species from this drainage are pleurocerids. The fauna of the Cahaba River, as a global hot-spot for pleurocerid diversity, is of particular concern. Its flow is not regulated by dams, so its fauna has not been affected by habitat alteration due to impoundment like other major MRB tributaries. Ongoing urbanization within its watershed, however, is expected to have consequences for its snail fauna. A 1993 survey documented 23 pleurocerid species among 109 sites in the drainage. Changes in land cover from 1992 to 2004 were quantified for 10 of these. Five sites showed a 13-36% increase in urban land-cover; five showed no change. Elimia cahawbensis, E. carinifera, E. carinocostata, E. clara and Pleurocera vestita occurred among these sites during 1993 (S= 0-4 spp./site). A comparison of species occurrence in 1992 and 2005 showed no change in S at 6 sites, while three lost 1 species, and one lost 3 species. Reductions in S were not correlated with changes in land cover, however. Factors not directly correlated with urbanization may thus be contributing to losses of snail diversity in the MRB.

  11. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  12. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi (Ihering, 1911 (Serpentes; Dipsadidae and Potamojanuarius lamellatus (Semper, 1885 (Gastropoda; Veronicellidae: a trophic relationship revealed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dispsadidae serpents from the genus Sibynomorphus are restricted to South America and include twelve species currently known, which occur in Brazil, Argentina, Peru, and Ecuador. Sibynomorphus neuwiedi is a species endemic to forested areas of the Atlantic Rainforest biome, and it is specialized in eating gastropods. Eight adult individuals of S. neuwiedi were collected between April 1998 and June 2003 at the surroundings of the Vila dos Dois Rios village (23°11’S, 44°12’W, in the Parque Estadual da Ilha Grande, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the laboratory, we dissected their stomachs for analysis of its contents. We found prey in four of them (50%, all represented by the slug Potamojanuarius lamellatus (Veronicellidae, and four individuals had empty stomach. The consumption of slugs from the Family Veronicellidae by serpents from the tribe Dipsadini has been reported, nevertheless, we report the occurrence of P. lamellatus in the diet of S. neuwiedi for the first time.

  13. Host and ecology both play a role in shaping distribution of digenean parasites of New Zealand whelks (Gastropoda: Buccinidae: Cominella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Spencer, Hamish G

    2016-08-01

    Digenean parasites infecting four Cominella whelk species (C. glandiformis, C. adspersa, C. maculosa and C. virgata), which inhabit New Zealand's intertidal zone, were analysed using molecular techniques. Mitochondrial 16S and cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and nuclear rDNA ITS1 sequences were used to infer phylogenetic relationships amongst digenea. Host species were parasitized by a diverse range of digenea (Platyhelminthes, Trematoda), representing seven families: Echinostomatidae, Opecoelidae, Microphallidae, Strigeidae and three, as yet, undetermined families A, B and C. Each parasite family infected between one and three host whelk species, and infection levels were typically low (average infection rates ranged from 1·4 to 3·6%). Host specificity ranged from highly species-specific amongst the echinostomes, which were only ever observed infecting C. glandiformis, to the more generalist opecoelids and strigeids, which were capable of infecting three out of four of the Cominella species analysed. Digeneans displayed a highly variable geographic range; for example, echinostomes had a large geographic range stretching the length of New Zealand, from Northland to Otago, whereas Family B parasites were restricted to fairly small areas of the North Island. Our results add to a growing body of research identifying wide ranges in both host specificity and geographic range amongst intertidal, multi-host parasite systems. PMID:27278710

  14. Identification of two carbonic anhydrases in the mantle of the European Abalone Haliotis tuberculata (Gastropoda, Haliotidae): phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LE Roy, Nathalie; Marie, Benjamin; Gaume, Béatrice; Guichard, Nathalie; Delgado, Sidney; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Becchi, Michel; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Sire, Jean-Yves; Marin, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) represent a diversified family of metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide. They are involved in a wide range of functions, among which is the formation of CaCO(3) skeletons in metazoans. In the shell-forming mantle tissues of mollusks, the location of the CA catalytic activity is elusive and gives birth to contradicting views. In the present paper, using the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a key model gastropod in biomineralization studies, we identified and characterized two CAs (htCA1 and htCA2) that are specific of the shell-forming mantle tissue. We analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. Combining various approaches, including proteomics, activity tests, and in silico analyses, we showed that htCA1 is secreted but is not incorporated in the organic matrix of the abalone shell and that htCA2 is transmembrane. Together with previous studies dealing with molluskan CAs, our findings suggest two possible modes of action for shell mineralization: the first mode applies to, for example, the bivalves Unio pictorum and Pinctada fucata, and involves a true CA activity in their shell matrix; the second mode corresponds to, for example, the European abalone, and does not include CA activity in the shell matrix. Our work provides new insight on the diversity of the extracellular macromolecular tools used for shell biomineralization study in mollusks.

  15. A new species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 in the marine false limpet Siphonaria lessonii (Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) from Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Cristián; Bagnato, Estefanía; Siddall, Mark; Cremonte, Florencia

    2014-05-01

    A new species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 parasitising the pulmonate gastropod Siphonaria lessonii Blainville in Patagonia, Argentina, is described based on morphological (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) and sequence (small subunit ribosomal RNA gene) data. Different stages of sporulation were observed as infections disseminated in the digestive gland. Haplosporidium patagon n. sp. is characterised by oval or slightly subquadrate spores with an operculum that is ornamented with numerous short digitiform projections of regular height, perpendicular to and covering its outer surface. The operculum diameter is slightly larger than the apical diameter of the spore. Neither the immature nor mature spores showed any kind of projections of the exosporoplasm or of the spore wall. Regarding phylogenetic affinities, the new species was recovered as sister to an undescribed species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 from the polychaete family Syllidae Grube from Japanese waters. The morphological characters (ornamentation of the operculum, spore wall structure, shape and size of spores, and the lack of spore wall projections) corroborate it as an as yet undescribed species of Haplosporidium and the first for the phylum in marine gastropods of South America. Siphonaria lessonii is the only known host to date.

  16. Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda – more than just slimy slugs. Shell reduction and its implications on defence and foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wägele Heike

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general shell-less slugs are considered to be slimy animals with a rather dull appearance and a pest to garden plants. But marine slugs usually are beautifully coloured animals belonging to the less-known Opisthobranchia. They are characterized by a large array of interesting biological phenomena, usually related to foraging and/or defence. In this paper our knowledge of shell reduction, correlated with the evolution of different defensive and foraging strategies is reviewed, and new results on histology of different glandular systems are included. Results Based on a phylogeny obtained by morphological and histological data, the parallel reduction of the shell within the different groups is outlined. Major food sources are given and glandular structures are described as possible defensive structures in the external epithelia, and as internal glands. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses, the reduction of the shell correlates with the evolution of defensive strategies. Many different kinds of defence structures, like cleptocnides, mantle dermal formations (MDFs, and acid glands, are only present in shell-less slugs. In several cases, it is not clear whether the defensive devices were a prerequisite for the reduction of the shell, or reduction occurred before. Reduction of the shell and acquisition of different defensive structures had an implication on exploration of new food sources and therefore likely enhanced adaptive radiation of several groups.

  17. Aberrant Forms of the Genus Clio Linnaeus, 1767, with a Review of the Genus Proclio Hubendick, 1951 (Gastropoda, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, S.v.d.

    1962-01-01

    The examination of two aberrant Pteropods collected during a trip with the whale factory-ship ”m.s. Willem Barendsz” led to the conclusion that they were animals in a resting stage. The histology and the anatomy of the totally aberrant soft parts was discussed. The shells of the specimens indicate t

  18. Ecotoxicological studies with newly hatched larvae of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda): bioassay with secondary-treated kraft pulp mill effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Patricio H; Llanos-Rivera, Alejandra; Galaz, Sylvana; Camaño, Andrés

    2013-12-01

    The Chilean abalone or "loco" (Concholepas concholepas, Bruguière 1789) represent the most economically important marine recourse exploited from inner inshore Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources along the Chilean coast. In this study, newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas were investigated as a potential model species for marine ecotoxicological studies. The study developed a behavioral standard protocol for assessing the impact that kraft pulp mill effluents after secondary treatment have on C. concholepas larvae. Under controlled laboratory conditions, newly-hatched larvae were exposed to a series of different concentrations of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment (Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp.), potassium dichromate as standard reference toxicant and effluent-free control conditions. Regardless of the type of effluent the results indicated that diluted kraft pulp effluent with secondary treatment had reduced effect on larval survival. Low larval survivals were only recorded when they were exposed to high concentrations of the reference toxicant. This suggests that C. concholepas larval bioassay is a simple method for monitoring the effects of kraft pulp mill effluents with secondary treatment discharged into the sea. The results indicated that dilution of ca. 1% of the effluent with an elemental chlorine free (ECF) secondary treatment is appropriate for achieving low larval mortalities, such as those obtained under control conditions with filtered seawater, and to minimize their impact on early ontogenetic stages of marine invertebrates such as newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas. The methodological aspects of toxicological testing and behavioral responses described here with newly-hatched larvae of C. concholepas can be used to evaluate in the future the potential effects of other stressful conditions as other pollutants or changes in seawater pH associated with ocean acidification. PMID:24099753

  19. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  20. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A

    2016-05-01

    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories.

  1. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...... the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns....

  2. The sudden appearance of Aeolidiella glauca (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) in lake Greveliningen (S.W. Netherlands) in 1983 and 1984

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 a population of the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca (Alder & Hancock, 1845) was found in the saline Lake Grevelingen (S.W. Netherlands). The number of specimens observed exceeds by far the total number previously recorded from the Dutch coast. Field observations on food intake suggest

  3. Antimicrobial activities of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca:Gastropoda) from Thazhanguda, southeast coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Periyasamy N; Srinivasan M; Balakrishnan S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the tissue extracts of Babylonia spirata (B. spirata) against nine bacterial and three fungal pathogens. Methods: Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial and fungal growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and in vitro antifungal activity was determined against Czapex Dox agar. The antimicrobial activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular size of muscle protein was determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). And fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectro photometry analysis was also studied. Results:The maximum inhibition zone (12 mm) was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the crude ethanol extract of B. spirata and the minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed againstStaphylococcus aureus in the crude methanol extract of B. spirata. Water extract of B. spirata showed the highest activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Candidaalbicans. Ethanol, acetone, methanol, chloroform and water extracts showed antimicrobial activity against almost all the bacteria and fungus. Compared with water extracts, ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity against all pathogens. The molecular weight of protein of the gastropod sample ranged from 2-110 kDa on SDS-PAGE. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of bioactive compounds signals at different ranges. Conclusions: The research shows that the great medicinal value of the gastropod muscle of B. spirata may be due to high quality of antimicrobial compounds.

  4. Seasonal bioconcentration of heavy metals in Onchidium struma (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from Chongming Island, the YangtzeEstuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaobo; JIA Linzhi; ZHAO Yunlong; WANG Qun; CHENG Yongxu

    2009-01-01

    The seasonal concentration changes of selected heavy metal Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn in five tissues of marine gastropod Onchidium struma were studied in the Chongming Island, the Yangtze Estuary on July 2006, September 2006, and November 2006, April 2007, respectively. The results demonstrated that the bioconcentration factor of Cu (biomass/water) in all selected tissues was about 104 magnitudes, Fe and Cd were 103, Zn was 102, and Mn, Pb, and Cr were 101. Hepatopancreas was proven to be the dominant storage tissue of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn, whereas Fe and Pb were mainly stored in muscle and digenetic gland, and Cd was stored in vitelline gland and albumen gland. Additionally, it was found that Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn were concentrated significantly by O. struma (whole-body) in summer or autumn, and Cd, Cr, and Pb increased slightly in spring and winter. Furthermore, the bioconcentration of Cr was nearly 2-fold higher and Zn was 1.6-fold higher in the water compared with the Water Quality Standard for Fisheries. With view of excessive amount of Pb, Cd, and Cu according to seafood standard, the consumption of O. struma might have the risk of health hazard.

  5. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters was

  6. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely resemb

  7. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood Stephen W; Upatham E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies) available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment....

  8. Actividad molusquicida in vitro de Momordica charantia L. (¨Cundeamor¨) contra Fossaria cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Diéguez Fernández, L; Piña Pérez, M; Abreu Guirado, O; Vásquez Capote, R; Rodríguez de la Vega, R

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo: determinar las perspectivas del uso del jugo vegetal extraído de Momordica charantia L. (Cundeamor), en el control de Fossaria cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839) principal hospedero de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba.ABSTRACTTo determine the perspectives the use of the juice extracted from the Momordica charantia L.

  9. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most laboratory assessments on toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with each other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC50) of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. while Zn and Pb ions accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation radio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81) when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold). (author)

  10. Exploring species level taxonomy and species delimitation methods in the facultatively self-fertilizing land snail genus Rumina (gastropoda: pulmonata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Prévot

    Full Text Available Delimiting species in facultatively selfing taxa is a challenging problem of which the terrestrial pulmonate snail genus Rumina is a good example. These snails have a mixed breeding system and show a high degree of shell and color variation. Three nominal species (R. decollata, R. saharica and R. paivae and two color morphs within R. decollata (dark and light are currently recognized. The present study aims at evaluating to what extent these entities reflect evolutionary diverging taxonomic units, rather than fixed polymorphisms due to sustained selfing. Therefore, a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear (ITS1, ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA (COI, CytB, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA sequences was performed. Putative species in Rumina, inferred from the mitochondrial DNA phylogeny, were compared with those proposed on the basis of the COI gene by (1 DNA barcoding gap analysis, (2 Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, (3 the species delimitation plug-in of the Geneious software, (4 the Genealogical Sorting Index, and (5 the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model. It is shown that these methods produce a variety of different species hypotheses and as such one may wonder to what extent species delimitation methods are really useful. With respect to Rumina, the data suggest at least seven species, one corresponding to R. saharica and six that are currently grouped under the name R. decollata. The species-level status of R. paivae is rejected.

  11. Annotated type catalogue of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea) in Australian museums, with a compilation of types in other museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breure, Abraham S H; Whisson, Corey S

    2012-01-01

    Type material of 41 Australian Bothriembryon taxa present in Australian museums is critically listed, indicating systematic issues that need to be resolved in further studies. Information on additional type material of 22 taxa in non-Australian museums is compiled. The seven fossil taxa known so far are included in this catalogue. Based on the current systematic position, 38 species are treated in this paper. Bothriembryon jacksoni Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon notatus Iredale, 1939, Bothriembryon praecelsus Iredale, 1939 and Bothriembryon serpentinus Iredale, 1939 are elevated to species level. Bothriembryon gratwicki (Cox, 1899) is listed as status to be determined.

  12. On Trichia alpicola (Eder, 1921) from Switzerland (Mollusca: Gastropoda Pulmonata: Hygromiidae) and the spiral sculpture on its shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Neuteboom, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The nominal taxon Fruticicola villosa var. alpicola Eder, 1921, is provisionally considered a separate Trichia species next to T. villosa. The hairs and the spiral sculpture on the shells of both species are illustrated.

  13. On the distribution of the genus Xerocerastus Kobelt & Von Möllendorff, 1902 (Mollusca, Gastropoda Pulmonata, Subulinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1964-01-01

    Opgedragen aan Prof. Dr. H. Boschma ter gelegenheid van zijn 70ste verjaardag. The subfamily Rumininae of the pulmonate gastropod family Subulinidae is represented in Southern Africa by the endemic genus Xerocerastus Kobelt & von Möllendorff, 1902. Xerocerastus has been divided into three subgenera,

  14. Taxonomic study on the family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) from the China's seas. Subfamilies: Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Ninteen species of subfamilies Imbricariinae and Cylindromitrinae, family Mitridae, are recorded from the China's seas. Of which, one genus and six species are recorded for the first time from China' s seas, i.e., genus Ziba Adams H and Adams A, Cancilla (Cancilla)carnicolor, Ziba duplilirata, Z. insculpta, Neocancilla circula, Scabricola (Scabricola) desetangsii, Scabricola (Swainsonia) ocellata ocellata.

  15. Differences in osmotolerance in freshwater and brackish water populations of Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda: Neritidae) are associated with differential protein expression

    OpenAIRE

    Symanowski, Frauke; Hildebrandt, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    The euryhaline gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis is found in northern Germany in freshwater or in brackish water habitats in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies have revealed that individuals from both habitats are not distinguishable by morphological characters or by sequence comparison of DNA encoding 16S RNA or cytochrome C. As reported in this study, animals collected in the two habitats differ substantially in their physiological ability to adapt to different salinities. Comparison of accumul...

  16. Distribution Of The Freshwater Snail Species Fagotia (Gastropoda, Melanopsidae In Ukraine According To Climatic Factors. I. Fagotia Esperi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytar V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy niche modeling was employed as a tool to assess potential habitat suitability for the freshwater snail F. esperi (Férussac, 1823 in Ukraine for both contemporary climatic conditions and conditions projected for 2050. Of the 19 bioclimatic predictor variables used in the modeling, the “mean temperature seosonality” “mean temperature of driest quarter” and “precipitation of warmest quarter” were the three most important in predicting habitat suitability and distribution of this mollusk species.

  17. Observations on the breeding habits, shell development, decollation, and reproductive anatomy of Pontophaedusa funiculum (Mousson 1856 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae, Phaedusinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The internal and external egg morphology, shell development, decollation process, mating behaviour and reproductive anatomy (genital structure, inner structure of the penis, fine structure of the retractor muscle and the spermatophore of the clausiliid Pontophaedusa funiculum (Mousson 1856 are described, and illustrated by photographs of the laid eggs, their inner structure, juvenile, young adult and old individuals, as well as a schematic drawing of the mating. P. funiculum is the only known clausiliid species with hard shelled eggs and the only known example of the family Clausiliidae which mates face to face. The taxonomic position within the Phaedusinae subfamily is mentioned.

  18. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan;

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the...

  19. Genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Eupulmonata) from the coastal area of China based on mtCO I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Shen, Heding; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Bianna; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Chengnuan

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene sequences. A total of 240 individuals representing 10 collection sites from across a large portion of its known range were included in the analysis. Overall, 42 haplotypes were defined and 97 polymorphic sites were observed. The O. "struma" populations had high haplotype diversity (0.9280) and nucleotide diversity (0.0404). We inferred that the early maturity and extensive survival habitat led to high genetic diversity of O. "struma" populations in China. Bayesian analysis and SAMOVA analysis showed significant genetic differentiation among populations and all populations were divided into two groups, (HK and HN) versus (GY, DF, CX, CN, ND and XM). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r = 0.251; p = 0.058). Restricted gene flow caused by a shorter term pelagic veliger stage and limited dispersal potential were inferred to result in genetic differentiation among populations based on nested analysis. HK population might be an invasive species by artificial transplantation. PMID:25103423

  20. Aspectos histológicos das gônadas hermafroditas de Biomphalaria glabrata e Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Florêncio da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 é um gastrópode pulmonado de água doce que desperta grande interesse médico e veterinário. Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 é um gastrópode pulmonado terrestre considerado uma praga agrícola de plantações de hortaliças. Ambas as espécies são hospedeiras intermediárias de helmintos. Esses moluscos possuem uma gônada hermafrodita produtora de óvulos e espermatozóides de forma simultânea. Neste estudo foram avaliados aspectos histomorfológicos das gônadas hermafroditas de B. glabrata e B. similaris. A gônada de B. similaris encontra-se subdividida em lobos com glândulas em seu interior, o que não foi observado em B. glabrata. Além disso, em B. similaris as células germinativas estão acumuladas em determinados pontos e com a presença de um ovócito em cada folículo da gônada; não obstante, em B. glabrata as células germinativas encontraram-se justapostas e com mais de um ovócito em cada folículo.Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 is a freshwater pulmonate gastropod that represents great medical importance. Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 is a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod and an important plague to the different plant cultures with economic interest. Both species are intermediate hosts of helminths. These molluscs have hermaphrodites gonads producing eggs and sperm. Here, we examined histoformological aspects of hermaphrodites gonads of both B. glabrata and B. similaris. The gonad of B. similaris is subdivided into lobes and presence of glands in its interior, which was not observed in B. glabrata. Moreover, in B. similaris the germ cells are accumulated in some areas, and has one oocyte in each follicle in the gonad; however, in B. glabrata the germ cells are juxtaposed and more than one oocyte in each follicle.

  1. Ús de la cianamida càlcica per al control del caragol poma (Pomacea sp.) en el cultiu de l'arròs al Delta de l'Ebre

    OpenAIRE

    Cugat Melich, Ignasi; Català Forner, Maria del Carme

    2014-01-01

    The apple snail is a freshwater aquatic gasteropod mollusc that belongs to the Ampullariidae family. It is considered one of the 100 more harmful invasive species in the world and it has caused ravage in numerous ricefields around the world. In 2009 the first individuals of the plague were starting to be seen was seen in the ricefields of Delta de l'Ebre, nowadays the plague has already colonized most of the part of the left hemidelta and a small part of the right hemidelta. The calcium cyana...

  2. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh; D K Singh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and...

  3. On a collection of Peruvian Neniinae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Clausiliidae), with a check-list and a provisional key to all the Peruvian species known

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosjes, F.E.; Loosjes-van Bemmel, A.C.W.

    1984-01-01

    An annotated list is given of all Neniinae collected in 1975 by Dr. A. S. H. Breure in Peru. The localities that have been visited are also listed, together with the Neniinae collected there. Pseudogracilinenia gen. nov. is described for P. huallagana (Pilsbry, 1949) (type-species) and P.jolyi (O. B

  4. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  5. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  6. Ontogenetic changes in feeding and food preferences of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Merambong shoal, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husna, Wan Nurul Wan Hassan; Mazlan, Abd Ghaffar; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2016-10-01

    Laevistrombus canarium is one of the marine gastropod mollusks that have high commercial value, particularly in the aquaculture sector in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the feeding and food items of L. canarium at different ontogenetic stages (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) from Merambong shoals, Malaysia. Field observations on feeding activity were conducted, followed by detailed laboratory analysis on the stomach content. Five-minutes observations on randomly selected individuals were conducted at the field sampling site and their feeding activities were recorded with reference to age stage. Various shell sizes from each ontogenetic stage were randomly collected and quickly anaesthetized with ice and preserved in 10% formalin before being transported to the laboratory for stomach content analyses. Field observations showed that L. canarium mainly grazed on epiphytes occurring on seagrass (46.67%), followed by sediment surface (40%) and epiphytes occurring on macroalgae (13.33%). Stomach content analyses showed a significant difference (P 0.05) was detected between the three main food items (diatoms, sand particles and detritus) among the ontogenetic stages. Therefore, feeding activity revealed the role of the dog conch in the marine food network. While, classification of the types of food consumed by L. canarium through stomach content analysis determines the particular position of the gastropod in the food chain. Further studies are needed to provide a better insight between trophic relationships of L. canarium with marine ecosystem.

  7. Larval trematodes (Digenea of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L., (Gastropoda, Pulmonata in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faltýnková A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.

  8. Arresting mantle formation and redirecting embryonic shell gland tissue by platinum2+ leads to body plan modifications in Marisa cornuarietis (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Leonie; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the threat that anthropogenic substances pose to animals when they are emitted into the environment, tests like the invertebrate embryo toxicity test with the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis have been developed. These tests are used to investigate substances like the heavy metal platinum (Pt) that is used in catalytic converters and is gradually released in car exhausts. In 2010, our group reported that high Pt concentrations cause body plan alterations in snails and prevent the formation of an external shell during M. cornuarietis embryogenesis. Now, this study presents scanning-electron micrographs and histological sections of platinum(2+) (Pt(2+))-treated and untreated M. cornuarietis embryos and compares "normally" developing and "shell-less" embryos during embryogenesis, to reveal the exact course of events that lead to this body plan shift. Both groups showed similar development until the onset of torsion 70- to 82-h postfertilization. In the Pt(2+)-exposed embryos, the rudimentary shell gland (=anlage of both shell gland and mantle, which usually evaginates, grows, and eventually covers the visceral sac) does not spread across the visceral sac but remains on its ventral side. Without the excessive growth of the shell gland, a horizontal rotation of the visceral sac relative to head and foot does not occur, as being normal during the process of torsion.

  9. GENETIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF POPULATIONS BELONGING TO THE BULINUS TRUNCATUS/TROPICUS COMPLEX (GASTROPODA; PLANORBIDAE) IN SOUTH WESTERN ZIMBABWE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef;

    1998-01-01

    , in respect of allozyme variation (5 polymorphic loci), shell morphology (9 variables), copulatory organ and chromosome number. Comparative data were obtained from snails from north western Zimbabwe identified definitely as B. tropicus. Analysis of the genetic structure revealed a high degree of polymorphism...

  10. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

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    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  11. Accumulation of free and covalently bound microcystins in tissues of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda) following toxic cyanobacteria or dissolved microcystin-LR exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of free microcystins (MCs) in freshwater gastropods has been demonstrated but accumulation of MCs covalently bound to tissues has never been considered so far. Here, we follow the accumulation of total (free and bound) MCs in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to i) dissolved MC-LR (33 and 100 μg L-1) and ii) Planktothrix agardhii suspensions producing 5 and 33 μg MC-LR equivalents L-1 over a 5-week period, and after a 3-week depuration period. Snails exposed to dissolved MC-LR accumulated up to 0.26 μg total MCs g-1 dry weight (DW), with no detection of bound MCs. Snails exposed to MCs producing P. agardhii accumulated up to 69.9 μg total MCs g-1 DW, of which from 17.7 to 66.7% were bound. After depuration, up to 15.3 μg g-1 DW of bound MCs were detected in snails previously exposed to toxic cyanobacteria, representing a potential source of MCs transfer through the food web. - The study concerns accumulation and elimination of both free and bound microcystins (MCs) in tissues of a gastropod exposed to MCs producing cyanobacteria or dissolved MC-LR.

  12. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchove, C M; Markus, R P; Freitas, J C; Costa-Lotufo, L V

    2002-04-01

    Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 +/- 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 +/- 0.32 g) was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax) to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05), suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM). Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 +/- 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 +/- 0.9 g), which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 microM) with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [3H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 microM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively. PMID:11960200

  13. A NEW SPECIES OF DIAPHANA FROM BATHYAL DEPTHS IN THE WEDDELL SEA, ANTARCTICA AND FIRST RECORD OF DIAPHANA INFLATA (STREBEL, 1908) IN THE HIGH ANTARCTIC (GASTROPODA: OPISTHOBRANCHIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, KATRIN; SchiØtte, TOM

    2002-05-01

    Diaphana haini n.sp. is described from Antarctica. With a depth range from about 400 to 2100 m, D. haini is the second Antarctic species of this genus to extend into the deep sea, the other being D. inflata (Strebel, 1908). Phylogenetic analysis has allowed D. haini to be incorporated within Schiøtte's (1998) cladogram for this genus and, thereby clarify its historical zoogeography. A record of D. inflata from the Weddell Sea extends its known distribution range. The recorded geographic distribution now ranges from South Georgia to the Antarctic continent, and the depth range is extended considerably, from 252-310 m to 1645 m. PMID:12011240

  14. The functional anatomy of the mantle complex and columellar muscle of tectibranch molluscs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), and its bearing on the evolution of opisthobranch organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, R C

    1977-02-15

    An account is given of the anatomy of a series of opisthobranch molluscs principally to assess the change in importance and functioning of the mantle cavity and columellar muscle throughout the transition from prosobranch to opisthobranch organization. Intermediate steps are represented by living tectibranchs, of which Philine and Scaphander are investigated in detail, Acteon, Bulla, Haminoea, Akera, Aglaja and Gastropteron more briefly. Though an opisthobranch, Acteon has an organization typical of a monotocardian prosobranch; the remainder show trends affecting the shell and visceral mass, mantle cavity and head-foot, which resulted finally in the production of nudibranch types. It is confirmed that the adaptations exhibited by primitive tectibranchs relate to the assumption of a burrowing mode of life. Initial changes were the reduction of the nuchal area and sealing of the mantle cavity anteriorly so that it opened on the right, where it became restricted, the first perhaps prompting the sealing. A broadening and an anterior elongation of the head-foot produced a wedge to facilitate burrowing. Change in disposition of the mantle edge, incurred by differential growth, produced an involute shell with a large body whorl, alignment changing from erect to horizontal. The resultant streamlining eased infaunal progression; no vertical insinking of the viscera was involved. Subsequently the shell became reduced and finally lost. A section of the mantle edge enlarged to produce a posterior mantle lobe upon which sit both the shell and viscera, and which later became redundant as posterior elongation of the head-foot produced a slug-like form, the viscera being incorporated within the head-foot. As the nuchal area became reduced, mechanical needs prompted alteration to both the form and attachment of the columellar muscle. In Acteon the muscle is like that of a prosobranch, but the proximal region has broadened, a change of proportion required by primitive tectibranchs in order to support the floor of the mantle cavity formed from the section of mantle skirt which in prosobranchs lies on the right. This was followed by reduction and re-alignment of the entire muscle along an anteroposterior axis as emphasis changed from the muscle effecting retraction into a shell to producing contorsions of the head-foot. The shell, similarly reduced, instead of providing anchorage, became itself anchored by additional anterior and posterior attachment zones with, in more advanced forms, dorsoventral muscles of the body wall rather than longitudinal muscles fastening to the former. Importance was placed on the mutual stabilization of constituent parts of the posterior body region. Re-alignments of the muscle induced breaking up of the longitudinal muscle sheet of the head-foot to produce muscle tracts, best exhibited in those tectibranchs which swim; they are derived from both the columellar muscle and intrinsic body wall muscles... PMID:15290

  15. A new species of Tambja (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea: description of the first species of the genus from the Balearic Islands and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M.; Pola, M.; Ramón, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new species of polycerid nudibranchs of the genus Tambja is described from Mallorca Island (Spain) and Malta. So far, only two species of Tambja had been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea with a distribution limited to southern Spain. With Tambja mediterranea sp. nov., the distribution of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea is extended, and the new species represents the first occurrence of Tambja at the Balearic Islands and Malta. Externally, the new species is mainly characterized by having ground orange-red colour, dorsum covered with rounded whitish tubercles, rhinophores red with whitish tips and three gill branches with orange-reddish rachis and whitish branches. In the present paper, external and internal features of T. mediterranea are described and compared with other species of the genus, especially with its most similar species, T. limaciformis. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and maximum likelihood) based on mitochondrial sequences (COI) show that T. mediterranea sp. nov. is sister to T. divae and that both species cluster together with T. limaciformis and T. amakusana with the maximum support.

  16. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  17. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  18. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  19. Evaluation of the mitochondrial system in the gonad-digestive gland complex of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) after infection by Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Santos, Anderson Teixeira; Garcia, Juberlan da Silva; Maldonado, Arnaldo; da-Silva, Wagner Seixas; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de Azevedo; Pinheiro, Jairo

    2016-05-01

    The effect of infection by Echinostoma paraensei on the mitochondrial physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated after exposure to 50 miracidia. The snails were dissected one, two, three and four weeks after infection for collection and mechanical permeabilization of the gonad-digestive gland (DGG) complex. The results obtained indicate that prepatent infection by this echinostomatid fluke significantly suppresses the phosphorylation state (respiratory state 3) and basal oxygen consumption of B. glabrata, demonstrating that the infection reduces the ability of the intermediate host to carry out aerobic oxidative reactions. Additionally, relevant variations related to the uncoupled mitochondrial (state 3u) of B. glabrata infected by E. paraensei were observed. Four weeks after exposure, a significant reduction in mitochondrial oxygen consumption after addition of ADP (3.68±0.26pmol O2/mg proteins) was observed in the infected snails in comparison with the respective control group (5.14±0.25). In the uncoupled state, the infected snails consumed about 62% less oxygen than the infected snails (7.87±0.84pmol O2/mg proteins) in the same period. These results demonstrate a reduction in oxidative decarboxylation rate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and faster anaerobic degradation of carbohydrates in the infected snails. The possible mechanisms that explain this new metabolic condition in the infected organisms are discussed. PMID:27079167

  20. DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern Andean countries, with description of L. meridensis n. sp. (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues M Dolores

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Livestock fascioliasis is a problem throughout Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, mainly in Andean areas where the disease also appears to affect humans. Transmission patterns and epidemiological scenarios of liver fluke infection have shown to differ according to the lymnaeid vector snail species involved. These Andean countries present the vectors Lymnaea cousini, L. bogotensis and L. ubaquensis, unknown in the rest of Latin America. An exhaustive combined haplotype study of these species is performed by means of DNA sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal 18S RNA gene, ITS-2 and ITS-1, and mitochondrial DNA cox1 gene. Results The conserved 5.8S rDNA sequence corroborated that no pseudogenes are involved in the numerous non-microsatellite/minisatellite-related indels appearing between the ITS-2 and ITS-1 sequences when comparing different L. cousini - L. bogotensis populations. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic reconstruction methods including other lymnaeid vector species show that (i L. bogotensis is a synonym of L. cousini, (ii L. ubaquensis is a synonym of Pseudosuccinea columella, and (iii populations of L. cousini hitherto known from Venezuelan highlands indeed belong to a new species for which the name L. meridensis n. sp. is proposed. This new species is described and a complete phenotypic differentiation provided. Conclusions ITS-2, ITS-1 and cox1 prove to be good markers for specimen classification and haplotype characterisation of these morphologically similar lymnaeids in endemic areas. Analysis of the 18S gene and phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that L. cousini and L. meridensis n. sp. cluster in an evolutionary line different from the one of P. columella, despite their external resemblance. This suggests an evolutionary phenotypic convergence related to similar environments and which has given rise to frequent specimen misclassification. Body size and phylogenetic relationships of L. meridensis n. sp. with well-known vectors as Lymnaea cousini and P. columella, as well as with Galba/Fossaria species, suggest that the new species may participate in disease transmission to both animals and humans in altitude areas during the yearly window in which temperatures are higher than the F. hepatica minimum development threshold. The involvement of L. cousini and P. columella in the transmission and geographical/altitudinal distribution of fascioliasis in these Andean countries is analysed.

  1. Phylogenetic relationships elucidate colonization patterns in the intertidal grazers Osilinus Philippi, 1847 and Phorcus Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda: Trochidae) in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten M; Preston, Joanne; Williams, Suzanne T; Reid, David G; Winter, David; Alvarez, Raquel; Buge, Barbara; Hawkins, Stephen J; Templado, Jose; Spencer, Hamish G

    2012-01-01

    Snails in the closely related trochid genera Phorcus Risso, 1826 and Osilinus Philippi, 1847 are ecologically important algal grazers in the intertidal zone of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Here we present the first complete molecular phylogeny for these genera, based on the nuclear 28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI genes, and show that the current classification is erroneous. We recognize nine species in a single genus, Phorcus: estimated by BEAST analysis, this arose 30 (± 10) Ma; it consists of two subgenera, Phorcus and Osilinus, which we estimate diverged 14 (± 4.5) Ma. Osilinus kotschyi, from the Arabian and Red Seas, is not closely related and is tentatively referred to Priotrochus Fischer, 1879. Our phylogeny allows us to address biogeographical questions concerning the origins of the Mediterranean and Macaronesian species of this group. The former appear to have evolved from Atlantic ancestors that invaded the Mediterranean on several occasions after the Zanclean Flood, which ended the Messinian Salinity Crisis 5.3 Ma; whereas the latter arose from several colonizations of mainland Atlantic ancestors within the last 3 (± 1.5) Ma. PMID:21945534

  2. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. I. histochemical and biochemical features of lead pollution on some organs of Viviparus viviparus L. (Mollusca Gastropoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, I.; Benedetti, L.; Bolognani, L.; Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Marini, M.; Ottaviani, E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental lead pollution was studied in some organs (foot, mantle and digestive gland) of Viviparus viviparus L. The amount of lead contained after 48h, 96 h and one week of pollution were established using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of physicochemical determination, it turns out that lead is mainly concentrated in the mantle. The biochemical tests (cholesterol, sulpholipids and phospholipids) were aimed at evaluating the lipids involved in the membranes. The histochemical research was carried out chiefly to evaluate the modifications of polysaccharides and proteins. Some hydrolytic enzymes (Na+ and K+ dependent ATPase) and some ooreductive enzymes (NADH+ and NADPH+ dependent diaphorases, D-lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase) were also tested. The digestive gland is the most severely damaged organ as proved by histomorphological and biochemical analyses.

  3. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candia Rowel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P<0.001 in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P=0.04 in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert N=6,183, 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria  N=13,172 were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene.

  4. Sclerochronology - a highly versatile tool for mariculture and reconstruction of life history traits of the queen conch, textit{Strombus gigas} (Gastropoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Pascal; Schöne, Bernd R.; Gischler, Eberhard; Oschmann, Wolfgang; Thébault, Julien; Fiebig, Jens

    2010-05-01

    The shell of the queen conch Strombus gigas provides a rapidly growing palaeoenvironmental proxy archive, allowing the detailed reconstruction of important life-history traits such as ontogeny, growth rate and growth seasonality. In this study, modern sclerochronological methods are used to cross-date the palaeotemperatures derived from the shell with local sea surface temperature (SST) records. The growth history of the shell suggests a bimodal seasonality in growth, with the growing season confined to the interval between April and November. In Glovers Reef, offshore Belize, the queen conch accreted shell carbonate at rates of up to 6 mm day-1 during the spring (April-June) and autumn (September-November). However a reduced period of growth occurred during the mid-summer months (July-August). The shell growth patterns indicate a positive response to annual seasonality with regards to precipitation. It seems likely that when precipitation levels are high, food availability is increased as the result of nutrient input to the ecosystem in correspondence with an increase in coastal runoff. Slow growth rates occur when precipitation, and as a consequence riverine runoff, is low. The SST however appears to influence growth only on a secondary level. Despite the bimodal growing season and the winter cessation in growth, the growth rates reconstructed here from two S. gigas shells are among the fastest yet reported for this species. The S. gigas specimens from Belize reached their final shell height (of 22.7 and 23.5 cm in distance between the apex and the siphonal notch) at the transition to adulthood in just 2 years. The extremely rapid growth as observed in this species permits detailed, high-resolution reconstructions of life-history traits where sub-daily resolutions can be achieved with ease. The potential for future studies has yet to be further explored. Queen conch sclerochronology provides an opportunity to recover extremely high-resolution palaeotemperature records, which could be used to improve numeric climate models, where the shells essentially function as mineralized buoys. The shell recorder may also help to reveal changes in biogeochemical dynamics in benthic ecosystems on intra-seasonal timescales in the fossil record. Furthermore, sclerochronology provides a rapid, effective and highly versatile investigative strategy when compared to time- and cost-consuming fieldwork for improving fisheries management and maricultural pursuits.

  5. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the ear abalone Haliotis asinina (Gastropoda: Haliotidae)%耳鲍精子的超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勃; 邓中日; 王小兵; 刘均玲; 周智

    2007-01-01

    本文利用透射电子显微镜对耳鲍(Haliotis asinina Linnaeus)精子的形态及超微结构进行了研究.研究结果表明:耳鲍的精子由头部、中段和尾部三部分组成,全长 41.6 μm.精子头部长 1.8 μm,头部由顶体、顶体下腔和细胞核组成,顶体电子密度比较均匀,呈圆锥形,长 0.6 μm,基部宽度为 0.65 μm,占头部长的 1/3;顶体下腔长 0.03 μm,宽为 0.65 μm,腔中含有中等电子密度物质;细胞核圆棒状,长 1.17 μm,核中部的宽度为 1.0 μm.精子中段较短,长 0.51 μm,宽 1.2 μm,主要由 5 个线粒体包围一对中心粒构成.尾部是一根鞭毛,从前到后逐渐变细,鞭毛是由细胞质膜包被的轴丝组成,轴丝为典型的"9+2"微管结构,即轴丝是由两个中心微管及均匀分布在中心微管周围的 9 对双联体微管组成.因此,耳鲍与其它鲍类精子的基本结构相似,形态结构的主要差异表现在三个方面:一是耳鲍精子的头部似圆锥形,长 1.8 μm,是目前已研究的鲍类中头部最短的种类;二是耳鲍精子顶体长比其基部宽要小,顶体电子密度比较均匀,顶体与核的电子密度差异不明显;三是耳鲍精子中段线粒体的数量为 5 个,没有发现 6 个线粒体现象的存在[动物学报 53(3):552-556,2007].

  6. Genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 (Gastropoda, Conoidea: Morphological and molecular studies, with the description of five new species from the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Tenorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 is reviewed. The morphological characters of the shell, radular tooth and internal anatomy of species in Profundiconus are discussed. In particular, we studied Profundiconus material collected by dredging in deep water during different scientific campaigns carried out in the Solomon Islands, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 55 individuals based on partial mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. The phylogeny shows several clades containing individuals that do not match any of the known species of Profundiconus based on their shell and radular morphologies, and are introduced here as five new species: Profundiconus maribelae sp. nov. from the Solomon Islands; P. virginiae sp. nov. from Chesterfield Plateau (New Caledonia; P. barazeri sp. nov. from Chesterfield Plateau and the Grand Passage area (New Caledonia; P. puillandrei sp. nov. from Norfolk Ridge (New Caledonia, Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand and possibly Balut Island (Philippines; and P. neocaledonicus sp. nov. from New Caledonia. Furthermore, Profundiconus teramachii forma neotorquatus (da Motta, 1984 is raised to specific status as P. neotorquatus (da Motta, 1984.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of euthyneuran gastropods from sea to land mainly based on comparative mitogenomic of four species of Onchidiidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bian Na; Wei, Luan Luan; Shen, He Ding; Wu, Hong Xi; Wang, Dong Feng

    2016-09-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences data for 4 genera (Onchidium, Platevindex, Paraoncidium and Peronia) in Onchidiidae to construct a phylogenetic tree in conjunction with other 9 existing data among gastropods. The topology showed that the taxa clustered into two main groups of four species, one of which included Onchidium struma and the Platevindex mortoni, the other Paraoncidium reevesii and Peronia verruculata. The process in Pulmonata from sea to land in accordance with the evolution of respiratory organs from branchial gills to pulmonary cavity has been shown. This will also constitute a framework for phylogeny evolution analysis, systematic classfication of Onchidiidae and other euthyneurans (pulmonates and opisthobranchs). PMID:25648917

  8. Hábitos de Vida dos Gastropoda e Bellerophontida da Formação Maecuru,Devoniano Médio, Bacia do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira Ponciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maecuru Formation comprises the Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence of Amazonas Basin and consists of fluvialdeltaics and pelites layers. Its fossiliferous sediments (the uppermost part of the Lontra Member consists of hummocky cross-stratified fine-grained to very coarse sandstones beds.With the purpose of adding more information about the palaeoecology of The Maecuru Formation fossils, the life habits of gastropods and bellerophontids were inferred based on functional analysis and similarities with the living forms. The more significant features used were: (1 total frontal cross-sectional area, (2height and relative positions of pressure point and center of gravity, (3 apertural margin morphology, (4 kind of symmetry and (5surface smoothness. The species Platyceras (Orthonychia steinmanni; Platyceras (Tumbophalus hartti; Platyceras (Platyostomadarwini; Platyceras (Platyostoma (? agassizi; Platyceras (Orthonychia meerwarthi; Platyceras (Orthonychia gracilis; Platyceras (Tumbophalus coutoanus; “Platyceras” tschernischewi; “Platyceras” subconicum; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia hussaki; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii var. curua and “Platyceras” symmetricum var. maecuruensis represent the epifaunal gastropods with low mobility (coprophagous/suspension feeders of the Maecuru Formation, living symbiotically directly over the anus of a crinoid or nearby. This coprophagous mode of life was probably a non-obligate relationship, because only the closest organisms will get all the advantages of using the crinoid host as a nutrient source. The others adult platyceratids would have a broader feeding repertoire, like as suspension feeders. The bellerophonts Plectonotus (Plectonotus derbyi, Plectonotus (? (Plectonotus salteri e Bucanella reissi would have an epifaunal medium to high mobility, showing a predator habit preferably. On the other hand Bucania freitasi, Ptomatis forbesi and Bellerophon steltzneri showed morphologies compable to a grazer habit with medium mobility. This relative high diversity of gastropods and bellerophonts corroborates the environment of medium and inner shelf inferred for the Maecuru Formation among the others macrofossils, since the majority of Paleozoic fauna of gastropods were typically from shallow seas.

  9. Mother-offspring data in a study of the mating system in a natural population of Bulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratira, S.; Chandiwana, S.K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef;

    1996-01-01

    The mating system of a natural population of Bulinus globosus from the Chiweshe area, Zimbabwe, was studied with mother-offspring data using isozyme genetic markers. The study was done in response to work on the genetic structure of this population which suggested a limited extent of cross...

  10. Estado del conocimiento de la durofagia en el registro fósil: interacción depredador-presa en moluscos marinos (Clases Gastropoda y Bivalvia)

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Gómez-Espinosa; Raúl Gío-Argáez; Miriam Carreño de la Vega

    2015-01-01

    La depredación como un mecanismo evolutivo, de diversificación y biomineralización es un tópico de gran interés. Un tipo específico de depredación es la durofagia que se define como el hábito alimenticio de los animales que consumen organismos con un esqueleto duro mineralizado, ya sea concha o exoesqueleto. Los moluscos representan una fuente muy importante para examinar la depredación durófaga en el registro fósil debido a su distribución mundial, abundancia, buena preservación y a que ...

  11. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-01-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae). PMID:27395696

  12. Phylogeography of the Land Snail Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata along the Croatian Coast and Islands

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    Jasna Puizina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774, is a typical Mediterranean species of large land snails. Nonindigenous populations of this species, however, are already established in the USA, Australia and elsewhere in the world, where this species is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest and invasive species. The aims of this study were: 1 to determine the pattern of genetic variation within the Croatian E. vermiculata populations based on analyses of sequence diversity of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI, and 2 to shed more light upon the phylogeography of E. vermiculata in this area. Seventy-seven specimens of land snail Eobania vermiculata were sampled at 19 sampling sites along Croatian coastal region and islands. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (379 bp grouped into 14 haplotypes, whereas the partial COI gene sequences (523 bp grouped into 13 haplotypes. The overall population is characterized by relatively high haplotype (gene diversity (0.719±0.042 for 16S rDNA and 0.869±0.020 for COI. Demographic Fu F’s tests and Tajima's D value indicated no significant change in the population size, thus suggesting long historical presence of E. vermiculata in this region. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, Bayesian inference and median joining haplotype network showed a genetic splitting of Croatian 16S rRNA and COI sequences, with a clear distinction between south-Adriatic and north-Adriatic haplotypes. A possible explanation for the observed phylogeography of E. vermiculata, could be related to the climate change, glaciations and the Adriatic Sea level oscillations during the Quaternary

  13. Succinea peruviana (Gastropoda en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris (Sauria en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay, Lima, Perú

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    José Pérez Z.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa de la presencia del caracol Succinea peruviana en la dieta de la lagartija de las Lomas Microlophus tigris, la misma que habita el mesohábitat de Lomas con árboles en la Reserva Nacional de Lachay. Este es el primer informe del consumo de caracoles por lagartijas del Desierto Costero Peruano

  14. Conservation status and updated census of Patella ferruginea (Gastropoda, Patellidae in Ceuta: distribution patterns and new evidence of the effects of environmental parameters on population structure

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    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Strait of Gibraltar has important populations of the highly endangered patellid limpet Patella ferruginea. Between 2006 and 2010, an exhaustive census was carried out in Ceuta. The total coastline was divided into 17 sectors. The coast of each sector was examined by using 10 m transects. For the case of those sectors composed of breakwaters, jetties or islets, no transects were used, and instead, the total number of individuals was recorded. Each individual was measured to the nearest millimetre using a calliper. Moreover, the complete rocky shore length where the species could potentially be present was calculated, and an estimation of the total number of individuals that each sector could host was made. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to around 44,000 individuals. The species found in Point Benzú, its westernmost limit of distribution on the North African coasts. The largest populations were recorded on the South Bay, with higher Mediterranean influence. Our results indicate that substrate roughness (topographic heterogeneity and the area’s accessibility highly influence the abundance and population structure. Those populations located on high topographic heterogeneity substrates show higher recruitment rates and lower percentages of larger individuals, while medium to low rugosity surfaces presented the opposite pattern. Additionally, easily accessible areas (and frequented by humans presented smaller average shell sizes. Implications of the results for conservation purposes are discussed.

  15. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean: Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Helicodontidae

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    Altaba, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapalatal denticles, teleoconch with many regular riblets and widely scattered hair pits, and protoconch with simple wrinkles and very thin spiral lines. This very rare species had been reported as a member of the Iberian-Maghribian Oestophora. Similar Plio-Pleistocene fossils from the Balearics and Sardinia are placed in the new genus. This may constitute a biogeographic link within the Lindholmiolinae, now surviving at both ends of the Mediterranean basin. It remains unknown when, why or whether it became extinct.

  16. Population Genetics and Genetic Variability ofBulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) From the Two Main River Systems in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratirwa, S.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Kristensen, Thomas K.;

    1996-01-01

    Bullnus globosus is the only known vector of Schistosoma haematoblum in Zimbabwe. The population genetic structure of this vector snail from the two main river drainage systems, represented by 27 localities, was determined from starch gel lsoenzyme electrophoretic data. Out of 11 enzyme systems s...... of ecological factors (drought/desiccation and floods), genetic drift, and seasonal gene flow as the main factors influencing the genetic structure of these populations.......Bullnus globosus is the only known vector of Schistosoma haematoblum in Zimbabwe. The population genetic structure of this vector snail from the two main river drainage systems, represented by 27 localities, was determined from starch gel lsoenzyme electrophoretic data. Out of 11 enzyme systems...

  17. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of a GnRH-like peptide in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Masafumi; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia of the gastropod Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral ganglion extracts showed a similar retention time to lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (which reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of vertebrate GnRH) were detected in the peripheral region of the cerebral ganglion, and they were observed to send fibers into the neuropil. GnRH-like-ir fibers were also detected in the neuropil of the pedal ganglion, the visceral nerve, and the nerve originating from the pedal ganglion. Chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II)-like-ir fibers (which reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II) were also observed in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion. GnRH-like-ir fibers and cGnRH-II-like-ir fibers were distinguishable in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion by double-staining immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides exist in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone. PMID:20695781

  18. Rapana thomasiana grosse (gastropoda) haemocyanin: spectroscopic studies of the structure in solution and the conformational stability of the native protein and its structural subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolashka, P; Genov, N; Parvanova, K; Voelter, W; Geiger, M; Stoeva, S

    1996-04-01

    1. The stability towards pH changes, thermal and chemical (guanidine hydrochloride) denaturation of the oxy- and apo-forms of the native Rapana thomasiana haemocyanin and its structural subunits, RHSS1 and RHSS2, has been investigated using fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. The association of the subunits into haemocyanin aggregates increases considerably the melting temperature and the free energy of stabilization in water. The guanidine hydrochloride denaturation of the aggregated oxygen-transporting protein depends slightly on the protein concentration. The denaturation of the individual subunits is concentration-independent. Rapana haemocyanin is 5.9-7.5 kJ/mol more stable than the constituent polypeptide chains. 2. Upon excitation of the native haemocyanin and the subunits at 295 or 280 nm the fluorescence emission is determined by tryptophyl residues 'buried' deeply in the hydrophobic interior of the protein globules. This is confirmed by quenching experiments with acrylamide, caesium and iodide ions. The efficiency of the radiationless energy transfer between the phenol (donor) and indole (acceptor) fluorophores in the three species, native haemocyanin, RHSS1 and RHSS2, has been determined. An efficient 'interchain' energy transfer between tyrosyl and tryptophyl residues from different polypeptide chains occurs in the non-dissociated form of the haemocyanin. 3. The tryptophan emission of the oxyhaemocyanin, oxy-RHSS1 and oxy-RHSS 2 is strongly quenched by the copper-dioxygen complex at the active site and the respective quantum yields of fluorescence of the oxygenated species are 4-7 times lower than those of the apo-forms. Protonated imidazole groups quench the fluorescence of neighbouring exited indole rings, probably by charge-transfer complex formation. PMID:8670098

  19. Population genetic structure of the freshwater snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) from selected habitats of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkize, Lwamkelekile Sitshilelo; Mukaratirwa, Samson; Zishiri, Oliver Tendayi

    2016-09-01

    The freshwater snail Bulinus globosus is an important intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, the causative agent of urinary schistosomiasis. This disease is of major health concern, especially in Africa where the majority of cases have been reported. In this study the inter- and intra-genetic diversity and population genetic structure of B. globosus from nine locations in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa was studied using four polymorphic microsatellite loci (BgZ1-BgZ4). Moderate genetic diversity was detected within populations with a mean diversity (HE) of 0.49±0.09. The majority of populations significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p<0.05), due to a deficit of heterozygotes. Such deviations may be due to founder events that were caused by bottlenecks that occurred as a result of frequent droughts and flooding that these snails' habitats are exposed to. Overall, the populations studied seem to be partially inbreeders/selfers with mean estimates of 0.24/0.38. A discernable genetic structure was elucidated among populations as evident by the mean pairwise FST of 0.58±0.13. There was no significant association between genetic and geographical distance among populations, an indication of limited gene flow. This increases the chances of populations losing alleles due to genetic drift. Populations in close proximity demonstrated high genetic differentiation (58.77% total variation) due to allelic differences between them. The sample populations fell into 12 clusters, however, the populations from uMkhanyakude and uThungulu exhibited no discernable genetic structure. Genetically, the Bhobhoyi site found within the uGu district was equidistant to the two main sampling regions. PMID:27267152

  20. Current knowledge on population studies on five continental molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State (SC, Central Southern Brazil region

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    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although still very scarce, available knowledge on population studies on continental (land and freshwatermolluscs in the territory of Santa Catarina State is shortly analyzed and discussed. Based on the IUCN“Restricted Distribution” criterion, a total of 54 nominal species, including 31 terrestrial gastropods, 15freshwater gastropods and 8 limnic bivalves, were considered strong candidates as threatened taxa. Out of allthese endangered species, only 5 limnic forms (2 gastropods and 3 bivalves were previously analysed, in someway, at population level.

  1. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  2. On the doubtful records of Alvania platycephala, Alvania pagodula and Alvania didyma, with the description of two new rissoid species (Mollusca; Gastropoda: Rissoidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Moolenbeek, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two new species of Alvania are described from Bermuda. Both species have been wrongly identified in the past. The generic classification is discussed but a definitive statement based only on conchological characters seems impossible.

  3. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

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    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola occulta, L. (S. palustris palustris (topotype specimens and L.(S. p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and G C content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  4. Single cell gel electrophoresis as a tool to assess genetic damage in Heleobia cf. australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda as sentinel for industrial and domestic pollution in Montevideo bay (Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in aquatic organisms in polluted areas is an important issue because contamination may alter their health at sublethal levels. Although molluscs have been widely used to monitor water pollution, there are no records of in vivo genotoxicity studies. Heleobia cf. australis, is distributed in almost all Uruguayan coastal ecosystems, including highly polluted sites. The comet assay is a damage genetic biomarker based on the migration of negatively charged DNA fragments produced by mutagenic agents in individual cells. Live individuals were collected in the Montevideo Bay (impacted area and Laguna Garzón (control to analyze the presence of mutagenic agents in the former site through comet assay. Cells from organisms of the impacted area showed significantly higher levels of genetic damage than those obtained in the control population, measured by percentage of DNA in the tail. Although preliminary, this approach supports the idea that H. cf. australis could be used as a sentinel to evaluate the presence of mutagenic agents in estuarine environments, alerting to the impact of contamination in its early stages.

  5. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

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    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  6. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan;

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the...

  7. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. II. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of experimental lead pollution on the ganglia in Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

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    Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Franchini, A.; Ottaviani, E.; Benedetti, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lead on ganglia of Viviparus ater were studied by histochemical and histomorphological procedures. The pollution experiment should be considered a short-time static bioassay because of its experimental characteristics. There was considerable accumulation of lead in the ganglia as determined by atomic absorbance (A.A.S.). The cytological damage principally affected the neuronal cell bodies which undergo degenerative processes. The most serious cytopathological changes occurred in the following sequence: nuclear damage leading to pyknosis; nucleolar damage until disappearance; changes in Nissl bodies, at times forming a uniform mass. These cytological disorders led to markedly altered protein synthesis. Nerve fibers and neuroglia did not appear affected by lead exposure, even at higher doses. Membrane enzymes, phosphorylase, NADHDH, NADPHDH and SDH activities were decreased, whereas D-LDH, G-6-PDH, G-6-Pase and MAO activities increased. GDH was unchanged. Changes in polar lipid composition were also observed with an increase of phospholipids and a decrease of sulpholipids and cerebrosides.

  8. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

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    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  9. Ocorrência no Brasil de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Muller, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes Occurrence of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata (O.F. Mullher, 1774 (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia in Brazil, first intermediate host of Clonorchis sinensis (Cobbold, 1875 (Trematoda, Plathyhelmintes

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    Jorge Faria Vaz

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a introdução em nosso meio de Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata possivelmente anterior a 1967, quando pela primeira vez foi coletada em Santos. Essa espécie pode comportar-se como primeiro hospedeiro intermediário de Paragonimus westermani e de Clonorchis sinensis. Somente o último trematódeo tem alguma possibilidade de vir a parasitar o homem, em nosso meio.Introduction of Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata in Brazil, is reported. This introduction may go back prior to 1967 when some specimens were collected at Santos, S.Paulo (Brazil. T. (M. tuberculata is an intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani and Clonorchis sinensis, both pathogenic for man. Only this last trematode has some potential for human infection in Brazil.

  10. Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: first record of this introduced slug in Chile, with notes on its anatomy and natural history Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: primer registro de esta babosa introducida en Chile, con notas sobre su anatomía e historia natural

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    FRANCISCO J CÁDIZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Results and conclusions are presented on morphological and field observations made on a collection of land slugs from the Arboretum and Botanical Garden administered by the Universidad Austral de Chile at Valdivia, as well as various records from other collection sites in southern Chile. Based on some anatomical features, the individuals studied were identified as Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, endemic to eastern Europe, and known from various locations around the world for its invasive capacity, apparently facilitated by its feeding habits and particularly by its reproductive strategy of strict self fertilization which is unusual in pulmonates. This is the first report of this species, introduced to Chile by human activities, added to previous literature citing the presence of Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, and Helicidae. This slug is a potential threat to agriculture and to native flora and fauna of ChileSe entregan los resultados y conclusiones de las observaciones anatómicas y de campo realizadas sobre un grupo de babosas terrestres capturadas principalmente en el parque Arboretum y Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Austral de Chile, en la ciudad de Valdivia, además de sus hallazgos puntuales en otros puntos del sur de Chile. Los ejemplares analizados corresponden a Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, especie endémica del este de Europa conocida en diversos lugares del mundo por su alta capacidad de colonización e invasión, ello aparentemente facilitado por su hábito de alimentación y particularmente su inusual estrategia reproductiva dentro de los pulmonados (autofecundación estricta. De esta manera, registramos una nueva especie introducida antrópicamente en Chile, sumándose de esta forma la familia Arionidae a las ya conocidas Limacidae, Agriolimacidae y Helicidae como una potencial amenaza a la agricultura y a la flora y fauna nativas chilenas

  11. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

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    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities presented similar thermal tolerances, snails from Taltal showed lower rates of water loss. Aggregations size were negatively related with the rate of water loss in individuals from both localities. Only, individuals from Taltal decreased their limit of thermal tolerance, and exhibited a positive relationship between aggregation size and the temperature of the group. Results demonstrated that the local environmental conditions are determinate thermoregulatory strategies.

  12. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

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    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The environmental changes in the Amazonian ecosystems for agricultural or urban purposes have promoted the increase of populations of native species that adapt in the new habitat and usually become pests that are difficult to control.

  13. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos; José Antonio Picanço Diniz

    2009-01-01

    Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio). Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por m...

  14. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

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    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  15. Morfologia do sistema muscular e do sistema reprodutor de Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby do Chile, como contribuição à sistemática de Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora Morphology of the muscular and reproductive systems of Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby from Chile as a contribution to the systematics of Ancylidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora

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    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A study on the morphology of the muscular and reproductive systems of Anisancylus obliquus (Broderip & Sowerby, 1832 based on specimens from Chile is presented. Differences are observed in the number of folicules of the ovotestis and prostata when comparing them with specimens from Brazil (chilean specimens: ovotestis = 28 to 32; prostata = 3 to 5; brazilian specimens: ovotestis = 20 to 21; prostata = 6 to 8. In the muscular system, the right aductor muscle scar is often longer than in brazilian specimens. The general morphology of muscular and reproductive systems is similar to that observed to Uncancylus concentricus (d'Orbigny, 1835 and Gundlachia dutrae Santos, 1994 (V-shaped adhesive area; single right anterior muscle with elongated moon-shaped scar; ejaculatory complex with projected ejaculatory duct and differs from G. ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962, G. radiata (Guilding, 1828 and Hebetancylus moricandi (d'Orbigny, 1837 (elongated adhesive area; double right anterior muscle with rounded or oval-shaped muscle scar and ejaculatoiy complex without projected ejaculatory duct. Differences are also observed when comparing them with Ancylus fluviatilis Müller, 1774 where the right muscle scar is continuous with the posterior one, whereas A. obliquus shows three well defined muscle scars. The ejaculatory system of A. fluviatilis presents flagellum duct and ejaculatory duct opening apart into the sheath; there are penis, prepuce with muscular pillars and a muscular flagellum, whereas A. obliquus shows the flagellum duct and ejaculatory duct reaching the sheath together; there are not penis and muscular pillars on prepuce; the flagellum is glandular. These differences shows A. obliquus and others neotropical pateliforms basommatophorans are not closely related to european Ancylus.

  16. Avaliação da atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies de Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae Assessment of moluscicidal activity of the latex of three Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae species on Leptinaria unilamellata d'Obigny 1835 (Gastropoda - Subulinidae

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    I.S Afonso-Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres podem atuar como hospedeiros intermediários de helmintos. Os primeiros registros do controle químico desses invertebrados datam do início do século XX e as substâncias utilizadas eram toxinas inespecíficas já empregadas no controle de outras pragas. Moluscicidas sintéticos apresentam limitações técnicas que estimularam a busca de substitutos naturais. Dentre as várias espécies vegetais com atividade moluscicida, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri e Euphorbia tirucalli L. despertam atenção pelos excelentes resultados obtidos sobre moluscos aquáticos. Contudo, estudos sobre a atividade de plantas moluscicidas em moluscos terrestres são pouco comuns, apesar de sua grande importância parasitológica e agrícola. As semelhanças anatomo-fisiológicas entre espécies de moluscos aquáticos e terrestres sugerem que estratégias de controle químico possam ter eficiência semelhante para os dois grupos de invertebrados. Com base nessa hipótese, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade moluscicida do látex de três espécies do gênero Euphorbia sobre Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, gastrópode terrestre descrito como hospedeiro intermediário de helmintos trematódeos digenéticos que parasitam animais domésticos. Destas E. milii var. splendens apresentou efeito moluscicida elevado sobre L. unilamellata, 100% até uma diluição de 1:800, já nos primeiros minutos após a aplicação. Embora citadas na literatura como tóxicas para moluscos aquáticos, E. cotinifolia e E. tirucalli não exibiram atividade moluscicida sobre L. unilamellata. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que o látex de E. milii var. splendens pode se constituir em uma estratégia viável de controle químico de moluscos terrestres.Pulmonate terrestrial gastropods can be intermediate hosts for helminthes. The first records of chemically controlling these invertebrates date back to the beginning of the 20th century. The substances used were unspecific toxins which were already used for controlling other pests. Synthetic molluscicides have technical limitations that stimulated a search for natural substitutes. Among the many vegetal species that have molluscicidal activity, Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbia milii des Moul. var. splendens (Bojer ex Hook Ursch & Leandri and Euphorbia tirucalli L. call attention because of the excellent results that have been obtained when they are used on aquatic mollusks. However, studies on the activity of molluscicidal plants on terrestrial mollusks are rare, in spite of its great importance in controlling parasites and to agriculture. Anatomical and physiological similarities among species of aquatic and terrestrial mollusks suggest that chemical control strategies can be effective on both groups of invertebrates. Based on this hypothesis, we assessed the molluscicidal activity of the latex of three species of the genus Euphorbia on the terrestrial gastropod Leptinaria unilamellata d'Orbigny, 1835, described as an intermediate host of digenetic trematode helminths that parasitize domestic animals. E. milii var. splendens had the highest molluscicidal effect on L. unilamellata, being 100% lethal in concentrations up to 1:1800 in the first minutes after application. Although E. cotinifolia and E. tirucalli have been cited in the literature as toxic to aquatic mollusks, they did not have molluscicidal activity on L. unilamellata. The results of our study indicate that the latex of E. milii var. splendens may be a viable strategy for the chemical control of terrestrial mollusks.

  17. Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata e Gymnosomata coligidos ao largo dos arquipélagos de São Pedro e São Paulo, costa nordeste, Brasil Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata collected along the northeast coast of the archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo, Brazil

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    Valdeni Soares de Oliveira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Pteropoda studies were carried out offshore São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (0º56'2"N e 29º20'6"W to assess biodiversity and spatial distribution. A Bongo net (mesh size 300 micrometer was hauled obliquely from a depth between 0 and 50 m and Oand 100 m by the REVIZEE-SCORE/NE I oceanographic expedition on board of the Brazilian Navy Oceanographic Ship Antares. Samples were collected at 16 stations from September to October 1995. A total of 880 organisms distributed in 20 species, 14 genera and 9 families were identified. At the layer 0-50 m, Creseis virgula (Rang (828 was the most frequent species (71.43%, followed by Limacina inflata (Orbigny, (836 and Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 18(3 (64.28%, each. ln terms of relative abundance outranked L. inflara (varying between 57.5 and 92.24% and C. virgula (varying between 60.0 and 72.73%. At the layer 0-100 m, C. virgula was very frequent (80%, L. inflata (70% and Cuvierina columnella (Rang (827 (40% were frequent, other species had less than 30% of frequency. L. inflata varied from 37.5 to 100% and C. virgula from 42.42 to 100% of relative abundance. Species diversity varied from medium to low ( < 2.0 bits.ind-1 in both layers. At the layer 0-50 m C. virgula was directly correlated to temperature and salinity, while at the layer 0-100 m L. inflata was correlated to these parameters, showing that these species are Tropical Water indicators.

  18. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

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    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 in relation to the position of R. mangle prop roots and 3 among mangroves with different tree heights. Further, its behavior along one tidal cycle was also described. The densities of M. coffeus did not differ between R. mangle and L. racemosa, but the largest snails were found on R. mangle. The distribution of snails found on the sediment differed relative to the position of the prop roots, with the highest density in the center and largest size in the edge of the studied areas. However, this distribution was not related with the availability of food resources provided by decayed leaves. Higher densities were also recorded in intermediate and low-stature mangroves when compared with taller ones, but no differences in snail's sizes among mangroves were found. During the high tide, M. coffeus individuals climb nearby trees. These results are possibly related to the availability of resources and shelter supplied by R. mangle. Thus, studies on the distribution of M. coffeus in diverse conditions are essential, because mangroves are being intensively disturbed.

  19. MACROINVERTEBRATES COMPOSITION IN THE BLIZNEC STREAM, SECOND AND THIRD MAKSIMIR LAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrates in spring period was investigated during two years in the first and second Maksimir Lake and Bliznec stream. The domination of Gastropoda was outstanding at these three investigated sites. From time to time stronger development of Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Diptera and Crustacea was noted at the second Maksimir Lake. Gastropoda was dominant at the third Maksimir Lake (from 1.484 to 2.506 g m–2 while Crustacea, Oligochaeta and Hirudinea made important biomass. Species density in the Bliznec stream was quantitative higher than the one at other stations. The dominant group was Gastropoda (from 0.568 to 3.026 g m–2 and there was higher development of Trichoptera, Crustacea, Diptera, Heteroptera and Bivalvia (Table 3 and 4. Bliznec stream water quality, observed by biological method given by Kerovec, ranged from polluted to highly polluted.

  20. Moluscos continentales de México: Dulceacuícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Naranjo García

    2003-01-01

    Se han registrado 16 familias de moluscos dulceacuícolas en México, de ellos los estudios que se han realizado abarcan aspectos como el tipo de hábitat y la distribución de algunas especies. Las investigaciones sobre comportamiento así como de la biología de la especie Pomacea flagellata son las mas amplias con respecto a las otras especies de moluscos dulceacuícolas. En cuanto a estudios sobre la reproducción, estos se han realizado en Pomacea patula catemacensis. Mientras que solamente se e...

  1. Venomous mollusks: the risks of human accidents by conus snails (gastropoda: conidae in Brazil Moluscos peçonhentos: riscos de acidentes em humanos pelo molusco Conus (Gastrópode: cunidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Mollusks of the genus Conus present a venomous apparatus composed of radulae, a chitin structure linked to glands, which injects potent neurotoxic peptides, causing serious human envenomation and even death, associated with the blockage of certain receptors and muscular paralysis. No reported envenomation has occurred in Brazil, but certain populations are at risk of accidents.Os moluscos do gênero Conus apresentam um aparato venenoso composto de uma rádula quitinosa ligada a glândulas de peçonha, causando envenenamentos humanos graves e mesmo óbitos pela ação neurotóxica indutora do bloqueio de vários receptores e paralisia muscular. Não há casos descritos de envenenamento no país, mas determinadas populações correm risco de acidentes.

  2. Multiple forms of octopine dehydrogenase in Strombus luhuanus (mollusca, gastropoda, strombidae): genetic basis of polymorphism, properties of the enzymes, and relationship between the octopine dehydrogenase phenotype and the accumulation of anaerobic end products during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J; England, W R

    1982-10-01

    Octopine dehydrogenase (ODH) is electrophoretically polymorphic in the gastropod mollusk Strombus luhuanus. The frequencies of the six electrophoretic phenotypes in the Heron Island population, together with the molecular weight values of 38,000 obtained for each of the three forms of the enzyme, demonstrate that the monomeric enzyme is encoded by three codominant alleles at a single locus. The purified allozymes are indistinguishable in terms of Km values for substrates, product inhibition by octopine and NAD, pH optima, and substrate inhibition by pyruvate. No statistically significant correlations were found between the ODH phenotype and the maximum activities of ODH or alanopine dehydrogenase, the capacity for anaerobic muscle work, or the accumulation of octopine or strombine/alanopine during exercise. It would appear that the ODH allozymes may be functionally equivalent both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:7181845

  3. 大连沿海几种腹足类和双壳类的营养成分分析%An Analysis of Nutritive Components of Some Gastropoda and Bivalvia in Dalian Coastline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶平; 许庆陵; 谭淑荣

    2000-01-01

    对大连沿海所产的3种腹足类和8种双壳类的有机和无机成分进行了测定分析.分析结果表明:蛋白质、脂肪含量均有差异;大多可称之为高蛋白、低脂肪食品.无机营养素含量因种类而不同,但总的变化趋势差距不大.为开发和利用这些海洋贝类资源提供了营养评价的参考依据.

  4. 广东海陵岛沿海软体动物的分布%DISTRIBUTION OF CLASS BIVALVIA AND GASTROPODA MOLLUSCA IN THE INSHORE REGIONS OF HAILING ISLAND OF GUANGDONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐以杰; 林炜; 陈明旺; 钟诚; 杜晓捷

    2005-01-01

    对海陵岛沿海软体动物进行了采集调查,共鉴定180种,分属 60科. 其中双壳纲20科86种,占总数47.77%,腹足纲38科92种,占总数51.11%,多板纲1科1种,占总数0.56%,头足纲1科1种,占总数0.56%. 分析表明,其区系特点以南海亚热带-热带种和东海-南海亚热带种为主要成分.

  5. Revision of three camaenid and one bradybaenid species (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) from China based on morphological and molecular data, with description of a new bradybaenid subspecies from Inner Mongolia, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Wang; Qiong Xiao; Weichuan Zhou; Chungchi Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We have revised the taxonomy of three camaenid and one bradybaenid species from China and described one new subspecies of the genus Bradybaena (Family Bradybaenidae) from Inner Mongolia, China. The genitalia of three Satsuma (Family Camaenidae) species S. mellea stenozona (Moellendorff, 1884), S. meridionalis (Moellendorff, 1884), comb. n. and S. uncopila (Heude, 1882), comb. n. assigned to the genus Bradybaena previously,lack a dart sac and mucous glands. Moreover, the molecular phy...

  6. Contribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae na degradação da serapilheira do médio estuário do rio Pacoti, Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva S Tavares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradação da serapilheira no médio estuário do rio Pacoti foi estudada na presença e na ausência do gastrópode Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758, visando verificar a possível contribuição desse invertebrado na ciclagem da matéria orgânica dos manguezais. A densidade populacional de M. coffeus e a distribuição das folhas, em termos de biomassa úmida, biomassa seca e abundância, presentes na serapilheira do local, foram estimadas a partir de uma amostragem. Um experimento em campo foi realizado com amostras de coloração e biomassas similares de folhas de Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae sem sinais de herbivoria, distribuídas igualmente entre 64 gaiolas. Em 32 destas foram colocados também exemplares de M. coffeus. Essas gaiolas foram distribuídas entre quatro pontos, sendo oito pares de gaiolas (controle e experimento por ponto. Durante oito semanas, quatro pares de gaiolas foram coletados semanalmente. Após coletadas, os sinais de pastagem nas folhas causados por M. coffeus foram contados e as biomassas úmida e seca das amostras foram determinadas. Comparando controle e experimento, verificou-se que M. coffeus é capaz de contribuir na degradação da serapilheira na área estudada, porém, não foi verificada uma participação significativa desse gastrópode na degradação das folhas quando comparados experimento e controle ao longo do experimento.

  7. Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterações nos depósitos de cálcio e na função reprodutiva do primeiro hospedeiro intermediário Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterations in calcium deposits and in the reproductive function of its first intermediate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange V. Paschoal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the parasitism by the digenetic trematode Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 over the calcium mobilization and the reproductive function of its first intermediate host, the snail Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 was experimentally studied in infected and uninfected snails maintained in laboratory under controlled conditions of nutrition, humidity and temperature. The calcium of the shells of infected and uninfected snails was quantified by using a technique of volumetric complexation. The amount of calcium present in the tissue was evaluated by using the histochemistry techniques of Dahl and von Kossa. The alteration in the reproductive function was evaluated through the egg production, and by histological follow up of the snails gametogenesis, in the infected and uninfected snails. The Student's test "t" showed that there was no significant difference in relation to size, weight and calcium concentration in the shells of infected and uninfected snails. The analysis of nonlinear regression, polynomial of 4th order, showed an highly positive relation to weight and size of shell to infected and uninfected snails, and an weakly significant relation to calcium concentration in the shells and shells size of infected snails. The histochemistry techniques demonstrated a large calcium deposition in the cells of the digestive glands of the infected snails when compared to the uninfected ones. The histological study of the ovotestis of the infected snails demonstrated that the gametogenesis of these snails was abnormal. The ovulogenesis was the most alterated and at 45 days post-infection the histological sections showed no ovocytes present in the ovotestis.

  8. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Cilene M. Zangrande; Alvaro L. D. Reigada

    2005-01-01

    Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional con...

  9. Some ecological aspects and potential threats to an intertidal gastropod, Umbonium vestiarium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Ingole, B.S.; Sen, A.

    and reproductive cycle of wavy turban snail (Astrea undosa Wood, 1828; Gastropoda: Turbinidae) in Bahai Tortugas, BCS. Anales del Instituto de Ciencias del Mary Limnologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 18, 169–87 (1993). Berry, A.J. and Bin O. Zamri...

  10. Radular teeth as models for the improvement of industrial cutting devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, P; Giesen, HJ; Videler, JJ

    2000-01-01

    Limpets (Gastropoda) and chitons (Polyplacophora) feed on epi- and endolithic organisms by means of the radula, a specialized feeding apparatus located in the mouth cavity. The radula owes most of its abrasive capability to the presence of numerous mineralized teeth. Here we report on the shape, int

  11. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Scutopus ventrolineatus (Mollusca: Chaetodermomorpha) supports the Aculifera hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Osca, David; Irisarri, Iker; Todt, Christiane; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Background With more than 100000 living species, mollusks are the second most diverse metazoan phylum. The current taxonomic classification of mollusks recognizes eight classes (Neomeniomorpha, Chaetodermomorpha, Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Scaphopoda) that exhibit very distinct body plans. In the past, phylogenetic relationships among mollusk classes have been contentious due to the lack of indisputable morphological synapomorphies. Fortunately, rec...

  13. Holoplanktonic Mollusca: development in the Mediterranean Basin during the last 30 million years and their future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. Janssen; K.T.C.A. Peijnenburg

    2014-01-01

    A short introduction is given to the systematics and morphology of pelagic Gastropoda (Mollusca: Heteropoda and Pteropoda), also explaining some details of the animals’ particular way of life. The fossil record of these invertebrates is discussed briefly, followed by an overview of existing literatu

  14. Non-Detriment Finding Regarding the Export of Queen conch (Lobatus gigas) from St Eustatius (Caribbean Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Meijer zu Schlochteren, M.; Boman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Queen conch (Lobatus gigas (Strombidae; Gastropoda) is a large, long-lived marine gastropod that is widely distributed throughout the coastal zones of the Wider Caribbean region. Because of concern for its future the species was listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endan

  15. Descripción del cromosoma profásico en la meiosis I de Bostryx conspersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Siles-Vallejos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx es uno de los géneros de mayor diversidad dentro de los Orthalicidae (Gastropoda, siendo B. conspersus una especie endémica del ecosistema de Lomas, del desierto Costero peruano. En el presente trabajo los cromosomas de la profase I de meiosis de los espermatocitos de Bostryx conspersus son descritos.

  16. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from Hallst

  17. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b.) (Euphorbiaceae) - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes; Darcilio Fernandes Baptista; Maurício Carvalho Vasconcellos; Virgínia Torres Schall

    1992-01-01

    The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  18. Evaluation of the molluscicidal properties of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (n. e. b. (Euphorbiaceae - 1: experimental test in a lentic habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii, at concentrations between 5 to 12 mg/l, kills 100% of the population of Biomphalaria glabrata in a lentic habitat, after 24 h. The lyophilized latex, stocked for 18 months, killed only 34.2% of the snails, at the concentration of 5 mg/l, and 96.0% at 12 mg/l. No lethal effect was observed among Pomacea haustrum exposed to the same concentrations of the molluscicide.

  19. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l'année (zones humides, que les écosystèmes secs de haute montagne, profitant de leur climat froid. En revanche, Cepaea nemoralis (sténotherme occupe seulement les habitats de sols humides, de couverture végétale dense et constante, a une altitude inférieure à 1500 m. L'absence de ce type de végétation et les conditions climatiques dures de la haute montagne méditerranéenne empêchent sa présence à une plus haute altitude, contrairement a ce qui se passe dans la haute montagne euro-sibérienne.
    [es]
    A partir del estudio de la corología y ecología de la malacofauna terrestre de Andalucía (sur de la Península Ibérica se determina la presencia en las cordilleras Bélicas Orientales de dos relictos climáticos propios de la región Eurosiberiana: Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Millier, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758. Se expone su ecología y distribución y se muestra que el principal factor que las limita es la sequía estival característica del clima mediterráneo. Sus respuestas adaptativas ante la escasez de agua del verano están definidas por diferencias ecofisiológicas. Vitrina pellucida (euriterma hace uso tanto de los ecosistemas de tierras bajas en los que la disponibilidad de agua es constante a lo largo del año (zonas húmedas como de los secos de alta montaña, gracias al clima frío. Cepaea nemoralis (estenoterma ocupa sólo hábitats de suelos húmedos y cobertura vegetal densa y constante situados por debajo de los 1500 m. La ausencia de este tipo de vegetación y la dureza del clima de la alta montaña mediterránea impiden su presencia a mayor altitud, al contrario de lo que ocurre en las montarías eurosiberianas.

  20. Histological observations on the distribution of three types of haemo-lymphocytes in Oncomelania hupensis (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) infected with Schistosoma japonicum%感染日本血吸虫的湖北钉螺三种血淋巴细胞分布的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theerakamol Pengsakul; Yassir A Suleiman

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of defense mechanism of O. hupensis, particularly their haemo-lymphocytes, which are considered to be the main effectors of invertebrate defense system, should be beneficial to control the disease transmission. In this study, qualitative and quantitative investigations of haemo-lymphocytes in negative and positive O. hupensis after infection with S. japonicum was conducted by histological sectioning of infected snails at post-infection days 3, 5, 7, 12, 16, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, and 90. H & E stained haemo-lymphocytes had an appearance with circular nucleus and densely packed granules inside the cell with entire cytoplasm stained deep blue in color. The haemo-lymphocytes were divided into three types based on their nucleus sizes: large, medium, and small, with diameter ranges of 8.1-8.6 μm (large), 5.5-6.0 μm (medium), and 4.2-4.7 μm (small). Post-infection increase in numbers of haemo-lymphocytes in five organs of infected snails including foot, pericardial, gastrointestinal, alimentary gland, and genital organs regions was observed. The rich area of haemo-lymphocytes was in the pericardial region. Moreover, the fewest number of haemo-lymphocytes presented in foot region. The numbers of haemo-lymphocytes with three nucleus sizes in all snail body parts were clearly increased at beginning, then slightly decreased later, and the haemo-lymphocytes with medium nucleus size was the dominated population. The haemo-lymphocytes with large and small nucleus sizes were found but few in number, Data gathered during the present study should be useful in understanding the defense mechanism of O. hupensis in response to S. japonicum infection, and further the research with the aim of controlling the disease more effectively.%目的 湖北钉螺( O.hupensis)的内在防御机制,特别是它们的血淋巴细胞,被认为是无脊椎动物防御系统的主要效应因子,对于控制寄生虫病的传播很有意义.在本次实验中,我们对于阴性湖北钉螺( O.hupensis)和感染日本血吸虫(Schistosoma japonicum)的阳性湖北钉螺(O.hupensis)的血淋巴细胞进行了定性和定量的比较研究.方法 分别在培养后3、5、7、12、16、20、25、30、35、40、45、50、55、60、65、70、75、80、85和90 d对其进行连续组织切片和H & E染色观察.结果 发现血淋巴细胞具有一个圆形的核,在其被染成深蓝色的细胞质中有一些密集的颗粒状物质.根据细胞核的体积,血淋巴细胞可以分为大、中和小3种类型,其直径分别为8.1~8.6 μm (大),5.5~6.0 μm (中),4.2~4.7 μm (小).通过对湖北钉螺(O.hupensis)的足部、围心腔、胃肠道、消化腺以及生殖腺5个器官部位的血淋巴细胞计数观察发现感染日本血吸虫(S.japonicum)后的湖北钉螺(O.hupensis),这几处的血淋巴细胞数量都有所增加.湖北钉螺的血淋巴细胞在围心腔处最多,而在足部区域最少.这3种类型的血淋巴细胞在钉螺所有部位都有所增加,且中型血淋巴细胞最多,大型和小型血淋巴细胞较少.结论 本次研究中所得到的数据在湖北钉螺(O.hupensis)对于日本血吸虫(S.japonicum)的内在防御机制以及更有效的控制血吸虫病的深入研究中具有相当的意义.日本血吸虫;湖北钉螺;血淋巴细胞;分布

  1. 应用同工酶技术研究我国湖北钉螺(腹足纲:麂眼螺超科:圆口螺科)不稳定螺群体内的遗传变异%ALLOZYME-BASED GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN AN UNSTABLE"POPULATION" OF CHINESE ONCOMELANIA HUPENSIS(GASTROPODA: RISSOACEA: POMATIOPSIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    [Objective] To answer the following questions:① For Oncomelania snails collected two years apart from the same locality,has there been genetic divergence?②How much experimental error has there been in studying subsets of these populations? ③As this is an unstable population,what has the net effect been on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(Hwe)?[Methods] Allozymes were studied using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis.Data collected from numbers of experiments were conapiled.Data from each collection were divided into two equal subsets based on chronology of the experiments.Thirty-four loci were studied using 72 to 180 snails per subset.[Results] The mean number of alleles per locus ranged frcra 1.5~1.9.With each consecutive subset,the 96 polymorphic loci dropped from 38.2 to 17.6.The mean heterozygosity was very low:0.033 to 0.049 and not significantly different from Hardy-Weinberg expectations.Ten loci and 11 alleles exclusive to the first group were eliminated from the overall study reducing the number of polymorphic loci from 19 to 10.There were significant departures from Hwe at five loci having a substantial number of individuals for each allele.Nei's and Wright's D were 0.003±0.001 and 0.054±0.006 respectively.[Conclusion] ①There were significant errors seen primarily in the results scored' in the earliest experiments.②These earlier errors involving scoring difficult to resolve loci,and interpretation of rare alleles that were not found in later experiment had no significant effect on overall genetic distance.③The use of Wright's D for closely related populations is explained.Results with Nei's D indicated no significant difference among the four subunits; Wright's D yielded significant difference between the collections made two years apart,attributed to the annual flooding of the Yangtze River mixing snails from different localities.④ Major polymorphic loci were not in Hwe as predicted using the unstable population model.⑤One must study 25 or more individuals to find relatively rate alleles and study population genetics.

  2. Rehabilitation of Ergalatax martensi (Schepman, 1892) (Gastropoda : Muricidae), senior synonym of Ergalatax obscura Houart, 1996, and description of Ergalatax junionae, new name for Morula martensi Dall, 1923

    OpenAIRE

    Houart, R.

    2008-01-01

    Ergalatax junionae nomen novum is proposed as replacement name for Morula martensi Dall, 1923, from the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf. The latter name is a junior secondary homonym of Pentadactylus martensi Schepman,1892, from the Red Sea, of which E. obscura Houart, 1996, is here considered as junior synonym. Ergalatax,junionae nomen novum is compared with Ergalatax martensi (Schepman) and E. margariticola (Broderip, 1833). The geographical distribution of E. junionae and E. martensi is...

  3. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

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    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  4. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Hammami H.; Mezghani-Jarraya R.; Damak M.; Ayadi A.

    2011-01-01

    Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O) immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L) against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fru...

  5. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    OpenAIRE

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in v...

  6. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

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    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  7. Notes on the continental malacofauna of Rhodes, with two new species for the fauna of the island

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    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Data for 15 terrestrial and freshwater snail (Gastropoda species are given from 35 localities on Rhodes Island. An invasive species, Haitia acuta (Draparnaud, 1805, and a species occurring in brackish waters, Ovatella firminii (Payraudeau, 1826 are new species and genus to the fauna of the island. This is the second record of O. firminii from Greece, which is interesting from another point of view; it was found in freshwater (not brackish about 6 km from the sea.

  8. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae) no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa; Antônio de Lemos Vasconcelos Filho; Elza Maria Braga Galiza-Viana

    1987-01-01

    The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustacean...

  9. Freshwater invertebrate fauna of Nuku Hiva island (French Polynesia) : data during a rainy season

    OpenAIRE

    Fossati, Odile; Gibon, François-Marie; Danigo, Anne-Hélène

    1992-01-01

    The streams of Nuku-Hiva Island, Marquesas Archipelago, were sampled during the rainy season in June 1990. The invertebrate fauna was scarce and had a low diversity. Gastropoda and Decapoda accounted for the major part of the biomass. Insects were represented by #Simuliidae$, #Chironomidae$ and a few #Ceratopogonidae$, #Coleoptera$ and #Zygoptera$. #Oligochaeta$ were numerically important. The role of insularity and the effects of hydraulic conditions on this fauna are briefly discussed. (Rés...

  10. The Benthic Macroinvertebrate Fauna of Sarikum Lake and Spring Waters (Sinop)

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Mehmet; Oztürk, Mehmet; Öztürk, Meral

    2002-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the community composition of benthic macroinvertebrate fauna from Sarikum Lake and spring waters were investigated monthly between June 1995 and May 1996. Physico-chemical parameters of the sampling stations were measured. The fauna were represented with 26 species belonging to 6 systematic groups (Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Insecta (larvae), Crustacea, Polychaete and Turbellaria classis). Insecta was found as predominant in respect to species diversity. The species b...

  11. Les Bivalves et Gastéropodes du Bruxellien inférieur de la Belgique (Eocène moyen)

    OpenAIRE

    Glibert, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic revision of the Bivalvia and Gastropoda from the Aalter Sands (at Aalter, province of Oost-Vlaanderen) and the first description of those from the Oedelem Sands (at Oedelem, province of West-Vlaanderen). Both horizons are of Middle Eocene age. Together they form the lower part of the Bruxellian (Bl or Formation of den Hoorn). The Oedelem Sands with Venericardia carinata are the older part of this formation, whereas the Aalter Sands with Megacardita planicosta ...

  12. Packaging and Delivery of Chemical Weapons: A Defensive Trojan Horse Stratagem in Chromodorid Nudibranchs

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Marianna; Gavagnin, Margherita; Haber, Markus; Guo, Yue-Wei; Fontana, Angelo; Manzo, Emiliano; Genta-Jouve, Gregory; Tsoukatou, Maria; Rudman, William B.; Cimino, Guido; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Mollo, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Background Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs) that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explana...

  13. Evaluation of the molluscicidal property of Euphorbia splendens var. Hispolii (N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae: 2. Investigation in lotic habitat

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    D. F. Baptista

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The latex of Euphorbia splendens var. hispolii in 12 ppm concentration (12 mg/l caused 100% mortality for a Biomphalaria tenagophila population in a lotic habitat after 9 hr of dripfeed application. For sentinel snails, in cages placed at the water surface and buried under 0.10 m, the mortality rates varied with the distance from the application point and were: 100% (0 m; 92.6% (50 m and 94.7% (100. No lethal effects were observed for the other living species in this habitat (Pomacea haustrum and Poecilia reticulata.

  14. PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL CON CÉLULAS INMOVILIZADAS DE Zymomonas mobilis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Matiz, Adriana; Torres, Claudia; Potou, Raul

    2002-01-01

    La producción de etanol en Colombia representa uno de los renglones económicos más importantes, producido como alcohol antiséptico, solvente y aditivo para la gasolina. El objetivo de este trabajo fue aumentar la eficiencia en la producción de etanol y encontrar microorganismos que representen una alternativa en producción frente a Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cepas de Zymomonas mobilis, var. mobilis (Zmm1 y Zmm2) y pomaceae (Zmp1 y Zmp2), fueron aisladas de muestras de melazas de caña con ...

  15. Assessment of the ability of seaweed extracts to protect against hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced cellular damage in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, A M; O'Callaghan, Y C; O'Grady, M N; Queguineur, B; Hanniffy, D; Troy, D J; Kerry, J P; O'Brien, N M

    2012-09-15

    The ability of brown seaweed extracts, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria hyperborea, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus to protect against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) induced stress in Caco-2 cells was investigated. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring alteration in the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) and cellular levels of glutathione (GSH). L. hyperborea, P. canaliculata and F. serratus significantly protected against tert-BOOH induced SOD reduction but did not protect against the reduction in CAT activity or the increased cellular levels of GSH. The ability of F. serratus and F. vesiculosus to protect against H(2)O(2) and tert-BOOH induced DNA damage was also assessed. The DNA protective effects of the two seaweed extracts was compared to those of three metal chelators; deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), 1,10-phenanthroline (o-phen) and 1,2-Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (BAPTA-AM). F. serratus and F. vesiculosus significantly protected (P<0.05) against H(2)O(2) (50 μM) induced DNA damage but not tert-BOOH induced damage. PMID:23107739

  16. Levantamento malacológico da Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, (Minas Gerais, Brasil Malacological survey at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco (Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney Elias da Silva

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo malacológico realizado na Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, MG, no período de setembro de 1986 a março de 1991, foram coletados 46.579 moluscos, representados por 07 espécies de 05 famílias. Foram coletados 39.176 exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, 1.296 de B. glabrata, sete exemplares de Drepanotrema cimex, 2.527 de Physa sp, 417 de Lymnaea sp, 92 de Pomacea haustrum e, a partir de março/1990, 3.064 exemplares de Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae = Thiaridae. Dos moluscos que apresentaram positividade para diversas larvas de trematódeos, quatro exemplares de B. tenagophila estavam positivos para S. mansoni.A malacological survey was carried out at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco, State of Minas Gerais, for the period 1986-1991. A total amount of 46,579 mollusks was collected, and among them seven species corresponding to five families could be found, as follows: 39,176 specimens of Biomphalaria tenagophila; 1,296 B. glabrata; 7 Drepanotrema cimex; 2,527 Physa sp; 417 Lymnaea sp; 92 Pomacea hastrum, and 3,064 specimens of Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae=Thiaridae were collected from March/1990 onwards. Four specimens of B. tenagophila were found to be positive for Schistosoma mansoni.

  17. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  18. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    E.N. Ezekiel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.

  19. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

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    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  20. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  1. Contaminação por mercúrio em sedimento e em moluscos do Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil Mercury contamination in sediment and in molluscs of Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Luiz M. Vieira

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available The total level of mercury detected in the sediment and in the tissues of molluscs from the Bento Gomes basin, although low, have shown that the mercury used in the gold mining activities in the Poconé wetlands has contaminated those aquatic habitats in Pantanal. From 69 sediment samples analyzed, 26 % (N = 18 have shown levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.25µg.g-1 of mercury (moist weight. Mercury levels analyzed in 54 samples of mollusc tissues (Ampullaria scalaris Orbigny, 1835; A. canaliculata Lamarck, 1819 and Marisa planogyra Pilsbry, 1933 have shown that 30% (N = 16 were contaminated with levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.16µg.g-1 moist weight. This study shows that the mercury used in digs for gold mining and released into the environment has reached the habitats of Pantanal spread from the sediment into the molluscs living in the region.

  2. Macroinvertebrate communities associated with macrophyte habitats in a tropical man-made lake (Lake Taabo, Côte d’Ivoire

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    Kouamé M. K.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was done on Lake Taabo with the main objective of characterising macroinvertebrate communities associated with the microhabitats created mainly by Eichhornia crassipes and other littoral native macrophytes. We sampled organisms in patches of those aquatic macrophytes. Also, some abiotic variables (temperature, transparency, turbidity, pH, TDS, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, NH$_{4}^{+}$+4, NO$_{3}^{-}$−3, NO$_{2}^{-}$−2, PO$_{4}^{3-}$3−4 and SiO$_{2}^{-}$−2 were measured. Overall, forty-three taxa of macroinvertebrates were identified. Ten of them were exclusively associated with water hyacinth while five were only associated with littoral macrophytes. Macroinvertebrate taxa with some of the highest family richness were Gastropoda, Coleoptera, Heteroptera, Odonata and Diptera. The taxon with highest density in both microhabitats was Chironomidae. Although higher values of taxonomic richness (Rs, the Shannon index (H′ and evenness (J were obtained with the water hyacinth habitat, significant differences between the two microhabitats were not observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that samples of E. crassipes collected in the dry season were characterised by Gastropoda and Odonata, as well as higher values of transparency and ammonia-nitrogen. Baetidae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Coenagrionidae, Naucoridae and Ostracoda were most abundant in both E. crassipes and littoral macrophyte habitats during the rainy season. This season was characterised by higher levels of nitrates and conductivity.

  3. Are the effects of an invasive crayfish on lake littoral macroinvertebrate communities consistent over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruokonen T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of invasive species requires assessment of their effects on recipient ecosystems. However, impact assessment of invasive species commonly lacks a long-term perspective which can potentially lead to false conclusions. We examined the effects of the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana on the stony littoral macroinvertebrate communities of a large boreal lake and assessed the extent to which the patterns observed in previous short-term studies were stable over time. We used temporal macroinvertebrate data collected in five consecutive years from a site with a well-established crayfish population, a site with no crayfish and a site where crayfish had been recently introduced. Our results revealed that signal crayfish had temporally rather consistent negative effects on the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages but that the effects might be limited to certain taxa, in particular Gastropoda and Coleoptera. We also observed increases in Gastropoda density and taxa richness following a decline in crayfish density, indicating that the recovery of invertebrate assemblages might be fast. Hence, negative effects on benthic macroinvertebrates can likely be minimized by effective control of the signal crayfish population.

  4. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  5. Estuarine Habitat Assessment for Construction of a Submarine Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Amr Z.; Abdel-Salam, Khaled M.

    2010-07-01

    The present paper describes a submarine survey using the acoustic discrimination system QTC VIEW (Series V) as an exploratory tool to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline. By using acoustic sound survey as an exploratory tool described in this paper to adjust final route alignment of a new pipeline to minimize the environmental impact caused and ultimately to avoid any mitigation measures. The transmission pipeline extended from the shore line of Abu-Qir Bay, on the Mediterranean Sea in Egypt, out to 70 nautical miles at sea (60 m water depth). Four main surface sediment types were defined in the study area, namely fine sand, silty sand, silt and clay. Results of the acoustic classification revealed four acoustic classes. The first acoustic class corresponded to fine sand, absence of shell debris and very poor habitats characteristics. The second acoustic class is predominant in the study area and corresponds to the region occupied by silt. It is also characterized by intermediate diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly characterized by polychaeta. The third acoustic class is characterized by silt to silty clay. It is characterized by a high diversity of macrobenthic invertebrate community which is mainly polychaeta with an intermediate diversity of gastropoda and bivalvia. The final acoustic class is characterized by clay and high occurrence of shell debris of gastropoda, bivalvia and polychaeta.

  6. Population dynamics of aquatic snails in Pampulha reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Freitas

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to determine more accurately the density of molluskan populations in the Pampulha reservoir, using the quadrate method, intending to detect the fluctuation of the populations density, the habitat conditions and the possible competitive interactions among Biomphalaria tenagophila, Melanoides tuberculata, Pomacea haustrum and Biomphalaria glabrata, through the analysis of populational parameters. Among the most significative facts observed in the reservoir it has to be mentioned: the almost disappearance of B. glabrata; the invasion, colonization, fixation and fast growing of M. tuberculata population until reaching about 11,000 individuals/[square metre]; the density fluctuations of B. tenagophila, P. haustrum and M. tuberculata alives and deads; differences on the habitat preference of these three molluskan species at the edge (at the limit earth-water, at 0.70m and 1.40m from the shore line; monthly mortality rates and reproduction seasons of the species.

  7. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H. KYLE, Alexis W. KROPF, Romi L. BURKS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available While difficult to prevent introductions, scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic, invasive species. South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread. Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats, female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large, bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects. To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches, we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e. material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial attracted P. insularum females to lay clutches. In our fourth experiment, we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output. To further understand reproductive output, we quantified experimental clutch chara- cteristics (height above water, dimensions, mass, approximate volume, number of eggs, hatching efficiency. Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material, chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures. In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US, Pontederia cordata, snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic, invasive plant (wild taro, Colocasia esculenta. Unexpectedly, smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails. Therefore, hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production. Collectively, our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P. insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5: 630–641, 2011].

  8. Herbivore preference for native vs. exotic plants: generalist herbivores from multiple continents prefer exotic plants that are evolutionarily naive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E Morrison

    Full Text Available Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4-17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp. preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of

  9. Herbivore preference for native vs. exotic plants: generalist herbivores from multiple continents prefer exotic plants that are evolutionarily naïve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Wendy E; Hay, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4-17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp.) preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa) occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of non

  10. Prime waterfront real estate: Apple snails choose wild taro for oviposition sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin H. KYLE; Alexis W. KROPF; Romi L. BURKS

    2011-01-01

    While difficult to prevent introductions,scientific research can help guide control efforts of exotic,invasive species.South American island apple snails Pomacea insularum have quickly spread across the United States Gulf Coast and few control measures exist to delay their spread.Usually occupying cryptic benthic habitats,female apple snails crawl out of the water to deposit large,bright pink egg clutches on emergent objects.To help identify the most likely place to find and remove clutches,we conducted four lab experiments to investigate what specific object qualities (i.e.material; shape and height; plant species; natural and artificial) amacted P.insularum females to lay clutches.In our fourth experiment,we specifically examined the relationship between female size and reproductive output.To further understand reproductive output,we quantified experimental clutch characteristics (height above water,dimensions,mass,approximate volume,number of eggs,hatching efficiency).Pomacea insularum females laid more clutches on plant material,chose round over flat surfaces and failed to differentiate between tall and short structures.In comparison to a common native plant in the eastern US,Pontederia cordata,snails clearly preferred to lay clutches on a widely distributed exotic,invasive plant (wild taro,Colocasia esculenta).Unexpectedly,smaller snails showed higher overall total fecundity as well as more eggs per clutch than larger snails.Therefore,hand removal efforts of large females may not be enough to slow down clutch production.Collectively,our results indicate that conservationists and managers should search emergent plants for P.insularum clutches carefully to guard against established populations [Current Zoology 57 (5):630-641,2011].

  11. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  12. Crawling through time: Transition of snails to slugs dating back to the Paleozoic, based on mitochondrial phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Mónica; Lal, Shruti; Vallès, Yvonne; Takaoka, Tori L; Dayrat, Benoît A; Boore, Jeffrey L; Gosliner, Terrence

    2011-03-01

    Sea slugs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) are characterized by extensive morphological homoplasy. In particular, reduced or absent shells are predominant throughout the group. This trend towards shell loss has resulted in a poor fossil record. DNA-based phylogenies have been helpful in improving our understanding of the evolution of this group and major clades are emerging. We report 13 new complete opisthobranch mitochondrial genomes that provide robust support for some of these emerging nodes. We name three new clades within the Opisthobranchia, the Actopleura (Acteonoidea plus Nudipleura), Placoesophaga (Cephalaspidea plus Anaspidea), and Siphoglossa (Sacoglossa plus the Siphonaria). Finally we use molecular clock dating that suggests an earlier opisthobranch divergence than previously reported. The implications of this evolutionary scenario are discussed. PMID:21429465

  13. Discrete potential waves in the photoreceptors of a gastropod mollusc, Hermissenda crassicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, T

    1982-01-01

    Intracellular recording of dark adapted photoreceptors of Hermissenda crassicornis (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda, Mollusca) revealed the occurrence of depolarizing waves even after blockade of synaptic transmission and postsynaptic potentials by application of low Ca2+ and high Mg2+ solution. Dim illumination increased the frequency of depolarizing waves. These observations show that Hermissenda photoreceptors have discrete waves which have been demonstrated mainly in arthropod photoreceptors. An histogram of intervals between successive discrete waves under continuous dim illumination was exponential, which is characteristic of a Poisson process. Frequency of discrete waves increased linearly depending on numbers of incident photons to the eye. Comparison of probabilities of eliciting a response to brief dim flashes of various intensities to theoretical Poisson sum curves, together with statistical analysis, indicate that the absorption of single photon is sufficient to evoke a discrete wave. PMID:7101766

  14. Life cycle and structure of the fish digenean Brachyphallus crenatus (Hemiuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køie, M

    1992-04-01

    Cystophorous cercariae from Retusa obtusa (Montagu) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Retusidae) develop into adults of Brachyphallus crenatus (Rudolphi, 1802) Odhner, 1905 (Hemiuridae). The free-swimming cercariae were ingested by laboratory-reared Acartia tonsa Dana, and the cercarial body was injected into the hemocoel of the copepod. Two-week-old metacercariae held at 15 C were infective to stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus. The cercariae of B. crenatus are very similar to the cercariae of Hemiurus luehei Odhner, 1905, and Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901 (Hemiuridae), which develop in closely related opisthobranch snails. Scanning electron microscopy of metacercariae and adults of B. crenatus revealed the annular plications of most of the external surface to be scalelike. The area surrounding the genital pore and the presomatic pit was densely plicated. PMID:1556648

  15. Temporal variation in Sargassum Biomass, Hypnea epiphytism and associated fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Fosca Pedini Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the temporal variation in Sargassum biomass, Hypnea epiphytism and associated fauna. There was a marked variation in the biomass of Sargassum and Hypnea among various sampling periods. Low values for Sargassum were recorded in August and November, while the lower value for Hypnea biomass was recorded in August. An inverse relationship was found between Sargassum biomass and the intensity of Hypnea epiphytism. The density of the total fauna associated to Sargassum showed a marked reduction in May. This variation was influenced by the variation patterns of the dominant faunistic groups (Gastropoda, Gammaridea, Isopoda and Caridea. Significant positive relationships were found between the biomass of Sargassum and Sargassum+Hypnea with the total density of all faunistic groups (per macroalgae biomass unit. However, the influence of Hypnea epiphytism on the phytal organisms was not evidenced.

  16. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  17. Molluscs associated with a Sardinian deep water population of Corallium rubrum (Linnι, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Molluscan species living in association with Corallium rubrumcolonies are poorly known. Specimensfound on the branches of red coral colonies located off Capo Caccia (Alghero – SS, West Sardinia,Mediterranean Sea were studied by analyzing red coral branches collected at a depth of between 100 and120 m; their assemblage was made up of 44 species, all belonging to the classes Gastropoda and Bivalvia.Some data on the geographical distribution, ecology, taxonomy and dominance of these species, bothalive and dead, are given and the most interesting are commented on. Among the recorded species Triviamultilirata, Simnia purpurea, Coralliophila brevis, Ocinebrina paddeui, Pleurotomella demosia, Palliolumstriatum and Pseudamussium sulcatum deserve attention. Moreover, the second finding of livingspecimens of Asperarca secreta, described only on loose valves, is reported, and finally the prey-predatorrelationships among several gastropods and Cnidarians are confirmed.

  18. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  19. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  20. Carotenoids of Sea Angels Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis from the Perspective of the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Maoka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea angels, Clione limacina and Paedoclione doliiformis, are small, floating sea slugs belonging to Gastropoda, and their gonads are a bright orange-red color. Sea angels feed exclusively on a small herbivorous sea snail, Limacina helicina. Carotenoids in C. limacina, P. doliiformis, and L. helicina were investigated for comparative biochemical points of view. β-Carotene, zeaxanthin, and diatoxanthin were found to be major carotenoids in L. helicina. L. helicina accumulated dietary algal carotenoids without modification. On the other hand, keto-carotenoids, such as pectenolone, 7,8-didehydroastaxanthin, and adonixanthin were identified as major carotenoids in the sea angels C. limacina and P. doliiformis. Sea angels oxidatively metabolize dietary carotenoids and accumulate them in their gonads. Carotenoids in the gonads of sea angels might protect against oxidative stress and enhance reproduction.

  1. First record of Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus) naturally infected with Xiphidiocercariae from Derna, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, E G; Kassem, H H

    1991-04-01

    A review of the literature shows that the fresh water snail Planorbis planorbis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) infected with Xiphidiocercariae has never been recorded in Derna, Libya. In the present paper the first record is made from Wadi Derna (= Darnah), East coast of Libya. The snail harbour Xiphidiocercariae, the percentage of infection during May, 1989, was found to be 7.3%. Morphological description of the snail Planorbis planorbis, Xiphidiocercariae is given in the present investigation. The snail possibly acts as an intermediate host of trematode species in Libya. Further studies are needed to investigate and to observe the exact type of trematode in which the fresh water snail P. planorbis acts as an intermediate host in the life-cycle and to determine the definitive host in Libya.

  2. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Sevigny

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra, two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa. In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda

  3. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  4. Diversity of macrobenthos in lowland streams: ecological determinants and taxonomic specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł KOPERSKI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study contains the results of an investigation of the relationships between the environmental variables and the taxonomic diversity of common and important groups of benthic macrofauna: Chironomidae, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Hirudinea and Gastropoda, collected from various types of bottom substrate in seven lowland streams of north-eastern Poland. Four metrics were used to express the diversity of the studied taxa in each sample as the examples of its four different aspects: species richness, rarity, Shannon-Weaver's diversity index and Pielou evenness index. The values of total species richness and Shannon-Weaver index were rarified by functional extrapolation with Michaelis-Menten asymptotic function chosen as a richness estimator. There are high differences in taxonomic diversity of benthic animals between the studied streams. The results of estimation of total species richness and total species diversity are mainly affected by the diversity of the taxon richest in species – larval Chironomidae and, to a lesser extent, Hirudinea. The total taxonomic diversity significantly correlates with the status of riparian vegetation and with the isolation of the sampling site, while the relationship with other environmental parameters, i.e. pollution and seasonality, is not significant. The diversity of Gastropoda and Hirudinea is significantly affected by pollution (positively, water depth and seasonality; whereas the diversity of Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae by the state of riparian vegetation, and that of Odonata by stream width and isolation of the site. The study presents and discusses reduced diversity of certain higher taxa as a result of a reduction in pollution loading to a stream with simultaneous unchanged values of the total diversity.

  5. Radiological impact of TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on invertebrates in the coastal benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) concentrations in invertebrates of benthic food web (10 taxonomic classes with 46 identified families) collected from wide areas off Fukushima Prefecture (3–500 m depth) were inspected from July 2011, four months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, to August 2013 to elucidate time-series trends among taxa and areas. Cesium-137 was detected in seven classes (77% of 592 specimens). Higher 137Cs concentrations within detected data were often found in areas near or south of the FDNPP, which is consistent with the reported spatial distribution of 137Cs concentrations in highly contaminated seawater and sediments after the FDNPP accident. Overall 137Cs concentrations in invertebrates, the maxima of which (290 Bq kg−1-wet in the sea urchin Glyptocidaris crenularis) were lower than in many demersal fishes, had decreased exponentially with time, and exhibited taxon-specific decreasing trends. Concentrations in Bivalvia and Gastropoda decreased clearly with respective ecological half-lives of 188 d and 102 d. In contrast, decreasing trends in Malacostraca and Polychaeta were more gradual, with longer respective ecological half-lives of 208 d and 487 d. Echinoidea showed no consistent trend, presumably because of effects of contaminated sediments taken into their digestive tract. Comparison of 137Cs concentrations in the invertebrates and those in seawater and sediments suggest that contaminated sediments are the major source of continuing contamination in benthic invertebrates, especially in Malacostraca and Polychaeta. - Highlights: • Radioactive cesium was measured in benthic invertebrates collected off Fukushima. • Results show taxon-specific and area-specific decreases in ecological half-lives. • Reasonable depuration of 137Cs concentration was found in Bivalvia and Gastropoda. • Slow depuration was observed in Polychaeta and Malacostraca. • Sediments are expected to be the major continued

  6. Brominating activity of the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum: Impact on the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wever, R.; Tromp, M.G.M.; Krenn, B.E.; Marjani, A.; Van Tol, M. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-03-01

    Macroalgae are an important source of volatile halogenated organic compounds, such as bromoform and dibromomethane. The mechanism by which these compounds are formed is still elusive. The authors report that the brown seaweeds Laminaria saccharina, Laminaria digitata, Fucus vesiculosis, Pelvetia canaliculata, and Ascophyllum nodosum and the red seaweeds Chondrus crispus and Plocamium hamatum contain bromoperoxidases. The intact plants are able to brominate exogeneous organic compounds when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Br{sup {minus}} are added to seawater. Further, the authors show that the brominating activity of the brown macroalga A. nodosum, which contains a vanadium bromoperoxidase located on the thallus surface, occurs when the plant is exposed to light and not in the dark. The rate of bromination of exogenous organic compounds in seawater by this plant is 68 nmol (g of wet alga){sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}. HOBr is a strong biocidal agent and the authors propose that the formation of HOBr by this seaweed is part of a host defense system.

  7. Enrichment of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of Irish brown macroalgae using food-friendly techniques based on polarity and molecular size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Michelle S; Smyth, Thomas J; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna; Croft, Anna K; Brunton, Nigel

    2013-08-15

    An efficient, food-friendly process for the enrichment of macroalgal phlorotannins from solid-liquid extracts (SLE) of three brown macroalgae, namely Fucus spiralis Linnaeus, Pelvetia canaliculata (Linnaeus) Decaisne & Thuret and Ascophyllum nodosum (Linnaeus) Le Jolis, has been demonstrated. The initial utilisation of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) dialysis generated fractions of low molecular weight (LMW) (100 kDa) from cold water, hot water and aqueous ethanolic SLE extracts. An enhancement of the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging abilities (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) in the HMW fractions of 3.5-100 kDa and/or >100 kDa from the cold water and aqueous ethanolic extracts was observed. The initial weak TPC, RSA and FRAP observed in the LMW fractions relative to the HMW fractions were substantially enhanced following a reverse-phase flash chromatography fractionation method. Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-Tof-MS) suggests that phlorotannins of varying degrees of phloroglucinol polymerisation are present in LMW fractions of the three brown macroalgal species. The development of a food-friendly process for the extraction and enrichment of phlorotannins from Irish macroalgae is vital to facilitate the use of this valuable resource in future developments of macroalgal-based functional foods. PMID:23561170

  8. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Dadolahi-Sohrab; M Garavand-Karimi; H Riahi; H Pashazanoosi

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney’s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m−2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m−2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m−2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m−2), respectively.

  9. The Ordovician ostracodes established by Aurel Krause, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schallreuter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a revision of the ostracodes described by Aurel Krause at the end of the 19th century from glacial erratic boulders from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg (Northern Germany has led to taxonomic confusion in the corresponding literature of the 20th century. To attain stability in names, some of Krause's ostracode species have been revised based on the types stored in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, namely Primitia plana, P. plana tuberculata, P. intermedia, P. globifera, Entomis sigma antiquata, Bollia v-scripta, B. granulosa, B. duplex, Strepula lineata, Isochilina canaliculata, Beyrichia dissecta, B. mamillosa, B. signata, and B. bidens. Most species have up to four younger synonyms among species described later from outcrops or borings in Baltoscandia or glacial erratic boulders of Northern Germany and Sweden. Three of Krause's species, which have been considered as nomina dubia by Jaanusson are in fact valid species. Some of Krause's species or of their synonyms are type species. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000015

  10. Activity of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii N.E.B. (Euphorbiaceae latex against Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817 (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Linnaeus, 1758 (Trematoda: Fasciolidae. 2: limited field-testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The molluscicidal evaluation of Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii (Crown of thorns against Lymnaea columella snails, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, in irrigation ditches of the Pisciculture Station at Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, was studied under limited field conditions. An aqueous solution of the latex at 5 mg/l was tested in two irrigation ditches (experimental and control ditches, after initial sampling of the snail population present. Twenty-four hours after application of the product, it was verified that 97.4% of free L. columella snails and 100% of snails of the same species captive in cages and used as sentinels at three points equidistant from the application site in the experimental ditch, died. For Biomphalaria tenagophila and Melanoides tuberculata snails, present in the experimental ditch, the mortality was 100%, for the species Pomacea spp. the mortality was 40%. No mortality was verified in the free mollusks, or in the sentinels in the ditch used as control. E. splendens var. hislopii latex is thus an efficient natural molluscicide, which may be used as an alternative control agent against L. columella.

  11. Foraging activity of the snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves: Accipitridae) in wetlands of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, F B; Amaral, H L C; Pinto, D P; Chivittz, C C; Tozetti, A M

    2013-05-01

    The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is widely distributed in the American continent. Its specialised diet consists mostly of the gastropod mollusk Pomacea sp and its foraging strategy probably varies depending on the season, prey availability, and climate factors, which can be reflected in its semi-nomad behaviour. This study was aimed at examining the hunting strategy of the snail kite, and its association with climate factors and habitat heterogeneity. Direct observations of birds between January 2010 and March 2011 in southernmost Brazil revealed that hunting was still the predominant foraging strategy (79% of records) to capture mollusks. Despite morphological specialisations to extract mollusks from the shells, the handling time (average = 92.4 s) was twice as much the time between prey search and capture (average = 55 s). The increase in the number of mollusks ingested apparently occurs when the resting time on perches or any other substrates near the hunting sites decreases between successive unsuccessful attempts. The correlation between the number of consumed preys and the climatic variables examined was low. Regarding habitat heterogeneity, our findings suggest that birds forage preferentially in marshes with low vegetation, which may increase the access to mollusks. The hunting efficiency of the snail kite was high (76 % successful attempts) compared to those of other birds of prey. PMID:23917551

  12. Detection of spirorchiid trematodes in gastropod tissues by polymerase chain reaction: preliminary identification of an intermediate host of Learedius learedi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Brian A; Frankovich, Thomas; Greiner, Ellis; Alleman, A Rick; Herbst, Lawrence H; Klein, Paul; Bolten, Alan; McIntosh, Antoinette; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2010-08-01

    Marine spirorchiid trematodes are associated with morbidity and mortality in sea turtles worldwide. The intermediate hosts remain unknown, and discovery efforts are hindered by the large number and great diversity of potential hosts within sea turtle habitats, as well the potential for low prevalence and overdispersion. A high-throughput DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction-based method was developed to detect the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the ribosomal gene of 2 spirorchiid genera, Learedius and Hapalotrema , within pooled samples of gastropod tissues. A model system consisting of freshwater snail ( Pomacea bridgesii ) tissues and DNA extracts spiked with adult Learedius learedi and known quantities of spirorchiid DNA was used to develop and test the technique. Threshold of detection was found to be equivalent to an early prepatent infection within 1.5 g of gastropod tissue. This technique was used to screen approximately 25 species of marine gastropods at a captive facility where green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) become infected by L. learedi . The parasite was detected in a sample of knobby keyhole limpet ( Fissurella nodosa ), thus providing the first evidence of an intermediate host for a marine spirorchiid trematode. This technique has many potential applications in trematode life cycle discovery studies.

  13. Hábitos alimenticios del pargo rayado, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Food habits of the lane snapper, Lutjanus synagris (Perciformes: Lutjanidae, in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Doncel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los hábitos alimenticios de Lutjanus synagris, mediante el análisis de contenido estomacal, considerando el espectro trófico a nivel general, por sexo y talla, los aspectos ecológicos de las presas, su distribución espacial y la relación de la dieta con las condiciones del habitat. Se analizaron 148 estómagos, de los cuales el 45,3% estaba lleno y el 54,7% vacío. Las presas más representativas (%N fueron: Portunus spp. (27,3%; n = 44 y Squilla intermedia (10,6%; n = 17. El análisis gravimétrico (%P mostró que entre las categorías con mayor peso se encontraron: Gastropoda (31,8%; 51,7 g y Farfantepenaeus spp. (17,5%o; 28,5 g. La frecuencia de ocurrencia (%>FO mostró que: Portunus spp. (25,8%>; 17 estómagos y S. intermedia (10,5%>; 7 estómagos fueron las presas más frecuentes. Según el %>IIR, las categorías más representativas en la dieta fueron Portunus spp. (43,0%> y Gastropoda (13,4%>. Se identificaron cuatro categorías como presas principales: Portunidae (837,06, Gastropoda (260,29, Squillidae (234,66 y Penaeidae (218,05, dos como presas secundarias: Sicyoniidae (126,35 y Trichiuridae (75,64 y las demás como presas circunstanciales. La distribución espacial de la amplitud del nicho trófico y de las tallas de L. synagris, permitió identificar dos zonas: la primera entre Riohacha y Dibulla con los valores más altos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,64 a 1,00 denotando predadores generalista y donde se registraron las tallas menores y la segunda, entre Riohacha y Punta Gallinas con los valores más bajos de amplitud del nicho trófico (0,00 a 0,23, donde los individuos mostraron alto grado de especialización en la dieta y las tallas mayores.This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspeets of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with

  14. Diel feeding pattern and diet of rough scad Trachurus lathami Nichols, 1920 (Carangidae from the Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Diel changes in feeding activity and dietary composition of the rough scad Trachurus lathami were investigated through the analysis of stomach contents of 307 fish sampled over a 24-h period on the continental shelf off Ubatuba (23º 35'S 45ºW. Stomach contents were analyzed by frequency of occurrence (O%, percent number (N%, percent mass (M%, and feeding index (FI% = O% * M%. Rough scad fed on mollusks (Gastropoda, Crepidula sp., crustacean (Ostracoda, Copepoda, decapod larvae, chaetognat and teleostean fish. The main items were calanoid copepods (Eucalanus sp. and Centropages sp.. According to the analysis of the stomach fullness and prey digestion, T. lathami is both a diurnal and nocturnal feeder, showing some seasonal variation in feeding time. According to the Chronobiology concept, it was raised the hypothesis of circadian rhythm in feeding of this fish, probably synchronized by light/dark cycle.O estudo da dieta e do padrão diário e sazonal de atividade alimentar do chicharro Trachurus lathami foi realizado através de análises dos conteúdos estomacais de 307 peixes amostrados em estações fixas de coleta de 24 horas na plataforma continental ao largo de Ubatuba (23º 35'S 45ºW. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados através da freqüência numérica (N%, massa porcentual (M% e freqüência de ocorrência (O% dos itens alimentares, e índice alimentar (O% * M%. A espécie caracterizou-se por ingerir principalmente copépodes calanóides (ex. Eucalanus sp. e Centropages sp., além de outros crustáceos (Ostracoda, larva de decápodes, moluscos (Gastropoda: Crepidula sp., quetognatos e peixes teleósteos. De acordo com o grau de repleção estomacal e grau de digestão das presas, T. lathami ingeriu alimento tanto na fase clara quanto na fase escura do dia, apresentando variação sazonal no horário de tomada de alimento. De acordo com os conceitos da Cronobiologia foi levantada a hipótese de ritmo circadiano na atividade

  15. Invertebrates on isolated peaks in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Armstrong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey to document and describe the alpine flora and various focal faunal taxa on six isolated inselberg-like peaks (total area of 31.9 ha, all 3000 m or higher, located in the uKhahlamba-Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site, South Africa, was undertaken in early summer in 2005. Study of the fauna of these peaks should be informative because the impacts of controllable anthropogenic threats on the invertebrate communities on them should be minimal or absent in comparison with those on the main massif. A total of 341 invertebrate individuals representing 61 species were recorded from the focal taxa (Oligochaeta, Gastropoda and certain groups of Insecta, i.e. focal taxa within the Blattoidea, Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. The 61 species recorded consisted of two species from the Oligochaeta, one species from the Gastropoda and 58 species from the Insecta. Eleven species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are endemic and 11 species (one from the Oligochaeta, ten from the Insecta are probably endemic to the Drakensberg Alpine Centre, constituting 36.1% of the total species recorded. The results suggest that the Drakensberg Alpine Centre (DAC, as for plants, is a centre of endemism for invertebrates. Cluster analysis showed that the species composition of the two northern peaks, Sentinel and Eastern Buttress, clustered together, separate from a cluster formed by the Outer Horn, Inner Horn and Dragon’s Back and from the cluster formed by the southernmost peak, Cathkin. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling results indicated that distance from the Sentinel, the most northerly peak sampled, and mean minimum temperature for July had the strongest correlations with the species data, reflecting change over a straight-line distance of nearly 60 km in a south-easterly direction.Conservation implications: Only a small proportion (ca. 5.5% of the DAC is conserved, the majority of which lies

  16. Estrutura da Comunidade de Invertebrados Bentônicos do Rio Piranhas-Assu, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer os invertebrados bentônicos, bem como caracterizar os grupos tróficos funcionais existentes no rio Piranhas-Assu, município de Alto do Rodrigues, Rio Grande do Norte. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de maio (chuva, julho e setembro (seca de 2002, em trechos diferentes do rio. Foi medida a velocidade da correnteza, a largura, profundidade do rio e temperatura da água. Foram coletados 3525 indivíduos de Insecta e outras classes (Malacostraca, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Arachnida, Ostracoda e Copepoda. A maior abundância da classe Insecta ocorreu no mês de setembro (seca. A vazão apresentou correlação com a abundância com na Classe Insecta, já a velocidade superficial da água para outras classes. Entre os Insecta observou-se uma maior abundância de predadores, seguida dos coletores, já para as outras classes os raspadores foram mais abundantes.Structure of benthic invertebrate’s community with focus in the aquatic insects of the Piranhas-Assu river, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast, BrazilAbstract. The aim of this work was to verify the benthonic invertebrates, and to identify the functional trophic groups that exist in the Piranhas-Assu, in Alto do Rodrigues municipality, Rio Grande do Norte State. The samples were carried taken on May (rain season, July and September (dry season from 2002, in different sites in the river. The measurements of water speed, wide, temperature and river deep where made. It was collected 3525 individuals of Insecta and other classes (Malacostraca, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Arachnida, Ostracoda and Copepoda. Insecta showed a higher abundance in September (dry season. The river discharge showed significant correlation with Insecta classe abundance, and the superficial water speed had correlation with other classes. The insects showed a highest abundance of predators, followed by collectors, in the other classes, the scrappers were the most abundant.

  17. 上海苏州河大型底栖动物的研究%A study on macro-invertebrate of the Suzhou River, Shanghai.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国才; 赖伟; 殷浩文; 顾福康

    2001-01-01

    苏州河白鹤至浙江路段6个采样断面大型底栖动物隶属于环节动物门(Annelida)、软体动物门(Mollusca)及节肢动物门(Arthropoda).其中寡毛纲(Oligochaeta)4种、蛭纲(Hirudinea)2种、腹足纲(Gastropoda)5种、双壳纲(Bivalvia)2种及昆虫纲摇蚊科幼虫(Chironomidae)与潜蝇蛹(Agromyzigae)(未定种).随着底质污染的加重,群落结构趋于简化.种类少、高度耐污是存活大型底栖动物的显著特点.从白鹤至华槽断面,高度耐污的霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)数量趋于增加,并在华槽断面形成明显数量高峰;北新泾、武宁路河段底质污染严重,环节动物、软体动物消失;浙江路断面受黄浦江"逆流"影响,寡毛纲动物再度出现,并形成一定数量.%Macro-invertebrate from Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda were found in six sections from Baihe to Zhejiang road in the Suzhou River, among which four species were from Oligochaeta, two species from Hirudinea, five species from Gastropoda, two species from Bivalvia and several species from Insecta (unidentified). The community structure of macro-invertebrates became simple with the sediment pollution getting heavier. Limited species with high pollution resistibility were the characteristics of the species survival. The amounts of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri with high pollution resistibility increased gradually from Baihe to Huacao section, and reached a peak in Huacao section; species from An-nelida, Mollusca were not found in Beixinjing and Wuninglu sections due to heavy sediment pollution; species from Oli-gochaeta were found again and had certain numbers in Zhejiang road section as the result of the effect of courterflow of the Huangpu River.

  18. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Xia; Yu, Wen-Chao; Cai, Zhong-Qiang; He, Cheng; Wei, Na

    2016-01-01

    The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata) mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM) is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM) and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization. PMID:27703977

  19. The intrinsic antimicrobial activity of citric acid-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles is enhanced after conjugation with the antifungal peptide Cm-p5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Abarrategui, Carlos; Figueroa-Espi, Viviana; Lugo-Alvarez, Maria B; Pereira, Caroline D; Garay, Hilda; Barbosa, João ARG; Falcão, Rosana; Jiménez-Hernández, Linnavel; Estévez-Hernández, Osvaldo; Reguera, Edilso; Franco, Octavio L; Dias, Simoni C; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo J

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens are among the major health problems in the world. Newer antimicrobial therapies based on novel molecules urgently need to be developed, and this includes the antimicrobial peptides. In spite of the potential of antimicrobial peptides, very few of them were able to be successfully developed into therapeutics. The major problems they present are molecule stability, toxicity in host cells, and production costs. A novel strategy to overcome these obstacles is conjugation to nanomaterial preparations. The antimicrobial activity of different types of nanoparticles has been previously demonstrated. Specifically, magnetic nanoparticles have been widely studied in biomedicine due to their physicochemical properties. The citric acid-modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles used in this study were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of approximately 5 nm diameter. These nanoparticles were able to inhibit Candida albicans growth in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 250 µg/mL. However, the nanoparticles were not capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Finally, an antifungal peptide (Cm-p5) from the sea animal Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) was conjugated to the modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the conjugated nanoparticles was higher than their bulk counterparts, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. This conjugate proved to be nontoxic to a macrophage cell line at concentrations that showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:27563243

  20. Histopathological Changes in Tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Incubated in Crude Extracts of Camellia Seed and Mangosteen Pericarp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Pinlaor, Somchai; Tesana, Smarn; Aunpromma, Surasit; Booyarat, Chantana; Sriraj, Pranee; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to observe histopathological changes in tissues of Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos (Gastropoda, Bithyniidae) incubated in crude extract solutions of camellia (Camellia oleifera) seed and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp, and furthermore to estimate the molluscicidal effects of 2 plant substances. Substantial numbers of bithyniid snails were incubated in various concentrations of 2 plant solution for 24 hr. As the positive control, snails incubated in various concentrations of niclosamide, a chemical molluscicide, were used. The histopathological findings were observed in sectioned snail specimens of each experimental and control groups. The results showed that both camellia and mangosteen extracts had molluscicidal effects at 24 hr with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) at concentrations of 0.003 and 0.002 g/ml, respectively, while niclosamide had LC50 at concentrations 0.599 ppm. B. siamensis goniomphalos snail tissues (foot, gill, and digestive system) showed disruption of columnar muscle fibers of the foot, reduction of the length and number of gill cilia, numerous mucous vacuoles, and irregularly shaped of epithelial cells. Irregular apical and calciferous cells, dilatation of the digestive gland tubule, and large hemolymphatic spaces, and irregular apical surfaces, detachment of cilia, and enlargement of lysosomal vacuoles of epidermis were also shown in all groups. By the present study, it is confirmed that 2 plants, camellia and mangosteen, are keeping some substance having molluscicidal effects, and histopathological findings obtained in this study will provide some clues in further studies on their action mechanisms to use them as natural molluscicides. PMID:24327779

  1. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fruits and the richest in alkaloids was the most toxic (LC50 = 1.65 mg/L. The fractions richest in saponosides obtained from the hydromethanolic and methanolic extracts of immature fruits showed interesting molluscicidal activities (LC50 = 6.15 mg/L and LC50 = 7.91 mg/L, respectively. The observed molluscicide activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids or saponosides. So, the immature fruits of Solanum nigrum var. villosum could be substrates of choice for molluscicide activity. In addition, total alkaloids and saponosides present in this plant deserve further investigations in order to identify the active principles and demonstrate their activities on mollusks in their natural habitat. According to the World Health Organization’s guidelines on screening for plant molluscicides, use of these fractions may add to the arsenal of methods to control snail transmitting fasciolosis in tropical and Third World countries where fasciolosis is a common disease.

  2. On the paraphyly of Cytaeididae and placement of Cytaeis within the suborder Filifera (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata)

    KAUST Repository

    Prudkovsky, A. A.

    2016-06-17

    Identification of hydrozoans of the family Cytaeididae L. Agassiz, 1862 is confused due to their morphological similarity, to the shortage of morphological characteristics, and to a lack of molecular data. In this study, sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers were analyzed from hydroids of Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 collected in the southern Red Sea on shells of Nassarius Duméril, 1805 (Gastropoda: Nassariidae), along with sequences of Cytaeis and Perarella Stechow, 1922 from GenBank. Analyses revealed the paraphyly of the family Cytaeididae, and indicate that the genus Cytaeis may actually belong to the family Bougainvilliidae Lütken, 1850 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata). Perarella species grouped within different families and far from Cytaeis species within phylogenetic trees. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the phylogenetic position and formally revise the taxonomy of Perarella. These results demonstrate the need to utilize molecular sequences in re-assessing the taxonomy and phylogeny of filiferan hydrozoans. © 2016 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. Photoautotrophic microorganisms as a carbon source for temperate soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Olaf; Dyckmans, Jens; Schrader, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We tested experimentally if photoautotrophic microorganisms are a carbon source for invertebrates in temperate soils. We exposed forest or arable soils to a (13)CO2-enriched atmosphere and quantified (13)C assimilation by three common animal groups: earthworms (Oligochaeta), springtails (Hexapoda) and slugs (Gastropoda). Endogeic earthworms (Allolobophora chlorotica) and hemiedaphic springtails (Ceratophysella denticulata) were highly (13)C enriched when incubated under light, deriving up to 3.0 and 17.0%, respectively, of their body carbon from the microbial source in 7 days. Earthworms assimilated more (13)C in undisturbed soil than when the microbial material was mixed into the soil, presumably reflecting selective surface grazing. By contrast, neither adult nor newly hatched terrestrial slugs (Deroceras reticulatum) grazed on algal mats. Non-photosynthetic (13)CO2 fixation in the dark was negligible. We conclude from these preliminary laboratory experiments that, in addition to litter and root-derived carbon from vascular plants, photoautotrophic soil surface microorganisms (cyanobacteria, algae) may be an ecologically important carbon input route for temperate soil animals that are traditionally assigned to the decomposer channel in soil food web models and carbon cycling studies. PMID:26740559

  4. The intrinsic antimicrobial activity of citric acid-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles is enhanced after conjugation with the antifungal peptide Cm-p5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Abarrategui, Carlos; Figueroa-Espi, Viviana; Lugo-Alvarez, Maria B; Pereira, Caroline D; Garay, Hilda; Barbosa, João Arg; Falcão, Rosana; Jiménez-Hernández, Linnavel; Estévez-Hernández, Osvaldo; Reguera, Edilso; Franco, Octavio L; Dias, Simoni C; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo J

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens are among the major health problems in the world. Newer antimicrobial therapies based on novel molecules urgently need to be developed, and this includes the antimicrobial peptides. In spite of the potential of antimicrobial peptides, very few of them were able to be successfully developed into therapeutics. The major problems they present are molecule stability, toxicity in host cells, and production costs. A novel strategy to overcome these obstacles is conjugation to nanomaterial preparations. The antimicrobial activity of different types of nanoparticles has been previously demonstrated. Specifically, magnetic nanoparticles have been widely studied in biomedicine due to their physicochemical properties. The citric acid-modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles used in this study were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of approximately 5 nm diameter. These nanoparticles were able to inhibit Candida albicans growth in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 250 µg/mL. However, the nanoparticles were not capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Finally, an antifungal peptide (Cm-p5) from the sea animal Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) was conjugated to the modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the conjugated nanoparticles was higher than their bulk counterparts, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. This conjugate proved to be nontoxic to a macrophage cell line at concentrations that showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:27563243

  5. Establishment and use of a combined test system for assessing the toxicity of environmentally relevant pollutants in soil.- Optimization of keeping conditions in the laboratory and bionomic investigations. Final report; Etablierung und Anwendung eines kombinierten Testsystems zur Beurteilung der Toxizitaet umweltrelevanter Schadstoffe in Boeden. Optimierung der Laborhaltung und bionomische Untersuchungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunger, W.; Mattern, D.; Reise, H.; Schulz, H.J.; Barth, V.; Roemer, M.; Voigtlaender, K.; Zimdars, B.

    1997-12-31

    In order to establish how organisms can be kept with low stress or free of stress in the laboratory, test species from the Oberlausitz region were chosen. The species belong to the groups of soil-living organisms Collembola, Isopoda, and Gastropoda. Keeping results may be considered as confirmed and as suitable for stress investigations. Successful optimization of keeping is only possible for a single species in each case (generalists excepted).- As applicable vital parameters both to confirm keeping success and to assess the impact of sublethal doses of stressors (heavy metals, insecticides), the following were established (in this order of sequence): reproductive success, growth (change of biomass, sloughing), mortality and, with restrictions, activity (running and foraging activity).- As expected, the effect of the heavy metals used was found to depend on their concentration. Increased mortality as a rule was only found in the wake of cadmium contaminations; reduced growth and, especially, reduced reproduction was triggered also by lead and zinc contaminations. With this regard, subtle differentiations were established. Use of Lindan in the specified dosage proved to have almost no impact during the (short) test period. (orig./MG)

  6. Impact of a flood disaster on sediment toxicity in a major river system - the Elbe flood 2002 as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ecotoxicological implications of a flooding disaster were investigated with the exceptional Elbe flood in August 2002 as an example. Sediment samples were taken shortly after the flood at 37 sites. For toxicity assessment the midge Chironomus riparius (Insecta) and the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gastropoda) were exposed to the sediment samples for 28 days. For a subset of 19 sampling sites, the contamination level and the biological response of both species were also recorded before the flood in 2000. The direct comparison of biological responses at identical sites revealed significant differences for samples taken before and immediately after the flood. After flood sediments of the river Elbe caused both higher emergence rates in the midge and higher numbers of embryos in the mudsnail. Contrary to expectations the toxicity of the sediments decreased after the flood, probably because of a dilution of toxic substances along the river Elbe and a reduction in bioavailability of pollutants as a result of increasing TOC values after the flood. - The extraordinary Elbe flood in August 2002 did not result in an overall increase of environmental contamination

  7. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnepenninckx, B; Steiner, G; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1998-02-01

    Some generally accepted viewpoints on the phylogenetic relationships within the molluscan class Gastropoda are reassessed by comparing complete 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The previously suggested basal position of Archaeogastropoda, including Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda, in the gastropod clade is confirmed. The present study also provides new molecular evidence for the monophyly of both Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura (Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia), making Prosobranchia paraphyletic. The relationships within Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura data turn out to be very unstable on the basis of the present 18S rRNA sequences. The present 18S rRNA data question, but are insufficient to decide on, muricacean (Neogastropoda), neotaenioglossan, pulmonate, or stylommatophoran monophyly. The analyses also focus on two systellommatophoran families, namely, Veronicellidae and Onchidiidae. It is suggested that Systellommatophora are not a monophyletic unit but, due to the lack of stability in the euthyneuran clade, their affinity to either Opisthobranchia or Pulmonata could not be determined. PMID:9479694

  8. [Evolutionary regularities of somatic polyploidy expansion in salivary glands of gastropod mollusks. V. Subclasses Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, A P; Ziumchenko, N E

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands of 25 species of euthyneural gastropod mollusks (Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata) have been investigated by means of histochemical methods and DNA cytophotometry in nuclei of cells. The cells of three basic types are distinguished in glandular epithelim: granular cells (with glicoproteid granular inclusions), mucocytes-I (with sulfatic acid mucopolysaccharides) and mucocytes-II (with neutral and acid nonsulfatic polysaccharides and proteins) and so the epithelial ciliated cells and cells of the ducts. It was shown that glandular cells of salivary glands of all discovered mollusks' species are polyploid in different degree. The highest ploidy level estimated by means of DNA content in most of species is 64-128c. The giant polyploidy, attained to 4096c, is discovered in cells of salivary glands of Tritonia diomedea. The functional conditionality connected with features of feeding of different mollusk species and phylogenetic tendencies of expansion of somatic polyploidy in class Gastropoda are discussed. In comparison with allogenic, facultative and small polyploidy manifestation in Prosobranchia the obligatory polyploidization of high degree revealed in cells of salivary glands of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata is consider to be the original cytological arogenesis. The probable causes of such differences are conneted with euthyneural type of organization of central nervous system and giant polyploidy of neurons in Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata mollusks. The causes, mechanisms and significance of such correlations are unclear for the present. PMID:22590930

  9. Localization of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ríos, M; Suess, E; Miller, M W

    1999-10-18

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in the central nervous system of Aplysia californica (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) where its role as a neurotransmitter is supported by pharmacological, biochemical, and anatomical investigations. In this study, the distribution of GABA-immunoreactive (GABAi) neurons and fiber systems in Aplysia was examined by using wholemount immunohistochemistry and nerve backfill methods. GABAi neurons were located in the buccal, cerebral, and pedal ganglia. Major commissural fiber systems were present in each of these ganglia, whereas more limited fiber systems were observed in the ganglionic connectives. Some of the interganglionic fibers were found to originate from two unpaired GABAi neurons, one in the buccal ganglion and one in the right pedal ganglion, each of which exhibited bilateral projections. No GABAi fibers were found in the nerves that innervate peripheral sensory, motor, or visceral organs. Although GABAi cells were not observed in the pleural or abdominal ganglia, these ganglia did receive limited projections of GABAi fibers originating from neurons in the pedal ganglia. The distribution of GABAi neurons suggests that this transmitter system may be primarily involved in coordinating certain bilateral central pattern generator (CPG) systems related to feeding and locomotion. In addition, the presence of specific interganglionic GABAi projections also suggests a role in the regulation or coordination of circuits that produce components of complex behaviors. PMID:10524338

  10. Morphology, taxonomic status and distribution of the opisthobranch mollusc Coryphella (s.l.) japonica from the central deep water basin of the Sea of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Alexander V.

    2013-02-01

    The opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the deep sea basins of the Sea of Japan is reviewed. A detailed description of the most common deep sea nudibranch species Coryphella japonicaVolodchenko, 1941 is given based on materials from various expeditions (including R/V "Vityaz" cruises and SoJaBio project). Distinct morphological features of C. japonica are discussed and its valid taxonomic status is confirmed. The considerable radular variability of C. japonica for the first time is documented using a scanning electron microscope. Unique features of the bathymetric distribution of C. japonica ranging from shelf to the abyssal depths are discussed in connection with the "pseudabyssal area" concept. C. japonica was compared to its assumed synonym C. salmonacea, and to similar C. athadona. Material from all these species, including types of C. japonica, was examined externally, anatomically via dissection, and SEM. C. salmonacea is restricted to North Atlantic and Arctic only, whereas C. japonica inhabits NE Pacific including deep water basins of the Sea of Japan.

  11. Parallel evolution of serotonergic neuromodulation underlies independent evolution of rhythmic motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillvis, Joshua L; Katz, Paul S

    2013-02-01

    Neuromodulation can dynamically alter neuronal and synaptic properties, thereby changing the behavioral output of a neural circuit. It is therefore conceivable that natural selection might act upon neuromodulation as a mechanism for sculpting the behavioral repertoire of a species. Here we report that the presence of neuromodulation is correlated with the production of a behavior that most likely evolved independently in two species: Tritonia diomedea and Pleurobranchaea californica (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudipleura). Individuals of both species exhibit escape swimming behaviors consisting of repeated dorsal-ventral whole-body flexions. The central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying these behaviors contain homologous identified neurons: DSI and C2 in Tritonia and As and A1 in Pleurobranchaea. Homologs of these neurons also can be found in Hermissenda crassicornis where they are named CPT and C2, respectively. However, members of this species do not exhibit an analogous swimming behavior. In Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda, the serotonergic DSI homologs modulated the strength of synapses made by C2 homologs. Furthermore, the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide blocked this neuromodulation and the swimming behavior. Additionally, in Pleurobranchaea, the robustness of swimming correlated with the extent of the synaptic modulation. Finally, injection of serotonin induced the swimming behavior in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda. This suggests that the analogous swimming behaviors of Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea share a common dependence on serotonergic neuromodulation. Thus, neuromodulation may provide a mechanism that enables species to acquire analogous behaviors independently using homologous neural circuit components. PMID:23392697

  12. Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucci, Anuschka; Toonen, Robert J; Hadfield, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    While the role of host preference in ecological speciation has been investigated extensively in terrestrial systems, very little is known in marine environments. Host preference combined with mate choice on the preferred host can lead to population subdivision and adaptation leading to host shifts. We use a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial genetic markers to disentangle the taxonomic status and to investigate the role of host specificity in the speciation of the nudibranch genus Phestilla (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) from Guam, Palau and Hawaii. Species of the genus Phestilla complete their life cycle almost entirely on their specific host coral (species of Porites, Goniopora and Tubastrea). They reproduce on their host coral and their planktonic larvae require a host-specific chemical cue to metamorphose and settle onto their host. The phylogenetic trees of the combined cytochrome oxidase I and ribosomal 16S gene sequences clarify the relationship among species of Phestilla identifying most of the nominal species as monophyletic clades. We found a possible case of host shift from Porites to Goniopora and Tubastrea in sympatric Phestilla spp. This represents one of the first documented cases of host shift as a mechanism underlying speciation in a marine invertebrate. Furthermore, we found highly divergent clades within Phestilla sp. 1 and Phestilla minor (8.1-11.1%), suggesting cryptic speciation. The presence of a strong phylogenetic signal for the coral host confirms that the tight link between species of Phestilla and their host coral probably played an important role in speciation within this genus. PMID:17134995

  13. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the sea-slug, Aplysia californica: conservation of the gene order in Euthyneura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Bjarne; Kohn, Andrea B; Nahir, Ben; McFadden, Catherine S; Moroz, Leonid L

    2006-02-01

    We have sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the sea slug, Aplysia californica, an important model organism in experimental biology and a representative of Anaspidea (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda). The mitochondrial genome of Aplysia is in the small end of the observed sizes of animal mitochondrial genomes (14,117 bp, NCBI Accession No. NC_005827). The Aplysia genome, like most other mitochondrial genomes, encodes genes for 2 ribosomal subunit RNAs (small and large rRNAs), 22 tRNAs, and 13 protein subunits (cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1-3, cytochrome b apoenzyme, ATP synthase subunits 6 and 8, and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 1-6 and 4L). The gene order is virtually identical between opisthobranchs and pulmonates, with the majority of differences arising from tRNA translocations. In contrast, the gene order from representatives of basal gastropods and other molluscan classes is significantly different from opisthobranchs and pulmonates. The Aplysia genome was compared to all other published molluscan mitochondrial genomes and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using a concatenated protein alignment. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood based analyses of the well aligned regions of the protein sequences support both monophyly of Euthyneura (a group including both the pulmonates and opisthobranchs) and Opisthobranchia (as a more derived group). The Aplysia mitochondrial genome sequenced here will serve as an important platform in both comparative and neurobiological studies using this model organism. PMID:16230032

  14. Dominant species of the gastropod fauna from the littoral region in Lake Ohrid of R. Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiljkov, S; Budzakoska-Gjoreska, B; Sapkarev, J; Trajanovski, S

    2007-07-01

    The class of Gastropoda is one of the Lake Ohrid' macrozoobenthic groups, which characterize highest level of endemism. Since the first published references until now, studying the Lake Ohrid's snail fauna represents huge scientific challenge for many malacologists from the world. The high percent of endemic as well as relic forms among the lake's gastropods could be explained by the processes of intralacustric speciation during the history and evolution of this aquatic ecosystem. These processes no doubt have been enabled by the complexity and stability of the Lake's basin. This work represents the results of the dominant species, from both qualitative and quantitative sense of the gastropod fauna from 19 investigated littoral localities of Lake Ohrid. The results from the investigations on gastropod fauna has shown that following species: Chilopyrgula sturanyi, Radix relicta and Valvata stenotrema quailtatively predominates in the samples from the littoral region of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid. The quantitative analyses (according to their presence on m2), has shown that the following species predominate: Chilopyrgula sturanyi (6879 No x m2), Theodoxus fluviatilis dalmaticus (6412 No x m2), Pyrgohydrobia grochmalickii (5504 No x m2) and Valvata stenotrema (5009 No x m2). PMID:17921924

  15. Morphological evidence for a morphogenetic field in gastropod mollusc eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, S E; Butler, R D; Kimber, S J

    1998-01-01

    Eggs of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata examined by confocal imaging of FITC-lectin binding to the surface, and cryoscopic-SEM both reveal a surface architecture of linear structures organized around the animal-vegetal axis, which is spatially related to the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis of the subsequent embryo. A series of structures is also orientated with reference to specific micromere quartets formed during spiral cleavage. Thus, the surface architecture may provide a visible marker for a morphogenetic field which generates the a-p axis and organizes the cleavage pattern. Moreover, this architecture is co-extensive with that found on the vegetal, polar lobe-bearing region of eggs, as described by others, and which varies between gastropod taxa with varied types of body form. Confocal imaging reveals a distinct localization of F-actin to the architecture of the lobe region. However, the integrity of this F-actin is not responsible for the maintenance of the surface architecture. The significance of these findings to our understanding of the generation of diversity within the Gastropoda and general ontogenic mechanisms is discussed.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Full-Length cDNA of Calmodulin Gene from Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shell of the pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata mainly comprises aragonite whereas that of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas is mainly calcite, thereby suggesting the different mechanisms of shell formation between above two mollusks. Calmodulin (CaM is an important gene for regulating the uptake, transport, and secretion of calcium during the process of shell formation in pearl oyster. It is interesting to characterize the CaM in oysters, which could facilitate the understanding of the different shell formation mechanisms among mollusks. We cloned the full-length cDNA of Pacific oyster CaM (cgCaM and found that the cgCaM ORF encoded a peptide of 113 amino acids containing three EF-hand calcium-binding domains, its expression level was highest in the mantle, hinting that the cgCaM gene is probably involved in shell formation of Pacific oyster, and the common ancestor of Gastropoda and Bivalvia may possess at least three CaM genes. We also found that the numbers of some EF hand family members in highly calcified species were higher than those in lowly calcified species and the numbers of these motifs in oyster genome were the highest among the mollusk species with whole genome sequence, further hinting the correlation between CaM and biomineralization.

  17. Bioavailability of PAHs in aluminum smelter affected sediments: evaluation through assessment of pore water concentrations and in vivo bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruus, Anders; Bøyum, Olav; Grung, Merete; Næs, Kristoffer

    2010-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal tar pitch polluted sediments was predicted by (1) a generic approach based on organic carbon-water partitioning and Gibbs linear free energy relationship (between K(OW) and K(OC)), and (2) measurements of freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs in the sediment pore water, using passive samplers and solid phase extraction. Results from these predictions were compared with those from in vivo bioaccumulation experiments using Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta), Hinia reticulata (Gastropoda), and Nuculoma tenuis (Bivalvia). Measured sediment/water partition coefficients were higher than predicted by the generic approach. Furthermore, predicted biota-to-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) derived from measured pore water concentrations were more in agreement with the bioaccumulation observed for two of the three species. Discrepancies associated with the third species (N. tenuis) were likely a result of particles remaining in the intestine (as shown by microscopic evaluation). These results indicate the importance of conducting site-specific evaluations of pore water concentrations and/or bioaccumulation studies by direct measurements to accurately provide a basis for risk assessment and remediation plans. The importance of knowledge regarding specific characteristics of model organisms is emphasized.

  18. The intrinsic antimicrobial activity of citric acid-coated manganese ferrite nanoparticles is enhanced after conjugation with the antifungal peptide Cm-p5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Abarrategui, Carlos; Figueroa-Espi, Viviana; Lugo-Alvarez, Maria B; Pereira, Caroline D; Garay, Hilda; Barbosa, João ARG; Falcão, Rosana; Jiménez-Hernández, Linnavel; Estévez-Hernández, Osvaldo; Reguera, Edilso; Franco, Octavio L; Dias, Simoni C; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo J

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by bacterial and fungal pathogens are among the major health problems in the world. Newer antimicrobial therapies based on novel molecules urgently need to be developed, and this includes the antimicrobial peptides. In spite of the potential of antimicrobial peptides, very few of them were able to be successfully developed into therapeutics. The major problems they present are molecule stability, toxicity in host cells, and production costs. A novel strategy to overcome these obstacles is conjugation to nanomaterial preparations. The antimicrobial activity of different types of nanoparticles has been previously demonstrated. Specifically, magnetic nanoparticles have been widely studied in biomedicine due to their physicochemical properties. The citric acid-modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles used in this study were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of approximately 5 nm diameter. These nanoparticles were able to inhibit Candida albicans growth in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration was 250 µg/mL. However, the nanoparticles were not capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Finally, an antifungal peptide (Cm-p5) from the sea animal Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) was conjugated to the modified manganese ferrite nanoparticles. The antifungal activity of the conjugated nanoparticles was higher than their bulk counterparts, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. This conjugate proved to be nontoxic to a macrophage cell line at concentrations that showed antimicrobial activity.

  19. Uranium bioaccumulation in a freshwater ecosystem: Impact of feeding ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Lisa D., E-mail: lisakraemer@trentu.ca [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Douglas [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    Uranium bioaccumulation in a lake that had been historically affected by a U mine and (2) to use a combined approach of gut content examination and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis to determine if U bioaccumulation in fish was linked to foodweb ecology. We collected three species of fish: smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), in addition to several invertebrate species including freshwater bivalves (family: Sphaeriidae), dragonfly nymphs (order: Odonata), snails (class: Gastropoda) and zooplankton (family: Daphniidae). Results showed significant U bioaccumulation in the lake impacted by historical mining activities. Uranium accumulation was 2-3 orders of magnitude higher in invertebrates than in the fish species. Within fish, U was measured in operculum (bone), liver and muscle tissue and accumulation followed the order: operculum > liver > muscle. There was a negative relationship between stable nitrogen ratios ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) and U bioaccumulation, suggesting U biodilution in the foodweb. Uranium bioaccumulation in all three tissues (bone, liver, muscle) varied among fish species in a consistent manner and followed the order: bluegill > yellow perch > smallmouth bass. Collectively, gut content and stable isotope analysis suggests that invertebrate-consuming fish species (i.e. bluegill) have the highest U levels, while fish species that were mainly piscivores (i.e. smallmouth bass) have the lowest U levels. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the feeding ecology of fish when trying to predict U accumulation.

  20. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzahrae Elmasry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  1. Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth A; Craigie, Alina; Yeates, Alice; Degnan, Sandie M

    2008-08-01

    The initiation of metamorphosis in marine invertebrates is strongly linked to the environment. Planktonic larvae typically are induced to settle and metamorphose by external cues such as coralline algae (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta). Although coralline algae are globally abundant, invertebrate larvae of many taxa settle in response to a very limited suite of species. This specificity impacts population structure, as only locations with the appropriate coralline species can attract new recruits. Abalone (Gastropoda, Haliotidae) are among those taxa in which closely related species are known to respond to different coralline algae. Here we identify highly inductive natural cues of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. In contrast to reports for other abalone, the greatest proportion of H. asinina larvae are induced to settle and metamorphose (92.8% to 100% metamorphosis by 48 h postinduction) by articulated corallines of the genus Amphiroa. Comparison with field distribution data for different corallines suggests larvae are likely to be settling on the seaward side of the reef crest. We then compare the response of six different H. asinina larval families to five different coralline species to demonstrate that induction by the best inductive cue (Amphiroa spp.) effectively extinguishes substantial intraspecific variation in the timing of settlement.

  2. Development and characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the faucet snail, Bithynia tentaculata (Gastroposa: Caenogastropoda; Bithyniidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Justin P.; Lance, Stacey L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Hagen, Chris; Laurila, Joshua; Cole, Rebecca A.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), a snail native to Europe, was introduced into the US Great Lakes in the 1870's and has spread to rivers throughout the Northeastern US and Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Trematode parasites, for which B. tentaculata is a host, have also been introduced and are causing widespread waterfowl mortality in the UMR. Waterfowl mortality is caused by ingestion of trematode-infected B. tentaculata or insects infected with parasites released from the snails. We isolated and characterized 17 microsatellite loci from the invasive faucet snail, B. tentaculata (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Bithyniidae). Loci were screened in 24 individuals of B. tentaculata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.050 to 0.783, and the probability of identity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.91. These new loci provide tools for examining the origin and spread of invasive populations in the US and management activities to prevent waterfowl mortality.

  3. The life cycle of Hexangium sigani Goto & Ozaki, 1929 (Digenea: Microscaphidiidae) from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanine, R M El-Said; Al-Zahrani, D A; Touliabah, H El-S; Youssef, E M

    2016-09-01

    The microscaphidiid Hexangium sigani Goto & Ozaki, 1929 was found in the intestine of Siganus rivulatus, a siganid fish permanently resident in a lagoon within the mangrove swamps on the Egyptian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. Intra-molluscan stages of this trematode (mother sporocysts, rediae and cercariae) were found in the gonads and digestive gland of Nassarius pullus (Gastropoda: Nassariidae), a common snail in the same lagoon. Consequently, the life cycle of H. sigani was elucidated under natural conditions: eggs are directly ingested by the snail; mother sporocysts and rediae reach maturity 5-7 and 16-17 weeks post-infection; rediae contain 18-26 developing cercariae; fully developed cercariae are monostome, without penetration glands, emerge from the snail during the night 18-19 weeks post-infection and rapidly encyst on aquatic vegetation (there is no second intermediate host); encysted metacercariae are not progenetic; 2-day-old metacercariae encysted on filamentous algae fed to S. rivulatus developed into fully mature worms 5-6 weeks post-infection. The cycle was completed in about 24 weeks. The intra-molluscan stages are very similar to those of Dictyangium chelydrae Stunkard, 1943, the only described intra-molluscan stages of any microscaphidiid. However, they are also similar to those of the family Mesometridae. The present study of H. sigani describes the first complete microscaphidiid life cycle, and implicitly supports the phylogenetic relationship of this family with the Mesometridae inferred from molecular phylogenetic studies. PMID:26279005

  4. Wetland macroinvertebrates of Prentiss Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan: diversity and functional group composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented functional groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.

  5. Meiobenthos assemblages in the mekong estuarine system with special focus on free-living marine nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-12-01

    Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.

  6. Biotic stress shifted structure and abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the lettuce microbiome.

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    Armin Erlacher

    Full Text Available Lettuce cultivars are not only amongst the most popular vegetables eaten raw, they are also involved in severe pathogen outbreaks world-wide. While outbreaks caused by Enterobacteriaceae species are well-studied, less is known about their occurrence in natural environments as well as the impact of biotic stress. Here, we studied the ecology of the human health-relevant bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae and assessed the impact of biotic disturbances by a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus and Gastropoda on their structure and abundance in mesocosm and pot experiments. Using a polyphasic approach including network analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries, quantitative PCR and complementary fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH microscopy we found substantial yet divergent Enterobacteriaceae communities. A similar spectrum of 14 genera was identified from rhizo- and phyllospheres but the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was on average 3fold higher in phyllosphere samples. Both stress factors shifted the bacterial community of the leaf habitat, characterized by increases of species abundance and diversity. For the rhizosphere, we observed significant structural shifts of Enterobacteriaceae communities but also a high degree of resilience. These results could be confirmed by FISH microscopy but it was difficult to visualize phyllosphere communities. Additional inoculation experiments with Escherichia coli as model revealed their presence below the wax layer as well as in the endosphere of leaves. The observed presence influenced by stress factors and the endophytic life style of Enterobacteriaceae on lettuce can be an important aspect in relation to human health.

  7. Biogeochemical controls of uranium bioavailability from the dissolved phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Cain, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insights into the risks associated with uranium (U) mining and processing, we investigated the biogeochemical controls of U bioavailability in the model freshwater speciesLymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda). Bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) was characterized in controlled laboratory experiments over a range of water hardness, pH, and in the presence of complexing ligands in the form of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM). Results show that dissolved U is bioavailable under all the geochemical conditions tested. Uranium uptake rates follow first order kinetics over a range encompassing most environmental concentrations. Uranium uptake rates in L. stagnalis ultimately demonstrate saturation uptake kinetics when exposure concentrations exceed 100 nM, suggesting uptake via a finite number of carriers or ion channels. The lack of a relationship between U uptake rate constants and Ca uptake rates suggest that U does not exclusively use Ca membrane transporters. In general, U bioavailability decreases with increasing pH, increasing Ca and Mg concentrations, and when DOM is present. Competing ions did not affect U uptake rates. Speciation modeling that includes formation constants for U ternary complexes reveals that the aqueous concentration of dicarbonato U species (UO2(CO3)2–2) best predicts U bioavailability to L. stagnalis, challenging the free-ion activity model postulate

  8. Caracterização sedimentológica da planície intertidal da parte sul do saco do Limoeiro (Ilha do Mel - Paraná - Brasil: I. implicações ecológicas

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    Erminda da Conceição Guerreiro Couto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment cores 40 cm depth were taken in triplicate at nine points along an unvegetable intertidal flat, to assess the ecological implications of sedimentological characteristics. Each core was sectioned in 5 cm depht layers. In these sub-samples temperature, pH, water, organic matter and carbonate content were determined. Granulometric analysis, porosity, qualitative and quantitative identification of sediment components were also carried. The sediments presented low water (15.6 - 37.2 %, organic matter (0.7 - 5.0 % and carbonates (0.3 - 1.0 % contents, prevailing fine to very fine sand at surface. Statistical analysis showed a strong horizontal homogeneity regarding sedimentological and physiochemical parameters. Organic matter exhibit a general trend of increase with depth, while carbonate content follow an inverse behavior, refleting the higher contribution of bioclastic calcareous. Textural features and qualitative sediment analysis suggest that the biological mechanism of shell crushing is predominant over physical ones in the grinding till sand size. Amongst the involved organisms there is a sponge Clione celata, the mollusks Nassarius vibex and Thais haemastoma floridana (Gastropoda, Martesia striata (Bivalvia, and the spionid polychaete Polydora socialis and P. websteri.

  9. Distribution of molluscan remains in the sediment of the Chukchi Sea and its vicinity, the Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Aiguo; Xu Fengshan; Sun Haiqing; Li Lon

    2003-01-01

    The result of an analysis of mollusca remains collected from the Chukchi Sea, Beaufort Sea and Bering Sea in the First Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition, from July to September,1999 is presented. Seventeen species of mollusca have been identified, which belong to two classes: Bivalvia and Gastropoda. The compositions of the mollusca are very simple. According to the distribution pattern two groups may be distinguished among molluscan species. The Pan-Arctic and circumboreal group comprises Nuculana pernula, N. radiata, Nucula bellotii, Astarte montagui, Seripes groenlandicus, Macoma calcarea, M. moesta alaskana, Liocyma fluctuosa, Mya pseudoarenaria and Turritella polaris. Three species, Cyclocardia crebricos tata, Trichotrois coronata and Argobuccinum oregonense are components of the Pan-Arctic and Pacific boreal group. With regard to feeding habits, detritus feeders dominate. There are 7 species of detritus feeders, i.e. , Nuculana pernula, N. radiata,Nucula bellotii , Macoma calcarea , M. moesta alaskana , Macoma sp. and Trichotropis coronata . Detritus feeders are dominant with regard to the numbers of species as well as to the frequency of occurrence. Macoma calcarea is the most abundant species.

  10. Měkkýši Českého lesa – IV. Nové údaje pro jižní část Českého lesa

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    Jitka Horáčková

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on recent molluscan fauna in the southern part of the Český Les Mts., with additional data from the phytogeographic district of the Plzeňská Pahorkatina hills, are presented. Altogether, 63 species (62 species of Gastropoda and 1 species of Bivalvia were recorded at 22 selected sites. The author‘s collecting activity was focused on ruderal sites and abandoned villages along the state border. There is spruce plantation dominating in the woodlands with scarce malacofauna. The common forest species dominate there, with the presence of montane and submontane elements, such as Clausilia cruciata, Vertigo substriata, and Discus ruderatus, which occur in the rest of preserved deciduous forests. The record of Atlantic Oxychilus alliarius species is the fifth known in Czech Republic. The montane snail of Clausilia cruciata was found at one site at very low altitude of 550 m a.s.l. A slug species Arion alpinus, never found in this area before, was recorded at five sites. Its occurrence here is the westernmost one in the Czech Republic. The elements of open habitats presented by xerotherm sites and open wetlands were not recorded, except for the species Vallonia costata and Vallonia excentrica occurring only at the ruins of abandoned villages and their surroundings.

  11. Eco-Environmental Impact Assessment of Pre-Leisure Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Invertebrate Community at Anping Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Han SHIH; Yi-Yu KUO; Ta-Jen CHU; Wen-Chieh CHOU; Wei-Tse CHANG; Ying-Chou LEE

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, owing to global warming and the rising sea levels, beach nourishment and groin building have been increasingly employed to protect coastal land from shoreline erosion. These actions may degrade beach habitats and reduce biomass and invertebrate density at sites where they were employed. We conducted an eco-environmental evaluation at the Anping artificial beach-nourishment project area. At this site, sand piles within a semi-enclosed spur groin have been enforced by use of eco-engineering concepts since 2003. Four sampling sites were monitored during the study period from July 2002 to September 2008. The environmental impact assessment and biological investigations that we conducted are presented here. The results from this study indicate that both biotic (number of species, number of individual organisms, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) and abiotic parameters (suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total phosphorus, total organic carbon, median diameter, and water content) showed significant differences before and after beach engineering construction. Biological conditions became worse in the beginning stages of the engineering but improved after the restoration work completion.This study reveals that the composition of benthic invertebrates changed over the study period, and two groups oforganisms, Bivalvia and Gastropoda, seemed to be particularly suitable to this habitat after the semi-enclosed artificial structures completion.

  12. On the benthic molluscs of Banco Inglés (Río de la Plata, Uruguay

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    Carranza, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the specific richness and community structure of benthic molluscs on a shallow-water sandy bank (Banco Inglés in the Río de la Plata estuary. From a total of 25 macroinvertebrate taxa collected, that included one ophiuroid, one bryozoan, fourcrustaceans and four polychaete species, molluscs were the dominant taxon, with 15 species recorded. These were one species of Polyplacophora, eight Bivalvia and six Gastropoda (one exotic, representing 11families and 11 genera. In terms of mean relative abundance, the molluscan assemblage was dominated by the deposit-feeder bivalve Corbula caribaea, averaging ca. 30% of the individuals of the macroinfauna. The alien species Rapana venosa was noted in two stations, represented by one and four specimens. We used null model analysis to test for nonrandomness in the structure of the molluscan communities of the area. The analysis supported the null hypothesis that co-occurrence patterns could not be distinguished from those that might arise by random processes.

  13. Disturbance of shallow marine soft-bottom environments and megabenthos assemblages by a huge tsunami induced by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

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    Koji Seike

    Full Text Available Huge tsunami waves associated with megathrust earthquakes have a severe impact on shallow marine ecosystems. We investigated the impact of a tsunami generated by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the seafloor and large benthic animals in muddy and sandy ria coasts (Otsuchi and Funakoshi bays in northeastern Japan. We conducted underwater field surveys using scuba equipment in water depths of <20 m before the tsunami (September 2010 and after the tsunami (September 2011 and September 2012. During the study period, episodic changes in topography and grain-size composition occurred on the seafloor of the study area. Megabenthos sampling revealed a distinct pattern of distribution succession for each benthic species. For example, the protobranch bivalve Yoldia notabilis (Bivalvia: Nuculanidae and the heterodont bivalve Felaniella usta (Bivalvia: Ungulinidae disappeared after the tsunami event, whereas the distribution of the venus clam Gomphina melanaegis (Bivalvia: Veneridae remained unchanged. In addition, the patterns of succession for a single species, such as the giant button top shell Umbonium costatum (Gastropoda: Trochidae and the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum (Echinoidea: Loveniidae, varied between the two bays studied. Our data also show that reestablishment of some benthic animal populations began within 18 months of the tsunami disturbance.

  14. Diel and seasonal changes in the macrozooplankton community of a tropical estuary in Northeastern Brazil

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    Tâmara de Almeida e Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to assess the macrozooplankton small-scale temporal and spatial variability at three stations in three hours intervals, during 24 hours in July 1996 (rainy season and December 1996 (dry season. A plankton net 300µm mesh size was hauled at surface during three minutes. Water samples for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were taken simultaneously with the zooplankton samples. Sixty-five macrozooplankton taxa were registered. Copepoda constituted the most common taxon and comprised 58% of the total zooplankton counts. Brachyuran zoeae, cirripedian larvae, Larvacea (Oikopleura dioica Fol, 1872, and Gastropoda veligers were abundant at some tidal cycles, mainly during the night. Species diversity average was 2.0 bits.ind-1. The mean density ranged from 23 ind.m-3 to 5,201 ind.m-3. The rainy season presented greater numerical abundance. A regular temporal zooplankton cycle was not observed. Instead, there was a large stochastic variation between samples.

  15. Uranium bioaccumulation in a freshwater ecosystem: Impact of feeding ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium bioaccumulation in a lake that had been historically affected by a U mine and (2) to use a combined approach of gut content examination and stable nitrogen and carbon isotope analysis to determine if U bioaccumulation in fish was linked to foodweb ecology. We collected three species of fish: smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), in addition to several invertebrate species including freshwater bivalves (family: Sphaeriidae), dragonfly nymphs (order: Odonata), snails (class: Gastropoda) and zooplankton (family: Daphniidae). Results showed significant U bioaccumulation in the lake impacted by historical mining activities. Uranium accumulation was 2–3 orders of magnitude higher in invertebrates than in the fish species. Within fish, U was measured in operculum (bone), liver and muscle tissue and accumulation followed the order: operculum > liver > muscle. There was a negative relationship between stable nitrogen ratios (15N/14N) and U bioaccumulation, suggesting U biodilution in the foodweb. Uranium bioaccumulation in all three tissues (bone, liver, muscle) varied among fish species in a consistent manner and followed the order: bluegill > yellow perch > smallmouth bass. Collectively, gut content and stable isotope analysis suggests that invertebrate-consuming fish species (i.e. bluegill) have the highest U levels, while fish species that were mainly piscivores (i.e. smallmouth bass) have the lowest U levels. Our study highlights the importance of understanding the feeding ecology of fish when trying to predict U accumulation.

  16. Fall and winter foods of northern pintails in the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Food habits of northern pintails (Anas acuta) were investigated on 3 national wildlife refuges in the western portion of the Sacramento Valley, California, from August to March 1979-82. Pintails consumed 97% (aggregate % dry wt) plant food during diurnal foraging on national wildlife refuge rice, summer-irrigated, and summer-dry habitats from August through January. Invertebrate use increased to 28.9-65.6% of the diet in these habitats during February and March. Rice, swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), flatsedges (Cyperus spp.), common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli), southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis), and smartweed (Polygonum spp.) seeds, miscellaneous vegetation, snails (Gastropoda), and midge (Diptera) and water beetle (Coleoptera) larvae were most important. These foods usually were taken proportional to or greater than availability. Rice was the most important food of pintails feeding nocturnally off the refuges in harvested rice fields from October through January (99.7%) and February and March (63%; barnyardgrass formed 31% of the diet). In August and October, some pintails consumed invertebrates or bulrush (Scirpus spp. ) seedlings in marshes soon after feeding in refuge rice (Aug) or harvested commercial rice fields (Oct), thereby increasing dietary protein. In late winter, females and males obtained similar (P > 0.05) percentages of invertebrates from refuge habitats. Important dietary seeds and invertebrates contained high protein or metabolizable energy content. Management should maintain adequate seed production in fall and mid-winter and invertebrate biomass in late winter.

  17. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in tropical fish and shellfish collected from the river Buriganga, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md Kawser; Baki, Mohammad Abdul; Islam, Md Saiful; Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hossain, Md Muzammel

    2015-10-01

    Although fish, crustacean, and shellfish are significant sources of protein, they are currently affected by rapid industrialization, resulting in increased concentrations of heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) and associated human health risk were investigated in three fish species, namely Ailia coila, Gagata youssoufi, and Mastacembelus pancalus; one crustacean (prawn), Macrobrachium rosenbergii; and one Gastropoda, Indoplanorbis exustus, collected from the Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Samples were collected from the professional fishermen. Cu was the most accumulated metal in M. rosenbergii. Ni, As, Ag, and Sb were in relatively lower concentrations, whereas relatively higher accumulation of Cr, Mn, Zn, and Se were recorded. Mn, Zn, and Pb were present in higher concentrations than the guidelines of various authorities. There were significant differences in metal accumulation among different fish, prawn, or shellfish species. Target hazard quotient (THQ) and target cancer risk (TR) were calculated to estimate the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks, respectively. The THQ for individual heavy metals were below 1 suggesting no potential health risk. But combined impact, estimated by hazard index (HI), suggested health risk for M. pancalus consumption. Although consumption of fish at current accumulation level is safe but continuous and excess consumption for a life time of more than 70 years has probability of target cancer risk.

  18. Experimental Life Cycle of Hypoderaeum conoideum (Block, 1872 Diez, 1909(Trematoda: Echinostomatidae Parasite from the North of Iran

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    Hakim AZIZI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Echinostomiasis is an intestinal disease caused by the members of family Echinostomatidae parasites. The aim of present research was to identify echinos­tomatidae cercariae emitted by Lymnaea palustris snails from Mazandaran province in the north of Iran based on the morphological and morphometrical charac­teristics of the different stages of experimental parasite life cycle.Methods: Echinostomatidae cercariae were collected from L. palustris (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae of the north of Iran. To collect metacercaria, 50 healthy snails were infected with cercariae experimentally (50 cercariae for each. To obtain the adult stage, 9 laboratory animals (3 ducks, 2 rats, 2 mice and 2 quails were fed with 60 metacercaria for each. To identify parasite, the different stages of worm were exam­ined using light microscope and then the figures were draw under camera Lucida microscope and measures were determined.Results: Averagely, 15metacercaria were obtained from each snail that had been previously exposed with cercariae. Ducks presented worm eggs in feces after 10-15 days post-infection. Intestinal worms were collected and identified as Hypoderaeum conoideum on the bases of figures and measures of cephalic collar, the number of collar spine, suckers diameter ratio, testes arrangement, etc.Conclusion: H. conoideum cercariae and adult worm are described. This is the first report of the different stages of the experimental life cycle of this parasite in Iran.

  19. No evidence for a critical salinity threshold for growth and reproduction in the freshwater snail Physa acuta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth and reproduction of the freshwater snail Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae) were measured at various salinity levels (growth: distilled water, 50, 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 μS/cm; reproduction: deionized water, 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 μS/cm) established using the artificial sea salt, Ocean Nature. This was done to examine the assumption that there is no direct effect of salinity on freshwater animals until a threshold, beyond which sub-lethal effects, such as reduction in growth and reproduction, will occur. Growth of P. acuta was maximal in terms of live and dry mass at salinity levels 500-1000 μS/cm. The number of eggs produced per snail per day was maximal between 100 and 1000 μS/cm. Results show that rather than a threshold response to salinity, small rises in salinity (from low levels) can produce increased growth and reproduction until a maximum is reached. Beyond this salinity, further increases result in a decrease in growth and reproduction. Studies on the growth of freshwater invertebrates and fish have generally shown a similar lack of a threshold response. The implications for assessing the effects of salinisation on freshwater organisms need to be further considered. - Responses of snails to increasing salinity were non-linear

  20. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  1. Měkkýši v nivě Milešovského potoka Molluscs of the Milešovský Potok floodplain (Northwest Bohemia, Czech Republic

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    Lucie Juřičková

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research of mollusc assemblages in the Milešovský Potok floodplain (Northwest Bohemia, Czech Republic. Altogether, 72 mollusc species (70 species of Gastropoda, 2 species of Bivalvia have been recorded at the selected sites during previous and recent researches in 1947–2010 representing 29% of the total Czech malacofauna. Widespread forest species dominate there (40% of all recorded species with some less common woodland species such as Platyla polita, Oxychilus glaber, Macrogastra ventricosa, Sphyradium doliolum, and Perforatella bidentata. The rest of malacocoenoses is formed by mesophile species (22%, hydrophilous species (6%, species of wetlands (8%, freshwater habitats (8% and species of open habitats (10%. Vertigo angustior, a rare wetland species protected by the NATURA system, and Helicella itala, endangered species of open habitats, were also found. The malacofauna of the Milešovský Potok stream can be used as a model of mollusc assemblages of natural floodplain environment in warm areas of Central Europe.

  2. Sequencing Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit Ⅰ of Mitochondrial DNA and the Taxonomic Status of Apple Snails%福寿螺线粒体DNA COⅠ基因序列测定及分类地位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红梅; 胡隐昌; 王培欣; 牟希东; 李小慧; 汪学杰; 罗建仁

    2010-01-01

    对国内6个地区共29个福寿螺(Apple Snails)个体mtDNA CO Ⅰ基因进行了扩增和序列分析,并结合GenBank中报道的福寿螺6个种Pomacea canaliculata、P. insularum、P. diffusa、P.haustrum、P.paludosa、P.camena和Pila属P. conica的同源序列,对国内入侵福寿螺的分类地位与分子系统发育进行了分析.结果表明,扩增的mtDNA CO Ⅰ基因序列长度为619 bp,序列间未见插入和缺失,其中核苷酸多态位点99个,简约信息位点80个;碱基A、T、C、G平均含量分别为23.6%、39.1%、16.6%和20.7%,A+T的含量(62.7%)明显高于C+G的含量(37.3%);6个地区的福寿螺共有13种单倍型,广州、钦州和吉安分别有3种单倍型,茂名、厦门和成都分别有2种单倍型,而广州、厦门和钦州3个地区之间共享一种单倍型.进一步的分子遗传距离分析表明,这6个地区福寿螺个体与P.diffusa、P.haustrum、P.paludosa和P.camena 的遗传距离为0.114~0.191,而与P.insularum和P.canaliculata的同源性较高,其中单倍型1、2、3、7、8、10、11、12与P.canaliculata的遗传距离为0~0.074,单倍型4、5、6、 9、 13与P.insularum的遗传距离为0.011~0.063.构建的分子系统树显示7个分支,分别为Pomacea属6个种和Pila属P.conica,其中单倍型1、2、3、7、 8、 10、11、12与Pomacea canaliculata聚成一支,单倍型4、5、 6、 9、13与P.insularum聚成一支.序列同源性、遗传距离和系统进化树分析结果表明,国内入侵福寿螺有P.canallculata和P.insularum两个种,而且这两个种在入侵扩散过程中已相互混杂.本研究为今后开展福寿螺的资源调查、控制和管理等提供科学依据.

  3. Moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos en Chile Exotic freshwater mollusks in Chile

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    Sergio Letelier V.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Las especies de moluscos exóticas dulceacuícolas registradas en esta contribución, corresponden a ejemplares recolectados en humedales en acuarios comerciales o interceptados en barreras aduaneras, así como de referencias bibliográficas. Un total de 7 especies pertenecientes a 6 géneros fueron identificadas: Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp.; Physella venustula y Biomphalaria sp. Melanoides maculata fue recolectada en el río Lluta y clasificada como especie criptogénica. Los moluscos exóticos recolectados podrían tener éxito en su establecimiento si se considera la vulnerabilidad de los hábitats nativos debido al cambio en las condiciones climáticas globales o a las elevaciones térmicas producidas en el sector costero por los fenómenos de El Niño. En este sentido, las especies subtropicales observadas se podrían considerar como no endémicas y vectores potenciales de zoonosis parasitarias. Las principales vías de introducción de moluscos dulceacuícolas exóticos se derivaron del intercambio comercial, por lo cual, y frente a su incremento interregional, se hace necesario recopilar datos ecológicos y taxonómicos adecuados que permitan evaluar el riesgo de su establecimiento, así como servir de base para la aplicación de futuros tratamientos en bioseguridad.The exotic freshwater mollusk species we report here were collected in wetlands, commercial aquariums, or were given to us by government officials who intercepted some exotic species at customs offices. Other records came from the specialized literature. These species are Pomacea bridgesii; Helobia sp.; Thiara (Melanoides tuberculata; Melanoides maculata; Physa sp., Physella venustula and Biomphalaria sp. It is not clear how Melanoides maculata, found in the Río Lluta, reached Chile. The exotic species collected could expand their ranges in Chilean territory given global environmental and climate change or the

  4. Metal-metallothioneins like proteins investigation by heteroatom-tagged proteomics in two different snails as possible sentinel organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal speciation analysis in MLPs was carried out in two snails, Marisa cornuarietis and Pomacea bridgesi, in order to investigate them as possible sentinel organisms of heavy metal contamination. To carry out this study snails born in a non-contaminated environment were divided into two groups: a control group and a contaminated one with cadmium administered for 40 days. Subsequently, we investigated the speciation of the induced MLPs in exposed animals in relation to controls. In order to obtain the MLP fraction, cytosols from both snail species where subjected to size-exclusion fractionation, monitoring on-line the metal signal (Cd, Cu and Zn) by ICP-MS while protein elution was followed by on-line UV detection. MLP fraction was then separated by anion-exchange (AE)-FPLC using optimal chromatographic conditions for the separation of the different MLP isoforms in both snail species. Specific detection of separated metalloforms was carried out again by the hyphenation of the AE chromatographic system with ICP-MS. The determination of the amount of metal bound to MLPs was carried out by post-column isotope dilution analysis ICP-MS, finding that the snail M. cornuarietis accumulated higher concentrations of cadmium than P. bridgesi. Thus this first snail could therefore be a better candidate sentinel organism of pollution in natural waters. Identification and characterization of the isoforms separated in M. cornuarietis was carried out for the entire or intact isoforms by MALDI-TOF and then conventional triptic digestion was also carried out to identify the nature of the formed peptides. The presence identification of a MLP isoform of relatively low molecular weight in M. cornuarietis is reported.

  5. Freshwater gastropods of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion, an endemic area for schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil: I - qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Patricia Diniz Cantanhede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Baixada Maranhense Microregion currently has the highest prevalence of schistosomiasis in the State of Maranhão, likely because this parasitosis is characterized as an occupational disease, and increased contact with water increases the risk of infection by Schistosoma mansoni. This paper reports the results of the first comprehensive freshwater malacological survey performed in the Baixada Maranhense Microregion. Methods: Freshwater mollusks were collected from the twenty-one municipalities of the Baixada Maranhense Microregion and from Bacurituba and Cajapió and were evaluated for infection by trematodes. Results: A total of 9,129 mollusks were collected (sixteen species, which included the first records of six species in the State of Maranhão: Gundlachia radiata, G. ticaga, Hebetancylus moricandi, Plesiophysa guadeloupensis, Pomacea bridgesii diffusa and Omalonyx sp. Biomphalaria glabrata was found in five municipalities, whereas B. straminea was found in nine. Biomphalaria glabrata and B. straminea were observed in syntopy in Pinheiro and São Bento. Of the 990 specimens of B. glabrata and the 2,109 specimens of B. straminea that were exposed to and/or analyzed for the presence of larval trematodes, only a single specimen of B. glabrata (0.1% from São Bento shed S. mansoni. Other larval trematodes were first observed in mollusks from the State of Maranhão. Conclusions: These results indicate that the study area is epidemiologically important due to the presence of two natural vectors of schistosomiasis and the active transmission of schistosomiasis, which was confirmed in the infected specimen that was collected in this study.

  6. ALTERNATE FOOD-CHAIN TRANSFER OF THE TOXIN LINKED TO AVIAN VACUOLAR MYELINOPATHY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ENDANGERED FLORIDA SNAIL KITE (ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Shelley R; Haynie, Rebecca S; Williams, Susan M; Wilde, Susan B

    2016-04-28

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease causing recurrent mortality of Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) and American Coots ( Fulica americana ) at reservoirs and small impoundments in the southern US. Since 1994, AVM is considered the cause of death for over 170 Bald Eagles and thousands of American Coots and other species of wild birds. Previous studies link the disease to an uncharacterized toxin produced by a recently described cyanobacterium, Aetokthonos hydrillicola gen. et sp. nov. that grows epiphytically on submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). The toxin accumulates, likely in the gastrointestinal tract of waterbirds that consume SAV, and birds of prey are exposed when feeding on the moribund waterbirds. Aetokthonos hydrillicola has been identified in all reservoirs where AVM deaths have occurred and was identified growing abundantly on an exotic SAV hydrilla ( Hydrilla verticillata ) in Lake Tohopekaliga (Toho) in central Florida. Toho supports a breeding population of a federally endangered raptor, the Florida Snail Kite ( Rostrhamus sociabilis ) and a dense infestation of an exotic herbivorous aquatic snail, the island applesnail ( Pomacea maculata ), a primary source of food for resident Snail Kites. We investigated the potential for transmission in a new food chain and, in laboratory feeding trials, confirmed that the AVM toxin was present in the hydrilla/A. hydrillicola matrix collected from Toho. Additionally, laboratory birds that were fed apple snails feeding on hydrilla/A. hydrillicola material from a confirmed AVM site displayed clinical signs (3/5), and all five developed brain lesions unique to AVM. This documentation of AVM toxin in central Florida and the demonstration of AVM toxin transfer through invertebrates indicate a significant risk to the already diminished population of endangered Snail Kites. PMID:26981686

  7. Local adaptation along a continuous coastline: prey recruitment drives differentiation in a predatory snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Eric; Worth, David J

    2010-03-01

    Recent work demonstrates that nearshore oceanography can generate strong variation in the delivery of resources (nutrients and larvae) to benthic marine communities over spatial scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers. Moreover, variation in the strength of these bottom-up inputs is often spatially consistent, linked to regional centers of upwelling, coastal topography, and other stable features of the coastline. Whereas the ecological effects of these oceanographic links are increasingly clear, the possibility that these same bottom-up forces might impose spatially varying selection on consumers has not been addressed. Here, we test the hypothesis that a carnivorous snail (Nucella canaliculata) with direct development is locally adapted to persistent differences in prey recruitment within two adjacent oceanographic regions (northern California and Oregon, USA). Previous laboratory studies demonstrated that snails from Oregon rarely drilled the thick-shelled mussel Mytilus californianus, whereas snails from California readily drilled this prey. To test whether these differences reflect local adaptation, snails from two populations in each region were raised through two laboratory generations to minimize the potential influence of nongenetic effects. We then reciprocally outplanted these F2 generation snails to field enclosures at each of the four sites and monitored their growth for 11 months. Recruitment and availability of preferred prey (the acorn barnacle Balanus glandula and blue mussel Mytilus trossulus) at the experimental sites were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower in California than in Oregon. At the California sites, snails that originated from Oregon sources failed to drill larger M. californianus, encountered few alternative prey, and showed almost no growth. In contrast, snails from California drilled M. californianus and showed substantial growth. These results strongly suggest that the capacity of California snails to drill M. californianus allows

  8. Avaliação das atividades antimicrobiana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, conhecida como gravatá ou caraguatá, apresenta características medicinais, alimentícias e ornamentais. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antifúngica, antibacteriana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de extratos alcoólicos das folhas e frutos desta espécie. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de microdiluição os extratos alcoólicos não foram eficientes frente à cepa referência do fungo Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. glabrata, e frente às bactérias S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 e E. coli (ATCC 8739. A atividade citotóxica, avaliada pelo bioensaio de toxicidade sobre náuplios de Artemia salina Leach (TAS, foi positiva para ambos extratos, com valores de DL50 variando em torno de 620 µg mL-1 e 360 µg mL-1, para os extratos alcoólicos dos frutos e das folhas, respectivamente. A atividade moluscicida, avaliada frente a caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata (Molusca, Gastropoda, não mostrou toxicidade aguda para soluções de 400 µg mL-1. As propriedades antioxidantes dos extratos investigadas in vitro mediante o método de DPPH• foram consideradas modestas (~ 35% de inibição na concentração de 1000 µg mL-1. Dentre as atividades biológicas que foram testadas a atividade citotóxica foi a mais pronunciada.Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, popularly known as "gravatá" or "caraguatá", shows medicinal, nutritional and ornamental properties. In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of this species were evaluated for antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities. The alcoholic extracts evaluated by microdilution method were not efficient against the standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, clinical strains of C. albicans and C. glabrata, and S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and E. coli (ATCC 8739

  9. Los moluscos de la ofrenda 107 del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan The mollusks of the offering 107 of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Valentín-Maldonado

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es dar a conocer la identificación biológica de las especies de moluscos encontradas en la ofrenda 107, que fue depositada en la séptima etapa constructiva del Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan (1502-1521. La identificación se realizó por medio de la bibliografía especializada, y en el caso de algunos ejemplares por comparación directa con los de la colección malacológica de referencia del Laboratorio M. en C. Ticul Álvarez Solórzano. Se identificaron 246 ejemplares de moluscos marinos; 191 pertenecen a la clase Gastropoda (78% y 55 a la Bivalvia (22%. El número más frecuente de especies proviene de la provincia caribeña, siendo su hábitat principal las playas arenosas y las costas rocosas. Los desgastes y fracturas observadas en la mayoría de los esqueletos calcáreos de animales ya muertos, indican que fueron recolectados en las playas; por otro lado, el buen estado de preservación de algunos de ellos sugiere que se capturaron vivos, y en ciertos casos mediante buceo. A través de este estudio ha sido posible obtener datos, como la procedencia, el hábitat, la coloración natural y la selectividad de las diferentes especies identificadas, los cuales contribuyen al conocimiento de aspectos económicos e ideológicos de la cultura mexica.The purpose of this work is to report the identifications of the species of mollusks found in offering 107, which was buried in the seventh stage of the construction of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan (1502-1521. This was done by direct comparison with specimens in the malacological reference collection of the Ticul Álvarez Solorzano Laboratory and the literature. The 246 marine individuals belonging to two classes were identified; 191 belonging to the Gastropoda (78% and 55 to the Bivalvia (22%. The largest number of species came from the Caribbean Province, with species from sandy beaches and rocky coasts being most common. The abrasions and fractures observed in

  10. The "island rule" and deep-sea gastropods: re-examining the evidence.

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    John J Welch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the most intriguing patterns in mammalian biogeography is the "island rule", which states that colonising species have a tendency to converge in body size, with larger species evolving decreased sizes and smaller species increased sizes. It has recently been suggested that an analogous pattern holds for the colonisation of the deep-sea benthos by marine Gastropoda. In particular, a pioneering study showed that gastropods from the Western Atlantic showed the same graded trend from dwarfism to gigantism that is evident in island endemic mammals. However, subsequent to the publication of the gastropod study, the standard tests of the island rule have been shown to yield false positives at a very high rate, leaving the result open to doubt. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The evolution of gastropod body size in the deep sea is reexamined. Using an extended and updated data set, and improved statistical methods, it is shown that some results of the previous study may have been artifactual, but that its central conclusion is robust. It is further shown that the effect is not restricted to a single gastropod clade, that its strength increases markedly with depth, but that it applies even in the mesopelagic zone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The replication of the island rule in a distant taxonomic group and a partially analogous ecological situation could help to uncover the causes of the patterns observed--which are currently much disputed. The gastropod pattern is evident at intermediate depths, and so cannot be attributed to the unique features of abyssal ecology.

  11. Genetic population structure of Tectura paleacea: implications for the mechanisms regulating population structure in patchy coastal habitats.

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    Emina Begovic

    Full Text Available The seagrass limpet Tectura paleacea (Gastropoda; Patellogastropoda belongs to a seagrass obligate lineage that has shifted from the Caribbean in the late Miocene, across the Isthmus of Panama prior to the closing of the Panamanian seaway, and then northward to its modern Baja California - Oregon distribution. To address whether larval entrainment by seagrass beds contributes to population structuring, populations were sampled at six California/Oregon localities approximately 2 degrees latitude apart during two post-settlement periods in July 2002 and June 2003. Partial cytochrome oxidase b (Cytb sequences were obtained from 20 individuals (10 per year from each population in order to determine the levels of population subdivision/connectivity. From the 120 individuals sequenced, there were eighty-one unique haplotypes, with the greatest haplotype diversity occurring in southern populations. The only significant genetic break detected was consistent with a peri-Point Conception (PPC biogeographic boundary while populations north and south of Point Conception were each panmictic. The data further indicate that populations found south of the PPC biogeographic boundary originated from northern populations. This pattern of population structure suggests that seagrass patches are not entraining the larvae of T. paleacea by altering flow regimes within their environment; a process hypothesized to produce extensive genetic subdivision on fine geographic scales. In contrast to the haplotype data, morphological patterns vary significantly over very fine geographic scales that are inconsistent with the observed patterns of genetic population structure, indicating that morphological variation in T. paleacea might be attributed to differential ecophenotypic expression in response to local habitat variability throughout its distribution. These results suggest that highly localized conservation efforts may not be as effective as large-scale conservation

  12. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity.

  13. Spatial distribution and abundance of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    H. EL LAKHRACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring to light the knowledge of marine diversity of invertebrates in Gabes gulf. The spatial distribution of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, together with the bottom type and vegetation cover, were studied. The abundance of the megabenthic fauna was represented by eight groups: Echinodermata (38%, Crustacea (21%, Tunicata (19%, Mollusca (13%, Porifera (4%, Cnidaria (3%, Bryozoa, and Annelida (2%. It was spatially more concentrated in the coast area of the gulf than in the offshore waters. This area, especially, in Southern Kerkennah, North-est of Gabes and North-east of Djerba appeared to be in a good ecological condition  hosting a variety of species like the paguridsPaguristes eremita and Pagurus cuanensis, the brachyura Medorippe lanata, Inachus doresttensis, the Gastropoda Hexaplex trunculus, Bolinus brandaris, Aporrhais pespelecani, andErosaria turdus, the Bivalvia Fulvia fragilis, the Echinoidea Psammechinus microtuberculatus, Holothuria polii,Ophiothrix fragilis and Antedon mediterranea, and the AscidiaceaAplidium cf. conicum, Didemnum spp, and Microcosmus exasperatus.The species’ compositions of the megabentic fauna community showed clearly that the spatial analysis represented the differences between the community of these two regions (inshore waters and offshore waters. These differences were closely related to peculiar characters of the fauna and biotopes (depth, bottom type and vegetation cover community. The results of the present study should be considered as a necessary starting point for a further analysis of priceless benthic fauna contribution to the marine environment and its organisms.

  14. Assembly processes of gastropod community change with horizontal and vertical zonation in ancient Lake Ohrid: a metacommunity speciation perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauffe, Torsten; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Balkan Lake Ohrid is the oldest and most diverse freshwater lacustrine system in Europe. However, it remains unclear whether species community composition, as well as the diversification of its endemic taxa, is mainly driven by dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or species interaction. This calls for a holistic perspective involving both evolutionary processes and ecological dynamics, as provided by the unifying framework of the "metacommunity speciation model".The current study used the species-rich model taxon Gastropoda to assess how extant communities in Lake Ohrid are structured by performing process-based metacommunity analyses. Specifically, the study aimed (1) to identifying the relative importance of the three community assembly processes and (2) to test whether the importance of these individual processes changes gradually with lake depth or discontinuously with eco-zone shifts.Based on automated eco-zone detection and process-specific simulation steps, we demonstrated that dispersal limitation had the strongest influence on gastropod community composition. However, it was not the exclusive assembly process, but acted together with the other two processes - environmental filtering and species interaction. The relative importance of the community assembly processes varied both with lake depth and eco-zones, though the processes were better predicted by the latter.This suggests that environmental characteristics have a pronounced effect on shaping gastropod communities via assembly processes. Moreover, the study corroborated the high importance of dispersal limitation for both maintaining species richness in Lake Ohrid (through its impact on community composition) and generating endemic biodiversity (via its influence on diversification processes). However, according to the metacommunity speciation model, the inferred importance of environmental filtering and biotic interaction also suggests a small but significant influence of ecological

  15. Future rainfall variations reduce abundances of aboveground arthropods in model agroecosystems with different soil types

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    Johann G. Zaller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios for Central Europe predict less frequent but heavier rainfalls and longer drought periods during the growing season. This is expected to alter arthropods in agroecosystems that are important as biocontrol agents, herbivores or food for predators (e.g. farmland birds. In a lysimeter facility (totally 18 3-m2-plots, we experimentally tested the effects of long-term past vs. prognosticated future rainfall variations (15% increased rainfall per event, 25% more dry days according to regionalized climate change models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC on aboveground arthropods in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated at three different soil types (calcaric phaeozem, calcic chernozem and gleyic phaeozem. Soil types were established 17 years and rainfall treatments one month before arthropod sampling; treatments were fully crossed and replicated three times. Aboveground arthropods were assessed by suction sampling, their mean abundances (± SD differed between April, May and June with 20 ± 3 m-2, 90 ± 35 m-2 and 289 ± 93 individuals m-2, respectively. Averaged across sampling dates, future rainfall reduced the abundance of spiders (Araneae, -47%, cicadas and leafhoppers (Auchenorrhyncha, -39%, beetles (Coleoptera, -52%, ground beetles (Carabidae, -41%, leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae, -64%, spring tails (Collembola, -58%, flies (Diptera, -73% and lacewings (Neuroptera, -73% but increased the abundance of snails (Gastropoda, +69%. Across sampling dates, soil types had no effects on arthropod abundances. Arthropod diversity was neither affected by rainfall nor soil types. Arthropod abundance was positively correlated with weed biomass for almost all taxa; abundance of Hemiptera and of total arthropods was positively correlated with weed density. These detrimental effects of future rainfall varieties on arthropod taxa in wheat fields can potentially alter arthropod-associated agroecosystem services.

  16. 昌吉市不同景观土壤动物群落结构%Community structure of soil animals in different landscape in Changji city, Xinjiang China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔; 吾玛尔·阿不力孜

    2008-01-01

    为了解不同利用方式土地的春季土壤动物群落结构,于2007年3月至6月对昌吉市周围的5种土地,即天然林、人工林、草地、农田、废弃地进行取样调查,共捕获土壤动物2 046只,隶属3门10纲24目.分析表明:土壤动物优势类群为昆虫纲(Insecta)、蛛形纲(Arachnida)、弹尾纲(Collembola),常见类群为腹足纲(Gastropoda)、寡毛纲(Oligochaeta)、软甲纲(Malacostraca)和双尾纲(Diplura)等,其他均为稀有类群.5种不同利用方式土地土壤动物群落物种多样性和均匀度指数有一定的差异,草地的物种多样性最大,废弃地的多样性最小,体现了群落的复杂性与多样性.垂直分布显示土壤动物具有明显的表聚现象.根据土壤动物群落聚类的结果,可将5中土地分为2组,即草本植物种植型、林地型.显示了土壤动物群落对土壤利用方式的响应情况.

  17. Richness, systematics, and distribution of molluscs associated with the macroalga Gigartina skottsbergii in the Strait of Magellan, Chile: A biogeographic affinity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Aldea, Cristian; Mansilla, Andrés; Marambio, Johanna; Ojeda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the marine malacofauna in the Magellan Region has been gained from many scientific expeditions that were carried out during the 19th century. However, despite the information that exists about molluscs in the Magellan Region, there is a lack of studies about assemblages of molluscs co-occurring with macroalgae, especially commercially exploitable algae such as Gigartina skottsbergii, a species that currently represents the largest portion of carrageenans within the Chilean industry. The objective of this study is to inform about the richness, systematics, and distribution of the species of molluscs associated with natural beds in the Strait of Magellan. A total of 120 samples from quadrates of 0.25 m(2) were obtained by SCUBA diving at two sites within the Strait of Magellan. Sampling occurred seasonally between autumn 2010 and summer 2011: 15 quadrates were collected at each site and season. A total of 852 individuals, corresponding to 42 species of molluscs belonging to Polyplacophora (9 species), Gastropoda (24), and Bivalvia (9), were identified. The species richness recorded represents a value above the average richness of those reported in studies carried out in the last 40 years in sublittoral bottoms of the Strait of Magellan. The biogeographic affinity indicates that the majority of those species (38%) present an endemic Magellanic distribution, while the rest have a wide distribution in the Magellanic-Pacific, Magellanic-Atlantic, and Magellanic-Southern Ocean. The molluscs from the Magellan Region serve as study models for biogeographic relationships that can explain long-reaching patterns and are meaningful in evaluating possible ecosystemic changes generated by natural causes or related to human activities.

  18. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity. PMID:24215068

  19. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule. PMID:27538361

  20. Packaging and delivery of chemical weapons: a defensive trojan horse stratagem in chromodorid nudibranchs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Carbone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explanation could be that they are adapted so as to be preferentially attacked by predators. The nudibranchs might offer packages containing highly repugnant chemicals along with parts of their bodies to the predators, as a defensive variant of the strategic theme of the Trojan horse. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We detected, by quantitative (1H-NMR, extremely high local concentrations of secondary metabolites in the MDFs of six species belonging to five chromodorid genera. The compounds were purified by chromatographic methods and subsequently evaluated for their feeding deterrent properties, obtaining dose-response curves. We found that only distasteful compounds are accumulated in the reservoirs at concentrations that far exceed the values corresponding to maximum deterrent activity in the feeding assays. Other basic evidence, both field and experimental, has been acquired to elucidate the kind of damage that the predators can produce on both the nudibranchs' mantles and the MDFs. SIGNIFICANCE: As a result of a long evolutionary process that has progressively led to the accumulation of defensive chemical weapons in localized anatomical structures, the extant chromodorid nudibranchs remain in place when molested, retracting respiratory and chemosensory organs, but offering readily accessible parts of their body to predators. When these parts are masticated or wounded by predators, breakage of the MDFs results in the release of distasteful compounds at