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Sample records for polyvinylidene fluoride-polyaniline core-shell

  1. Surface zwitterionicalization of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes from the entrapped reactive core-shell silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Jing; Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Pei-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

    2016-04-15

    We demonstrate the preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) filtration membranes modified via surface zwitterionicalization mediated by reactive core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs). The organic/inorganic hybrid SiO2 NPs grafted with poly(methyl meth acrylate)-block-poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer (PMMA-b-PDMAEMA) shell were prepared by surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization and then used as a membrane-making additive of PVDF membranes. The PDMAEMA exposed on membrane surface and pore walls were quaternized into zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) using 1,3-propane sultone (1,3-PS) as the quaternization agent. The membrane surface chemistry and morphology were analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling ability of the investigated membranes were evaluated in detail. It was found that the PSBMA chains brought highly-hydrophilic and strong fouling resistant characteristics to PVDF membranes due to the powerful hydration of zwitterionic surface. The SiO2 cores and PMMA chains in the hybrid NPs play a role of anchors for the linking of PSBMA chains to membrane surface. Compared to the traditional strategies for membrane hydrophilic modification, the developed method in this work combined the advantages of both blending and surface reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. One-step synthesis of gold-polyaniline core-shell particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijuan; Yuan Junhua; Han Dongxue; Niu Li; Ivaska, Ari

    2007-01-01

    A one-step method has been developed for synthesizing gold-polyaniline (Au-PANI) core-shell particles by using chlorauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) to oxidize aniline in the presence of acetic acid and Tween 40 at room temperature. SEM images indicated that the resulting core-shell particles were composed of submicrometre-scale Au particles and PANI shells with an average thickness of 25 nm. Furthermore, a possible mechanism concerning the growth of Au-PANI particles was also proposed based on the results of control experiments

  3. Large enhanced dielectric permittivity in polyaniline passivated core-shell nano magnetic iron oxide by plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, Lija K.; Sooraj, V.; Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-682022, Kerala (India); Sajeev, U. S. [Department of Physics, Government College, Kottayam-686613, Kerala (India); Nair, Swapna S. [Department of Physics, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Central University of Kerala, Kasargode-671123, Kerala (India); Narayanan, T. N. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikkudi-630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Ajayan, P. M. [Department of Material Science and Nano Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 7700 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Commercial samples of Magnetite with size ranging from 25–30 nm were coated with polyaniline by using radio frequency plasma polymerization to achieve a core shell structure of magnetic nanoparticle (core)–Polyaniline (shell). High resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the core shell architecture of polyaniline coated iron oxide. The dielectric properties of the material were studied before and after plasma treatment. The polymer coated magnetite particles exhibited a large dielectric permittivity with respect to uncoated samples. The dielectric behavior was modeled using a Maxwell–Wagner capacitor model. A plausible mechanism for the enhancement of dielectric permittivity is proposed.

  4. Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Performances and High Thermal Conductivity in Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based Composites Enabled by SiC@SiO2 Core-Shell Whiskers Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dalong; Wang, Yao; Song, Silong; Liu, Song; Deng, Yuan

    2017-12-27

    Design of composites with ordered fillers arrangement results in anisotropic performances with greatly enhanced properties along a specific direction, which is a powerful tool to optimize physical properties of composites. Well-aligned core-shell SiC@SiO 2 whiskers in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix has been achieved via a modified spinning approach. Because of the high aspect ratio of SiC whiskers, strong anisotropy and significant enhancement in dielectric constant were observed with permittivity 854 along the parallel direction versus 71 along the perpendicular direction at 20 vol % SiC@SiO 2 loading, while little increase in dielectric loss was found due to the highly insulating SiO 2 shell. The anisotropic dielectric behavior of the composite is perfectly understood macroscopically to have originated from anisotropic intensity of interfacial polarization based on an equivalent circuit model of two parallel RC circuits connected in series. Furthermore, finite element simulations on the three-dimensional distribution of local electric field, polarization, and leakage current density in oriented SiC@SiO 2 /PVDF composites under different applied electrical field directions unambiguously revealed that aligned core-shell SiC@SiO 2 whiskers with a high aspect ratio significantly improved dielectric performances. Importantly, the thermal conductivity of the composite was synchronously enhanced over 7 times as compared to that of PVDF matrix along the parallel direction at 20 vol % SiC@SiO 2 whiskers loading. This study highlights an effective strategy to achieve excellent comprehensive properties for high-k dielectrics.

  5. Spinnability and Characteristics of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)-based Bicomponent Fibers with a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Modified Polypropylene Core for Piezoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauß, Benjamin; Steinmann, Wilhelm; Walter, Stephan; Beckers, Markus; Seide, Gunnar; Gries, Thomas; Roth, Georg

    2013-07-03

    This research explains the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers, consisting of a conductive polypropylene (PP) core and a piezoelectric sheath (polyvinylidene fluoride). Previously analyzed piezoelectric capabilities of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are to be exploited in sensor filaments. The PP compound contains a 10 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2 wt % sodium stearate (NaSt). The sodium stearate is added to lower the viscosity of the melt. The compound constitutes the fiber core that is conductive due to a percolation CNT network. The PVDF sheath's piezoelectric effect is based on the formation of an all-trans conformation β phase, caused by draw-winding of the fibers. The core and sheath materials, as well as the bicomponent fibers, are characterized through different analytical methods. These include wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) to analyze crucial parameters for the development of a crystalline β phase. The distribution of CNTs in the polymer matrix, which affects the conductivity of the core, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal characterization is carried out by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Optical microscopy is used to determine the fibers' diameter regularity (core and sheath). The materials' viscosity is determined by rheometry. Eventually, an LCR tester is used to determine the core's specific resistance.

  6. Polyaniline Coated Core-Shell Typed Stimuli-Responsive Microspheres and Their Electrorheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhen Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional core-shell-structured particles have attracted considerable attention recently. This paper reviews the synthetic methods and morphologies of various electro-stimuli responsive polyaniline (PANI-coated core-shell-type microspheres, including PANI-coated Fe3O4, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2, poly(methyl methacrylate, poly(glycidyl methacrylate, and polystyrene along with their electrorheological (ER characteristics when prepared by dispersing these particles in an insulating medium. In addition to the various rheological characteristics and their analysis, such as shear stress and yield stress of their ER fluids, this paper summarizes some of the mechanisms proposed for ER fluids to further understand the responses of ER fluids to an externally applied electric field.

  7. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • A dual core-shell hPANI/S/PANI composite was prepared in situ synthesis. • Cycle performance of the hPANI/S/PANI composite was enhanced. • The improvement was due to fine sulfur particles wrapped by two PANI films. • Some positive effects were elaborated. - Abstract: In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  8. Synthesis and magnetic properties of inverted core-shell polyaniline-ferrite composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donescu, Dan [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Fierascu, Radu Claudiu, E-mail: radu_claudiu_fierascu@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Ghiurea, Marius [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Manaila-Maximean, Doina [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Department of Physics, 313 Spl. Independentei, 060042, Bucharest (Romania); Nicolae, Cristian Andi; Somoghi, Raluca; Spataru, Catalin Ilie [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Stanica, Nicolae [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Raditoiu, Valentin [National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest (Romania); Vasile, Eugeniu [SC METAV – CD SA, 31 C. A. Rosetti Str., 021051, Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-08-31

    The present paper studies the effect of polyaniline grafting on magnetite functionalized with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. All the compounds were characterized by analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, Transmission electron microscopy), as well as by determining their magnetic properties. The electron microscopy analysis of the hybrids shows similar morphologies for all the samples. The presence of the iron atoms on the surface of the final product supports the idea of the existence of an inverted core-shell type structure, the more polar ferrite orienting itself towards water. The correlation between the maximum grafting probability and the maximum magnetization is evidenced, demonstrating the importance of the polymer grafting method on the magnetic properties.

  9. Fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@alginate-La particles fabricated via electro-coextrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Quisheng; Luo, Xuegang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles were prepared by electro-coextrusion. • The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride at 298.15 K was 45.230 mg/g. • The adsorbent has a good saturation magnetization value. • The adsorbent has a great potential in removing the fluoride. - Abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. Main factors affecting the removal of fluoride, including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature and contact time were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were studied to understand the adsorption process in detail. The experimental data were fitted well by the non-linear Freundlich isotherm and linear pseudo-second-order model, the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity was 45.230 mg/g at pH 4, 298.15 K. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the fluoride adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous. The presence of other anions like Cl"−, SO_4"2"−, HCO_3"− and PO_4"3"− had almost no effect on the fluoride adsorption. The adsorbent can be easily separated from the solution by a magnet. The magnetic core-shell Fe_3O_4@Alg-La particles before and after fluoride adsorption were studied by SEM, FTIR, EDX and XPS, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism may be related to electrostatic attraction and Lewis acid-base interaction.

  10. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  11. Fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@alginate-La particles fabricated via electro-coextrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yahui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: lxy20100205@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Zhou, Quisheng [A State Key Laboratory of Pulp & Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Xuegang [Engineering Research Center of Biomass Materials, Ministry of Education, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles were prepared by electro-coextrusion. • The maximum adsorption capacity for fluoride at 298.15 K was 45.230 mg/g. • The adsorbent has a good saturation magnetization value. • The adsorbent has a great potential in removing the fluoride. - Abstract: The magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles were fabricated successfully by a simple method of electro-coextrusion, and employed as an adsorbent for separation of fluoride from aqueous solution. Main factors affecting the removal of fluoride, including pH, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration, temperature and contact time were investigated. The adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were studied to understand the adsorption process in detail. The experimental data were fitted well by the non-linear Freundlich isotherm and linear pseudo-second-order model, the maximum fluoride adsorption capacity was 45.230 mg/g at pH 4, 298.15 K. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the fluoride adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous. The presence of other anions like Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} had almost no effect on the fluoride adsorption. The adsorbent can be easily separated from the solution by a magnet. The magnetic core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Alg-La particles before and after fluoride adsorption were studied by SEM, FTIR, EDX and XPS, which indicated that the adsorption mechanism may be related to electrostatic attraction and Lewis acid-base interaction.

  12. Reduced energy loss in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites by filling with a small loading of core-shell structured BaTiO3/SiO2 nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohui; Xue, Shuangxi; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2015-07-01

    Homogeneous ceramic-polymer nanocomposites consisting of core-shell structured BaTiO3/SiO2 nanofibers and a p oly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer matrix have been prepared. The correlation between the energy discharged density and interfacial polarization is studied in PVDF nanocomposites by the measurements of the discharge performance and impedance spectroscopy. According to the results of dielectric constant, breakdown strength, and complex impedance analysis, coating SiO2 layers on the surface of BaTiO3 nanofibers can block the movement of charge carriers through the nanocomposites by playing a shielding role on the charge-rich inter layer, which resulted in weak Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and thus reduces the energy loss and improved the energy discharged density of the nanocomposites. The energy discharged density in the nanocomposite with 2.5 vol. % BaTiO3/SiO2 core-shell nanofibers is 6.28 J/cm3 at 3.3 MV/cm, which is over 11.94% higher than that of nanocomposite with BaTiO3 nanofibers at the same electric field.

  13. Polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline core/shell nanofiber mat for removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution: mechanism and applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline core/shell nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by in situ polymerization of aniline. Nanofibers with different morphology were obtained by changing the polymerization temperature. When used as absorbent for Cr(vi) ions, the core/shell nanofiber mats exhibit excellent adsorption capability. The equilibrium capacity is 24.96, 37.24, and 52.00 mg g-1 for 105, 156, and 207 mg L-1 initial Cr(vi) solution, respectively, and the adsorption capacity increases with temperature. The adsorption follows a pseudo second order kinetics model and is best fit using the Langmuir isotherm model. The mats show excellent selectivity towards Cr(vi) ions in the presence of competing ions albeit a small decrease in adsorption is observed. The mats can be regenerated and reused after treatment with NaOH making them promising candidates as practical adsorbents for Cr(vi) removal. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  14. Electrorheology of polyaniline, carbonized polyaniline, and their core-shell composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlacik, M.; Pavlinek, V.; Mrlik, M.; Morávková, Zuzana; Hajná, Milena; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 101, 15 June (2013), s. 90-92 ISSN 0167-577X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * carbonization * carbonized polyaniline Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  15. Polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium-polymer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pan [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Han, Jia-Jun, E-mail: hanjiajunhitweihai@163.com [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China); Jiang, Li-Feng [Dalian Chemical Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116011 (China); Li, Zhao-Yu; Cheng, Jin-Ning [School of Marine Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Weihai 264209 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The polyaniline multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite with core-shell structures was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization, and the materials were characterized by physical and chemical methods. • The PANI/WMCNTs was synthetized via in situ chemical oxidative polymerization with core-shell structures. • The WMCNTs highly enhanced the conductivity of composites. • The comopsites were more conducive to the intercalation and deintercalation of anions and cations. • The much better performance as the cathode for lithium-ion cells was acquired for the composites. • The composites are low cost and eco-friendly which have a good prospect in future. - Abstract: The aniline was polymerized onto functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in order to obtain a cathode material with core-shell structures for lithium batteries. The structure and morphology of the samples were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the composite were characterized by the cyclic voltammetry, the charge/discharge property, coulombic efficiency, and ac impedance spectroscopy in detail. At a constant current density of 0.2 C, the first specific discharge capacity of the reduced and oxidized PANI/WMCNTs were 181.8 mAh/g and 135.1 mAh/g separately, and the capacity retention rates were corresponding to 76.75% and 86.04% for 100 cycles with 99% coulombic efficiency. It was confirmed that the CNTs obviously enhanced the conductivity and electrochemical performance of polyaniline, and compared with the pure PANI, the reduced composite possessed a quite good performance for the cathode of lithium batteries.

  16. Radiation-induced crosslinking of poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1977-07-01

    The factors influencing radiation-induced crosslinking efficiency of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) have been studied. Results of the basic research on irradiation conditions (dose rate and atmosphere) and initial physical properties of PVdF (structure of molecular chain and molecular mobility of chain segment) showed that crosslinking efficiency is raised in irradiation at high temperature above 50 0 C under vacuum in the presence of an absorbent for the evolved hydrogen fluoride. The crosslinking reaction is also accelerated with irregular molecular structure such as head-to-head bond in main chain. High crosslinking efficiency is obtained by addition of a polyfunctional monomer having good solubility with PVdF. Mechanical properties of PVdF, the strength at high temperature near the melting point in particular, are improved by crosslinking in the presence of a polyfunctional monomer. (auth.)

  17. “Self-Peel-Off” Transfer Produces Ultrathin Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Flexible Nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new strategy, self-peel-off transfer, for the preparation of ultrathin flexible nanodevices made from polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) is reported. In this process, a functional pattern of nanoparticles is transferred via peeling from a

  18. Thermal Stability and Magnetic Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride/Magnetite Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Zen-Wei; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Wu, Tzong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the thermal stability and magnetic properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/magnetite nanocomposites fabricated using the solution mixing technique. The image of transmission electron microscopy for PVDF/magnetite nanocomposites reveals that the 13 nm magnetite nanoparticles are well distributed in PVDF matrix. The electroactive β-phase and piezoelectric responses of PVDF/magnetite nanocomposites are increased as the loading of magnetite nanoparticles increases. The pi...

  19. Morphology and performance of polyvinylidene fluoride/perfluoro sulphonic acid hollow fiber ultrafiltration blend membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Guo-Lin; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Wei, Yong-Ming; Yu, Li-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride-perfluoro sulphonic acid hollow fibre ultrafiltration blend membranes were prepared by wet-spinning method. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and ethanol aqueous solutions were employed as additive and coagulants, respectively. The effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration in the dopes and ethanol concentration in the coagulants on morphology and performance of Polyvinylidene fluoride -perfluoro sulphonic acid hollow fibre ultrafiltration blend membranes were investigated. Blend membranes were characterized in terms of precipitation kinetics, morphology, thermal property and separation performance. The results showed that the increments of Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration in the dopes and ethanol concentration in coagulants both resulted in higher pure water permeation flux and worse rejection (R) of bovine serum albumin (with the increment of Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration from 0 to 5 wt% in the dopes, pure water permeation increased from 41.7 L.m -2 .h -1 to 134 L.m -2 .h -1 and R decreased from 99.8% to 84.4% as well as with the increase in ethanol concentration in coagulants from 0 to 40 wt%, pure water permeation increased from 33.5 L.m -2 .h- 1 to 123 L.m -2 .h -1 and R decreased from 97.7% to 88.7%). However, the proportion of sponge-like structure in the cross-section of membranes decreased with the increasing Polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration in the dopes and the proportion increased with the increased ethanol concentration in the coagulations. In addition, the location of the sponge-like structure in the cross-section of membranes was significantly influenced by ethanol concentrations in the coagulants and differential scanning calorimeter results revealed that the crystallinity (X c ) of the blend membrane was in accordance with the proportion of sponge-like structure. These behaviours were attributed to the different roles of Polyvinylpyrrolidone in the dopes and ethanol in the coagulants, respectively. Polyvinylidene fluoride

  20. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on freestanding electrodes of electrospun polyacrylonitrile@polyaniline core-shell nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Fujun; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Lu, Na; Wang, Kexin; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional PAN@PANI nanofiberous networks as freestanding electrodes. • The novel architecture exhibits high specific capacitance of 577 F/g. • Influence of acid doping and mass loading of PANI on electrochemical properties. • Capacitor: an energy density of 12.6 Wh/kg at the power density of 2.3 kW/kg. • Excellent cycling stability: 98% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles - Abstract: Three-dimensional porous polyacrylonitrile/polyaniline core-shell (PAN@PANI) nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning technique combining in situ chemical polymerization of aniline monomers. The obtained PAN@PANI nanofibers possess unique continuous and homogeneous core-shell nanostructures and high mass loading of PANI (∼60 wt%) as active materials, which have greatly improved the electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance up to 577 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Moreover, the porous networks of randomly arrayed PAN@PANI nanofibers provide binder-free and freestanding electrodes for flexible solid-state supercapacitors. The obtained devices based on PAN@PANI networks present excellent electrochemical properties with an energy density of 12.6 Wh/kg at a power density of 2.3 kW/kg and good cycling stability with retaining more than 98% of the initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, showing the possibility for practical applications in flexible electronics

  1. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Li, Peiying; Ning, Jinxia; Wei, Qufu

    2016-01-01

    A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm) was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle), high porosity (69.77%), and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake). It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1) than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1) was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. PMID:28787873

  2. Multiple Interfacial Fe3O4@BaTiO3/P(VDF-HFP) Core-Shell-Matrix Films with Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor (IBLC) Effects and High Energy Storage Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Xue, Fei; Tang, Xiahui; Zhou, Dongxiang; Tian, Yahui; Wang, Geng; Wang, Chaohong; Gou, Haibo; Xu, Lei

    2017-11-22

    Flexible nanocomposites composed of high dielectric constant fillers and polymer matrix have shown great potential for electrostatic capacitors and energy storage applications. To obtain the composited material with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength, multi-interfacial composited particles, which composed of conductive cores and insulating shells and possessed the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) effect, were adopted as fillers. Thus, Fe 3 O 4 @BaTiO 3 core-shell particles were prepared and loaded into the poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) polymer matrix. As the mass fraction of core-shell fillers increased from 2.5 wt % to 30 wt %, the dielectric constant of the films increased, while the loss tangent remained at a low level (capacitor model was also adopted to interpret the efficiency of IBLC effects on the suppressed loss tangent and the superior breakdown strength. This work explored an effective approach to prepare dielectric nanocomposites for energy storage applications experimentally and theoretically.

  3. Smart construction of polyaniline shell on cobalt oxides as integrated core-shell arrays for enhanced lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Meili; Xie, Dong; Zhong, Yu; Chen, Minghua; Xia, Xinhui

    2017-01-01

    Smart construction of advanced anode materials is extremely critical to develop high-performance lithium ion batteries. In this work, we have reported a facile strategy for fabricating Co 3 O 4 /polyaniline (PANI) core–shell arrays (CSAs) by chemical bath deposition (CBD) + electrodeposition methods Electrodeposited PANI shell is intimately decorated on the CBD-Co 3 O 4 nanorods forming composite CSAs. Highly conductive network and stress buffer layer are achieved with the aid of tailored PANI shell. Due to these advantages above, the designed Co 3 O 4 /PANI CSA S exhibit good electrochemical performance with higher reversible capacity (787 mAh g −1 ) and better cycle stability than the unmodified Co 3 O 4 counterpart. Our results show a new way for preparing advanced inorganic-organic composite electrodes for electrochemical energy storage.

  4. Rheological properties of magnetorheological suspensions based on core–shell structured polyaniline-coated carbonyl iron particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlačík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Sáha, P.; Švrčinová, Petra; Filip, Petr; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 11 (2010), s. 115008 ISSN 0964-1726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : magnetorheology * core - shell structure * polyaniline Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.094, year: 2010

  5. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon; Kurra, Narendra; AlMadhoun, M. N.; Odeh, Ihab N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization

  6. Piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity in polyvinylidene fluoride - Influence of the lattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, C. K.; Taylor, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric responses of beta-phase (Phase I) polyvinylidene fluoride are predicted for a model system of polarizable point dipoles. The model incorporates the influence of the orthorhombic crystal structure by including the dependence of the internal electric field on the lattice parameters. Strong anisotropy in the piezoelectric response under uniaxial stress is predicted as a consequence of the orthorhombic lattice structure. Predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement with room-temperature experimental data.

  7. Electrochemical Properties of LLTO/Fluoropolymer-Shell Cellulose-Core Fibrous Membrane for Separator of High Performance Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A superfine Li0.33La0.557TiO3 (LLTO, 69.4 nm was successfully synthesized by a facile solvent-thermal method to enhance the electrochemical properties of the lithium-ion battery separator. Co-axial nanofiber of cellulose and Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP was prepared by a co-axial electrospinning technique, in which the shell material was PVDF-HFP and the core was cellulose. LLTO superfine nanoparticles were incorporated into the shell of the PVDF-HFP. The core–shell composite nanofibrous membrane showed good wettability (16.5°, contact angle, high porosity (69.77%, and super electrolyte compatibility (497%, electrolyte uptake. It had a higher ionic conductivity (13.897 mS·cm−1 than those of pure polymer fibrous membrane and commercial separator. In addition, the rate capability (155.56 mAh·g−1 was also superior to the compared separator. These excellent performances endowed LLTO composite nanofibrous membrane as a promising separator for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Core-shell structured ceramic nonwoven separators by atomic layer deposition for safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiu; Li, Chao; Shi, Chuan; Yang, Chaochao; Deng, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Longqing; Dai, Jianhui; Wu, Dezhi; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2018-05-01

    Safety is one of the most factors for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a novel kind of ceramic separator with high safety insurance is proposed. We fabricated the core-shell nanofiber separators for LIBs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of 30 nm Al2O3 on the electrospinning nonwoven fiber of polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP). The separators show a pretty high heat resistance up to 200 °C without any shrinkage, an excellent fire-resistant property and a wide electrochemical window. Besides, with higher uptake and ionic conductivity, cells assembled with the novel separator shows better electrochemical performance. The ALD produced separators exhibit great potential in elaborate products like 3C communications and in energy field with harsh requirements for safety such as electric vehicles. The application of ALD on polymer fiber membranes brings a new strategy and opportunity for improving the safety of the advanced LIBs.

  9. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the st...

  10. NaF-loaded core-shell PAN-PMMA nanofibers as reinforcements for Bis-GMA/TEGDMA restorative resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liyuan; Zhou, Xuegang; Zhong, Hong; Deng, Xuliang; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    A kind of core-shell nanofibers containing sodium fluoride (NaF) was produced and used as reinforcing materials for dimethacrylate-based dental restorative resins in this study. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared by coaxial-electrospinning with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions as core and shell fluids, respectively. The produced PAN-PMMA nanofibers varied in fiber diameter and the thickness of PMMA shell depending on electrospinning parameters. NaF-loaded nanofibers were obtained by incorporating NaF nanocrystals into the core fluid at two loadings (0.8 or 1.0wt.%). Embedment of NaF nanocrystals into the PAN core did not damage the core-shell structure. The addition of PAN-PMMA nanofibers into Bis-GMA/TEGDMA clearly showed the reinforcement due to the good interfacial adhesion between fibers and resin. The flexural strength (Fs) and flexural modulus (Ey) of the composites decreased slightly as the thickness of PMMA shell increasing. Sustained fluoride releases with minor initial burst release were achieved from NaF-loaded core-shell nanofibers and the corresponding composites, which was quite different from the case of embedding NaF nanocrystals into the dental resin directly. The study demonstrated that NaF-loaded PAN-PMMA core-shell nanofibers were not only able to improve the mechanical properties of restorative resin, but also able to provide sustained fluoride release to help in preventing secondary caries. © 2013.

  11. The influence of some factors on the electrical conductivity and particle size of core/shell polystyrene/polyaniline composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORDANA D. NESTOROVIC

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrically conductive, micron-sized, core/shell polystyrene (PS/polyaniline (PANI composite particles were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of micron-sized PS particles in 1 M HCl. The conditions of the dispersion polymerization of styrene were optimized. The influence of the initiator type employed for the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and the aniline (ANI concentration on the PS/PANI particle size and size distribution and their conductivity was investigated. The obtained results show that the conductivity of the samples increased with increasing ANI concentration. The conductivity of the PS/PANI composite particles obtained with the highest ANI concentration was of the same order of magnitude as that for PANI powder. The particle size did not depend on the concentration of ANI, while the particle size distribution was narrower at higher concentrations of ANI.

  12. Defluoridation of water via doping of polyanilines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, M.; Satheeshkumar, K.K. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India); Elango, K.P. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302 (India)], E-mail: drkpelango@rediffmail.com

    2009-04-30

    The potentiality of polyaniline and poly (m-methyl aniline) to remove fluoride from water via doping was investigated. The influence of pH, dosage of polyanilines, initial fluoride concentration and temperature on the amount of fluoride removed by the polyanilines were studied. The amount of fluoride removed at pH 7.0 by 50 mg/50 ml dose was found to be 0.78 mg/g. The data of fluoride removal fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters computed show that the adsorption process is endothermic in nature. FT-IR, X-ray and EDAX patterns of the polyanilines before and after exposure to fluoride ions suggest that the defluoridation occurs via doping of fluoride ions onto these polymers.

  13. Flexible carbon nanofiber/polyvinylidene fluoride composite membranes as interlayers in high-performance Lithiumsbnd Sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yuxiang; Yue, Xinyang; Hao, Xiaoming; Sun, Wang; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally polyvinylidene fluoride membranes have been used in applications such as membrane distillation, wastewater treatment, desalination and separator fabrication. Within this work we demonstrate that a novel carbon nanofiber/polyvinylidene fluoride (CNF/PVDF) composite membrane can be used as an interlayer for Lithiumsbnd Sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries yielding both high capacity and long cycling life. This PVDF membrane is shown to effectively separate dissolved lithium polysulfide with the high electronic conductivity CNF not only reducing the internal resistance in the sulfur cathode but also helping immobilize the polysulfide through its abundant nanospaces. The resulting Lisbnd S battery assembled with the CNF/PVDF composite membrane effectively solves the polysulfide permeation problem and exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. It is further shown that the CNF/PVDF electrode has an excellent cycling stability and retains a capacity of 768.6 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency above 99% over 200 cycles at 0.5C, which is more than twice that of a cell without CNF/PVDF (374 mAh g-1). In addition, the low-cost raw materials and the simple preparation process of CNF/PVDF composite membrane is also amenable for industrial production.

  14. How Chain Intermixing Dictates the Polymorphism of PVDF in Poly(vinylidene fluoride/Polymethylmethacrylate Binary System during Recrystallization: A Comparative Study on Core–Shell Particles and Latex Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, Poly(vinylidene fluoride/Polymethylmethacrylate (PVDF/PMMA binary blend has attracted substantial attention in the scientific community due to possible intriguing mechanical, optical and ferroelectric properties that are closely related to its multiple crystal structures/phases. However, the effect of PMMA phase on the polymorphism of PVDF, especially the relationship between miscibility and polymorphism, remains an open question and is not yet fully understood. In this work, three series of particle blends with varied levels of miscibility between PVDF and PMMA were prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization: PVDF–PMMA core–shell particle (PVDF@PMMA with high miscibility; PVDF/PMMA latex blend with modest miscibility; and PVDF@c–PMMA (crosslinked PMMA core–shell particle with negligible miscibility. The difference in miscibility, and the corresponding morphology and polymorphism were systematically studied to correlate the PMMA/PVDF miscibility with PVDF polymorphism. It is of interest to observe that the formation of polar β/γ phase during melt crystallization could be governed in two ways: dipole–dipole interaction and fast crystallization. For PVDF@PMMA and PVDF/PMMA systems, in which fast crystallization was unlikely triggered, higher content of β/γ phase, and intense suppression of crystallization temperature and capacity were observed in PVDF@PMMA, because high miscibility favored a higher intensity of overall dipole–dipole interaction and a longer interaction time. For PVDF@c–PMMA system, after a complete coverage of PVDF seeds by PMMA shells, nearly pure β/γ phase was obtained owing to the fast homogeneous nucleation. This is the first report that high miscibility between PVDF and PMMA could favor the formation of β/γ phase.

  15. Multifunctional Roles of TiO 2 Nanoparticles for Architecture of Complex Core−Shells and Hollow Spheres of SiO 2 −TiO 2 −Polyaniline System

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Dan Ping

    2009-10-27

    Nanoparticles are often used as seeds to grow one-dimensional nanomaterials or as core materials to prepare core-shell nanostructures. On the other hand, the presynthesized inorganic nanoparticles can also be used as starting building blocks to prepare inorganic-polymer nanocomposites. In this work, we explore the roles of metal-oxide nanoparticles (anatase TiO2) in the area of constructional synthesis of highly complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanostructures comprising SiO2, TiO2, and polyaniline (PAN). In particular, multifunctional roles of oleate-surfactant-protected TiO2 nanoparticles have been revealed in this study: they provide starting sites for polymerization of aniline on the surface of SiO2 mesospheres; they land on the inner surface of polyaniline shell to form a secondary material phase; they work as initial crystalline seeds for homogeneous growth of interior TiO2 shell; and they serve as primary nanobuilding blocks to form exterior TiO2 shell on the polyaniline via self-assembly. With the assistance of the TiO2 nanoparticles, a total of six complex core-shell and hollow sphere nanocomposites (SiO 2/TiO2, SiO2/TiO2/PAN, SiO 2/TiO2/PAN/TiO2, TiO2/PAN, TiO 2/PAN/TiO2, and TiO2/TiO2) have been made in this work through controlled self-assembly, templating growth, polymerization, and homogeneous seeded growth. Applicability of these nanostructures in photocatalytic applications has also been demonstrated by our preliminary investigations. The easy separation of used catalysts after reaction seems to be advantageous because of relatively large external diameters of the lightweight nanocomposites. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of WS2@SiO2 and WS2@PANI Core-Shell Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagit Sade

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two tungsten disulfide (WS2-based core-shell nanocomposites were fabricated using readily available reagents and simple procedures. The surface was pre-treated with a surfactant couple in a layer-by-layer approach, enabling good dispersion of the WS2 nanostructures in aqueous media and providing a template for the polymerization of a silica (SiO2 shell. After a Stöber-like reaction, a conformal silica coating was achieved. Inspired by the resulting nanocomposite, a second one was prepared by reacting the surfactant-modified WS2 nanostructures with aniline and an oxidizing agent in an aqueous medium. Here too, a conformal coating of polyaniline (PANI was obtained, giving a WS2@PANI nanocomposite. Both nanocomposites were analyzed by electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and FTIR, verifying the core-shell structure and the character of shells. The silica shell was amorphous and mesoporous and the surface area of the composite increases with shell thickness. Polyaniline shells slightly differ in their morphologies dependent on the acid used in the polymerization process and are amorphous like the silica shell. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the WS2@PANI nanocomposite showed variation between bulk PANI and the PANI shell. These two nanocomposites have great potential to expand the use of transition metals dichalcogenides (TMDCs for new applications in different fields.

  17. Properties and Applications of the β Phase Poly(vinylidene fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuxia Ruan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinylidene fluoride, PVDF, as one of important polymeric materials with extensively scientific interests and technological applications, shows five crystalline polymorphs with α, β, γ, δ and ε phases obtained by different processing methods. Among them, β phase PVDF presents outstanding electrical characteristics including piezo-, pyro-and ferroelectric properties. These electroactive properties are increasingly important in applications such as energy storage, spin valve devices, biomedicine, sensors and smart scaffolds. This article discusses the basic knowledge and character methods for PVDF fabrication and provides an overview of recent advances on the phase modification and recent applications of the β phase PVDF are reported. This study may provide an insight for the development and utilization for β phase PVDF nanofilms in future electronics.

  18. Organic fouling behavior of superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles: Implications for organic fouling in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai; Qi, Genggeng; Xiao, Kang; Sun, Jianyu; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Huang, Xia; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    This study systematically investigates the organic fouling behavior of a superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane functionalized via post-fabrication tethering of surface-tailored silica nanoparticles to poly

  19. Synthesis of Multicolor Core/Shell NaLuF4:Yb3+/Ln3+@CaF2 Upconversion Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to synthesize high-quality hierarchical core/shell nanocrystals from an efficient host lattice is important to realize efficacious photon upconversion for applications ranging from bioimaging to solar cells. Here, we describe a strategy to fabricate multicolor core @ shell α-NaLuF4:Yb3+/Ln3+@CaF2 (Ln = Er, Ho, Tm upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs based on the newly established host lattice of sodium lutetium fluoride (NaLuF4. We exploited the liquid-solid-solution method to synthesize the NaLuF4 core of pure cubic phase and the thermal decomposition approach to expitaxially grow the calcium fluoride (CaF2 shell onto the core UCNCs, yielding cubic core/shell nanocrystals with a size of 15.6 ± 1.2 nm (the core ~9 ± 0.9 nm, the shell ~3.3 ± 0.3 nm. We showed that those core/shell UCNCs could emit activator-defined multicolor emissions up to about 772 times more efficient than the core nanocrystals due to effective suppression of surface-related quenching effects. Our results provide a new paradigm on heterogeneous core/shell structure for enhanced multicolor upconversion photoluminescence from colloidal nanocrystals.

  20. New nanocomposites of polystyrene with polyaniline doped with lauryl sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pud, A. A.; Nikolayeva, O. A.; Vretik, L. O.; Noskov, Yu. V.; Ogurtsov, N. A.; Kruglyak, O. S.; Fedorenko, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    This work is concentrated on synthesis and investigation of new core-shell nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) with doped polyaniline (PANI). The latex containing PS nanoparticles with sizes of 15-30 nm was prepared by microemulsion polymerization of styrene in water media. The PS/PANI nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline in the PS latex media in a presence of lauryl sulfuric acid (LSA), which served as both dopant and plasticizer. The real content of PANI in the synthesized nanocomposites was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy method. The composition of the nanocomposites and oxidation state of the doped polyaniline were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The core-shell morphology of the nanocomposite nanoparticles was proved by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that conductivity and thermal behavior in air of these nanocomposites not only nonlinearly depended on the doped polyaniline content but also were strongly effected both by plasticizing properties of the acid-dopant and presence of the polyaniline shell. A possibility of application of these nanocomposites as sensor materials has been demonstrated.

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Growth and Osteogenic Differentiation on Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride Microsphere Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sobreiro-Almeida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of the biomaterial environment on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC fate when cultured in supports with varying topography. Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF culture supports were prepared with structures ranging between 2D and 3D, based on PVDF films on which PVDF microspheres were deposited with varying surface density. Maintenance of multipotentiality when cultured in expansion medium was studied by flow cytometry monitoring the expression of characteristic hMSCs markers, and revealed that cells were losing their characteristic surface markers on these supports. Cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also assessed after seven days of culture on expansion medium. On the other hand, osteoblastic differentiation was monitored while culturing in osteogenic medium after cells reached confluence. Osteocalcin immunocytochemistry and alizarin red assays were performed. We show that flow cytometry is a suitable technique for the study of the differentiation of hMSC seeded onto biomaterials, giving a quantitative reliable analysis of hMSC-associated markers. We also show that electrosprayed piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride is a suitable support for tissue engineering purposes, as hMSCs can proliferate, be viable and undergo osteogenic differentiation when chemically stimulated.

  2. Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madivalappa, Shivaraj; Jali, V. M.

    2018-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride thin films were synthesized by Sol-Gel method with spin rate of 3000 rpm for 30 sec on ITO glass substrates and were annealed at 170 C. The films were irradiated by Gamma radiation with different doses (10, 30, 40 and 50 kGy). XRD and FTIR spectra have been obtained to identify the presence of α / β phases. Mean crystallite size was calculated by Scherer’s equation. Different vibrational bands were identified and percentage of β phase was determined by FTIR analysis. Optical properties like band gap, refractive index, optical activation energy have been determined. Surface morphology and compositions of pristine and gamma irradiated PVDF thin films were confirmed respectively, by SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The comparison of the structural and optical optical properties of pristine PVDF polymer film has been made with those of the Gamma irradiated films.

  3. Core/shell silicon/polyaniline particles via in-flight plasma-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul; Mangolini, Lorenzo; Zhong, Lanlan

    2015-01-01

    Although silicon nanoparticles have potential applications in many relevant fields, there is often the need for post-processing steps to tune the property of the nanomaterial and to optimize it for targeted applications. In particular surface modification is generally necessary to both tune dispersibility of the particles in desired solvents to achieve optimal coating conditions, and to interface the particles with other materials to realize functional heterostructures. In this contribution we discuss the realization of core/shell silicon/polymer nanoparticles realized using a plasma-initiated in-flight polymerization process. Silicon particles are produced in a non-thermal plasma reactor using silane as a precursor. After synthesis they are aerodynamically injected into a second plasma reactor into which aniline vapor is introduced. The second plasma initiates the polymerization reactor leading to the formation of a 3–4 nm thick polymer shell surrounding the silicon core. The role of processing conditions on the properties of the polymeric shell is discussed. Preliminary results on the testing of this material as an anode for lithium ion batteries are presented. (paper)

  4. Core/shell silicon/polyaniline particles via in-flight plasma-induced polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul; Zhong, Lanlan; Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Although silicon nanoparticles have potential applications in many relevant fields, there is often the need for post-processing steps to tune the property of the nanomaterial and to optimize it for targeted applications. In particular surface modification is generally necessary to both tune dispersibility of the particles in desired solvents to achieve optimal coating conditions, and to interface the particles with other materials to realize functional heterostructures. In this contribution we discuss the realization of core/shell silicon/polymer nanoparticles realized using a plasma-initiated in-flight polymerization process. Silicon particles are produced in a non-thermal plasma reactor using silane as a precursor. After synthesis they are aerodynamically injected into a second plasma reactor into which aniline vapor is introduced. The second plasma initiates the polymerization reactor leading to the formation of a 3-4 nm thick polymer shell surrounding the silicon core. The role of processing conditions on the properties of the polymeric shell is discussed. Preliminary results on the testing of this material as an anode for lithium ion batteries are presented.

  5. Temperature dependence of working characteristics of piezoelectric sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revenyuk T. A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that the piezoelectric sensors produced on the basis of electrified films of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF work reliably in the temperature range from –20°C to +80°C. At the operating temperature of 80°C d33 piezocoefficient decreases by 2% during two years that is permissible. At higher temperatures irreversible reduction of the piezocoefficient was observed. The lowest temperature of the working range is close to the glass transition temperature of the amorphous phase of PVDF. Annealing of the films at 80°C ensures stabile characteristics of the sensors within a few years.

  6. Preparation and characterization of conducting polyaniline-coated LiVPO4F nanocrystals with core-shell structure and its application in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Wu, Xinming; Li, Yongfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conducting PANI-coated LiVPO 4 F has been firstly prepared and investigated. • The unique core-shell structure is helpful for the performance of LiVPO 4 F/PANI. • PANI can enhance the electronic conductivity and increase the lithium diffusion coefficient. • LiVPO 4 F/PANI nanocomposite exhibits superior capacity and cycle stability. - Abstract: In this paper, the electrochemical performance of the pure LiVPO 4 F electrode is significantly improved by coating it with the conducting polyaniline via sol-gel method followed by a self-assembly process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the as-prepared sample crystallized in a triclinic LiVPO 4 F phase. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images show that the particle size of the composite is about hundreds of nanometer and the conducting layer of polyaniline is uniformly coated on the surface of LiVPO 4 F particles. Electrochemical tests reveal that the polyaniline-coated LiVPO 4 F composite exhibits superior capacity and cycle stability, delivering an initial discharge capacity of 149.3 mAh g −1 at 0.1 C in the voltage range of 3.0–4.5 V. Even at high current rates, it can still present discharge capacities of 146.7, 140.1, 131.9 and 121.5 mAh g −1 at 0.2, 1, 2 and 5 C, respectively. The superior electrochemical performance of the electrode could be attributed to the uniform conducting polymer layer, which improves the electronic conductivity and Li-ions diffusion of LiVPO 4 F. Therefore, it can be drawn a conclusion that the remarkable electrochemical performance of the polyaniline-coated LiVPO 4 F makes this 4 V-class electrode a promising alternative for next-generation lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Gamma irradiation effects on poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Geise; Zen, Heloisa A.; Geraldes, Adriana N.; Souza, Camila P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lima, Luis Filipe C.P.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF films after exposing to gamma radiation at different doses (5, 10 and 15 kGy) were investigated. PVDF is a semicrystalline polymer that shows good properties in terms of chemical, thermal and electrical stabilities. The gamma radiation is a convenient and effective way of modification perfluorinated and partially fluorinated polymers such as PVDF. The properties of the pristine and irradiated PVDF films were studied by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) and mechanical measurements at room temperature and at melting temperature of the PVDF. The infrared spectra of the irradiated PVDF samples do not present significant alterations in the absorption bands at all irradiated doses. The results obtained by thermal analysis indicate that the radiation does not alter significantly the decomposition temperature of the pristine PVDF film. Tensile strength measurements at room temperature before and after exposition to gamma radiation showed decrease of elongation at rupture in relation of pristine PVDF, suggesting that the radiation caused the crosslinking or chain scission of the PVDF film. (author)

  8. Microporous gel electrolytes based on amphiphilic poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shicheng; Chen Lie; Chen Yiwang; Tong Yongfen

    2012-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP-g-PPEGMA) is simply prepared by single-step synthesis directly via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) from poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Thermal, mechanical, swelling and electrochemical properties, as well as microstructures of the prepared polymer electrolytes, are evaluated and the effects of the various contents and average molecular weights of PEGMA on those properties are also been investigated. By phase inversion technique, the copolymer membranes tend to form well-defined microporous morphology with the increase of content and average molecular weight of PEGMA, due to the competition and cooperation between the hydrophilic PEGMA segments and hydrophobic PVDF-HFP. When these membranes are gelled with 1 M LiCF 3 SO 3 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) (1:1, v/v), their saturated electrolyte uptakes (up to 323.5%) and ion conductivities (up to 2.01 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) are dramatically improved with respect to the pristine PVDF-HFP, ascribing to the strong affinity of the hydrophilic PEGMA segments with the electrolytes. All the polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.7 V versus Li/Li + , and show good mechanical properties. Coin cells based on the polymer electrolytes show stable charge-discharge cycles and deliver discharge capacities to LiFePO 4 is up to 156 mAh g -1 .

  9. A Novel Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based 4-Miktoarm Star Terpolymer: Synthesis and Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Yogesh Raghunath; Bilalis, Panagiotis; Polymeropoulos, George; Almahdali, Sarah; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Rodionov, Valentin

    2018-01-01

    A well-defined amphiphilic miktoarm polymer incorporating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks was synthesized via a combination of atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), iodine transfer radical polymerization (ITP), and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Morphology and self-assembly of this star polymer were examined in organic solvents and in water. The aggregates formed in water were found to possess unusual frustrated topology due to immiscibility of PS and PVDF. The polymer was evaluated for transport of small hydrophobic molecules in water.

  10. A Novel Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based 4-Miktoarm Star Terpolymer: Synthesis and Self-Assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Yogesh Raghunath

    2018-03-15

    A well-defined amphiphilic miktoarm polymer incorporating poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks was synthesized via a combination of atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), iodine transfer radical polymerization (ITP), and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Morphology and self-assembly of this star polymer were examined in organic solvents and in water. The aggregates formed in water were found to possess unusual frustrated topology due to immiscibility of PS and PVDF. The polymer was evaluated for transport of small hydrophobic molecules in water.

  11. Clay nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene): Structure and properties

    KAUST Repository

    Kelarakis, Antonios

    2010-01-01

    Structure-properties relationships in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), PVDF-HFP, clay nanocomposites are reported for the first time. Addition of organically modified clays to PVDF-HFP promotes an α to β transformation of the polymer crystals. The degree of transformation depends on the nature of the clay surface modifier and scales with the strength of the interactions between the clay and the polymer. The nanocomposites exhibit significant increases in elongation to failure compared to the neat copolymer. In addition, their dielectric permittivity is higher over a wide temperature range. Their mechanical and dielectric properties scale similar to the amount of the β phase present in the nanocomposites. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Doping and band gap control at poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Wang, Jian-Lu; Gao, Heng; Tian, Bobo; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, Jun-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Using the density-functional first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF/graphene composite systems. The n- and p-doping of graphene can be flexibly switched by reversing the ferroelectric polarization of PVDF, without scarifying the intrinsic π-electron band dispersions of graphene that are usually undermined by chemical doping. The doping degree is also dependent on the thickness of PVDF layers, which will get saturated when PVDF is thick enough. In PVDF/bilayer graphene (BLG) heterostructure, the doping degree directly determines the local energy gap of the charged BLG. The sandwich structure of PVDF/BLG/PVDF can further enhance the local energy gap as well as keep the electric neutrality of BLG, which will be of great application potentials in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  13. Effects of configurational changes on molecular dynamics in polyvinylidene fluoride and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalarvo, N., E-mail: jalarvonh@ornl.gov, E-mail: abhijit.pramanick@gmail.com, E-mail: omardiallos@ornl.gov [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pramanick, A., E-mail: jalarvonh@ornl.gov, E-mail: abhijit.pramanick@gmail.com, E-mail: omardiallos@ornl.gov [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Do, C. [Biology and Soft-Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Diallo, S. O., E-mail: jalarvonh@ornl.gov, E-mail: abhijit.pramanick@gmail.com, E-mail: omardiallos@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-24

    We present a comparative study of proton dynamics in unpoled non-ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and in its trifluoroethylene containing ferroelectric copolymer (with 70/30 molar proportion), using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The neutron data reveal the existence of two distinct types of molecular motions in the temperature range investigated. The slower motion, which is characterized in details here, is ascribed to protons jump diffusion along the polymeric carbon chains, while the faster motion could be attributed to localized rotational motion of methylene groups. At temperatures below the Curie point (T{sub c} ∼ 385 K) of the composite polymer, the slower diffusive mode experiences longer relaxation times in the ferroelectric blend than in the bare PVDF, although the net corresponding diffusion coefficient remains comparatively the same in both polymers with characteristic activation energy of E{sub A} ≈ 27–33 kJ/mol. This arises because of a temperature dependent jump length r{sub 0}, which we observe to be effectively longer in the copolymer, possibly due to the formation of ordered ferroelectric domains below T{sub c}. Above T{sub c}, there is no appreciable difference in r{sub 0} between the two systems. This observation directly relates the known dependence of T{sub c} on molar ratio to changes in r{sub 0}, providing fundamental insight into the ferroelectric properties of PVDF-based copolymers.

  14. Low temperature internal friction on γ-irradiated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callens, A.; Eersels, L.; De Batist, R.

    1978-01-01

    A least-squares fitting of the below room temperature part of the internal friction spectra, obtained by the torsion pendulum technique on as-received and γ-irradiated (up to 1 Grad) strips and fibres of polyvinylidene fluoride by a superposition of single Debye functions, reveals that the spectral component features are determined not only by purely amorphous chain characteristics but also by the dose-dependence of crystallinity. A careful analysis of the relaxation spectra confirms that at least one relaxation effect (approximately 236 K) is created upon irradiation. The analysis of the dose dependence of the characteristics of the β (glass transition; approximately 220 K) and βsub(u) (apparent upper glass transition; approximately 270 K) relaxations, suggests the probable influence of crystallinity on the molecular motion in the amorphous phase. The increase of the intensity of the γ relaxation (approximately 190 K) is related to the irradiation-induced crystallite degradation. (author)

  15. Preparation of polyaniline/PbS core-shell nano/microcomposite and its application for photocatalytic H2 electrogeneration from H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mohamed; Mohamed, H S H; Shaban, Mohamed; Taha, S

    2018-01-18

    Lead sulfide (PbS) and polyaniline (PANI) nano/microparticles were prepared. Then, PANI/PbS core-shell nano/microcomposites (I, II, and III) were prepared by oxidative polymerization of different aniline concentrations (0.01, 0.03, and 0.05 M), respectively, in the presence of 0.05 M PbS. FT-IR, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, and UV-Vis analyses were carried out to characterize the samples. From the FT-IR data, there are redshifts in PbS and PANI nano/microparticles bands in comparison with PANI/PbS nano/microcomposites. The average crystallite sizes of PANI/PbS core-shell nano/microcomposites (I, II, and III) from XRD analyses were 46.5, 55, and 42.16 nm, respectively. From the optical analyses, nano/microcomposite (II) has the optimum optical properties with two band gaps values of 1.41 and 2.79 eV. Then, the nano/microcomposite (II) membrane electrode supported on ITO glass was prepared and applied on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) H 2 generation from H 2 O. The characteristics current-voltage and current-time behaviors were measured at different wavelengths from 390 to 636 nm. Also, the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) under monochromatic illumination condition was calculated. The optimum values for IPCE were 36.5 and 35.2% at 390 and 405 nm, respectively. Finally, a simple mechanism for PEC H 2 generation from H 2 O using the nano/microcomposite (II) membrane electrode was mentioned.

  16. Design and Synthesis of SnO_2 Nanosheets/Nickel/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Ternary Composite as Free-standing, Flexible Electrode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Qizhen; Lei, Gangtie; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have designed a novel SnO_2 nanosheets/nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride ternary composite as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The SnO_2 nanosheets are uniformly coated on the surface of nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride conductive fiber, as confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, this as-prepared ternary composite delivers a high capacity of 865.4 mAh g"−"1 at 200 mA g"−"1 after 60 cycles. Furthermore, the SnO_2 in this composite material exhibits a good capacity retention as well as rate capability. This result indicates the completely reversible reaction between Li_4_._4Sn and SnO_2, greatly improving the specific capacity of SnO_2. The ternary SnO_2/Ni/PVDF composite limits the volume expansion on lithium insertion, and buffer spaces during charge/discharge, resulting in the excellent cyclic performances.

  17. Synthesis and crystalline properties of CdS incorporated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Arunendra Kumar; Sunder, Aishwarya; Mishra, Shweta; Bajpai, Rakesh

    2018-05-01

    This paper gives an insight on the synthesis and crystalline properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) (host matrix) composites impregnated with Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) using Dimethyl formamide (DMF) as the base, prepared by the well known solvent casting technique. The effect of doping concentration of CdS in to the PVDF matrix was studied using X-ray diffraction technique. The structural properties like crystallinity Cr, interplanar distance d, average size of the crystalline region (D), and average inter crystalline separation (R) have been estimated for the developed composite. The crystallinity index, crystallite size and inter crystalline separation is increasing with increase in the concentration of CdS in to the PVDF matrix while the interplanar distance d is decreasing.

  18. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S.; Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J.; Chabal, Y.J.; Gnade, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm −1 and 362 MVm −1 for neat and crosslinked films

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped Fluoride Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A. DeVol

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the synthesis, structure and applications of metal fluoride nanoparticles, with particular focus on rare earth (RE doped fluoride nanoparticles obtained by our research group. Nanoparticles were produced by precipitation methods using the ligand ammonium di-n-octadecyldithiophosphate (ADDP that allows the growth of shells around a core particle while simultaneously avoiding particle aggregation. Nanoparticles were characterized on their structure, morphology, and luminescent properties. We discuss the synthesis, properties, and application of heavy metal fluorides; specifically LaF3:RE and PbF2, and group IIA fluorides. Particular attention is given to the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles, including selectively RE-doped LaF3/LaF3, and CaF2/CaF2 core/(multi-shell nanoparticles, and the CaF2-LaF3 system.

  20. Anomalous piezoelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ionic liquid gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Miki; Koshiba, Yasuko; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Masahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    Piezoelectric gels were prepared from low-volatile ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim][TFSI]) gels, and their structural, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties were investigated. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE)/IL gels were formed using thermally reversible physical gels. The structural characterization indicated that the P(VDF-TrFE) molecules in the gels predominantly formed a ferroelectric phase (Form I) of P(VDF-TrFE). Polarization switching peaks were clearly observed using a three-layer stacked device structure. The coercive field of the P(VDF-TrFE)/IL gels substantially decreased to 4-9 MV/m, and their remnant polarizations were maintained at 63-71 mC/m2, which is similar to that for typical solid-state P(VDF-TrFE). Finally, the P(VDF-TrFE)/IL gel films exhibited a piezoelectric response, and the highest piezoelectric coefficient was ˜300 pm/V at an applied voltage frequency of 4 kHz.

  1. Comparison of neat and photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene thin film dielectrics formed by spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyore, O.D.; Roodenko, K.; Winkler, P.S. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Noriega, J.R.; Vasselli, J.J. [Electrical Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799 (United States); Chabal, Y.J. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Gnade, B.E., E-mail: gnade@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We report the characterization of photo-crosslinked polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) thin film, metal–insulator–metal capacitors fabricated using standard semiconductor processing techniques. We characterize the capacitors using in-situ vibrational spectroscopy during thermally-assisted poling and correlate the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. FTIR analysis of the neat PVDF-HFP showed α → β transformations during poling at room temperature and at 55 °C. α → β transformations were observed for the crosslinked polymer only during poling at 55 °C. XRD data revealed that photo-crosslinking caused the polymer to partially crystallize into the β-phase. The similar behavior of the neat and crosslinked samples at 55 °C suggests that a higher activation energy was needed for α → β transformations in crosslinked PVDF-HFP during poling. Electrical measurements showed that photo-crosslinking had no significant effect on the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of PVDF-HFP. However, the dielectric strength and maximum energy density of the crosslinked polymer were severely reduced. - Highlights: • Polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP) dielectrics were studied. • Phase transformations were observed only at 55 °C for the crosslinked PVDF-HFP. • Crosslinking had no strong effect on the dielectric constant of PVDF-HFP. • Breakdown strengths were 620 MVm{sup −1} and 362 MVm{sup −1} for neat and crosslinked films.

  2. Preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites blended with graphene oxide coated silica hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide coated silica hybirds (SiO2-GO were fabricated through electrostatic assembly in this work, then blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF by solution mixing to make PVDF nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results showed that the interfacial interaction was enhanced by adding of SiO2-GO and strong hydrogen bonds were observed. The as-made nanocomposites were investigated using standard tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, mechanical properties of PVDF with SiO2-GO hybrids showed limited improvement.

  3. Facile and controllable construction of vanadium pentoxide@conducting polymer core/shell nanostructures and their thickness-dependent synergistic energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Zhongqiu; Liu, Shikun; Li, Xingang; Ding, Yanbo; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Here, we report a novel approach to prepare metal oxide@conducting polymer core/shell hybrids with controlled shell thickness and morphology, and the influence of PANI shell thickness on the electrochemical performance of V 2 O 5 @PANI core/shell hybrids is systematically investigated. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distance, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Highlights: • Thickness- and morphology-controlled V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated. • The enhancement of energy storage performance of core/shell hybrids varies with the shell thickness. • Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are proposed. - Abstract: Thickness- and morphology-controlled vanadium pentoxide/polyaniline (V 2 O 5 /PANI) core/shell hybrid nanofibers are fabricated by electropolymerization of PANI on V 2 O 5 nanofibers for enhanced energy storage. By simply adjusting the electrodeposition time, the thickness of the PANI shells can be controlled from 5 nm to 47 nm, and the morphology can be changed from coaxial to branched. The influence of shell thickness on the improved Li-ion storage performance of the V 2 O 5 /PANI core/shell nanofibers is systematically investigated, and this enhancement of charge capability and cycling stability strongly varies with the shell thickness. Thickness-dependent synergistic electron transport, Li-ion diffusion distances, and shell mechanical strength mechanisms are also proposed. These results provide meaningful references for developing new functional core/shell materials and high-performance energy storage composite materials.

  4. Effect of electron irradiation on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) 56/44 mol% copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S S; Zhao, X-Z; Lu, S G; Lau, S T; Chan, H L W

    2004-01-01

    High-energy electron-irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) 56/44 mol% copolymers are studied in a broad dose ranging from 0 to 110 Mrad. The experimental results are obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction, dielectric constant, dc conductivity and polarization hysteresis loop based on structural changes and dielectric relaxation behaviour. All the x-ray and DSC results show that both the crystalline and polar ordering decreased after irradiation, indicating a partial recovery from trans-gauche bonds to local trans bonds (polar ordering). The dielectric relaxation peaks, obeying the Vogel-Fulcher Law, indicate that the copolymers have transformed from a normal ferroelectric to a relaxor ferroelectric. It is also found that dc conductivity can be modulated with electron irradiation, as well as the hysteresis loop characteristics

  5. Platinum-nanoparticle-supported core-shell polymer nanospheres with unexpected water stability and facile further modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Xu, Yiting; Luo, Weiang; Zeng, Birong; Qiu, Wuhui; Liu, Jie; Huang, Huiling; Dai, Lizong

    2012-05-01

    Core-shell nanospheres (CSNSs) with hydrophobic cores and hydrophilic shells were fabricated via a simple mini-emulsion polymerization for the stabilization of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs). The CSNSs showed extremely high loading capacity of Pt-NPs (the largest loading amount of the Pt-NPs was about 49.2 wt%). Importantly, the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites had unexpected stability in aqueous solution. DLS results revealed that the CSNSs loaded with Pt-NPs exhibited almost no aggregation after standing for a long time . However, the Pt-NPs immobilized on the CSNSs were not straitlaced: they could transport and redistribute between CSNSs freely when the environmental temperature was higher than the melting point of the CSNS shell. Owing to their excellent stability in aqueous solution, the surface of the Pt-NPs/CSNSs nanocomposites could be further decorated easily. For example, polyaniline (PANI)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs, nickel (Ni)-coated Pt-NPs/CSNSs and PANI/Pt-NPs dual-layer hollow nanospheres were facilely fabricated from the Pt-NPs/CSNS nanocomposites.

  6. Ultra-Sensitive Strain Sensor Based on Flexible Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Huang, Wen; Guo, Junxiong; Gong, Tianxun; Wei, Xiongbang; Lu, Bing-Wei; Liu, Si-Yi; Yu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    A flexible 4 × 4 sensor array with 16 micro-scale capacitive units has been demonstrated based on flexible piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film. The piezoelectricity and surface morphology of the PVDF were examined by optical imaging and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The PFM shows phase contrast, indicating clear interface between the PVDF and electrode. The electro-mechanical properties show that the sensor exhibits excellent output response and an ultra-high signal-to-noise ratio. The output voltage and the applied pressure possess linear relationship with a slope of 12 mV/kPa. The hold-and-release output characteristics recover in less than 2.5 μs, demonstrating outstanding electro-mechanical response. Additionally, signal interference between the adjacent arrays has been investigated via theoretical simulation. The results show the interference reduces with decreasing pressure at a rate of 0.028 mV/kPa, highly scalable with electrode size and becoming insignificant for pressure level under 178 kPa.

  7. Glucose Sensing Using Capacitive Biosensor Based on Polyvinylidene Fluoride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambran Hartono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film-based capacitive biosensor was developed for glucose sensing. This device consists of a PVDF film sandwiched between two electrodes. A capacitive biosensor measures the dielectric properties of the dielectric layers at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrode. A glucose oxidase (GOx enzyme was immobilized onto the electrode to oxidize glucose. In practice, the biochemical reaction of glucose with the GOx enzyme generates free electron carriers. Consequently, the potential difference between the electrodes is increased, resulting in a measurable voltage output of the biosensor. The device was tested for various glucose concentrations in the range of 0.013 to 5.85 M, and various GOx enzyme concentrations between 4882.8 and 2.5 million units/L. We found that the sensor output increased with increasing glucose concentration up to 5.85 M. These results indicate that the PVDF film-based capacitive biosensors can be properly applied to glucose sensing and provide opportunities for the low-cost fabrication of glucose-based biosensors based on PVDF materials.

  8. Adsorption process of fluoride from drinking water with magnetic core-shell Ce-Ti@Fe3O4 and Ce-Ti oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Markeb, Ahmad; Alonso, Amanda; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier

    2017-11-15

    Synthesized magnetic core-shell Ce-Ti@Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were tested, as an adsorbent, for fluoride removal and the adsorption studies were optimized. Adsorption capacity was compared with the synthesized Ce-Ti oxide nanoparticles. The adsorption equilibrium for the Ce-Ti@Fe 3 O 4 adsorbent was found to occur in cycles of adsorption-desorption. Although the nanoparticles suffer slight structure modifications after their reusability, they keep their adsorption capacity. Likewise, the efficiency of the Ce-Ti@Fe 3 O 4 was demonstrated when applied to real water to obtain a residual concentration of F - below the maximum contaminated level, 1.5mg/L (WHO, 2006). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Buffer layer investigations on MFIS capacitors consisting of ferroelectric poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, K; Seime, B; Paloumpa, I; Mueller, K; Schmeisser, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements on metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) capacitors with poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene] (P[VDF/TrFE] as ferroelectric layer and SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 as buffering insulator layer. In order to discuss our data in a quantitative manner we perform fits to the data based on a model proposed by Miller and McWorther. The improvement of the polarization values and subsequently its effect on the hysteresis of the CV curve by the successive shrinking of the buffer layer thickness and the following choice of a high-k buffer material is demonstrated. Our data underline that a saturated polarization of P[VDF/TrFE] cannot be controlled with a SiO 2 buffer layer and the insertion of a high-k buffer layer is essential for further improvements of the characteristics of MFIS stacks.

  10. A two-step annealing process for enhancing the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) devices

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    We report a simple two-step annealing scheme for the fabrication of stable non-volatile memory devices employing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer thin-films. The proposed two-step annealing scheme comprises the crystallization of the ferroelectric gamma-phase during the first step and enhancement of the PVDF film dense morphology during the second step. Moreover, when we extended the processing time of the second step, we obtained good hysteresis curves down to 1 Hz, the first such report for ferroelectric PVDF films. The PVDF films also exhibit a coercive field of 113 MV m-1 and a ferroelectric polarization of 5.4 μC cm-2. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  11. Improving dielectric properties of BaTiO_3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by employing core-shell structured BaTiO_3@Poly(methylmethacrylate) and BaTiO_3@Poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xianhong; Zhao, Sidi; Wang, Fang; Ma, Yuhong; Wang, Li; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Changwen; Yang, Wantai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Core-shell structured BT@PMMA and BT@PTFEMA nanoparticles were synthesized. • The dispersity of BT nanoparticles in PVDF matrix was improved significantly. • Dielectric properties both of BT@PMMA/PVDF and BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites were improved. • The frequency dependence of dielectric constant attenuation of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites was smaller than that of BT@PMMA/PVDF composites. - Abstract: Polymer based dielectric composites were fabricated through incorporation of core-shell structured BaTiO_3 (BT) nanoparticles into PVDF matrix by means of solution blending. Core-shell structured BT nanoparticles with different shell composition and shell thickness were prepared by grafting methacrylate monomer (MMA or TFEMA) onto the surface of BT nanoparticles via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The content of the grafted polymer and the micro-morphology of the core-shell structured BT nanoparticles were investigated by thermo gravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The dielectric properties were measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The results showed that high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are successfully realized in the polymer based composites. Moreover, the type of the grafted polymer and its content had different effect on the dielectric constant. In detail, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 16.6% for BT@PMMA1/PVDF and 10.7% for BT@PMMA2/PVDF composite in the range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz, in which the grafted content of PMMA was 5.5% and 8.0%, respectively. However, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 5.5% for BT@PTFEMA1/PVDF and 4.0% for BT@PTFEMA2/PVDF composite, in which the grafted content of PTFEMA was 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. These attractive features of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites suggested that dielectric ceramic fillers modified with fluorinated polymer can be used to prepare high performance composites, especially

  12. Origin of piezoelectricity in an electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanofiber web-based nanogenerator and nano-pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dipankar; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin

    2011-06-01

    A single stage electrospinning process can give rise to preferentially oriented induced dipoles in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] nanofibers. The piezoelectricity of as-electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber webs opens up new possibilities for their use as a flexible nanogenerators and nano-pressure sensors. In this work, the origin of the piezoelectricity has been spotlighted by randomization of the induced dipoles at the Curie temperature and analyzed by polarized FT-IR spectroscopic techniques as well as by detecting the piezoelectric signal from a nano-pressure sensor. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Influence of temperature on the mechanical behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, Viviane; Pasqualino, Ilson Paranhos; Costa, Marysilvia Ferreira da

    2009-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a semicrystalline polymer that presents four crystalline phases being the non polar alpha phase the most common. Due to the very good chemical stability as well a good mechanical properties, PVDF is successfully employed as pressure barrier layers in risers. Meanwhile, its long time behavior in the presence of temperature and in direct contact with fluids is not yet well established. In this work, PVDF stress-strain behavior and stress relaxation with temperature were investigated. It was observed a decrease in elasticity modulus with increasing temperature although the decrease was not linear with temperature increase. The temperature increase also caused the decrease in the relaxation modulus (G(t)). It was also observed that samples strained up to 10% showed a more drastic decrease in modulus compared to samples strained up to 5% regardless the temperature. This behavior was expected and it was attributed to the fact that larger deformation associated to temperature facilitates mobility of the amorphous chains. Through the analysis of x-ray diffraction (XRD) it was observed that the structure was not change after relaxation tests regardless of the test temperature. Experimental results were used to validate the numerical model developed where good correlation with the experimental results were observed. (author)

  14. Dynamic pyroelectric response of composite based on ferroelectric copolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and ferroelectric ceramics of barium lead zirconate titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solnyshkin, A.V. [Tver State University, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tver (Russian Federation); National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Department of Intellectual Technical Systems, Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Morsakov, I.M.; Bogomolov, A.A. [Tver State University, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tver (Russian Federation); Belov, A.N.; Vorobiev, M.I.; Shevyakov, V.I.; Silibin, M.V. [National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Department of Intellectual Technical Systems, Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shvartsman, V.V. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Materials Science, Essen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    In this work, pyroelectric properties of composite films on the basis of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer with a various level of ferroelectric ceramics inclusions of barium lead zirconate titanate solid solution were investigated by the dynamic method. The composite films were prepared by the solvent cast method. The unusual spike-like dynamic response with a quasi-stationary component was observed. It is supposed that composite films may be effectively used for pyroelectric applications. (orig.)

  15. Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochromic Properties of Nanocellulose-Based Polyaniline Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Sun, Gang; He, Yongfeng; Fu, Runfang; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-05-17

    On the basis of nanocellulose obtained by acidic swelling and ultrasonication, rodlike nanocellulose/polyaniline nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been prepared via in situ polymerization. Compared to pure polyaniline, the nanocomposites show superior film-forming properties, and the prepared nanocomposite films demonstrate excellent electrochemical and electrochromic properties in electrolyte solution. Nanocomposite films, especially the one prepared with 40% polyaniline coated nanocomposite, exhibited faster response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.0 s for coloring), higher optical contrast (62.9%), higher coloration efficiency (206.2 cm 2 /C), and more remarkable switching stability (over 500 cycles). These novel nanocellulose-based nanorod network films are promising novel electrochromic materials with excellent properties.

  16. Tapered Fiber Coated with Hydroxyethyl Cellulose/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite for Relative Humidity Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple relative humidity (RH sensor is demonstrated using a tapered fiber coated with hydroxyethyl cellulose/polyvinylidene fluoride (HEC/PVDF composite as a probe. This coating acts as an inner cladding whose refractive index decreases with the rise in humidity and thus allows more light to be transmitted in humid state. A difference of up to 0.89 dB of the transmitted optical power is observed when RH changes from 50% to 80% in case of the silica fiber probe. The proposed sensor has a sensitivity of about 0.0228 dB/%RH with a slope linearity of more than 99.91%. In case of the plastic optical fiber (POF probe, the output voltage of the sensor increases linearly with a sensitivity of 0.0231 mV/%RH and a linearity of more than 99.65% as the relative humidity increases from 55% to 80%.

  17. Development of a Wearable Controller for Gesture-Recognition-Based Applications Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkinburg, Kyle; Washington, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports on a wearable gesture-based controller fabricated using the sensing capabilities of the flexible thin-film piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) which is shown to repeatedly and accurately discern, in real time, between right and left hand gestures. The PVDF is affixed to a compression sleeve worn on the forearm to create a wearable device that is flexible, adaptable, and highly shape conforming. Forearm muscle movements, which drive hand motions, are detected by the PVDF which outputs its voltage signal to a developed microcontroller-based board and processed by an artificial neural network that was trained to recognize the generated voltage profile of right and left hand gestures. The PVDF has been spatially shaded (etched) in such a way as to increase sensitivity to expected deformations caused by the specific muscles employed in making the targeted right and left gestures. The device proves to be exceptionally accurate both when positioned as intended and when rotated and translated on the forearm.

  18. Fibronectin adsorption and cell response on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C; Panadero, J A; Sencadas, V; Lanceros-Méndez, S; Tamaño, M N; Moratal, D; Salmerón-Sánchez, M; Gómez Ribelles, J L

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large potential of electroactive materials in novel tissue engineering strategies, the aim of this work is to determine if the crystalline phase and/or the surface electrical charge of electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, have influence on the biological response in monolayer cell culture. Non-polar α-PVDF and electroactive β-PVDF were prepared. The β-PVDF films were poled by corona discharge to show negative or positive electrical surface charge density. It has been concluded that hydrophilicity of the PVDF substrates depends significantly on crystalline phase and polarity. Furthermore, by means of atomic force microscopy and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, it has been shown that positive or negative poling strongly influences the behavior of β-PVDF supports with respect to fibronectin (FN) adsorption, varying the exhibition of adhesion ligands of adsorbed FN. Culture of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoeblasts proved that cell proliferation depends on surface polarity as well. These results open the viability of cell culture stimulation by mechanical deformation of a piezoelectric substrate that results in varying electrical charge densities on the substrate surface. (paper)

  19. Structural and Optical Changes of Poly-Vinylidene Fluoride by Electron Irradiation at High Dose Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaleh, B.; Fakhri, P.; Borhani, M.; Habibi, S.; Noroozi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly-vinylidene fluoride films were prepared and irradiated by 10MeV electrons at different doses ranging from 50 to 300kGy with a dose rate of 10kGy/s. The FTIR results indicated that no major phase content change was observed. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the electron irradiation results in shifting of the absorption peak, appearance of a new peak and increasing the band gap (Eg). These changes may be due to the breaking of polymer chains and creation of new defects. The X-ray diffraction analysis of samples indicated that the crystallinity did not show any major changes. Concerning the gel fraction measurements, it was observed that gel fraction increases with increasing the dose, where it is an indication of the formation of cross-linked films.

  20. Controllable Synthesis of Gold Nanorod/Conducting Polymer Core/Shell Hybrids Toward in Vitro and in Vivo near-Infrared Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Zhu, Chunhua; Han, Jie; Han, Na; Xi, Juqun; Fan, Lei; Guo, Rong

    2018-04-18

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive tumor treatment technology, and is regarded as a potential anticancer strategy because of its targeted destruction and low toxicity. Specifically, near-infrared light-induced PTT has attracted intriguing interest because of the high transparency of tissue, blood, and water. However, effective PTT generally requires the assistance of photothermal agents. Gold nanorods (GNRs) and conducting polymer are often used as photothermal materials because of their high absorption efficiency and photothermal conversion efficiency. Herein, we combined GNRs with poly( o-methoxyaniline) (POMA, a polyaniline derivative) to form GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids through the surfactant-assisted chemical oxidative polymerization route and studied their photothermal conversion properties. The configuration of GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids has been precisely controlled through adjusting the monomer concentration, and the relationship between morphology and absorption band of GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids has been revealed. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed, and the results indicated that the GNRs/POMA core/shell hybrids with optimized absorbance at around 808 nm exhibited the best performance on photothermal therapy under 808 nm NIR laser irradiation.

  1. Using a novel rigid-fluoride polymer to control the interfacial thickness of graphene and tailor the dielectric behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghui; Chen, Sheng; Lv, Xuguang; Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Bowen, Chris R

    2018-01-24

    Polymer nanocomposites based on conductive fillers for high performance dielectrics have attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, a number of physical issues are unclear, such as the effect of interfacial thickness on the dielectric properties of the polymer nanocomposites, which limits the enhancement of permittivity. In this research, two core-shell structured reduced graphene oxide (rGO)@rigid-fluoro-polymer conducting fillers with different shell thicknesses are prepared using a surface-initiated reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization method, which are denoted as rGO@PTFMS-1 with a thin shell and rGO@PTFMS-2 with a thick shell. A rigid liquid crystalline fluoride-polymer poly{5-bis[(4-trifluoro-methoxyphenyl)oxycarbonyl]styrene} (PTFMS) is chosen for the first time to tailor the shell thicknesses of rGO via tailoring the degree of polymerization. The effect of interfacial thickness on the dielectric behavior of the P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) nanocomposites with rGO and modified rGO is studied in detail. The results demonstrate that the percolation threshold of the nanocomposites increased from 0.68 vol% to 1.69 vol% with an increase in shell thickness. Compared to the rGO@PTFMS-1/P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) composites, the rGO@PTFMS-2/P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) composites exhibited a higher breakdown strength and a lower dielectric constant, which can be interpreted by interfacial polarization and the micro-capacitor model, resulting from the insulating nature of the rigid-polymer shell and the change of rGO's morphology. The findings provide an innovative approach to tailor dielectric composites, and promote a deeper understanding of the influence of interfacial region thickness on the dielectric performance.

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE - IMIDAZOLIUM FUNCTIONALIZED POLYSULFONE BLEND ANION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VELU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anion exchange membrane (AEM is one of the core components of an alkaline fuel cell influencing the fuel cell’s performance, durability and stability. Out of the many anion exchange membranes reported so far, imidazolium functionalized polysulfone (PSf-ImOH membrane has been identified to have high hydroxide ionic conductivity, reaching up to 50 mS cm-1 at 20oC. However, at high levels of ion exchange capacity, the membrane’s water uptake and swelling ratio increases significantly with temperature thus destabilizing it and making it unfit for potential use in high temperature alkaline fuel cells. This limitation of PSf-ImOH membranes has been overcome by blending it with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer, which is a thermally stable and highly hydrophobic polymer. PSf-ImOH membrane with a high degree of chloromethylation (180% was synthesized and blended with PVDF at different weight ratios (PVDF / PSf-ImOH: 30/70, 50/50 and 70/30 to create a series of novel anion exchange membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized to study their structure, water uptake, swelling ratio, solubility in low boiling water soluble solvents, thermal stability, ion exchange capacity (IEC and ionic conductivity (IC at different temperatures. The 70% PVDF blend membrane demonstrated the better performance in terms of IEC, IC and water uptake properties compared to other membranes. Comparative studies on the water uptake and IC variation between the 70% PVDF blend membrane and pure PSfImOH membrane (having the same IEC as that of the blend membrane, clearly indicated the superiority and the promising use of the blend membrane in alkaline fuel cell especially for high temperature working condition.

  3. Optimization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) films as non-volatile memory for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Mao, Duo

    2010-05-01

    The impact of thermal treatment and thickness on the polarization and leakage current of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer thin film capacitors has been studied. The evolution of the film morphology, crystallinity and bonding orientation as a function of annealing temperature and thickness were characterized using multiple techniques. Electrical performance of the devices was correlated with the material properties. It was found that annealing at or slightly above the Curie temperature (Tc) is the optimal temperature for high polarization, smooth surface morphology and low leakage current. Higher annealing temperature (but below the melting temperature Tm) favors larger size β crystallites through molecular chain self-organization, resulting in increased film roughness, and the vertical polarization tends to saturate. Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal (MFM) capacitors consistently achieved Ps, Pr and Vc of 8.5 μC/cm2, 7.4 μC/cm2 and 10.2 V, respectively.

  4. Improved Dielectric Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanocomposite Embedded with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju

    2017-01-25

    A novel nanocomposite dielectric was developed by embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-encapsulated gold (Au) nanoparticles in the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix. The surface functionalization of Au nanoparticles with PVP facilitates favorable interaction between the particle and polymer phase, enhancing nanoparticle dispersion. To study the effect of entropic interactions on particle dispersion, nanocomposites with two different particle sizes (5 and 20 nm in diameter) were synthesized and characterized. A uniform particle distribution was observed for nanocomposite films consisting of 5 nm Au particles, in contrast to the film with 20 nm particles. The frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent were studied for the nanocomposite films. These results showed the effectiveness of PVP ligand in controlling the agglomeration of Au particles in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the study showed the effect of particle concentration on their spatial distribution in the polymer matrix and the dielectric properties of nanocomposite films.

  5. Improved Dielectric Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanocomposite Embedded with Poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-Coated Gold Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Toor, Anju; So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.

    2017-01-01

    A novel nanocomposite dielectric was developed by embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-encapsulated gold (Au) nanoparticles in the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer matrix. The surface functionalization of Au nanoparticles with PVP facilitates favorable interaction between the particle and polymer phase, enhancing nanoparticle dispersion. To study the effect of entropic interactions on particle dispersion, nanocomposites with two different particle sizes (5 and 20 nm in diameter) were synthesized and characterized. A uniform particle distribution was observed for nanocomposite films consisting of 5 nm Au particles, in contrast to the film with 20 nm particles. The frequency-dependent dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent were studied for the nanocomposite films. These results showed the effectiveness of PVP ligand in controlling the agglomeration of Au particles in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the study showed the effect of particle concentration on their spatial distribution in the polymer matrix and the dielectric properties of nanocomposite films.

  6. Optimization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) films as non-volatile memory for flexible electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Mao, Duo; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Stiegler, Harvey J.; Gnade, Bruce E.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of thermal treatment and thickness on the polarization and leakage current of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer thin film capacitors has been studied. The evolution of the film morphology, crystallinity and bonding orientation as a function of annealing temperature and thickness were characterized using multiple techniques. Electrical performance of the devices was correlated with the material properties. It was found that annealing at or slightly above the Curie temperature (Tc) is the optimal temperature for high polarization, smooth surface morphology and low leakage current. Higher annealing temperature (but below the melting temperature Tm) favors larger size β crystallites through molecular chain self-organization, resulting in increased film roughness, and the vertical polarization tends to saturate. Metal-Ferroelectric-Metal (MFM) capacitors consistently achieved Ps, Pr and Vc of 8.5 μC/cm2, 7.4 μC/cm2 and 10.2 V, respectively.

  7. Controlled Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes on Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Powders by Surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhaoqi; LI Wei; LIU Lanqin; HUANG Lei; ZHOU Jin; YU Haiyin

    2009-01-01

    Controlled grafting of well-defined polymer brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powders was carded out by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The ATRP initiator was anchored on the PVDF surface by alkaline treatment, followed by UV-induced bromination; then methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the brominated PVDF by the ATRP technique. The chemical composition changes of PVDF were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR and XPS results clearly indicated the successful graft of poly(methyl methacrylate) onto the PVDF surface.

  8. Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adham; Skinley, Kevin; Herodotou, Stephanie; Zhang, Haifei

    2018-01-01

    The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based ion track membranes with different pore diameters and shapes. SEM observations and conductometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryanthi, Nunung; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Koshikawa, Hiroshi; Asano, Masaharu; Enomoto, Kazuyuki; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Maekawa, Yasunari; Voss, Kay-Obbe; Trautmann, Christina; Neumann, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with conical and cylindrical nanopores were prepared in a controlled manner by the ion-track technique, which involved heavy-ion beam irradiation and subsequent alkaline etching. The etching behavior mainly depended on the energy deposition of the ion beams, and thus its depth distribution, estimated by theoretical simulation, was successfully applied to control the shapes and diameters of the etched pores. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrolytic conductometry provided an insight into the critical experimental parameters. Interestingly, applying a higher voltage to the conductometry cell promoted track etching up to breakthrough probably because electrophoretic migration of the dissolved products occurred out of each pore. (author)

  10. Optical properties of core-shell and multi-shell nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb; Shehata, Nader

    2018-05-01

    We report a first-principles time dependent density functional theory study of the optical response modulations in bimetallic core-shell (Na@Al and Al@Na) and multi-shell (Al@Na@Al@Na and Na@Al@Na@Al: concentric shells of Al and Na alternate) nanorods. All of the core-shell and multi-shell configurations display highly enhanced absorption intensity with respect to the pure Al and Na nanorods, showing sensitivity to both composition and chemical ordering. Remarkably large spectral intensity enhancements were found in a couple of core-shell configurations, indicative that optical response averaging based on the individual components can not be considered as true as always in the case of bimetallic core-shell nanorods. We believe that our theoretical results would be useful in promising applications depending on Aluminum-based plasmonic materials such as solar cells and sensors.

  11. Reinforced PEI/PVdF Multicore-Shell Structure Composite Membranes by Phase Prediction on a Ternary Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Chae

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To construct a polyetherimide (PEI-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF composite membrane with multicore-shell structure, a ternary solution was prepared and electrospun by single-nozzle electrospinning. A theoretical prediction was made for the feasibility of complete distinction of two phases. The diameters of the membrane fibers and the PEI multi-core fibrils varied with the PEI ratio and the spinning time, respectively. The tensile strength and modulus were improved to 48 MPa and 1.5 GPa, respectively. The shrinkage of the membrane was only 6.6% at 180 °C, at which temperature the commercial PE separator melted down. The reinforcement in mechanical and thermal properties is associated with multiple PEI nanofibrils oriented along the fiber axis. Indeed, the unique morphology of self-assembled multicore-shell fibers plays an important role in their properties. All in all, PEI/PVdF membranes are appropriate for a lithium-ion battery application due to their high mechanical strength, excellent thermal stability, and controllable textural properties.

  12. Dielectric properties of composite based on ferroelectric copolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene and ferroelectric ceramics of barium lead zirconate titanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Solnyshkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of dielectric properties of composite films on the base of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer P(VDF-TrFE and ferroelectric ceramics of barium lead zirconate titanate (BPZT solid solution is presented in this work. The composite films containing up to 50 vol.% of BPZT grains with size ∼1μm were prepared by the solvent cast method. Frequency dependences of real and imaginary components of the complex permittivity were determined. The concentration dependence of the dielectric constant was discussed.

  13. A super hydrophilic modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers: By in situ hydrothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Tamboli, Ashif H.; Kim, Hern

    2016-11-01

    Nanofibers fabricated from Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) possesses potential applications in the field of filtrations, because of their excellent resistance towards harsh chemicals. However, the hydrophobicity restricts its further application. In this work, we focus on optimal parameters for post-electrospun tethering of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as superhydrophilic domain onto each individual PVDF nanofibers by exploiting the in situ hydrothermal approach. The results indicated an increase in nanofiber diameters due to coating of PVA and improved surface wettability of PVDF nanofibers. The tensile tests of nanofibers indicated that mechanical properties of PVDF nanofibers could be sharply tuned from rigid to ductile. Furthermore, the studies strongly suggest that in situ hydrothermal treatment of post-electrospun nanofibers can improve the water contact angle and these nanofibers can be used in varied applications (e.g., in water purification systems).

  14. Novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends for battery separators in lithium-ion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.M.; Nunes-Pereira, J.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Silva, M.M.; Ribelles, J.L. Gomez; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO polymer blends were prepared for battery separator. ► The porosity and hydrophilicity degree are tailored within this blend. ► Ionic conductivity depends on PEO presence and is stable with temperature. ► High ionic conductivity of 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 blend. -- Abstract: Polymer blends based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide), P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO for Li-ion battery separator applications have been prepared through solvent casting technique. The microstructure, hydrophilicity and electrolyte uptake strongly depend on PEO content within the blend. The best value of ionic conductivity at room temperature was 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 membrane. The membranes are electrochemically stable

  15. Chitosan mediated synthesis of core/double shell ternary polyaniline/Chitosan/cobalt oxide nano composite-as high energy storage electrode material in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellakkat, Mini; Hundekkal, Devendrappa

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured ternary composite of polyaniline (PANI), Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, and Chitosan (CS) has been prepared by an in situ chemical oxidation method, and the nanocomposites (CPAESCO) were used as supercapacitor electrodes. The Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are uniformly coated with CS and PANI layers in it. Different techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, UV−visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electro chemical analysis-cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were used to analyse the optical, structural, thermal, chemical and supercapacitive aspects of the nanocomposites. Core/double shell ternary composite electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/Co 3 O 4 or PANI/CS binary composites in supercapacitors. The ternary nanocomposite with 40% nanoparticle exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 687 F g −1 , Energy density of (95.42 Wh kg −1 at 1 A g −1 ) and power density of (1549 W kg −1 at 3 A g −1 ) and outstanding cycling performance, with, 91% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. It is found that this unique bio compatible nano composite with synergy is a new multifunctional material which will be useful in the design of supercapacitor electrodes and other energy conversion devices too. (paper)

  16. On the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for shell-burning stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Saint Andrews Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Core-mass-shell-luminosity relations for several types of shell-burning star have been calculated using simultaneous differential equations derived from simple homology approximations. The principal objective of obtaining a mass-luminosity relation for helium giants was achieved. This relation gives substantially higher luminosities than the equivalent relation for H-shell stars with core masses greater than 1 solar mass. The algorithm for calculating mass-luminosity relations in this fashion was investigated in detail. Most of the assumptions regarding the physics in the shell do not play a critical role in determining the core-mass-shell-luminosity relation. The behaviour of the core-mass-core-radius relation for a growing degenerate core as a single unique function of mass and growth rate needs to be defined before a single core-mass-shell-luminosity relation for all H-shell stars can be obtained directly from the homology approximations. (author)

  17. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  18. Preparation and Preliminary Dialysis Performance Research of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the separation properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were improved by optimizing membrane morphology and structure. The results showed that the PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation properties than Fresenius Polysulfone High-Flux (F60S) membrane. The PVDF membrane tensile stress at break, tensile elongation and bursting pressure were 11.3 MPa, 395% and 0.625 MPa, respectively. Ultrafiltration (UF) flux of pure water reached 108.2 L∙h−1∙m−2 and rejection of Albumin from bovine serum was 82.3%. The PVDF dialyzers were prepared by centrifugal casting. The influences of membrane area and simulate fluid flow rate on dialysis performance were investigated. The results showed that the clearance rate of urea and Lysozyme (LZM) were improved with increasing membrane area and fluid flow rate while the rejection of albumin from bovine serum (BSA) had little influence. The high-flux PVDF dialyzer UF coefficient reached 62.6 mL/h/mmHg. The PVDF dialyzer with membrane area 0.69 m2 has the highest clearance rate to LZM and urea. The clearance rate of LZM was 66.8% and urea was 87.7%. PMID:25807890

  19. Does the copolymer poly(vinylidene cyanide-tricyanoethylene) possess piezoelectricity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Yin; Su, Ke-He; Xu, Qiong

    2012-10-01

    The geometry, energy, internal rotation barrier, dipole moment, and molecular polarizability of the α- and β-chain models of poly(vinylidene cyanide-tricyanoethylene) [P(VDCN-TrCN)] were studied with density functional theory at the B3PW91/6-31G(d) level. The effects of the chain length and the TrCN content on the copolymer chain stability, the chain conformation, and the electrical properties of P(VDCN-TrCN) were examined and compared with those of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and PVDCN to gauge whether P(VDCN-TrCN) would be expected to possess substantial piezoelectricity. The results of this study showed that the stability of the β conformation increases and the energy difference per monomer unit between the β- and α-chains decreases with increasing TrCN. However, introducing TrCN into VDCN will not significantly enhance the radius of curvature of the P(VDCN-TrCN) chains. The average dipole moment per monomer unit in the β-chain is affected by the chain curvature and the TrCN content. The amount of piezoelectricity present in P(VDCN-TrCN) is slightly smaller than that in PVDCN, and is less than that in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene).

  20. Preparation of TiO2 hollow fibers using poly(vinylidene fluoride) hollow fiber microfiltration membrane as a template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haiqiang; Zhang Lixiong; Xing Weihong; Wang Huanting; Xu Nanping

    2005-01-01

    TiO 2 hollow fibers were successfully prepared by using poly(vinylidene fluoride) hollow fiber microfiltration membrane as a template. The preparation procedure includes repeated impregnation of the TiO 2 precursor in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and calcination to burn off the template, producing the TiO 2 hollow fibers. The TiO 2 hollow fibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TiO 2 hollow fibers with other structures, such as honeycomb monolith and spring, were also prepared by preshaping the polymeric membranes into the honeycomb structure and spring, respectively. The phase structure of the TiO 2 hollow fibers could be readily adjusted by changing the calcination temperature

  1. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk-shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming; Huang, Guoyong; Sun, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes deliver superior capacity, better cycling stability and rate capability than those of bare Fe3O4 micro/nanospheres and Fe3O4/PANI core-shell (FPcs) electrodes. Moreover, FPys also exhibits excellent electromagnetic wave absorption performance when comparing to the synthesized Fe3O4-based electromagnetic wave absorbers, in which strong reflection loss and extensive response bandwidth can be achieved simultaneously. The excellent bifunctional properties of FPys material are associated with the specially designed hierarchical micro/nanostructures. The current strategy that application directed structural design can be applied to the synthesis of other multifunctional materials.

  2. Conducting polyaniline-wrapped lithium vanadium phosphate nanocomposite as high-rate and cycling stability cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Haiyan; Chen, Weixing; Wu, Xinming; Li, Yongfei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline has been firstly synthesized and investigated. • Conducting polyaniline can remarkably enhance the conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . • Polyaniline-coated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits superior rate capability and cyclability. - Abstract: This work introduces a facile strategy to improve the high-rate capability and cycling stability for carbon-free Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 by coating with conducting polymer polyaniline. Core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline nanocomposite with typical sizes of 200 nm has been synthesized via a microwave heating assisted sol-gel method followed by a self-assembly process. The highly conductive and uniform polyaniline layer coated on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrochemical performance of the electrode, which exhibits better rate capability and excellent cycling stability compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The resultant nanocomposite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 130.7 mAhg −1 at 0.1 C within a voltage range of 3.0-4.3 V. When cycled at a rate of 10 C the capacity can reach up to 101.5 mAhg −1 , and the capacity retention is 87.3% after 500 cycles. The likely contributing factor to the excellent electrochemical performance of core-shell Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /polyaniline could be related to the uniform conducting polymer layer, which can improve the electrical conductivity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3

  3. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  4. Improving dielectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by employing core-shell structured BaTiO{sub 3}@Poly(methylmethacrylate) and BaTiO{sub 3}@Poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianhong; Zhao, Sidi; Wang, Fang [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma, Yuhong, E-mail: mayh@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Syntheses and Applications of Waterborne Polymers, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 (China); Wang, Li; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Changwen [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Syntheses and Applications of Waterborne Polymers, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 (China); Yang, Wantai, E-mail: yangwt@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Syntheses and Applications of Waterborne Polymers, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 100029 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Core-shell structured BT@PMMA and BT@PTFEMA nanoparticles were synthesized. • The dispersity of BT nanoparticles in PVDF matrix was improved significantly. • Dielectric properties both of BT@PMMA/PVDF and BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites were improved. • The frequency dependence of dielectric constant attenuation of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites was smaller than that of BT@PMMA/PVDF composites. - Abstract: Polymer based dielectric composites were fabricated through incorporation of core-shell structured BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) nanoparticles into PVDF matrix by means of solution blending. Core-shell structured BT nanoparticles with different shell composition and shell thickness were prepared by grafting methacrylate monomer (MMA or TFEMA) onto the surface of BT nanoparticles via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The content of the grafted polymer and the micro-morphology of the core-shell structured BT nanoparticles were investigated by thermo gravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The dielectric properties were measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The results showed that high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are successfully realized in the polymer based composites. Moreover, the type of the grafted polymer and its content had different effect on the dielectric constant. In detail, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 16.6% for BT@PMMA1/PVDF and 10.7% for BT@PMMA2/PVDF composite in the range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz, in which the grafted content of PMMA was 5.5% and 8.0%, respectively. However, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 5.5% for BT@PTFEMA1/PVDF and 4.0% for BT@PTFEMA2/PVDF composite, in which the grafted content of PTFEMA was 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. These attractive features of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites suggested that dielectric ceramic fillers modified with fluorinated polymer can be used to prepare high performance composites, especially

  5. Ge/Si core/shell quantum dots in alumina: tuning the optical absorption by the core and shell size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekić Nikolina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ge/Si core/shell quantum dots (QDs recently received extensive attention due to their specific properties induced by the confinement effects of the core and shell structure. They have a type II confinement resulting in spatially separated charge carriers, the electronic structure strongly dependent on the core and shell size. Herein, the experimental realization of Ge/Si core/shell QDs with strongly tunable optical properties is demonstrated. QDs embedded in an amorphous alumina glass matrix are produced by simple magnetron sputtering deposition. In addition, they are regularly arranged within the matrix due to their self-assembled growth regime. QDs with different Ge core and Si shell sizes are made. These core/shell structures have a significantly stronger absorption compared to pure Ge QDs and a highly tunable absorption peak dependent on the size of the core and shell. The optical properties are in agreement with recent theoretical predictions showing the dramatic influence of the shell size on optical gap, resulting in 0.7 eV blue shift for only 0.4 nm decrease at the shell thickness. Therefore, these materials are very promising for light-harvesting applications.

  6. Porous Core-Shell Nanostructures for Catalytic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Trevor David

    Porous core-shell nanostructures have recently received much attention for their enhanced thermal stability. They show great potential in the field of catalysis, as reactant gases can diffuse in and out of the porous shell while the core particle is protected from sintering, a process in which particles coalesce to form larger particles. Sintering is a large problem in industry and is the primary cause of irreversible deactivation. Despite the obvious advantages of high thermal stability, porous core-shell nanoparticles can be developed to have additional interactive properties from the combination of the core and shell together, rather than just the core particle alone. This dissertation focuses on developing new porous core-shell systems in which both the core and shell take part in catalysis. Two types of systems are explored; (1) yolk-shell nanostructures with reducible oxide shells formed using the Kirkendall effect and (2) ceramic-based porous oxide shells formed using sol-gel chemistry. Of the Kirkendall-based systems, Au FexOy and Cu CoO were synthesized and studied for catalytic applications. Additionally, ZnO was explored as a potential shelling material. Sol-gel work focused on optimizing synthetic methods to allow for coating of small gold particles, which remains a challenge today. Mixed metal oxides were explored as a shelling material to make dual catalysts in which the product of a reaction on the core particle becomes a reactant within the shell.

  7. Modeling of Structure Effect for Ferroelectric Capacitor Based on Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene Ultrathin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of ferroelectric capacitors with poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethlene (P(VDF-TrFE films have been studied at different structures of cell electrodes. It is suggested that the effect of electrode structures could induce changes of performance. Remarkably, cells with line electrodes display a better polarization and fatigue resistance than those with flat electrodes. For P(VDF-TrFE ultrathin films with different electrode structures, the models of charge compensation mechanism for depolarization field and domain fatigue decomposition are used to explain the effect of electrode structure. Furthermore, the driving voltage based on normal speed-functionality is designed, and the testing results show that the line electrode structure could induce a robust switching, which is determined by the free charges concentration in active layer. These findings provide an effective route to design the optimum structure for a ferroelectric capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE copolymer ultrathin film.

  8. A hydrogel-mediated scalable strategy toward core-shell polyaniline/poly(acrylic acid)-modified carbon nanotube hybrids as efficient electrodes for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingqing; Bai, Zhengyu; Fan, Jingbiao; Sun, Zhipeng; Mi, Hongyu; Zhang, Qing; Qiu, Jieshan

    2018-04-01

    Structural failure of polyaniline (PANI) stemmed from repeated swelling-shrinkage during Faradic process represents an imminent issue hindering the real application of this material for advanced energy storage. Herein, we explore a clean and facile hydrogel-mediated layer-by-layer strategy to conformally coat a layer of oriented PANI nanofibers on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) where a layer of UV-polymerized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogel is first formed in between as electrodes for supercapacitors. Such an intriguing core-shell tri-component structure perfectly alleviates the drawbacks of PANI as well as combines the advantages of MWCNTs. Especially, the hydrogel used increases the adhesion between PANI and MWCNTs, buffers the structural variation of PANI during cycling, and provide extra driving force accelerating electrolyte penetration throughout active materials. Therefore, the well-intergrown hybrids (PANI/P-MWCNT) display high electrochemical performance as compared to PANI and PANI/MWCNT, i.e., an improved capacitance of 612.5 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, and excellent cycling behavior of 81.5% capacitance retention at 5 A g-1 over 1500 cycles. Also, the maximum energy density of the PANI/P-MWCNT based symmetric configuration reaches 8.2 Wh kg-1. Significantly, such a hydrogel-bridged design concept may find the important application for the synthesis of competitive candidates for energy storage.

  9. “Self-Peel-Off” Transfer Produces Ultrathin Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Flexible Nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-02-23

    Here, a new strategy, self-peel-off transfer, for the preparation of ultrathin flexible nanodevices made from polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) is reported. In this process, a functional pattern of nanoparticles is transferred via peeling from a temporary substrate to the final PVDF film. This peeling process takes advantage of the differences in the work of adhesion between the various layers (the PVDF layer, the nanoparticle-pattern layer and the substrate layer) and of the high stresses generated by the differential thermal expansion of the layers. The work of adhesion is mainly guided by the basic physical/chemical properties of these layers and is highly sensitive to variations in temperature and moisture in the environment. The peeling technique is tested on a variety of PVDF-based functional films using gold/palladium nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. Several PVDF-based flexible nanodevices are prepared, including a single-sided wireless flexible humidity sensor in which PVDF is used as the substrate and a double-sided flexible capacitor in which PVDF is used as the ferroelectric layer and the carrier layer. Results show that the nanodevices perform with high repeatability and stability. Self-peel-off transfer is a viable preparation strategy for the design and fabrication of flexible, ultrathin, and light-weight nanodevices.

  10. Phononic band gap and wave propagation on polyvinylidene fluoride-based acoustic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oral Oltulu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the acoustic band structure of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC containing an organic ferroelectric (PVDF-polyvinylidene fluoride and topological insulator (SnTe was investigated by the plane-wave-expansion (PWE method. Two-dimensional PC with square lattices composed of SnTe cylindrical rods embedded in the PVDF matrix is studied to find the allowed and stop bands for the waves of certain energy. Phononic band diagram ω = ω(k for a 2D PC, in which non-dimensional frequencies ωa/2πc (c-velocity of wave were plotted vs. the wavevector k along the Г–X–M–Г path in the square Brillouin zone shows five stop bands in the frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz. The ferroelectric properties of PVDF and the unusual properties of SnTe as a topological material give us the ability to control the wave propagation through the PC over a wide frequency range of 103–106 Hz. SnTe is a discrete component that allows conducting electricity on its surface but shows insulator properties through its bulk volume. Tin telluride is considered as an acoustic topological insulator as the extension of topological insulators into the field of “topological phononics”.

  11. Effects of substrate on piezoelectricity of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)-nanofiber-based energy generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Boongik; Yang, Ho-Sung; Han, Jin Woo; Choong, Chweelin; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Kihwan; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Jeong, Unyong; Chung, U-In; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Ohyun

    2014-03-12

    We report the effects of various substrates and substrate thicknesses on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-nanofiber-based energy harvesters. The electrospun PVDF nanofibers showed an average diameter of 84.6 ± 23.5 nm. A high relative β-phase fraction (85.2%) was achieved by applying high voltage during electrospinning. The prepared PVDF nanofibers thus generated considerable piezoelectric potential in accordance with the sound-driven mechanical vibrations of the substrates. Slide glass, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and paper substrates were used to investigate the effects of the intrinsic and extrinsic substrate properties on the piezoelectricity of the energy harvesters. The thinnest paper substrate (66 μm) with a moderate Young's modulus showed the highest voltage output (0.4885 V). We used high-performance 76, 66, and 33 μm thick papers to determine the effect of paper thickness on the output voltage. The thinnest paper substrate resulted in the highest voltage output (0.7781 V), and the numerical analyses of the sound-driven mechanical deformation strongly support the hypothesis that substrate thickness has a considerable effect on piezoelectric performance.

  12. Electronic properties and optical absorption of graphene-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Siddheshwar, E-mail: schopra1@amity.edu

    2017-01-15

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (graphene/PVDF) nanocomposites were studied using Density functional theory (DFT)/Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Five nanocomposite configurations were constructed. Electronic properties like binding energy, electronic gap and work function were calculated. The most stable structure was determined. The electronic gap of graphene shifts from semiconducting to conducting, on nanocomposite formation. Workfunction of the most stable nanocomposite was 4.34eV ± 0.05eV, close to that of the pristine graphene (4.33eV ± 0.05eV). Thermochemical analysis showed that the adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. TDDFT calculations were performed for B3LYP, LSDA, BHHLYP and PBE0 functionals. B3LYP and PBE0 are suitable in describing optical absorption. Optical gap of graphene shrinks, and light absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation. - Highlights: • Various properties of graphene-PVDF nanocomposites were studied theoretically. • Electronic gap of graphene shifts to conducting nature, on composite formation. • Adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. • B3LYP and PBE0 functionals are suitable in describing absorption. • Optical absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation.

  13. Electronic properties and optical absorption of graphene-polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Siddheshwar

    2017-01-01

    Graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride (graphene/PVDF) nanocomposites were studied using Density functional theory (DFT)/Time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations. Five nanocomposite configurations were constructed. Electronic properties like binding energy, electronic gap and work function were calculated. The most stable structure was determined. The electronic gap of graphene shifts from semiconducting to conducting, on nanocomposite formation. Workfunction of the most stable nanocomposite was 4.34eV ± 0.05eV, close to that of the pristine graphene (4.33eV ± 0.05eV). Thermochemical analysis showed that the adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. TDDFT calculations were performed for B3LYP, LSDA, BHHLYP and PBE0 functionals. B3LYP and PBE0 are suitable in describing optical absorption. Optical gap of graphene shrinks, and light absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation. - Highlights: • Various properties of graphene-PVDF nanocomposites were studied theoretically. • Electronic gap of graphene shifts to conducting nature, on composite formation. • Adsorption is spontaneous above ∼870 K, and endothermic in nature. • B3LYP and PBE0 functionals are suitable in describing absorption. • Optical absorption gets enhanced on nanocomposite formation.

  14. Magnetoactive feature of in-situ polymerised polyaniline film developed on the surface of manganese–zinc ferrite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Sapurina, I.; Moučka, R.; Vilčáková, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 258, č. 19 (2012), s. 7707-7716 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyaniline * coreshell particles * coercivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.112, year: 2012

  15. Linear optical absorption response of poly(vinylidene fluoride - trifluoroethylene) copolymers to high gamma dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Adriana S.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] is a semicrystalline linear homopolymer composed by the repetition of CH 2 - CF 2 monomers. The Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] is a copolymer which is obtained with the random introduction of fluorinated CHF-CF 2 monomers in the PVDF main chain. PVDF, and also its copolymers with TrFE contents ranging from 18 to 63 wt. %, have long been studied for their striking ferroelectric properties and their applications in actuators, transducers and ferroelectric memory. Recent research work around the world have demonstrated that, for TrFE contents ranging from with 30 to 50 wt. %, the copolymer can have its ferroelectric properties modified by high doses of ionizing radiation, with the appearing of radio-induced relaxor ferroelectric features. These studies have lead us to investigate the possible use of these copolymers as high dose dosemeters, once the reported amount of induced C=C conjugated bonds after X-ray, UV and gamma irradiation seems to be a function of the delivered radiation dose. In a first investigation for doses ranging from 0.1 to 100 kGy we found out a linear relation between the gamma radiation dose and the absorption peak intensities in the UV region of the spectrum, i.e., at 223 and 274 nm. The absorption peak at 223 nm is the most sensitive to gamma rays and can be used for detecting gamma doses ranging from 0.3 to 75 kGy. Simultaneously, the absorption peak at 274 nm can be used for doses ranging from 1 to 100 kGy. Now, in the present work, we extended the investigation to gamma doses up to 3 MGy. Particularly, this study is focused in the optical absorption peak at 274 nm, corresponding to the radio-induction of triplets of conjugated C=C double bonds. The investigation revealed a linear correlation between the gamma dose and peak intensity at 274 nm for gamma doses ranging from 0.1 to more than 750 KGy, with a huge extension of the original usable dose range. Calorimetric data revealed a

  16. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-01-14

    Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni) show a great potential as pseudocapacitor materials for electrochemical energy storage applications. Yet, the cycling instability of PAni resulting from structural alteration is a major hurdle to its commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on PAni nanofibers plays a crucial role in stabilizing the PAni pseudocapacitors and improving their energy density. The pseudocapacitors, which are based on optimized PAni-RuO2 core-shell nanostructured electrodes, exhibit very high specific capacitance (710 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and power density (42.2 kW kg-1) at an energy density of 10 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, they exhibit remarkable capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at very high current density of 20 A g-1, superior to that of pristine PAni-based pseudocapacitors. This prominently enhanced electrochemical stability successfully demonstrates the buffering effect of ALD coating on PAni, which provides a new approach for the preparation of metal-oxide/conducting polymer hybrid electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance.

  17. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) fruit shell carbon: A calcium-rich promising adsorbent for fluoride removal from groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankar, V.; Rajkumar, S.; Murugesh, S.; Darchen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The carbonization of Tamarind fruit shell improved its defluoridation efficiency. ► Calcium carbonate particles were involved in the defluoridation process. ► Adsorbent dose, pH, and fluoride concentration showed significant effects. ► Maximum adsorption of fluoride was achieved at pH 7–8. ► Prepared carbons were efficient in treating three natural waters. - Abstract: Tamarindus indica fruit shells (TIFSs) are naturally calcium rich compounds. They were impregnated with ammonium carbonate and then carbonized, leading to ammonium carbonate activated ACA-TIFS carbon. The resulting materials and carbon arising from virgin fruit shells V-TIFS were characterized and assayed as adsorbent for the removal of fluoride anions from groundwater. The fluoride scavenging ability of TIFS carbons was due to naturally dispersed calcium compounds. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that TIFS carbon contained a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. Batch studies on the fluoride removal efficiency of TIFS carbons with respect to contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration, and co-ion interference were conducted. Applicability of various kinetic models (viz., pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich) and sorption isotherms were tested for batch techniques. The fluoride removal capacity of TIFS carbons was found to be 91% and 83% at a pH of 7.05 for V-TIFS and ACA-TIFS carbons, respectively. The practical applicability of TIFS carbons using groundwater samples was approved. The fluoride removal was greater in groundwater without hydrogen carbonate ions than those containing these ions. The characterizations of fluoride unloaded and loaded TIFS carbons were done by SEM and XRD studies.

  18. Preparation and properties of homogeneous-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuliang [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Xiao Changfa, E-mail: xiaotjpu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Hu Xiaoyu; Bai Qianqian [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The homogeneous-reinforced method has been adopted firstly in preparing of PVDF membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HR membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The better performance of the HR membranes in protein solution can indirectly improve the service life of membranes. - Abstract: Homogeneous-reinforced (HR) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes include PVDF polymer solutions (coating layer) and the matrix membrane prepared through the dry-wet spinning process. The performance of HR membranes varies with the polymer concentration in the polymer solutions and is characterized in terms of pure water flux, rejection of protein, porosity, infiltration property, a mechanical strength test, and morphology observations by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results of this study indicate that the tensile strength of the HR PVDF membranes decreases slights compared with that of the matrix membrane, but the elongation at break increases much more and the hollow fiber membranes are endowed with better flexibility performance. The HR PVDF hollow fiber membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane, as shown by FESEM. The infiltration property is characterized by the contact angle experiments. Pure water flux decreases while the rejection ratio with an increase in polymer concentration increasing. The protein solution flux of the HR PVDF membranes is higher than that of the matrix membrane after 100 min of infiltration.

  19. Preparation and properties of homogeneous-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuliang; Xiao Changfa; Hu Xiaoyu; Bai Qianqian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The homogeneous-reinforced method has been adopted firstly in preparing of PVDF membranes. ► The HR membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane. ► The better performance of the HR membranes in protein solution can indirectly improve the service life of membranes. - Abstract: Homogeneous-reinforced (HR) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes include PVDF polymer solutions (coating layer) and the matrix membrane prepared through the dry-wet spinning process. The performance of HR membranes varies with the polymer concentration in the polymer solutions and is characterized in terms of pure water flux, rejection of protein, porosity, infiltration property, a mechanical strength test, and morphology observations by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results of this study indicate that the tensile strength of the HR PVDF membranes decreases slights compared with that of the matrix membrane, but the elongation at break increases much more and the hollow fiber membranes are endowed with better flexibility performance. The HR PVDF hollow fiber membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane, as shown by FESEM. The infiltration property is characterized by the contact angle experiments. Pure water flux decreases while the rejection ratio with an increase in polymer concentration increasing. The protein solution flux of the HR PVDF membranes is higher than that of the matrix membrane after 100 min of infiltration.

  20. NaCl leached sustainable porous flexible Fe3O4 decorated RGO-polyaniline/PVDF composite for durable application against electromagnetic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To avoid the interference of electromagnetic radiation from other devices, an electronic device needs to be fabricated with flexible and light weight electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding materials with high efficiency. According, highly flexible porous poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF/PFR (Fe3O4 decorated polyaniline/RGO composite composite was prepared through solution blending of PVDF with pre-synthesized PFR conductive composite that involves in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of reduced graphene oxide (RGO using FeCl3 as oxidant. The porous morphology of the composite was created by leaching out of mixed NaCl from the composite. Polyaniline and RGO were mutually decorated by chemically in-situ synthesized ferrosoferric oxide (Fe3O4 using the Fe source of FeCl3. A homogeneous dispersion of PFR in insulated PVDF matrix resulted in a highly electrical conductive composite (PVDF-PFR material through formation of three dimensional continuous conductive networks of polyaniline-RGO in the matrix phase. The composite shows an outstanding EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE property due to the porous structure and the presence of conductive network and ferromagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The PVDF-PFR composite (0.5 mm thickness depicts a great permittivity and permeability value and achieve high EMI SE value (≈–28.18 dB and conductivity value of ≈1.10·10–1 S·cm–1 at very low loading (5 wt% of RGO.

  1. Synthesis of parallel and antiparallel core-shell triangular nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Satpati, Biswarup

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell triangular nanoparticles were synthesized by seed mediated growth. Using triangular gold (Au) nanoparticle as template, we have grown silver (Ag) shellto get core-shell nanoparticle. Here by changing the chemistry we have grown two types of core-shell structures where core and shell is having same symmetry and also having opposite symmetry. Both core and core-shell nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to know the crystal structure and composition of these synthesized core-shell nanoparticles. From diffraction pattern analysis and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) we have confirmed the crystal facet in core is responsible for such two dimensional growth of core-shell nanostructures.

  2. Viscoelastic properties of electrorheological suspensions of core-shell (carbon/polyaniline) particles in silicone oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlačík, M.; Almajdalawi, S.; Mrlík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Saha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 412, č. 1 (2013), 012006_1-012006_8 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions /13./ - ERMR2012. Ankara, 02.07.2012-06.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * carbonization * electrorheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. Nitride stabilized core/shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttiyiel, Kurian Abraham; Sasaki, Kotaro; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2018-01-30

    Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.

  4. Nanofiltration membranes based on polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibrous scaffolds and crosslinked polyethyleneimine networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong-Jik [Hankyong National University, Department of Bioresources and Rural Systems Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Cheedrala, Ravi Kumar; Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changmin; Kim, In S. [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Goddard, William A. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of new and ion-selective nanofiltration (NF) membranes using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers and hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) as building blocks. These new nanofibrous composite (NFC) membranes consist of crosslinked hyperbranched PEI networks supported by PVDF nanofibrous scaffolds that are electrospun onto commercial PVDF microfiltration (MF) membranes. A major objective of our study was to fabricate positively charged NF membranes that can be operated at low pressure with high water flux and improved rejection for monovalent cations. To achieve this, we investigated the effects of crosslinker chemistry on membrane properties (morphology, composition, hydrophobicity, and zeta potential) and membrane performance (salt rejection and permeate flux) in aqueous solutions (2,000 mg/L) of four salts (NaCl, MgCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and MgSO{sub 4}) at pH 4, 6, and 8. We found that an NFC-PVDF membrane with a network of PEI macromolecules crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride has a high water flux ({approx}30 L m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) and high rejections for MgCl{sub 2} ({approx}88 %) and NaCl ({approx}65 %) at pH 6 using a pressure of 7 bar. The overall results of our study suggest that PVDF nanofibers and hyperbranched PEI are promising building blocks for the fabrication of high performance NF membranes for water purification.

  5. Nanofiltration membranes based on polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibrous scaffolds and crosslinked polyethyleneimine networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong-Jik; Cheedrala, Ravi Kumar; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Kim, Changmin; Kim, In S.; Goddard, William A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of new and ion-selective nanofiltration (NF) membranes using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers and hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) as building blocks. These new nanofibrous composite (NFC) membranes consist of crosslinked hyperbranched PEI networks supported by PVDF nanofibrous scaffolds that are electrospun onto commercial PVDF microfiltration (MF) membranes. A major objective of our study was to fabricate positively charged NF membranes that can be operated at low pressure with high water flux and improved rejection for monovalent cations. To achieve this, we investigated the effects of crosslinker chemistry on membrane properties (morphology, composition, hydrophobicity, and zeta potential) and membrane performance (salt rejection and permeate flux) in aqueous solutions (2,000 mg/L) of four salts (NaCl, MgCl 2 , Na 2 SO 4 , and MgSO 4 ) at pH 4, 6, and 8. We found that an NFC–PVDF membrane with a network of PEI macromolecules crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride has a high water flux (∼30 L m −2 h −1 ) and high rejections for MgCl 2 (∼88 %) and NaCl (∼65 %) at pH 6 using a pressure of 7 bar. The overall results of our study suggest that PVDF nanofibers and hyperbranched PEI are promising building blocks for the fabrication of high performance NF membranes for water purification.

  6. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride for uric acid measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F Cardoso, Pedro Martins, Gabriela Botelho, Luis Rebouta, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez and Graca Minas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride (β-PVDF. If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  7. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) for uric acid measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa F; Minas, Graca; Martins, Pedro; Rebouta, Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Botelho, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (β-PVDF). If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  8. Preparation and characterization of functional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with ultraviolet-absorbing property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Liu, Xiangdong; Xiong, Zhengrong; Sheng, Dekun; Lin, Changhong; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yuming

    2018-06-01

    We first reported a strategy to prepare functional poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with excellent ultraviolet-absorbing property through chemically induced grafting. Herein, the polymerizable ultraviolet (UV) absorber 2-hydroxy-4-(3-methacryloxy-2-hydroxylpropoxy) benzophenone (BPMA) made by ourselves was grafted onto the PVDF chains that have been pretreated with tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAH) alkaline solution. Moreover, the effect of experiment conditions such as the alkali and monomer concentrations, alkali treatment time on the UV-absorbing property of the obtained PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes were studied in detail. The chemical structure of the modified membranes was confirmed by 1H NMR, FT-IR and XPS measurements. Meanwhile, the thermal and UV-absorbing properties were characterized by TGA, DSC and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The results indicated that BPMA side chains were successfully introduced onto PVDF backbones. Most importantly, the obtained PVDF-g-PBPMA membranes exhibited excellent UV-absorbing property. The transmittance of UV light at 300 nm decreased to as low as 0.02% and the UV light below 388 nm could be completely absorbed by the PVDF-g-PBPMA membrane made under optimal condition.

  9. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer. PMID:22942718

  10. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  11. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Bo [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Yuquan Road, Shijingshan Dist., 100049 Beijing (China); Li Linfan; Yu Ming [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Li Jingye, E-mail: jingyeli@sinap.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  12. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan; Li Linfan; Yu Ming; Li Jingye

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  13. Nanostructured core-shell electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Long-bo; Yuan, Xing-zhong; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Hou; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2016-11-01

    Core-shell nanostructure represents a unique system for applications in electrochemical energy storage devices. Owing to the unique characteristics featuring high power delivery and long-term cycling stability, electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have emerged as one of the most attractive electrochemical storage systems since they can complement or even replace batteries in the energy storage field, especially when high power delivery or uptake is needed. This review aims to summarize recent progress on core-shell nanostructures for advanced supercapacitor applications in view of their hierarchical architecture which not only create the desired hierarchical porous channels, but also possess higher electrical conductivity and better structural mechanical stability. The core-shell nanostructures include carbon/carbon, carbon/metal oxide, carbon/conducting polymer, metal oxide/metal oxide, metal oxide/conducting polymer, conducting polymer/conducting polymer, and even more complex ternary core-shell nanoparticles. The preparation strategies, electrochemical performances, and structural stabilities of core-shell materials for ECs are summarized. The relationship between core-shell nanostructure and electrochemical performance is discussed in detail. In addition, the challenges and new trends in core-shell nanomaterials development have also been proposed.

  14. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  15. Synthesis, surface modification/decoration of luminescent–magnetic core/shell nanomaterials, based on the lanthanide doped fluorides (Fe3O4/SiO2/NH2/PAA/LnF3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles (10–15 nm) were successfully coated with amine modified silica nanoshell, which led to the formation of core/shell type nanostructures (30–50 nm). The as-prepared nanoparticles were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via electrostatic interactions of –NH 2 and –COOH groups. Afterwards, the surface PAA molecules acted as complexing agents of the introduced lanthanide (Ln 3+ ) ions. Subsequently, the as-prepared nanostructures were surface decorated with luminescent LnF 3 nanoparticles, forming Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ doped Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 nanomaterials (50–100 nm). The obtained luminescent–magnetic products exhibited simultaneously bright red or green emission under UV lamp irradiation (λ ex =254 nm), and a response for the applied magnetic field (strong magnet attracts the colloidal particles, dispersed in aqueous medium). After the synthesis, properties of the nanomaterials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and spectrofluorometry (analysis of excitation/emission spectra and luminescence decay curves). Such advanced nanomaterials can be potentially used in multimodal imaging, targeted therapies and as multifunctional contrast agents, novel luminescent–magnetic tracers, protection of documents, etc. - Highlights: • Luminescent–magnetic nanomaterials Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 /NH 2 /PAA/LnF 3 were synthesized. • Core/shell nanostructures were obtained by surface modification of nanoparticles. • Luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles doped with Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ ions. • Multifunctional core/shell nanostructures exhibited red or green emission. • Nanomaterials formed stable aqueous colloids.

  16. Fe3O4@polyaniline yolk–shell micro/nanospheres as bifunctional materials for lithium storage and electromagnetic wave absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Minwei; Zhao, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Unique Fe3O4/polyaniline (PANI) composite with yolk-shell micro/nanostructure (FPys) has been successfully synthesized by a facile silica-assisted in-situ polymerization and subsequent etching strategy. The structural and compositional studies of the FPys composites are performed by employing X......-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The yolk-shell morphology of the products is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. When evaluated as anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared FPys electrodes...

  17. Synthesis of Cationic Core-Shell Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziomkina, N.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant-free seeded (core-shell) polymerization of cationic polymer colloids is presented. Polystyrene core particles with sizes between 200 nm and 500 nm were synthesized. The number average diameter of the colloidal core particles increased with increasing monomer concentration. Cationic shells

  18. Ni@Ru and NiCo@Ru Core-Shell Hexagonal Nanosandwiches with a Compositionally Tunable Core and a Regioselectively Grown Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeyoun; Kwon, Taehyun; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Jongsik; Oh, Aram; Kim, Byeongyoon; Baik, Hionsuck; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2018-01-01

    The development of highly active electrocatalysts is crucial for the advancement of renewable energy conversion devices. The design of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts represents a promising approach to boost catalytic activity as well as save the use of expensive precious metals. Here, a simple, one-step synthetic route is reported to prepare hexagonal nanosandwich-shaped Ni@Ru core-shell nanoparticles (Ni@Ru HNS), in which Ru shell layers are overgrown in a regioselective manner on the top and bottom, and around the center section of a hexagonal Ni nanoplate core. Notably, the synthesis can be extended to NiCo@Ru core-shell nanoparticles with tunable core compositions (Ni 3 Co x @Ru HNS). Core-shell HNS structures show superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to a commercial RuO 2 black catalyst, with their OER activity being dependent on their core compositions. The observed trend in OER activity is correlated to the population of Ru oxide (Ru 4+ ) species, which can be modulated by the core compositions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Optical Bistability in Graded Core-Shell Granular Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ya-Min; Chen Guo-Qing; Xue Si-Zhong; Zhu Zhuo-Wei; Ma Chao-Qun

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic optical bistability (OB) of graded core-shell granular composites is investigated. The coated particles are made of cores with gradient dielectric function in c (r) = A(r/a) k and nonlinear shells. In view of the exponential distribution of the core dielectric constant, the potential functions of each region are obtained by solving the Maxwell equations, and the mathematical expressions of electric field in the shells and cores are determined. Numerical study reveals that the optical bistable threshold and the threshold width of the composite medium are dependent on the shell thickness, core dielectric exponent, and power function coefficient. The optical bistable width increases with the decreasing shell thickness and the power exponent and with the increasing power function coefficient

  20. Influence of Shell Thickness on the Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Core-Shell Particle Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Frances; Moreno-Atanasio, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    We present a Discrete Element study of the behavior of magnetic core-shell particles in which the properties of the core and the shell are explicitly defined. Particle cores were considered to be made of pure iron and thus possessed ferromagnetic properties, while particle shells were considered to be made of silica. Core sizes ranged between 0.5 and 4.0 μm with the actual particle size of the core-shell particles in the range between 0.6 and 21 μm. The magnetic cores were considered to have a magnetization of one tenth of the saturation magnetization of iron. This study aimed to understand how the thickness of the shell hinders the formation of particle chains. Chain formation was studied with different shell thicknesses and particle sizes in the presence and absence of an electrical double layer force in order to investigate the effect of surface charge density on the magnetic core-shell particle interactions. For core sizes of 0.5 and 4.0 μm the relative shell thicknesses needed to hinder the aggregation process were approximately 0.4 and 0.6 respectively, indicating that larger core sizes are detrimental to be used in applications in which no flocculation is needed. In addition, the presence of an electrical double layer, for values of surface charge density of less than 20 mC/m 2 , could stop the contact between particles without hindering their vertical alignment. Only when the shell thickness was considerably larger, was the electrical double layer able to contribute to the full disruption of the magnetic flocculation process.

  1. Temperature dependence of coercive field and fatigue in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer ultra-thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuli; Xu Haisheng; Zhang Yanni

    2011-01-01

    The experimental intrinsic coercive field of ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoethylene) copolymer films, with both bottom and top gold electrodes is measured at a wide temperature range. In the lower temperature region from -20 to 25 deg. C, the temperature dependence of coercive field shows good agreement with the prediction by the Landau-Ginzburg (LG) mean-field theory. In the higher temperature region from 25 to 80 deg. C, the coercive field shows a slow decrease with the increased temperature, where the LG theory is not applicable any more. The temperature-dependent changes in the polymer chains have been analysed. A reversible 'inherent fatigue' is observed from the partially recovered remanent polarization after re-annealing a fatigued P(VDF-TrFE) film. FTIR spectra indicate that the interchain spacing does not change from 10 to 10 7 switching cycles while the degree of all-trans ferroelectric phase decreases gradually with applied switching cycles. After a re-annealing treatment, ferroelectric phase recovers and dipoles at the boundary of crystallites acquire much higher energy.

  2. Polarization tunable photogenerated carrier transfer of CH3NH3PbI3/polyvinylidene fluoride heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kang; Deng, Zun-Yi; Feng, Hong-Jian

    2017-10-01

    The integration of ferroelectrics and organic-inorganic halide perovskites could be a promising way to facilitate the separation of electron-hole pairs and charge extraction for the application of solar cells. To explore the effect of the external ferroelectric layer on the CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) side, we perform first-principles calculations to study the charge transfer properties of the MAPbI3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) heterostructure. Our calculations demonstrate that the ferroelectric polarization pointing to the PVDF side can clearly facilitate the separation of photo-induced carriers and enhance charge extraction from MAPbI3, while opposite polarization direction hinders the charge extraction and collection. Notably, the carrier behavior at the interface is strongly tuned by the electric field associated with the ferroelectric polarization. In addition, excited state simulation confirms the tunable charge transfer of the MAPbI3/PVDF heterojunction. Therefore, the polarization-driven charge transfer mechanism provides a route for fabricating the ferroelectrics-based high-efficiency photovoltaics and switchable diode devices.

  3. Construction of carbon nanoflakes shell on CuO nanowires core as enhanced core/shell arrays anode of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, F.; Xia, X.H.; Pan, G.X.; Chen, J.; Zhang, Y.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays are prepared by electro-deposition + ALD method. • Carbon shell is favorable for structural stability. • CuO/C core/shell arrays show enhanced cycle stability and high capacity. - Abstract: Tailored metal oxide/carbon composite structures have attracted great attention due to potential synergistic effects and enhanced properties. In this work, novel CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays are prepared by the combination of electro-deposition of CuO and atomic-layer-deposition-assisted formation of carbon nanoflakes shell. The CuO nanowires with diameters of ∼200 nm are homogenously coated by carbon nanoflakes shell. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), compared to the unmodified CuO nanowire arrays, the CuO/C core/shell nanowire arrays exhibit improved electrochemical performances with higher capacity, better electrochemical reactivity and high-rate capability as well as superior cycling life (610 mAh g"−"1 at 0.5C after 290 cycles). The enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the introduction of carbon flake shell in the core/shell nanowire arrays structure, which provides higher active material-electrolyte contact area, improved electrical conductivity, and better accommodation of volume change. The proposed method provides a new way for fabrication of high-performance metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  4. Synthesis and Plasmonic Understanding of Core/Satellite and Core Shell Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qifeng

    Localized surface plasmon resonance, which stems from the collective oscillations of conduction-band electrons, endows Au nanocrystals with unique optical properties. Au nanocrystals possess extremely large scattering/absorption cross-sections and enhanced local electromagnetic field, both of which are synthetically tunable. Moreover, when Au nanocrystals are closely placed or hybridized with semiconductors, the coupling and interaction between the individual components bring about more fascinating phenomena and promising applications, including plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, solar energy harvesting, and cancer therapy. The continuous development in the field of plasmonics calls for further advancements in the preparation of high-quality plasmonic nanocrystals, the facile construction of hybrid plasmonic nanostructures with desired functionalities, as well as deeper understanding and efficient utilization of the interaction between plasmonic nanocrystals and semiconductor components. In this thesis, I developed a seed-mediated growth method for producing size-controlled Au nanospheres with high monodispersity and assembled Au nanospheres of different sizes into core/satellite nanostructures for enhancing Raman signals. For investigating the interactions between Au nanocrystals and semiconductors, I first prepared (Au core) (TiO2 shell) nanostructures, and then studied their synthetically controlled plasmonic properties and light-harvesting applications. Au nanocrystals with spherical shapes are desirable in plasmon-coupled systems owing to their high geometrical symmetry, which facilitates the analysis of electrodynamic responses in a classical electromagnetic framework and the investigation of quantum tunneling and nonlocal effects. I prepared remarkably uniform Au nanospheres with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 220 nm using a simple seed-mediated growth method associated with mild oxidation. Core/satellite nanostructures were assembled out of differently sized

  5. Frequency dependence of electrical properties of polyvinylidene fluoride/graphite electrode waste/natural carbon black composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insiyanda, D. R.; Indayaningsih, N.; Prihandoko, B.; Subhan, A.; Khaerudini, D. S.; Widodo, H.; Destyorini, F.; Chaer, A.

    2018-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic material with remarkably high piezoelectric coefficient and an attractive polymer matrix for micro-composite with superior mechanical and electrical properties. The conductive filler is obtained from Graphite Electrode Waste (GEW) and Natural Carbon Black (NCB). The variation of composite content (%) of PVdF/NCB/GEW were 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 95/0/5, 95/2.5/2.5. This experiment employed dry dispersion method for material mixing. The materials were then moulded using hot press machine with compression parameters of P = 5.5 MPa, T = 150 °C, t = 60 minutes, A = 5×5×(0.2 - 0.4) cm3. The electrical conductivity properties of pure PVdF, as well as PVdF/GEW, PVdF/NCB, and PVdF/NCB/GEW composites were investigated in a frequency range of 100 to 100000 Hz. The PVdF/GEW sample obtained the highest electrical conductivity. It is concluded that GEW and NCB can be incorporated into PVdF as a conductive filler to increase the conductivity of conductive material composite without solvent.

  6. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng; Geng, Chong; Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Yao, Jianjun; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Li, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ˜62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  7. Dehydration of core/shell fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Yang, Xiaosong; Cao, Y.; Wang, Z.; Chen, B.; Zhang, Jian J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrated core/shell fruits, such as jujubes, raisins and plums, show very complex buckles and wrinkles on their exocarp. It is a challenging task to model such complicated patterns and their evolution in a virtual environment even for professional animators. This paper presents a unified physically-based approach to simulate the morphological transformation for the core/shell fruits in the dehydration process. A finite element method (FEM), which is based on the multiplicative decomposition...

  8. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesús G.

    2015-04-16

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential) have been firstly determined for the growth of continuous Au nanotubes at the inner wall of pores. Then, a magnetic core was synthesized inside the Au shells under suitable electrochemical conditions for a wide spectrum of single elements and alloy compositions (e.g., Fe, Ni and CoFe alloys). Novel opportunities offered by such nanowires are discussed particularly the magnetic behavior of (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell nanowires was tested and compared with that of bare TM nanowires. These core-shell nanowires can be released from the template so, opening novel opportunities for biofunctionalization of individual nanowires.

  9. Core-shell architectures as nano-size transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeli, M.; Zarnegar, Z.; Kabiri, R.; Salimi, F.; Dadkah, A.

    2006-01-01

    Core-shell architectures containing poly (ethylene imine) (PEI) as a core and poly (lactide) (PLA) as arms were prepared. PEI was used as macro initiator for ring opening polymerization of lactide. PEI-PLA core-shell architectures were able to encapsulate guest molecules. Size of the core-shell architectures was between 10- 100 nm, hence they can be considered as nano carriers to transport the guest molecules. Transport capacity of nano carriers depends on their nano-environments and type of self-assembly in solvent. In solid state nano carriers self-assemble as long structures with nano-size diameter or they form network structures. Aggregations type depends on the concentration of nano carriers in solution. Effect of the shell thickness and aggregation type on the release rate are also investigated

  10. Development of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-ZIF-8 Membrane for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. A.; Wirzal, M. D. H.; Nordin, N. A. H.; Halim, N. S. Abd

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the water shortage problem following the urbanization and increasing pollution of natural water source have increased the awareness to treat wastewater. Membrane filtration is often used in wastewater treatment plants to filter out more residual activated sludge from aeration process in the secondary stage. However, fouling is the main concern due to the fact it can happen to any membrane application. Antifouling properties in membrane can be improved by blending membranes with fillers or additives to make them more hydrophilic. This study aims to improve the antifouling properties in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes while optimizing the loading of Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) fillers; at different loading (2.0 wt. %, 4.0 wt. %, 6.0 wt. %, 8.0 wt. % and 10.0 wt. %). Manual hand-casting of flat sheet membrane was done and the fabricated membranes were tested for their filterability against pure water and domestic wastewater. Both permeability tests showed that PVDF with 8% ZIF-8 membrane was the most permeable with a pure water and wastewater permeability of 150 L/m2.h.bar and 94 L/m2.h.bar, respectively. The pure water permeability of PVDF with 8% ZIF-8 membrane increases for about 130% compared to the pure PVDF membrane. The turbidity test of the initial feed and final permeate of wastewater, PVDF with 8% ZIF-8 membrane also gave out the highest reduction rate at 87%, which is 36% higher than that of pure PVDF membrane. It can be deduced that 8% of ZIF-8 is the ideal loading to PVDF in improving its antifouling properties to be used in domestic wastewater treatment.

  11. Core/shell particles containing liquid cores : morphology prediction, synthesis and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zyl, van A.J.P.; Sanderson, R.D.; Wet-Roos, de D.; Klumperman, B.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to synthesize core/shell particles with distinct geometries is becoming increasingly important due to their potential applications. In this study structured particles with liquid cores and polymeric shells were synthesized by an in situ miniemulsion polymerization reaction. The resulting

  12. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  13. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  14. Core-shell microparticles for protein sequestration and controlled release of a protein-laden core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Philbrick, Brandon D; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2017-07-01

    Development of multifunctional biomaterials that sequester, isolate, and redeliver cell-secreted proteins at a specific timepoint may be required to achieve the level of temporal control needed to more fully regulate tissue regeneration and repair. In response, we fabricated core-shell heparin-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) microparticles (MPs) with a degradable PEG-based shell that can temporally control delivery of protein-laden heparin MPs. Core-shell MPs were fabricated via a re-emulsification technique and the number of heparin MPs per PEG-based shell could be tuned by varying the mass of heparin MPs in the precursor PEG phase. When heparin MPs were loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and then encapsulated into core-shell MPs, degradable core-shell MPs initiated similar C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as the soluble control, while non-degradable core-shell MPs initiated a significantly lower response (85+19% vs. 9.0+4.8% of the soluble control, respectively). Similarly, when degradable core-shell MPs were formed and then loaded with BMP-2, they induced a ∼7-fold higher C2C12 ALP activity than the soluble control. As C2C12 ALP activity was enhanced by BMP-2, these studies indicated that degradable core-shell MPs were able to deliver a bioactive, BMP-2-laden heparin MP core. Overall, these dynamic core-shell MPs have the potential to sequester, isolate, and then redeliver proteins attached to a heparin core to initiate a cell response, which could be of great benefit to tissue regeneration applications requiring tight temporal control over protein presentation. Tissue repair requires temporally controlled presentation of potent proteins. Recently, biomaterial-mediated binding (sequestration) of cell-secreted proteins has emerged as a strategy to harness the regenerative potential of naturally produced proteins, but this strategy currently only allows immediate amplification and re-delivery of these signals. The multifunctional, dynamic

  15. Enhanced electric polarization and breakdown strength in the all-organic sandwich-structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-based dielectric film for high energy density capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to develop the dielectric energy storage capacitor for the modern electrical and electronic equipment. Here, the all-organic sandwich-structured composite with superior breakdown strength and delayed saturation polarization is presented. Furthermore, the energy storage characteristics of the composite are enhanced by the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene fiber and the redistribution of local electric field. The dielectric permittivity of composite increases to ∼16, and the discharged energy density is high to ∼8.7 J/cm3 at 360 kV/mm, and the breakdown strength is up to ∼408 kV/mm. The excellent performance of the composite broadens the application in the field of power electronics industry.

  16. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bussone, Genziana [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  17. Size-exclusion chromatography using core-shell particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Breuer, Pascal; Hoppe, Serafine J M; Chitty, Mike; Welch, Emmet; Farkas, Tivadar; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Peters, Ron; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-02-24

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is an indispensable technique for the separation of high-molecular-weight analytes and for determining molar-mass distributions. The potential application of SEC as second-dimension separation in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography demands very short analysis times. Liquid chromatography benefits from the advent of highly efficient core-shell packing materials, but because of the reduced total pore volume these materials have so far not been explored in SEC. The feasibility of using core-shell particles in SEC has been investigated and contemporary core-shell materials were compared with conventional packing materials for SEC. Columns packed with very small core-shell particles showed excellent resolution in specific molar-mass ranges, depending on the pore size. The analysis times were about an order of magnitude shorter than what could be achieved using conventional SEC columns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of miscibility phenomenon on crystalline polymorph transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic rubber/clay nanocomposite hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules.

  19. Kinetic investigations of graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate onto electron beam irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed, E-mail: mahmoudeithar@fkkksa.utm.m [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, International City Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saidi, Hamdani [Institute of Hydrogen Economy, International City Campus, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Semarak, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto electron beam (EB) irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films was investigated to find out a simple preparation process for sulfonic acid proton exchange membranes with respect to monomer concentration, absorbed dose, temperature, film thickness and storage time. The reaction order of the monomer concentration and absorbed dose of grafting was found to be 2.84 and 1.20, respectively. The overall activation energy for graft copolymerization reaction was calculated to be 11.36 kJ/mol. The initial rate of grafting was found to decrease with an increase in the film thickness. The trapped radicals in the irradiated PVDF films remained effective in initiating the reaction without considerable loss in grafting level up to 180 days, when stored under -60 {sup o}C. The presence and distribution of polystyrene sulfonate grafts in the obtained membranes were observed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, scanning optical microscope and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), respectively.

  20. Fluorine incorporation into SnO2 nanoparticles by co-milling with polyvinylidene fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Mamoru; Turianicová, Erika; Šepelák, Vladimír; Bruns, Michael; Scholz, Gudrun; Lebedkin, Sergei; Kübel, Christian; Wang, Di; Kaňuchová, Mária; Kaus, Maximilian; Hahn, Horst

    2014-04-01

    Fluorine was incorporated into SnO2 nanoparticles from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) by co-milling. The incorporation process was triggered by an oxidative partial decomposition of PVdF due to the abstraction of oxygen atoms, and began soon after milling with a simultaneous decrease in the crystallite size of SnO2 from 56 nm to 19 nm, and increase in the lattice strain by a factor 7. Appearance of D and G Raman peaks indicated that the decomposition of PVdF was accompanied by the formation of nanometric carbon species. Decomposing processes of PVdF were accompanied by the continuous change in the states of F, with a decrease of C-F in PVdF and increase in Sn-F. This indicates the gradual incorporation of F into SnO2, by replacing a part of oxygen in the oxide with fluorine. These serial mechanochemical reaction processes were discussed on the basis of X-ray diffractometry, FT-IR, Raman and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, F1s, Sn3d and C1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectra, as well as magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy of 19F and 119Sn. The present findings serve as an initial stage of incorporating fluorine into SnO2 via a solvent-free solid-state process, toward the rational fabrication of fluorine doped SnO2 powders.

  1. WO{sub 3-x}/MoO{sub 3-x} core/shell nanowires on carbon fabric as an anode for all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xu; Ding, Tianpeng; Yuan, Longyan; Shen, Yongqi; Zhong, Qize; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO), College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan (China); Zhai, Teng; Tong, Yexiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Gong, Li; Chen, Jian [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are fabricated from a novel anode - WO{sub 3-x}/MoO{sub 3-x} core/shell nanowires on carbon fabric - and a polyaniline cathode (figure). In addition to the high electrochemical performance of the devices, other characteristics, such as low toxicity, flexibility, environmental compatibility, light weight, and low requirements for packaging, make the all-solid-state ASCs potential candidates for applications in energy storage, flexible electronics, and other consumer electronics. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Impressive nonlinear optical response exhibited by Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabira, K.; Saheeda, P.; Divyasree, M. C.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear optical properties of free-standing films of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite are investigated to assess their suitability as efficient optical limiters. The PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films are generated by mixing different concentrations of RGO as the filler, with PVDF, using solution casting method. The XRD and FTIR data of these nanocomposite films confirm the enhancement in the β phase of PVDF when RGO is added to PVDF, which is one of the prime factors, enhancing the nonlinear response of the nanocomposite. The open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique under nanosecond excitation (532 nm, 7 ns) is used to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of the PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films. These films are found to exhibit two photon absorption assisted optical non linearity in the nanosecond regime. The highlight of the present work is the observation of quite low values of the normalized transmittance and low optical limiting threshold power in free standing films of PVDF/RGO nanocomposite. These flexible, free-standing and stable nanocomposite films offer high application prospects in the design of efficient optical limiting devices of any desired size or shape.

  3. Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-09-23

    We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar γ phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar γ phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 μA peak short-circuit current output.

  4. High Thermal Gradient in Thermo-electrochemical Cells by Insertion of a Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Waqar; Said, Suhana Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Hashim, Nur Awanis; Hasnan, Megat Muhammad Ikhsan Megat; Pringle, Jennifer M.; Macfarlane, Douglas R.

    2016-07-01

    Thermo-Electrochemical cells (Thermocells/TECs) transform thermal energy into electricity by means of electrochemical potential disequilibrium between electrodes induced by a temperature gradient (ΔT). Heat conduction across the terminals of the cell is one of the primary reasons for device inefficiency. Herein, we embed Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in thermocells to mitigate the heat transfer effects - we refer to these membrane-thermocells as MTECs. At a ΔT of 12 K, an improvement in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the TEC from 1.3 mV to 2.8 mV is obtained by employment of the membrane. The PVDF membrane is employed at three different locations between the electrodes i.e. x = 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm where ‘x’ defines the distance between the cathode and PVDF membrane. We found that the membrane position at x = 5 mm achieves the closest internal ΔT (i.e. 8.8 K) to the externally applied ΔT of 10 K and corresponding power density is 254 nWcm-2 78% higher than the conventional TEC. Finally, a thermal resistivity model based on infrared thermography explains mass and heat transfer within the thermocells.

  5. Fabrication of a polyvinylidene difluoride fiber with a metal core and its application as directional air flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yixiang; Liu, Rongrong; Hui, Shen

    2016-09-01

    We fabricated a sensitive air flow detector that mimic the sensing mechanism found at the tail of some insects. [see Y. Yang, A. Klein, H. Bleckmann and C. Liu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(2) (2011); J. J. Heys, T. Gedeon, B. C. Knott and Y. Kim, J. Biomech. 41(5), 977 (2008); J. Tao and X. Yu, Smart Mat. Struct. 21(11) (2012)]. Our bionic airflow sensor uses a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) microfiber with a molybdenum core which we produced with the hot extrusion tensile method. The surface of the fiber is partially coated with conductive silver adhesive that serve as surface electrodes. A third electrode, the metal core is used to polarize polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) under the surface electrodes. The cantilever beam structure of the prepared symmetric electrodes of metal core piezoelectric fiber (SMPF) is used as the artificial hair airflow sensor. The surface electrodes are used to measure output voltage. Our theoretical and experimental results show that the SMPF responds fast to air flow changes, the output charge has an exponential correlation with airflow velocity and a cosine relation with the direction of airflow. Our bionic airflow sensor with directional sensing ability can also measure air flow amplitude. [see H. Droogendijk, R. G. P. Sanders and G. J. M. Krijnen, New J. Phys. 15 (2013)]. By using two surface electrodes, our sensing circuit further improves sensitivity.

  6. Enhancement of stability for lithium oxygen batteries by employing electrolytes gelled by poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinqiang; Sun, Bing; Xie, Xiuqiang; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-01-01

    Free-standing gel polymer electrolytes with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) matrix plasticized with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) were prepared and investigated. The as-prepared gel polymer electrolytes exhibited large operating window and acceptable ionic conductivity. When applied in lithium oxygen batteries, the gel polymer electrolyte could support a high initial discharge capacity of 2988 mAh g −1 when a carbon black electrode without catalyst was used as cathode. Furthermore, the battery with gel polymer electrolyte can last at least 50 cycles in the fixed capacity cycling, displaying an excellent stability. Detailed study reveals that the gelling process is essential for the cycling stability enhancement. With excellent electrochemical properties, the free-standing gel polymer electrolyte presented in this investigation has great application potentials in long-life lithium oxygen batteries.

  7. Nanocomposite multilayer capacitors comprising BaTiO3@TiO2 and poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene for dielectric-based energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Rahimabady

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer dielectric capacitors were fabricated from nanocomposite precursor comprised of BaTiO3@TiO2 core–shell nanosized particles and poly(vinylidene fluoride–hexafluoropropylene (P(VDF–HFP polymer matrix (20 vol%. The multilayer capacitors showed very high discharge speed and high discharged energy density of around 2.5 J/cm3 at its breakdown field (~ 166 MV/m. The energy density of the nanocomposite multilayer capacitors was substantially higher than the energy density of commercially used power capacitors. Low cost, flexible structure, high discharge rate and energy density suggest that the nanocomposite multilayer capacitors are promising for energy storage applications in many power devices and systems.

  8. β-Phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films encouraged more homogeneous cell distribution and more significant deposition of fibronectin towards the cell–material interface compared to α-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Y.K.A.; Zou, X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fang, Y.M. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, J.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, W.S. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Boey, F.Y.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, K.W., E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric response from β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) can potentially be exploited for biomedical application. We hypothesized that α and β-phase PVDF exert direct but different influence on cellular behavior. α- and β-phase PVDF films were synthesized through solution casting and characterized with FT-IR, XRD, AFM and PFM to ensure successful fabrication of α and β-phase PVDF films. Cellular evaluation with L929 mouse fibroblasts over one-week was conducted with AlamarBlue® metabolic assay and PicoGreen® proliferation assay. Immunostaining of fibronectin investigated the extent and distribution of extracellular matrix deposition. Image saliency analysis quantified differences in cellular distribution on the PVDF films. Our results showed that β-phase PVDF films with the largest area expressing piezoelectric effect elicited highest cell metabolic activity at day 3 of culture. Increased fibronectin adsorption towards the cell–material interface was shown on β-phase PVDF films. Image saliency analysis showed that fibroblasts on β-phase PVDF films were more homogeneously distributed than on α-phase PVDF films. Taken collectively, the different molecular packing of α and β-phase PVDF resulted in differing physical properties of films, which in turn induced differences in cellular behaviors. Further analysis of how α and β-phase PVDF may evoke specific cellular behavior to suit particular application will be intriguing. - Highlights: • β-Phase PVDF exhibited strongest piezoelectric effects compared to α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF induced more homogeneous cell distribution than α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF encouraged more fibronectin deposition at the cell–material interface.

  9. Fabrication of hierarchical graphene@Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline quaternary composite and its improved electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Haibo; Wang, Fen; Qin, Yi; Zhao, Ting; Zhang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline hierarchical structures have been fabricated. • The reflection loss of the composites is below −10 dB in 10.5–16.3 GHz. • The maximum absorption of the composites is −40.7 dB at 12.5 GHz. - Abstract: Hierarchical graphene@Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline quaternary composite is fabricated subtly. Their microwave absorption properties are also investigated in the 2–18 GHz frequency range. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal that Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @polyaniline core@shell@shell heteronanostructures are densely covered on the surfaces of graphene, and form hierarchical structures. Compared with two-dimensional binary nanocomposites of graphene@Fe 3 O 4 , the hierarchical structure exhibits enhanced EM absorption in terms of both the maximum reflection loss value and the absorption bandwidth. The maximum reflection loss value can reach −40.7 dB at 12.5 GHz with a thickness of 2.5 mm and the bandwidth corresponding to the reflection loss below −10 dB is 5.8 GHz (from 10.5 to 16.3 GHz)

  10. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pakawanit, Phakkhananan [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wipatanawin, Angkana [Division of Biochemistry and Biochemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Jantaratana, Pongsakorn [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 11900 (Thailand); Ananta, Supon [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Srisombat, Laongnuan, E-mail: slaongnuan@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV–vis spectra of complete coated MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} core. Both of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell nanoparticles with particle size < 100 nm • Complete Au shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles • In vitro cytotoxicity study of complete coated MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-Au core-shell

  11. Synthesis and cytotoxicity study of magnesium ferrite-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Pakawanit, Phakkhananan; Wipatanawin, Angkana; Jantaratana, Pongsakorn; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the core-magnesium ferrite (MgFe_2O_4) nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal technique. Completed gold (Au) shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe_2O_4 nanoparticles was obtained by varying core/shell ratios via a reduction method. Phase identification, morphological evolution, optical properties, magnetic properties and cytotoxicity to mammalian cells of these MgFe_2O_4 core coated with Au nanoparticles were examined by using a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), vibrating sample magnetometry and resazurin microplate assay techniques. In general, TEM images revealed different sizes of the core-shell nanoparticles generated from various core/shell ratios and confirmed the completed Au shell coating on MgFe_2O_4 core nanoparticles via suitable core/shell ratio with particle size less than 100 nm. The core-shell nanoparticle size and the quality of coating influence the optical properties of the products. The UV–vis spectra of complete coated MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the absorption bands in the near-Infrared (NIR) region indicating high potential for therapeutic applications. Based on the magnetic property measurement, it was found that the obtained MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles still exhibit superparamagnetism with lower saturation magnetization value, compared with MgFe_2O_4 core. Both of MgFe_2O_4 and MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell also showed in vitro non-cytotoxicity to mouse areola fibroblast (L-929) cell line. - Highlights: • Synthesis of MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles with particle size < 100 nm • Complete Au shell coating on the surfaces of MgFe_2O_4 nanoparticles • In vitro cytotoxicity study of complete coated MgFe_2O_4-Au core-shell nanoparticles

  12. Current directions in core-shell nanoparticle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schärtl, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Ten years ago I wrote a review about the important field of core-shell nanoparticles, focussing mainly on our own work about tracer systems, and briefly addressing polymer-coated nanoparticles as fillers for homogeneous polymer-colloid composites. Since then, the potential use of core-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional sensors or potential smart drug-delivery vehicles in biology and medicine has gained more and more importance, affording special types of multi-functionalized and bio-compatible nanoparticles. In this new review article, I try to address the most important developments during the last ten years. This overview is mainly based on frequently cited and more specialized recent review articles from leaders in their respective field. We will consider a variety of nanoscopic core-shell architectures from highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), protected magnetic NPs, multifunctional NPs, thermoresponsive NPs and biocompatible systems to, finally, smart drug-delivery systems.Ten years ago I wrote a review about the important field of core-shell nanoparticles, focussing mainly on our own work about tracer systems, and briefly addressing polymer-coated nanoparticles as fillers for homogeneous polymer-colloid composites. Since then, the potential use of core-shell nanoparticles as multifunctional sensors or potential smart drug-delivery vehicles in biology and medicine has gained more and more importance, affording special types of multi-functionalized and bio-compatible nanoparticles. In this new review article, I try to address the most important developments during the last ten years. This overview is mainly based on frequently cited and more specialized recent review articles from leaders in their respective field. We will consider a variety of nanoscopic core-shell architectures from highly fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), protected magnetic NPs, multifunctional NPs, thermoresponsive NPs and biocompatible systems to, finally, smart drug-delivery systems

  13. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  14. Laser Heating of the Core-Shell Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Dumitru, Ioan; Stancu, Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    The induced thermal stress in a heating process is an important parameter to be known and controlled in the magnetization process of core-shell nanowires. This paper analyses the stress produced by a laser heating source placed at one end of a core-shell type structure. The thermal field was computed with the non-Fourier heat transport equation using a finite element method (FEM) implemented in Comsol Multiphysics. The internal stresses are essentially due to thermal gradients and different expansion characteristics of core and shell materials. The stress values were computed using the thermo elastic formalism and are depending on the laser beam parameters (spot size, power etc.) and system characteristics (dimensions, thermal characteristics). Stresses in the GPa range were estimated and consequently we find that the magnetic state of the system can be influenced significantly. A shell material as the glass which is a good thermal insulator induces in the magnetic core, the smaller stresses and consequently the smaller magnetoelastic energy. These results lead to a better understanding of the switching process in the magnetic materials.

  15. Synthesis of Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes containing varying shaped cores and their localized surface plasmon resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jianxiao; Zhou, Fei; Li, Zhiyuan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2012-06-19

    We have synthesized Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes containing Au cores with varying shapes and sizes through modified seed-mediated methods. Bromide ions are found to be crucial in the epitaxial growth of Ag atoms onto Au cores and in the formation of the shell's cubic shape. The Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes exhibit very abundant and distinct localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, which are core-shape and size-dependent. With the help of theoretical calculation, the physical origin and the resonance mode profile of each LSPR peak are identified and studied. The core-shell nanocrystals with varying shaped cores offer a new rich category for LSPR control through the plasmonic coupling effect between core and shell materials.

  16. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules

  17. Switching characteristics for ferroelectric random access memory based on RC model in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ChangLi [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Complex and Intelligent System Research Center, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, XueJun [Complex and Intelligent System Research Center, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, XiuLi [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Fundamental Studies, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Du, XiaoLi [School of Fundamental Studies, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xu, HaiSheng, E-mail: hsxu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kunshan Hisense Electronics Co., Ltd., Kunshan, Jiangsu 215300 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The switching characteristic of the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethlene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) films have been studied at different ranges of applied electric field. It is suggest that the increase of the switching speed upon nucleation protocol and the deceleration of switching could be related to the presence of a non-ferroelectric layer. Remarkably, a capacitor and resistor (RC) links model plays significant roles in the polarization switching dynamics of the thin films. For P(VDF-TrFE) ultrathin films with electroactive interlayer, it is found that the switching dynamic characteristics are strongly affected by the contributions of resistor and non-ferroelectric (non-FE) interface factors. A corresponding experiment is designed using poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic) (PEDOT-PSSH) as interlayer with different proton concentrations, and the testing results show that the robust switching is determined by the proton concentration in interlayer and lower leakage current in circuit to reliable applications of such polymer films. These findings provide a new feasible method to enhance the polarization switching for the ferroelectric random access memory.

  18. Switching characteristics for ferroelectric random access memory based on RC model in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ChangLi; Wang, XueJun; Zhang, XiuLi; Du, XiaoLi; Xu, HaiSheng

    2016-01-01

    The switching characteristic of the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethlene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) films have been studied at different ranges of applied electric field. It is suggest that the increase of the switching speed upon nucleation protocol and the deceleration of switching could be related to the presence of a non-ferroelectric layer. Remarkably, a capacitor and resistor (RC) links model plays significant roles in the polarization switching dynamics of the thin films. For P(VDF-TrFE) ultrathin films with electroactive interlayer, it is found that the switching dynamic characteristics are strongly affected by the contributions of resistor and non-ferroelectric (non-FE) interface factors. A corresponding experiment is designed using poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic) (PEDOT-PSSH) as interlayer with different proton concentrations, and the testing results show that the robust switching is determined by the proton concentration in interlayer and lower leakage current in circuit to reliable applications of such polymer films. These findings provide a new feasible method to enhance the polarization switching for the ferroelectric random access memory.

  19. Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570, and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, contact angle meter (CA, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570. Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures.

  20. Controlling interface characteristics by adjusting core-shell structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.; Cheng, S.Y.; Sheu, C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Most grain boundary layer ceramics comprise semiconductive/conductive grains and insulated grain boundaries. Such a structure can be theoretically regarded as a shell (grain boundary layer) surrounds a core (conductive or semiconductive grain). The core-shell structure of titanium (Ti)-strontium titanate (ST) is composed of three zones - ST, non-stoichiometric strontium-titanium oxide and Ti, in order from shell to core. It was successfully prepared using a hydrothermal method. The Ti-ST core-shell structure was sintered in a reducing atmosphere and then annealed in air to achieve the metal-insulator-metal structure (MIM structure). The resulting MIM structure, annealed in air, changes with the oxygen stoichiometry of the ST shell (insulator layer) at various temperatures, which is thus used to tune its electrical characteristics. The characteristics exhibit nonlinear behavior. Accordingly, the thickness of the insulator layer can be adjusted in various annealing atmospheres and at various temperatures to develop various interfacial devices, such as varistors, capacitors and thermistors, without the use of complex donor/acceptor doping technology

  1. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nojan Aliahmad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDH-HFP porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphoneimide (LiTFSI and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP, with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10−3 S cm−1. Combining ceramic (LATP with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO electrodes and (i standard metallic current collectors and (ii paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i 123 mAh g−1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii 99.5 mAh g−1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  2. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl sulfone)- and poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, H.S.; Giaccai, J.; Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A novel group of polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl sulfone) (PVS) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) polymers, plasticized with highly conductive solutions of LiClO{sub 4}, LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} or LiAsF{sub 6} dissolved in ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, sulfolane, or mixtures thereof, was prepared via in situ photopolymerization and solution casting, respectively. The polymer electrolytes were characterized from conductivity and cyclic voltammetry data. It was found that solutions of Li salts in the vinyl sulfone monomer were highly conductive at room temperature with conductivities of 0.6 to 1.3 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} at 30{sup o}C, but the conductivities decreased by about 10{sup 3} times on polymerizing. Conversely, the conductivities increased by about 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} times on incorporating plasticizing solvents into the solid polymer electrolytes, suggesting that ionic mobility is the primary factor affecting the conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes. The highest conductivity exhibited by PVS-based electrolyte was 3.74 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} and that by PVdF-based electrolyte was 1.74 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1}, at 30{sup o}C. The PVS-based electrolytes were found to be stable to oxidation up to potentials ranging between 4.5 and 4.8 V, while the stable potential limits for PVdF-based electrolytes were between 3.9 and 4.3 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. (author)

  3. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g-1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g-1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  4. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute (INDI), Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Agarwal, Mangilal, E-mail: agarwal@iupui.edu [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Integrated Nanosystems Development Institute (INDI), Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN, 46202 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1}. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g{sup −1} for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g{sup −1} for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  5. Core-shell polymer nanorods by a two-step template wetting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, S; Liang, J

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional core-shell polymer nanowires offer many advantages and great potential for many different applications. In this paper we introduce a highly versatile two-step template wetting process to fabricate two-component core-shell polymer nanowires with controllable shell thickness. PLLA and PMMA were chosen as model polymers to demonstrate the feasibility of this process. Solution wetting with different concentrations of polymer solutions was used to fabricate the shell layer and melt wetting was used to fill the shell with the core polymer. The shell thickness was analyzed as a function of the polymer solution concentration and viscosity, and the core-shell morphology was observed with TEM. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating polymer core-shell nanostructures using our two-step template wetting process and opens the arena for optimization and future experiments with polymers that are desirable for specific applications.

  6. Influence of Miscibility Phenomenon on Crystalline Polymorph Transition in Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride)/Acrylic Rubber/Clay Nanocomposite Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules. PMID:24551141

  7. Influence of miscibility phenomenon on crystalline polymorph transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride/acrylic rubber/clay nanocomposite hybrid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani

    Full Text Available In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF and acrylic rubber(ACM was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Novel Polyvinylidene Fluoride/2-Aminobenzothiazole Modified Ultrafiltration Membrane for the Removal of Cr(VI in Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium is one of the main heavy metal pollutants. As the environmental legislation becomes increasingly strict, seeking new technology to treat wastewater containing hexavalent chromium is becoming more and more important. In this research, a novel modified ultrafiltration membrane that could be applied to adsorb and purify water containing hexavalent chromium, was prepared by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF blending with 2-aminobenzothiazole via phase inversion. The membrane performance was characterized by evaluation of the instrument of membrane performance, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and water contact angle measurements. The results showed that the pure water flux of the PVDF/2-aminobenzothiazole modified ultrafiltration membrane was 231.27 L/m2·h, the contact angle was 76.1°, and the adsorption capacity of chromium ion was 157.75 µg/cm2. The PVDF/2-aminobenzothiazole modified ultrafiltration membrane presented better adsorption abilities for chromium ion than that of the traditional PVDF membrane.

  9. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial Au/C core-shell composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Yanhong [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China); Zhang Nianchun [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China); Zhong Yuwen [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China); Cai Huaihong [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China); Liu Yingliang, E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, 601 Huangpudadaoxi Road, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong (China)

    2010-09-01

    An environment-friendly oxidation-reduction method was used to prepare Au/C core-shell composite using carbon as core and gold as shell. The chemical structures and morphologies of Au/C core-shell composite and carbon sphere were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, energy dispersion X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antibacterial properties of the Au/C core-shell composite against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were examined by the disk diffusion assay and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) methods. In addition, antibacterial ability of Au/C core-shell composite was observed by atomic force microscope. Results demonstrated that gold homogeneously supported on the surface of carbon spheres without aggregation and showed efficient antibacterial abilities.

  10. Low Energy Gamma Radiation Induced Effects on Ultrasonic Velocity and Acoustic Parameters in Polyvinylidene Fluoride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF polymer properties with irradiation is of interest as it possesses unique piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric properties. In this paper, we report the results of acoustic parameters of irradiated PVDF mixed with dimethylacetamide (DMAC solution with low energy γ-source (Cs-137. The polymer solution covered with mica film assures only γ-ray passage and the duration was increased from 18 to 50 hours to achieve the higher dose rate. The dose rate was estimated using the strength of the radioactive source and the duration of the exposure. The ultrasonic velocity (v, density (ρ, and viscosity (η of 0.2 wt% and 0.5 wt% PVDF dissolved in pure DMAC solution, irradiated with different dose rate were measured using ultrasonic interferometer (Mittal make, Pyknometer, and Oswald’s viscometer, respectively. It is observed that the values of v, ρ, and η change with dose rate. The acoustic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility (β, intermolecular free path length (Lf, acoustic impedance (Z, relative association (RA, ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2, and relaxation time (τ are calculated using the experimental data. These results are interpreted in terms of the solute-solvent interaction in a polymer solution and scissoring chain damage.

  11. Optical absorption of carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaolong; Quan, Xiaojun; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cheng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In order to enhance the solar thermal energy conversion efficiency, we propose to use carbon-gold core-shell nanoparticles dispersed in liquid water. This work demonstrates theoretically that an absorbing carbon (C) core enclosed in a plasmonic gold (Au) nanoshell can enhance the absorption peak while broadening the absorption band; giving rise to a much higher solar absorption than most previously studied core-shell combinations. The exact Mie solution is used to evaluate the absorption efficiency factor of spherical nanoparticles in the wavelength region from 300 nm to 1100 nm as well as the electric field and power dissipation profiles inside the nanoparticles at specified wavelengths (mostly at the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength). The field enhancement by the localized plasmons at the gold surfaces boosts the absorption of the carbon particle, resulting in a redshift of the absorption peak with increased peak height and bandwidth. In addition to spherical nanoparticles, we use the finite-difference time-domain method to calculate the absorption of cubic core-shell nanoparticles. Even stronger enhancement can be achieved with cubic C-Au core-shell structures due to the localized plasmonic resonances at the sharp edges of the Au shell. The solar absorption efficiency factor can exceed 1.5 in the spherical case and reach 2.3 in the cubic case with a shell thickness of 10 nm. Such broadband absorption enhancement is in great demand for solar thermal applications including steam generation.

  12. Novel electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride-graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite membranes with protein and bacterial antifouling characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and fabricated novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF-(0.5–2%Ag and PVDF-(0.5–2%Ag-1% graphene oxide (GO nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties through electrospinning. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were in situ synthesized from silver nitrate precursor directly. The tensile properties, wetting, antifouling characteristics of pristine PVDF and its nanocomposite membranes were studied. Tensile tests showed that the addition of 0.5–2% AgNPs to PVDF improves its elastic modulus and tensile strength markedly. A further increase in both tensile modulus and strength of PVDF were obtained by hybridizing AgNPs with 1% GO. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the incorporation of AgNPs or AgNPs/GO nanofillers into PVDF decreases its degree of hydrophobicity. This led to the nanocomposite membranes having higher water flux permeation. In addition, AgNPs and AgNPs/GO fillers played a crucial role against protein and bacterial fouling of the resulting composite membranes. The antibacterial activities of electrospun nanocomposite membranes were assessed against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of water contact angle, water permeation flux and antifouling results, electrospun PVDF-2% Ag-GO composite membrane was found to exhibit excellent filtration performance, protein antifouling and bactericidal activities. Thus such a fibrous nanocomposite is considered as a high-potential membrane for water purification and disinfection applications.

  13. Core-shell particle composition by liquid phase infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.B.; Machado, Ricardo A.F.; Goncalves, Odinei H.; Bona, Evandro

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric particles with core-shell morphology can offer advantages over conventional particles improving properties like mechanical and chemical resistance. However, particle composition must be known due to its influence on the final properties. In this work liquid phase infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the overall composition of core-shell particles composed by polystyrene (core) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (shell). Results were in agreement with those obtained with H 1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data (Goncalves et al, 2008). (author)

  14. Synthesis of optimized indium phosphide/zinc sulfide core/shell nanocrystals and titanium dioxide nanotubes for quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyong

    Synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals and TiO 2 nanotubes and the optimization study to couple them together were explored for quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Its intrinsic nontoxicity makes the direct band gap InP/ZnS core/shell be one of the most promising semiconductor nanocrystals for optoelectric applications, with the advantage of tuning the optical absorption range in the desired solar spectrum region. Highly luminescent and monodisperse InP/ZnS nanocrystals were synthesized in a non-coordinating solvent. By varying the synthesis scheme, different size InP/ZnS nanocrystals with emission peaks ranging from 520 nm to 620 nm were grown. For the purpose of ensuring air stability, a ZnS shell was grown. The ZnS shell improves the chemical stability in terms of oxidation prevention. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows that the nanocrystals are highly crystalline and monodisperse. Free-standing TiO2 nanotubes were produced by an anodization method using ammonium fluoride. The free-standing nanotubes were formed under the condition that the chemical dissolution speed associated with fluoride concentration was faster than the speed of Ti oxidation. Highly ordered free-standing anatase form TiO2 nanotubes, which are transformed by annealing at the optimized temperature, are expected to be ideal for coupling with the prepared InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Electrophoretic deposition was carried out to couple the InP/ZnS nanocrystals with the TiO2 nanotubes. Under the adjusted applied voltage condition, the current during the electrophoretic deposition decreased continuously with time. The amount of the deposited nanocrystals was estimated by calculation and the evenly deposited nanocrystals on the TiO2 nanotubes were observed by TEM.

  15. Clay nanoparticles effects on performance and morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Morihama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a comparison between neat poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane and composite (PVDF-Nanoclay and PVDF-PVP-Nanoclay membranes is presented. All membranes were synthesized by the phase inversion process, using 18% PVDF, n-methylpyrrolidone as solvent and water as the non-solvent. Demineralized water cross-flow permeation tests were conducted to evaluate the membranes performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images of the membranes surface and cross-section and water contact angle measurements were used to estimate additives effects on membranes morphology. The results indicate that dopant addition affected membrane permeate flux and morphology. The 4% nanoclay composite membrane resulted in the highest ultrapure water permeability (0.9130 m³.m-2.h-1.MPa-1, lower hydraulic resistance (3.27´10+12.m-1, lower contact angle (87.1º and highest surface porosity (0.95%. Furthermore, it was verified that the membrane surface porosity increased with increasing clay nanoparticles concentrations. It was observed that the morphology of the membranes with clay nanoparticle addition is characterized by a thin surface layer, with macro-pores, a thin bottom layer, which has a sponge-like structure with micro-pores and a thick intermediate layer, with finger-like pores and macro-pores. It was also verified that the introduction of PVP promotes a denser morphology compared with membranes without it. Based on the SEM surface and cross-sectional images and permeability tests, it became evident that the internal pore morphology plays an important role in membrane performance, because the higher the frequency and extent of the finger-like pores in the intermediate layer the higher is the membrane permeability. These preliminary results indicated that the use of nanoclay as an additive for membrane casting is a promising procedure for improving membrane performance for water and wastewater treatment.

  16. The relaxational behaviour of poly-(vinylidene fluoride) before and after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callens, A.

    The main purpose of this work was to investigate how molecular chain reorganization may affect the physical property of polymers. This may be done by the analysis of the as received and post-irradiation relaxation spectra of the semi-crystalline linear chain polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), which has been gamma-irradiated up to doses of 1 grad. The effects of the irradiation on the material are primarly main chain cross-linking production of unsaturated bonds and crystallite degradation. To reach a complete interpretation of the relaxation spectra, it is necessary to incorporate a third phase into the analysis besides the amorphous viscoelastic region (AVR) and the crystalline viscoelastic region (CVR), the intermediate phase. The amorphous phase (AVR) is at the origin of the relaxation effects occurring in the temperature region below room temperature. The saturation like behaviour of the cross-linking in the amorphous phase is at the origin of the intensity decrease, temperature shift and peak broadening of the beta relaxation. There is a large amount of evidence that in the neighbourhood of the beta relaxation, relaxation effects are created through irradiation, as mainly revealed by TSD-spectra (thermalloy stimulated depolarisation). The intensity of the gamma relaxation, gradually increases with dose, which has been attributed to the production of disordered chain from the debris of radiation enhanced crystallite destruction. The relaxation effect, occuring at the temperatures between AVR and CVR, is assigned to the long amorphous chain segments attached partly to the crystallites, mainly from the consideration of the similarity of the dose enhanced decrease in intensity of both beta and βsub(μ)-effects. The increase with dose of the intensity of the α1 relaxation, which has been classified within CVR, confirms the grainboundary hypothesis. The second component of CVR (α2 relaxation) is due to relaxation effects of molecular chains belonging to the

  17. Coherently Strained Si-SixGe1-x Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, David C; Wen, Feng; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-01-13

    Coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures are expected to possess a positive shell-to-core conduction band offset, allowing for quantum confinement of electrons in the Si core. We report the growth of epitaxial, coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell heterostructures through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the Si core, followed in situ by the epitaxial SixGe1-x shell growth using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra of individual nanowires reveal peaks associated with the Si-Si optical phonon mode in the Si core and the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge vibrational modes of the SixGe1-x shell. The core Si-Si mode displays a clear red-shift compared to unstrained, bare Si nanowires thanks to the lattice mismatch-induced tensile strain, in agreement with calculated values using a finite-element continuum elasticity model combined with lattice dynamic theory. N-type field-effect transistors using Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires as channel are demonstrated.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica core-shell particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nikolić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell particles were formed by deposition of primary silica particles synthesized from sodium silicate solution on functionalized silica core particles (having size of ~0.5 µm prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylortosilicate. The obtained mesoporous shell has thickness of about 60 nm and consists of primary silica particles with average size of ~21 nm. Scanning electron microscopy and zeta potential measurements showed that continuous silica shell exists around functionalized core particles which was additionally proved by FTIR and TEM results.

  19. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  20. Core–shell interaction and its impact on the optical absorption of pure and doped core-shell CdSe/ZnSe nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinqin; Cui, Yingqi; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Mingli, E-mail: myang@scu.edu.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Shengping [College of Chemistry and Environment Protection Engineering, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-04-07

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of core-shell nanoclusters, (CdSe){sub x}@(CdSe){sub y} and their Zn-substituted complexes of x = 2–4 and y = 16–28, were studied with density functional theory calculations. The substitution was applied in the cores, the shells, and/or the whole clusters. All these clusters are characterized by their core-shell structures in which the core-shell interaction was found different from those in core or in shell, as reflected by their bondlengths, volumes, and binding energies. Moreover, the core and shell combine together to compose a new cluster with electronic and optical properties different from those of separated individuals, as reflected by their HOMO-LUMO gaps and optical absorptions. With the substitution of Cd by Zn, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of clusters change regularly. The binding energy increases with Zn content, attributed to the strong Zn–Se bonding. For the same core/shell, the structure with a CdSe shell/core has a narrower gap than that with a ZnSe shell/core. The optical absorption spectra also change accordingly with Zn substitution. The peaks blueshift with increasing Zn concentration, accompanying with shape variations in case large number of Cd atoms are substituted. Our calculations reveal the core-shell interaction and its influence on the electronic and optical properties of the core-shell clusters, suggesting a composition–structure–property relationship for the design of core-shell CdSe and ZnSe nanoclusters.

  1. Synthesis of CuO-NiO core-shell nanoparticles by homogeneous precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuO-NiO core-shell nanoparticles have been synthesized using a simple homogeneous precipitation method for the first time. ► Mechanism of the formation of core-shell nanoparticles has been investigated. ► The synthesis route may be extended for the synthesis of other mixed metal oxide core-shell nanoparticles. - Abstract: Core-shell CuO–NiO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles in which CuO is the core and NiO is the shell have been successfully synthesized using homogeneous precipitation method. This is a simple synthetic method which produces first a layered double hydroxide precursor with core-shell morphology which on calcination at 350 °C yields the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with the retention of core-shell morphology. The CuO–NiO mixed metal oxide precursor and the core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The chemical reactivity of the core-shell nanoparticles was tested using catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH 4 . The possible growth mechanism of the particles with core-shell morphology has also been investigated.

  2. Modified ferrite core-shell nanoparticles magneto-structural characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekotka, Urszula; Piotrowska, Beata; Satuła, Dariusz; Kalska-Szostko, Beata

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ferrite nanoparticles with core-shell structures and different chemical compositions of both the core and shell were prepared with success. Proposed nanoparticles have in the first and second series magnetite core, and the shell is composed of a mixture of ferrites with Fe3+, Fe2+ and M ions (where M = Co2+, Mn2+ or Ni2+) with a general composition of M0.5Fe2.5O4. In the third series, the composition is inverted, the core is composed of a mixture of ferrites and as a shell magnetite is placed. Morphology and structural characterization of nanoparticles were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Infrared spectroscopy (IR). While room temperature magnetic properties were measured using Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). It is seen from Mössbauer measurements that Co always increases hyperfine magnetic field on Fe atoms at RT, while Ni and Mn have opposite influences in comparison to pure Fe ferrite, regardless of the nanoparticles structure.

  3. The effects of processing conditions on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes prepared via vapor-induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuelian; Fan, Hongwei; Ge, Ju; Wang, Shaobin; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Qi

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reveals how the surface morphology and the hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes, which were prepared via a vapor-induced phase separation method, were affected by the initial PVDF content in the casting solution and the air temperature. The surface morphology was characterized with scanning electron microscopy. A ternary phase diagram of PVDF/N, N-dimethylacetamide/water was constructed to explain the formation mechanism of the different morphologies. The results show that different membrane morphologies and hydrophobicities can be obtained by changing the processing conditions. Low air temperature and high PVDF contents facilitate the crystallization process, resulting in the formation of a porous skin and particle morphology, which increases the hydrophobicity of the surface. High air temperature and low PVDF contents are favorable for the formation of a net-like surface morphology via spinodal decomposition and lead to a superhydrophobic surface. Theoretical calculations were performed to testify that the net-like surface was more favorable for superhydrophobicity than the particle-based surface.

  4. Synthesis, surface modification/decoration of luminescent–magnetic core/shell nanomaterials, based on the lanthanide doped fluorides (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/NH{sub 2}/PAA/LnF{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl

    2016-02-15

    The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles (10–15 nm) were successfully coated with amine modified silica nanoshell, which led to the formation of core/shell type nanostructures (30–50 nm). The as-prepared nanoparticles were surface modified with polyacrylic acid (PAA) via electrostatic interactions of –NH{sub 2} and –COOH groups. Afterwards, the surface PAA molecules acted as complexing agents of the introduced lanthanide (Ln{sup 3+}) ions. Subsequently, the as-prepared nanostructures were surface decorated with luminescent LnF{sub 3} nanoparticles, forming Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/NH{sub 2}/PAA/LnF{sub 3} nanomaterials (50–100 nm). The obtained luminescent–magnetic products exhibited simultaneously bright red or green emission under UV lamp irradiation (λ{sub ex}=254 nm), and a response for the applied magnetic field (strong magnet attracts the colloidal particles, dispersed in aqueous medium). After the synthesis, properties of the nanomaterials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and spectrofluorometry (analysis of excitation/emission spectra and luminescence decay curves). Such advanced nanomaterials can be potentially used in multimodal imaging, targeted therapies and as multifunctional contrast agents, novel luminescent–magnetic tracers, protection of documents, etc. - Highlights: • Luminescent–magnetic nanomaterials Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/NH{sub 2}/PAA/LnF{sub 3} were synthesized. • Core/shell nanostructures were obtained by surface modification of nanoparticles. • Luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions. • Multifunctional core/shell nanostructures exhibited red or green emission. • Nanomaterials formed stable aqueous colloids.

  5. Flexible poly(ethylene carbonate)/garnet composite solid electrolyte reinforced by poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zijian; Chen, Long; Zhang, Bochen; Liu, Yongchang; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivities, great flexibility, and easy processability are needed for high-performance solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. In this work, we synthesize nanosized cubic Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) by solution combustion method and develop a flexible garnet-based composite solid electrolyte composed of LLZO, poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI)). In the flexible composite solid electrolytes, LLZO nanoparticles, as ceramic matrix, have a positive effect on ionic conductivities and lithium ion transference number (tLi+). PEC, as a fast ion-conducting polymer, possesses high tLi+ inherently. P(VdF-HFP), as a binder, can strengthen mechanical properties. Consequently, the as-prepared composite solid electrolyte demonstrates high tLi+ (0.82) and superb thermal stability (remaining LLZO matrix after burning). All-solid-state LiFePO4|Li cells assembled with the flexible composite solid electrolyte deliver a high initial discharge specific capacity of 121.4 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability at 55 °C.

  6. DNA nanoparticles with core-shell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Preethi L; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Speransky, Vlad; Horkay, Ferenc

    2014-10-14

    Mannobiose-modified polyethylenimines (PEI) are used in gene therapy to generate nanoparticles of DNA that can be targeted to the antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We report that the sugar modification alters the DNA organization within the nanoparticles from homogenous to shell-like packing. The depth-dependent packing of DNA within the nanoparticles was probed using AFM nano-indentation. Unmodified PEI-DNA nanoparticles display linear elastic properties and depth-independent mechanics, characteristic of homogenous materials. Mannobiose-modified nanoparticles, however, showed distinct force regimes that were dependent on indentation depth, with 'buckling'-like response that is reproducible and not due to particle failure. By comparison with theoretical studies of spherical shell mechanics, the structure of mannobiosylated particles was deduced to be a thin shell with wall thickness in the order of few nanometers, and a fluid-filled core. The shell-core structure is also consistent with observations of nanoparticle denting in altered solution conditions, with measurements of nanoparticle water content from AFM images, and with images of DNA distribution in Transmission Electron Microscopy.

  7. Ge/Si core/multi shell heterostructure FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Concentric heterostructured materials provide numerous design opportunities for engineering strain and interfaces, as well as tailoring energy band-edge combinations for optimal device performance. Key to the realization of such novel device concepts is the complete understanding and full control over their growth, crystal structure, and hetero-epitaxy. We report here on a new route for synthesizing Ge/Si core/multi-shell heterostructure nanowires that eliminate Au seed diffusion on the nanowire sidewalls by engineering the interface energy density difference. We show that such control over core/shell synthesis enable experimental realization of heterostructure FET devices beyond those available in the literature with enhanced transport characteristics. We provide a side-by-side comparison on the transport properties of Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires grown with and without Au diffusion and demonstrate heterostructure FETs with drive currents that are {approx} 2X higher than record results for p-type FETs.

  8. Enhanced linear photonic nanojet generated by core-shell optical microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Yen, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chien-Wen

    2017-05-01

    The generation of linear photonic nanojet using core-shell optical microfiber is demonstrated numerically and experimentally in the visible light region. The power flow patterns for the core-shell optical microfiber are calculated by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The focusing properties of linear photonic nanojet are evaluated in terms of length and width along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the silica optical fiber is etched chemically down to 6 μm diameter and coated with metallic thin film by using glancing angle deposition. We show that the linear photonic nanojet is enhanced clearly by metallic shell due to surface plasmon polaritons. The large-area superresolution imaging can be performed by using a core-shell optical microfiber in the far-field system. The potential applications of this core-shell optical microfiber include micro-fluidics and nano-structure measurements.

  9. Core-shell designed scaffolds for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won

    2015-07-01

    Scaffolds that secure and deliver therapeutic ingredients like signaling molecules and stem cells hold great promise for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Employing a core-shell design for scaffolds provides a promising solution. Some unique methods, such as co-concentric nozzle extrusion, microfluidics generation, and chemical confinement reactions, have been successful in producing core-shelled nano/microfibers and nano/microspheres. Signaling molecules and drugs, spatially allocated to the core and/or shell part, can be delivered in a controllable and sequential manner for optimal therapeutic effects. Stem cells can be loaded within the core part on-demand, safely protected from the environments, which ultimately affords ex vivo culture and in vivo tissue engineering. The encapsulated cells experience three-dimensional tissue-mimic microenvironments in which therapeutic molecules are secreted to the surrounding tissues through the semi-permeable shell. Tuning the material properties of the core and shell, changing the geometrical parameters, and shaping them into proper forms significantly influence the release behaviors of biomolecules and the fate of the cells. This topical issue highlights the immense usefulness of core-shell designs for the therapeutic actions of scaffolds in the delivery of signaling molecules and stem cells for tissue regeneration and disease treatment. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  11. Fabrication of Magnetite/Silica/Titania Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized via a sol-gel method with the aid of sonication. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were being encapsulated within discrete silica nanospheres, and a layer of TiO2 shell was then coated directly onto each silica nanosphere. As-synthesized Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles showed enhanced photocatalytic properties as evidenced by the enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

  12. Hypersonic vibrations of Ag@SiO2 (cubic core)-shell nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing Ya; Wang, Zhi Kui; Lim, Hock Siah; Ng, Ser Choon; Kuok, Meng Hau; Tran, Toan Trong; Lu, Xianmao

    2010-12-28

    The intriguing optical and catalytic properties of metal-silica core-shell nanoparticles, inherited from their plasmonic metallic cores together with the rich surface chemistry and increased stability offered by their silica shells, have enabled a wide variety of applications. In this work, we investigate the confined vibrational modes of a series of monodisperse Ag@SiO(2) (cubic core)-shell nanospheres synthesized using a modified Stöber sol-gel method. The particle-size dependence of their mode frequencies has been mapped by Brillouin light scattering, a powerful tool for probing hypersonic vibrations. Unlike the larger particles, the observed spheroidal-like mode frequencies of the smaller ones do not scale with inverse diameter. Interestingly, the onset of the deviation from this linearity occurs at a smaller particle size for higher-energy modes than for lower-energy ones. Finite element simulations show that the mode displacement profiles of the Ag@SiO(2) core-shells closely resemble those of a homogeneous SiO(2) sphere. Simulations have also been performed to ascertain the effects that the core shape and the relative hardness of the core and shell materials have on the vibrations of the core-shell as a whole. As the vibrational modes of a particle have a bearing on its thermal and mechanical properties, the findings would be of value in designing core-shell nanostructures with customized thermal and mechanical characteristics.

  13. Multiple Fano resonances in single-layer nonconcentric core-shell nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zayats, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    where the multiple dark modes appear due to the geometrical symmetry breaking induced by axial offset of the core. Both dielectric-core-metal-shell (DCMS) and metal-core-dielectric-shell (MCDS) configurations have been studied. Compared to the MCDS structure, the DCMS configuration provides higher...

  14. Effects of polarization of polar semiconductor on electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ZnO heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2015-01-01

    The electrical properties of heterostructures composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and ZnO with different crystallographic polarities, i.e., O- and Zn-polar ZnO, were investigated. Distinct differences in the capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics between the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO were obtained in the depletion regions of ZnO. The band configurations were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using a synchrotron radiation beam to analyze the differences in the electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO. The XPS spectra indicated that the valence band maximum of P(VDF-TrFE) is 2.9 and 2.7 eV higher than Zn- and O-polar ZnO, respectively. Thus, both structures have staggered band configurations with large valence band offsets, and the spontaneous polarization of ZnO is less effective on the band lineup. The electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO heterostructures are modulated through carrier generation because of the polarization-mediated interface charges and the staggered band alignments of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO with a large valence band offset

  15. A small graphene oxide sheet/polyvinylidene fluoride bilayer actuator with large and rapid responses to multiple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochuang; Zhang, Miao; Zhou, Qinqin; Chen, Hongwu; Gao, Tiantian; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2017-11-16

    A high-performance actuator should be able to deliver large-shape deformations, fast actuations and sensitive responses to multiple stimuli. Here, we report such an actuator constructed from one layer of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and another layer of small sheets of graphene oxide (SGO) with a negative CTE. The opposite deformations of both actuation layers make the SGO/PVDF bilayer actuator highly sensitive to the temperature stimulus with a large bending sensitivity of 1.5 cm -1 °C -1 . Upon irradiation with 60 mW cm -2 infrared light, this SGO/PVDF bilayer actuator displayed an extremely rapid tip displacement rate of 140 mm s -1 . Furthermore, this actuator can also sensitively respond to moisture because of its SGO layer, showing a curvature change from -22 to 13 cm -1 upon changing the relative humidity (RH) from 11% to 86%. This actuator can generate a contractile or relaxed stress 18 times that of mammalian skeletal muscle, under light irradiation or moisture with a response time as short as 1 s, being capable of lifting an object with a weight 80 times that of itself. Furthermore, it also showed excellent stability and repeatability.

  16. Core-shell silk hydrogels with spatially tuned conformations as drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Le-Ping; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Oliveira, Ana L; Reis, Rui L

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogels of spatially controlled physicochemical properties are appealing platforms for tissue engineering and drug delivery. In this study, core-shell silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels of spatially controlled conformation were developed. The core-shell structure in the hydrogels was formed by means of soaking the preformed (enzymatically crosslinked) random coil SF hydrogels in methanol. When increasing the methanol treatment time from 1 to 10 min, the thickness of the shell layer can be tuned from about 200 to about 850 μm as measured in wet status. After lyophilization of the rehydrated core-shell hydrogels, the shell layer displayed compact morphology and the core layer presented porous structure, when observed by scanning electron microscopy. The conformation of the hydrogels was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in wet status. The results revealed that the shell layer possessed dominant β-sheet conformation and the core layer maintained mainly random coil conformation. Enzymatic degradation data showed that the shell layers presented superior stability to the core layer. The mechanical analysis displayed that the compressive modulus of the core-shell hydrogels ranged from about 25 kPa to about 1.1 MPa by increasing the immersion time in methanol. When incorporated with albumin, the core-shell SF hydrogels demonstrated slower and more controllable release profiles compared with the non-treated hydrogel. These core-shell SF hydrogels of highly tuned properties are useful systems as drug-delivery system and may be applied as cartilage substitute. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We successfully coated the poly(MPC-co-BMA) copolymer on the ultrafiltration membrane. • The hydrophilicity and antifouling were improved by coating poly(MPC-co-BMA). • The flow-through method showed better anti-fouling properties compared with immersion method. • P(MPC-co-BMA) was quite stable on the coated membranes. - Abstract: To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  18. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto, E-mail: matuyama@kobe-u.ac.jp

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We successfully coated the poly(MPC-co-BMA) copolymer on the ultrafiltration membrane. • The hydrophilicity and antifouling were improved by coating poly(MPC-co-BMA). • The flow-through method showed better anti-fouling properties compared with immersion method. • P(MPC-co-BMA) was quite stable on the coated membranes. - Abstract: To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  19. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui

    2013-11-21

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites.

  20. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) modification induced by gamma irradiation for application as ionic polymer-metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Henrique Perez

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-radiation-induced grafting of styrene into poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films with 0.125 mm thickness at doses from 1 to 100 kGy in the presence of a styrene/N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF) solution (1:1, v/v) and styrene/toluene (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h-1 was carried out by simultaneous method under nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature, using gamma rays from a Co-60. After grafting reactions, the polymer was then sulfonated in chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane (2 and 10%) for 3 hours. The films were characterized before and after modification by calculating the degree of grafting (DOG), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). DOG results show that grafting increases with dose, and varies enormously depending on the solvent used, with DOGs about 20 times greater in DMF than in toluene. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the appearance of the new characteristic peaks and by the TG and DSC which exhibited changes in the thermal behavior of the grafted/sulfonated material. Sulfonated material was also characterized by ion exchange capacity (IEC) showed that both DOG and sulfonic acid concentration increase IEC values. Results showed that it is possible to obtain materials with ion exchange capacity of possible application as ionic polymer-metal composites. (author)

  1. Cross-Selectivity Enhancement of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene-Based Sensor Arrays for Detecting Acetone and Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Daneshkhah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for cross-selectivity enhancement of porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVDF-HFP/carbon black (CB composite-based resistive sensors are provided. The sensors are tested with acetone and ethanol in the presence of humid air. Cross-selectivity is enhanced using two different methods to modify the basic response of the PVDF-HFP/CB sensing platform. In method I, the adsorption properties of PVDF-HFP/CB are altered by adding a polyethylene oxide (PEO layer or by treating with infrared (IR. In method II, the effects of the interaction of acetone and ethanol are enhanced by adding diethylene carbonate (DEC or PEO dispersed in DEC (PEO/DEC to the film. The results suggest the approaches used in method I alter the composite ability to adsorb acetone and ethanol, while in method II, they alter the transduction characteristics of the composite. Using these approaches, sensor relative response to acetone was increased by 89% compared with the PVDF-HFP/CB untreated film, whereas sensor relative response to ethanol could be decreased by 57% or increased by 197%. Not only do these results demonstrate facile methods for increasing sensitivity of PVDF-HFP/CB film, used in parallel they demonstrate a roadmap for enhancing system cross-selectivity that can be applied to separate units on an array. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures and results are presented and discussed.

  2. Unzipped multiwalled carbon nanotubes-incorporated poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites with enhanced interface and piezoelectric β phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linghao; Xia, Guangmei; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Qiaoling; Song, Rui; Ma, Zhi

    2013-03-01

    An improved method is described for the fabrication of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid materials to solve intrinsic limitation of CNTs. In this study, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were unzipped by an oxidative unzipping process before dispersing in PVDF matrix, and unzipped MWCNTs (μCNTs) with different unzipping degrees were obtained through controlling the amounts of oxidant (KMnO(4)). Due to the increased available interface area and specific interaction between the oxygen-containing groups (such as >C=O) in μCNTs and the >CF(2) group of PVDF, the dispersion of μCNTs in PVDF matrix is tremendously improved. The resulting PVDF/μCNTs nanocomposites were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that μCNTs nucleate PVDF crystallization and enhance piezoelectric β phase with a concomitant decrease of α phase. This is particularly true for the nanocomposites including the μCNTs with higher unzipping degree, in which the mass crystallinity and content of β phase (F(β)) were enhanced, implied by the increased piezoelectric constant d(33). In addition, the increased storage modulus (E') tested by dynamic mechanical analysis confirmed that μCNTs were more effective than pristine MWNTs in terms of reinforcing polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Torres-Castro, Alejandro; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-01

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  4. Core-Shell Composite Fibers for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Shen, Chen; Zhang, Zeyang; Barrios, Elizabeth; Zhai, Lei

    2018-01-31

    Core-shell nanofibers containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and manganese oxide nanoparticles as the core and polypyrrole (PPy) as the shell were fabricated through electrospinning the solution of PAA and manganese ions (PAA/Mn 2+ ). The obtained nanofibers were stabilized by Fe 3+ through the interaction between Fe 3+ ions and carboxylate groups. Subsequent oxidation of Mn 2+ by KMnO 4 produced uniform manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) nanoparticles in the fibers. A PPy shell was created on the fibers by immersing the fibers in a pyrrole solution where the Fe 3+ ions in the fiber polymerized the pyrrole on the fiber surfaces. In the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers, MnO 2 nanoparticles function as high-capacity materials, while the PPy shell prevents the loss of MnO 2 during the charge/discharge process. Such a unique structure makes the composite fibers efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. The gravimetric specific capacity of the MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers was 564 F/g based on cyclic voltammetry curves at 10 mV/s and 580 F/g based on galvanostatic charge/discharge studies at 5 A/g. The MnO 2 @PAA/PPy core-shell composite fibers also present stable cycling performance with 100% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  5. Hierarchical Mesoporous NiO/MnO2@PANI Core-Shell Microspheres, Highly Efficient and Stable Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Evolution and Reduction Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junkai; Wang, Mingchao; Wang, Wenbo; Miao, Ran; Zhong, Wei; Chen, Sheng-Yu; Poges, Shannon; Jafari, Tahereh; Song, Wenqiao; Liu, Jiachen; Suib, Steven L

    2017-12-13

    We report on the new facile synthesis of mesoporous NiO/MnO 2 in one step by modifying inverse micelle templated UCT (University of Connecticut) methods. The catalyst shows excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media after further coating with polyaniline (PANI). For electrochemical performance, the optimized catalyst exhibits a potential gap, ΔE, of 0.75 V to achieve a current of 10 mA cm -2 for the OER and -3 mA cm -2 for the ORR in 0.1 M KOH solution. Extensive characterization methods were applied to investigate the structure-property of the catalyst for correlations with activity (e.g., XRD, BET, SEM, HRTEM, FIB-TEM, XPS, TGA, and Raman). The high electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst closely relates to the good electrical conductivity of PANI, accessible mesoporous structure, high surface area, as well as the synergistic effect of the specific core-shell structure. This work opens a new avenue for the rational design of core-shell structure catalysts for energy conversion and storage applications.

  6. Large-area super-resolution optical imaging by using core-shell microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang; Lo, Wei-Chieh

    2017-09-01

    We first numerically and experimentally report large-area super-resolution optical imaging achieved by using core-shell microfibers. The particular spatial electromagnetic waves for different core-shell microfibers are studied by using finite-difference time-domain and ray tracing calculations. The focusing properties of photonic nanojets are evaluated in terms of intensity profile and full width at half-maximum along propagation and transversal directions. In experiment, the general optical fiber is chemically etched down to 6 μm diameter and coated with different metallic thin films by using glancing angle deposition. The direct imaging of photonic nanojets for different core-shell microfibers is performed with a scanning optical microscope system. We show that the intensity distribution of a photonic nanojet is highly related to the metallic shell due to the surface plasmon polaritons. Furthermore, large-area super-resolution optical imaging is performed by using different core-shell microfibers placed over the nano-scale grating with 150 nm line width. The core-shell microfiber-assisted imaging is achieved with super-resolution and hundreds of times the field-of-view in contrast to microspheres. The possible applications of these core-shell optical microfibers include real-time large-area micro-fluidics and nano-structure inspections.

  7. Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with finely tuned and well-controlled sizes, shell thicknesses, and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanyun; Li, Weiyang; Cho, Eun Chul; Li, Zhiyuan; Yu, Taekyung; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Xia, Younan

    2010-11-23

    This paper describes a facile method for generating Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes with edge lengths controllable in the range of 13.4-50 nm. The synthesis involved the use of single-crystal, spherical Au nanocrystals of 11 nm in size as the seeds in an aqueous system, with ascorbic acid serving as the reductant and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as the capping agent. The thickness of the Ag shells could be finely tuned from 1.2 to 20 nm by varying the ratio of AgNO(3) precursor to Au seeds. We also investigated the growth mechanism by examining the effects of seeds (capped by CTAC or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB)) and capping agent (CTAC vs CTAB) on both size and shape of the resultant core-shell nanocrystals. Our results clearly indicate that CTAC worked much better than CTAB as a capping agent in both the syntheses of Au seeds and Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes. We further studied the localized surface plasmon resonance properties of the Au@Ag nanocubes as a function of the Ag shell thickness. By comparing with the extinction spectra obtained from theoretical calculations, we derived a critical value of ca. 3 nm for the shell thickness at which the plasmon excitation of the Au cores would be completely screened by the Ag shells. Moreover, these Au@Ag core-shell nanocubes could be converted into Au-based hollow nanostructures containing the original Au seeds in the interiors through a galvanic replacement reaction.

  8. Tailored Core Shell Cathode Powders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Scott [NexTech Materials, Ltd.,Lewis Center, OH (United States)

    2015-03-23

    In this Phase I SBIR project, a “core-shell” composite cathode approach was evaluated for improving SOFC performance and reducing degradation of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode materials, following previous successful demonstrations of infiltration approaches for achieving the same goals. The intent was to establish core-shell cathode powders that enabled high performance to be obtained with “drop-in” process capability for SOFC manufacturing (i.e., rather than adding an infiltration step to the SOFC manufacturing process). Milling, precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were evaluated for making core-shell composite cathode powders comprised of coarse LSCF “core” particles and nanoscale “shell” particles of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) or praseodymium strontium manganite (PSM). Precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were successful for obtaining the targeted core-shell morphology, although perfect coverage of the LSCF core particles by the LSM and PSM particles was not obtained. Electrochemical characterization of core-shell cathode powders and conventional (baseline) cathode powders was performed via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) half-cell measurements and single-cell SOFC testing. Reliable EIS testing methods were established, which enabled comparative area-specific resistance measurements to be obtained. A single-cell SOFC testing approach also was established that enabled cathode resistance to be separated from overall cell resistance, and for cathode degradation to be separated from overall cell degradation. The results of these EIS and SOFC tests conclusively determined that the core-shell cathode powders resulted in significant lowering of performance, compared to the baseline cathodes. Based on the results of this project, it was concluded that the core-shell cathode approach did not warrant further investigation.

  9. Magnetic core-shell silica particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with magnetic silica core-shell colloids and related functionalized silica structures. Synthesis routes have been developed and optimized. The physical properties of these colloids have been investigated, such as the magnetic dipole moment, dipolar structure formation and

  10. New method to evaluate optical properties of core-shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria-Tapia, V. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Ameca, Departamento de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Centro Universitario de Los Valles (Mexico); Franco, A., E-mail: alfredofranco@fisica.unam.mx; Garcia-Macedo, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Estado Solido, Instituto de Fisica (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    A new method is presented to calculate, for metallic core-dielectric shell nanostructures, the local refractive index, resonance condition, maximum spectral shift, plasma wavelength, and the sensitivity of the wavelength maximum to variations in the refractive index of the environment. The equations that describe these properties are directly related to the surface plasmon peak position, refractive index of the shell, and to the surrounding medium. The method is based on the approach that a layered core dispersed in a dielectric environment (core-shell model) can be figured out as an uncoated sphere dispersed in a medium with a local refractive index (local refractive index model). Thus, in the Mie theory, the same spectral position of the surface plasmon resonance peak can be obtained by varying the volume fraction of the shell or by varying the local refractive index. The assumed equivalence between plasmon resonance wavelengths enable us to show that the local refractive index depends geometrically on the shell volume fraction. Hence, simple relationships between optical and geometrical properties of these core-shell nanostructures are obtained. Furthermore, good agreement is observed between the new relationships and experimental data corresponding to gold nanoparticles (radius = 7.5 nm) covered with silica shells (with thicknesses up to 29.19 nm), which insured that the equivalence hypothesis is correct.

  11. Core and shell sizing of small silver-coated nanospheres by optical extinction spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinca, D C; Scaffardi, L B

    2008-01-01

    Silver metal nanoparticles (Nps) are extensively used in different areas of research and technology due to their interesting optical, thermal and electric properties, especially for bare core and core-shell nanostructures with sizes smaller than 10 nm. Since these properties are core-shell size-dependent, size measurement is important in manipulating their potential functionalization and applications. Bare and coated small silver Nps fabricated by physical and chemical methods present specific characteristics in their extinction spectra that are potentially useful for sizing purposes. This work presents a novel procedure to size mean core radius smaller than 10 nm and mean shell thickness of silver core-shell Nps based on a comparative study of the characteristics in their optical extinction spectra in different media as a function of core radii, shell thickness and coating refractive index. From the regularities derived from these relationships, it can be concluded that plasmon full width at half-maximum (FWHM) is sensitive to core size but not to coating thickness, while plasmon resonance wavelength (PRW) is related to shell thickness and mostly independent of core radius. These facts, which allow sizing simultaneously both mean core radius and shell thickness, can also be used to size bare silver Nps as a special case of core-shell Nps with zero shell thickness. The proposed method was applied to size experimental samples and the results show good agreement with conventional TEM microscopy.

  12. Novel method for the preparation of core-shell nanoparticles with movable Ag core and polystyrene loop shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weijun; Zhang Zhicheng; He Weidong; Zheng Cheng; Ge Xuewu; Li, Jian; Liu Huarong; Jiang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Core/shell nanoparticles with movable silver (Ag) core and polystyrene (PSt) shell (Ag at PSt nanoparticle) were successfully synthesized at room temperature and under ambient pressure via two steps: γ-irradiation and interfacial-initiated polymerization. Firstly, mono-dispersed Ag nanoparticles with diameters 20 nm were synthesized in inversed microemulsion by reducing silver nitrate under γ-irradiation. Then, Ag nanoparticles were coated with PSt via interfacial-initiated polymerization with cumene hydroperoxide/ferrous sulfate/disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate/sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate (CHPO-Fe 2+ -EDTA-SFS) as the redox initiation pair. The resulted Ag at PSt nanoparticles were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  13. Simple Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Core/Shell CdSe/SiOx Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhang Dai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell-structured CdSe/SiOx nanowires were synthesized on an equilateral triangle Si (111 substrate through a simple one-step thermal evaporation process. SEM, TEM, and XRD investigations confirmed the core-shell structure; that is, the core zone is single crystalline CdSe and the shell zone is SiOx amorphous layer and CdSe core was grown along (001 direction. Two-stage growth process was present to explain the growth mechanism of the core/shell nanwires. The silicon substrate of designed equilateral triangle providing the silicon source is the key factor to form the core-shell nanowires, which is significant for fabrication of nanowire-core sheathed with a silica system. The PL of the product studied at room temperature showed two emission bands around 715 and 560 nm, which originate from the band-band transition of CdSe cores and the amorphous SiOx shells, respectively.

  14. Coaxial electrospun polyurethane core-shell nanofibers for shape memory and antibacterial nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel kind of shape memory polyurethane (SMPU nanofibers with core-shell nanostructure is fabricated using coaxial electrospinning. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results show that nanofibers with core-shell structure or bead-on-string structure can be electrospun successfully from the core solution of polycaprolactone based SMPU (CLSMPU and shell solution of pyridine containing polyurethane (PySMPU. In addition to the excellent shape memory effect with good shape fixity, excellent antibacterial activity against both gramnegative bacteria and gram-positive bacteria are achieved in the CLSMPU-PySMPU core-shell nanofiber. Finally, it is proposed that the antibacterial mechanism should be resulted from the PySMPU shell materials containing amido group in γ position and the high surface area per unit mass of nanofibers. Thus, the CLSMPU-PySMPU core shell nanofibers can be used as both shape memory nanomaterials and antibacterial nanomaterials.

  15. Synthesis of Aqueous CdTe/CdS/ZnS Core/shell/shell Quantum Dots by a Chemical Aerosol Flow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work described a continuous method to synthesize CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots. In an integrated system by flawlessly combining the chemical aerosol flow system working at high temperature (200–300°C to generate CdTe/CdS intermediate products and an additional heat-up setup at relatively low temperature to overcoat the ZnS shells, the CdTe/CdS/ZnS multishell structures were realized. The as-synthesized CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell quantum dots are characterized by photoluminescence spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. Fluorescence and XRD results confirm that the obtained quantum dots have a core/shell/shell structure. It shows the highest quantum yield above 45% when compared to the rhodamine 6G. The core/shell/shell QDs were more stable via the oxidation experiment by H2O2.

  16. One-step triple-phase interfacial synthesis of polyaniline-coated polypyrrole composite and its application as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wen; He, Ping; Zhang, Susu; Dong, Faqin; Ma, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    We first present an alternative one-step route for constructing a novel polyaniline (PANI)-coated polypyrrole (PPy) composite in an ingenious triple-phase interface system, where PPy and PANI are prepared in individual non-interference interfaces and, in the middle aqueous phase, smaller PANI particles are uniformly coated on the surface of PPy particles, forming a core-shell structure. The prepared PPy/PANI composite electrode shows a superior capacitance behavior that is more suitable for supercapacitor application.

  17. Magnetoconductive maghemite core/polyaniline shell nanoparticles: physico-chemical and biological assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zasońska, Beata Anna; Bober, Patrycja; Jošt, P.; Petrovský, Eduard; Boštík, P.; Horák, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 141, 1 May (2016), s. 382-389 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14318; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : maghemite * nanoparticles * core–shell Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  18. Hierarchical Mesoporous Organosilica-Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles Capable of Controlled Fungicide Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Leilei; Liang, Yucang; Erichsen, Egil Severin; Anwander, Reiner

    2018-05-17

    A new class of hierarchically structured mesoporous silica core-shell nanoparticles (HSMSCSNs) with a periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) core and a mesoporous silica (MS) shell is reported. The applied one-pot, two-step strategy allows rational control over the core/shell chemical composition, topology, and pore/particle size, simply by adjusting the reaction conditions in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as structure-directing agent under basic conditions. The spherical, ethylene- or methylene-bridged PMO cores feature hexagonal (p6mm) or cage-like cubic symmetry (Pm3‾ n) depending on the organosilica precursor. The hexagonal MS shell was obtained by n-hexane-induced controlled hydrolysis of TEOS followed by directional co-assembly/condensation of silicate/CTAB composites at the PMO cores. The HSMSCSNs feature a hierarchical pore structure with pore diameters of about 2.7 and 5.6 nm in the core and shell domains, respectively. The core sizes and shell thicknesses are adjustable in the ranges of 90-275 and 15-50 nm, respectively, and the surface areas (max. 1300 m 2  g -1 ) and pore volumes (max. 1.83 cm 3  g -1 ) are among the highest reported for core-shell nanoparticles. The adsorption and controlled release of the fungicide propiconazole by the HSMSCSNs showed a three-stage release profile. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Preparation of novel poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 photocatalysis membranes for use in direct contact membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yukun; Dong, Shuying; Zhu, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Immobilization of TiO2 is a potential approach to obtain photocatalytic membranes that could eliminate concentration polarization in sewage disposal for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. A simple non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method was proposed to prepare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane, and the double-coating technology was further used to prepare the self-cleaning membranes with different TiO2 content. The effects of TiO2 nano-particles on membrane crystal form, morphology, porosity, pore size, pore size distribution, hydrophobicity, permeation, and photocatalytic efficiency were investigated, respectively. The flux of the prepared membranes is higher than the membrane (MS) provided by Membrane Solutions, LLC, in DCMD process. The contact angle between water and membrane could be increased 22° by introducing photocatalytic layer containing TiO2. During the photocatalytic test, 65.78-96.31% degrading rate of 15 mg/L Rhodamine B (RhB) was achieved. The relative flux of the membrane T-3 can be recovered to 0.96 in photocatalysis-membrane reactor for 8 h UV radiation. The fabricated membrane has great potential in high-salty dyeing wastewater treatment due to its high hydrophobicity and photocatalytic capability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Core excitations across the neutron shell gap in 207Tl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wilson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The single closed-neutron-shell, one proton–hole nucleus 207Tl was populated in deep-inelastic collisions of a 208Pb beam with a 208Pb target. The yrast and near-yrast level scheme has been established up to high excitation energy, comprising an octupole phonon state and a large number of core excited states. Based on shell-model calculations, all observed single core excitations were established to arise from the breaking of the N=126 neutron core. While the shell-model calculations correctly predict the ordering of these states, their energies are compressed at high spins. It is concluded that this compression is an intrinsic feature of shell-model calculations using two-body matrix elements developed for the description of two-body states, and that multiple core excitations need to be considered in order to accurately calculate the energy spacings of the predominantly three-quasiparticle states.

  1. Electrosprayed core-shell polymer-lipid nanoparticles for active component delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltayeb, Megdi; Stride, Eleanor; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2013-11-01

    A key challenge in the production of multicomponent nanoparticles for healthcare applications is obtaining reproducible monodisperse nanoparticles with the minimum number of preparation steps. This paper focus on the use of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) techniques to produce core-shell polymer-lipid structures with a narrow size distribution in a single step process. These nanoparticles are composed of a hydrophilic core for active component encapsulation and a lipid shell. It was found that core-shell nanoparticles with a tunable size range between 30 and 90 nm and a narrow size distribution could be reproducibly manufactured. The results indicate that the lipid component (stearic acid) stabilizes the nanoparticles against collapse and aggregation and improves entrapment of active components, in this case vanillin, ethylmaltol and maltol. The overall structure of the nanoparticles produced was examined by multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, to confirm that they were of core-shell form.

  2. Highly Hydrophilic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Ultrafiltration Membranes via Postfabrication Grafting of Surface-Tailored Silica Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2013-07-24

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) has drawn much attention as a predominant ultrafiltration (UF) membrane material due to its outstanding mechanical and physicochemical properties. However, current applications suffer from the low fouling resistance of the PVDF membrane due to the intrinsic hydrophobic property of the membrane. The present study demonstrates a novel approach for the fabrication of a highly hydrophilic PVDF UF membrane via postfabrication tethering of superhydrophilic silica nanoparticles (NPs) to the membrane surface. The pristine PVDF membrane was grafted with poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) by plasma induced graft copolymerization, providing sufficient carboxyl groups as anchor sites for the binding of silica NPs, which were surface-tailored with amine-terminated cationic ligands. The NP binding was achieved through a remarkably simple and effective dip-coating technique in the presence or absence of the N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking process. The properties of the membrane prepared from the modification without EDC/NHS cross-linking were comparable to those for the membrane prepared with the EDC/NHS cross-linking. Both modifications almost doubled the surface energy of the functionalized membranes, which significantly improved the wettability of the membrane and converted the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. The irreversibly bound layer of superhydrophilic silica NPs endowed the membranes with strong antifouling performance as demonstrated by three sequential fouling filtration runs using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model organic foulant. The results suggest promising applications of the postfabrication surface modification technique in various membrane separation areas. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Addressing Challenges and Scalability in the Synthesis of Thin Uniform Metal Shells on Large Metal Nanoparticle Cores: Case Study of Ag-Pt Core-Shell Nanocubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Umar; Linic, Suljo

    2017-12-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles in which a metal is coated with an ultrathin (∼1 nm) layer of a second metal are often desired for their unique chemical and physical properties. Current synthesis methods for producing such core-shell nanostructures often require incremental addition of a shell metal precursor which is rapidly reduced onto metal cores. A major shortcoming of this approach is that it necessitates precise concentrations of chemical reagents, making it difficult to perform at large scales. To address this issue, we considered an approach whereby the reduction of the shell metal precursor was controlled through in situ chemical modification of the precursor. We used this approach to develop a highly scalable synthesis for coating atomic layers of Pt onto Ag nanocubes. We show that Ag-Pt core-shell nanostructures are synthesized in high yields and that these structures effectively combine the optical properties of the plasmonic Ag nanocube core with the surface properties of the thin Pt shell. Additionally, we demonstrate the scalability of the synthesis by performing a 10 times scale-up.

  4. Core - shell upconversion nanoparticle - semiconductor heterostructures for photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Qing Qing; Rengaramchandran, Adith; Selvan, Subramanian Tamil; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles (CSNPs) with diverse chemical compositions have been attracting greater attention in recent years. However, it has been a challenge to develop CSNPs with different crystal structures due to the lattice mismatch of the nanocrystals. Here we report a rational design of core-shell heterostructure consisting of NaYF4:Yb,Tm upconversion nanoparticle (UCN) as the core and ZnO semiconductor as the shell for potential application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The core-shell architecture (confirmed by TEM and STEM) enables for improving the loading efficiency of photosensitizer (ZnO) as the semiconductor is directly coated on the UCN core. Importantly, UCN acts as a transducer to sensitize ZnO and trigger the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce cancer cell death. We also present a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene based molecular biosensor (ARE-FLuc) to measure the antioxidant signaling response activated in cells during the release of ROS in response to the exposure of CSNPs under 980 nm NIR light. The breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and 4T1) exposed to CSNPs showed significant release of ROS as measured by aminophenyl fluorescein (APF) and ARE-FLuc luciferase assays, and ~45% cancer cell death as measured by MTT assay, when illuminated with 980 nm NIR light.

  5. Polyvinylidene Fluoride Micropore Membranes as Solid-Phase Extraction Disk for Preconcentration of Nanoparticulate Silver in Environmental Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Lai, Yu-Jian; Liu, Rui; Li, Sha-Sha; Xu, Jing-Wen; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2017-12-05

    Efficient separation and preconcentration of trace nanoparticulate silver (NAg) from large-volume environmental waters is a prerequisite for reliable analysis and therefore understanding the environmental processes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Herein, we report the novel use of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) filter membrane for disk-based solid phase extraction (SPE) of NAg in 1 L of water samples with the disk-based SPE system, which consists of a syringe pump and a syringe filter holder to embed the filter membrane. While the PVDF membrane can selectively adsorb NAg in the presence of Ag + , aqueous solution of 2% (m/v) FL-70 is found to efficiently elute NAg. Analysis of NAg is performed following optimization of filter membrane and elution conditions with an enrichment factor of 1000. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and size-exclusion chromatography coupled with ICP-MS (SEC-ICP-MS) analysis showed that the extraction gives rise to no change in NAg size or shape, making this method attractive for practical applications. Furthermore, feasibility of the protocol is verified by applying it to extract NAg in four real waters with recoveries of 62.2-80.2% at 0.056-0.58 μg/L spiked levels. This work will facilitate robust studies of trace NAg transformation and their hazard assessments in the environment.

  6. Majorana states in prismatic core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolescu, Andrei; Sitek, Anna; Osca, Javier; Serra, Llorenç; Gudmundsson, Vidar; Stanescu, Tudor Dan

    2017-09-01

    We consider core-shell nanowires with conductive shell and insulating core and with polygonal cross section. We investigate the implications of this geometry on Majorana states expected in the presence of proximity-induced superconductivity and an external magnetic field. A typical prismatic nanowire has a hexagonal profile, but square and triangular shapes can also be obtained. The low-energy states are localized at the corners of the cross section, i.e., along the prism edges, and are separated by a gap from higher energy states localized on the sides. The corner localization depends on the details of the shell geometry, i.e., thickness, diameter, and sharpness of the corners. We study systematically the low-energy spectrum of prismatic shells using numerical methods and derive the topological phase diagram as a function of magnetic field and chemical potential for triangular, square, and hexagonal geometries. A strong corner localization enhances the stability of Majorana modes to various perturbations, including the orbital effect of the magnetic field, whereas a weaker localization favorizes orbital effects and reduces the critical magnetic field. The prismatic geometry allows the Majorana zero-energy modes to be accompanied by low-energy states, which we call pseudo Majorana, and which converge to real Majoranas in the limit of small shell thickness. We include the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a phenomenological manner, assuming a radial electric field across the shell.

  7. Alternating current dielectrophoresis of core-shell nanoparticles: Experiments and comparison with theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chungja

    Nanoparticles are fascinating where physical and optical properties are related to size. Highly controllable synthesis methods and nanoparticle assembly are essential for highly innovative technological applications. Well-defined shaped and sized nanoparticles enable comparisons between experiments, theory and subsequent new models to explain experimentally observed phenomena. Among nanoparticles, nonhomogeneous core-shell nanoparticles (CSnp) have new properties that arise when varying the relative dimensions of the core and the shell. This CSnp structure enables various optical resonances, and engineered energy barriers, in addition to the high charge to surface ratio. Assembly of homogeneous nanoparticles into functional structures has become ubiquitous in biosensors (i.e. optical labeling), nanocoatings, and electrical circuits. Limited nonhomogenous nanoparticle assembly has only been explored. Many conventional nanoparticle assembly methods exist, but this work explores dielectrophoresis (DEP) as a new method. DEP is particle polarization via non-uniform electric fields while suspended in conductive fluids. Most prior DEP efforts involve microscale particles. Prior work on core-shell nanoparticle assemblies and separately, nanoparticle characterizations with dielectrophoresis and electrorotation, did not systematically explore particle size, dielectric properties (permittivity and electrical conductivity), shell thickness, particle concentration, medium conductivity, and frequency. This work is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to systematically examine these dielectrophoretic properties for core-shell nanoparticles. Further, we conduct a parametric fitting to traditional core-shell models. These biocompatible core-shell nanoparticles were studied to fill a knowledge gap in the DEP field. Experimental results (chapter 5) first examine medium conductivity, size and shell material dependencies of dielectrophoretic behaviors of spherical CSnp into 2D and

  8. Cashew nut shell liquid, a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiane Valenti Gonçalves

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL is an abundant and renewable by-product of the cashew nut industry. It appears to be a valuable raw material for generating semiconductive polyaniline (PAni nanomaterial with enhanced thermal stability and well-defined nanofiber morphology following a polymerization dispersion process. This study confirms that CNSL acts as a soft template during PAni synthesis, leading to an improvement in the nanofiber aspect. CNSL also improves the thermal stability of the PAni nanomaterial. Moreover, CNSL is an effective surfactant that promotes and stabilizes the dispersion of PAni nanofibers within water, allowing the more ecofriendly preparation of PAni nanomaterial by substituting the commonly used organic solvent with aqueous media. Finally, although CNSL promotes the formation of the conductive emeraldine salt form of PAni, increasing CNSL concentrations appear to plasticize the PAni polymer, leading to reduced electrical conductivity. However, this reduction is not detrimental, and PAni nanofibers remain semiconductive even under high CNSL concentrations.

  9. Electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Holovatsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron energy spectrum in core-shell elliptic quantum wire and elliptic semiconductor nanotubes are investigated within the effective mass approximation. The solution of Schrodinger equation based on the Mathieu functions is obtained in elliptic coordinates. The dependencies of the electron size quantization spectrum on the size and shape of the core-shell nanowire and nanotube are calculated. It is shown that the ellipticity of a quantum wire leads to break of degeneration of quasiparticle energy spectrum. The dependences of the energy of odd and even electron states on the ratio between semiaxes are of a nonmonotonous character. The anticrosing effects are observed at the dependencies of electron energy spectrum on the transversal size of the core-shell nanowire.

  10. Fabrication of Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles by modified gas aggregation source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Vaidulych, M.; Kylián, O.; Choukourov, A.; Kousal, J.; Khalakhan, I.; Cieslar, M.; Solař, P.; Biederman, H.

    2017-11-01

    Ni@Ti core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by a vacuum based method using the gas aggregation source (GAS) of nanoparticles. Ni nanoparticles fabricated in the GAS were afterwards coated by a Ti shell. The Ti shell was deposited by means of magnetron sputtering. The Ni nanoparticles were decelerated in the vicinity of the magnetron to the Ar drift velocity in the second deposition chamber. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis of the nanoparticles showed the core-shell structure. It was shown that the thickness of the shell can be easily tuned by the process parameters with a maximum achieved thickness of the Ti shell ~2.5 nm. The core-shell structure was confirmed by the STEM analysis of the particles.

  11. Engineered magnetic core shell nanoprobes: Synthesis and applications to cancer imaging and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Samir; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2016-02-26

    Magnetic core shell nanoparticles are composed of a highly magnetic core material surrounded by a thin shell of desired drug, polymer or metal oxide. These magnetic core shell nanoparticles have a wide range of applications in biomedical research, more specifically in tissue imaging, drug delivery and therapeutics. The present review discusses the up-to-date knowledge on the various procedures for synthesis of magnetic core shell nanoparticles along with their applications in cancer imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia or cancer therapeutics. Literature in this area shows that magnetic core shell nanoparticle-based imaging, drug targeting and therapy through hyperthermia can potentially be a powerful tool for the advanced diagnosis and treatment of various cancers.

  12. Design and intestinal mucus penetration mechanism of core-shell nanocomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cheng, Hongbo; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Meixia; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Xiuhua; Guan, Jian; Wu, Haiyang; Mao, Shirui

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study was to design intestinal mucus-penetrating core-shell nanocomplex by functionally mimicking the surface of virus, which can be used as the carrier for peroral delivery of macromolecules, and further understand the influence of nanocomplex surface properties on the mucosal permeation capacity. Taking insulin as a model drug, the core was formed by the self-assembly among positively charged chitosan, insulin and negatively charged sodium tripolyphosphate, different types of alginates were used as the shell forming material. The nanocomplex was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FTIR. Nanocomplex movement in mucus was recorded using multiple particle tracking (MPT) method. Permeation and uptake of different nanocomplex were studied in rat intestine. It was demonstrated that alginate coating layer was successfully formed on the core and the core-shell nanocomplex showed a good physical stability and improved enzymatic degradation protection. The mucus penetration and MPT study showed that the mucus penetration capacity of the nanocomplex was surface charge and coating polymer structure dependent, nanocomplex with negative alginate coating had 1.6-2.5 times higher mucus penetration ability than that of positively charged chitosan-insulin nanocomplex. Moreover, the mucus penetration ability of the core-shell nanocomplex was alginate structure dependent, whereas alginate with lower G content and lower molecular weight showed the best permeation enhancing ability. The improvement of intestine permeation and intestinal villi uptake of the core-shell nanocomplex were further confirmed in rat intestine and multiple uptake mechanisms were involved in the transport process. In conclusion, core-shell nanocomplex composed of oppositely charged materials could provide a strategy to overcome the mucus barrier and enhance the mucosal permeability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Core-Shell Structured Electro- and Magneto-Responsive Materials: Fabrication and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Jin Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell structured electrorheological (ER and magnetorheological (MR particles have attracted increasing interest owing to their outstanding field-responsive properties, including morphology, chemical and dispersion stability, and rheological characteristics of shear stress and yield stress. This study covers recent progress in the preparation of core-shell structured materials as well as their critical characteristics and advantages. Broad emphasises from the synthetic strategy of various core-shell particles to their feature behaviours in the magnetic and electric fields have been elaborated.

  14. Synthesis of eccentric titania-silica core-shell and composite particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel method to synthesize colloidal particles with an eccentric core-shell structure. Titania-silica core-shell particles were synthesized by silica coating of porous titania particles under Sto¨ber (Sto¨ber et al. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1968, 26, 62) conditions. We can control

  15. Multi-core MgO NPs(at)C core-shell nanospheres for selective CO2 capture under mild conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae Kyung Kim; Kyung Joo Lee; Hoi Ri Moon; Junhan Yuh; Sang Kyu Kwak

    2014-01-01

    The core-shell structures have attracted attention in catalysis, because the outer shells isolate the catalytically active NP cores and prevent the possibility of sintering of core particles during catalytic reaction under physically and chemically harsh conditions. We aimed to adopt this core-shell system for CO 2 sorption materials. In this study, a composite material of multi-core 3 nm-sized magnesium oxide nanoparticles embedded in porous carbon nanospheres (MgO NPs(at)C) was synthesized by a gas phase reaction via a solvent-free process. It showed selective CO 2 adsorption capacity over N 2 under mild regeneration conditions. (authors)

  16. Photoinduced charge transfer within polyaniline-encapsulated quantum dots decorated on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Truc; Li, Dehui; Borah, Parijat; Ma, Xing; Liu, Zhaona; Zhu, Liangliang; Grüner, George; Xiong, Qihua; Zhao, Yanli

    2013-08-28

    A new method to enhance the stability of quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solution by encapsulating them with conducting polymer polyaniline was reported. The polyaniline-encapsulated QDs were then decorated onto graphene through π-π interactions between graphene and conjugated polymer shell of QDs, forming stable polyaniline/QD/graphene hybrid. A testing electronic device was fabricated using the hybrid in order to investigate the photoinduced charge transfer between graphene and encapsulated QDs within the hybrid. The charge transfer mechanism was explored through cyclic voltammetry and spectroscopic studies. The hybrid shows a clear response to the laser irradiation, presenting a great advantage for further applications in optoelectronic devices.

  17. Tunable Band Gap and Conductivity Type of ZnSe/Si Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of zincblende ZnSe/Si core-shell nanowires (NWs with a diameter of 1.1–2.8 nm are calculated by means of the first principle calculation. Band gaps of both ZnSe-core/Si-shell and Si-core/ZnSe-shell NWs are much smaller than those of pure ZnSe or Si NWs. Band alignment analysis reveals that the small band gaps of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs are caused by the interface state. Fixing the ZnSe core size and enlarging the Si shell would turn the NWs from intrinsic to p-type, then to metallic. However, Fixing the Si core and enlarging the ZnSe shell would not change the band gap significantly. The partial charge distribution diagram shows that the conduction band maximum (CBM is confined in Si, while the valence band maximum (VBM is mainly distributed around the interface. Our findings also show that the band gap and conductivity type of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs can be tuned by the concentration and diameter of the core-shell material, respectively.

  18. Study of the effect of varying core diameter, shell thickness and strain velocity on the tensile properties of single crystals of Cu-Ag core-shell nanowire using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jit; Das, D. K.

    2018-01-01

    Core-shell type nanostructures show exceptional properties due to their unique structure having a central solid core of one type and an outer thin shell of another type which draw immense attention among researchers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out on single crystals of copper-silver core-shell nanowires having wire diameter ranging from 9 to 30 nm with varying core diameter, shell thickness, and strain velocity. The tensile properties like yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and Young's modulus are studied and correlated by varying one parameter at a time and keeping the other two parameters constant. The results obtained for a fixed wire size and different strain velocities were extrapolated to calculate the tensile properties like yield strength and Young's modulus at standard strain rate of 1 mm/min. The results show ultra-high tensile properties of copper-silver core-shell nanowires, several times than that of bulk copper and silver. These copper-silver core-shell nanowires can be used as a reinforcing agent in bulk metal matrix for developing ultra-high strength nanocomposites.

  19. Modified solvothermal synthesis and characterization of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby Suganthi, A.R.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2013-01-01

    Core/shell CdS/ZnS nanorods were synthesized using a two-step solvothermal approach. The first step is the formation of CdS nanoparticles initiated using nucleation followed by growth through coalescence-exchange and particle coagulation. The second step leads to the formation of ZnS and further coalescence-exchange leading to deposition and growth of a ZnS shell around CdS nanoparticles. The structural, morphological and chemical studies were performed using X-ray diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) Scanning electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–vis absorption spectra and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), provide direct evidence for shell growth. The present synthesis provides a rational approach to the design of novel core/shell nanomaterials with appealing applications in optoelectronic devices. - Graphical abstract: From the resulting TEM images, the formation of core/shell could be observed. The apparent microscopy contrast between the CdS core and the ZnS shell offers evidence for the formation of CdS/ZnS core/shell nanostructures. It is clearly evident that the surfaces of the nanorods became rough after coating and also the diameter of the nanorod is seen increased up to 40–50 nm. Highlights: ► CdS/ZnS core/shell nanorods were synthesized using two-step solvothermal approach. ► The nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, UV–vis and TEM. ► SEM images revealed the surface roughness after ZnS shell growth. ► TEM microscopy offers evidence for the formation of core/shell nanostructures

  20. Predictable Particle Engineering: Programming the Energy Level, Carrier Generation, and Conductivity of Core-Shell Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Conghui; Wu, Tong; Mao, Jie; Chen, Ting; Li, Yuntong; Li, Min; Xu, Yiting; Zeng, Birong; Luo, Weiang; Yu, Lingke; Zheng, Gaofeng; Dai, Lizong

    2018-06-20

    Core-shell structures are of particular interest in the development of advanced composite materials as they can efficiently bring different components together at nanoscale. The advantage of this structure greatly relies on the crucial design of both core and shell, thus achieving an intercomponent synergistic effect. In this report, we show that decorating semiconductor nanocrystals with a boronate polymer shell can easily achieve programmable core-shell interactions. Taking ZnO and anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals as inner core examples, the effective core-shell interactions can narrow the band gap of semiconductor nanocrystals, change the HOMO and LUMO levels of boronate polymer shell, and significantly improve the carrier density of core-shell particles. The hole mobility of core-shell particles can be improved by almost 9 orders of magnitude in comparison with net boronate polymer, while the conductivity of core-shell particles is at most 30-fold of nanocrystals. The particle engineering strategy is based on two driving forces: catechol-surface binding and B-N dative bonding and having a high ability to control and predict the shell thickness. Also, this approach is applicable to various inorganic nanoparticles with different components, sizes, and shapes.

  1. Strippable core-shell polymer emulsion for decontamination of radioactive surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ho-Sang; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the core-shell composite polymer for decontamination from the surface contamination was synthesized by the method of emulsion polymerization and blends of polymers. The strippable polymer emulsion is composed of the poly(styrene-ethyl acrylate) [poly(St-EA)] composite polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The morphology of the poly(St-EA) composite emulsion particle was core-shell structure, with polystyrene (PS) as the core and poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) as the shell. Core-shell polymers of styrene (St)/ethyl acrylate (EA) pair were prepared by sequential emulsion polymerization in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an emulsifier using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator. Related tests and analysis confirmed the success in synthesis of composite polymer. The products are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA that were used, respectively, to show the structure, the thermal stability of the prepared polymer. Two-phase particles with a core-shell structure were obtained in experiments where the estimated glass transition temperature and the morphologies of emulsion particles. Decontamination factors of the strippable polymeric emulsion were evaluated with the polymer blend contents. (author)

  2. Synthesis of magnetic CoPt/SiO{sub 2} core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, Takafumi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Koga, Kenji [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Takano, Fumiyoshi [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Akinaga, Hiroyuki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Orii, Takaaki [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hirasawa, Makoto [Research Consortium for Synthetic Nano-Function Materials Project (SYNAF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 2, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Murayama, Mitsuhiro [National Institute for Material Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Core-shell nanoparticles composed of ferromagnetic cobalt platinum cores covered by non-magnetic silica shells were synthesized by laser ablating a composite target in a helium background gas. The average diameter of the CoPt core was controlled by adjusting the CoPt/SiO{sub 2} ratio of the ablation target. The particles were also classified in the gas phase using an electrical mobility classifier. The present method successfully synthesized nearly monodispersed nanoparticles with an average core diameter of 2.5nm. This article describes the synthesis of the core-shell nanoparticles and investigates their magnetic properties.

  3. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penninkhof, J.J.; Dillen, T. van; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; Blaaderen, A. van; Vredenberg, A.M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO 2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks

  4. Anisotropic deformation of metallo-dielectric core shell colloids under MeV ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninkhof, J. J.; van Dillen, T.; Roorda, S.; Graf, C.; van Blaaderen, A.; Vredenberg, A. M.; Polman, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the deformation of metallo-dielectric core-shell colloids under 4 MeV Xe, 6 and 16 MeV Au, 30 MeV Si and 30 MeV Cu ion irradiation. Colloids of silica surrounded by a gold shell, with a typical diameter of 400 nm, show anisotropic plastic deformation under MeV ion irradiation, with the metal flowing conform the anisotropically deforming silica core. The 20 nm thick metal shell imposes a mechanical constraint on the deforming silica core, reducing the net deformation strain rate compared to that of pure silica. In colloids consisting of a Au core and a silica shell, the silica expands perpendicular to the ion beam, while the metal core shows a large elongation along the ion beam direction, provided the silica shell is thick enough (>40 nm). A minimum electronic energy loss of 3.3 keV/nm is required for shape transformation of the metal core. Silver cores embedded in a silica shell show no elongation, but rather disintegrate. Also in planar SiO2 films, Au and Ag colloids show entirely different behavior under MeV irradiation. We conclude that the deformation model of core-shell colloids must include ion-induced particle disintegration in combination with thermodynamical effects, possibly in combination with mechanical effects driven by stresses around the ion tracks.

  5. Ultrafast light matter interaction in CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Sharma, Rituraj; Mondal, Anirban; Adarsh, K. V.

    2018-04-01

    Core-shell quantum dot are imperative for carrier (electron and holes) confinement in core/shell, which provides a stage to explore the linear and nonlinear optical phenomena at the nanoscalelimit. Here we present a comprehensive study of ultrafast excitation dynamics and nonlinear optical absorption of CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dot with the help of ultrafast spectroscopy. Pump-probe and time-resolved measurements revealed the drop of trapping at CdSe surface due to the presence of the ZnS shell, which makes more efficient photoluminescence. We have carried out femtosecond transient absorption studies of the CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dot by irradiation with 400 nm laser light, monitoring the transients in the visible region. The optical nonlinearity of the core-shell quantum dot studied by using the Z-scan technique with 120 fs pulses at the wavelengths of 800 nm. The value of two photon absorption coefficients (β) of core-shell QDs extracted as80cm/GW, and it shows excellent benchmark for the optical limiting onset of 2.5GW/cm2 with the low limiting differential transmittance of 0.10, that is an order of magnitude better than graphene based materials.

  6. Development of magnetic luminescent core/shell nanocomplex particles with fluorescence using Rhodamine 6G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Uk; Song, Yoon Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chulhwan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Wook, E-mail: kimsw@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, 5 Ga, Anam-Dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A simple method was developed to synthesize Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite particles. ► The magnetic particle shows that highly luminescent and core/shell particles are formed. ► Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. ► The magnetic particles could detect fluorescence for the application of biosensor. -- Abstract: A simple and reproducible method was developed to synthesize a novel class of Co-B/SiO{sub 2}/dye/SiO{sub 2} composite core/shell particles. Using a single cobalt core, Rhodamine 6G of organic dye molecules was entrapped in a silica shell, resulting in core/shell particles of ∼200 nm diameter. Analyses using a variety of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibration sample magnetometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and fluorescence intensity demonstrated that dye molecules were trapped inside the core/shell particles. A photoluminescence investigation showed that highly luminescent and photostable core/shell particles were formed. Such core/shell particles can be easily suspended in water. The synthesized magnetic particles could be used to detect fluorescence on glass substrate arrays for bioassay and biosensor applications.

  7. Analysis of FT-IR for dosimetric characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride - hexafluoropropylene) irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liz, Otavio Souza Rocha; Medeiros, Adriana de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric materials when exposed to ionizing radiation undergo changes such as the crosslinking and chain oxidation. Recently, the optical absorption intensities in the ultraviolet visible region (273 nm) due to radio- induction of conjugated C=C bonds in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers has been successfully used for high dose dosimetry purposes in gamma fields ranging from 0.1 to 200 kGy. In this context, the interest of performing a systematic investigation on another fluorinated copolymer of PVDF, the (Polyvinylidene fluoride - hexa fluoro propylene) [P(VDF- HFP)] has come to light, not only for UV-VIS range but also for the near and medium infrared ranges. In this investigation FTIR and UV-Vis spectra, acquired before and after irradiation, were used to investigate the relationship between optical absorbance and delivered gamma doses ranging from 100 to 3,000 kGy. The results indicate that the absorption band at 1729 cm-1, originated by the chain oxidation through the radioinduction of C=O bonds, presents an unambiguous behavior with the delivered gamma doses in a very large extension, ranging from 0 to 1,000 kGy. This results lead to conclude that P(VDF-HFP) copolymer shows excellent dosimetric properties which make it able to be investigated as a high dose dosimeter

  8. Application of microwaves for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, investigation results of microwave heating application for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores made of moulding sands with thermosetting resins are presented. It was found that waste shell cores or shell moulds left after casting, separated from moulding sand, can be effectively incinerated. It was evidenced that microwave heating allows effective control of this process and its results. Incineration of waste moulds and cores made of commercial grades of resin-coated moulding sand using microwave heating was found to be an effective way of their utilisation. It was determined that the optimum burning time of these wastes (except those insufficiently disintegrated and not mixed with an activating agent is maximum 240 s at the used magnetron power of 650 W. It was noticed that proper disintegration of the wastes and use of suitable additives to intensify the microwave heating process guarantee significant reduction of the process time and its full stabilisation. Application of microwave heating for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores ensure substantial and measurable economic profits due to shorter process time and lower energy consumption.

  9. Synthesis of bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals and their high electrocatalytic activity modulated by Pd shell thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Wang, Zhi Wei; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Ruan, Lingyan; Yang, Wenbing; Yang, Yang; Palmer, Richard E.; Huang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more resistant to the CO poisoning than Pt NCs and Pt black. It is also demonstrated that the bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell NCs can enhance the current density of the methanol oxidation reaction, lowering the over-potential by 35 mV with respect to the Pt core NCs. Further investigation reveals that the Pd/Pt ratio of 1/3, which corresponds to nearly monolayer Pd deposition on Pt core NCs, gives the highest oxidation current density and lowest over-potential. This study shows for the first time the systematic investigation of effects of Pd atomic shells on Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts, providing valuable guidelines for designing high-performance catalysts for fuel cell applications.Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more

  10. Bioprinting Using Mechanically Robust Core-Shell Cell-Laden Hydrogel Strands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pritesh; Aied, Ahmed; Alexander, Morgan; Shakesheff, Kevin; Bennett, Andrew; Yang, Jing

    2017-06-01

    The strand material in extrusion-based bioprinting determines the microenvironments of the embedded cells and the initial mechanical properties of the constructs. One unmet challenge is the combination of optimal biological and mechanical properties in bioprinted constructs. Here, a novel bioprinting method that utilizes core-shell cell-laden strands with a mechanically robust shell and an extracellular matrix-like core has been developed. Cells encapsulated in the strands demonstrate high cell viability and tissue-like functions during cultivation. This process of bioprinting using core-shell strands with optimal biochemical and biomechanical properties represents a new strategy for fabricating functional human tissues and organs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Atomistic tight-binding computations of the structural and optical properties of CdTe/CdX (X=S and Se)/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkabot, Worasak

    2018-05-01

    A study of CdTe/CdX (X=S and Se)/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals is carried out using atomistic tight-binding theory and the configuration interaction method to provide information for applications in bioimaging, biolabeling, display devices and near-infrared electronic instruments. The calculations yield the dependences of the internal and external passivated shells on the natural behaviours of CdTe/CdX (X=S and Se)/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals. The reduction of the optical band gaps is observed with increasing numbers of monolayers in the external ZnS shell due to quantum confinement. Interestingly, the optical band gaps of CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals are greater than those of CdTe/CdSe/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals. In the presence of an external ZnS-coated shell, electron-hole wave function overlaps, oscillation strengths, ground-state exchange energies and Stokes shift are improved, whereas ground-state coulomb energies and fine-structure splitting are reduced. The oscillation strengths, Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting are reduced with the increase in external ZnS shell thickness. The oscillation strengths, Stokes shift and fine-structure splitting of CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals are larger than those of CdTe/CdSe/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals. Reduction of the atomistic electron-hole interactions is observed with increasing external ZnS shell size. The strong electron-hole interactions are more probed in CdTe/CdS/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals than in CdTe/CdSe/ZnS core/shell/shell nanocrystals.

  12. Grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) films by gamma irradiation; Enxertia de estireno em filmes de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno) induzida por irradiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, H.P.; Souza, C.P. de; Parra, D.F.; Lugao, A.B., E-mail: hp.ferreira@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2010-07-01

    Radiation induced grafting of styrene onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was studied owing to the crescent interest in use of grafted films to produce membranes with ion exchange capability. A Cobalt-60 source was used, with doses of 5 and 10 kGy, at dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1}, at room temperature, inert atmosphere and according to the simultaneous method. Solutions of styrene/toluene (1:1, v/v) and styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) (1:1, v/v) were used. The films were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy (Infrared Spectroscopy), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Measurement (TG) and the degree of grafting (DOG) were calculated gravimetrically. Results shown that in studied conditions, DMF allow greatest DOG than toluene and that increasing the irradiation dose correspond an increase in DOG. Infrared and thermal analyses confirmed the presence in the grafted polymers. (author)

  13. Crystallographic features of poly(vinylidene fluoride) film upon an attractive substrate of KBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Wang, Gang; Guo, Shuo; Wang, Ke; Fu, Qiang

    2017-10-18

    Among all the polymorphs of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the polar γ-form possesses the highest melting point and electrical breakdown strength as well as the strongest solvent and irradiation resistance, which are beneficial for the durability of PVDF products. Since the γ-form is neither kinetically favorable nor the most thermodynamically stable, it is still difficult to attain the exclusive γ-polymorph, particularly in the case of neat PVDF. In this study, the melt isothermal crystallization of PVDF films was carried out between two KBr wafers. Owing to the characteristics of KBr wafer, including no IR absorbance and high optical transmittance, the crystallographic features originating from the KBr substrate can be conveniently elucidated through the in situ inspected techniques of FTIR and PLM. The KBr wafers significantly accelerated the crystallization kinetics of α-crystals, and then readily triggered the solid-state α- to γ-transformation of the pre-formed α-spherulites, resulting in a 10 μm-thick, neat PVDF film with an absolute crystallinity of 35% and a relative γ fraction as high as 94%. When the film thickness was increased to 40 μm, the crystallization rate of the α-form was still rapid, but the solid-state transformation was not appreciable. These interesting crystallographic phenomena are attributed to the existence of ion-dipole interaction between the -CF 2 or -CH 2 of PVDF chains and the surface of KBr wafer. Unlike most traditional substrate-dominated crystallizations that prevail in a surface epitaxy manner, in which the target films are of ultra-thin thickness (of the order of 10 nm), the ion-dipole interaction promotes the effective thickness to a ten micron level, which enables its production and application at scalable level. Moreover, the triggering of α- to γ-transformation via external fields could be an alternative for achieving the γ-dominant PVDF products, particularly when the introduction of external additives is

  14. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO2/polyethylene glycol mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xingran; Zheng, Xiang; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 /polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO 2 /PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO 2 nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO 2 was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane

  15. Largely enhanced dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride binary nanocomposites by loading a few boron nitride nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Minhao; Zhao, Hang; He, Delong; Bai, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    The ternary nanocomposites of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are fabricated via a combination of solution casting and extrusion-injection processes. The effects of BNNSs on the electrical conductivity, dielectric behavior, and microstructure changes of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposites are systematically investigated. A low percolation value (f_c) for the CNTs/PVDF binary system is obtained due to the integration of solution and melting blending procedures. Two kinds of CNTs/PVDF binary systems with various CNTs contents (f_C_N_T_s) as the matrix are discussed. The results reveal that compared with CNTs/PVDF binary systems at the same f_C_N_T_s, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF nanocomposites exhibit largely enhanced dielectric properties due to the improvement of the CNTs dispersion state and the conductive network. The dielectric constant of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposite with 6 vol. % CNTs (f_C_N_T_s   f_c), it displays a 43.32% improvement from 1325 to 1899 after the addition of 3 vol. % BNNSs. The presence of BNNSs facilitates the formation of the denser conductive network. Meanwhile, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF systems exhibit a low dielectric loss. The adjustable dielectric properties could be obtained by employing the ternary systems due to the microstructure changes of nanocomposites.

  16. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with highly effective blood compatibility via atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Chang, Wan-Ju; Shih, Yu-Ju; Wei, Ta-Chin; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Development of nonfouling membranes to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications. It is always a challenge to control the surface graft copolymerization of a highly polar monomer from the highly hydrophobic surface of a fluoropolymer membrane. In this work, the blood compatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with surface-grafted electrically neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), from atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization, was studied. The effect of surface composition and graft morphology, electrical neutrality, hydrophilicity and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Blood compatibility of the zwitterionic PVDF membranes was systematically evaluated by plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, plasma-clotting time, and blood cell hemolysis. It was found that the nonfouling nature and hydration capability of grafted PSBMA polymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the grafting coverage and charge balance of the PSBMA layer on the PVDF membrane surface. Even a slight charge bias in the grafted zwitterionic PSBMA layer can induce electrostatic interactions between proteins and the membrane surfaces, leading to surface protein adsorption, platelet activation, plasma clotting and blood cell hemolysis. Thus, the optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities when comes into contact with human blood. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Development of core-shell coaxially electrospun composite PCL/chitosan scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-11-01

    This study was related to combining of synthetic Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and natural chitosan polymers to develop three dimensional (3D) PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds were fabricated with coaxial electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by thickness and contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, mechanical and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests. The average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated for PCL (0.717±0.001μm), chitosan (0.660±0.007μm) and PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds (0.412±0.003μm), also the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decreases of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan scaffolds respectively, compared to PCL/chitosan core-shell ones. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. The cell culture studies (MTT assay, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and SEM analyses) carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line proved that the biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds. The obtained results showed that the created micro/nano fibrous structure of the PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds in this study increased the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Porous core-shell carbon fibers derived from lignin and cellulose nanofibrils

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu

    2013-10-01

    This letter reports a method to produce lignin and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) based porous core-shell carbon fibers via co-electrospinning followed by controlled carbonization. Lignin formed the shell of the fiber while CNF network formed the porous core. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was added to the lignin solution to increase its electrospinability. CNFs were surface acetylated and dispersed in silicon oil to obtain a homogenous dispersion for electrospinning the porous core. Hollow lignin fibers were also electrospun using glycerin as the core material. FT-IR measurements confirmed the CNF acetylation. SEM micrographs showed the core-shell and hollow fiber nanostructures before and after carbonization. The novel carbon fibers synthesized in this study exhibited increased surface area and porosity that are promising for many advanced applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Porous core-shell carbon fibers derived from lignin and cellulose nanofibrils

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Long; Lubineau, Gilles; Chen, Ye; Wu, Xiangfa; Piere, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This letter reports a method to produce lignin and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) based porous core-shell carbon fibers via co-electrospinning followed by controlled carbonization. Lignin formed the shell of the fiber while CNF network formed the porous core. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was added to the lignin solution to increase its electrospinability. CNFs were surface acetylated and dispersed in silicon oil to obtain a homogenous dispersion for electrospinning the porous core. Hollow lignin fibers were also electrospun using glycerin as the core material. FT-IR measurements confirmed the CNF acetylation. SEM micrographs showed the core-shell and hollow fiber nanostructures before and after carbonization. The novel carbon fibers synthesized in this study exhibited increased surface area and porosity that are promising for many advanced applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2002-01-01

    We present studies of the structural and magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. alpha-Fe nanoparticles were fabricated by sputtering and subsequently covered with a protective nanocrystalline oxide shell consisting of either maghaemite (gamma-Fe2O3) or partially oxidized...... magnetite (Fe3O4). We observed that the nanoparticles were stable against further oxidation, and Mossbauer spectroscopy at high applied magnetic fields and low temperatures revealed a stable form of partly oxidized magnetite. The nanocrystalline structure of the oxide shell results in strong canting...... of the spin structure in the oxide shell, which thereby modifies the magnetic properties of the core-shell nanoparticles....

  1. Shell morphology and Raman spectra of epitaxial Ge-SixGe1-x and Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feng; Dillen, David C.; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the shell morphology and Raman spectra of epitaxial Ge-SixGe1-x and Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown using a combination of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism for the core, followed by in-situ epitaxial shell growth using ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that the VLS growth yields cylindrical Ge, and Si nanowire cores grown along the ⟨111⟩, and ⟨110⟩ or ⟨112⟩ directions, respectively. A hexagonal cross-sectional morphology is observed for Ge-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires terminated by six {112} facets. Two distinct morphologies are observed for Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires that are either terminated by four {111} and two {100} planes associated with the ⟨110⟩ growth direction or four {113} and two {111} planes associated with the ⟨112⟩ growth direction. We show that the Raman spectra of Si- SixGe1-x are correlated with the shell morphology thanks to epitaxial growth-induced strain, with the core Si-Si mode showing a larger red shift in ⟨112⟩ core-shell nanowires compared to their ⟨110⟩ counterparts. We compare the Si-Si Raman mode value with calculations based on a continuum elasticity model coupled with the lattice dynamic theory.

  2. Core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids: Synthesis and their enhanced microwave absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Erqi; Qi, Xiaosi; Xie, Ren; Bai, Zhongchen; Jiang, Yang; Qin, Shuijie; Zhong, Wei; Du, Youwei

    2018-05-01

    High encapsulation efficiency of core@shell@shell structured carbon-based magnetic ternary nanohybrids have been synthesized in high yield by chemical vapor deposition of acetylene directly over octahedral-shaped Fe2O3 nanoparticles. By controlling the pyrolysis temperature, Fe3O4@Fe3C@carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids could be selectively produced. The optimal RL values for the as-prepared ternary nanohybrids could reach up to ca. -46.7, -52.7 and -29.5 dB, respectively. The excellent microwave absorption properties of the obtaiend ternary nanohybrids were proved to ascribe to the quarter-wavelength matching model. Moreover, the as-prepared Fe@Fe3C@CNTs ternary nanohybrids displayed remarkably enhanced EM wave absorption capabilities compared to Fe3O4@Fe3C@CNTs due to their excellent dielectric loss abilities, good complementarities between the dielectric loss and the magnetic loss, and high attenuation constant. Generally, this strategy can be extended to explore other categories of core@shell or core@shell@shell structured carbon-based nanohybrids, which is very beneficial to accelerate the advancements of high performance MAMs.

  3. Surface potential-governed cellular osteogenic differentiation on ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bolin; Zhang, Bo; Zhuang, Junjun; Wang, Qi; Dong, Lingqing; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian

    2018-05-02

    Surface potential of biomaterials can dramatically influence cellular osteogenic differentiation. In this work, a wide range of surface potential on ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) films was designed to get insight into the interfacial interaction of cell-charged surface. The P(VDF-TrFE) films poled by contact electric poling at various electric fields obtained well stabilized surface potential, with wide range from -3 to 915 mV. The osteogenic differentiation level of cells cultured on the films was strongly dependent on surface potential and reached the optimum at 391 mV in this system. Binding specificity assay indicated that surface potential could effectively govern the binding state of the adsorbed fibronectin (FN) with integrin. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation further revealed that surface potential brought a significant difference in the relative distance between RGD and synergy PHSRN sites of adsorbed FN, resulting in a distinct integrin-FN binding state. These results suggest that the full binding of integrin α5β1 with both RGD and PHSRN sites of FN possesses a strong ability to activate osteogenic signaling pathway. This work sheds light on the underlying mechanism of osteogenic differentiation behavior on charged material surfaces, and also provides a guidance for designing a reasonable charged surface to enhance osteogenic differentiation. The ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) films with steady and a wide range of surface potential were designed to understand underlying mechanism of cell-charged surface interaction. The results showed that the charged surface well favored upregulation of osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, and more importantly, a highest level occurred on the film with a moderate surface potential. Experiments and molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that the surface potential could govern fibronectin conformation and then the integrin-fibronectin binding. We propose that a full binding

  4. Preparation of water-soluble CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots with enhanced photostability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hui; Zhang Lijuan; Soeller, Christian; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2007-01-01

    CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized in an aqueous phase using thioacetamide as a sulfur source. The quantum yield was greatly enhanced by the epitaxial growth of a CdS shell, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results. The quantum yield of as-prepared CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs without any post-preparative processing reached 58%. The experimental results illustrate that the QDs with core/shell structure show better photostability than thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe QDs. The cyclic voltammograms reveal higher oxidation potentials for CdTe/CdS core/shell QDs than for TGA-capped CdTe QDs, which explains the superior photostability of QDs with a core/shell structure. This enhanced photostability makes these QDs with core/shell structure more suitable for bio-labeling and imaging

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: yanglin_1028@163.com; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-04-15

    High-quality ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal microemulsion technique. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse ZnSe:Fe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, PSD, XPS, photoluminescence, and Raman spectrum. The results show that the as-synthesized nanocrystals are cubic zinc blende ZnSe structure with high purity and the average particle size of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystal is larger than that of ZnSe:Fe core. The growth of ZnSe shell causes a small red shift in PL spectra, and then the PL quantum yield (QY) increases from 16% before shell growth to the maximum of 37% after increasing shell thickness up to 1.2 monolayers (ML). Moreover, both transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe are shifted toward lower frequency as compared with the reported ones. -- Highlights: • ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell QDs were prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. • ZnSe shell efficiently passivates surface defects by serving as a physical barrier. • The particle size and PL properties can be turned with the growth of ZnSe shell. • The luminescence efficiency and stability of QDs could be improved in this manner.

  6. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Lixin, E-mail: caolixin@ouc.edu.cn; Su, Ge; Liu, Wei; Xia, Chenghui; Zhou, Huajian

    2013-09-01

    The synthesis and luminescent properties of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with different shell thickness are reported in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies present that the ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell QDs with different shell thickness have a cubic zinc-blende structure. The tests of transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures exhibit that the QDs obtained are spherical-shaped particles and the average grain size increased from 2.7 to 3.8 nm with the growth of ZnS shell. The emission peak position of QDs has a small redshift from 461 to 475 nm with the growth of ZnS shell within the blue spectral window. The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity and stability of the ZnSe:Cu core d-dots are both enhanced by coating ZnS shell on the surface of core d-dots. The largest PL intensity of the core/shell QDs is almost 3 times larger than that of Cu doped ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe:Cu d-dots). The redshift of core/shell QDs compared with the core QDs are observed in both the absorption and the photoluminescence excitation spectra.

  7. Self-Assembly of Fluorescent Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles and Their Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Tang, Fu; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Lidong

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a fluorescent hybrid core-shell nanoparticle was prepared by coating a functional polymer shell onto silver nanoparticles via a facile one-pot method. The biomolecule poly-L-lysine (PLL) was chosen as the polymer shell and assembled onto the silver core via the amine-reactive cross-linker, 3,3'-dithiobis(sulfosuccinimidylpropionate). The fluorescent anticancer drug, doxorubicin, was incorporated into the PLL shell through the same linkage. As the cross-linker possesses a thiol-cleavable disulfide bond, disassembly of the PLL shell was observed in the presence of glutathione, leading to controllable doxorubicin release. The silver core there provided an easily modified surface to facilitate the shell coating and ensures the efficient separation of as-prepared nanoparticles from their reaction mixture through centrifugation. Cell assays show that the prepared hybrid fluorescent nanoparticles can internalize into cells possessing excellent biocompatibility prior to the release of doxorubicin, terminating cancer cells efficiently as the doxorubicin is released at the intracellular glutathione level. Such properties are important for designing smart containers for target drug delivery and cellular imaging.

  8. Soft shell hard core concept for aircraft impact resistant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.; Rieck, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    For nuclear power plants sited in the vicinity of airports, the hypothetical events of aircraft impact have to be designed for. The conventional design concept is to strengthen the exterior structure to resist the impact induced force. The stiffened structures have two (2) disadvantages; one is the high construction cost, and the other is the high reaction force induced as well as the vibrational effects on the interior equipment and piping systems. This new soft shell hard core concept can relieve the above shortcomings. In this concept, the essential equipment required for safety are installed inside the hard core area for protection and the non-essential equipment are maintained between the hard core and soft shell area. During a hypothetical impact event, the soft shell will collapse locally and absorb large amounts of kinetic energy; hence, it reduces the reaction force and the vibrational effects. The design and analysis of the soft shell concept are discussed. (Author)

  9. Characterization of core-shell nanoparticles by small angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strunz, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI), Rez (Czech Republic); Research Centre Rez, Rez (Czech Republic); Mukherji, D. [TU Braunschweig, IfW, Braunschweig (Germany); Pigozzi, G. [ETH Zuerich, Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilles, R. [TU Muenchen, ZWE FRM-II, Garching (Germany); Geue, T. [PSI and ETH Zuerich, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pranzas, K. [GKSS Research Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    The Ni{sub 3}Si-type nanoparticles dispersed in a mixture of H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O were characterised by SANS using the contrast variation method. The existence of a core-shell structure in the nanoparticles with a Ni{sub 3}Si(Al) core and amorphous SiO{sub x} shell is confirmed by the SANS measurements. The nanoparticles were produced by extracting precipitates from a bulk Ni-13.3Si-2Al (at. %) alloy using electrochemical phase separation technique and were pre-characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. By comparing the precipitate morphology in the Ni-Si-Al alloy with the extracted nanoparticles in the SANS measurements, it is clearly established that the precipitates shape and size are unaffected by the extraction process and that the amorphous shell forms on top of the particle core. However, the present measurement could not confirm or exclude the presence of H atoms in the shell structure. (orig.)

  10. Magnetic response of hybrid ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic core-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, U; Li, W J; Adeela, N; Irfan, M; Javed, K; Wan, C H; Riaz, S; Han, X F

    2016-03-21

    The synthesis of FeTiO3-Ni(Ni80Fe20) core-shell nanostructures by a two-step method (sol-gel and DC electrodeposition) has been demonstrated. XRD analysis confirms the rhombohedral crystal structure of FeTiO3(FTO) with space group R3[combining macron]. Transmission electron microscopy clearly depicts better morphology of nanostructures with shell thicknesses of ∼25 nm. Room temperature magnetic measurements showed significant enhancement of magnetic anisotropy for the permalloy (Ni80Fe20)-FTO over Ni-FTO core-shell nanostructures. Low temperature magnetic measurements of permalloy-FeTiO3 core-shell structure indicated a strong exchange bias mechanism with magnetic coercivity below the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature (TN = 59 K). The exchange bias is attributed to the alignment of magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic material at low temperature. Our scheme opens a path towards optimum automotive systems and wireless communications wherein broader bandwidths and smaller sizes are required.

  11. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/NH2-Treated Graphene Nanodot/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Enhanced Dielectric Performance for Ultrahigh Energy Density Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghun; Lee, Jun Seop; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-05-13

    This work describes a ternary nanocomposite system, composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), NH2-treated graphene nanodots (GNDs), and reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), for use in high energy density capacitor. When the RGO sheets were added to PVDF matrix, the β-phase content of PVDF became higher than that of the pristine PVDF. The surface-treatment of GNDs with an ethylenediamine can promote the hydrogen bonding interactions between the GNDs and PVDF, which promote the formation of β-phase PVDF. This finding could be extended to combine the advantages of both RGO and NH2-treated GND for developing an effective and reliable means of preparing PVDF/NH2-treated GND/RGO nanocomposite. Relatively small amounts of NH2-treated GND/RGO cofillers (10 vol %) could make a great impact on the α → β phase transformation, dielectric, and ferroelectric properties of the ternary nanocomposite. The resulting PVDF/NH2-treated GND/RGO nanocomposite exhibited higher dielectric constant (ε' ≈ 60.6) and larger energy density (U(e) ≈ 14.1 J cm(-3)) compared with the pristine PVDF (ε' ≈ 11.6 and U(e) ≈ 1.8 J cm(-3)).

  12. Strain-Driven Stacking Faults in CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortière, Arnaud; Leonard, Donovan N; Petkov, Valeri; Chapman, Karena; Chattopadhyay, Soma; She, Chunxing; Cullen, David A; Shibata, Tomohiro; Pelton, Matthew; Shevchenko, Elena V

    2018-04-19

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are commonly grown with a shell of a second semiconductor material to obtain desired physical properties, such as increased photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the growth of a lattice-mismatched shell results in strain within the nanocrystal, and this strain has the potential to produce crystalline defects. Here, we study CdSe/CdS core/shell nanorods as a model system to investigate the influence of core size and shape on the formation of stacking faults in the nanocrystal. Using a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and pair-distribution-function analysis of synchrotron X-ray scattering, we show that growth of the CdS shell on smaller, spherical CdSe cores results in relatively small strain and few stacking faults. By contrast, growth of the shell on larger, prolate spheroidal cores leads to significant strain in the CdS lattice, resulting in a high density of stacking faults.

  13. Gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Timea; Boca, Sanda [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania); Biro, Dominic [Sapientia University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences (Romania); Baldeck, Patrice [Universite Joseph Fourier and CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique, UMR 5588, CNRS (France); Astilean, Simion, E-mail: simion.astilean@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Nanobiophotonics and Laser Microspectroscopy Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2013-04-15

    This study presents the synthesis of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles by a two-step method and investigates their biological impact on cancer cells, specifically nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity. Uniform, 9-10-nm-sized, hydrophobic gold nanoparticles were synthesized in organic phase by reducing gold salt with oleylamine, after which oleylamine-protected gold nanoparticles were phase-transferred into aqueous medium using Pluronic F127 block copolymer, resulting in gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles with a mean hydrodynamic diameter of {approx}35 nm. The formation and phase-transfer of gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The obtained gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles proved to be highly stable in salted solution. Cytotoxicity tests showed no modification of cellular viability in the presence of properly purified particles. Furthermore, dark-field cellular imaging demonstrated that gold-Pluronic nanoparticles were able to be efficiently uptaken by cells, being internalized through nonspecific endocytosis. The high stability, proven biocompatibility, and imaging properties of gold-Pluronic core-shell nanoparticles hold promise for relevant intracellular applications, with such a design providing the feasibility to combine all multiple functionalities in one nanoparticle for simultaneous detection and imaging.

  14. Ni3Si(Al)/a-SiOx core shell nanoparticles: characterization, shell formation, and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, G.; Mukherji, D.; Gilles, R.; Barbier, B.; Kostorz, G.

    2006-08-01

    We have used an electrochemical selective phase dissolution method to extract nanoprecipitates of the Ni3Si-type intermetallic phase from two-phase Ni-Si and Ni-Si-Al alloys by dissolving the matrix phase. The extracted nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, x-ray powder diffraction, and electron powder diffraction. It is found that the Ni3Si-type nanoparticles have a core-shell structure. The core maintains the size, the shape, and the crystal structure of the precipitates that existed in the bulk alloys, while the shell is an amorphous phase, containing only Si and O (SiOx). The shell forms around the precipitates during the extraction process. After annealing the nanoparticles in nitrogen at 700 °C, the tridymite phase recrystallizes within the shell, which remains partially amorphous. In contrast, on annealing in air at 1000 °C, no changes in the composition or the structure of the nanoparticles occur. It is suggested that the shell forms after dealloying of the matrix phase, where Si atoms, the main constituents of the shell, migrate to the surface of the precipitates.

  15. Core/Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biological Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Jung, Myung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles have been widely used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia, drug delivery and cell signaling. The surface modification of the nanomaterials is required for biomedical use to give physiogical stability, surface reactivity and targeting properties. Among many approaches for the surface modification with materials, such as polymers, organic ligands and metals, one of the most attractive ways is using metals. The fabrication of metal-based, monolayer-coated magnetic nanoparticles has been intensively studied. However, the synthesis of metal-capped magnetic nanoparticles with monodispersities and controllable sizes is still challenged. Recently, gold-capped magnetic nanoparticles have been reported to increase stability and to provide biocompatibility. Magnetic nanoparticle with gold coating is an attractive system, which can be stabilized in biological conditions and readily functionalized in biological conditions and readily functionalized through well-established surface modification (Au-S) chemistry. The Au coating offers plasmonic properties to magnetic nanoparticles. This makes the magnetic/Au core/shell combinations interesting for magnetic and optical applications. Herein, the synthesis and characterization of gold capped-magnetic core structured nanomaterials with different gold sources, such as gold acetate and chloroauric acid have been reported. The core/shell nanoparticles were transferred from organic to aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. Magnetic core/shell structured nanoparticles have been prepared and transferred from organic phase to aqueous solutions. The resulting Au-coated magnetic core nanoparticles might be an attractive system for biomedical applications, which are needed both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging

  16. Chemical and thermal stability of core-shelled magnetite nanoparticles and solid silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Sikora, Pawel; Zielinska, Beata; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Mijowska, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    Pristine nanoparticles of magnetite were coated by solid silica shell forming core/shell structure. 20 nm thick silica coating significantly enhanced the chemical and thermal stability of the iron oxide. Chemical and thermal stability of this structure has been compared to the magnetite coated by mesoporous shell and pristine magnetite nanoparticles. It is assumed that six-membered silica rings in a solid silica shell limit the rate of oxygen diffusion during thermal treatment in air and prevent the access of HCl molecules to the core during chemical etching. Therefore, the core/shell structure with a solid shell requires a longer time to induce the oxidation of iron oxide to a higher oxidation state and, basically, even strong concentrated acid such as HCl is not able to dissolve it totally in one month. This leads to the desired performance of the material in potential applications such as catalysis and environmental protection.

  17. The diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in a semiconductor core shell quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudharshan, M. S.; Subhash, P.; Shaik, Nagoor Babu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105 (India); Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram, Tamilnadu-624302 (India); Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D., E-mail: merwyn@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai – 602105 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The effect of Aluminium concentration, shell thickness and size of the core shell Quantum Dot on the Diamagnetic Susceptibility of a donor in the Core Shell Quantum Dot is calculated in the effective mass approximation using the variational method. The results are presented and discussed.

  18. The diamagnetic susceptibility of a donor in a semiconductor core shell quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharshan, M. S.; Subhash, P.; Shaik, Nagoor Babu; Kalpana, P.; Jayakumar, K.; Reuben, A. Merwyn Jasper D.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of Aluminium concentration, shell thickness and size of the core shell Quantum Dot on the Diamagnetic Susceptibility of a donor in the Core Shell Quantum Dot is calculated in the effective mass approximation using the variational method. The results are presented and discussed.

  19. PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana M; Zhang, Liangfang; Yuet, Kai P; Liao, Grace; Rhee, June-Wha; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2009-03-01

    Current approaches to encapsulate and deliver therapeutic compounds have focused on developing liposomal and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in clinically approved therapeutics such as Doxil/Caelyx and Genexol-PM, respectively. Our group recently reported the development of biodegradable core-shell NP systems that combined the beneficial properties of liposomal and polymeric NPs for controlled drug delivery. Herein we report the parameters that alter the biological and physicochemical characteristics, stability, drug release properties and cytotoxicity of these core-shell NPs. We further define scalable processes for the formulation of these NPs in a reproducible manner. These core-shell NPs consist of (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) hydrophobic core, (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer, and (iii) a poly(ethylene glycol) shell, and were synthesized by a modified nanoprecipitation method combined with self-assembly. Preparation of the NPs showed that various formulation parameters such as the lipid/polymer mass ratio and lipid/lipid-PEG molar ratio controlled NP physical stability and size. We encapsulated a model chemotherapy drug, docetaxel, in the NPs and showed that the amount of lipid coverage affected its drug release kinetics. Next, we demonstrated a potentially scalable process for the formulation, purification, and storage of NPs. Finally, we tested the cytotoxicity using MTT assays on two model human cell lines, HeLa and HepG2, and demonstrated the biocompatibility of these particles in vitro. Our data suggest that the PLGA-lecithin-PEG core-shell NPs may be a useful new controlled release drug delivery system.

  20. Nano-engineering of three-dimensional core/shell nanotube arrays for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Fabian; Wen, Liaoyong; Lei, Yong

    2014-06-01

    Large-scale arrays of core/shell nanostructures are highly desirable to enhance the performance of supercapacitors. Here we demonstrate an innovative template-based fabrication technique with high structural controllability, which is capable of synthesizing well-ordered three-dimensional arrays of SnO2/MnO2 core/shell nanotubes for electrochemical energy storage in supercapacitor applications. The SnO2 core is fabricated by atomic layer deposition and provides a highly electrical conductive matrix. Subsequently a thin MnO2 shell is coated by electrochemical deposition onto the SnO2 core, which guarantees a short ion diffusion length within the shell. The core/shell structure shows an excellent electrochemical performance with a high specific capacitance of 910 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and a good rate capability of remaining 217 F g-1 at 50 A g-1. These results shall pave the way to realize aqueous based asymmetric supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy.

  1. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles study by first principle: The structural, magnetic and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hai-Xia [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiao-Xu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100094 (China); Hu, Yao-Wen [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Hong-Quan; Huo, Jin-Rong; Li, Lu [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Qian, Ping, E-mail: ustbqianp@163.com [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Song, Yu-Jun [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been investigated by the density functional theory, revealing proving for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibits a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell in agreement with the other studies in literatures. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a ferromagnetic spin polarized state, and the magnetism mainly stems from the spin splitting of 2p electrons of O atoms. In addition, the total and partial DOS of Ag@ZnO indicate that the nanostructure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. Furthermore, the optical properties calculations show that the absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and good photocatalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO. These results of the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure obtain a well agreement with the experimental measurement. - Graphical abstract: Geometric structure of (a) Ag@ZnO core-shell nanostructure; (b) the core of Ag; (c) the shell of ZnO The core-shell nanoparticle Ag@ZnO contains Ag inner core of radius of 4 Å and ZnO outer shell with thickness of 2 Å. Ag@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles of around 72 atoms have been proved for the first time that the core-shell structure exhibit a shrinkage phenomenon from outer shell. Our calculations predict that the Ag@ZnO core-shell structure is a half-metallic nanoparticle and has the characters of the p-type semiconductor. The absorption edge of Ag@ZnO have a red shift and get good photo-catalysis compare to that of the bulk ZnO.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of CORE-shell magnetic nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ovejero, Jesú s G.; Bran, Cristina; Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Kosel, Jü rgen; Morales, Marí a P.; Vazquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    (Fe, Ni, CoFe) @ Au core-shell magnetic nanowires have been synthesized by optimized two-step potentiostatic electrodeposition inside self-assembled nanopores of anodic aluminium templates. The optimal electrochemical parameters (e.g., potential

  3. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for on-chip RF inductors

    KAUST Repository

    Koh, Kisik

    2013-01-01

    FeNi3 based core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are demonstrated as the magnetic core material for on-chip, radio frequency (RF) inductors. FeNi3 nanoparticles with 50-150 nm in diameter with 15-20 nm-thick SiO2 coating are chemically synthesized and deposited on a planar inductor as the magnetic core to enhance both inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Experimentally, the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of the on-chip inductors based on FeNi3 core-shell nanoparticles has been shown to be over several GHz. A post-CMOS process has been developed to integrate the magnetic nanoparticles to a planar inductor and inductance enhancements up to 50% of the original magnitude with slightly enhanced Q-factor up to 1 GHz have been achieved. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Recent advances in the synthesis of Fe3O4@AU core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihov, Sergei V.; Ivanenkov, Yan A.; Krechetov, Sergei P.; Veselov, Mark S.; Sviridenkova, Natalia V.; Savchenko, Alexander G.; Klyachko, Natalya L.; Golovin, Yury I.; Chufarova, Nina V.; Beloglazkina, Elena K.; Majouga, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    Fe 3 O 4 @Au core/shell nanoparticles have unique magnetic and optical properties. These nanoparticles are used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, controlled drug delivery, protein separation, biosensors, DNA detection, and immunosensors. In this review, recent methods for the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles are discussed. We divided all of the synthetic methods in two groups: methods of synthesis of bi-layer structures and methods of synthesis of multilayer composite structures. The latter methods have a layer of “glue” material between the core and the shell. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are promising for biomedical applications but have some disadvantages. • Covering Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with Au shell leads to better stability and biocompatibility. • Core/shell nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications. • There are two types of Fe 3 O 4 @Au core/shell nanoparticles structures: bi-layer and multilayer composite. • Different synthetic methods enable production of nanoparticles of different sizes

  5. Iridium-decorated palladium-platinum core-shell catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Hao; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Wang, Kai-Ching

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-supported Pt, Pd, Pd-Pt core-shell (Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C) and Ir-decorated Pd-Pt core-shell (Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C) catalysts were synthesized, and their physical properties, electrochemical behaviors, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) characteristics and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performances were investigated herein. From the XRD patterns and TEM images, Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has been confirmed that Pt was deposited on the Pd nanoparticle which had the core-shell structure. Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has more positive OH reduction peak than Pt/C, which is beneficial to weaken the binding energy of Pt-OH during the ORR. Thus, Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has higher ORR activity than Pt/C. The maximum power density of H2-O2 PEMFC using Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C is 792.2 mW cm(-2) at 70°C, which is 24% higher than that using Pt/C. The single-cell accelerated degradation test of PEMFC using Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C shows good durability by the potential cycling of 40,000 cycles. This study concludes that Ir-decorated Pt(shell)-Pd(core)/C has the low Pt content, but it can facilitate the low-cost and high-efficient PEMFC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of Special Tools for the Straightness Measurement of JRTR Core Inner Shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinjlawi, Abdullah; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Chung, Jong-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) is an open pool type nuclear research reactor, 5 MW power, JRTR core made from Zircaloy. The JRTR will be used for nuclear applications such as isotopes production, nuclear researches, neutron transmutation doping (NTD), and training. JRTR core structures will be exposed to a large amount of neutron irradiation during the life time of the reactor. The core inner shell also will be exposed to a pressure that comes from heavy water system. JRTR core inner shell will deform due to the neutron irradiation and the mechanical stress. Therefore, the dimensional change of the core inner shell should be periodically (every 10 years) measured as an in-service inspection to confirm the structural integrity. As a result of neutron irradiation, pressure difference of the heavy water vessel, and the mechanical stress, the reactor core will deform as shown in figure 2 to figure 4. The maximum deformation to the normal direction of inner shell wall is 0.75 mm as shown in figure 3. This study discusses development of special tools that will be used for pre-service and in-service inspection of JRTR inner shell. The performance and procedure for the measurements tools will be verified using by the real inner shell of the heavy water vessel at factory before shipping to Jordan.. There will be very delicate working procedure for the measurement in the limited space in JRTR core. Therefore, we will develop the detail procedures to cover the removal of the core components, installation of the measurement tools, measurement, and re-installation of the core components. The measurement of the inner shell at JAEC site during commissioning stage will be the first remote measurement at the same conditions of pool water and heavy water system

  7. Geometric screening of core/shell hydrogel microcapsules using a tapered microchannel with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ye; Qi, Lin; Zhang, Fen; Zhao, Yi

    2018-07-30

    Core/shell hydrogel microcapsules attract increasing research attention due to their potentials in tissue engineering, food engineering, and drug delivery. Current approaches for generating core/shell hydrogel microcapsules suffer from large geometric variations. Geometrically defective core/shell microcapsules need to be removed before further use. High-throughput geometric characterization of such core/shell microcapsules is therefore necessary. In this work, a continuous-flow device was developed to measure the geometric properties of microcapsules with a hydrogel shell and an aqueous core. The microcapsules were pumped through a tapered microchannel patterned with an array of interdigitated microelectrodes. The geometric parameters (the shell thickness and the diameter) were derived from the displacement profiles of the microcapsules. The results show that this approach can successfully distinguish all unencapsulated microparticles. The geometric properties of core/shell microcapsules can be determined with high accuracy. The efficacy of this method was demonstrated through a drug releasing experiment where the optimization of the electrospray process based on geometric screening can lead to controlled and extended drug releasing profiles. This method does not require high-speed optical systems, simplifying the system configuration and making it an indeed miniaturized device. The throughput of up to 584 microcapsules per minute was achieved. This study provides a powerful tool for screening core/shell hydrogel microcapsules and is expected to facilitate the applications of these microcapsules in various fields. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Piezoelectric constants for ZnO calculated using classical polarizable core-shell potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Shuangxing; Dunn, Martin L; Park, Harold S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using classical atomistic simulations, i.e. molecular dynamics and molecular statics, to study the piezoelectric properties of ZnO using core-shell interatomic potentials. We accomplish this by reporting the piezoelectric constants for ZnO as calculated using two different classical interatomic core-shell potentials: that originally proposed by Binks and Grimes (1994 Solid State Commun. 89 921-4), and that proposed by Nyberg et al (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 9054-63). We demonstrate that the classical core-shell potentials are able to qualitatively reproduce the piezoelectric constants as compared to benchmark ab initio calculations. We further demonstrate that while the presence of the shell is required to capture the electron polarization effects that control the clamped ion part of the piezoelectric constant, the major shortcoming of the classical potentials is a significant underprediction of the clamped ion term as compared to previous ab initio results. However, the present results suggest that overall, these classical core-shell potentials are sufficiently accurate to be utilized for large scale atomistic simulations of the piezoelectric response of ZnO nanostructures.

  9. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  10. A fully packaged self-powered sensor based on near-field electrospun arrays of poly(vinylidene fluoride nano/micro fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-K. Fuh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting devices based on the triboelectric and piezoelectric principles have been widely developed to scavenge wasteful and tiny mechanical energy into usable electrical energy. In particular, triboelectric energy harvesting generators with relatively simpler structure and piezoelectric fiber-based counterpart with extremely light weight compositions showed a very promising application in the self-powered sensors. In this paper, a novel hybridization of graphenebased piezoelectric generator (GBPG and graphene-PET triboelectric generator (GPTG were simultaneously packaged. The integrated structure, graphene-based hybridized self-powered sensor (GHSPS, was demonstrated to be optically transparent and mechanically robust. For the piezoelectrically harvesting device, an in-situ poling and direct-write near-field electrospinning (NFES Poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF piezoelectric fibers were fabricated and integrated with a single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD grown graphene. On the other hand for GPTG counterpart, two composite layers of a single layer graphene/PET simultaneously served as triboelectrically rubbing layers as well as bottom/top electrode. This GHSPS successfully superimposed both piezoelectric and triboelectric electricity and the synergistically higher output voltage/current/power were measured as ~6 V/280 nA/172 nW in one press-and-release cycle of finger induced motion. The proposed GHSPS showed a promising application in the field of self-powered sensors to be ubiquitously implemented in the future Industry 4.0 scenarios.

  11. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Wang, Zhiwei, E-mail: zwwang@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zhang, Xingran [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zheng, Xiang, E-mail: zhengxiang7825@163.com [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872 (China); Wu, Zhichao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO{sub 2}/PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO{sub 2} was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane.

  12. Titanium dioxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowires for all solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Zeng, Yinxiang; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Chenghui; Yao, Chenzhong; Yang, Yangyi; Tong, Yexiang

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance.Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD pattern, FT-IR absorption spectrum and CV curves of TiO2@PPy NWs, and SEM images of the PPy. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03578f

  13. Determination of Core-Shell Structures in Pd-Hg Nanoparticles by STEM-EDX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deiana, Davide; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Malacrida, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The structural and elemental configuration of a high-performing Pd-Hg electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide has been studied by means of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Pd-Hg nanoparticles are shown to have a crystalline core-shell structure, with a Pd...... core and a Pd-Hg ordered alloy shell. The ordered shell is responsible for the high oxygen reduction selectivity to H2O2....

  14. Design and optimization of Ag-dielectric core-shell nanostructures for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xiang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal-dielectric core-shell nanostructures have been proposed as a light trapping scheme for enhancing the optical absorption of silicon solar cells. As a potential application of such enhanced effects, the scattering efficiencies of three core-shell structures (Ag@SiO2, Ag@TiO2, and Ag@ZrO2 are discussed using the Mie Scattering theory. For compatibility with experiment results, the core diameter and shell thickness are limited to 100 and 30 nm, respectively, and a weighted scattering efficiency is introduced to evaluate the scattering abilities of different nanoparticles under the solar spectrum AM 1.5. The simulated results indicate that the shell material and thickness are two key parameters affecting the weighted scattering efficiency. The SiO2 is found to be an unsuitable shell medium because of its low refractive index. However, using the high refractive index mediumTiO2 in Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles, only the thicker shell (30 nm is more beneficial for light scattering. The ZrO2 is an intermediate refractive index material, so Ag@ZrO2 nanoparticles are the most effective core-shell nanostructures in these silicon solar cells applications.

  15. How to Determine the Core-Shell Nature in Bimetallic Catalyst Particles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Westsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer-sized materials have significantly different chemical and physical properties compared to bulk material. However, these properties do not only depend on the elemental composition but also on the structure, shape, size and arrangement. Hence, it is not only of great importance to develop synthesis routes that enable control over the final structure but also characterization strategies that verify the exact nature of the nanoparticles obtained. Here, we consider the verification of contemporary synthesis strategies for the preparation of bimetallic core-shell particles in particular in relation to potential particle structures, such as partial absence of core, alloying and raspberry-like surface. It is discussed what properties must be investigated in order to fully confirm a covering, pin-hole free shell and which characterization techniques can provide such information. Not uncommonly, characterization strategies of core-shell particles rely heavily on visual imaging like transmission electron microscopy. The strengths and weaknesses of various techniques based on scattering, diffraction, transmission and absorption for investigating core-shell particles are discussed and, in particular, cases where structural ambiguities still remain will be highlighted. Our main conclusion is that for particles with extremely thin or mono-layered shells—i.e., structures outside the limitation of most imaging techniques—other strategies, not involving spectroscopy or imaging, are to be employed. We will provide a specific example of Fe-Pt core-shell particles prepared in bicontinuous microemulsion and point out the difficulties that arise in the characterization process of such particles.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of SiO2/SiCN Core-shell Ceramic Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hai-yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The SiO2/PSN core-shell microspheres were prepared via an emulsion reaction combined with the polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs method using polysilazane (PSN in situ polymerization on the surface of SiO2 modified by silane coupling agents MPS, followed by pyrolysis process to obtain SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres. The effects of raw mass ratio, curing time and pyrolysis temperature on the formation and the morphology of core-shell microspheres were studied. The morphology, chemical composition and phase transformation were characterized by SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The results show that after reaction for 4h at 200℃, SiO2 completely coated PSN forms a core-shell microsphere with rough surface when the mass ratio of SiO2 and PSN is 1:4; when pyrolysis temperature is at 800-1200℃, amorphous SiO2/SiCN core-shell ceramic microspheres are prepared; at 1400℃, the amorphous phase partially crystallizes to produce SiO2, SiC and Si3N4 phase.

  17. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Guangyong; He, Yi; Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel PVDF nanofiltration membrane was prepared by incorporation of A-HNTs. • HNTs dispersed well in membrane matrix after APTES modification. • The membrane exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and antifouling properties. • A high dye and heavy metal ions removal was realized by membrane separation. - Abstract: Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment.

  18. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Guangyong [State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Oil & Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); He, Yi, E-mail: heyi@swpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Oil & Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue [State Key Laboratory of Oil & Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • A novel PVDF nanofiltration membrane was prepared by incorporation of A-HNTs. • HNTs dispersed well in membrane matrix after APTES modification. • The membrane exhibited excellent hydrophilicity and antifouling properties. • A high dye and heavy metal ions removal was realized by membrane separation. - Abstract: Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment.

  19. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto poly-vinylidene fluoride) film by simultaneous method with two different solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, H.P.; Parra, D.F.; Lugao, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation-induced grafting to create membranes with ion exchange capacity in fluorinated polymers has been studied for applications such as fuel cells, filtration and waste treatment and polymeric actuators due to their good physical and chemical properties. In this work, radiation-induced grafting of styrene into poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films with 0.125 mm thickness at doses of 1 and 2.5 kGy in the presence of a styrene/N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF) solution (1:1, v/v) and at doses of 20, 40 and 80 kGy in presence of a styrene/toluene solution (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h-1 was carried out by simultaneous method under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature, using gamma-rays form a Co-60. The films were characterized before and after modification by the grafting yield (GY), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose, and it was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. Results showed that the system allows the homogeneous grafting of styrene into PVDF using gamma irradiation at doses as low as 1 kGy when DMF is used and heterogeneous grafting when toluene is used, showing the importance of the solvent nature during the simultaneous method.

  20. Coercivity enhancement in Ce-Fe-B based magnets by core-shell grain structuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ce-based R2Fe14B (R= rare-earth nano-structured permanent magnets consisting of (Ce,Nd2Fe14B core-shell grains separated by a non-magnetic grain boundary phase, in which the relative amount of Nd to Ce is higher in the shell of the magnetic grain than in its core, were fabricated by Nd-Cu infiltration into (Ce,Nd2Fe14B hot-deformed magnets. The coercivity values of infiltrated core-shell structured magnets are superior to those of as-hot-deformed magnets with the same overall Nd content. This is attributed to the higher value of magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the shell phase in the core-shell structured infiltrated magnets compared to the homogeneous R2Fe14B grains of the as-hot-deformed magnets, and to magnetic isolation of R2Fe14B grains by the infiltrated grain boundary phase. First order reversal curve (FORC diagrams suggest that the higher anisotropy shell suppresses initial magnetization reversal at the edges and corners of the R2Fe14B grains.

  1. Organic fouling behavior of superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membranes functionalized with surface-tailored nanoparticles: Implications for organic fouling in membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Shuai

    2014-08-01

    This study systematically investigates the organic fouling behavior of a superhydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane functionalized via post-fabrication tethering of surface-tailored silica nanoparticles to poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted PVDF membrane surface. Sodium alginate (SA), Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as model organic foulants to investigate the antifouling behavior of the superhydrophilic membrane with combined-fouling (mixture of foulants) and individual-fouling (single foulant) tests. A membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant supernatant was also used to verify the organic antifouling property of the superhydrophilic membrane under realistic conditions. Foulant size distributions and foulant-membrane interfacial forces were measured to interpret the observed membrane fouling behavior. Molecular weight cutoff measurements confirmed that membrane functionalization did not adversely affect the intrinsic membrane selectivity. Both filtration tests with the synthetic foulant-mixture solution (containing SA, SRNOM, and BSA) and MBR plant supernatant demonstrated the reliability and durability of the antifouling property of the superhydrophilic membrane. The conspicuous reduction in foulant-membrane interfacial forces for the functionalized membrane further verified the antifouling properties of the superhydrophilic membrane, suggesting great potential for applications in wastewater treatment. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ni(3)Si(Al)/a-SiO(x) core-shell nanoparticles: characterization, shell formation, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigozzi, G; Mukherji, D; Gilles, R; Barbier, B; Kostorz, G

    2006-08-28

    We have used an electrochemical selective phase dissolution method to extract nanoprecipitates of the Ni(3)Si-type intermetallic phase from two-phase Ni-Si and Ni-Si-Al alloys by dissolving the matrix phase. The extracted nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry, x-ray powder diffraction, and electron powder diffraction. It is found that the Ni(3)Si-type nanoparticles have a core-shell structure. The core maintains the size, the shape, and the crystal structure of the precipitates that existed in the bulk alloys, while the shell is an amorphous phase, containing only Si and O (SiO(x)). The shell forms around the precipitates during the extraction process. After annealing the nanoparticles in nitrogen at 700 °C, the tridymite phase recrystallizes within the shell, which remains partially amorphous. In contrast, on annealing in air at 1000 °C, no changes in the composition or the structure of the nanoparticles occur. It is suggested that the shell forms after dealloying of the matrix phase, where Si atoms, the main constituents of the shell, migrate to the surface of the precipitates.

  3. Strain in GaAs / InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Lepsa, Mihail Ion [Peter Gruenberg Institut 9, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The growth of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has attracted significant interest in recent years due to the possible fabrication of novel semiconductor devices for future electronic and opto-electronic applications. Compared to planar heterostructures, the nanowire approach offers an advantage regarding the possibility to form heterostructures between highly lattice mismatched systems, because the free surface of the nanowires allows to relieve the strain more efficiently. One particular way to form heterostructures in the NW geometry, is the fabrication of core-shell devices, in which a NW core is surrounded by a shell of different material. The understanding of the mutual strain between core and shell, as well as the relaxation behavior of the system are crucial for the fabrication of functional devices. In this contribution we report on first X-ray diffraction measurements of GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowires grown on GaAs(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. Using symmetric- and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, the relaxation state of the InAs shell as well as the strain in the GaAs core are measured as function of the InAs shell thickness, showing a gradual relaxation behavior of the shell.

  4. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Sharma, Mamta [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  5. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  6. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  7. Highly sensitive and ultrafast response surface acoustic wave humidity sensor based on electrospun polyaniline/poly(vinyl butyral) nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qianqian; Li Yang; Yang Mujie

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polyanline/poly(vinyl butyral) nanofibers are prepared by electrospinning. ► Nanofiber-based SAW humidity sensor show high sensitivity and ultrafast response. ► The SAW sensor can detect very low humidity. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANi) composite nanofibers were deposited on surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator with a central frequency of 433 MHz to construct humidity sensors. Electrospun nanofibers of poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinylidene fluoride), poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and humidity response of corresponding SAW humidity sensors were investigated. The results indicated that PVB was suitable as a matrix to form nanofibers with PANi by electrospinning (ES). Electrospun PANi/PVB nanofibers exhibited a core–sheath structure as revealed by transmittance electron microscopy. Effects of ES collection time on humidity response of SAW sensor based on PANi/PVB nanofibers were examined at room temperature. The composite nanofiber sensor exhibited very high sensitivity of ∼75 kHz/%RH from 20 to 90%RH, ultrafast response (1 s and 2 s for humidification and desiccation, respectively) and good sensing linearity. Furthermore, the sensor could detect humidity as low as 0.5%RH, suggesting its potentials for low humidity detection. Attempts were done to explain the attractive humidity sensing performance of the sensor by considering conductivity, hydrophilicity, viscoelasticity and morphology of the polymer composite nanofibers.

  8. One-pot synthesis and characterization of rhodamine derivative-loaded magnetic core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin, E-mail: jzhang@eng.uwo.ca; Li Jiaxin [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada); Razavi, Fereidoon S. [Brock University, Department of Physics (Canada); Mumin, Abdul Md. [University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    A new method to produce elaborate nanostructure with magnetic and fluorescent properties in one entity is reported in this article. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) coated with fluorescent silica (SiO{sub 2}) shell was produced through the one-pot reaction, in which one reactor was utilized to realize the synthesis of superparamagnetic core of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, the formation of SiO{sub 2} coating through the condensation and polymerization of tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), and the encapsulation of tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate-dextran (TRITC-dextran) within silica shell. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to investigate the core-shell structure. The magnetic core of the core-shell nanoparticles is 60 {+-} 10 nm in diameter. The thickness of the fluorescent SiO{sub 2} shell is estimated at 15 {+-} 5 nm. In addition, the fluorescent signal of the SiO{sub 2} shell has been detected by the laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) with emission wavelength ({lambda}{sub em}) at 566 nm. In addition, the magnetic properties of TRITC-dextran loaded silica-coating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs) were studied. The hysteresis loop of the core-shell NPs measured at room temperature shows that the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) is not reached even at the field of 70 kOe (7T). Meanwhile, the very low coercivity (H{sub c}) and remanent magnetization (M{sub r}) are 0.375 kOe and 6.6 emu/g, respectively, at room temperature. It indicates that the core-shell particles have the superparamagnetic properties. The measured blocking temperature (T{sub B}) of the TRITC-dextran loaded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SiO{sub 2} NPs is about 122.5 K. It is expected that the multifunctional core-shell nanoparticles can be used in bio-imaging.

  9. Phase Change Activation and Characterization of Spray-Deposited Poly(vinylidene) Fluoride Piezoelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosbaas, Miranda Tiffany

    Structural safety and integrity continues to be an issue of utmost concern in our world today. Existing infrastructures in civil, commercial, and military applications are beginning to see issues associated with age and environmental conditions. In addition, new materials are being put to service that are not yet fully characterized and understood when it comes to long term behavior. In order to assess the structural health of both old and new materials, it is necessary to implement a technique for monitoring wear and tear. Current methods that are being used today typically depend on visual inspection techniques or handheld instruments. These methods are not always ideal for large structures as they become very tedious leading to a substantial amount of both time and money spent. More recently, composite materials have been introduced into applications that can benefit from high strength-to-weight ratio materials. However, the use of more complex materials (such as composites) leads to a high demand of structural health monitoring techniques, since the damage is often internal and not visible to the naked eye. The work performed in this thesis examines the methods that can be used for phase change activation and characterization of sprayable poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) thin films in order to exploit their piezoelectric characteristics for sensing applications. PVDF is widely accepted to exist in four phases: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Alpha phase PVDF is produced directly from the melt and exhibits no piezoelectric properties. The activation or transition from α phase to some combination of beta and/or gamma phase PVDF leads to a polarizable piezoelectric thin film to be used in sensing applications. The work herein presents the methods used to activate phase change in PVDF, such as mechanical stretching, annealing, and chemical composition, to be able to implement PVDF as an impact detection sensor. The results and analysis provided in this thesis will

  10. The Synthesis and Characterization of Gold-Core/LDH-Shell Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearick, Colton

    In recent years, the field of nanomedicine has progressed at an astonishing rate, particularly with respect to applications in cancer treatment and molecular imaging. Although organic systems have been the frontrunners, inorganic systems have also begun to show promise, especially those based upon silica and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). Many of these systems are being designed for simultaneous therapeutic and diagnostic capabilities, thus coining the term, theranostics. A unique class of inorganic systems that shows great promise as theranostics is that of layered double hydroxides (LDH). By synthesis of a core/shell structures, e.g. a gold nanoparticle (NP) core and LDH shell, the multifunctional theranostic may be developed without a drastic increase in the structural complexity. To demonstrate initial proof-of-concept of a potential (inorganic) theranostic platform, a Au-core/LDH-shell nanovector has been synthesized and characterized. The LDH shell was heterogeneously nucleated and grown on the surface of silica coated gold NPs via a coprecipitation method. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was introduced in the initial synthesis steps to improve crystallinity and colloidal stability. Additionally, during synthesis, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was intercalated into the interlayer spacing of the LDH. In contrast to the PEG stabilization, a post synthesis citric acid treatment was used as a method to control the size and short-term stability. The heterogeneous core-shell system was characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). A preliminary in vitro study carried out with the assistance of Dr. Kaushal Rege's group at Arizona State University was to demonstrate the endocytosis capability of homogeneously-grown LDH NPs. The DLS measurements of the core-shell NPs indicated an average particle size of 212nm. The PXRD analysis showed that PEG

  11. Hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-09-27

    Hybrid alloys among gold, palladium and platinum become a new category of catalysts primarily due to their enhanced catalytic effects. Enhancement means not only their effectiveness, but also their uniqueness as catalysts for the reactions that individual metals may not catalyze. Here, preparation of hollow Au@Pd and Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) and their use as electrocatalysts are reported. Galvanic displacement with Ag NPs is used to obtain hollow NPs, and higher reduction potential of Au compared to Ag, Pd, and Pt helps to produce hollow Au cores first, followed by Pd or Pt shell growth. Continuous and highly crystalline shell growth was observed in Au@Pd core-shell NPs, but the sporadic and porous-like structure was observed in Au@Pt core-shell NPs. Along with hollow core-shell NPs, hollow porous Pt and hollow Au NPs are also prepared from Ag seed NPs. Twin boundaries which are typically observed in large size (>20 nm) Au NPs were not observed in hollow Au NPs. This absence is believed to be due to the role of the hollows, which significantly reduce the strain energy of edges where the two lattice planes meet. In ethanol oxidation reactions in alkaline medium, hollow Au@Pd core-shell NPs show highest current density in forward scan. Hollow Au@Pt core-shell NPs maintain better catalytic activities than metallic Pt, which is thought to be due to the better crystallinity of Pt shells as well as the alloy effect of Au cores. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Nanocellulose Derivative/Silica Hybrid Core-Shell Chiral Stationary Phase: Preparation and Enantioseparation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Core-shell silica microspheres with a nanocellulose derivative in the hybrid shell were successfully prepared as a chiral stationary phase by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The hybrid shell assembled on the silica core was formed using a surfactant as template by the copolymerization reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate and the nanocellulose derivative bearing triethoxysilyl and 3,5-dimethylphenyl groups. The resulting nanocellulose hybrid core-shell chiral packing materials (CPMs were characterized and packed into columns, and their enantioseparation performance was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that CPMs exhibited uniform surface morphology and core-shell structures. Various types of chiral compounds were efficiently separated under normal and reversed phase mode. Moreover, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase additives could obviously improve the resolution during the chiral separation processes. CPMs still have good chiral separation property when eluted with solvent systems with a high content of tetrahydrofuran and chloroform, which proved the high solvent resistance of this new material.

  13. (FeCo)3Si-SiOx core-shell nanoparticles fabricated in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Jianmin; Xu Yunhao; Thomas, John; Wang Jianping

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating core-shell nanoparticles by using an integrated nanoparticle deposition technique in the gas phase is reported. The principle of the method is based on nanoparticle growth from the vapour phase, during which elements showing lower surface energies prefer to form the shells and elements showing higher surface energies prefer to stay in the cores. This method was applied successfully to the Fe-Co-Si ternary system to fabricate core-shell-type nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were exposed in air after collection to achieve oxidation. The analysis results based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showed that the core parts are magnetic materials of body-centred cubic (bcc) structured (FeCo) 3 Si of 15 nm in diameter, and the shell parts are amorphous SiO x of 2 nm in thickness. These core-shell-type nanoparticles show a magnetic anisotropy constant of about 7 x 10 5 erg cm -3 and a saturation magnetization of around 1160 emu cm -3 , which is much higher than that of iron oxide. After annealing at 300 deg. C in air (FeCo) 3 Si-SiO x core-shell-type nanoparticles showed a little bit of a drop in magnetic moment, while pure FeCo nanopariticles totally lost their magnetic moment. This means that the shells of SiO x are dense enough to prevent the magnetic cores from oxidation

  14. Magnetic Behavior of Ni-Fe Core-Shell and Alloy Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Jagnyaseni; Vargas, Jose; Spinu, Leonard; Wiley, John

    2013-03-01

    Template assisted synthesis was used to fabricate a series of Ni-Fe core-shell and alloy nanowires. By controlling reaction conditions as well as pore structure, both systems could be targeted and magnetic properties followed as a function of architectures. In the core-shell structure coercivity increases with decrease in shell thickness while for the alloys, coercivity squareness improve with increase pore diameter. Details on the systematic studies of these materials will be presented in terms of hysteretic measurements, including first order reversal curves (FORC), and FMR data. Magnetic variation as a function of structure and nanowire aspect ratios will be presented and the origins of these behaviors discussed. Advanced Material Research Institute

  15. Core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bojesen, A.; Timmermann, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present studies of the magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoparticles. By combining Mossbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy we have been able to measure the change from a Fe3O4-like to a gamma-Fe2O3-like composition from the interface to the surface. Furthermore, we have...

  16. Strain distribution of confined Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles engineered by growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wenyan; Yuan, Cailei; Luo, Xingfang; Yu, Ting; Wang, Gongping

    2016-02-01

    The strain distributions of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles confined in different host matrix grown by surface oxidation are investigated. The simulated results by finite element method demonstrated that the strains of the Ge core and the GeO2 shell strongly depend on the growth environments of the nanoparticles. Moreover, it can be found that there is a transformation of the strain on Ge core from tensile to compressive strain during the growth of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles. And, the transformation of the strain is closely related with the Young's modulus of surrounding materials of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanoparticles.

  17. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnS/Diamond-Like Carbon Core-Shell Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Han Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated ZnS/diamond-like carbon (DLC core-shell heterostructure nanowire using a simple two-step process: the vapor-liquid-solid method combined with radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD. As a core nanowire, ZnS nanowires with face-centered cubic structure were synthesized with a sputtered Au thin film, which exhibit a length and a diameter of ~10 μm and ~30–120 nm . After rf PECVD for DLC coating, The length and width of the dense ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were a range of ~10 μm  and 50–150 nm , respectively. In addition, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were characterized with scanning transmission electron microscopy. From the results, the products have flat and uniform DLC coating layer on ZnS nanowire in spite of high residual stress induced by the high sp3 fraction. To further understanding of the DLC coating layer, Raman spectroscopy was employed with ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires, which reveals two Raman bands at 1550 cm−1 (G peak and 1330 cm−1 (D peak. Finally, we investigated the optical properties from ultraviolet to infrared wavelength region using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometry. Related to optical properties, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires exhibit relatively lower absorbance and higher IR transmittance than that of ZnS nanowires.

  18. Control of the Speed of a Light-Induced Spin Transition through Mesoscale Core-Shell Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Ashley C; Slimani, Ahmed; Cain, John M; Andrus, Matthew J; Ahir, Akhil R; Abboud, Khalil A; Meisel, Mark W; Boukheddaden, Kamel; Talham, Daniel R

    2018-05-02

    The rate of the light-induced spin transition in a coordination polymer network solid dramatically increases when included as the core in mesoscale core-shell particles. A series of photomagnetic coordination polymer core-shell heterostructures, based on the light-switchable Rb a Co b [Fe(CN) 6 ] c · mH 2 O (RbCoFe-PBA) as core with the isostructural K j Ni k [Cr(CN) 6 ] l · nH 2 O (KNiCr-PBA) as shell, are studied using temperature-dependent powder X-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry. The core RbCoFe-PBA exhibits a charge transfer-induced spin transition (CTIST), which can be thermally and optically induced. When coupled to the shell, the rate of the optically induced transition from low spin to high spin increases. Isothermal relaxation from the optically induced high spin state of the core back to the low spin state and activation energies associated with the transition between these states were measured. The presence of a shell decreases the activation energy, which is associated with the elastic properties of the core. Numerical simulations using an electro-elastic model for the spin transition in core-shell particles supports the findings, demonstrating how coupling of the core to the shell changes the elastic properties of the system. The ability to tune the rate of optically induced magnetic and structural phase transitions through control of mesoscale architecture presents a new approach to the development of photoswitchable materials with tailored properties.

  19. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Suaste-Gómez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C. The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing. More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  20. A hybrid strain and thermal energy harvester based on an infra-red sensitive Er3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) ferroelectret structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Xie, Mengying; Bowen, Christopher Rhys; Davies, Philip R; Morgan, David J; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel infra-red (IR) sensitive Er 3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (Er-PVDF) film is developed for converting both mechanical and thermal energies into useful electrical power. The addition of Er 3+ to PVDF is shown to improve piezoelectric properties due to the formation of a self-polarized ferroelectric β-phase and the creation of an electret-like porous structure. In addition, we demonstrate that Er 3+ acts to enhance heat transfer into the Er-PVDF film due to its excellent infrared absorbance, which, leads to rapid and large temperature fluctuations and improved pyroelectric energy transformation. We demonstrate the potential of this novel material for mechanical energy harvesting by creating a durable ferroelectret energy harvester/nanogenerator (FTNG). The high thermal stability of the β-phase enables the FTNG to harvest large temperature fluctuations (ΔT ~ 24 K). Moreover, the superior mechanosensitivity, S M  ~ 3.4 VPa -1 of the FTNG enables the design of a wearable self-powered health-care monitoring system by human-machine integration. The combination of rare-earth ion, Er 3+ with the ferroelectricity of PVDF provides a new and robust approach for delivering smart materials and structures for self-powered wireless technologies, sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  1. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-03-04

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  2. Rapid Synthesis and Formation Mechanism of Core-Shell-Structured La-Doped SrTiO3 with a Nb-Doped Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Hee Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide a convenient and practical synthesis process for metal ion doping on the surface of nanoparticles in an assembled nanostructure, core-shell-structured La-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes with a Nb-doped surface layer were synthesized via a rapid synthesis combining a rapid sol-precipitation and hydrothermal process. The La-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes were formed at room temperature by a rapid dissolution of NaOH pellets during the rapid sol-precipitation process, and the Nb-doped surface (shell along with Nb-rich edges formed on the core nanocubes via the hydrothermal process. The formation mechanism of the core-shell-structured nanocubes and their shape evolution as a function of the Nb doping level were investigated. The synthesized core-shell-structured nanocubes could be arranged face-to-face on a SiO2/Si substrate by a slow evaporation process, and this nanostructured 10 μm thick thin film showed a smooth surface.

  3. CuO-In2O3 Core-Shell Nanowire Based Chemical Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowire was fabricated by a two-step method. The CuO nanowire core (NWs was firstly grown by the conventional thermal oxidation of Cu meshes at 500°C for 5 hours. Then, the CuO nanowires were immersed into the suspension of amorphous indium hydroxide deposited from the In(AC3 solution by ammonia. The CuO nanowires coated with In(OH3 were subsequently heated at 600°C to form the crystalline CuO-In2O3 core-shell structure, with In2O3 nanocrystals uniformly anchored on the CuO nanowires. The gas sensing properties of the formed CuO-In2O3 core-shell nanowires were investigated by various reducing gases such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and propane at elevated temperature. The sensors using the CuO-In2O3 nanowires show improved sensing performance to hydrogen and propane but a suppressed response to carbon monoxide, which could be attributed to the enhanced catalytic properties of CuO with the coated porous In2O3 shell and the p-n junction formed at the core-shell interface.

  4. Elastic stability of cylindrical shells with soft elastic cores: Biomimicking natural tubular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Gebran Nizar

    1994-01-01

    Thin walled cylindrical shell structures are widespread in nature: examples include plant stems, porcupine quills, and hedgehog spines. All have an outer shell of almost fully dense material supported by a low density, cellular core. In nature, all are loaded in combination of axial compression and bending: failure is typically by buckling. Natural structures are often optimized. Here we have analyzed the elastic buckling of a thin cylindrical shell supported by an elastic core to show that this structural configuration achieves significant weight saving over a hollow cylinder. The results of the analysis are compared with data from an extensive experimental program on uniaxial compression and four point bending tests on silicone rubber shells with and without compliant foam cores. The analysis describes the results of the mechanical tests well. Characterization of the microstructures of several natural tubular structures with foamlike cores (plant stems, quills, and spines) revealed them to be close to the optimal configurations predicted by the analytical model. Biomimicking of natural cylindrical shell structures and evolutionary design processes may offer the potential to increase the mechanical efficiency of engineering cylindrical shells.

  5. Aqueous-phase synthesis and color-tuning of core/shell/shell inorganic nanocrystals consisting of ZnSe, (Cu, Mn)-doped ZnS, and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongwan; Yoon, Sujin [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Felix Sunjoo, E-mail: fskim@cau.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nakjoong, E-mail: kimnj@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-25

    We report synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals based on ZnSe core, (Cu,Mn)-doped ZnS inner-shell, and ZnS outer-shell by using an eco-friendly method and their optical properties. Synthesis of core/shell/shell nanocrystals was performed by using a one-pot/three-step colloidal method with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a stabilizer in aqueous phase at low temperature. A double-shell structure was employed with inner-shell as a host for doping and outer-shell as a passivation layer for covering surface defects. Copper and manganese were introduced as single- or co-dopants during inner-shell formation, providing an effective means to control the emission color of the nanocrystals. The synthesized nanocrystals showed fluorescent emission ranging from blue to green, to white, and to orange, adjusted by doping components, amounts, and ratios. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the core/doped-shell/shell nanocrystals approached 36%. - Highlights: • ZnSe/ZnS:(Cu,Ms)/ZnS core/(doped)shell/shell nanocrystals were synthesized in an aqueous phase. • Emission color of nanocrystals was controlled from blue to white to orange by adjusting the atomic ratio of Cu and Mn co-dopants. • Photoluminescence quantum yields of the colloidal nanocrystals approached 36%.

  6. A general and high-yield galvanic displacement approach to Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells and enhanced electrocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou; Wang, Shaozhen; Sang, Yan

    2012-07-23

    In this work, we utilize the galvanic displacement synthesis and make it a general and efficient method for the preparation of Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures with porous shells, which consist of multilayer nanoparticles. The method is generally applicable to the preparation of Au-Au, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt core-shell nanostructures with typical porous shells. Moreover, the Au-Au isomeric core-shell nanostructure is reported for the first time. The lower oxidation states of Au(I), Pd(II), and Pt(II) are supposed to contribute to the formation of porous core-shell nanostructures instead of yolk-shell nanostructures. The electrocatalytic ethanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of porous Au-Pd core-shell nanostructures are assessed as a typical example for the investigation of the advantages of the obtained core-shell nanostructures. As expected, the Au-Pd core-shell nanostructure indeed exhibits a significantly reduced overpotential (the peak potential is shifted in the positive direction by 44 mV and 32 mV), a much improved CO tolerance (I(f)/I(b) is 3.6 and 1.63 times higher), and an enhanced catalytic stability in comparison with Pd nanoparticles and Pt/C catalysts. Thus, porous Au-M (M = Au, Pd, and Pt) core-shell nanostructures may provide many opportunities in the fields of organic catalysis, direct alcohol fuel cells, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and so forth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Core-shell particles as model compound for studying fouling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Troels Bach; Andersen, Morten Boel Overgaard

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic colloidal particles with hard cores and soft, water-swollen shells were used to study cake formation during ultrafiltration. The total cake resistance was lowest for particles with thick shells, which indicates that interparticular forces between particles (steric hindrance...... and electrostatic repulsion) influenced cake formation. At low pressure the specific cake resistance could be predicted from the Kozeny-Carman equation. At higher pressures, the resistance increased due to cake compression. Both cake formation and compression were reversible. For particles with thick shells...

  8. Fabrication and characterization of optical sensors using metallic core-shell thin film nanoislands for ozone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addanki, Satish; Nedumaran, D.

    2017-07-01

    Core-Shell nanostructures play a vital role in the sensor field owing to their performance improvements in sensing characteristics and well-established synthesis procedures. These nanostructures can be ingeniously tuned to achieve tailored properties for a particular application of interest. In this work, an Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands with APTMS (3-Aminopropyl trimethoxysilane) and PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol) binding agents was modeled, synthesized and characterized. The simulation results were used to fabricate the sensor through chemical route. The results of this study confirmed that the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands offered a better performance over the PVA based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands. Also, the APTMS based Ag-Au core-shell thin film nanoislands exhibited better sensitivity towards ozone sensing over the other types, viz., APTMS/PVA based Au-Ag core-shell and standalone Au/Ag thin film nanoislands.

  9. Broadband absorption and enhanced photothermal conversion property of octopod-like Ag@Ag2S core@shell structures with gradually varying shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zeng, Wenxia; Zhang, Canying; Meng, Zhaoguo; Wu, Jiawei; Zhu, Qunzhi; Wu, Daxiong; Zhu, Haitao

    2017-12-19

    Photothermal conversion materials have promising applications in many fields and therefore they have attracted tremendous attention. However, the multi-functionalization of a single nanostructure to meet the requirements of multiple photothermal applications is still a challenge. The difficulty is that most nanostructures have specific absoprtion band and are not flexible to different demands. In the current work, we reported the synthesis and multi-band photothermal conversion of Ag@Ag 2 S core@shell structures with gradually varying shell thickness. We synthesized the core@shell structures through the sulfidation of Ag nanocubes by taking the advantage of their spatially different reactivity. The resulting core@shell structures show an octopod-like mopgorlogy with a Ag 2 S bulge sitting at each corner of the Ag nanocubes. The thickness of the Ag 2 S shell gradually increases from the central surface towards the corners of the structure. The synthesized core@shell structures show a broad band absorption spectrum from 300 to 1100 nm. Enhanced photothermal conversion effect is observed under the illuminations of 635, 808, and 1064 nm lasers. The results indicate that the octopod-like Ag@Ag 2 S core@shell structures have characteristics of multi-band photothermal conversion. The current work might provide a guidance for the design and synthesis of multifunctional photothermal conversion materials.

  10. Chemical insights into the roles of nanowire cores on the growth and supercapacitor performances of Ni-Co-O/Ni(OH)₂ core/shell electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xuesong; Tang, Chunhua; Zhang, Liuyang; Yu, Zhi Gen; Gong, Hao

    2016-02-09

    Nanostructured core/shell electrodes have been experimentally demonstrated promising for high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. However, chemical insights into the significant roles of nanowire cores on the growth of shells and their supercapacitor behaviors still remain as a research shortfall. In this work, by substituting 1/3 cobalt in the Co3O4 nanowire core with nickel, a 61% enhancement of the specific mass-loading of the Ni(OH)2 shell, a tremendous 93% increase of the volumetric capacitance and a superior cyclability were achieved in a novel NiCo2O4/Ni(OH)2 core/shell electrode in contrast to a Co3O4/Ni(OH)2 one. A comparative study suggested that not only the growth of Ni(OH)2 shells but also the contribution of cores were attributed to the overall performances. Importantly, their chemical origins were revealed through a theoretical simulation of the core/shell interfacial energy changes. Besides, asymmetric supercapacitor devices and applications were also explored. The scientific clues and practical potentials obtained in this work are helpful for the design and analysis of alternative core/shell electrode materials.

  11. Facile synthesis and excellent microwave absorption properties of FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bingbing; Wang, Shiliang; Kuang, Daitao; Hou, Lizhen; Yu, Bowen; Lin, Liangwu; Deng, Lianwen; Huang, Han; He, Jun

    2018-02-01

    FeCo-C core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of 10-50 nm have been fabricated on a large scale by one-step metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using the mixture of cobalt acetylacetonate and iron acetylacetonate as the precursor. The Fe/Co molar ratio of the alloy nanocores and graphitization degree of C shells, and thus the magnetic and electric properties of the core-shell NPs, can be tuned by the deposition temperature ranging from 700 °C to 900 °C. Comparative tests reveal that a relatively high Fe/Co molar ratio and low graphitization degree benefit the microwave absorption (MA) performance of the core-shell NPs. The composite with 20 wt% core-shell NP obtained at 800 °C and 80 wt% paraffin exhibits an optimal reflection loss ({{R}}{{L}}) of -60.4 dB at 7.5 GHz with a thickness of 3.3 mm, and an effective absorption bandwidth (frequency range for RL ≤10 dB) of 9.2 GHz (8.8-18.0 GHz) under an absorber thickness of 2.5 mm. Our study provides a facile route for the fabrication of alloy-C core-shell nanostructures with high MA performance.

  12. Synthesis of hydrophobic zeolite X-SiO{sub 2} core-shell composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Liying [School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Singh, Ranjeet; Li Gang; Xiao Gongkui [Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Webley, Paul A., E-mail: paul.webley@eng.monash.edu.au [Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO-2CRC) (Australia); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Zhai Yuchun [School of Material and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrophobic 13X zeolite composites with silicalite and mesoporous silica shells are designed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These core-shell composites are silynated and their hydrophobicity is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of silica layer increases the density of surface hydroxyl groups which makes the improvement of the hydrophobicity possible by further silynation. - Abstract: Core-shell structures of zeolite X coated with silicalite as well as mesoporous (MCM-41) have been synthesized. Furthermore, the surfaces of the silicalite and mesoporous silica shells were silylated using organosilanes. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the properties of zeolite 13X-silicalite and zeolite 13X-mesoporous silica core-shells composite structures are well maintained even after the modification. As expected, the shell thickness increased with increase in synthesis time, however, the micropore volume decreased. Silylation with smaller organosilanes (trimethyl chlorosilane) resulted in decrease in surface area as they diffused through the pores; however, bulkier silane reacted with surface hydroxyl groups and maintained the pore structure. Contact angle measurements revealed that hydrophobicity of zeolite 13X was enhanced by the microporous and mesoporous shell coating and was further improved by silylation.

  13. No-Core Shell Model and Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Caurier, E; Bertulani, C

    2005-01-01

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications as well as the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss cross section calculations of p+ 6 Li and 6 He+p scattering as well as a calculation of the astrophysically important 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B S-factor

  14. Systematic investigation of the synthesis of core-shell poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) colloids with varying shell thickness and core diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinge, Mogens; Keiding, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    the morphology of the material for an specific application is going on. It is known from SFEP of styrene that the final colloidal size can be controlled by adjusting the ionic strength of the synthesis feed [1] and it is suggested that adding acrylic acid to the synthesis will result in a change...... in polymerization locus from the core to the surface [2]. There is at present not performed a systematically investigation in controlling the core size and shell thickness of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) core-shell colloids  (poly(ST-co-AA)).   Poly(ST-co-AA) colloids were synthesized by free-radical surfactant......-free emulsion co-polymerization (SFECP) at 70°C, using styrene as monomer and acrylic acid as co-monomer. Different batches of poly(ST-co-AA) colloids were synthesized with varying ionic strength and acrylic acid concentrations in the synthesis feed. The produced poly(ST-co-AA) colloids were analysed...

  15. Short-Range Correlated Magnetic Core-Shell CrO₂/Cr₂O₃ Nanorods: Experimental Observations and Theoretical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Ashish C; Li, Tai-Yue; Chan, Ting Shan; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2018-05-09

    With the evolution of synthesis and the critical characterization of core-shell nanostructures, short-range magnetic correlation is of prime interest in employing their properties to develop novel devices and widespread applications. In this regard, a novel approach of the magnetic core-shell saturated magnetization (CSSM) cylinder model solely based on the contribution of saturated magnetization in one-dimensional CrO₂/Cr₂O₃ core-shell nanorods (NRs) has been developed and applied for the determination of core-diameter and shell-thickness. The nanosized effect leads to a short-range magnetic correlation of ferromagnetic core-CrO₂ extracted from CSSM, which can be explained using finite size scaling method. The outcome of this study is important in terms of utilizing magnetic properties for the critical characterization of core-shell nanomagnetic materials.

  16. Novel fluorescent core-shell nanocontainers for cell membrane transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meizhen; Kuhlmann, Christoph R W; Sorokina, Ksenia; Li, Chen; Mihov, George; Pietrowski, Eweline; Koynov, Kaloian; Klapper, Markus; Luhmann, Heiko J; Müllen, Klaus; Weil, Tanja

    2008-05-01

    The synthesis and characterization of novel core-shell macromolecules consisting of a fluorescent perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxdiimide chromophore in the center surrounded by a hydrophobic polyphenylene shell as a first and a flexible hydrophilic polymer shell as a second layer was presented. Following this strategy, several macromolecules bearing varying polymer chain lengths, different polymer shell densities, and increasing numbers of positive and negative charges were achieved. Because all of these macromolecules reveal a good water solubility, their ability to cross cellular membranes was investigated. In this way, a qualitative relationship between the molecular architecture of these macromolecules and the biological response was established.

  17. Multi-photon excited luminescence of magnetic FePt core-shell nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K M; Kuhn, B

    2014-07-01

    We present magnetic FePt nanoparticles with a hydrophilic, inert, and biocompatible silico-tungsten oxide shell. The particles can be functionalized, optically detected, and optically manipulated. To show the functionalization the fluorescent dye NOPS was bound to the FePt core-shell nanoparticles with propyl-triethoxy-silane linkers and fluorescence of the labeled particles were observed in ethanol (EtOH). In aqueous dispersion the NOPS fluorescence is quenched making them invisible using 1-photon excitation. However, we observe bright luminescence of labeled and even unlabeled magnetic core-shell nanoparticles with multi-photon excitation. Luminescence can be detected in the near ultraviolet and the full visible spectral range by near infrared multi-photon excitation. For optical manipulation, we were able to drag clusters of particles, and maybe also single particles, by a focused laser beam that acts as optical tweezers by inducing an electric dipole in the insulated metal nanoparticles. In a first application, we show that the luminescence of the core-shell nanoparticles is bright enough for in vivo multi-photon imaging in the mouse neocortex down to cortical layer 5.

  18. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Jing; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. → The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. → The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 o C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  19. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Jing [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China); Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei [Sin-China Nano Technology Center, Key Lab for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Chen, Jian-Feng, E-mail: chenjf@mail.buct.edu.cn [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  20. Photo-physical properties enhancement of bare and core-shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumin, Md Abdul, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Akhter, Kazi Farida, E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca; Charpentier, Paul A., E-mail: pcharpentier@eng.uwo.ca [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, London Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) (also known as quantum dots, QDs) have attracted immense attention for their size-tunable optical properties that makes them impressive candidates for solar cells, light emitting devices, lasers, as well as biomedical imaging. However monodispersity, high and consistent photoluminescence, photostability, and biocompatibility are still major challenges. This work focuses on optimizing the photophysical properties and biocompatibility of QDs by forming core-shell nanostructures and their encapsulation by a carrier. Highly luminescent CdS and CdS-ZnS core-shell QDs with 5 nm sizes were synthesized using a facile approach based on pyrolysis of the single molecule precursors. After capping the CdS QDs with a thin layer of ZnS to reduce toxicity, the photoluminescence and photostability of the core-shell QDs was significantly enhanced. To make both the bare and core/shell structure QDs more resistant against photochemical reactions, a mesoporous silica layer was grown on the QDs through a reverse microemulsion technique based on hydrophobic interaction. This encapsulation enhanced the quantum yield and photostability compared to the bare QDs by providing much stronger resistance to oxidation and Oswald ripening of QDs. Encapsulation also improved biocompatibility of QDs that was evaluated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVEC)

  1. Simulations of the Light Scattering Properties of Metal/Oxide Core/Shell Nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, F.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M.G.; Ruffino, F.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of the optical properties of metal/dielectric core/shell nanoparticles, in this work we focus our attention on the light scattering properties, within the Mie framework, of some specific categories of these noteworthy nano structures. In particular, we report theoretical results of angle-dependent light scattering intensity and scattering efficiency for Ag/Ag 2 O, Al/Al 2 O 2 , Cu/Cu 2 O, Pd/PdO, and Ti/TiO 2 core/shell nanoparticles as a function of the core radius/shell thickness ratio and on a relative comparison. The results highlight the light scattering characteristics of these systems as a function of the radius/shell thickness ratio, helping in the choice of the more suitable materials and sizes for specific applications (i.e., dynamic light scattering for biological and molecular recognition, increasing light trapping in thin-film silicon, organic solar cells for achieving a higher photocurrent).

  2. Development of SiO2@TiO2 core-shell nanospheres for catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsou, I.; Panagopoulos, P.; Maggos, Th.; Arkas, M.; Tsetsekou, A.

    2018-05-01

    Silica-titania core-shell nanospheres, CSNp, were prepared via a simple and environmentally friendly two step route. First, silica cores were prepared through the hydrolysis-condensation reaction of silicic acid in the presence of hyperbranched poly(ethylene)imine (HBPEI) followed by repeating washing, centrifugation and, finally, calcination steps. To create the core-shell structure, various amounts of titanium isopropoxide were added to the cores and after that a HBPEI-water solution was added to hydrolyze the titanium precursor. Washing with ethanol and heat treatment followed. The optimization of processing parameters led to well-developed core-shell structures bearing a homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase coating over each silica core. The photocatalytic activity for NO was examined in a continuous flux photocatalytic reactor under real environmental conditions. The results revealed a very potent photocatalyst as the degradation percentage reached 84.27% for the core-shell material compared to the 82% of pure titania with the photodecomposition rates measured at 0.62 and 0.55 μg·m-2·s-1, respectively. In addition, catalytic activities of the CSNp and pure titania were investigated by monitoring the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol by an excess of NaBH4. Both materials exhibited excellent catalytic activity (100%), making the core-shell material a promising alternative catalyst to pure titania for various applications.

  3. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  4. Super-paramagnetic core-shell material with tunable magnetic behavior by regulating electron transfer efficiency and structure stability of the shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work, a spherical nano core-shell material was constructed by encapsulating Fe3O4 microsphere into conductive polymer-metal composite shell. The Fe3O4 microspheres were fabricated by assembling large amounts of Fe3O4 nano-crystals, which endowed the microspheres with super-paramagnetic property and high saturation magnetization. The polymer-metal composite shell was constructed by inserting Pt nano-particles (NPs into the conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPy. As size and dispersion of the Pt NPs has an important influence on their surface area and surface energy, it was effective to enlarge the interface area between PPy and Pt NPs, enhance the electron transfer efficiency of PPy/Pt composite shell, and reinforced the shell’s structural stability just by tuning the size and dispersion of Pt NPs. Moreover, core-shell structure of the materials made it convenient to investigate the PPy/Pt shell’s shielding effect on the Fe3O4 core’s magnetic response to external magnetic fields. It was found that the saturation magnetization of Fe3O4/PPy/Pt core-shell material could be reduced by 20.5% by regulating the conductivity of the PPy/Pt shell. Keywords: Super-paramagnetic, Conductivity, Magnetic shielding, Structural stability

  5. Cross-Linked Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Li-Ion Battery Integrated with Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we fabricate poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP by electrospinning for a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE for use in flexible Li-ion batteries (LIBs. As a solvent, we use N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP, which helps produce the cross-linked morphology of PVDF-co-HFP separator, owing to its low volatility. The cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an uptake rate higher than that of a commercialized polypropylene (PP separator. Moreover, the PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10−3 S/cm at room temperature, comparable with previously reported values. An LIB full-cell assembled with the PVDF-co-HFP-based GPE shows capacities higher than its counterpart with the commercialized PP separator, confirming that the cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator provides highly efficient ionic conducting pathways. In addition, we integrate a flexible LIB cell using the PVDF-co-HFP GPE with a flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED, demonstrating a fully flexible unit of LIB and OLED.

  6. Optimization and photomodification of extremely broadband optical response of plasmonic core-shell obscurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Vashista C; Nyga, Piotr; Drachev, Vladimir P

    2016-12-15

    Plasmonic resonances of the metallic shells depend on their nanostructure and geometry of the core, which can be optimized for the broadband extinction normalized by mass. The fractal nanostructures can provide a broadband extinction. It allows as well for a laser photoburning of holes in the extinction spectra and consequently windows of transparency in a controlled manner. The studied core-shell microparticles synthesized using colloidal chemistry consist of gold fractal nanostructures grown on precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) microparticles or silica (SiO 2 ) microspheres. The optimization includes different core sizes and shapes, and shell nanostructures. It shows that the rich surface of the PCC flakes is the best core for the fractal shells providing the highest mass normalized extinction over the extremely broad spectral range. The mass normalized extinction cross section up to 3m 2 /g has been demonstrated in the broad spectral range from the visible to mid-infrared. Essentially, the broadband response is a characteristic feature of each core-shell microparticle in contrast to a combination of several structures resonant at different wavelengths, for example nanorods with different aspect ratios. The photomodification at an IR wavelength makes the window of transparency at the longer wavelength side. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wave Function Engineering in CdSe/PbS Core/Shell Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieliczka, Brian M; Kaledin, Alexey L; Buhro, William E; Loomis, Richard A

    2018-05-25

    The synthesis of epitaxial CdSe/PbS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) is reported. The PbS shell grows in a rock salt structure on the zinc blende CdSe core, thereby creating a crystal structure mismatch through additive growth. Absorption and photoluminescence (PL) band edge features shift to lower energies with increasing shell thickness, but remain above the CdSe bulk band gap. Nevertheless, the profiles of the absorption spectra vary with shell growth, indicating that the overlap of the electron and hole wave functions is changing significantly. This leads to over an order of magnitude reduction of absorption near the band gap and a large, tunable energy shift, of up to 550 meV, between the onset of strong absorption and the band edge PL. While the bulk valence and conduction bands adopt an inverse type-I alignment, the observed spectroscopic behavior is consistent with a transition between quasi-type-I and quasi-type-II behavior depending on shell thickness. Three effective mass approximation models support this hypothesis and suggest that the large difference in effective masses between the core and shell results in hole localization in the CdSe core and a delocalization of the electron across the entire QD. These results show the tuning of wave functions and transition energies in CdSe/PbS nanoheterostructures with prospects for use in optoelectronic devices for luminescent solar concentration or multiexciton generation.

  8. DESIGN AND CONTROL OF SOAP-FREE HYDROPHILIC-HYDROPHOBIC CORE-SHELL LATEX PARTICLES WITH HIGH CARBOXYL CONTENT IN THE CORE OF THE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-jiao Ji; Yi-ming Jiang; Bo-tian Li; Wei Deng; Cheng-you Kan

    2012-01-01

    Soap-free hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell latex particles with high carboxyl content in the core of the particles were synthesized via the seeded emulsion polymerization using methyl methacrylate (MMA),butyl acrylate (BA),methacrylic acid (MAA),styrene (St) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as monomers,and the influences of MMA content used in the core preparation on polymerization,particle size and morphology were investigated by transmission electron microscopy,dynamic light scattering and conductometric titration.The results showed that the seeded emulsion polymerization could be carried out smoothly using "starved monomer feeding process" when MAA content in the core preparation was equal to or less than 24 wt%,and the encapsulating efficiency of the hydrophilic P(MMA-BA-MAA-EGDMA) core with the hydrophobic PSt shell decreased with the increase in MAA content.When an interlayer of P(MMA-MAA-St) with moderate polarity was inserted between the P(MMA-BA-MAA-EGDMA) core and the PSt shell,well designed soap-free hydrophilic-hydrophobic core-shell latex particles with 24 wt% MAA content in the core preparation were obtained.

  9. Core-Shell Structuring of Pure Metallic Aerogels towards Highly Efficient Platinum Utilization for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Hübner, René; Sasaki, Kotaro; Zhang, Yuanzhe; Su, Dong; Ziegler, Christoph; Vukmirovic, Miomir B; Rellinghaus, Bernd; Adzic, Radoslav R; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2018-03-05

    The development of core-shell structures remains a fundamental challenge for pure metallic aerogels. Here we report the synthesis of Pd x Au-Pt core-shell aerogels composed of an ultrathin Pt shell and a composition-tunable Pd x Au alloy core. The universality of this strategy ensures the extension of core compositions to Pd transition-metal alloys. The core-shell aerogels exhibited largely improved Pt utilization efficiencies for the oxygen reduction reaction and their activities show a volcano-type relationship as a function of the lattice parameter of the core substrate. The maximum mass and specific activities are 5.25 A mg Pt -1 and 2.53 mA cm -2 , which are 18.7 and 4.1 times higher than those of Pt/C, respectively, demonstrating the superiority of the core-shell metallic aerogels. The proposed core-based activity descriptor provides a new possible strategy for the design of future core-shell electrocatalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jutika; Saikia, Rashmi; Datta, Pranayee

    2016-10-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications.

  11. Modeling of absorption and scattering properties of core -shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in optical domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee; Saikia, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes the study of core-shell nanoparticles for application as nanoantenna in the optical domain. To obtain the absorption and extinction efficiencies as well as the angular distribution of the far field radiation pattern and the resonance wavelengths for these metal-dielectric, dielectric-metal and metal-metal core-shell nanoparticles in optical domain, we have used Finite Element Method based COMSOL Multiphysics Software and Mie Theory. From the comparative study of the extinction efficiencies of core-shell nanoparticles of different materials, it is found that for silica - gold core - shell nanoparticles, the resonant wavelength is greater than that of the gold - silver, silver-gold and gold-silica core - shell nanoparticles and also the radiation pattern of the silica-gold core-shell nanoparticle is the most suitable one from the point of view of directivity. The dielectric functions of the core and shell material as well as of the embedded matrix are extremely important and plays a very major role to tune the directivity and resonance wavelength. Such highly controllable parameters of the dielectric - metal core - shell nanoparticles make them suitable for efficient coupling of optical radiation into nanoscale structures for a broad range of applications in the field of communications. (paper)

  12. Gold nanorod@iron oxide core-shell heterostructures: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhao, Junwei; You, Wenlong; Cheng, Danhong; Ni, Weihai

    2017-03-17

    Iron oxides are directly coated on the surface of cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-capped gold nanorods (AuNRs) in aqueous solutions at room temperature, which results in AuNR@Fe 2 O 3 , AuNR@Fe 3 O 4 , and AuNR@Fe 2 O 3 @Fe 3 O 4 core-shell heterostructures. The iron oxide shells are uniform, smooth, with characteristic porous structure, and their thickness can be readily tuned. The shell formation is highly dependent on the reaction parameters including pH and CTAB concentration. The Fe 2 O 3 shell is amorphous and exhibits nearly zero remanence and coercivity, while the Fe 3 O 4 shell is ferromagnetic with a low saturation magnetization of about 0.5 emu g -1 due to its low crystallinity and the porous structure. At elevated temperatures achieved by plasmonic heating of the Au core, the Fe 2 O 3 shell transforms from amorphous to γ-Fe 2 O 3 and α-Fe 2 O 3 phases, while the Fe 3 O 4 phase disappears because of the oxidation of Fe 2+ . A 1.4-fold increase of photocatalytic performance is observed due to the plasmonic resonance provided by the Au core. The photocatalytic efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 is about 1.7-fold higher than Fe 2 O 3 as more surface defects are present on the Fe 3 O 4 shell, promoting the adsorption and activation of reagents on the surface during the catalytic reactions. This approach can be readily extended to other nanostructures including Au spherical nanoparticles and nanostars. These highly uniform and multifunctional core-shell heterostructures can be of great potential in a variety of energy, magnetic, and environment applications.

  13. Synthesis and detection the oxidization of Co cores of Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles by in situ XRD and EXAFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunhao; Zhao, Ziyan; Wu, Zhonghua; Zhou, Ying

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Co@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method. The oxidization of Co core nanoparticles was studied by the synchrotron radiation-based techniques including in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) up to 800°C in air and N2 protection conditions, respectively. It was found that the oxidization of Co cores is undergoing three steps regardless of being in air or in N2 protection condition. In the first step ranging from room temperature to 200°C, the Co cores were dominated by Co(0) state as well as small amount of Co(2+) ions. When temperature was above 300°C, the interface between Co cores and SiO2 shells was gradually oxidized into Co(2+), and the CoO layer was observed. As the temperature increasing to 800°C, the Co cores were oxidized to Co3O4 or Co3O4/CoO. Nevertheless, the oxidization kinetics of Co cores is different for the Co@SiO2 in air and N2 gas conditions. Generally, the O2 in the air could get through the SiO2 shells easily onto the Co core surface and induce the oxidization of the Co cores due to the mesoporous nature of the SiO2 shells. However, in N2 gas condition, the O atoms can only be from the SiO2 shells, so the diffusion effect of O atoms in the interface between Co core and SiO2 shell plays a key role.

  14. Studies on II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanostructures. Introduction of the core/shell/shell structure and development of CdSe nanocrystals in an automatized procedure; Untersuchungen an II-VI und III-V Halbleiternanostrukturen. Einfuehrung der Core/shell/shell-Struktur und Darstellung von CdSe-Nanokristallen in einem automatisierten Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, I.

    2005-11-15

    The work in this dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of fluorescent II-VI and III-V-Nanomaterials. Highly luminescent and photostable Nanocrystals with narrow size distributions were prepared. It was shown that nearly monodisperse CdSe-Nanocrystals could be prepared from Cd(Ac){sub 2} and TOPSe in a mixture of TOPO/TOP/HDA/TDPA. Nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS-Core/shell-Nanocrystals have been prepared in a one-pot-synthesis by injection of H{sub 2}S-Gas into a freshly prepared crude solution of CdSe. The passivation of the CdSe-core with an inorganic shell of CdS resulted in the drastic improvement of the photoluminescence-efficiency of the colloidal solution. Reproducible room-temperature quantum yields reached up to a value of 85%. Photostability investigations have proved the enhanced stability of CdSe/CdS-Nanocrystals compared to CdSe-Nanocrystals under illumination with UV-Light. A novel type of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal structure has been developed, consisting of a CdSe core and two anorganic shells. Highly fluorescent and nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS/ZnS- and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS-Core/shell/shell-nanocrystals have been prepared via organometallic- and acetate-precursors. The Core/she ll/shell particles reached reproducible room-temperature quantum yields up to 85%. Photostability investigations among CdSe-core, CdSe/CdS-Core/shell- and CdSe/CdS/ZnS- Core/shell/-shell-nanocrystals under illumination with UV-light have proved the highest photostability of the Core/shell/shell-particles. The photostabilities of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS-and CdSe/ZnS-nanocrystals were compared under illumination with intense laser-beam in air. Another part of this work focused on the development of an automated synthesis procedure of CdSe-nanocrystals by constructing and implementing a flow-reactor system. The size and structure of prepared nanocrystals depended considerably on the Cd:Se-precursorratio and the flow-rate. The preparation of CdSe using Cd(Ac)2

  15. Photonic crystals of core-shell colloidal particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikov, K.P.; Moroz, A.; Blaaderen, A. van

    2001-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and optical transmission studies of thin three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals of high-dielectric ZnS-core and low-dielectric SiO2-shell colloidal particles. These samples were fabricated using a vertical controlled drying method. The spectral position and width of a

  16. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajabi, S.K.; Sohrabnezhad, Sh.; Ghafourian, S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe 3 O 4 @HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe 3 O 4 core and a CuO shell. The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe 3 O 4 -CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu 2+ ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe 3 O 4 @CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe 3 O 4 . • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/TiO 2 composite core/shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic solar cells; ZnO/TiO2 core/shell; nanorod arrays; sol–gel. ... on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate via a facile sol–gel dip-coating process. Effects of solution pH for ZnO, annealing temperature, growth time and temperature on the ... The optical and electrical properties of the bare TiO2 thin film and core/shell composite ...

  18. Significant efficiency enhancement of hybrid solar cells using core-shell nanowire geometry for energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shin-Hung; Chang, Hung-Chih; Wang, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Szu-Ying; Lin, Chin-An; Chen, Show-An; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

    2011-12-27

    A novel strategy employing core-shell nanowire arrays (NWAs) consisting of Si/regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) was demonstrated to facilitate efficient light harvesting and exciton dissociation/charge collection for hybrid solar cells (HSCs). We experimentally demonstrate broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting characteristics of core-shell NWA HSCs due to their subwavelength features, further supported by the simulation based on finite-difference time domain analysis. Meanwhile, core-shell geometry of NWA HSCs guarantees efficient charge separation since the thickness of the P3HT shells is comparable to the exciton diffusion length. Consequently, core-shell HSCs exhibit a 61% improvement of short-circuit current for a conversion efficiency (η) enhancement of 31.1% as compared to the P3HT-infiltrated Si NWA HSCs with layers forming a flat air/polymer cell interface. The improvement of crystal quality of P3HT shells due to the formation of ordering structure at Si interfaces after air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) illumination was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The core-shell geometry with the interfacial improvement by AM 1.5G illumination promotes more efficient exciton dissociation and charge separation, leading to η improvement (∼140.6%) due to the considerable increase in V(oc) from 257 to 346 mV, J(sc) from 11.7 to 18.9 mA/cm(2), and FF from 32.2 to 35.2%, which is not observed in conventional P3HT-infiltrated Si NWA HSCs. The stability of the Si/P3HT core-shell NWA HSCs in air ambient was carefully examined. The core-shell geometry should be applicable to many other material systems of solar cells and thus holds high potential in third-generation solar cells.

  19. Fabrication and micro-photoluminescence property of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Guozhang; Gou, Guangyang; Wu, Zeming; Chen, Yu; Li, Hongjian [Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory for Super-microstructure and Ultrafast Process, School of Physics and Electronics, Changsha, Hunan (China); Wan, Qiang [Hunan University, School of Physics and Electronics, Changsha (China); Zou, Bingsuo [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing Key Lab of Nanophotonics and Ultrafine Optoelectronic Systems, School of Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01

    Hetero-epitaxial CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by a source-controllable chemical vapor deposition method. A two-stage growth mechanism was proposed to the growth process of the core/shell NWs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) property of individual NW was studied by a confocal microscopy system. The pure CdSe NW emits a red light with peak at 712.3 nm, which is inconsistent with the CdSe band-edge emission. The CdSe/CdS core/shell NW emits two apparent peaks, one is an intensive red emission peak centered at 715.2 nm and the other is a weak green emission peak located at 516.2 nm. The room temperature μ-PL spectrum shows that the PL intensity of CdSe NW was evidently promoted by coating the CdS shell, and this is because CdS improves the surface state optimizing the energy band structure of CdSe NW. The as-synthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell NW has more efficient PL quantum yields than pure CdSe NW and may find potential applications in nanoscale photonic devices. (orig.)

  20. Fabrication and micro-photoluminescence property of CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Guozhang; Gou, Guangyang; Wu, Zeming; Chen, Yu; Li, Hongjian; Wan, Qiang; Zou, Bingsuo

    2015-01-01

    Hetero-epitaxial CdSe/CdS core/shell nanowires (NWs) were prepared by a source-controllable chemical vapor deposition method. A two-stage growth mechanism was proposed to the growth process of the core/shell NWs. Micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) property of individual NW was studied by a confocal microscopy system. The pure CdSe NW emits a red light with peak at 712.3 nm, which is inconsistent with the CdSe band-edge emission. The CdSe/CdS core/shell NW emits two apparent peaks, one is an intensive red emission peak centered at 715.2 nm and the other is a weak green emission peak located at 516.2 nm. The room temperature μ-PL spectrum shows that the PL intensity of CdSe NW was evidently promoted by coating the CdS shell, and this is because CdS improves the surface state optimizing the energy band structure of CdSe NW. The as-synthesized CdSe/CdS core/shell NW has more efficient PL quantum yields than pure CdSe NW and may find potential applications in nanoscale photonic devices. (orig.)

  1. Controlled-release and preserved bioactivity of proteins from (self-assembled core-shell double-walled microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan W

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Weien Yuan1,2, Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In order to address preserved protein bioactivities and protein sustained-release problems, a method for preparing double-walled microspheres with a core (protein-loaded nanoparticles with a polymer-suspended granule system-formed core and a second shell (a polymer-formed shell for controlled drug release and preserved protein bioactivities has been developed using (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W phases. The method, based on our previous microsphere preparation method (solid-in-oil phase-in-hydrophilic oil-in-water (S/O/Oh/W, employs different concentric poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, poly(D,L-lactide, and protein-loaded nanoparticles to produce a suspended liquid which then self-assembles to form shell-core microspheres in the hydrophilic oil phase, which are then solidified in the water phase. Variations in the preparation parameters allowed complete encapsulation by the shell phase, including the efficient formation of a poly(D,L-lactide shell encapsulating a protein-loaded nanoparticle-based poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide core. This method produces core-shell double-walled microspheres that show controlled protein release and preserved protein bioactivities for 60 days. Based upon these results, we concluded that the core-shell double-walled microspheres might be applied for tissue engineering and therapy for chronic diseases, etc.Keywords: protein delivery, protein stability, core-shell microspheres, dextran nanoparticles

  2. Synthesis of Various Metal/TiO2 Core/shell Nanorod Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Guan-zhong; Hong, Xun; Shen, Xiao-shuang

    2011-02-01

    We present a general approach to fabricate metal/TiO2 core/shell nanorod structures by two-step electrodeposition. Firstly, TiO2 nanotubes with uniform wall thickness are prepared in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes by electrodeposition. The wall thickness of the nanotubes could be easily controlled by modulating the deposition time, and their outer diameter and length are only limited by the channel diameter and the thickness of the AAO membranes, respectively. The nanotubes' tops prepared by this method are open, while the bottoms are connected directly with the Au film at the back of the AAO membranes. Secondly, Pd, Cu, and Fe elements are filled into the TiO2 nanotubes to form core/shell structures. The core/shell nanorods prepared by this two-step process are high density and free-standing, and their length is dependent on the deposition time.

  3. Peptide Microencapsulation by Core-Shell Printing Technology for Edible Film Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco-Pascual, N.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.; Stevens, R.S.A.; Montero, M.P.; Gómez-Guillén, M.C.; Cate, A.T.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new microencapsulation methodology for incorporation of functional ingredients in edible films. Core-shell microcapsules filled with demineralized water (C) or 1 % (w/v) peptide solution (Cp) were prepared using the microencapsulation printer technology. Shell material,

  4. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.; Rajendran, Arvind; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin

  5. Transferrin targeted core-shell nanomedicine for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-11-01

    Combinatorial drug delivery is an attractive, but challenging requirement of next generation cancer nanomedicines. Here, we report a transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine formed by encapsulating two clinically used single-agent drugs, doxorubicin and sorafenib against liver cancer. Doxorubicin was loaded in poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-core and sorafenib in albumin nano-shell, both formed by a sequential freeze-thaw/coacervation method. While sorafenib from the nano-shell inhibited aberrant oncogenic signaling involved in cell proliferation, doxorubicin from the nano-core evoked DNA intercalation thereby killing >75% of cancer cells. Upon targeting using transferrin ligands, the nanoparticles showed enhanced cellular uptake and synergistic cytotoxicity in ~92% of cells, particularly in iron-deficient microenvironment. Studies using 3D spheroids of liver tumor indicated efficient penetration of targeted core-shell nanoparticles throughout the tissue causing uniform cell killing. Thus, we show that rationally designed core-shell nanoparticles can effectively combine clinically relevant single-agent drugs for exerting synergistic activity against liver cancer. Transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine encapsulating doxorubicin and sorafenib was studied as a drug delivery system against hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in enhanced and synergistic therapeutic effects, paving the way towards potential future clinical applications of similar techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interface engineered ferrite@ferroelectric core-shell nanostructures: A facile approach to impart superior magneto-electric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Ann Rose; Raneesh, B.; Das, Dipankar; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi Samuel; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    The electric field control of magnetism in multiferroics is attractive for the realization of ultra-fast and miniaturized low power device applications like nonvolatile memories. Room temperature hybrid multiferroic heterostructures with core-shell (0-0) architecture (ferrite core and ferroelectric shell) were developed via a two-step method. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images confirm the core-shell structure. The temperature dependant magnetization measurements and Mossbauer spectra reveal superparamagnetic nature of the core-shell sample. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops reveal leaky nature of the samples. The results indicate the promising applications of the samples for magneto-electric memories and spintronics.

  7. From core/shell to hollow Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 nanoparticles: evolution of the magnetic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, Z; Khurshid, H; Alonso, J; Phan, M H; Mukherjee, P; Srikanth, H

    2015-01-01

    High quality Fe/γ-Fe_2O_3 core/shell, core/void/shell, and hollow nanoparticles with two different sizes of 8 and 12 nm were synthesized, and the effect of morphology, surface and finite-size effects on their magnetic properties including the exchange bias (EB) effect were systematically investigated. We find a general trend for both systems that as the morphology changes from core/shell to core/void/shell, the magnetization of the system decays and inter-particle interactions become weaker, while the effective anisotropy and the EB effect increase. The changes are more drastic when the nanoparticles become completely hollow. Noticeably, the morphological change from core/shell to hollow increases the mean blocking temperature for the 12 nm particles but decreases for the 8 nm particles. The low-temperature magnetic behavior of the 12 nm particles changes from a collective super-spin-glass system mediated by dipolar interactions for the core/shell nanoparticles to a frustrated cluster glass-like state for the shell nanograins in the hollow morphology. On the other hand for the 8 nm nanoparticles core/shell and hollow particles the magnetic behavior is more similar, and a conventional spin glass-like transition is obtained at low temperatures. In the case of the hollow nanoparticles, the coupling between the inner and outer spin layers in the shell gives rise to an enhanced EB effect, which increases with increasing shell thickness. This indicates that the morphology of the shell plays a crucial role in this kind of exchange-biased systems. (paper)

  8. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet@metal-organic framework core-shell nanoparticles for photo-chemo combination therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xianfeng; Zapien, J. Antonio; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-01

    Recently, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have started to be developed as a promising platform for bioimaging and drug delivery. On the other hand, combination therapies using multiple approaches are demonstrated to achieve much enhanced efficacy. Herein, we report, for the first time, core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agent and a MOF shell while simultaneously carrying a chemotherapeutic drug for effective combination therapy. In this work, core-shell nanoparticles of zeolitic-imadazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as shell embedded with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets as core are fabricated by growing ZIF-8 in the presence of g-C3N4 nanosheets. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is then loaded into the ZIF-8 shell of the core-shell nanoparticles. The combination of the chemotherapeutic effects of DOX and the PDT effect of g-C3N4 nanosheets can lead to considerably enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, the red fluorescence of DOX and the blue fluorescence of g-C3N4 nanosheets provide the additional function of dual-color imaging for monitoring the drug release process.Recently, nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) have started to be developed as a promising platform for bioimaging and drug delivery. On the other hand, combination therapies using multiple approaches are demonstrated to achieve much enhanced efficacy. Herein, we report, for the first time, core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agent and a MOF shell while simultaneously carrying a chemotherapeutic drug for effective combination therapy. In this work, core-shell nanoparticles of zeolitic-imadazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as shell embedded with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets as core are fabricated by growing ZIF-8 in the presence of g-C3N4 nanosheets. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is then loaded into the ZIF-8 shell of the core-shell nanoparticles. The combination of the chemotherapeutic effects of DOX

  9. Ellipsoidal all-dielectric Fano resonant core-shell metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Reena; Kalra, Yogita; Kumar, Ajeet

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, ellipsoidal core (Si) and shell (SiO2) metamaterial has been proposed for highly directional properties. At the wavelength of magnetic resonance, Fano dip occurs in the backward scattering cross section and forward scattering enhancement takes place at the same wavelength so that there is an increment in the directivity. Effect on the directivity by changing the length of ellipsoidal nanoparticle along semi-axes has been analyzed. Two Fano resonances have been observed by decreasing the length of the nanoparticle along the semi-axis having electric polarization, where first and second Fano resonances are attributed to the dipole and quadrupole moments, respectively. These Fano resonant wavelengths in ellipsoidal nanoparticle exhibit higher directivity than the Kerker's type scattering or forward scattering shown by symmetrical structures like sphere. So, this core-shell metamaterial can act as an efficient directional nanoantenna.

  10. Optical properties of supported core-shell and alloy silver/gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubenthal, Frank; Traeger, Frank [Universitaet Kassel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    For many applications like surface enhanced Raman scattering in which the optical field enhancement associated with surface plasmon excitation is exploited, tunability of this collective resonance over a wide range is required. For this purpose we have prepared core-shell and alloy nanoparticles consisting of Ag and Au. The core-shell nanoparticles were made by subsequent deposition of Ag and Au atoms and vice versa on dielectric substrates followed by diffusion and nucleation. One of the most interesting among the numerous results is that the plasmon frequency can be tuned from 2.8 eV (442 nm) to 2.1 eV (590 nm) depending on the Au shell thickness. Subsequent annealing of the core-shell nanoparticles causes a shift of the resonance frequency to 2.6 eV. Theoretical modelling allows us to attribute this observation to the formation of alloy nanoparticles. Finally, we have measured the dephasing time T{sub 2} of the alloy nanoparticles by means of spectral hole burning. T{sub 2} amounts to 8.1{+-}1.6 fs, in good agreement with the dephasing time T{sub 2}=8.9 fs that is included in the dielectric function of the bulk.

  11. Core-shell polymer nanoparticles for prevention of GSH drug detoxification and cisplatin delivery to breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnar, Bapurao; Sharma, Kavita; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2015-10-01

    Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification of cytoplasmic thiols is urgently required for achieving efficacy in breast cancer treatment that is over expressed by glutathione (GSH, thiol-oligopeptide). GSH-resistant polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles were custom designed based on biodegradable carboxylic functional polycaprolactone (PCL)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) diblock copolymers. The core of the nanoparticle was fixed as 100 carboxylic units and the shell part was varied using various molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ethers (MW of PEGs = 100-5000 g mol-1) as initiator in the ring-opening polymerization. The complexation of cisplatin aquo species with the diblocks produced core-shell nanoparticles of 75 nm core with precise size control the particles up to 190 nm. The core-shell nanoparticles were found to be stable in saline solution and PBS and they exhibited enhanced stability with increase in the PEG shell thickness at the periphery. The hydrophobic PCL layer on the periphery of the cisplatin core behaved as a protecting layer against the cytoplasmic thiol residues (GSH and cysteine) and exhibited embryonic fibroblast cells (Wt-MEFs), and breast cancer (MCF-7) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines. Free cisplatin and polymer drug core-shell nanoparticles showed similar cytotoxicity effects in the HeLa cells. In MCF-7 cells, the free cisplatin drug exhibited 50% cell death whereas complete cell death (100%) was accomplished by the polymer-cisplatin core-shell nanoparticles. Confocal microscopic images confirmed that the core-shell nanoparticles were taken up by the MCF-7 and HeLa cells and they were accumulated both at the cytoplasm as well at peri-nuclear environments. The present investigation lays a new foundation for the polymer-based core-shell nanoparticles approach for overcoming detoxification in platinum drugs for the treatment of GSH over-expressed breast cancer cells.Platinum drug delivery against the detoxification

  12. The influence of MOVPE growth conditions on the shell of core-shell GaN microrod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Avramescu, Adrian; Koller, Andreas; Fernando-Saavedra, Amalia; Hartmann, Jana; Ledig, Johannes; Waag, Andreas; Strassburg, Martin; Lugauer, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    A core-shell geometry is employed for most next-generation, three-dimensional opto-electric devices based on III-V semiconductors and grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Controlling the shape of the shell layers is fundamental for device optimization, however no detailed analysis of the influence of growth conditions has been published to date. We study homogeneous arrays of gallium nitride core-shell microrods with height and diameter in the micrometer range and grown in a two-step selective area MOVPE process. Changes in shell shape and homogeneity effected by deliberately altered shell growth conditions were accurately assessed by digital analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscope images. Most notably, two temperature regimes could be established, which show a significantly different behavior with regard to material distribution. Above 900 °C of wafer carrier temperature, the shell thickness along the growth axis of the rods was very homogeneous, however variations between vicinal rods increase. In contrast, below 830 °C the shell thickness is higher close to the microrod tip than at the base of the rods, while the lateral homogeneity between neighboring microrods is very uniform. This temperature effect could be either amplified or attenuated by changing the remaining growth parameters such as reactor pressure, structure distance, gallium precursor, carrier gas composition and dopant materials. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with respect to GaN decomposition as well as the surface and gas phase diffusion of growth species, leading to an improved control of the functional layers in next-generation 3D V-III devices.

  13. Subject Index 1207..1226

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Application of polyaniline/manganese dioxide composites for .... triaxial porcelain composition. 897 ... Analysis on insulator–metal transition in yttrium doped ... TiO2/polyaniline core-shell nanocomposite ..... filtration hollow fibre membranes.

  14. Atomistic Tight-Binding Theory of Electron-Hole Exchange Interaction in Morphological Evolution of CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS Core/Shell Nanorod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worasak Sukkabot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the atomistic tight-binding theory (TB and a configuration interaction (CI description, the electron-hole exchange interaction in the morphological transformation of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanodisk to CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanorod is described with the aim of understanding the impact of the structural shapes on the change of the electron-hole exchange interaction. Normally, the ground hole states confined in typical CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals are of heavy hole-like character. However, the atomistic tight-binding theory shows that a transition of the ground hole states from heavy hole-like to light hole-like contribution with the increasing aspect ratios of the CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanostructures is recognized. According to the change in the ground-state hole characters, the electron-hole exchange interaction is also significantly altered. To do so, optical band gaps, ground-state electron character, ground-state hole character, oscillation strengths, ground-state coulomb energies, ground-state exchange energies, and dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting (stoke shift are numerically demonstrated. These atomistic computations obviously show the sensitivity with the aspect ratios. Finally, the alteration in the hole character has a prominent effect on dark-bright (DB excitonic splitting.

  15. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO2 core/shell nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-01-01

    A Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al 2 O 3 gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO 2 core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO 2 shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering

  16. Enhanced charge storage capability of Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, C L; Lee, P S

    2008-09-03

    A Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanostructure embedded in an Al(2)O(3) gate dielectrics matrix was produced. A larger memory window with good data retention was observed in the fabricated metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor for Ge/GeO(2) core/shell nanoparticles compared to Ge nanoparticles only, which is due to the high percentage of defects located on the surface and grain boundaries of the GeO(2) shell. We believe that the findings presented here provide physical insight and offer useful guidelines to controllably modify the charge storage properties of indirect semiconductors through defect engineering.

  17. Efficient tungsten oxide/bismuth oxyiodide core/shell photoanode for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haipeng; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhifeng

    2017-11-01

    The novel WO3 nanorods (NRs)/BiOI core/shell structure composite is used as an efficient photoanode applied in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for the first time. It is synthesized via facile hydrothermal method and, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. This facile synthesis route can achieve uniform WO3/BiOI core/shell composite nanostructures and obtain varied BiOI morphologies simultaneously. The WO3 NRs/BiOI-20 composite exhibits enhanced PEC activity compared to pristine WO3 with a photocurrent density of 0.79 mA cm-2 measured at 0.8 V vs. RHE under AM 1.5G. This excellent performance benefits from the broader absorption spectrum and suppressed electron-hole recombination. This novel core/shell composite may provide insight in developing more efficient solar driven photoelectrodes.

  18. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) phase inversion coating as a diffusion layer to enhance the cathode performance in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wulin

    2014-12-01

    A low cost poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) phase inversion coating was developed as a cathode diffusion layer to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A maximum power density of 1430 ± 90 mW m-2 was achieved at a PVDF-HFP loading of 4.4 mg cm-2 (4:1 polymer:carbon black), with activated carbon as the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst. This power density was 31% higher than that obtained with a more conventional platinum (Pt) catalyst on carbon cloth (Pt/C) cathode with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) diffusion layer (1090 ± 30 mW m-2). The improved performance was due in part to a larger oxygen mass transfer coefficient of 3 × 10-3 cm s-1 for the PVDF-HFP coated cathode, compared to 1.7 × 10-3 cm s -1 for the carbon cloth/PTFE-based cathode. The diffusion layer was resistant to electrolyte leakage up to water column heights of 41 ± 0.5 cm (4.4 mg cm-2 loading of 4:1 polymer:carbon black) to 70 ± 5 cm (8.8 mg cm-2 loading of 4:1 polymer:carbon black). This new type of PVDF-HFP/carbon black diffusion layer could reduce the cost of manufacturing cathodes for MFCs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered nanoparticles on parameters of gold core and material shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovalov, V.K.; Astafyeva, L.G.; Zharov, V.P.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of nonlinear dependences of optical properties of spherical two-layered gold core and some material shell nanoparticles (NPs) placed in water on parameters of core and shell was carried out on the basis of the extended Mie theory. Efficiency cross-sections of absorption, scattering and extinction of radiation with wavelength 532 nm by core–shell NPs in the ranges of core radii r 00 =5–40 nm and of relative NP radii r 1 /r 00 =1–8 were calculated (r 1 —radius of two-layered nanoparticle). Shell materials were used with optical indexes in the ranges of refraction n 1 =0.2–1.5 and absorption k 1 =0–3.5 for the presentation of optical properties of wide classes of shell materials (including dielectrics, metals, polymers, vapor shell around gold core). Results show nonlinear dependences of optical properties of two-layered NPs on optical indexes of shell material, core r 00 and relative NP r 1 /r 00 radii. Regions with sharp decrease and increase of absorption, scattering and extinction efficiency cross-sections with changing of core and shell parameters were investigated. These dependences should be taken into account for applications of two-layered NPs in laser nanomedicine and optical diagnostics of tissues. The results can be used for experimental investigation of shell formation on NP core and optical determination of geometrical parameters of core and shell of two-layered NPs. -- Highlights: • Absorption, scattering and extinction of two-layered nanoparticles are studied. • Shell materials change in wide regions of materials (metals, dielectrics, vapor). • Effect of sharp decrease and increase of optical characteristics is established. • Explanation of sharp decreasing and increasing optical characteristics is presented

  20. Au@MnO2 core-shell nanomesh electrodes for transparent flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tengfei; Luo, Bin; Giersig, Michael; Akinoglu, Eser Metin; Hao, Long; Wang, Xiangjun; Shi, Lin; Jin, Meihua; Zhi, Linjie

    2014-10-29

    A novel Au@MnO2 supercapacitor is presented. The sophisticated core-shell architecture combining an Au nanomesh core with a MnO2 shell on a flexible polymeric substrate is demonstrated as an electrode for high performance transparent flexible supercapacitors (TFSCs). Due to their unique structure, high areal/gravimetric capacitance and rate capability for TFSCs are achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The influence of shell thickness of Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles on the plasmonic enhancement effect in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Liang; Lin, Fan-Cheng; Yang, Yu-Chen; Huang, Chen-Hsien; Gwo, Shangjr; Huang, Michael H; Huang, Jer-Shing

    2013-09-07

    Plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (PCSNPs) can function as nanoantennas and improve the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To achieve maximum enhancement, the morphology of PCSNPs needs to be optimized. Here we precisely control the morphology of Au@TiO2 PCSNPs and systematically study its influence on the plasmonic enhancement effect. The enhancement mechanism was found to vary with the thickness of the TiO2 shell. PCSNPs with a thinner shell mainly enhance the current, whereas particles with a thicker shell improve the voltage. While pronounced plasmonic enhancement was found in the near infrared regime, wavelength-independent enhancement in the visible range was observed and attributed to the plasmonic heating effect. Emission lifetime measurement confirms that N719 molecules neighboring nanoparticles with TiO2 shells exhibit a longer lifetime than those in contact with metal cores. Overall, PCSNPs with a 5 nm shell give the highest efficiency enhancement of 23%. Our work provides a new synthesis route for well-controlled Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles and gains insight into the plasmonic enhancement in DSSCs.

  2. Enhancement of the core near-band-edge emission induced by an amorphous shell in coaxial one-dimensional nanostructure: the case of SiC/SiO{sub 2} core/shell self-organized nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rossi, Francesca; Attolini, Giovanni; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore [IMEM-CNR Institute, Viale Usberti 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Aversa, Lucrezia; Verucchi, Roberto; Nardi, Marco [IFN-CNR Institute, Via alla Cascata 56/C-Povo, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Fukata, Naoki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science and PRESTO JST, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi [Nano Device Characterization Group, Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    We report the influence of the native amorphous SiO{sub 2} shell on the cathodoluminescence emission of 3C-SiC/SiO{sub 2} core/shell nanowires. A shell-induced enhancement of the SiC near-band-edge emission is observed and studied as a function of the silicon dioxide thickness. Since the diameter of the investigated SiC cores rules out any direct bandgap optical transitions due to confinement effects, this enhancement is ascribed to a carrier diffusion from the shell to the core, promoted by the alignment of the SiO{sub 2} and SiC bands in a type I quantum well. An accurate correlation between the optical emission and structural and SiO{sub 2}-SiC interface properties is also reported.

  3. Recent advances in the synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@AU core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salihov, Sergei V. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Ivanenkov, Yan A.; Krechetov, Sergei P.; Veselov, Mark S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskiy lane, Dolgoprudny City, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Sviridenkova, Natalia V.; Savchenko, Alexander G. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Klyachko, Natalya L. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Golovin, Yury I. [Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Chufarova, Nina V., E-mail: chnv@pharmcluster.ru [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), 9 Institutskiy lane, Dolgoprudny City, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Beloglazkina, Elena K. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Majouga, Alexander G., E-mail: majouga@org.chem.msu.ru [National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskiy, Building 9, Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation, (Russian Federation); Moscow State University, Chemistry Department, Lenins kie gory, Building 1/3, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au core/shell nanoparticles have unique magnetic and optical properties. These nanoparticles are used for biomedical applications, such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, controlled drug delivery, protein separation, biosensors, DNA detection, and immunosensors. In this review, recent methods for the synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles are discussed. We divided all of the synthetic methods in two groups: methods of synthesis of bi-layer structures and methods of synthesis of multilayer composite structures. The latter methods have a layer of “glue” material between the core and the shell. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are promising for biomedical applications but have some disadvantages. • Covering Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with Au shell leads to better stability and biocompatibility. • Core/shell nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications. • There are two types of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au core/shell nanoparticles structures: bi-layer and multilayer composite. • Different synthetic methods enable production of nanoparticles of different sizes.

  4. Simple and convenient preparation of Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles on surface via a seed growth method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lei; Sha Yufang; Yang Xiurong

    2006-01-01

    Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles were prepared on glass surface by a seed growth method. Gold nanoparticles were used as seeds and ascorbic acid-H 2 PtCl 6 solutions as growth solutions to deposit Pt shell on the surface of gold nanoparticles. These core-shell nanoparticles and their growth process were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy and the results indicated that the deposition speed was fast and nanoparticles with obvious core-shell structure could be obtained after 2 min. Moreover, this seed growth method for preparation of the core-shell nanoparticles is simple and convenient compared with other seed growth methods with NH 4 OH as a mild reductant. In addition, electrochemical experiments indicated that these Au-Pt core-shell nanoparticles had similar electrochemical properties to those of the bulk Pt electrode

  5. Metal oxide core shell nanostructures as building blocks for efficient light emission (SISGR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jane P [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dorman, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cheung, Cyrus [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    The objective of this research is to synthesize core-shell nano-structured metal oxide materials and investigate their structural, electronic and optical properties to understand the microscopic pathways governing the energy conversion process, thereby controlling and improving their efficiency. Specifically, the goal is to use a single metal oxide core-shell nanostructure and a single excitation source to generate photons with long emission lifetime over the entire visible spectrum and when controlled at the right ratio, generating white light. In order to achieve this goal, we need to control the energy transfer between light emitting elements, which dictates the control of their interatomic spacing and spatial distribution. We developed an economical wet chemical process to form the nanostructured core and to control the thickness and composition of the shell layers. With the help from using DOE funded synchrotron radiation facility, we delineated the growth mechanism of the nano-structured core and the shell layers, thereby enhancing our understanding of structure-property relation in these materials. Using the upconversion luminescence and the lifetime measurements as effective feedback to materials sysnthes is and integration, we demonstrated improved luminescence lifetimes of the core-shell nano-structures and quantified the optimal core-multi-shell structure with optimum shell thickness and composition. We developed a rare-earths co-doped LaPO4 core-multishell structure in order to produce a single white light source. It was decided that the mutli-shell method would produce the largest increase in luminescence efficiency while limiting any energy transfer that may occur between the dopant ions. All samples resulted in emission spectra within the accepted range of white light generation based on the converted CIE color coordinates. The white light obtained varied between warm and cool white depending on the layering architecture, allowing for the

  6. Centrifugal Deposited Au-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticle Film for Room-Temperature Optical Detection of Hydrogen Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han; Luo, Zhijie; Liu, Mingyao; Zhang, Gang; Peng, Wang; Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong

    2018-05-06

    In the present work, centrifugal deposited Au-Pd core-shell nanoparticle (NP) film was proposed for the room-temperature optical detection of hydrogen gas. The size dimension of 44, 48, 54, and 62 nm Au-Pd core-shell nanocubes with 40 nm Au core were synthesized following a solution-based seed-mediated growth method. Compared to a pure Pd NP, this core-shell structure with an inert Au core could decrease the H diffusion length in the Pd shell. Through a modified centrifugal deposition process, continues film samples with different core-shell NPs were deposited on 10 mm diameter quartz substrates. Under various hydrogen concentration conditions, the optical response properties of these samples were characterized by an intensity-based optical fiber bundle sensor. Experimental results show that the continues film that was composed of 62 nm Au-Pd core-shell NPs has achieved a stable and repeatable reflectance response with low zero drift in the range of 4 to 0.1% hydrogen after a stress relaxation mechanism at first few loading/unloading cycles. Because of the short H diffusion length due to the thinner Pd shell, the film sample composed of 44 nm Au-Pd NPs has achieved a dramatically decreased response/recovery time to 4 s/30 s. The experiments present the promising prospect of this simple method to fabricate optical hydrogen sensors with controllable high sensitivity and response rate at low cost.

  7. Intracellular ion monitoring using a gold-core polymer-shell nanosensor architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanca, S E; Cranfield, C G; Biskup, C [Biomolecular Photonics Group, University Hospital Jena, Teichgraben 8, 07743 Jena (Germany); Nietzsche, S [Centre for Electron Microscopy, University Hospital Jena, Ziegel-muehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fritzsche, W, E-mail: sarmiza.stanca@mti.uni-jena.de, E-mail: charles.cranfield@mti.uni-jena.de, E-mail: christoph.biskup@mti.uni-jena.de [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2010-02-05

    In this study, we describe the design of new ratiometric fluorescent nanosensors, whose architecture is based on a gold core surrounded by a poly(vinyl alcohol)-polyacetal shell. To the gold core, indicator dyes and reference dyes are attached via a cysteine linker. This nanosensor architecture is flexible with regards to the number and types of fluorophore linkages possible. The robust poly(vinyl alcohol)-polyacetal shell protects the fluorophores linked to the core from non-specific interactions with intracellular proteins. The nanosensors developed in this way are biocompatible and can be easily incorporated into mammalian cells without the use of transfection agents. Here, we show the application of these nanosensors for intracellular pH and sodium ion measurements.

  8. Synthesis and properties MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co) nanoparticles and core-shell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenich, O. V.; Solopan, S. O.; Greneche, J. M.; Belous, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Individual Fe3-xO4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, as well as Fe3-xO4/CoFe2O4 core/shell structures were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from diethylene glycol solutions. Core/shell structure were synthesized with CoFe2O4-shell thickness of 1.0, 2.5 and 3.5 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns of individual nanoparticles and core/shell are similar and indicate that all synthesized samples have a cubic spinel structure. Compares Mössbauer studies of CoFe2O4, Fe3-xO4 nanoparticles indicate superparamagnetic properties at 300 K. It was shown that individual magnetite nanoparticles are transformed into maghemite through oxidation during the synthesis procedure, wherein the smallest nanoparticles are completely oxidized while a magnetite core does occur in the case of the largest nanoparticles. The Mössbauer spectra of core/shell nanoparticles with increasing CoFe2O4-shell thickness show a gradual decrease in the relative intensity of the quadrupole doublet and significant decrease of the mean isomer shift value at both RT and 77 K indicating a decrease of the superparamagnetic relaxation phenomena. Specific loss power for the prepared ferrofluids was experimentally calculated and it was determined that under influence of ac-magnetic field magnetic fluid based on individual CoFe2O4 and Fe3-xO4 particles are characterized by very low heating temperature, when magnetic fluids based on core/shell nanoparticles demonstrate higher heating effect.

  9. One-pot synthesis of stable water soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Gao Xue; Liu Siyu; Su Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell-doped quantum dots (d-dots) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the stabilizer are successfully synthesized through a simple one-pot synthesis procedure in aqueous solution. The average diameter of Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots is about 2.9 nm, which is lager than that of Mn:ZnSe cores (about 1.9 nm). The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots have been characterized by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photostability against UV irradiation and chemical stability against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} etching have been studied, and the results showed that the prepared Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots are more stable than CdTe quantum dots prepared in aqueous solution. Finally, the resulting core/shell quantum dots are used as fluorescent label in human osteoblast-like HepG2 cell imaging.

  10. Iron/iron oxide core-shell nanoclusters for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang You; Antony, Jiji; Sharma, Amit; Nutting, Joseph; Sikes, Daniel; Meyer, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles have been found promising in several biomedical applications for tagging, imaging, sensing and separation in recent years. Most magnetic particles or beads currently used in biomedical applications are based on ferromagnetic iron oxides with very low specific magnetic moments of about 20-30 emu/g. Here we report a new approach to synthesize monodispersed core-shell nanostructured clusters with high specific magnetic moments above 200 emu/g. Iron nanoclusters with monodispersive size of diameters from 2 nm to 100 nm are produced by our newly developed nanocluster source and go to a deposition chamber, where a chemical reaction starts, and the nanoclusters are coated with iron oxides. HRTEM Images show the coatings are very uniform and stable. The core-shell nanoclusters are superparamagnetic at room temperature for sizes less than 15 nm, and then become ferromagnetic when the cluster size increases. The specific magnetic moment of core-shell nanoclusters is size dependent, and increases rapidly from about 80 emu/g at the cluster size of around 3 nm to over 200 emu/g up to the size of 100 nm. The use of high magnetic moment nanoclusters for biomedical applications could dramatically enhance the contrast for MRI, reduce the concentration of magnetic particle needs for cell separation, or make drug delivery possible with much lower magnetic field gradients

  11. CdSe/AsS core-shell quantum dots: preparation and two-photon fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junzhong; Lin, Ming; Yan, Yongli; Wang, Zhe; Ho, Paul C; Loh, Kian Ping

    2009-08-19

    Arsenic(II) sulfide (AsS)-coated CdSe core-shell nanocrystals can be prepared by a cluster-complex deposition approach under mild conditions. At 60 degrees C, growth of an AsS shell onto a CdSe nanocrystal can be realized through the crystallization of a cluster complex of AsS/butylamine in a mixed solvent of isopropanol/chloroform. The new, type I core-shell nanocrystal exhibits markedly enhanced one-photon fluorescence as well two-photon upconversion fluorescence. The nanocrystals can be used for infrared-excited upconversion cellular labeling.

  12. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, M.C.; Luches, P.; Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S.; Turchini, S.; Bertoni, G.; Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A.; D’Addato, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p_O_2 ≈ 10"−"7 mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO_x and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L_2_,_3 absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  13. High-performance asymmetric supercapacitors based on core/shell cobalt oxide/carbon nanowire arrays with enhanced electrochemical energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, G.X.; Xia, X.H.; Cao, F.; Chen, J.; Tang, P.S.; Zhang, Y.J.; Chen, H.F.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We prepared a self-supported porous Co 3 O 4 /C core/shell nanowire array. • Core/shell nanowire array showed high pseudo-capacitive properties. • Core/shell array structure was favorable for fast ion and electron transfer. - Abstract: High-reactivity electrode materials are indispensible for developing high-performance electrochemical energy storage devices. Herein, we report self-supported core/shell Co 3 O 4 /C nanowire arrays by using hydrothermal synthesis and chemical vapor deposition methods. A uniform and thin carbon shell is coated on the surface of Co 3 O 4 nanowire forming core/shell nanowires with diameters of ∼100 nm. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been assembled with the core/shell Co 3 O 4 /C nanowire arrays as the positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode. The core/shell Co 3 O 4 /C nanowire arrays exhibit a specific capacity of 116 mAh g −1 at the working current of 100 mA (4 A g −1 ), and a long cycle life along with ∼ 92% retention after 8000 cycles at 4 A g −1 , higher than the unmodified Co 3 O 4 nanowire arrays (81 mAh g −1 at 4 A g −1 ). The introduction of uniform carbon layer into the core/shell structure is favorable for the enhancement of supercapacitor due to the improved electrical conductivity and reaction kinetics

  14. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.llorca@upc.edu; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (Spain); Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica Inorganica (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration.

  15. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi; Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O 2 -H 2 mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration

  16. Enhanced electroactive and mechanical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) by controlling crystallization and interfacial interactions with low loading polydopamine coated BaTiO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Xing, Qian; Liu, Xu; Sun, Jing; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the polar β-phase of PVDF shows superb electroactive properties. In order to enhance the β-phase of PVDF, extreme low content of BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BT-NPs) coated with polydopamine (Pdop) were incorporated into PVDF matrix by solution casting. The β-phase of the resulting PVDF nanocomposites film was dramatically increased and the d33 value reached 34.3±0.4 pCN(-1). It is found that the Pdop layer could improve the dispersibility and stability of the BT NPs in solution and endow the BT NPs good dispersity in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the interfacial interaction between PVDF chains and the surface of BT-Pdop nanoparticles (BT-Pdop NPs) were revealed, in which the CF2 groups on PVDF could interact with the electron-rich plane of aromatic ring of Pdop moiety. This interaction, led to the increase of the crystallization activation energy as derived from the DSC nonisothermal crystallization measurement. The α-β crystal transformation, organization of interfacial interactions as well as the prevention of agglomeration of BT-NPs confer the improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of PVDF, such as toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and thermal conductivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved dielectric constant and breakdown strength of γ-phase dominant super toughened polyvinylidene fluoride/TiO2 nanocomposite film: an excellent material for energy storage applications and piezoelectric throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehebub Alam, Md; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sen, Shrabanee; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded γ-phase containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite (PNC) film turns to an excellent material for energy storage application due to an increased dielectric constant (32 at 1 kHz), enhanced electric breakdown strength (400 MV m-1). It also exhibits a high energy density of 4 J cm-3 which is 25 times higher than that of virgin PVDF. 98% of the electroactive γ-phase has been acheived by the incorporation of TiO2 NPs and the resulting PNC behaves like a super-toughened material due to a dramatic improvement (more than 80%) in the tensile strength. Owing to their electroactive nature and extraordinary mechanical properties, PNC films have a strong ability to fabricate the piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) that have recently been an area of focus regarding mechanical energy harvesting. The feasibility of piezoelectric voltage generation from PNGs is demostrated under the rotating fan that also promises further utility such as rotational speed (RPM) determination.

  18. Influence of core size on the upconversion luminescence properties of spherical Gd2O3:Yb3+/Er3+@SiO2 particles with core-shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Kezhi; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Ye; Song, Weiye; Qin, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Spherical SiO 2 particles with different sizes (30, 80, 120, and 180 nm) have been coated with Gd 2 O 3 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ layers by a heterogeneous precipitation method, leading to the formation of core-shell structural Gd 2 O 3 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ @SiO 2 particles. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, upconversion (UC) emission spectra, and fluorescent dynamical analysis. The obtained core-shell particles have perfect spherical shape with narrow size distribution. Under the excitation of 980 nm diode laser, the core-shell samples showed size-dependent upconversion luminescence (UCL) properties. The inner SiO 2 cores in core-shell samples were proved to have limited effect on the total UCL intensities of Er 3+ ions. The UCL intensities of core-shell particles were demonstrated much higher than the values obtained in pure Gd 2 O 3 :Yb 3+ /Er 3+ with the same phosphor volume. The dependence of the specific area of a UCL shell on the size of its inner SiO 2 particle was calculated and analyzed for the first time. It was confirmed that the surface effect came from the outer surfaces of emitting shells is dominant in influencing the UCL property in the core-shell samples. Three-photon UC processes for the green emissions were observed in the samples with small sizes of SiO 2 cores. The results of dynamical analysis illustrated that more nonradiative relaxation occurred in the core-shell samples with smaller SiO 2 core sizes

  19. Fixed-bed adsorption separation of xylene isomers over sio2/silicallite-1 core-shell adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2013-12-29

    SiO2/Silicalite-1 core-shell material has been demonstrated as potential shape selective adsorbent in gas phase separation of p-xylene from a mixture of p/o-xylene isomers. The core-shell composite comprised of large silica core and thin polycrystalline silicalite-1 shell which was synthesized via a self-assembly of silicalite-1 nanocrystals on core silica surface followed by a secondary seeded growth method. The core materials, SiO2 used in this study has mesoporosity with an average pore diameter of 60Å and hence offers no shape selectivity for xylene isomers. However, the shell, silicalite-1 contains rigid pore structures and preferentially adsorbs p-xylene from their isomers mixtures. A series of adsorption fixed bed breakthrough adsorption/desorption experiment was performed to obtain the equilibrium isotherms and adsorption isotherm parameters of xylene isomers. The equilibrium isotherms of xylene isomers follow the Langmuir\\'s model. A chromatographic adsorption model has been used to describe the fixed-bed breakthrough profiles of xylene isomers. The model has successfully predicted the responses of the binary mixtures of p/o-xylene isomers. The SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell adsorbents have shown para-selectivity as high as 15. © Bangladesh Uni. of Engg. & Tech.

  20. Protective agent-free synthesis of Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.-H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Wang, S.-R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2006-12-10

    Ni-Ag core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by successive hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol in the absence of protective agents. TEM analysis indicated the product was very fine and the thickness of Ag nanoshells could be controlled by the added silver nitrate concentration. The analyses of electron diffraction pattern and XRD revealed that both Ni cores and Ag shells had a fcc structure. The surface composition analysis by XPS indicated that Ni cores were fully covered by Ag nanoshells. Because of the absence of protective agent, the appropriate nickel concentration for the coating of Ag nanoshells should be less than 1.0 mM to avoid particle agglomeration. The product possessed the surface character of Ag and the magnetic property of Ni, and may have many potential applications in optical, magnetic, catalytic, biochemical, and biomedical fields.

  1. Shape-controlled synthesis of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting polyhedral morphologies by modified polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Asaka, Toru; Matsubara, Takashi; Nogami, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple synthetic method. First, Pt nanoparticles were synthesized in a controlled manner via the reduction of chloroplantinic acid hexahydrate in ethylene glycol (EG) at 160 deg. C in the presence of silver nitrate and the stabilization of polyvinylpyrrolidon. AgNO 3 used acts as a structure-modifying agent to the morphology of the Pt nanoparticles. These Pt nanoparticles function as the seeds for the successive reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) hydrate in EG under stirring for 15 min at 160 deg. C in order to synthesize Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles. To characterize the as-prepared Pt-Pd nanoparticles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM are used. The high-resolution elemental mappings were carried out using the combination of scanning TEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results also demonstrate the homogeneous nucleation and growth of the Pd metal shell on the definite Pt core. The synthesized Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a sharp and polyhedral morphology. The epitaxial growth of the controlled Pd shells on the Pt cores via a polyol method was observed. It is suggested that Frank-van der Merwe and Stranski-Krastanov growth modes coexisted in the nucleation and growth of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles.

  2. Physical property control in core/shell inorganic nanostructures for fluorescence and magnetic targeting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen K.

    Nanomaterials show immense promise for the future in numerous areas of application. Properties that are unique from the bulk material and are tunable allow for innovation in material design. This thesis will focus on controlling the physical properties of core/shell nanostructures to enhance the utility of the materials. The first focus is on the impact of different solvent mixtures during the shell growth phase of SILAR based core/shell quantum dot synthesis is studied. Gaining insight into the mechanism for SILAR growth of core/shell nanoparticles allows improved synthetic yields and precursor binding, providing enhanced control to synthesis of core/shell nanoparticles. The second focus of this thesis is exploring the use of magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic drug targeting for cardiovascular conditions. Magnetic targeting for drug delivery enables increased local drug concentration, while minimizing non-specific interactions. In order to be effective for magnetic targeting, it must be shown that low magnetic strength is sufficient to capture flowing nanoparticles. By demonstrating the binding of a therapeutic agent to the surface at medicinal levels, the viability for use as a nanoparticle drug delivery system is improved.

  3. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio

    2016-04-21

    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  4. Investigation of novel inverted NiO@NixCo1-xO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Mayanovic, R. A.; Benamara, Mourad

    2018-05-01

    Inverse core-shell nanoparticles, comprised of an antiferromagnetic (AFM) core covered by a ferromagnetic (FM) or ferrimagnetic (FiM) shell, are of current interest due to their different potential application and due to the tunability of their magnetic properties. The antiferromagnetic nature of NiO and high Néel temperature (523 K) makes this material well suited for inverse core-shell nanoparticle applications. Our primary objective in this project has been to synthesize and characterize inverted core-shell nanoparticles (CSNs) comprised of a NiO (AFM) core and a shell consisting of a NixCo1-xO (FiM) compound. The synthesis of the CSNs was made using a two-step process. The NiO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical reaction method. Subsequently, the NiO nanoparticles were used to grow the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs using our hydrothermal nano-phase epitaxy method. XRD structural characterization shows that the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs have the rock salt cubic crystal structure. SEM-EDS data indicates the presence of Co in the CSNs. Magnetic measurements show that the CSNs exhibit AFM/FiM characteristics with a small coercivity field of 30 Oe at 5 K. The field cooled vs zero field cooled hysteresis loop measurements show a magnetization axis shift which is attributed to the exchange bias effect between the AFM NiO core and an FiM NixCo1-xO shell of the CSNs. Our ab initio based calculations of the NixCo1-xO rock salt structure confirm a weak FiM character and a charge transfer insulator property of the compound.

  5. Investigation of novel inverted NiO@NixCo1-xO core-shell nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiul Hasan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inverse core-shell nanoparticles, comprised of an antiferromagnetic (AFM core covered by a ferromagnetic (FM or ferrimagnetic (FiM shell, are of current interest due to their different potential application and due to the tunability of their magnetic properties. The antiferromagnetic nature of NiO and high Néel temperature (523 K makes this material well suited for inverse core-shell nanoparticle applications. Our primary objective in this project has been to synthesize and characterize inverted core-shell nanoparticles (CSNs comprised of a NiO (AFM core and a shell consisting of a NixCo1-xO (FiM compound. The synthesis of the CSNs was made using a two-step process. The NiO nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical reaction method. Subsequently, the NiO nanoparticles were used to grow the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs using our hydrothermal nano-phase epitaxy method. XRD structural characterization shows that the NiO@NixCo1-xO CSNs have the rock salt cubic crystal structure. SEM-EDS data indicates the presence of Co in the CSNs. Magnetic measurements show that the CSNs exhibit AFM/FiM characteristics with a small coercivity field of 30 Oe at 5 K. The field cooled vs zero field cooled hysteresis loop measurements show a magnetization axis shift which is attributed to the exchange bias effect between the AFM NiO core and an FiM NixCo1-xO shell of the CSNs. Our ab initio based calculations of the NixCo1-xO rock salt structure confirm a weak FiM character and a charge transfer insulator property of the compound.

  6. Strain relaxation and ambipolar electrical transport in GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Torsten; Zellekens, Patrick; Demarina, Natalia; Hassan, Ali Al; Hackemüller, Franz Josef; Lüth, Hans; Pietsch, Ullrich; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2017-11-30

    The growth, crystal structure, strain relaxation and room temperature transport characteristics of GaAs/InSb core-shell nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb of 14%, a transition from island-based to layer-like growth occurs during the formation of the shell. High resolution transmission electron microscopy in combination with geometric phase analyses as well as X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation are used to investigate the strain relaxation and prove the existence of different dislocations relaxing the strain on zinc blende and wurtzite core-shell nanowire segments. While on the wurtzite phase only Frank partial dislocations are found, the strain on the zinc blende phase is relaxed by dislocations with perfect, Shockley partial and Frank partial dislocations. Even for ultrathin shells of about 2 nm thickness, the strain caused by the high lattice mismatch between GaAs and InSb is relaxed almost completely. Transfer characteristics of the core-shell nanowires show an ambipolar conductance behavior whose strength strongly depends on the dimensions of the nanowires. The interpretation is given based on an electronic band profile which is calculated for completely relaxed core/shell structures. The peculiarities of the band alignment in this situation implies simultaneously occupied electron and hole channels in the InSb shell. The ambipolar behavior is then explained by the change of carrier concentration in both channels by the gate voltage.

  7. Giant exchange bias and its angular dependence in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Koymen, Ali R.; Liu, J. Ping, E-mail: pliu@uta.edu

    2017-07-12

    The exchange-bias field (H{sub EB}) and its angular dependence are systematically investigated in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies (∼15 nm in diameter and ∼200 nm in length) consisting of single-crystalline Co core and polycrystalline CoO shell. Giant exchange-bias field (H{sub EB}) up to 2.4 kOe is observed below a blocking temperature (T{sub EB} ∼150 K) in the aligned Co/CoO nanowire assemblies. It is also found that there is an angular dependence between the H{sub EB} and the applied magnetization direction. The H{sub EB} showed a peak at 30° between the applied field and the nanowire aligned direction, which may be attributed to the noncollinear spin orientations at the interface between the ferromagnetic core and the antiferromagnetic shell. This behavior is quantitatively supported by an analytical calculation based on Stoner–Wohlfarth model. This study underlines the importance of the competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. - Highlights: • Giant exchange bias is observed in oriented Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies. • Study of angular and temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. • Effect of misaligned spins in FM/AFM interface on angular dependence of exchange bias. • We explain the analytical model that accounts for experimental results.

  8. Giant exchange bias and its angular dependence in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandha, Kinjal; Chaudhary, Rakesh P.; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Koymen, Ali R.; Liu, J. Ping

    2017-01-01

    The exchange-bias field (H EB ) and its angular dependence are systematically investigated in Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies (∼15 nm in diameter and ∼200 nm in length) consisting of single-crystalline Co core and polycrystalline CoO shell. Giant exchange-bias field (H EB ) up to 2.4 kOe is observed below a blocking temperature (T EB ∼150 K) in the aligned Co/CoO nanowire assemblies. It is also found that there is an angular dependence between the H EB and the applied magnetization direction. The H EB showed a peak at 30° between the applied field and the nanowire aligned direction, which may be attributed to the noncollinear spin orientations at the interface between the ferromagnetic core and the antiferromagnetic shell. This behavior is quantitatively supported by an analytical calculation based on Stoner–Wohlfarth model. This study underlines the importance of the competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. - Highlights: • Giant exchange bias is observed in oriented Co/CoO core-shell nanowire assemblies. • Study of angular and temperature dependence of the exchange bias effect. • Competing magnetic anisotropies at the interface of Co/CoO core-shell nanowires. • Effect of misaligned spins in FM/AFM interface on angular dependence of exchange bias. • We explain the analytical model that accounts for experimental results.

  9. Effect of shell thickness on the exchange bias blocking temperature and coercivity in Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Reethu, K.; Thanveer, T.; Myint, M. T. Z.; Al-Harthi, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The exchange bias blocking temperature distribution of naturally oxidized Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles exhibits two distinct signatures. These are associated with the existence of two magnetic entities which are responsible for the temperature dependence of an exchange bias field. One is from the CoO grains which undergo thermally activated magnetization reversal. The other is from the disordered spins at the Co-CoO interface which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. We investigated the oxide shell thickness dependence of the exchange bias effect. For particles with a 3 nm thick CoO shell, the predominant contribution to the temperature dependence of exchange bias is the interfacial spin-glass layer. On increasing the shell thickness to 4 nm, the contribution from the spin-glass layer decreases, while upholding the antiferromagnetic grain contribution. For samples with a 4 nm CoO shell, the exchange bias training was minimal. On the other hand, 3 nm samples exhibited both the training effect and a peak in coercivity at an intermediate set temperature Ta. This is explained using a magnetic core-shell model including disordered spins at the interface.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Microfilms for Microfluidic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yammani Venkat Subba; Raghavan, Aravinda Narayanan; Viswanathan, Meenakshi

    2016-10-01

    The ability to create patterns of piezo responsive material on smooth substrate is an important method to develop efficient microfluidic mixers. This paper reports the fabrication of Poly vinylidene fluoride microfilms using spin-coating on smooth glass surface. The suitable crystalline phases, surface morphology and microstructural properties of the PVDF films have been investigated. We found that films of average thickness 10μm, had average roughness of 0.13μm. These PVDF films are useful in microfluidic mixer applications.

  11. Theoretical Study of Local Surface Plasmon Resonances on a Dielectric-Ag Core-Shell Nanosphere Using the Discrete-Dipole Approximation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Ye-Wan; Wu Zhao-Wang; Zhang Li-Hua; Liu Wan-Fang; Zhang Jie

    2015-01-01

    The local surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of dielectric-Ag core-shell nanospheres are studied by the discretedipole approximation method. The result shows that LSPRs are sensitive to the surrounding medium refractive index, which shows a clear red-shift with the increasing surrounding medium refractive index. A dielectric-Ag core-shell nanosphere exhibits a strong coupling between the core and shell plasmon resonance modes. LSPRs depend on the shell thickness and the composition of dielectric-core and metal-shell. LSPRs can be tuned over a longer wavelength range by changing the ratio of core to shell value. The lower energy mode ω_− shows a red-shift with the increasing dielectric-core value and the inner core radius, while blue-shifted with the increasing outer shell thickness. The underlying mechanisms are analyzed with the plasmon hybridization theory and the phase retardation effect. (paper)

  12. Bandgap engineered reverse type-I CdTe/InP/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals for the near-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon; Shim, Wooyoung; Seo, Heonjin; Hyun Bae, Je; Sung, Jaeyoung; Choi, Seung Hong; Moon, Woo Kyung; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Bunyeoul; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2009-03-14

    New quantum dots were fabricated with a core/shell/shell structure consisting of CdTe core/InP shell/ZnS shell of which the InP shell causes a red-shift to the NIR region and the ZnS shell imparts photo-stability; toxicity tests on mammalian cells and NIR imaging of a mouse highlight their potential applications in biomedical imaging.

  13. Formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles using sulfonated polystyrene as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Mousumi; Arunbabu, Dhamodaran; Jana, Tushar

    2010-11-15

    We report formation of core (polystyrene)-shell (polybenzimidazole) nanoparticles from a new blend system consisting of an amorphous polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) and an ionomer sodium salt of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS-Na). The ionomer used for the blending is spherical in shape with sulfonate groups on the surface of the particles. An in depth investigation of the blends at various sulfonation degrees and compositions using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy provides direct evidence of specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the N-H groups of PBI and the sulfonate groups of SPS-Na. The disruption of PBI chains self association owing to the interaction between the functional groups of these polymer pairs is the driving force for the blending. Thermodynamical studies carried out by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) establish partially miscible phase separated blending of these polymers in a wider composition range. The two distinguishable glass transition temperatures (T(g)) which are different from the neat components and unaltered with the blends composition attribute that the domain size of heterogeneity (d(d)) of the blends is >20 nm since one of the blend component (SPS-Na particle) diameter is ∼70 nm. The diminish of PBI chains self association upon blending with SPS-Na particles and the presence of invariant T(g)'s of the blends suggest the wrapping of PBI chains over the SPS-Na spherical particle surface and hence resulting a core-shell morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study provides direct evidence of core-shell nanoparticle formation; where core is the polystyrene and shell is the PBI. The sulfonation degree affects the blends phase separations. The higher degree of sulfonation favors the disruption of PBI self association and thus forms partially miscible two phases blends with core-shell morphology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Process Development of Gallium Nitride Phosphide Core-Shell Nanowire Array Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chen

    Dilute Nitride GaNP is a promising materials for opto-electronic applications due to its band gap tunability. The efficiency of GaNxP1-x /GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire solar cell (NWSC) is expected to reach as high as 44% by 1% N and 9% N in the core and shell, respectively. By developing such high efficiency NWSCs on silicon substrate, a further reduction of the cost of solar photovoltaic can be further reduced to 61$/MWh, which is competitive to levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of fossil fuels. Therefore, a suitable NWSC structure and fabrication process need to be developed to achieve this promising NWSC. This thesis is devoted to the study on the development of fabrication process of GaNxP 1-x/GaNyP1-y core-shell Nanowire solar cell. The thesis is divided into two major parts. In the first parts, previously grown GaP/GaNyP1-y core-shell nanowire samples are used to develop the fabrication process of Gallium Nitride Phosphide nanowire solar cell. The design for nanowire arrays, passivation layer, polymeric filler spacer, transparent col- lecting layer and metal contact are discussed and fabricated. The property of these NWSCs are also characterized to point out the future development of Gal- lium Nitride Phosphide NWSC. In the second part, a nano-hole template made by nanosphere lithography is studied for selective area growth of nanowires to improve the structure of core-shell NWSC. The fabrication process of nano-hole templates and the results are presented. To have a consistent features of nano-hole tem- plate, the Taguchi Method is used to optimize the fabrication process of nano-hole templates.

  15. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha

    2017-01-01

    Room temperature (T room , 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T room . The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T room , compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-shell NW itself. This study deepens understanding in the underlying joining mechanisms and thus nanojoint with desirable thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties could be potentially achieved.

  16. Simultaneous inhibition of aberrant cancer kinome using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Gupta, Neha; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2013-11-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of deregulated cancer kinome using rationally designed nanomedicine is an advanced therapeutic approach. Herein, we have developed a polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine to inhibit critically aberrant pro-survival kinases (mTOR, MAPK and STAT5) in primitive (CD34(+)/CD38(-)) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. The nanomedicine consists of poly-lactide-co-glycolide core (~250 nm) loaded with mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, and albumin shell (~25 nm thick) loaded with MAPK/STAT5 inhibitor, sorafenib and the whole construct was surface conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 receptor overexpressed in AML. Electron microscopy confirmed formation of core-shell nanostructure (~290 nm) and flow cytometry and confocal studies showed enhanced cellular uptake of targeted nanomedicine. Simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells, was demonstrated using immunoblotting, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. This cell receptor plus multi-kinase targeted core-shell nanomedicine was found better specific and tolerable compared to current clinical regime of cytarabine and daunorubicin. These authors demonstrate simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells by using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine, provoding an advanced method to eliminate cancer cells, with the hope of future therapeutic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of CO2 activation on electrochemical performance of microporous carbons derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we have prepared microporous carbons (MPCs) derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the physical activation of MPCs using CO 2 gas is subsequently carried out with various activation temperatures to investigate the electrochemical performance. PVDF is successfully converted into MPCs with a high specific surface area and well-developed micropores. After CO 2 activation, the specific surface areas of MPCs (CA-MPCs) are enhanced by 12% compared with non-activated MPCs. With increasing activation temperature, the micropore size distributions of A-MPCs also become narrower and shift to larger pore size. It is also confirmed that the CO 2 activation had developed the micropores and introduced the oxygen-containing groups to MPCs′ surfaces. From the results, the specific capacitances of the electrodes in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on CA-MPCs are distinctly improved through CO 2 activation. The highest specific capacitance of the A-MPCs activated at 700 °C is about 125 F/g, an enhancement of 74% in comparison with NA-MPCs, at a discharge current of 2 A/g in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. We also found that micropore size of 0.67 nm has a specific impact on the capacitance behaviors, besides the specific surface area of the electrode samples. - Graphical abstract: The A-MPC samples with high specific surface area (ranging from 1030 to 1082 m 2 /g), corresponding to micropore sizes of 0.67 and 0.72 nm, and with the amount of oxygen-containing groups ranging from 3.2% to 4.4% have been evaluated as electrodes for EDLC applications. . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Microporous carbons (MPCs) were synthesized without activation process. • Next, we carried out the CO 2 activation of MPCs with activation temperatures. • It had developed the micropores and introduced the O-functional groups to MPCs. • The highest specific capacitance: 125 F/g, an increase of 74% compared to MPCs

  18. Core-shell nanophosphor architecture: toward efficient energy transport in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Yuan, Yongbiao; Chen, Zihan; Jin, Xiao; Wei, Tai-huei; Li, Yue; Qin, Yuancheng; Sun, Weifu

    2014-08-13

    In this work, a core-shell nanostructure of samarium phosphates encapsulated into a Eu(3+)-doped silica shell has been successfully fabricated, which has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-resolution TEM. Moreover, we report the energy transfer process from the Sm(3+) to emitters Eu(3+) that widens the light absorption range of the hybrid solar cells (HSCs) and the strong enhancement of the electron-transport of TiO2/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) bulk heterojunction (BHJ) HSCs by introducing the unique core-shell nanoarchitecture. Furthermore, by applying femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we successfully obtain the electron transport lifetimes of BHJ systems with or without incorporating the core-shell nanophosphors (NPs). Concrete evidence has been provided that the doping of core-shell NPs improves the efficiency of electron transfers from donor to acceptor, but the hole transport almost remains unchanged. In particular, the hot electron transfer lifetime was shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor. Consequently, a notable power conversion efficiency of 3.30% for SmPO4@Eu(3+):SiO2 blended TiO2/P3HT HSCs is achieved at 5 wt % as compared to 1.98% of pure TiO2/P3HT HSCs. This work indicates that the core-shell NPs can efficiently broaden the absorption region, facilitate electron-transport of BHJ, and enhance photovoltaic performance of inorganic/organic HSCs.

  19. Ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) with nano-sized ceramic fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Prasanth; Zhao Xiaohui; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Manuel, James; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhahn@gnu.ac.kr; Nah, Changwoon [Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, 664-14 Duckjin-dong, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-30

    A series of nanocomposite polymer electrolytes (NCPEs) comprising nanoparticles of BaTiO{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SiO{sub 2} were prepared by electrospinning technique. The nano-sized ceramic fillers were incorporated into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HEP)] membranes during the electrospinning process. The resultant porous membranes are good absorbent of the liquid electrolyte and exhibit high electrolyte retention capacity. The presence of the ceramic nanoparticles has positive effect on the mechanical properties of the membranes. The ionic conductivity and the electrochemical stability window of the electrospun P(VdF-HFP)-based polymer are enhanced by the presence of the fillers. The cell Li/LiFePO{sub 4} based on the NCPE containing BaTiO{sub 3} delivers a discharge capacity of 164 mAh/g, which corresponds to 96.5% utilization of the active material. In comparison, the performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells with NCPEs containing Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} was observed to be lower with respective discharge capacities of 153 and 156 mAh/g. The enhanced performance of the BaTiO{sub 3}-based-NCPE is attributed mainly to its better interaction with the host polymer and compatibility with lithium metal.

  20. Monolithic photonic crystals created by partial coalescence of core-shell particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Seok; Lim, Che Ho; Yang, Seung-Man; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2014-03-11

    Colloidal crystals and their derivatives have been intensively studied and developed during the past two decades due to their unique photonic band gap properties. However, complex fabrication procedures and low mechanical stability severely limit their practical uses. Here, we report stable photonic structures created by using colloidal building blocks composed of an inorganic core and an organic shell. The core-shell particles are convectively assembled into an opal structure, which is then subjected to thermal annealing. During the heat treatment, the inorganic cores, which are insensitive to heat, retain their regular arrangement in a face-centered cubic lattice, while the organic shells are partially fused with their neighbors; this forms a monolithic structure with high mechanical stability. The interparticle distance and therefore stop band position are precisely controlled by the annealing time; the distance decreases and the stop band blue shifts during the annealing. The composite films can be further treated to give a high contrast in the refractive index. The inorganic cores are selectively removed from the composite by wet etching, thereby providing an organic film containing regular arrays of air cavities. The high refractive index contrast of the porous structure gives rise to pronounced structural colors and high reflectivity at the stop band position.

  1. Ultrafast Dynamics of Metallo-Dielectric Core-Shell Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, X.

    2008-01-01

    Optical properties of metallic nano-structures have attracted a lot of attention in the past decades. In this thesis, we focus on nano-sized silica-core gold-shell particles, study the linear, nonlinear and acoustic vibrations of the particles. The linear optical properties in the visible range of

  2. Two-way actuation behavior of shape memory polymer/elastomer core/shell composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho; Ryu, Hee Wook

    2012-01-01

    Semi-crystalline shape memory polymers (SMPs) show net two-way shape memory (2W-SM) behavior under constant stresses by the recoverable creep strain upon heating and stress-induced crystallization under the application of creep stress upon cooling. The applied constant stress is the key factor in this 2W-SM behavior. A core/shell structure is manufactured for the purpose of imparting a constant stress upon SMPs. An SMP in film or fiber form is dipped into a solution of an elastomer, photoinitiator, and curing agent and then dried out. After this dip coating process is repeatedly carried out, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite is deformed into a temporary shape after being heated up above the transition temperature of the SMP. Under constant strain conditions, the composite is cooled down, after which the shell elastomer is cured using ultraviolet light. Then, the SMP/elastomer core/shell composite extends and contracts upon cooling and heating, respectively, without any external load. This cyclic deformation behavior is characterized, demonstrating that the current method offers a simple macroscopic processing technique to manufacture 2W-SM polymer composites. (paper)

  3. Novel chiral core-shell silica microspheres with trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane bridged in the mesoporous shell: synthesis, characterization and application in high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiabing; You, Linjun; Di, Bin; Hao, Weiqiang; Su, Mengxiang; Gu, Yu; Shen, Lingling

    2013-07-19

    Novel chiral core-shell silica microspheres with trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane (DACH) moiety bridged in the mesoporous shell were synthesized using layer-by-layer method. The chiral mesoporous shell around the nonporous silica core was formed by the co-condensation of N,N'-bis-[(triethoxysilyl)propyl]-trans-(1R,2R)-bis-(ureido)-cyclohexane (DACH-BS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) using octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C18TMACl) and triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (P123) as the templates. The functionalized core-shell silica microspheres were characterized and tested as chiral stationary phases for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). R/S-1,1'-bi-2,2'-naphthol, R/S-6,6'-dibromo-1,1'-bi-2-naphthol and R/S-1,1'-bi-2,2'-phenanthrol were enantioseparated rapidly on the column packed with the DACH core-shell silica particles. Moreover, the column packed with core-shell particles exhibited better performance than the column packed with the DACH functionalized periodic mesoporous organosilicas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Separative analyses of a chromatographic column packed with a core-shell adsorbent for lithium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, T.; Sugura, K.; Enokida, Y.; Yamamoto, I.

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-6 is used as a blanket material for sufficient tritium production in DT fueled fusion reactors. A core-shell type adsorbent was proposed for lithium isotope separation by chromatography. The mass transfer model in a chromatographic column consisted of 4 steps, such as convection and dispersion in the column, transfer through liquid films, intra-particle diffusion and and adsorption or desorption at the local adsorption sites. A model was developed and concentration profiles and time variation in the column were numerically simulated. It became clear that core-shell type adsorbents with thin porous shell were saturated rapidly relatively to fully porous one and established a sharp edge of adsorption band. This is very important feature because lithium isotope separation requires long-distance development of adsorption band. The values of HETP (Height Equivalent of a Theoretical Plate) for core-shell adsorbent packed column were estimated by statistical moments of the step response curve. The value of HETP decreased with the thickness of the porous shell. A core-shell type adsorbent is, then, useful for lithium isotope separation. (authors)

  5. Mechanical properties of zirconia core-shell rods with porous core and dense shell prepared by thermoplastic co-extrusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštyl, J.; Chlup, Zdeněk; Clemen, F.; Trunec, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2017), s. 2439-2447 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : ceramic injection moldings * oxide fuel -cells * electrophoretic deposition * large pores * alumina * fabrication * behavior * tubes * bioceramics * composites * Zirconia * Co-extrusion * Core-shell * Porous structure * Mechanical properties Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  6. Synthesis of highly monodisperse particles composed of a magnetic core and fluorescent shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Mikio; Yamauchi, Noriko; Matsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio

    2008-09-02

    Highly monodisperse particles composed of a magnetic silica core and fluorescent polymer shell were synthesized with a combined technique of heterocoagulation and soap-free emulsion polymerization. Prior to heterocoagulation, monodisperse, submicrometer-sized silica particles were prepared with the Stober method, and magnetic nanoparticles were prepared with a modified Massart method in which a cationic silane coupling agent of N-trimethoxysilylpropyl- N, N, N-trimethylammonium chloride was added just after coprecipitation of Fe (2+) and Fe (3+). The silica particles with negative surface potential were heterocoagulated with the magnetic nanoparticles with positive surface potential. The magnetic silica particles obtained with the heterocoagulation were treated with sodium silicate to modify their surfaces with silica. In the formation of a fluorescent polymer shell onto the silica-coated magnetic silica cores, an amphoteric initiator of 2,2'-azobis[ N-(2-carboxyethyl)-2-2-methylpropionamidine] (VA-057) was used to control the colloidal stability of the magnetic cores during the polymer coating. The polymerization of St in the presence of a hydrophobic fluorophore of pyrene could coat the cores with fluorescent polymer shells, resulting in monodisperse particles with a magnetic silica core and fluorescent polymer shell. Measurements of zeta potential for the composite particles in different pH values indicated that the composite particles had an amphoteric property originating from VA-057 initiator.

  7. Methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured Ruthenium-Palladium nanoparticles: Relationship between structure and electrochemical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Markus; Jurzinsky, Tilman; Ziegenbalg, Dirk; Cremers, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    In this work the relationship between structural composition and electrochemical characteristics of Palladium(Pd)-Ruthenium(Ru) nanoparticles during alkaline methanol oxidation reaction is investigated. The comparative study of a standard alloyed and a precisely Ru-core-Pd-shell structured catalyst allows for a distinct investigation of the electronic effect and the bifunctional mechanism. Core-shell catalysts benefit from a strong electronic effect and an efficient Pd utilization. It is found that core-shell nanoparticles are highly active towards methanol oxidation reaction for potentials ≥0.6 V, whereas alloyed catalysts show higher current outputs in the lower potential range. However, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) experiments reveal that the methanol oxidation reaction on core-shell structured catalysts proceeds via the incomplete oxidation pathway yielding formaldehyde, formic acid or methyl formate. Contrary, the alloyed catalyst benefits from the Ru atoms at its surface. Those are found to be responsible for high methanol oxidation activity at lower potentials as well as for complete oxidation of CH3OH to CO2 via the bifunctional mechanism. Based on these findings a new Ru-core-Pd-shell-Ru-terrace catalyst was synthesized, which combines the advantages of the core-shell structure and the alloy. This novel catalyst shows high methanol electrooxidation activity as well as excellent selectivity for the complete oxidation pathway.

  8. Ab Initio Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J P; Dytrych, T; Launey, K D

    2011-01-01

    A multi-shell extension of the Elliott SU(3) model, the SU(3) symmetry-adapted version of the no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), is described. The significance of this SA-NCSM emerges from the physical relevance of its SU(3)-coupled basis, which – while it naturally manages center-of-mass spuriosity – provides a microscopic description of nuclei in terms of mixed shape configurations. Since typically configurations of maximum spatial deformation dominate, only a small part of the model space suffices to reproduce the low-energy nuclear dynamics and hence, offers an effective symmetry-guided framework for winnowing of model space. This is based on our recent findings of low-spin and high-deformation dominance in realistic NCSM results and, in turn, holds promise to significantly enhance the reach of ab initio shell models.

  9. Improving Liquid Entry Pressure of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF Membranes by Exploiting the Role of Fabrication Parameters in Vapor-Induced Phase Separation VIPS and Non-Solvent-Induced Phase Separation (NIPS Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Abdulla AlMarzooqi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF is a popular polymer material for making membranes for several applications, including membrane distillation (MD, via the phase inversion process. Non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS and vapor-induced phase separation (VIPS are applied to achieve a porous PVDF membrane with low mass-transfer resistance and high contact angle (hydrophobicity. In this work, firstly, the impacts of several preparation parameters on membrane properties using VIPS and NIPS were studied. Then, the performance of the selected membrane was assessed in a lab-scale direct-contact MD (DCMD unit. The parametric study shows that decreasing PVDF concentration while increasing both relative humidity (RH and exposure time increased the contact angle and bubble-point pore size (BP. Those trends were investigated further by varying the casting thickness. At higher casting thicknesses and longer exposure time (up to 7.5 min, contact angle (CA increased but BP significantly decreased. The latter showed a dominant trend leading to liquid entry pressure (LEP increase with thickness.

  10. Preparation of porous carbon particle with shell/core structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous carbon particles with a shell/core structure have been prepared successfully by controlled precipitation of the polymer from droplets of oil-in-water emulsion, followed by curing and carbonization. The droplets of the oil phase are composed of phenolic resin (PFR, a good solvent (ethyl acetate and porogen (Poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA. The microstructure was characterized in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, nitrogen adsorption, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. The obtained carbon particles have a capsular structure with a microporous carbon shell and a mesoporous carbon core. The BET surface area and porous volume are calculated to be 499 m2g-1 and 0.56 cm3g-1, respectively. The effects of the amount of porogen (PMMA, co-solvent (acetone and surfactant on the resultant structure were studied in detail.

  11. Symplectic no-core shell-model approach to intermediate-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, G. K.; Ferriss, M. C.; Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Draayer, J. P.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Bahri, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a microscopic description of nuclei in the intermediate-mass region, including the proximity to the proton drip line, based on a no-core shell model with a schematic many-nucleon long-range interaction with no parameter adjustments. The outcome confirms the essential role played by the symplectic symmetry to inform the interaction and the winnowing of shell-model spaces. We show that it is imperative that model spaces be expanded well beyond the current limits up through 15 major shells to accommodate particle excitations, which appear critical to highly deformed spatial structures and the convergence of associated observables.

  12. Micro-Raman investigations of InN-GaN core-shell nanowires on Si (111) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, P.; Jeganathan, K.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2013-06-01

    The electron-phonon interactions in InN-GaN core-shell nanowires grown by plasma assisted- molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si (111) substrate have been analysed using micro-Raman spectroscopic technique with the excitation wavelength of 633, 488 and 325 nm. The Raman scattering at 633 nm reveals the characteristic E2 (high) and A1 (LO) phonon mode of InN core at 490 and 590 cm-1 respectively and E2 (high) phonon mode of GaN shell at 573 cm-1. The free carrier concentration of InN core is found to be low in the order ˜ 1016 cm-3 due to the screening of charge carriers by thin GaN shell. Diameter of InN core evaluated using the spatial correlation model is consistent with the transmission electron microscopic measurement of ˜15 nm. The phonon-life time of core-shell nanowire structure is estimated to be ˜0.4 ps. The micro-Raman mapping and its corresponding localised spectra for 325 nm excitation exhibit intense E2 (high) phonon mode of GaN shell at 573 cm-1 as the decrease of laser interaction length and the signal intensity is quenched at the voids due to high spacing of NWs.

  13. Micro-Raman investigations of InN-GaN core-shell nanowires on Si (111 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sangeetha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-phonon interactions in InN-GaN core-shell nanowires grown by plasma assisted- molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on Si (111 substrate have been analysed using micro-Raman spectroscopic technique with the excitation wavelength of 633, 488 and 325 nm. The Raman scattering at 633 nm reveals the characteristic E2 (high and A1 (LO phonon mode of InN core at 490 and 590 cm−1 respectively and E2 (high phonon mode of GaN shell at 573 cm−1. The free carrier concentration of InN core is found to be low in the order ∼ 1016 cm−3 due to the screening of charge carriers by thin GaN shell. Diameter of InN core evaluated using the spatial correlation model is consistent with the transmission electron microscopic measurement of ∼15 nm. The phonon-life time of core-shell nanowire structure is estimated to be ∼0.4 ps. The micro-Raman mapping and its corresponding localised spectra for 325 nm excitation exhibit intense E2 (high phonon mode of GaN shell at 573 cm−1 as the decrease of laser interaction length and the signal intensity is quenched at the voids due to high spacing of NWs.

  14. Micro-Raman investigations of InN-GaN core-shell nanowires on Si (111) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangeetha, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Jeganathan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The electron-phonon interactions in InN-GaN core-shell nanowires grown by plasma assisted- molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si (111) substrate have been analysed using micro-Raman spectroscopic technique with the excitation wavelength of 633, 488 and 325 nm. The Raman scattering at 633 nm reveals the characteristic E 2 (high) and A 1 (LO) phonon mode of InN core at 490 and 590 cm −1 respectively and E 2 (high) phonon mode of GaN shell at 573 cm −1 . The free carrier concentration of InN core is found to be low in the order ∼ 10 16 cm −3 due to the screening of charge carriers by thin GaN shell. Diameter of InN core evaluated using the spatial correlation model is consistent with the transmission electron microscopic measurement of ∼15 nm. The phonon-life time of core-shell nanowire structure is estimated to be ∼0.4 ps. The micro-Raman mapping and its corresponding localised spectra for 325 nm excitation exhibit intense E 2 (high) phonon mode of GaN shell at 573 cm −1 as the decrease of laser interaction length and the signal intensity is quenched at the voids due to high spacing of NWs.

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric transport in modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Erdong; Li, Qiming; Swartzentruber, Brian; Pan, Wei; Wang, George T; Martinez, Julio A

    2016-01-08

    The thermoelectric properties of unintentionally n-doped core GaN/AlGaN core/shell N-face nanowires are reported. We found that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is consistent with thermally activated carriers with two distinctive donor energies. The Seebeck coefficient of GaN/AlGaN nanowires is more than twice as large as that for the GaN nanowires alone. However, an outer layer of GaN deposited onto the GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires decreases the Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity remains the same. We attribute these observations to the formation of an electron gas channel within the heavily-doped GaN core of the GaN/AlGaN nanowires. The room-temperature thermoelectric power factor for the GaN/AlGaN nanowires can be four times higher than the GaN nanowires. Selective doping in bandgap engineered core/shell nanowires is proposed for enhancing the thermoelectric power.

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of core-multi-shell CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots: Surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnesh, R. K.; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2017-02-01

    We report two port synthesis of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multi-shell quantum dots (Q-dots) and their structural properties. The multi-shell structures of Q-dots were developed by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The obtained Q-dots show high crystallinity with the step-wise adjustment of lattice parameters in the radial direction. The size of the core and core-shell Q-dots estimated by transmission electron microscopy images and absorption spectra is about 3.4 and 5.3 nm, respectively. The water soluble Q-dots (scheme-1) were prepared by using ligand exchange method, and the effect of pH was discussed regarding the variation of quantum yield (QY). The decrease of a lifetime of core-multi-shell Q-dots with respect to core CdSe indicates that the shell growth may be tuned by the lifetimes. Thus, the study clearly demonstrates that the core-shell approach can be used to substantially improve the optical properties of Q-dots desired for various applications.

  17. Shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles and their corresponding electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2012-01-01

    The shape-controlled synthesis of Au@Pd core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) was successfully achieved through the emulsion phase generated during the phase transfer from organic to aqueous medium. Contrary to conventional epitaxial growth for obtaining core-shell structures, this method does not require high temperatures and does not have shape restrictions. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Investigation of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticle films synthesized by sequential layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, M.C., E-mail: mariachiara.spadaro@unimore.it [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Luches, P. [Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Benedetti, F.; Valeri, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Turchini, S. [CNR-ISM, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bertoni, G. [CNR-IMEM, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/a, 43124 Parma (Italy); Ferretti, A.M.; Capetti, E.; Ponti, A. [Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via G. Fantoli 16/15, 20138 Milano (Italy); D’Addato, S. [CNR-NANO, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento FIM, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G. Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • We studied Ni/CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP) obtained with a gas aggregation source. • The NP oxide shells were produced bye reactive deposition of Co in Oxygen atmosphere (p{sub O2} ≈ 10{sup −7} mbar). • XPS, SEM, STEM were used to obtain information on Ni chemical state and NP structure and morphology. • XMCD result showed evidence of remanent magnetization at room temperature. • We interpret XMCD results as due to stabilization induced by exchange bias due to AFM/FM coupling at the core/shell interface. - Abstract: Films of Ni@CoO core-shell nanoparticles (NP Ni core size d ≈ 11 nm) have been grown on Si/SiO{sub x} and lacey carbon supports, by a sequential layer deposition method: a first layer of CoO was evaporated on the substrate, followed by the deposition of a layer of pre-formed, mass-selected Ni NPs, and finally an overlayer of CoO was added. The Ni NPs were formed by a magnetron gas aggregation source, and mass selected with a quadrupole mass filter. The morphology of the films was investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The Ni NP cores have a shape compatible with McKay icosahedron, caused by multitwinning occurring during their growth in the source, and the Ni NP layer shows the typical random paving growth mode. After the deposition of the CoO overlayer, CoO islands are observed, gradually extending and tending to merge with each other, with the formation of shells that enclose the Ni NP cores. In situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy showed that a few Ni atomic layers localized at the core-shell interface are oxidized, hinting at the possibility of creating an intermediate NiO shell between Ni and CoO, depending on the deposition conditions. Finally, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism at the Ni L{sub 2,3} absorption edge showed the presence of magnetization at room temperature even at remanence, revealing the possibility of magnetic stabilization of the NP film.

  19. Electronic structure and intersubband magnetoabsorption spectra of CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen

    2016-10-01

    The electronic structures of CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires are calculated based on the effective-mass theory, and it is found that the hole states in CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires are strongly mixed, which are very different from the hole states in CdSe or CdS nanowires. In addition, we find the three highest hole states at the Γ point are almost localized in the CdSe core and the energies of the hole states in CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires can be enhanced greatly when the core radius Rc increases and the total radius R is fixed. The degenerate hole states are split by the magnetic field, and the split energies will increase when |Jh | increases from 1/2 to 7/2, while they are almost not influenced by the change of the core radius Rc. The absorption spectra of CdSe/CdS core-shell nanowires at the Γ point are also studied in the magnetic field when the temperature T is considered, and we find there are only two peaks will arise if the core radius Rc and the temperature T increase. The intensity of each optical absorption can be considerably enhanced by increasing the core radius Rc when the temperature T is fixed, it is due to the increase of their optical transition matrix element. Meanwhile, the intensity of each optical absorption can be decreased when the temperature T increases and the core radius Rc is fixed, and this is because the Fermi-Dirac distribution function of the corresponding hole states will increase as the increase of the temperature T.

  20. Ru-core/Cu-shell bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size formed in one-pot synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgadottir, I; Freychet, G; Arquillière, P; Maret, M; Gergaud, P; Haumesser, P H; Santini, C C

    2014-12-21

    Suspensions of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu have been synthesized by simultaneous decomposition of two organometallic compounds in an ionic liquid. These suspensions have been characterized by Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) at energies slightly below the Ru K-edge. It is found that the NPs adopt a Ru-core, a Cu-shell structure, with a constant Ru core diameter of 1.9 nm for all Ru : Cu compositions, while the Cu shell thickness increases with Cu content up to 0.9 nm. The formation of RuCuNPs thus proceeds through rapid decomposition of the Ru precursor into RuNPs of constant size followed by the reaction of the Cu precursor and agglomeration as a Cu shell. Thus, the different decomposition kinetics of precursors make possible the elaboration of core-shell NPs composed of two metals without chemical affinity.

  1. Core/shell structured ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jing; Tao Xia; Pu Yuan; Zeng Xiaofei; Chen Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical synthesis route. Subsequently, SiO 2 layers were successfully coated onto the surface of ZnO nanoparticles to modify the photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions. The obtained particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and zeta potential. It was found that ultrafine core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles were successfully obtained. The photocatalytic performance of ZnO/SiO 2 core/shell structured nanoparticles in Rhodamine B aqueous solution at varied pH value were also investigated. Compared with uncoated ZnO nanoparticles, core/shell structured ZnO/SiO 2 nanoparticles with thinner SiO 2 shell possess improved stability and relatively better photocatalytic activity in acidic or alkaline solutions, which would broaden its potential application in pollutant treatment.

  2. Synthesis of Dispersible Mesoporous Nitrogen-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanoplates with Uniform Hexagonal Morphologies for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Jafta, Charl J; Gong, Jiang; Ran, Qidi; Lin, Xianzhong; Félix, Roberto; Wilks, Regan G; Bär, Marcus; Yuan, Jiayin; Ballauff, Matthias; Lu, Yan

    2016-11-02

    In this study, dispersible mesoporous nitrogen-doped hollow carbon nanoplates have been synthesized as a new anisotropic carbon nanostructure using gibbsite nanoplates as templates. The gibbsite-silica core-shell nanoplates were first prepared before the gibbsite core was etched away. Dopamine as carbon precursor was self-polymerized on the hollow silica nanoplates surface assisted by sonification, which not only favors a homogeneous polymer coating on the nanoplates but also prevents their aggregation during the polymerization. Individual silica-polydopamine core-shell nanoplates were immobilized in a silica gel in an insulated state via a silica nanocasting technique. After pyrolysis in a nanoconfine environment and elimination of silica, discrete and dispersible hollow carbon nanoplates are obtained. The resulted hollow carbon nanoplates bear uniform hexagonal morphology with specific surface area of 460 m 2 ·g -1 and fairly accessible small mesopores (∼3.8 nm). They show excellent colloidal stability in aqueous media and are applied as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitors. When using polyvinylimidazolium-based nanoparticles as a binder in electrodes, the hollow carbon nanoplates present superior performance in parallel to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder.

  3. Fabrication of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajabi, S.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Guilan, University Campus 2, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sohrabnezhad, Sh., E-mail: sohrabnezhad@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghafourian, S. [Clinical Microbiology Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO nanocomposite with a core/shell structure was successfully synthesized via direct calcinations of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@HKUST-1 in air atmosphere. The morphology, structure, magnetic and porous properties of the as-synthesized nano composites were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The results showed that the nanocomposite material included a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and a CuO shell. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell can be separated easily from the medium by a small magnet. The antibacterial activity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CuO core-shell was investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A new mechanism was proposed for inactivation of bacteria over the prepared sample. It was demonstrated that the core-shell exhibit recyclable antibacterial activity, acting as an ideal long-acting antibacterial agent. - Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell release of copper ions. These Cu{sup 2+} ions were responsible for the exhibited antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@CuO core-shell was prepared by MOF method. • This is the first study of antibacterial activity of core-shell consist of CuO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The core-shell can be reused effectively. • Core-shell was separated from the reaction solution by external magnetic field.

  4. Potential application of microporous structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) composite nonwoven separators to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Eun-Sun; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Sang-Young

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Microporous-structured PVdF-HFP/PET composite nonwoven separators for Li-batteries. → Well-developed microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. → Provision of facile ion transport and suppressed growth of cell impedance. → Superior cell performance at high-voltages/high-current densities. - Abstract: We demonstrate potential application of a new composite non-woven separator, which is comprised of a phase inversion-controlled, microporous polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) gel polymer electrolyte and a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) non-woven support, to high-voltage and high-power lithium-ion batteries. In comparison to a commercialized polyethylene (PE) separator, the composite non-woven separator exhibits distinct improvements in microporous structure and liquid electrolyte wettability. Based on the understanding of the composite non-woven separator, cell performances of the separator at challenging charge/discharge conditions are investigated and discussed in terms of ion transport of the separator and AC impedance of the cell. The aforementioned advantageous features of the composite non-woven separator play a key role in providing facile ion transport and suppressing growth of cell impedance during cycling, which in turn contribute to superior cell performances at harsh charge/discharge conditions such as high voltages and high current densities.

  5. ZnO@MnO2 Core-Shell Nanofiber Cathodes for High Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhamani, A V; Shareef, K M; Rao, M S Ramachandra

    2016-11-09

    Asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) with aqueous electrolyte medium have recently become the focus of increasing research. For high performance ASCs, selection of cathode materials play a crucial role, and core-shell nanostructures are found to be a good choice. We successfully synthesized, ZnO@MnO 2 core-shell nanofibers (NFs) by modification of high-aspect-ratio-electrospun ZnO NFs hydrothermally with MnO 2 nanoflakes. High conductivity of the ZnO NFs and the exceptionally high pseudocapacitive nature of MnO 2 nanoflakes coating delivered a specific capacitance of 907 Fg -1 at 0.6 Ag -1 for the core-shell NFs. A simple and cost-effective ASC construction was demonstrated with ZnO@MnO 2 NFs as a battery-type cathode material and a commercial-quality activated carbon as a capacitor-type anode material. The fabricated device functioned very well in a voltage window of 0-2.0 V, and a red-LED was illuminated using a single-celled fabricated ASC device. It was found to deliver a maximum energy density of 17 Whkg -1 and a power density of 6.5 kWkg -1 with capacitance retention of 94% and Coulombic efficiency of 100%. The novel architecture of the ZnO@MnO 2 core-shell nanofibrous material implies the importance of using simple design of fiber-based electrode material by mere changes of core and shell counterparts.

  6. Microwave electromagnetic and absorption properties of SiO2/C core/shell composites plated with metal cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guozhu; Fang, Xumin; Wu, Hongyan; Wei, Hongyu; Li, Jingfa; Li, Kaipeng; Mei, Buqing; Xu, Yewen

    2017-04-01

    A facile method has been developed to fabricate magnetic core/shell SiO2/C/Co sub-microspheres via the pyrolysis of SiO2/PANI (polyaniline) and electroless plating method. The electromagnetic parameters of these SiO2/C and SiO2/C/Co composites were measured and the microwave reflection loss properties were evaluated in the frequency range of 2-18 GHz. The results show that the dielectric loss of SiO2/C composite increases with the increase of carbonization temperature and the magnetic loss enhances due to the deposition of cobalt on the SiO2/C sub-microspheres. The reflection loss results exhibit that the microwave absorption properties of the SiO2/C/Co composites are more excellent than those of SiO2/C composites for each thickness. The maximum effective absorption bandwidth (reflection loss ≤ -10 dB) arrives at 5.0 GHz (13.0-18 GHz) for SiO2/C/Co composite with 1.5 mm of thickness and the minimum reflection loss value is -24.0 dB at 5.0 GHz with 4.0 mm of thickness. The microwave loss mechanism of the SiO2/C/Co composites was also discussed in this paper.

  7. Electrical Conductivity of Ni-YSZ Anode for SOFCs According to the Ni Powder Size Variations in Core-shell Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Jin; Jung, Sung-Hun; An, Yong-Tae; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ni-YSZ (Y_2O_3-stabilized ZrO_2) core-shell structures were prepared by a high-speed mixing method, starting from Ni particles of three different average sizes of 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm. The Ni-YSZ core-shell structures prepared using Ni particles of size 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm exhibited dense core, porous core, and random-morphology core, respectively. Subsequently, nano structured cermet anodes were fabricated using the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders. During the formation of cermet, the heat treatment of Ni-YSZ core-shell powder results in the eruption of Ni core out of the YSZ shell layers, thereby facilitating the formation of nano structured Ni-YSZ cermet. Systematic studies indicated that the morphology and electrical conductivity of the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders and the cermet anode varied, depending on the initial particle size of the Ni particles. Of the different samples prepared in this study, the Ni-YSZ cermet prepared using Ni particles of size 0.4 μm showed the highest electrical conductivity at 750 ℃.

  8. Electrical Conductivity of Ni-YSZ Anode for SOFCs According to the Ni Powder Size Variations in Core-shell Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Jin; Jung, Sung-Hun; An, Yong-Tae; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung [Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology (KICET), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Ni-YSZ (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}) core-shell structures were prepared by a high-speed mixing method, starting from Ni particles of three different average sizes of 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm. The Ni-YSZ core-shell structures prepared using Ni particles of size 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8 μm exhibited dense core, porous core, and random-morphology core, respectively. Subsequently, nano structured cermet anodes were fabricated using the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders. During the formation of cermet, the heat treatment of Ni-YSZ core-shell powder results in the eruption of Ni core out of the YSZ shell layers, thereby facilitating the formation of nano structured Ni-YSZ cermet. Systematic studies indicated that the morphology and electrical conductivity of the prepared Ni-YSZ core-shell powders and the cermet anode varied, depending on the initial particle size of the Ni particles. Of the different samples prepared in this study, the Ni-YSZ cermet prepared using Ni particles of size 0.4 μm showed the highest electrical conductivity at 750 ℃.

  9. Core-shell fluorescent silica nanoparticles for sensing near-neutral pH values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Chen, X.; Ye, Q.; Yao, Z.; Guo, X.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    pH-responsive fluorescent core-shell silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were prepared by encapsulating the pH-sensitive fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3, 6-trisulfonate into their silica shell via a facile reverse microemulsion method. The resulting SiNPs were characterized by SEM, TEM, fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, photobleaching experiments, and photoluminescence. The core-shell structure endows the SiNPs with reduced photobleaching, excellent photostability, minimized solvatachromic shift, and increased fluorescence efficiency compared to the free fluorophore in aqueous solution. The dynamic range for sensing pH ranges from 5. 5 to 9. 0. The nanosensors show excellent stability, are highly reproducible, and enable rapid detection of pH. The results obtained with the SiNPs are in good agreement with data obtained with a glass electrode. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Ni-SiO2/silicalite-1 core-shell micromembrane reactors and their reaction/diffusion performance

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Easir A.

    2010-12-15

    Core-shell micromembrane reactors are a novel class of materials where a catalyst and a shape-selective membrane are synergistically housed in a single particle. In this work, we report the synthesis of micrometer -sized core-shell particles containing a catalyst core and a thin permselective zeolite shell and their application as a micromembrane reactor for the selective hydrogenation of the 1-hexene and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene isomers. The bare catalyst, which is made from porous silica loaded with catalytically active nickel, showed no reactant selectivity between hexene isomers, but the core-shell particles showed high selectivities up to 300 for a 1-hexene conversion of 90%. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations, by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and Raman spectra, reveal that single crystalline rutile TiO 2 shells can be epitaxially grown on SnO 2 NWs with an atomically sharp interface at low temperature (250 °C). The growth behavior of the TiO 2 shells highly depends on the surface orientations and the geometrical shape of the core SnO 2 NW cross-section. Atomically smooth surfaces are found for growth on the {110} surface. Rough surfaces develop on {100} surfaces due to (100) - (1 × 3) reconstruction, by introducing steps in the [010] direction as a continuation of {110} facets. Lattice mismatch induces superlattice structures in the TiO 2 shell and misfit dislocations along the interface. Conformal epitaxial growth has been observed for SnO 2 NW cores with an octagonal cross-section ({100} and {110} surfaces). However, for a rectangular core ({101} and {010} surfaces), the shell also derives an octagonal shape from the epitaxial growth, which was explained by a proposed model based on ALD kinetics. The surface steps and defects induced by the lattice mismatch likely lead to improved photoluminescence (PL) performance for the yellow emission. Compared to the pure SnO 2 NWs, the PL spectrum of the core-shell nanostructures exhibits a stronger emission peak, which suggests potential applications in optoelectronics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  12. Effect of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2018-05-23

    In this study, the effects of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal (QDNC) solar cells have been investigated in detail. For this purpose, the conventional, i.e. original, detailed balance model, developed by Shockley and Queisser to calculate an upper limit for the conversion efficiency of silicon p-n junction solar cells, is modified in a simple and effective way to calculate the conversion efficiency of core/shell QDNC solar cells. Since the existing model relies on the gap energy ([Formula: see text]) of the solar cell, it does not make an estimation about the effect of QDNC materials on the efficiency of the solar cells, and gives the same efficiency values for several QDNC solar cells with the same [Formula: see text]. The proposed modification, however, estimates a conversion efficiency in relation to the material properties and also the confinement type of the QDNCs. The results of the modified model show that, in contrast to the original one, the conversion efficiencies of different QDNC solar cells, even if they have the same [Formula: see text], become different depending upon the confinement type and shell material of the core/shell QDNCs, and this is crucial in the design and fabrication of the new generation solar cells to predict the confinement type and also appropriate QDNC materials for better efficiency.

  13. Effect of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the shell material and confinement type on the conversion efficiency of core/shell quantum dot nanocrystal (QDNC) solar cells have been investigated in detail. For this purpose, the conventional, i.e. original, detailed balance model, developed by Shockley and Queisser to calculate an upper limit for the conversion efficiency of silicon p–n junction solar cells, is modified in a simple and effective way to calculate the conversion efficiency of core/shell QDNC solar cells. Since the existing model relies on the gap energy () of the solar cell, it does not make an estimation about the effect of QDNC materials on the efficiency of the solar cells, and gives the same efficiency values for several QDNC solar cells with the same . The proposed modification, however, estimates a conversion efficiency in relation to the material properties and also the confinement type of the QDNCs. The results of the modified model show that, in contrast to the original one, the conversion efficiencies of different QDNC solar cells, even if they have the same , become different depending upon the confinement type and shell material of the core/shell QDNCs, and this is crucial in the design and fabrication of the new generation solar cells to predict the confinement type and also appropriate QDNC materials for better efficiency.

  14. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  15. Quantitative optical extinction-based parametric method for sizing a single core-shell Ag-Ag2O nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillan, J M J; Scaffardi, L B; Schinca, D C

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a parametric method for determining the core radius and shell thickness in small silver-silver-oxide core-shell nanoparticles (Nps) based on single particle optical extinction spectroscopy. The method is based on the study of the relationship between plasmon peak wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and contrast of the extinction spectra as a function of core radius and shell thickness. This study reveals that plasmon peak wavelength is strongly dependent on shell thickness, whereas FWHM and contrast depend on both variables. These characteristics may be used for establishing an easy and fast stepwise procedure to size core-shell NPs from single particle absorption spectrum. The importance of the method lies in the possibility of monitoring the growth of the silver-oxide layer around small spherical silver Nps in real time. Using the electrostatic approximation of Mie theory, core-shell single particle extinction spectra were calculated for a silver particle's core size smaller than about 20 nm and different thicknesses of silver oxide around it. Analysis of the obtained curves shows a very particular characteristic of the plasmon peak of small silver-silver-oxide Nps, expressed in the fact that its position is strongly dependent on oxide thickness and weakly dependent on the core radius. Even a very thin oxide layer shifts the plasmon peak noticeably, enabling plasmon tuning with appropriate shell thickness. This characteristic, together with the behaviour of FWHM and contrast of the extinction spectra can be combined into a parametric method for sizing both core and shell of single silver Nps in a medium using only optical information. In turn, shell thickness can be related to oxygen content in the Np's surrounding media. The method proposed is applied to size silver Nps from single particle extinction spectrum. The results are compared with full optical spectrum fitting using the electrostatic approximation in Mie theory. The method

  16. Tailored Synthesis of Core-Shell Mesoporous Silica Particles—Optimization of Dye Sorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Baliś

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Monodisperse spherical silica particles, with solid cores and mesoporous shells (SCMS, were synthesized at various temperatures using a one-pot method utilizing a cationic surfactant template. The temperature of the synthesis was found to significantly affect the diameters of both the cores (ca. 170–800 nm and shells (ca. 11–80 nm of the particles, which can be tailored for specific applications that require a high specific surface area of the nanocarriers (mesoporous shells and simultaneously their mechanical robustness for, e.g., facile isolation from suspensions (dense cores. The applied method enabled the formation of the relatively thick mesoporous shells at conditions below room temperature. Radially ordered pores with narrow distributions of their sizes in 3–4 nm range were found in the shells. The adsorption ability of the SCMS particles was studied using rhodamine 6G as a model dye. Decolorization of the dye solution in the presence of the SCMS particles was correlated with their structure and specific surface area and reached its maximum for the particles synthesized at 15 °C. The presented strategy may be applied for the fine-tuning of the structure of SCMS particles and the enhancement of their adsorption capabilities.

  17. Structural Color Palettes of Core-Shell Photonic Ink Capsules Containing Cholesteric Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Seok; Seo, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Photonic microcapsules with onion-like topology are microfluidically designed to have cholesteric liquid crystals with opposite handedness in their core and shell. The microcapsules exhibit structural colors caused by dual photonic bandgaps, resulting in a rich variety of color on the optical palette. Moreover, the microcapsules can switch the colors from either core or shell depending on the selection of light-handedness. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Preparation and recognition of surface molecularly imprinted core-shell microbeads for protein in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Yan Changling; Gao Shuyan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a surface molecular imprinting technique was reported for preparing core-shell microbeads of protein imprinting, and bovine hemoglobin or bovine serum albumin were used as model proteins for studying the imprinted core-shell microbeads. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was polymerized onto the surface of polystyrene microbead in the presence of the protein templates to create protein-imprinted core-shell microbeads. The various samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The effect of pH on rebinding of the template hemoglobin, the specific binding and selective recognition were studied for the imprinted microbeads. The results show that the bovine hemoglobin-imprinted core-shell microbeads were successfully created. The shell was a sort of imprinted thin films with porous structure and larger surface areas. The imprinted microbeads have good selectivity for templates and high stability. Due to the recognition sites locating at or closing to the surface, these imprinted microbeads have good property of mass-transport. Unfortunately, the imprint technology was not successfully applied to imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  19. Preparation and recognition of surface molecularly imprinted core-shell microbeads for protein in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan, E-mail: yanlu2001@sohu.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, 46 Jlanshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Yan Changling; Gao Shuyan [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Normal University, 46 Jlanshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, a surface molecular imprinting technique was reported for preparing core-shell microbeads of protein imprinting, and bovine hemoglobin or bovine serum albumin were used as model proteins for studying the imprinted core-shell microbeads. 3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) was polymerized onto the surface of polystyrene microbead in the presence of the protein templates to create protein-imprinted core-shell microbeads. The various samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The effect of pH on rebinding of the template hemoglobin, the specific binding and selective recognition were studied for the imprinted microbeads. The results show that the bovine hemoglobin-imprinted core-shell microbeads were successfully created. The shell was a sort of imprinted thin films with porous structure and larger surface areas. The imprinted microbeads have good selectivity for templates and high stability. Due to the recognition sites locating at or closing to the surface, these imprinted microbeads have good property of mass-transport. Unfortunately, the imprint technology was not successfully applied to imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA).

  20. Synthesis of fly ash based core-shell composites for use as functional pigment in paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash is a combustion residue, mainly composed of silica, alumina and iron oxides. It is produced by the power industries in very large amounts and usually disposed in landfills, which have represented an environmental problem in recent years1. The need to generate a market for fly ash consumption is the main reason why alternative applications have been studied. It has been applied as an additive in construction materials like cement and pavements2. The present work describes the synthesis of Flyash-Titania core-shell particles by precipitation technique using Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) which can be used for variety of applications such as NIR reflecting materials for cool coatings, Photocatalysis etc. In this work, Fly ash is used in core and Nano -TiO2 is coated as shell on it. Surfactants are used to improve the adhesion of Nano Titania shell on fly ash core. Effect on adhesion of TiO2 on Fly ash is studied by using different types of surfactant. The preparation of core shells was carried out in absence of surfactant as well as using anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The percentage of surfactant was varied to study the effect of amount of surfactant on the uniformity and size of particles in the shell using Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra. The morphology of core shell structures was studied using SEM technique. Use of anionic surfactant results in more uniform coating with reduced particle size of the shell material. The composite particles prepared by using anionic surfactant are having good pigment properties and also shows good reflectance in Near Infrared region and hence can be used as a pigment in cool coatings.

  1. Room temperature nanojoining of Cu-Ag core-shell nanoparticles and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiaqi; Shin, Seungha, E-mail: sshin@utk.edu [The University of Tennessee, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Room temperature (T{sub room}, 300 K) nanojoining of Ag has been widely employed in fabrication of microelectronic applications where the shapes and structures of microelectronic components must be maintained. In this research, the joining processes of pure Ag nanoparticles (NPs), Cu-Ag core-shell NPs, and nanowires (NWs) are studied using molecular dynamics simulations at T{sub room}. The evolution of densification, potential energy, and structural deformation during joining process are analyzed to identify joining mechanisms. Depending on geometry, different joining mechanisms including crystallization-amorphization, reorientation, Shockley partial dislocation are determined. A three-stage joining scenario is observed in both joining process of NPs and NWs. Besides, the Cu core does not participate in all joining processes, however, it enhances the mobility of Ag shell atoms, contributing to a higher densification and bonding strength at T{sub room}, compared with pure Ag nanomaterials. The tensile test shows that the nanojoint bears higher rupture strength than the core-she