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Sample records for polyradical scaffolds calix4arene

  1. Long synthetic nanotubes from calix[4]arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organo, Voltaire G; Sgarlata, Valentina; Firouzbakht, Farhood; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-01-01

    We report the synthesis and encapsulation properties of long (up to 5 nm) molecular nanotubes 1-4, which are based on calix[4]arenes and can be filled with multiple nitrosonium (NO(+)) ions upon reaction with NO(2)/N(2)O(4) gases. These are among the largest nanoscale molecular containers prepared to date and can entrap up to five guests. The structure and properties of tubular complexes 1(NO(+))(2)-4(NO(+))(5) were studied by UV/Vis, FTIR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in solution, and also by molecular modeling. Entrapment of NO(+) in 1(NO(+))(2)-4(NO(+))(5) is reversible, and addition of [18]crown-6 quickly recovers starting tubes 1-4. The FTIR and titration data revealed enhanced binding of NO(+) in longer tubes, which may be due to cooperativity. The described nanotubes may serve as materials for storing and converting NO(x) and also offer a promise to further develop supramolecular chemistry of molecular containers. These findings also open wider perspectives towards applications of synthetic nanotubes as alternatives to carbon nanotubes.

  2. Calix[4]arene Based Single-Molecule Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karotsis, Georgios; Teat, Simon J.; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Piligkos, Stergios; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Brechin, Euan K.

    2009-06-04

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have been the subject of much interest in recent years because their molecular nature and inherent physical properties allow the crossover between classical and quantum physics to be observed. The macroscopic observation of quantum phenomena - tunneling between different spin states, quantum interference between tunnel paths - not only allows scientists to study quantum mechanical laws in great detail, but also provides model systems with which to investigate the possible implementation of spin-based solid state qubits and molecular spintronics. The isolation of small, simple SMMs is therefore an exciting prospect. To date almost all SMMs have been made via the self-assembly of 3d metal ions in the presence of bridging/chelating organic ligands. However, very recently an exciting new class of SMMs, based on 3d metal clusters (or single lanthanide ions) housed within polyoxometalates, has appeared. These types of molecule, in which the SMM is completely encapsulated within (or shrouded by) a 'protective' organic or inorganic sheath have much potential for design and manipulation: for example, for the removal of unwanted dipolar interactions, the introduction of redox activity, or to simply aid functionalization for surface grafting. Calix[4]arenes are cyclic (typically bowl-shaped) polyphenols that have been used extensively in the formation of versatile self-assembled supramolecular structures. Although many have been reported, p-{sup t}But-calix[4]arene and calix[4]arene (TBC4 and C4 respectively, Figure 1A) are frequently encountered due to (a) synthetic accessibility, and (b) vast potential for alteration at either the upper or lower rim of the macrocyclic framework. Within the field of supramolecular chemistry, TBC4 is well known for interesting polymorphic behavior and phase transformations within anti-parallel bi-layer arrays, while C4 often forms self-included trimers. The polyphenolic nature of calix[n]arenes (where

  3. CALIX[4]ARENE C-145 EFFECTS ON СELLULAR HAEMOSTASIS

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    V. O. Chernyshenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study a potential antithrombotic sodium salt of calix[4]arene-methylene-bis-phosphonic acid (С-145 — on activation and aggregation of platelets in vivo, as well as on proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial cells in the cell culture. Effects of calix[4]arene С-145 estimated in vitro after addition to the platelet rich plasma, and in vivo after intravenous injection into rabbit bloodstream in equivalent amounts (46 μM. Aggregation of platelets was induced by adenosine diphosphate and detected using aggregometer Solar AP2110. Platelet shape and cytoplasmic granularity were monitored on COULTER EPICS XL Flow Cytometer. The level of tissuetype plasminogen activator — tPA — was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Effects of calix[4]arene C-145 on culture of endotelial cells cells was studied using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide — MTT-test. The population of proliferative pool of cells (G2/M+S was determined using flow cytometry. Aggregometry and flow cytometry showed that calix[4]arene C-145 did not activate platelets nor affect their aggregation in vitro. However intravenous injection of calix[4]arene C-145 into the bloodstream of healthy rabbits leads to strong inhibition of platelet aggregation and changes of shape and granularity of most of the platelets after 2 hours of administration. Any additional appearance of endothelial cells activation marker tPA in vivo and any inhibition of calix[4]arene C-145 on proliferation of endothelial cells in cell culture did not observe. So calix[4]arene C-145 had strong anti-platelet effect in vivo that was not a result of their direct action on platelets or endothelial cells in vitro. This allowed to assume the possibility of calix[4]arene C-145 use as an effective antithrombotic agent.

  4. Luminescence Properties of Self-Aggregating TbIII-DOTA-Functionalized Calix[4]arenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Florian; Tiruvadi Krishnan, Sriram; Schühle, Daniel T.; Eliseeva, Svetlana V.; Petoud, Stéphane; Tóth, Éva; Djanashvili, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    Self-aggregating calix[4]arenes carrying four DOTA ligands on the upper rim for stable complexation of paramagnetic GdIII-ions have already been proposed as MRI probes. In this work, we investigate the luminescence properties of TbIII-DOTA-calix[4]arene-4OPr containing four propyl-groups and compare them with those of the analogue substituted with a phthalimide chromophore (TbIII-DOTA-calix[4]arene-3OPr-OPhth). We show that, given its four aromatic rings, the calix[4]arene core acts as an effective sensitizer of Tb-centered luminescence. Substituents on the lower rim can modulate the aggregation behavior, which in turn determines the luminescence properties of the compounds. In solid state, the quantum yield of the phthalimide derivative is almost three times as high as that of the propyl-functionalized analogue demonstrating a beneficial role of the chromophore on Tb-luminescence. In solution, however, the effect of the phthalimide group vanishes, which we attribute to the large distance between the chromophore and the lanthanide, situated on the opposite rims of the calix[4]arene. Both quantum yields and luminescence lifetimes show clear concentration dependence in solution, related to the strong impact of aggregation on the luminescence behaviour. We also evidence the variability in the values of the critical micelle concentration depending on the experimental technique. Such luminescent calix[4]arene platforms accommodating stable lanthanide complexes can be considered valuable building blocks for the design of dual MR/optical imaging probes.

  5. Multivalent calix[4]arene-based fluorescent sensor for detecting silver ions in aqueous media and physiological environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Behzad; Tarlani, Aliakbar; Akbari-Moghaddam, Peyman; Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Muzart, Jacques; Zadmard, Reza

    2017-04-15

    A new derivative of dipodal 1,3-calix[4]arene-based chemosensor (R), which was containing several binding sites have been synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR and LC-MS spectroscopic methods. The selectivity of Rhas been investigated in aqueous methanol, resulting in fluorescence shift and selective recognition of Ag + among 20 various alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. Microstructural features of R and its complex with Ag + have been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM images can clearly differentiate R from its complex of Ag + . Moreover; the complicated binding mode of metal-ligand complex has been explored by UV-Vis, LC-MS, FIR, Fluorescence titration, Job's plot method and theoretical approaches. Density functional theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory was employed for computational studies. Theoretical calculations revealed that selectivity and specificity of R toward Ag + could be attributed to structural conformation of 1,3-alternate-calix[4]arene scaffold and molecular electrostatic potential of its surface. Furthermore; the competitive experiments were carried out to test sensor's ability for practical uses. Finally, the efficiency of R in matrix of physiological cations was examined and showed gradual emission enhancement which makes R an ideal candidate for monitoring of Ag + in physiological environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical, electrical and sensing properties of β-ketoimine calix[4]arene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echabaane, M., E-mail: mosaab.echabaane@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Rouis, A. [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia); Bonnamour, I. [Institut de Chimie and Biochimie Moléculaires and Supramoléculaires (ICBMS), UMR CNRS 5246, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Ouada, H. [Laboratoire des Interfaces et Matériaux Avancés (LIMA), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5000 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-09-16

    Optical, electrical and ion sensing properties of β-ketoimine calix[4]arene thin films have been investigated. These calix[4]arene derivative films exhibit absorption spectra with a resolved electronic structure in the UV–vis and the energy gap was found to be 3.65 eV. Electrical properties of ITO/β-ketoimine calix[4]arene/Al devices have been investigated by I–V characteristics and impedance spectroscopy measurements. The conduction is governed by space-charge-limited current (SCLC) mechanism. The impedance spectroscopy study showed a hopping transport process, a typical behavior of disordered materials. The device was modeled by a single parallel resistor and capacitor network in series with a resistance. The β-ketoimine calix[4]arene was used for the conception of the novel optical chemical sensor and the detection of Cu{sup 2+} ions was monitored by UV–visible spectroscopy. The linear dynamic range for the determination of Cu{sup 2+} has been 10{sup −5}–10{sup −3.7} M with a detection limit of 10{sup −5} M. The characteristics of this optode such as regeneration, repeatability, reproducibility, short-term stability, life time and ion selectivity have been discussed. - Highlights: • We examine optical properties of β-ketoimine calix[4]arene ligand. • We investigate the electric properties of ITO/β-ketoimine calix[4]arene/Al device. • We study the sensing properties of optode films for the detection of copper (II)

  7. Luminescence Properties of Self-Aggregating TbIII-DOTA-Functionalized Calix[4]arenes

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    Florian Mayer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-aggregating calix[4]arenes carrying four DOTA ligands on the upper rim for stable complexation of paramagnetic GdIII-ions have already been proposed as MRI probes. In this work, we investigate the luminescence properties of TbIII-DOTA-calix[4]arene-4OPr containing four propyl-groups and compare them with those of the analog substituted with a phthalimide chromophore (TbIII-DOTA-calix[4]arene-3OPr-OPhth. We show that, given its four aromatic rings, the calix[4]arene core acts as an effective sensitizer of Tb-centered luminescence. Substituents on the lower rim can modulate the aggregation behavior, which in turn determines the luminescence properties of the compounds. In solid state, the quantum yield of the phthalimide derivative is almost three times as high as that of the propyl-functionalized analog demonstrating a beneficial role of the chromophore on Tb-luminescence. In solution, however, the effect of the phthalimide group vanishes, which we attribute to the large distance between the chromophore and the lanthanide, situated on the opposite rims of the calix[4]arene. Both quantum yields and luminescence lifetimes show clear concentration dependence in solution, related to the strong impact of aggregation on the luminescence behavior. We also evidence the variability in the values of the critical micelle concentration depending on the experimental technique. Such luminescent calix[4]arene platforms accommodating stable lanthanide complexes can be considered valuable building blocks for the design of dual MR/optical imaging probes.

  8. Radiation stability of diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes in ionic liquid: Solvent extraction, EPR and GC–MS studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Patil, A.B.; Kadam, R.M.; Verboom, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid-based solvent systems containing diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) are efficient for actinide ion extraction from nitric acid feeds. Therefore, the radiolytic stability of three C4DGAs (wide-rim, narrow-rim and both side DGA-functionalized calix[4]arenes) and TODGA

  9. CALIX[4]ARENE C-99 INHIBITS MYOSIN ATPase ACTIVITY AND CHANGES THE ORGANIZATION OF CONTRACTILE FILAMENTS OF MYOMETRIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labyntseva, R D; Bevza, A A; Lul'ko, A O; Cherenok, S O; Kalchenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2015-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes are cup-like macrocyclic (polyphenolic) compounds, they are regarded as promising molecular "platforms" for the design of new physiologically active compounds. We have earlier found that calix[4]arene C-99 inhibits the ATPase activity of actomyosin and myosin subfragment-1 of pig uterus in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of calix[4]arene C-99 with myosin from rat uterine myocytes. It was found that the ATPase activity of myosin prepared from pre-incubated with 100 mM of calix[4]arene C-99 myocytes was almost 50% lower than in control. Additionally, we have revealed the effect of calix[4]arene C-99 on the subcellular distribution of actin and myosin in uterus myocytes by the method of confocal microscopy. This effect can be caused by reorganization of the structure of the contractile smooth muscle cell proteins due to their interaction with calix[4]arene. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of calix[4]arene C-99 to penetrate into the uterus muscle cells and affect not only the myosin ATPase activity, but also the structure of the actin and myosin filaments in the myometrial cells. Demonstrated ability of calix[4]arene C-99 can be used for development of new pharmacological agents for efficient normalization of myometrial contractile hyperfunction.

  10. pKa Determination of water-soluble calix[4]arenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinkai, Seiji; Araki, Koji; Grootenhuis, P.D.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1991-01-01

    Neutral, water-soluble 5,11,17,23-tetrakis[bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminosulphonyl]calix[4]arene-25,26,27,28-tetraol and 5,11,17,23-tetranitrocalix[4]arene-25,26,27,28-tetraol have been synthesized and the pKa values of the OH groups determined in an aqueous system.

  11. Calix[4]arene supported clusters: a dimer of [Mn(III)Mn(II)] dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D; Beavers, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphinate ligands allow for the transformation of a calix[4]arene supported [Mn(III)(2)Mn(II)(2)] tetramer cluster motif into an unusual [Mn(III)Mn(II)](2) dimer of dimers; the clusters self-assemble in the crystal to form bi-layer arrays reminiscent of the typical packing of calixarene solvates....

  12. Research on Synthesis of New Azo Calix[4]arene and its Dyeing Properties

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    Tang Jun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the raw materials of calix[4]arene, benzocaine, tricaine and procaine hydrochloride, three new azo calix[4]arene derivatives—6a, 6b and 6c are synthesized by diazotization–coupling reaction of an aromatic amine, with its yield of 83%, 81% and 83% respectively. The structural characterization is in a way of IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. This paper investigates the spectral properties of azo calix[4]arene derivatives under different solution pH conditions through the UV–visible spectroscopy, and researches the dyeing properties through the dyeing curve, color yield test and fastness test. The results show that, with the increase of pH value, the azo calix[4]arene derivatives—6a, 6b and 6c form azo–hydrazone tautomeric isomers with the maximum absorption peak redshift; the dyeing effect of the compound is good, of which the dye–uptake rate of the compound 6a is as high as 78%; the surface depth of color yield is 2.798, and the dry and wet rubbing fastness and the soaping fastness are respectively 4, which is a better disperse dye.

  13. Intramolecularly bridged calix[4]arenes with pronounced complexation ability toward neutral compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, P.; Eigner, Václav; Lhoták, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 11 (2015), s. 2788-2791 ISSN 1523-7060 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calix[4]arene * mercuration * brigding * x-ray crystallography * Jana2006 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.732, year: 2015

  14. Synthesis of phosphorylated calix[4]arene derivatives for the design of solid phases immobilizing uranyl cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroun, E.B.; Hagege, A.; Asfari, Z.; Basset, CH.; Quemeneur, E.; Vidaud, C.

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of developing supports for uranyl cations immobilisation, new 1, 3-alternate calix[4]arenes bearing both phosphonic acid functions as chelating sites and N-succinimide-4-oxa-butyrate as the anchoring arm were synthesised in good yields. The coupling of such calixarenes to a gel was performed and a successful immobilisation of uranyl cations was obtained. (authors)

  15. Synthesis of phosphorylated calix[4]arene derivatives for the design of solid phases immobilizing uranyl cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroun, E.B.; Hagege, A.; Asfari, Z. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Minerale, UMR 7178 ULP/CNRS/IN2P3 LC4, ECPM, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Basset, CH.; Quemeneur, E.; Vidaud, C. [CEA IBEB, SBTN, Centre de Marcoule, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2009-07-01

    With the aim of developing supports for uranyl cations immobilisation, new 1, 3-alternate calix[4]arenes bearing both phosphonic acid functions as chelating sites and N-succinimide-4-oxa-butyrate as the anchoring arm were synthesised in good yields. The coupling of such calixarenes to a gel was performed and a successful immobilisation of uranyl cations was obtained. (authors)

  16. Calix[4]arene C-99 inhibits myosin ATPase activity and changes the organization of contractile filaments of myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Labyntseva,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calix[4]arenes are cup-like macrocyclic (polyphenolic compounds, they are regarded as promising molecular “platforms” for the design of new physiologically active compounds. We have earlier found that сalix[4]arenе C-99 inhibits the ATPase activity of actomyosin and myosin subfragment-1 of pig uterus іn vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of calix[4]arene C-99 with myosin from rat uterine myocytes. It was found that the ATPase activity of myosin prepared from pre-incubated with 100 mM of calix[4]arene C-99 myocytes was almost 50% lower than in control. Additionally, we have revealed the effect of calix[4]arene C-99 on the subcellular distribution of actin and myosin in uterus myocytes by the method of confocal microscopy. This effect can be caused by reorganization of the structure of the contractile smooth muscle cell proteins due to their interaction with calix[4]arene. The obtained results demonstrate the ability of calix[4]arene C-99 to penetrate into the uterus muscle cells and affect not only the myosin ATPase activity, but also the structure of the actin and myosin filaments in the myometrial cells. Demonstrated ability of calix[4]arene C-99 can be used for development of new pharmacological agents for efficient normalization of myometrial contractile hyperfunction.

  17. Calix[4]arenes Containing a Ureido Functionality on the Lower Rim as Highly Efficient Receptors for Anion Recognition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klejch, T.; Slavíček, J.; Hudeček, O.; Eigner, V.; Gutierrez, Natalia Andrea; Cuřínová, Petra; Lhoták, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 9 (2016), s. 7935-7942 ISSN 1144-0546 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : calix[4]arene * anion recognition * receptors Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.269, year: 2016

  18. Control of the rheological properties of clay nanosheet hydrogels with a guanidinium-attached calix[4]arene binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Ha; Kim, Chaelin; Jung, Jong Hwa

    2015-10-21

    A 1,3-alternate calix[4]arene derivative 1 possessing four guanidinium moieties was synthesized as a molecular binder. The clay nanosheet (CNS) hydrogels were prepared upon addition of 1 and sodium polyacrylate (ASSP), and their mechanical properties were measured by rheometry. CNS hydrogels prepared by combining calix[4]arene 1 with dispersed CNSs surrounded by ASSPs showed an enhancement of mechanical properties such as viscosity and elasticity.

  19. Characterization of an azo-calix[4]arene-based optical sensor for Europium (III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echabaane, M.; Rouis, A.; Bonnamour, I.; Ouada, H. Ben

    2012-01-01

    Selective and sensitive optical sensor membranes (optodes) were elaborated to detect cations in aqueous solutions. The sensing films are based on chromogenic calix[4]arene derivatives. The optode membranes were studied using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy measurements. The sensitivity of the optode has been tested for Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Mg 2+ and Eu 3+ ions at pH 6.8. The results showed a good selectivity response towards Eu 3+ . Low selectivity coefficients were observed for Cd 2+ and Mg 2+ where Pb 2+ can be considered as interfering ions. The characteristics of this optode such as response time, regeneration, reproducibility and lifetime are discussed. - Highlights: ► We report optical sensing studies of chromogenic calixarene derivatives. ► We investigate optical interaction between azo-calix[4]arene and Eu 3+ . ► We study sensitivity and selectivity of optode films. ► We describe characteristics of optode films for determination of europium traces.

  20. Interaction of acridine-calix[4]arene with DNA at the electrified liquid liquid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivlehan, Francine; Lefoix, Myriam; Moynihan, Humphrey A.; Thompson, Damien; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.; Herzog, Gregoire; Arrigan, Damien W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of an acridine-functionalised calix[4]arene at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) is reported. Molecular modelling showed that the acridine-calix[4]arene has regions of significant net positive charge spread throughout the protonated acridine moieties, consistent with it being able to function as an anion ionophore. The presence of this compound in the organic phase facilitated the transfer of aqueous phase electrolyte ions. Upon addition of double stranded DNA to the aqueous phase, the transfer of electrolyte anions was diminished, due to DNA binding to the acridine moiety at the ITIES. The behaviour provides a basis for DNA hybridization detection using electrochemistry at the ITIES.

  1. The synthesis and complexation of novel azosubstituted calix[4]arenes and thiacalix[4]arenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lang, Kamil; Prošková, P.; Kroupa, J.; Morávek, J.; Stibor, I.; Pojarová, M.; Lhoták, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2008), s. 646-652 ISSN 0143-7208 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1424 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA104/07/1242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : calix[4]arene * thiacalix[4]arene * alkylation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.507, year: 2008

  2. Effect of pendant group length upon metal ion complexation in acetonitrile by di-ionized calix[4]arenes bearing two dansyl fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Ummühan; Ocak, Miraç; Shen, Xin; Surowiec, Kazimierz; Bartsch, Richard A

    2009-11-01

    A series of three di-ionizable calix[4]arenes with two pendant dansyl (1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl) groups linked to the lower rims was synthesized. Structures of the three ligands were identical except for the length of the spacers which connected the two dansyl groups to the calix[4]arene scaffold. Following conversion of the ligands into their di-ionized di(tetramethylammonium) salts, absorption and emission spectrophotometry were utilized to probe the influence of metal cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Ag+, Cd2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+) complexation in acetonitrile. Upon complexation with these metal cations, emission spectra underwent marked red shifts and quenching of the dansyl group fluorescence for the di-ionized ligand with the shortest spacer. A similar effect was noted for the di-ionized ligand with an intermediate spacer for all of the metal ions, except Ba2+. For the di-ionized ligand with the longest spacer, the metal cations showed different effects on the emission spectrum. Li+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ caused enhancement of emission intensity with a red shift. Other metal cations produce quenching with red shifts in the emission spectra. Transition metal cations interacted strongly with all three di-ionized ligands. In particular, Fe3+ and Hg2+ caused greater than 99% quenching of the dansyl fluorescence in the di-ionized ligands.

  3. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Boniger Acid and Calix[4]arene Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diazonium derivative of calix[4]arene has been synthesized using three different synthetic steps. Initially p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condensation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions. Calix[4]arene was obtained after the debutylation reaction of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene with AlCl3. Calix[4]arene reacted with diazonium salt of Böniger acid to yield the 5,17-[(Bis(azo-bis(5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene which has eight free phenolic hydroxyl group. Reaction steps were shown in Fig.1.2,7-naphthalenedisulfonicacid]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene The antioxidant activity of the Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The two compounds showed strong antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity of Böniger acid and calix[4]aren derivative was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 84.00% and 85.60 % respectively. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 83.05% and 84.69 %. Results show that, two compounds has the antioxidant activity. The calix[4]aren derivaties has more higher activity then Boniger acid because of calix[4]aren derivative has much hydroxl groups.

  4. Design and synthesis of new poly-phosphorylated upper-rim modified calix[4]arenes as potential and selective chelating agents of uranyl ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migianu-Griffoni, E.; Mbemba, C.; Burgada, R.; Lecouvey, M.; Lecercle, D.; Taran, F.

    2009-01-01

    New upper-rim poly-phosphorylated calix[4]arenes were designed for decorporation of uranium in case of nuclear contamination. A ligand system containing four pre-organized 1-hydroxymethylene-1, 1-bisphosphonic acid moieties anchored onto a calix[4]arene platform has been developed. Three calix[4]-arene-bis-phosphonates were efficiently prepared in multi-step syntheses with a variable carbon chain length between the bis-phosphonate and the calix[4]arene. Affinity constants towards uranyl ion were determined and compared with those of bis(HEDP) and tris(HEDP) phosphonates, known as efficient ligands for uranyl. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of calix[4]arene tethered Schiff bases for anion recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, H.M.; Munjal, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Two calix[4]arene tethered Schiff base derivatives (L1 and L2) have been synthesized and their ion recognition capability has been evaluated through NMR, UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. L1 interacts with cyanide ions very selectively to usher a significant change in color and fluorescence intensity. On the other hand L2 does not show selectivity for anion sensing despite having the same functional groups as those present in L1. The differential observations may be attributed to plausible stereo control of anion recognition and tautomerization in the synthesized Schiff base derivatives.

  6. The synthesis and alkylation of p-tetrakischloro-calix[4]arene

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    E. A. Ivanova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the development of a chlorination of a calixarenes and a testing of the methods for their preparation to investigate the biological activity of the obtained compounds. New convinient undescribed in the literature methods of the chlorination using sulphuryl chloride or sodium hypochlorite were designed. By the using de-tert-butylcalix[4]arene, containing lower rin the ethoxy(hydroxycarbonyl metoxy groups, as the starting compounds in the same reactin l aed to mixture of the produts. The reaction of the calix[4]arene and the sulfuryl chloride led to the tetra-kis-chlorocalix[4]arene with good yield (95 %.

  7. Synthesis and binding properties of calix[4]arene diamide dicarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud-Neu, F.; Barboso, S.; Schwing-Weill, M.J.; Casnati, A.; Pinalli, A.; Ungaro, R.

    2000-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes diametrically substituted at the lower rim with two carboxylic acid and two tertiary amide binding groups were obtained in good yields and their acid-base properties studied in methanol solution. Complexation studies, performed in methanol by potentiometry, show that mononuclear (MLH z , z = 0,1) or dinuclear (M 2 L) complexes are formed with alkali metal cations, whereas M x L 2 H z (x=1,2,z = 0,1) species, involving two ligands, are also present with alkaline-earth cations. Both ligands show a remarkable selectivity for Ca 2+ and Sr 2+ among alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of calix[4]arene tethered Schiff bases for anion recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, H.M., E-mail: hmchawla@chemistry.iitd.ac.in; Munjal, Priyanka

    2016-11-15

    Two calix[4]arene tethered Schiff base derivatives (L1 and L2) have been synthesized and their ion recognition capability has been evaluated through NMR, UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. L1 interacts with cyanide ions very selectively to usher a significant change in color and fluorescence intensity. On the other hand L2 does not show selectivity for anion sensing despite having the same functional groups as those present in L1. The differential observations may be attributed to plausible stereo control of anion recognition and tautomerization in the synthesized Schiff base derivatives.

  9. Synthesis of calix[4]arene-grafted magnetite nanoparticles and Evaluation of their arsenate as well as dichromate removal efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Serkan; Ozcan, Fatih; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Cengeloglu, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Tor, Ali [Department of Environmental Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Memon, Shahabuddin [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene (3) has been prepared by the treatment of calix[4]arene with a secondary amine (4-benzylpiperidine) and formaldehyde by means of Mannich reaction. The prepared Mannich base (3) has been grafted onto [3-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-propyl]-trimethoxysilane-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetite nanoparticles (EPPTMS-MN) in order to obtain 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene-grafted EPPTMS-MN (BP-calix[4]arene-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). All new compounds were characterized by a combination of FTIR and {sup 1}H-NMR analyses. The morphology of the magnetic nanoparticles was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the studies regarding the removal of arsenate and dichromate ions from the aqueous solutions were also carried out by using 5,17-bis-[(4-benzylpiperidine)methyl]-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy-calix[4]arene in liquid-liquid extraction and BP-calix[4]arene-grafted Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (4) in solid-liquid extraction experiments. The extraction results indicated that 3 is protonated at proton-switchable binding sites in acidic conditions. Hence, facilitating binding of arsenate and dichromate is resulted from both electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding. To understand the selectivity of 3, the retention of dichromate anions in the presence of Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions at pH 1.5 was also examined. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Pyrazine-functionalized calix[4]arenes: synthesis by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling with phosphorus pronucleophiles and metal ion extraction properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikishkin, N.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Verboom, Willem

    2013-01-01

    A series of pyrazine-based calix[4]arene extractants was prepared by a stepwise functionalization, comprising palladium-catalyzed exhaustive cross-coupling of di- and tetrasubstituted calix[4]arenes bearing chloropyrazine moieties. The extraction behavior of the synthesized ligands was studied on

  11. Novel water-soluble b-cyclodextrin-calix[4]arene couples as fluorescent sensor molecules for the detection of neutral analytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bugler, H.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and the host-guest chemistry of two novel fluorescent B-cyclodextrin-calix[4]arene couples 1 and 2 is described. The compounds were prepared by coupling a B-cyclodextrin linked with an aminoxylyl spacer with two different calix[4]arene building blocks each bearing a fluorophore. The

  12. Para-ter-butyl of calix(4)arene with acetamide-ether as inorganic-organic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, F.M. de; Scopelliti, R.; Muller, G.; Buenzli J, C.G.; Charbonniere, L.

    2001-01-01

    A new functionalized calix(4)arene was designed and constructed with predetrmined properties to form lanthanides complexes and to sensibilize its luminescent properties. This, in addition to sensibilize that photophysical property and once formed the complex resulted a good receiver of organic molecules as it is demonstrated the crystal structure of the lutetium complex. (Author)

  13. Ground- and excited-state pinched cone equilibria in calix[4]arenes bearing two perylene bisimide dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hippius, C.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Zangrando, E.; Williams, R.M.; Wykes, M.; Beljonne, D.; Wurthner, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a series of bis-chromophoric compounds o2c, g2c, and r2c, afforded by linking two identical orange, green, or red perylene bisimide (PBI) units, respectively, through a calix[4]arene spacer unit. The PBI units are characterized by their increasing sterical demand from a planar

  14. Ground- and excited-state pinched cone equilibria in calix[4]arenes bearing two perylene bisimide dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hippius, C.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Zangrando, E.; Williams, R.M.; Wykes, M.; Beljonne, D.; Würthner, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report oil a series of bis-chromophoric compounds o2c, g2c, and r2c, afforded by linking two identical orange, green, or red perylene bisimide (PBI) units, respectively, through a calix[4]arene spacer unit. The PBI units are characterized by their increasing sterical demand from a planar

  15. A calix[4]arene derivative and its selective interaction with drugs (clofibric acid, diclofenac and aspirin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danil de Namor, Angela F; Al Nuaim, Maan; Villanueva Salas, Jose A; Bryant, Sophie; Howlin, Brendan

    2017-03-30

    The synthesis and characterisation of a partially substituted calix[4]arene, namely, 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl,25,27-bis[aminoethoxy] 26,28-dihydroxycalix[4]arene are reported. Its interaction with commonly used pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, diclofenac and aspirin) was investigated by spectroscopic ( 1 H NMR and UV), electrochemical (conductance measurements) and thermal (titration calorimetry) techniques. It is concluded on the basis of the experimental work and molecular simulation studies that the receptor interacts selectively with these drugs. Preliminary studies on the selective extraction of these pharmaceuticals from water by the calix receptor are reported and the potential for a carrier mediated sensor based on this ligand for 'on site' monitoring of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Calix[4]arene-Based Enantioselective Fluorescent Sensors for the Recognition of N-Acetyl-aspartate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Guang-Yan; CHEN Zhi-Hong; WANG Feng; YANG Xi; MENG Ling-Zhi; HE Yong-Bing

    2008-01-01

    Two-armed chiral anion receptors (1 and 2), calix[4]arenes bearing dansyl fluorophore and (1R,2R)- or(1S,2S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine binding sites, were prepared and examined for their chiral amino acid anion binding abilities by the fluorescence spectra in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The results of non-linear curve fitting indicate that 1 or 2 forms a 1 : 1 stoichiometry complex with N-acetyl-L-or D-aspartate by multiple hydrogen bonding interactions, exhibiting good enantioselective fluorescent recognition for the enantiomers of N-acetyl-as-partate, [receptor 1: Kass(D)/Kass(L)=6.74; receptor 2: Kass(L)/Kass(D)=6.48]. The clear fluorescent response difference indicates that receptors 1 and 2 could be used as a fluorescent chemosensor for N-Acetyl-aspartate.

  17. New Calix[4]arene dibenzocrown ethers for selective sensing of cesium ion in aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Jong Kuk; Choi, Wang Kyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Oh, Won Jin

    1997-01-01

    1,3-dialkoxycalix[4]arene dibenzocrown ethers (6-9) were successfully synthesized in the fixed 1,3-alternate conformation with over 90% yields by the reaction of corresponding 1,3dialkoxycalix[4]arenes 2-5 with dibenzodimesylate 13 in acetonitrile as a solvent in the presence of cesium carbonate as a base. In view of cyclization yield, the use of dimesylate is found to be better than that of dibenzoditosylate. With an unusual AB pattern in 1 H NMR spectrum for compound 9, it is suggested that conformational structure of 1,3-diallyloxycalix[4]arene dibenzocrown ether be less flexible than that of usual 1,3-alternate calixcrown ether, probably due to steric effects of two ally1 group. Complexation of the corresponding calix[4]arene 6-9 toward alkali metal ions using single flux method through bulk liquid membrane system was found to give a high cesium selectivity. 28 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  18. Zn2+ -Ion Sensing by Fluorescent Schiff Base Calix[4]arene Macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Steve; Schnorr, René; Handke, Marcel; Laube, Christian; Abel, Bernd; Matysik, Jörg; Findeisen, Matthias; Rüger, Robert; Heine, Thomas; Kersting, Berthold

    2017-03-17

    A macrocyclic ligand (H 2 L) containing two o,o'-bis(iminomethyl)phenol and two calix[4]arene head units has been synthesized and its coordination chemistry towards divalent Ni and Zn investigated. The new macrocycle forms complexes of composition [ML] (M=Zn, M=Ni) and [ZnL(py) 2 ], which were characterized by elemental analysis; IR, UV/Vis, and NMR spectroscopy; electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS); and X-ray crystallography (for [ZnL(py) 2 ] and [NiL]). H 2 L allows the sensitive optical detection of Zn 2+ among a series of biologically relevant metal ions by a dual fluorescence enhancement/quenching effect in solution. The fluorescence intensity of the macrocycle increases by a factor of ten in the presence of Zn 2+ with a detection limit in the lower nanomolar region. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Novel dansyl-appended calix[4]arene frameworks: fluorescence properties and mercury sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shubha; Azam, Amir; Pandey, Siddharth; Chawla, H M

    2009-01-21

    Covalently-attached fluorophores may impart enhanced chemosensing capabilities to calixarene frameworks. Synthesis and characterization of six novel dansyl-appended calix[4]arenes, namely, H/Dan4, NO2/Dan4, H/(OH)2Dan2, H/(Ester)2(Dan)2, t-Bu/(OH)2Dan2, and t-Bu/(Ester)2Dan2, containing two or four dansyl moieties are reported. Among these, fluorescence intensity of NO2/Dan4 is observed to decrease significantly in the presence Hg2+ in the solution. Based on the decrease in fluorescence, a limit of detection for Hg2+ of 20 ppb is obtained. NO2/Dan4 as a chemosensing agent for Hg2+ shows excellent selectivity and adequate reversibility. Complexation of NO2/Dan4 with Hg2+ is investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and is observed to be 2:1. The formation constant of (NO2/Dan4)2Hg2+ is estimated to be 5.2(+/- 0.8) x 10(10) M(-2) at ambient conditions. These observations are traced to the fact that while all other dansyl-appended calix[4]arenes show cone conformation in the solution, NO2/Dan4 is in the 1,3-alternate conformation. Stokes shift versus solvent orientational polarizability for NO2/Dan4 also indicates the difference in the ground- to excited-state dipole moment of this compound to be the maximum among all six, rendering it most sensitive to its environment. Fluorescence emission of NO2/Dan4 in nonpolar chloroform, polar-aprotic acetonitrile, and polar-protic ethanol is observed to be different than that of the rest of the dansyl-appended compounds as well.

  20. Immobilization of Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene onto the surface of silica gel through the directly estrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghvaei-Ganjali, Saeed, E-mail: S-taghvaei@IAU-tnb.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Postal Code: 1913674711, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zadmard, Reza [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Postal Code: 1496813151, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber-Tehrani, Mandana [Chemistry Department, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Postal Code: 1913674711, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    For the first time Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene has been chemically bonded to silica gel through the directly estrification without silane coupling agent to prepare Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene-bonded silica gel. Sample characterization was performed by various techniques such as elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), {sup 29}Si CP/MAS spectroscopy and acid-base titration. All data approve the successful incorporation of organic group via covalent bond. From the comparison between sulfur content determined by elemental analysis and the number of H{sup +} determined by acid-base titration, it was shown that two ester units took place onto the new synthesized sample and two acidic sites exist on the surface.

  1. Immobilization of Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene onto the surface of silica gel through the directly estrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei-Ganjali, Saeed; Zadmard, Reza; Saber-Tehrani, Mandana

    2012-06-01

    For the first time Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene has been chemically bonded to silica gel through the directly estrification without silane coupling agent to prepare Chlorosulfonyl-Calix[4]arene-bonded silica gel. Sample characterization was performed by various techniques such as elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), 29Si CP/MAS spectroscopy and acid-base titration. All data approve the successful incorporation of organic group via covalent bond. From the comparison between sulfur content determined by elemental analysis and the number of H+ determined by acid-base titration, it was shown that two ester units took place onto the new synthesized sample and two acidic sites exist on the surface.

  2. An Effective Hg2+-Selective Fluorescent Chemosensor Based on a Calix[4]arene Bearing Four Dansyl Amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-Ke; LIU Min; YANG Guo-Qiang; CHEN Chuan-Feng; HUANG Zhi-Tang

    2008-01-01

    A new calix[4]arene-based fluorescent chemosensor bearing four dansyl amides on the upper rim (1) was con- veniently synthesized, which showed high sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg2+ over a wide range of metal ions in 50% aqueous acetonitrile. The complexation of Hg2+ ion induced a strong fluorescence quenching of 1 due to a well-defined electron transfer process from the dansyl group(s) to the metal center. Compared with compounds 2 and 3, tetradansyl amide substituted calix[4]arene 1 showed a preorganized and coordinated complexing site for metal ions. Moreover, the detection limit for Hg2. was found to be 3.41×10-6 mol·L-1, which might make 1 a po-tentially practical Hg2+-selective fluorescent sensor in aqueous system.

  3. Interaction of the cesium cation with calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6): extraction and DFT study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Toman, Petr; Vaňura, P.; Moyer, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1033, 6 February (2013), s. 14-18 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cesium cation * calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) * complexation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.599, year: 2013

  4. Experimental and DFT evaluation of the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts for calix[4]arenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Rodrigo N.; Rezende, Michelle Jakeline Cunha; Kartnaller, Vinicius; Carneiro, José Walkimar de M.; Stoyanov, Stanislav R.; Costa, Leonardo Moreira da

    2018-04-01

    The density functional theory is employed to determine the efficiency of 11 exchange-correlation (XC) functionals to compute the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene (ptcx4, R1 = C(CH3)3) and congeners using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The statistical analysis shows that B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBE1PBE are the best XC functionals for the calculation of 1H chemical shifts. Moreover, the best results for the 13C chemical shifts are obtained using the LC-WPBE, M06-2X and wB97X-D functionals. The performance of these XC functionals is tested for three other calix[4]arenes: p-sulfonic acid calix[4]arene (sfxcx4 - R1 = SO3H), p-nitro-calix[4]arene (ncx4, R1 = NO2) and calix[4]arene (cx4 - R1 = H). For 1H chemical shifts B3LYP, B3PW91 and PBE1PBE yield similar results, although B3PW91 shows more consistency in the calculated error for the different structures. For 13C NMR chemical shifts, the XC functional that stood out as best is LC-WPBE. Indeed, the three functionals selected for each of 1H and 13C show good accuracy and can be used in future studies involving the prediction of 1H and 13C chemical shifts for this type of compounds.

  5. Grafting of Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Calix[4]arene-tetra-diazonium Salts for Antifouling Germanium and Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Pascale; Mattiuzzi, Alice; Valkenier, Hennie; Troian-Gautier, Ludovic; Bergamini, Jean-François; Doneux, Thomas; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Raussens, Vincent; Jabin, Ivan

    2018-05-03

    Biosensors that can determine protein concentration and structure are highly desired for biomedical applications. For the development of such biosensors, the use of Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy with the attenuated internal total reflection (ATR) configuration is particularly attractive but it requires appropriate surface functionalization of the ATR optical element. Indeed, the surface has to specifically interact with a target protein in close contact with the optical element and must display antifouling properties to prevent nonspecific adsorption of other proteins. We here report robust monolayers of calix[4]arenes bearing oEGs chains, which were grafted on germanium and gold surfaces via their tetra-diazonium salts. The formation of monolayers of oEGylated calix[4]arenes was confirmed by AFM, IR and contact angle measurements. The antifouling properties of these modified surfaces were studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy and the non-specific absorption of BSA was found to be reduced by 85% compared to non-modified germanium. In other words, the organic coating by oEGylated calix[4]arenes provides remarkable antifouling properties, opening the way to the design of germanium- and gold-based biosensors.

  6. Solvation Effect on Complexation of Alkali Metal Cations by a Calix[4]arene Ketone Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Požar, Josip; Nikšić-Franjić, Ivana; Cvetnić, Marija; Leko, Katarina; Cindro, Nikola; Pičuljan, Katarina; Borilović, Ivana; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2017-09-14

    The medium effect on the complexation of alkali metal cations with a calix[4]arene ketone derivative (L) was systematically examined in methanol, ethanol, N-methylformamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and acetonitrile. In all solvents the binding of Na + cation by L was rather efficient, whereas the complexation of other alkali metal cations was observed only in methanol and acetonitrile. Complexation reactions were enthalpically controlled, while ligand dissolution was endothermic in all cases. A notable influence of the solvent on NaL + complex stability could be mainly attributed to the differences in complexation entropies. The higher NaL + stability in comparison to complexes with other alkali metal cations in acetonitrile was predominantly due to a more favorable complexation enthalpy. The 1 H NMR investigations revealed a relatively low affinity of the calixarene sodium complex for inclusion of the solvent molecule in the calixarene hydrophobic cavity, with the exception of acetonitrile. Differences in complex stabilities in the explored solvents, apart from N,N-dimethylformamide and acetonitrile, could be mostly explained by taking into account solely the cation and complex solvation. A considerable solvent effect on the complexation equilibria was proven to be due to an interesting interplay between the transfer enthalpies and entropies of the reactants and the complexes formed.

  7. Neutral glycoconjugated amide-based calix[4]arenes: complexation of alkali metal cations in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cindro, Nikola; Požar, Josip; Barišić, Dajana; Bregović, Nikola; Pičuljan, Katarina; Tomaš, Renato; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2018-02-07

    Cation complexation in water presents a unique challenge in calixarene chemistry, mostly due to the fact that a vast majority of calixarene-based cation receptors is not soluble in water or their solubility has been achieved by introducing functionalities capable of (de)protonation. Such an approach inevitably involves the presence of counterions which compete with target cations for the calixarene binding site, and also rather often requires the use of ion-containing buffer solutions in order to control the pH. Herein we devised a new strategy towards the solution of this problem, based on introducing carbohydrate units at the lower or upper rim of calix[4]arenes which comprise efficient cation binding sites. In this context, we prepared neutral, water-soluble receptors with secondary or tertiary amide coordinating groups, and studied their complexation with alkali metal cations in aqueous and methanol (for the comparison purpose) solutions. Complexation thermodynamics was quantitatively characterized by UV spectrometry and isothermal titration calorimetry, revealing that one of the prepared tertiary amide derivatives is capable of remarkably efficient (log K ≈ 5) and selective binding of sodium cations among alkali metal cations in water. Given the ease of the synthetic procedure used, and thus the variety of accessible analogues, this study can serve as a platform for the development of reagents for diverse purposes in aqueous media.

  8. New Calix[4]arene dibenzocrown ethers for selective sensing of cesium ion in aqueous environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Jong Kuk [Konyang University, Nonsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wang Kyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Oh, Won Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    1,3-dialkoxycalix[4]arene dibenzocrown ethers (6-9) were successfully synthesized in the fixed 1,3-alternate conformation with over 90% yields by the reaction of corresponding 1,3dialkoxycalix[4]arenes 2-5 with dibenzodimesylate 13 in acetonitrile as a solvent in the presence of cesium carbonate as a base. In view of cyclization yield, the use of dimesylate is found to be better than that of dibenzoditosylate. With an unusual AB pattern in {sup 1}H NMR spectrum for compound 9, it is suggested that conformational structure of 1,3-diallyloxycalix[4]arene dibenzocrown ether be less flexible than that of usual 1,3-alternate calixcrown ether, probably due to steric effects of two ally1 group. Complexation of the corresponding calix[4]arene 6-9 toward alkali metal ions using single flux method through bulk liquid membrane system was found to give a high cesium selectivity. 28 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. CMPO-calix[4]arenes and the influence of structural modifications on the Eu(III), Am(III), Cm(III) separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.; Braekers, D.; Desreux, J.F.; Kasyan, O.; Miroshnichenko, S.; Rudzevich, V.; Boehmer, V.

    2008-01-01

    The syntheses of new calix[4]arenes featuring CMPO groups on the wide rim are reported and the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from concentrated HNO 3 aqueous phases are discussed with reference to the properties of the symmetric tetra-CMPO derivative 1. All extraction studies were conducted in the same experimental conditions which allows to directly compare the dependence of the distribution coefficients of various calixarenes on the acid concentration (0.1 M 3 ] < 5 M). Calix[4]arene 1 becomes a very poor extractant if the length of the aliphatic chain between the amide and phosphine oxide groups of CMPO is increased, if the bridging methylene groups are replaced by sulfur atoms or if the macrocyclic cavity size is increased. By contrast, mixed amide - CMPO calix[4]arenes are nearly as effective than 1. Moreover, Am(III)/Cm(III) separation coefficients between 1.5 and 3 have been obtained with unsymmetrical calix[4]arenes of type 1 with different aliphatic chains grafted on the narrow rim. Guidelines to anticipate the extraction ability of calix[4]arenes remain elusive because of the intricate solution behavior of these compounds. (orig.)

  10. Hydroxyquinoline-calix[4]arene-conjugates as ligands for lanthanide complexes. Preparation, characterization, and extraction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansel, Alexander [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Jaeschke, A.; Kischel, M.; Kersting, B. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of a calixarene-based N{sub 4}O{sub 4} donor ligand H{sub 6}L, in which two 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carbaldehyde units are appended via hydrazone-carbonylmethoxy linkages in a 1,3-arrangement to the lower rim of tert-butyl-calix[4]arene and its coordination properties towards Eu{sup 3+} are described. Moreover, the ligand H{sub 6}L was found to extract Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} at pH 7-8 from aqueous solution, as established by radiotracing using the radionuclides {sup 160}Tb and {sup 152} Eu.

  11. A solution for cesium removal from high-salinity acidic or alkaline liquid waste: The crown calix[4]arenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Simon, N.; Lamare, V.; Rouquette, H.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Marc, D. de; Macias, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calix[4]arenes monocrown or biscrown, blocked in 1,3 alternative cone conformation, display an exceptional efficiency for cesium extraction, even from very acid or alkaline media. Moreover, they possess an important selectivity for cesium over sodium that makes possible the extraction of cesium from media containing high sodium nitrate loadings. Another advantage, since the extraction of cesium is reversible, is that the stripping of cesium can be carried out in deionized water, a property which leads to very high concentration factors. 79 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of Encapsulation Complexes of Calix[4]arene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Shohei; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Ebata, Takayuki; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2011-10-13

    The complexes between the host calix[4]arene (C4A) and various guest molecules such as NH3, N2, CH4, and C2H2 have been investigated via experimental and theoretical methods. The S1-S0 electronic spectra of these guest-host complexes are observed by mass-selected resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. The infrared (IR) spectra of the complexes formed in molecular beams are obtained by IR-UV double resonance (IR-UV DR) and IR photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structures of the complexes are investigated by electronic structure methods (density functional and second order perturbation theory). The current results for the various molecular guests are put in perspective with the previously reported ones for the C4A-Rare Gas (Rg) (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 141101) and C4A-H2O complexes (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2010, 114, 2967). The electronic spectra of the complexes of C4A with N2, CH4 and C2H2 exhibit red-shifts of similar magnitudes with the ones observed for the C4A-Rg complexes, whereas the complexes of C4A with H2O and NH3 show much larger red-shifts. Most of the IR-UV DR spectra of the complexes, except for C4A-C2H2, show a broad hydrogen bonded OH stretching band with a peak at ~3160 cm-1. The analysis of the experimental results, in agreement with the ones resulted from the electronic structure calculations, suggest that C4A preferentially forms endo-complexes with all the guest species reported in this study. We discuss the similarities and differences of the structures, binding energies and the nature of the interaction between the C4A host and the various guest species. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy

  13. Synthesis and luminescence of Eu3+ and Tb3+ complexes with novel calix[4]arene ligands carrying 2,2'-bipyridine subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbatini, N.; Guardigli, M.; Manet, I.; Ungaro, R.; Casnati, A.; Fischer, C.; Ziessel, R.; Ulrich, G.

    1995-01-01

    Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ complexes with novel branched calix[4]arene ligands incorporating 2,2' -bipyridine subunits functionalized in the 6- or 5,5'-positions have been synthesized and their photophysical properties investigated. High luminescence intensity was obtained for the Eu 3+ complex of the calix[4]arene ligand carrying four 5,5' -substituted- 2,2' -bipyridines, which has high molar extinction coefficients (ε max 39 600 M -1 cm -1 ) and a high luminescence quantum yield (15%). (authors). 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Self-Assembly of Calix[4]arene-Based Amphiphiles Bearing Polyethylene Glycols: Another Example of "Platonic Micelles".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Fujii, Shota; Takahashi, Rintaro; Matsumoto, Sakiko; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    The aggregation number of classical micelles exhibits a certain distribution, which is a recognizable feature of conventional micelles. However, we recently identified perfectly monodisperse calix[4]arene-based micelles whose aggregation numbers agree with the vertex numbers of regular polyhedra, that is, Platonic solids, and thus they are named "Platonic micelles". Regarding our hypothesis of the formation mechanism of Platonic micelles, both repulsive interactions including steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsions among the headgroups are important for determining their aggregation number; however, neither of these is necessarily needed to consider. In this study, we employed polyethylene glycols (PEGs) as the nonionic headgroup of calix[4]arene-based amphiphiles to study the effects of only repulsive interactions caused by steric hindrance on the formation of Platonic micelles. The amphiphiles containing relatively low-molecular-weight PEGs (550 or 1000 g mol -1 ) form dodecamer or octamer micelles, respectively, with no variation in the aggregation number. However, relatively high-molecular-weight PEGs (2000 g mol -1 ) produce polydispersed micelles with a range of aggregation number. PEG 2000 exhibits a greater affinity for water than PEG 550 and 1000, resulting in fewer hydrophobic interactions in micelle formation, as indicated by the drastic increase of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value in the PEG 2000 system. The instability of the structure of PEG 2k CaL5 micelles might contribute to the higher mobility of PEG in the micellar shell, resulting in a non-Platonic aggregation number with polydispersity.

  15. Potential Eye Drop Based on a Calix[4]arene Nanoassembly for Curcumin Delivery: Enhanced Drug Solubility, Stability, and Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Paterniti, Irene; Geraci, Corrada; Cunsolo, Francesca; Esposito, Emanuela; Cordaro, Marika; Blanco, Anna Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Consoli, Grazia M L

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is an Indian spice with a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities but poor aqueous solubility, rapid degradation, and low bioavailability that affect medical benefits. To overcome these limits in ophthalmic application, curcumin was entrapped in a polycationic calix[4]arene-based nanoaggregate by a simple and reproducible method. The calix[4]arene-curcumin supramolecular assembly (Calix-Cur) appeared as a clear colloidal solution consisting in micellar nanoaggregates with size, polydispersity index, surface potential, and drug loading percentage meeting the requirements for an ocular drug delivery system. The encapsulation in the calix[4]arene nanoassembly markedly enhanced the solubility, reduced the degradation, and improved the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin compared to free curcumin in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Calix-Cur did not compromise the viability of J774A.1 macrophages and suppressed pro-inflammatory marker expression in J774A.1 macrophages subjected to LPS-induced oxidative stress. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Calix-Cur reduced signs of inflammation in a rat model of LPS-induced uveitis when topically administrated in the eyes. Overall, the results supported the calix[4]arene nanoassembly as a promising nanocarrier for delivering curcumin to anterior ocular tissues.

  16. Interaction of the thallium cation with 1,3-alternate-25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6: experimental and theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Dybal, Jiří; Vaňura, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1042, 24 June (2013), s. 73-77 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1478 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thallium cation * substituted calix[4]arene-crown-6 * compound Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.599, year: 2013

  17. The solid-state structures of organic salts formed by calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with nucleic bases cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium

    KAUST Repository

    Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2018-02-19

    Calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid has been demonstrated to possess an interesting range of biological properties, including atypical anti-cancer activity. The robustness of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid and its ubiquitous dimeric motif offers perspectives for pre-defined solid state complexation with small molecules. In the current article we describe co-crystals (organic salts) of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with four nucleic base cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium. A number of characteristic interactions between the components in the four co-crystals are pointed out also using the Hirshfeld surface analysis. All the four co-crystals are based on layers of calix[4]arene dimers, alternating with layers of nucleic acid molecules. Two of the reported crystal structures (cytosinium and guaninium) are 1D channel-type structures, while the two others (adeninium and uracilium) represent 2D channel-type structures. In three out of four reported structures, interactions between the cations of nucleic bases are present generating 1D chains of cations. A constant motif is that the nucleic base is present in a type of cavity formed by one aromatic ring and a phosphonic acid moiety.

  18. Complexation of the cesium cation with 1,3-alternate-25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Dybal, Jiří; Vaňura, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 2 (2013), s. 1299-1303 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1478 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : cesium cation * substituted calix[4]arene-crown-6 * complexation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2013

  19. Inclusion complex formation of ternary system: Fluoroscein-p-sulfonato calix[4]arene-Cu(2+) by cooperative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawhale, Sharadchandra; Jadhav, Ankita; Rathod, Nilesh; Malkhede, Dipalee; Chaudhari, Gajanan

    2015-09-05

    The aqueous solution of fluorescein-para sulfonato calix[4]arene-metal ion complex has been studied based on absorption, fluorescence, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopic results. It was found that the fluorescence intensity quenched regularly upon addition of pSCX4 and metal ion. The quenching constants and binding constants were determined for pSCX4-FL and pSCX4-FL-Cu(2+) systems. 1:1 stoichiometry is obtained for pSCX4-Cu(2+) system by continuous variation method. The NMR and IR results indicates the interaction among FL, pSCX4 and Cu(2+). The combined results demonstrate the cooperative binding to design the complex for ternary system. The life time for binary and ternary system has been studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Malonamide, phosphine oxide and calix[4]arene functionalized ionic liquids: synthesis and extraction of actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternova, Dariia

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment is a crucial problem nowadays. This work was dedicated to the development of the new extracting systems for radionuclides on the basis of 'green' solvents Ionic Liquids (Ils). For this purpose Ils were functionalized with various extracting patterns: phosphine oxide, carbamoyl phosphine oxide groups and malonamide fragment. Also the calix[4]arene platforms were used for the synthesis of functionalized ionic liquids (Fils) and their precursors. The Fils of both types cationic and anionic have been obtained. The synthesized Fils were tested for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides. lt was found that extraction well occurs due to the extracting patterns, however a charge of a modified ion influences extraction.The various extracting experiments and mathematical modelling have been performed to determine the mechanisms of extraction. These studies showed that each extracting system is characterized by a different set of extracting equilibria, based mostly on cationic exchange. (author)

  1. Spectroscopic and DFT studies of calix[4]arene: time-dependent DFT calculations for elucidating the variation in the excitation energies with geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boo, Bong Hyun; Kwak, Hae Ran; Hong, Seung Ki [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Jo [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); No, Kwang Hyun [Sookmyung Womens University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    We have searched low-lying conformers of calix[4]arene and found one global minimum having a cone shape, together with three conformers such as partial cone-shape conformers. We then elucidated the thermodynamics for the conformational changes by performing density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The time-dependent DFT calculation enabled us to assign the absorption spectrum and to reveal a variation of the excitation energies with geometry.

  2. A simple and rapid creatinine sensing via DLS selectivity, using calix[4]arene thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Pandya, Alok; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-01-15

    A new, simple, ultra-sensitive and selective approach has been reported for the "on spot" colorimetric detection of creatinine based on calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with excellent discrimination in the presence of other biomolecules. The lower detection limit of the method is 2.16nM. The gold nanoparticles and p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene were synthesized by microwave assisted method. Specifically, in our study, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) which is a powerful method for the determination of small changes in particle size, improved selectivity and sensitivity of the creatinine detection system over colorimetric method. The nanoassembly is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DLS, UV-vis and ESI-MS spectroscopy, which demonstrates the binding affinity due its ability of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between -NH group of creatinine and pSDSC4. It exhibits fast response time (creatinine and has long shelf-life (>5 weeks). The developed pSDSC4-AuNPs based creatinine biosensor will be established as simple, reliable and accurate tool for the determination of creatinine in human urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a pH sensing membrane electrode based on a new calix[4]arene derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormalı Ertürün, H Elif; Demirel Özel, Ayça; Sayın, Serkan; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Kılıç, Esma

    2015-01-01

    A new pH sensing poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane electrode was developed by using recently synthesized 5,17-bis(4-benzylpiperidine-1-yl)methyl-25,26,27,28-tetrahydroxy calix[4]arene as an ionophore. The effects of membrane composition, inner filling solution and conditioning solution on the potential response of the proposed pH sensing membrane electrode were investigated. An optimum membrane composition of 3% ionophore, 67% o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) as plasticizer, 30% PVC was found. The electrode exhibited a near-Nernstian slope of 58.7±1.1 mV pH(-1) in the pH range 1.9-12.7 at 20±1 °C. It showed good selectivity for H(+) ions in the presence of some cations and anions and a longer lifetime of at least 12 months when compared with the other PVC membrane pH electrodes reported in the literature. Having a wide working pH range, it was not only applied as a potentiometric indicator electrode in various acid-base titrations, but also successfully employed in different real samples. It has good reproducibility and repeatability with a response time of 6-7s. Compared to traditional glass pH electrode, it exhibited excellent potentiometric response after being used in fluoride-containing media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of the chromatographic partitioning of cesium and strontium utilizing two macroporous silica-based calix[4]arene-crown and amide impregnated polymeric composites: PREC partitioning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anyun; Kuraoka, Etsushu; Kumagai, Mikio

    2007-07-20

    To partition effectively Cs(I) and Sr(II), two harmful heat emitting nuclides, from a highly active liquid waste by extraction chromatography, two kinds of macroporous silica-based polymeric materials, Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO(2)-P and TODGA/SiO(2)-P, were synthesized. Two chelating agents, 1,3-[(2,4-diethyl-heptylethoxy)oxy]-2,4-crown-6-calix[4]arene (Calix[4]arene-R14), an excellent supramolecular compound having molecular recognition ability for Cs(I), and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diamide (TODGA) were impregnated and immobilized into the pores of SiO(2)-P particles support by a vacuum sucking technique. The loading and elution of 11 typical simulated fission and non-fission products from 4.0M or 2.0M HNO(3) were performed at 298K. It was found that in the first column packed with the Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO(2)-P, all of the simulated elements were separated effectively into two groups: (1) Na(I), K(I), Sr(II), Fe(III), Ba(II), Ru(III), Pd(II), Zr(IV), and Mo(VI) (noted as Sr-group); (2) Cs(I)-Rb(I) (Cs-group) by eluting with 4.0M HNO(3) and distilled water, respectively. The harmful element Cs(I) flowed into the second group along with Rb(I) because of their close sorption and elution properties towards Calix[4]arene-R14/SiO(2)-P, while Sr(II) showed no sorption and flowed into Sr-containing group. In the second column packed with TODGA/SiO(2)-P, the Sr-group was separated into (1) Ba(II), Ru(III), Na(I), K(I), Fe(III), and Mo(VI) (non-sorption group); (2) Sr(II); (3) Pd(II); and (4) Zr(IV) by eluting with 2.0M HNO(3), 0.01M HNO(3), 0.05M DTPA-pH 2.5, and 0.5M H(2)C(2)O(4), respectively. Sr(II) adsorbed towards TODGA/SiO(2)-P flowed into the second group and showed the excellent separation efficiency from others. Based on the elution behavior of the tested elements, an advanced PREC (Partitioning and Recovery of two heat generators from an acidic HLW (high activity liquid waste) by Extraction Chromatography) process was proposed.

  5. Sensing parts per million levels of gaseous NO2 by a optical fiber transducer based on calix[4]arenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Wanigasekara, Eranda; Rudkevich, Dmitry M; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2009-03-15

    Calixarenes are interesting building blocks in supramolecular receptor design. They can be easily functionalized to give the desired guest binding and sequestration properties. We demonstrate here the use of simple alkylated calixarenes as novel NO(2) sensors. Upon reacting with gaseous NO(2), alkylated calixarenes form stable calixarene-NO(+) (nitrosonium) complexes that have a deep purple color. This specific and selective formation of the colored complex was used to develop a fiber optic based colorimetric NO(2) sensor. Several alkylated calixarenes are used and tested as sensing materials. The calixarene compound was immobilized on a fine mesh silica-gel coated thin layer chromatography plate. The sensing plate was coupled with a fiber optic based photodetector. Gas samples were sampled in a manner where they impinged on the surface of sensing plate. The light transmission through the plate was continuously monitored. For a 5 min sample, the limit of detection was 0.54 ppmv with 1,3-alternate O-hexyl calix[4]arene (1a). There were no significant response differences between different conformations of calixarenes such as 1,3-alternate or cone. This chemistry can form the basis of a colorimetric sensor that relies on extant filter tape technology. With calixarenes however, such a reaction is potentially reversible - color formed upon reaction with NO(2) can be reversed by flushing the sensing plate by purified air. While we found that the removal of the developed color can be accelerated by simultaneous heating and suction, permitting the reuse of the same sensing area multiple times, we also observed that the sensitivity gradually decreased. The nitrosonium calixarene derivative tends to transform to the nitrated form; this process is catalyzed by light. Several methylated calixarenes were synthesized and tested but a fully satisfactory solution has proven elusive.

  6. A new ion selective electrode for cesium (I) based on calix[4]arene-crown-6 compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanjaneyulu, P S; Kumar, Abha Naveen; Sayi, Y S; Ramakumar, K L; Nayak, S K; Chattopadhyay, S

    2012-02-29

    A polyvinylchloride (PVC) based liquid membrane ion selective electrode (ISE) for cesium has been developed. 25,27-Dihydroxycalix[4]arene-crown-6 (L1), 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-dimethoxycalix[4]arene-crown-6 (L2) and 25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 (L3) were investigated for their use as ionophores. The cation exchange resin DOWEX-50W was used to maintain low activity Cs+ in inner filling solution to improve the performance. The best response for cesium was observed with L3 along with optimized membrane constituents and composition. Excellent Nernstian response (56.6 mV/decade of Cs(I)) over the concentration range 10(-7) to 10(-2)M of Cs(I) was obtained with a fast response time of less than 10s. Detection limit for Cs(I) using the present ISE is 8.48×10(-8) M Cs(I). Separate solution method (SSM) was applied to ascertain the selectivity for Cs(I) over alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions. The response of ISE for Cs(I) was fairly constant over the pH range of 4-11. The lifetime of the electrode is 10 months which is the highest life for any membrane based Cs-ISE so far developed. The concentration of cesium ion in two simulated high level active waste streams was determined and results agreed well with those obtained independently employing AAS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High-efficiency pyrene-based blue light emitting diodes: Aggregation suppression using a calixarene 3D-scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Khaileok

    2012-01-01

    An efficient blue light emitting diode based on solution processable pyrene-1,3-alt-calix[4]arene is demonstrated, providing a record current efficiency of 10.5 cd A -1 in a simple non-doped OLED configuration. Complete suppression of pyrene aggregation in the solid state is achieved by controlling chromophore dispersion using the 1,3-alt-calix[4]arene scaffold. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Complexation study of a tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-based 2-hydroxynaphthalene ligand with uranium(VI) in non-aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Anne; Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    The actinide uranium, well known from nuclear power cycle, plays also a role in rare earth production as it is an undesired constituent of the respective ores. To facilitate the production of rare earth elements, uranium has to be removed. Due to their modifiable selectivity and solubility calix[n]arenes are interesting compounds for the extraction of actinides and lanthanides. The mechanism of uranium(VI) interaction with a tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-based 2-hydroxynaphthalene ligand (L1) was studied by TRLFS, UV-vis spectroscopy and isothermal calorimetry.

  9. Inclusion Extraction of Alkali Metals by Emulsion Liquid Membranes and Nano-baskets of p-tert-Calix[4]arene Bearing Di-[N-(X)sulfonyl Carboxamide] and Di-(1-propoxy) in ortho-cone Conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra [Islamic Azad University, Province (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Nano-assisted inclusion separation of alkali metals from basic solutions was reported by inclusion-facilitated emulsion liquid membrane process. The novelty of this study is application of nano-baskets of calixarene in the selective and efficient separation of alkali metals as both the carrier and the surfactant. For this aim, four derivatives of p-tert-calix[4]arene bearing different sulfonamide moieties were synthesized and their inclusionextraction parameters were optimized including the calixarene scaffold 3 (4 wt %) as the carrier/demulsifier, the commercial kerosene as diluent in membrane, sulphonic acid (0.2 M) and ammonium carbonate (0.4 M) as the strip and the feed phases, the phase and the treat ratios of 0.8 and 0.3, mixing speed (300 rpm), and initial solute concentration (100 mg/L). The selectivity of membrane over more than ten interfering cations was examined and the results reveled that under the optimized operating condition, the degree of inclusionextraction of alkali metals was as high as 98-99%.

  10. Inclusion Extraction of Alkali Metals by Emulsion Liquid Membranes and Nano-baskets of p-tert-Calix[4]arene Bearing Di-[N-(X)sulfonyl Carboxamide] and Di-(1-propoxy) in ortho-cone Conformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra

    2012-01-01

    Nano-assisted inclusion separation of alkali metals from basic solutions was reported by inclusion-facilitated emulsion liquid membrane process. The novelty of this study is application of nano-baskets of calixarene in the selective and efficient separation of alkali metals as both the carrier and the surfactant. For this aim, four derivatives of p-tert-calix[4]arene bearing different sulfonamide moieties were synthesized and their inclusionextraction parameters were optimized including the calixarene scaffold 3 (4 wt %) as the carrier/demulsifier, the commercial kerosene as diluent in membrane, sulphonic acid (0.2 M) and ammonium carbonate (0.4 M) as the strip and the feed phases, the phase and the treat ratios of 0.8 and 0.3, mixing speed (300 rpm), and initial solute concentration (100 mg/L). The selectivity of membrane over more than ten interfering cations was examined and the results reveled that under the optimized operating condition, the degree of inclusionextraction of alkali metals was as high as 98-99%

  11. Ab initio design of drug carriers for zoledronate guest molecule using phosphonated and sulfonated calix[4]arene and calix[4]resorcinarene host molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong-Man; Yu, Chol-Jun; Kim, Jin-Song; Kim, Song-Un

    2018-04-01

    Monomolecular drug carriers based on calix[n]-arenes and -resorcinarenes containing the interior cavity can enhance the affinity and specificity of the osteoporosis inhibitor drug zoledronate (ZOD). In this work we investigate the suitability of nine different calix[4]-arenes and -resorcinarenes based macrocycles as hosts for the ZOD guest molecule by conducting {\\it ab initio} density functional theory calculations for structures and energetics of eighteen different host-guest complexes. For the optimized molecular structures of the free, phosphonated, sulfonated calix[4]-arenes and -resorcinarenes, the geometric sizes of their interior cavities are measured and compared with those of the host-guest complexes in order to check the appropriateness for host-guest complex formation. Our calculations of binding energies indicate that in gaseous states some of the complexes might be unstable but in aqueous states almost all of the complexes can be formed spontaneously. Of the two different docking ways, the insertion of ZOD with the \\ce{P-C-P} branch into the cavity of host is easier than that with the nitrogen containing heterocycle of ZOD. The work will open a way for developing effective drug delivering systems for the ZOD drug and promote experimentalists to synthesize them.

  12. [Comparative investigation of the effect of calix[4]arene C-99 and its analogs on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of uterus myocite plasma membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Cherenok, S O; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our investigation was to determine structural features of calix[4]arene C-99 which are important for its inhibition properties relative to Na+,K(+)-ATPase of uterus myocite plasma membrane. Therefore we studied the effect of calix[4]arenes C-296, C-297, C-424, C-425, C-426, C-427, which are structurally similar to this inhibitor, on the mentioned enzyme activity. We have shown that calixarenes C-296 and C-297 which have two additional propoxy groups on the lower rim of macrocycle are less effective inhibitors of Na+,K(+)-ATPase relative to calixarene C-99. Calixarenes C-425 and C-427 which have on the upper rim of macrocycle three and four phosponic residues, respectively, also inhibit Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity less effectively as compared to calixarene C-99. Both calixarenes: C-424, which has only two carbonate residues on the upper rim, and C-426, which has on the upper rim ketomethilphosphonate residues instead of hydroxymethilphosphonate residues of calixarene C-99, do not affect Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. We have made respective conclusions concerning the role of certain chemical groups of calixarene C-99 during its interaction with Na+,K(+)-ATPase.

  13. Antioxidant and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Activities of New the Calix[4]arene-bodipy Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. ERDEM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene was synthesized with the condesation reaction of p-tert-butylphenol and formaldehyde in basic conditions and then has derivatized from the both of two hydroxyl position with chloride which is containing donor oxygen atoms. BODIPY compound (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene was synthesized with appropriate pyrrole and aldehyde compounds and then was bonded p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene derivative via lower rim hydroxyl groups.The antioxidant activity of the calix[4]arene-BODIPY compound were determined using β-karotene-linoleic acid system. Moreover, the free radical scavenging activity values were tested with DPPH free radical. The compound showed strong antioxidant activity.Total antioxidant activity of the compound was determined using β–carotenelinoleic acid model system and was found the antioxidant activity of 72,50%. The free radical scavenging activities were determined as 75.19%. Results show that, calix[4]arene-BODIPY compound has the antioxidant activity. 

  14. Lithium-ion induced conformational change of 5,17-bis(9-fluorenyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxy calix[4]arene resulting in an egg-shaped dimeric clathrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faldt, A.; Krebs, Frederik C; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2000-01-01

    Synthesis and structural investigation of a 5,17-bis(9-fluorenyl)-25,26,27,28-tetrapropoxy calix[4]arene and its lithium complex salt that forms a dimeric clathrate with a molecule of solvent inside a cavity. At least three different interactions were identified as being responsible for the forma...

  15. 3-(Dicyanomethylidene)indan-1-one-Functionalized Calix[4]arene-Calix[4]pyrrole Hybrid: An Ion-Pair Sensor for Cesium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Yerim; Leem, Soojung; Wagen, Corin; Lynch, Vincent M; Kim, Sung Kuk; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-09-02

    A chromogenic calix[4]arene-calix[4]pyrrole hybrid ion pair receptor bearing an indane substituent at a β-pyrrolic position has been prepared. On the basis of solution-phase UV-vis spectroscopic analysis and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies carried out in 10% methanol in chloroform, receptor 1 is able to bind only cesium ion pairs (e.g., CsF, CsCl, and CsNO3) but not the constituent cesium cation (as its perchlorate salt) or the F(-), Cl(-), or NO3(-) anions (as the tetrabutylammonium salts). It thus displays rudimentary AND logic gate behavior. Receptor 1 shows a colorimetric response to cesium ion pairs under conditions of solid-liquid (nitrobenzene) and liquid-liquid (D2O-nitrobenzene-d5) extraction.

  16. Laboratory scale investigations for testing the uptake potential of 1, 3 di octyloxy Calix(4)arene Crown 6 for separation of Cs from high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, Vidya; Soudamini, N.; Achare, Sanjay; Girisan, Prema; Mishra, R.K.; Kumar, Amar; Kaushik, C.P.; Banerjee, K.

    2016-01-01

    137 Cs one of the major beta gamma emitting fission products present in high level liquid waste (HLLW), which is generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Its separation will restrict the personal radiation exposure during the vitrification and prevents thermal deformation of conditioned waste matrix during storage. Separation will also reduce the volume of vitrified mass to be stored in repository. In addition 137 Cs has enormous applications as radiation sources in food preservation, sterilization of medical products, brachytherapy, blood irradiation, hygienization of sewage sludge etc. The use of 137 Cs (T 1/2 = 30 years) in place of 60 Co (T 1/2 = 5.2 years) will also reduce the shielding requirement, frequency of source replenishment and ease the handling/transportation of radioactive source. Present paper summarises experimental results pertaining to performance evaluation of indigenously synthesised 1, 3 di octyl oxy Calix(4) arene crown 6 (CC6) as extractant for recovery of caesium from HLLW

  17. CMPO-calix[4]arenes with spacer containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding: Effect of local rigidification on solvent extraction toward f-block elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Hongzhu; He, Lutao; Jiang, Qian; Fang, Yuyu; Jia, Yiming; Yuan, Xiangyang; Zou, Shuliang; Li, Xianghui; Feng, Wen; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Luo, Shunzhong; Yang, Yanqiu; Yang, Liang; Yuan, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three CMPO-calix[4]arenes with spacer containing intramolecular hydrogen bonds were designed and synthesized. • The influence of local rigidification caused by intramolecular hydrogen bonds upon extraction of f-elements was investigated. • Selective extraction is realized via tuning local chelating surroundings by aid of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. -- Abstract: To understand intramolecular hydrogen bonding in effecting liquid–liquid extraction behavior of CMPO-calixarenes, three CMPO-modified calix[4]arenes (CMPO-CA) 5a–5c with hydrogen-bonded spacer were designed and synthesized. The impact of spacer rotation that is hindered by introduction of intramolecular hydrogen bonding upon extraction of La 3+ , Eu 3+ , Yb 3+ , Th 4+ , and UO 2 2+ has been examined. The results show that 5b and 5c containing only one hydrogen bond with a less hindered rotation spacer extract La 3+ more efficiently than 5a containing two hydrogen bonds with a more hindered rotation spacer, demonstrating the importance of local rigidification of spacer in the design of extractants in influencing the coordination environment. The large difference in extractability between La 3+ and Yb 3+ (or Eu 3+ ) by 5b (or 5c), and the small difference by 5a, suggests intramolecular hydrogen bonding do exert pronounced influence upon selective extraction of light and heavy lanthanides. Log–log plot analysis indicates a 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1 stoichiometry (ligand/metal) for the extracted complex formed between 5b and La 3+ , Th 4+ , UO 2 2+ , respectively. Additionally, their corresponding acyclic analogs 7a–7c exhibit negligible extraction toward these metal ions. These results reveal the possibility of selective extraction via tuning local chelating surroundings of CMPO-CA by aid of intramolecular hydrogen bonding

  18. The effect of specific solvent-solute interactions on complexation of alkali-metal cations by a lower-rim calix[4]arene amide derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Gordan; Stilinović, Vladimir; Kaitner, Branko; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2013-11-04

    Complexation of alkali-metal cations with calix[4]arene secondary-amide derivative, 5,11,17,23-tetra(tert-butyl)-25,26,27,28-tetra(N-hexylcarbamoylmethoxy)calix[4]arene (L), in benzonitrile (PhCN) and methanol (MeOH) was studied by means of microcalorimetry, UV and NMR spectroscopies, and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The inclusion of solvent molecules (including acetonitrile, MeCN) in the calixarene hydrophobic cavity was also investigated. The classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the systems studied were carried out. By combining the results obtained using the mentioned experimental and computational techniques, an attempt was made to get an as detailed insight into the complexation reactions as possible. The thermodynamic parameters, that is, equilibrium constants, reaction Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies, of the investigated processes were determined and discussed. The stability constants of the 1:1 (metal:ligand) complexes measured by different methods were in very good agreement. Solution Gibbs energies of the ligand and its complexes with Na(+) and K(+) in methanol and acetonitrile were determined. It was established that from the thermodynamic point of view, apart from cation solvation, the most important reason for the huge difference in the stability of these complexes in the two solvents lay in the fact that the transfer of complex species from MeOH to MeCN was quite favorable. That could be at least partly explained by a more exergonic inclusion of the solvent molecule in the complexed calixarene cone in MeCN as compared to MeOH, which was supported by MD simulations. Molecular and crystal structures of the lithium cation complex of L with the benzonitrile molecule bound in the hydrophobic calixarene cavity were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. As far as we are aware, for the first time the alkali-metal cation was found to be coordinated by the solvent nitrile group in a calixarene adduct. According to

  19. Characterisation of the ester-substituted products of the reaction of p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate using LC-UV-MS and LC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Gillian; Wall, Rachel; Nolan, Kieran; Diamond, Dermot

    2002-07-19

    A series of derivatisation reactions between p-t-butyl calix[4]arene and ethyl bromoacetate were carried out in order to prepare 1,3 diester substituted calix[4]arene. Mass spectral data, obtained from direct injection of samples, indicated that the reactions were rich in the desired product. Since the ultra violet (UV) spectra of the desired product and possible impurities are very similar, liquid chromatography (LC) chromatographic data seemed to corroborate these results. However, when on-line LC-UV-MS was carried out and each LC peak subjected to MS analysis as it eluted, a very different picture emerged. It was found that many of these reactions actually contained high levels of the monoester product which, having less affinity for sodium in the MS, is therefore seriously underestimated in any direct injection assay. LC-diode array detection (DAD) methods were also used to help successfully identify and characterise the compounds being formed in these complex reactions. The overall results obtained in this paper allowed the optimal reaction conditions to be determined for this reaction. LC-MS analysis of the chromatographic peaks also identified the presence of two isomers of the diester substituted calix[4]arene (1,3 and 1,2 diesters). The combination of LC and UV/MS detection is required for accurate analysis of the products of such reactions.

  20. Experimental and DFT study on the complexation of the silver cation with calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makrlik, E.; Toman, P.; Vanura, P.

    2013-01-01

    From extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the exchange extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Ag + (aq) + 1 x Cs + (org) ⇔ 1 x Ag + (org) + Cs + (aq) taking place in the two-phase water-phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS 13) system (1 = calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6); aq = aqueous phase, org = FS 13 phase) was evaluated as logK ex (Ag + , 1 x Cs + ) = -1.5 ± 0.1. Further, the stability constant of the 1 x Ag + complex in FS 13 saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 deg C: log β org(1 x Ag + ) = 10.1 ± 0.2. Finally, by using quantum mechanical DFT calculations, the most probable structure of the cationic complex species 1 x Ag + was derived. In the resulting 1 x Ag + complex, the 'central' cation Ag + is bound by eight bond interactions to six oxygen atoms from the respective 18-crown-6 moiety and to two carbons of the corresponding two benzene rings of the parent ligand 1 via cation-π interaction. (author)

  1. Investigation on Al(III) and Zn(II) complexes containing a calix[4]arene bearing two 8-oxyquinoline pendant arms used as emitting materials for OLEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagatin, Izilda A.; Legnani, Cristiano; Cremona, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A comparison between [Al·1] 3+ and [Zn·1] 2+ complexes (1 = 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis[(quinoline-8-oxy)propyloxy]-26, 28-dihydroxy-calix[4]arene) has been made using electrochemical techniques and the experimental results obtained in the fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The electrochemically determined values of the ionization potential I p and electron affinity E a parameters for the [Al·1] 3+ (I p = 5.82eV, E a = 2.80eV) and [Zn·1] 2+ (I p = 5.67eV, E a = 2.32eV) evidenced that the [Al·1] 3+ complex is a better electron transporting layer with respect to the Zn complex one. The fabricated OLEDs based on these supramolecular complexes show a superior quality with the [Al·1] 3+ systems expected from the energy level diagrams

  2. Comparative Study of Tributyltin Adsorption onto Mesoporous Silica Functionalized with Calix[4]arene, p-tert-Butylcalix[4]arene and p-Sulfonatocalix[4]arene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Alahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of tributyltin (TBT, onto three mesoporous silica adsorbents functionalized with calix[4]arene, p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene and p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively has been compared. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out and the effect of contact time, initial TBT concentration, pH and temperature were studied. The Koble–Corrigan isotherm was the most suitable for data fitting. Based on a Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacities were 12.1212, 16.4204 and 7.5757 mg/g for MCM-TDI-C4, MCM-TDI-PC4 and MCM-TDI-C4S, respectively. The larger uptake and stronger affinity of MCM-TDI-PC4 than MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S probably results from van der Waals interactions and the pore size distribution of MCM-TDI-PC4. Gibbs free energies for the three adsorption processes of TBT presented a negative value, reflecting that TBT/surface interactions are thermodynamic favorable and spontaneous. The interaction processes were accompanied by an increase of entropy value for MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S (43.7192 and 120.7609 J/mol K, respectively and a decrease for MCM-TDI-PC4 (−37.4704 J/mol K. It is obviously observed that MCM-TDI-PC4 spontaneously adsorbs TBT driven mainly by enthalpy change, while MCM-TDI-C4 and MCM-TDI-C4S do so driven mainly by entropy changes.

  3. CMPO-calix[4]arenes with spacer containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding: effect of local rigidification on solvent extraction toward f-block elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongzhu; He, Lutao; Jiang, Qian; Fang, Yuyu; Jia, Yiming; Yuan, Xiangyang; Zou, Shuliang; Li, Xianghui; Feng, Wen; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Luo, Shunzhong; Yang, Yanqiu; Yang, Liang; Yuan, Lihua

    2014-01-15

    To understand intramolecular hydrogen bonding in effecting liquid-liquid extraction behavior of CMPO-calixarenes, three CMPO-modified calix[4]arenes (CMPO-CA) 5a-5c with hydrogen-bonded spacer were designed and synthesized. The impact of spacer rotation that is hindered by introduction of intramolecular hydrogen bonding upon extraction of La(3+), Eu(3+), Yb(3+), Th(4+), and UO2(2+) has been examined. The results show that 5b and 5c containing only one hydrogen bond with a less hindered rotation spacer extract La(3+) more efficiently than 5a containing two hydrogen bonds with a more hindered rotation spacer, demonstrating the importance of local rigidification of spacer in the design of extractants in influencing the coordination environment. The large difference in extractability between La(3+) and Yb(3+) (or Eu(3+)) by 5b (or 5c), and the small difference by 5a, suggests intramolecular hydrogen bonding do exert pronounced influence upon selective extraction of light and heavy lanthanides. Log-log plot analysis indicates a 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1 stoichiometry (ligand/metal) for the extracted complex formed between 5b and La(3+), Th(4+), UO2(2+), respectively. Additionally, their corresponding acyclic analogs 7a-7c exhibit negligible extraction toward these metal ions. These results reveal the possibility of selective extraction via tuning local chelating surroundings of CMPO-CA by aid of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [The calix[4]arene C-107 is highly effective supramolecular inhibitor of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of plasma membranes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevza, O V; Veklich, T O; Shkrabak, O A; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I; Kosterin, S O

    2013-01-01

    The inhibition of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the myometrium cell plasma membranes with calixarene C-107 (5,17-diamino(2-pyridyl) methylphosphono-11,23-di-tret-butyl-26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene) was investigated. It has been shown that calixarene C-107 reduced the Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity more efficiently than ouabain did, while it did not practically influence the "basal" Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of the same membrane. The magnitude of the cofficient of inhibition I0.5 was 33 +/- 4 nM, Hill coefficient was 0.38 +/- 0.06. The model calixarene C-150--the calixarene "scaffold" (26,28-dihydroxy-25,27-dipropoxycalix[4]arene), and the model compound M-3 (4-hydroxyaniline(2-pyridine)methylphosphonic acid)--a fragment of the calixarene C-107, had practically no influence on the enzymatic activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase. We carried out the computer simulation of interaction of calixarenes C-107 and the mentioned model compound with ligand binding sites of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of plasma membrane and structure foundation of their intermolecular interaction was found out. The participation of hydrogen, hydrophobic, electrostatic and pi-pi (stacking) interaction between calixarene and enzyme aminoacid residues, some of which are located near the active center of Na+,K(+)-ATPase, was discussed.

  5. Liquid-liquid extraction of U(VI), Np(V) et Th(IV) ions by two calix[4]arene carboxyls, and effect of Na+ and K+ alkaline ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montavon, Gilles

    1996-01-01

    As the process mainly used for the reprocessing of nuclear wastes was the Purex process, this research thesis first presents this process and outlines that it allows the residual fissile matter to be recovered and reused for the fabrication of new fuel elements, but is neither efficient nor safe enough to separate fission and activation products. Thus, this thesis reports the study of extraction and selectivity properties of two compounds derived from the p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene with respect to actinide ions such as Th(IV), U(VI) and Np(VI). The liquid-liquid extraction technique has been used with chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane as solvents. After some generalities on actinides, calixarenes and the liquid-liquid extraction technique, and a presentation of the experimental method, the author reports and discusses the extractive properties of the studied calixarenes with respect to Na + and K + ions. Structural studies by proton NMR have been performed. He reports and discusses the liquid-liquid extraction on actinide ions when they are alone or in presence on Na + and K + alkaline ions [fr

  6. An Integrated approach (thermodynamic, structural, and computational) to the study of complexation of alkali-metal cations by a lower-rim calix[4]arene amide derivative in acetonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Gordan; Stilinović, Vladimir; Hrenar, Tomica; Kaitner, Branko; Frkanec, Leo; Tomišić, Vladislav

    2012-06-04

    The calix[4]arene secondary-amide derivative L was synthesized, and its complexation with alkali-metal cations in acetonitrile (MeCN) was studied by means of spectrophotometric, NMR, conductometric, and microcalorimetric titrations at 25 °C. The stability constants of the 1:1 (metal/ligand) complexes determined by different methods were in excellent agreement. For the complexation of M(+) (M = Li, Na, K) with L, both enthalpic and entropic contributions were favorable, with their values and mutual relations being quite strongly dependent on the cation. The enthalpic and overall stability was the largest in the case of the sodium complex. Molecular and crystal structures of free L, its methanol and MeCN solvates, the sodium complex, and its MeCN solvate were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The inclusion of a MeCN molecule in the calixarene hydrophobic cavity was observed both in solution and in the solid state. This specific interaction was found to be stronger in the case of metal complexes compared to the free ligand because of the better preorganization of the hydrophobic cone to accept the solvent molecule. Density functional theory calculations showed that the flattened cone conformation (C(2) point group) of L was generally more favorable than the square cone conformation (C(4) point group). In the complex with Na(+), L was in square cone conformation, whereas in its adduct with MeCN, the conformation was slightly distorted from the full symmetry. These conformations were in agreement with those observed in the solid state. The classical molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the MeCN molecule enters the L hydrophobic cavity of both the free ligand and its alkali-metal complexes. The inclusion of MeCN in the cone of free L was accompanied by the conformational change from C(2) to C(4) symmetry. As in solution studies, in the case of ML(+) complexes, an allosteric effect was observed: the ligand was already in the appropriate square cone

  7. Enhanced free energy of extraction of Eu3+ and Am3+ ions towards diglycolamide appended calix[4]arene: insights from DFT-D3 and COSMO-RS solvation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sk Musharaf

    2017-08-22

    Density functional theory in conjunction with COSMO and COSMO-RS solvation models employing dispersion correction (DFT-D3) has been applied to gain an insight into the complexation of Eu 3+ /Am 3+ with diglycolamide (DGA) and calix[4]arene appended diglycolamide (CAL4DGA) in ionic liquids by studying structures, energetics, thermodynamics and population analysis. The calculated Gibbs free energy for both Eu 3+ and Am 3+ ions with DGA was found to be smaller than that with CAL4DGA. The entropy of complexation was also found to be reduced to a large extent with DGA compared to complexation with CAL4DGA. The solution phase free energy was found to be negative and was higher for Eu 3+ ion. The entropy of complexation was not only found to be further reduced but also became negative in the case of DGA alone. Though the entropy was found to be negative it could not outweigh the high negative enthalpic contribution. The same trend was observed in the solution where the free energy of extraction, ΔG, for Eu 3+ ions was shown to be higher than that for Am 3+ ions towards free DGA. But the values of ΔG and ΔΔG(= ΔG Eu -ΔG Am ) were found to be much higher with CAL4DGA (-12.58 kcal mol -1 ) in the presence of nitrate ions compared to DGA (-1.69 kcal mol -1 ) due to enhanced electronic interaction and positive entropic contribution. Furthermore, both the COSMO and COSMO-RS models predict very close values of ΔΔΔG (= ΔΔG CAL4DGA - ΔΔG nDGA ), indicating that both solvation models could be applied for evaluating the metal ion selectivity. The value of the reaction free energy was found to be higher after dispersion correction. The charge on the Eu and Am atoms for the complexes with DGA and CAL4DGA indicates the charge-dipole type interaction leading to strong binding energy. The present theoretical results support the experimental findings and thus might be of importance in the design of functionalized ligands.

  8. Electrochemical Studies for Cation Recognition with Diazo-Coupled Calix[4]arenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongsu Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical properties of diazophenylcalix[4]arenes bearing ortho-carboxyl group (o-CAC and ortho-ester group (o-EAC, respectively, in the presence of various metal ions were investigated by voltammetry in CH3CN. o-CAC and o-EAC showed voltammetric changes toward divalent metal ions and no significant changes with monovalent alkali metal ions. However, o-CAC preferentially binds with alkaline earth and transition metal ions, whereas no significant changes in voltammetric signals are observed in o-EAC with alkaline earth metal ions. o-EAC only binds with other transition metal ions. This can be explained on metal ion complexation-induced release of proton from the azophenol to the quinone-hydrazone tautomer followed by internal complexation of the metal ion with aid of nitrogen atoms and ortho-carbonyl groups in the diazophenylazocalix[4]arenes.

  9. Neutral Guests Complexation with Calix[4]arenes Preorganised by Intramolecular McMurry Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lhoták, P.; Zieba, R.; Hromádko, V.; Stibor, I.; Sýkora, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 24 (2003), s. 4519-4522 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0926 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : calixarene * inclusion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2003

  10. Unusual stoichiometry of urea-derivatized calix[4]arenes induced by anion complexation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lang, Kamil; Cuřínová, P.; Dudič, M.; Prošková, P.; Stibor, I.; Šťastný, V.; Lhoták, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 26 (2005), s. 4469-4472 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/0926 Keywords : calixarene * anion complexation * dimerization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.477, year: 2005

  11. ESI MS/MS Study of Calix[4]arene Derivatives and their Metal Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Benković, Tomislav; Tomišić, Vladislav; Frkanec, Leo; Galić, Nives

    2012-01-01

    The peptidocalixarenes 1–3 bearing tryptophan, phenylglycine and leucil units at the lower rim and their complexes with alkali-metal (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and selected lanthanide cations (La3+, Ce3+, Eu3+, Yb3+) were analyzed by ESI MS. The influences of the solvent (acetonitrile, methanol, addition of formic acid or sodium acetate) and the calixarene:cation molar ratio on signal intensities were investigated. Comprehensive MS/MS analyses were performed of all singly and doubly charged ion...

  12. Calix[4]arenes Substituted on the Narrow Rim with Malononitrile and Cobalt Bis(dicarbollide) Anion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhao, J.; Bolte, M.; Dordea, C.; Grüner, Bohumír; Böhmer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 23 (2009), s. 4063-4067 ISSN 0039-7881 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0668 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : carboranes * metallacarboranes * dicarbollides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.572, year: 2009

  13. Anion recognition by calix[4]arene-based p-nitrophenyl amides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flídrová, K.; Tkadlecová, M.; Lang, Kamil; Lhoták, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 6 (2012), s. 678-680 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : calixarenes * anion recognition * receptor * complexation * UV/Vis titration Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.397, year: 2012

  14. Anion Rreceptors Based on Intramolecularly Bridged Calix[4]arenes Bearing Ureido Functions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanková, M.; Budka, J.; Mikšátko, J.; Eigner, V.; Císařová, I.; Cuřínová, Petra; Lhoták, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2017), s. 742-749 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : calixarene * reductive coupling * anion recognition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  15. Binding of neutral molecules by p-nitrophenylureido substituted calix[4]arenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cuřínová, P.; Pojarová, M.; Budka, J.; Lang, Kamil; Stibor, I.; Lhoták, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 40 (2010), s. 8047-8050 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : calixarene * recognition * neutral molecules binding * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.011, year: 2010

  16. A high-spin and durable polyradical: poly(4-diphenylaminium-1,2-phenylenevinylene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hidenori; Takahashi, Masahiro; Namba, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Naoki; Nishide, Hiroyuki

    2004-02-06

    A purely organic, high-spin, and durable polyradical molecule was synthesized: It is based on the non-Kekulé- and non-disjoint design of a pi-conjugated poly(1,2-phenylenevinylene) backbone pendantly 4-substituted with multiple robust arylaminium radicals. 4-N,N-Bis(4-methoxy- and -tert-butylphenyl)amino-2-bromostyrene 5 were synthesized and polymerized with a palladium-phosphine catalyst to afford the head-to-tail-linked polyradical precursors (1). Oxidation of 1 with the nitrosonium ion solubilized with a crown ether gave the aminium polyradicals (1(+)()) which were durable (half-life > 1 month) at room temperature in air. A high-spin ground state with an average S = (4.5)/2 for 1a(+) was proved even at room temperature by magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, ESR, and NMR measurements.

  17. An ionic receptor for Znsup2+/supmetal ion using synthesised bis-formylpyrazole calix[4]arene and its computational study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mohan, B.; Modi, Krunal M.; Bhatia, P.; Sharma, H. K.; Mishra, D.; Jain, V. K.; Arora, L. S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 7 (2018), s. 589-599 ISSN 1061-0278 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : calixarene * DFT calculation * Formylpyrazole * UV-vis * Zn sensor 2+ Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  18. Direct C–H Azidation of Calix[4]arene as a Novel Method to Access Meta Substituted Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, F.; Eigner, V.; Dvořáková, H.; Cuřínová, Petra; Lhoták, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 39 (2015), s. 5357-5361 ISSN 0040-4039 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : calixarene * azidation * regionselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.347, year: 2015

  19. Modification of a Polycrystalline Gold Electrode by Thiolated Calix[4]arene and Undecanethiol: Self-assembly Process versus Electrochemical Deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šustrová, Barbora; Štulík, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), s. 4367-4383 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Thiolated calixarene * Polycrystalline gold * Surface modification Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  20. Three-dimensional tetranuclear Cd(II) coordination network based on a 1,3-alternate calix[4]arene derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Ju, Hui Yeong; Park, Ki Min; Moon, ASuk Hee; Kang, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    Polynuclear coordination polymers can exhibit more intriguing network topologies and better functionalities than those of common complexes because they have metal-cluster nodes for the construction of multidimensional frameworks and the potential applications induced by collaborative activities between metal ions. New tetranuclear Cd(II) coordination polymer 1 based on 1,3-alternate calix arene derivative (H_4 CTA) with four carboxyl pendant arms has been synthesized by the solvo thermal reaction at 110 .deg. C for 2 days. Compound 1 shows a 3-D framework consisting of tetranuclear Cd(II) cluster core as a metal-cluster node and 1,3-alternate H_4CTA as a multidentate linker. The coordination polymer 1 displays intense blue emission, implying that this tetranuclear Cd(II) coordination polymer could be a suitable material in the area of luminescence research

  1. Three-dimensional tetranuclear Cd(II) coordination network based on a 1,3-alternate calix[4]arene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ji; Ju, Hui Yeong; Park, Ki Min [Dept. of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, ASuk Hee [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Kyungnam College of Inform ation and Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Young Jin [Div. of cience Education, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Polynuclear coordination polymers can exhibit more intriguing network topologies and better functionalities than those of common complexes because they have metal-cluster nodes for the construction of multidimensional frameworks and the potential applications induced by collaborative activities between metal ions. New tetranuclear Cd(II) coordination polymer 1 based on 1,3-alternate calix arene derivative (H{sub 4} CTA) with four carboxyl pendant arms has been synthesized by the solvo thermal reaction at 110 .deg. C for 2 days. Compound 1 shows a 3-D framework consisting of tetranuclear Cd(II) cluster core as a metal-cluster node and 1,3-alternate H{sub 4}CTA as a multidentate linker. The coordination polymer 1 displays intense blue emission, implying that this tetranuclear Cd(II) coordination polymer could be a suitable material in the area of luminescence research.

  2. Dynamics of circular hydrogen bond array in calix[4]arene in a nonpolar solvent: A nuclear magnetic resonance study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lang, J.; Deckerová, V.; Czernek, Jiří; Lhoták, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 122, - (2005), 044506/1-044506/11 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4050311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : hydrogen bonds * organic compounds * spin-spin relaxation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.138, year: 2005

  3. Calixarenes, chemical chameleons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dienst, E.S.; van Dienst, Erik; Iwema bakker, W.I.; Iwema Bakker, Wouter I.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    1993-01-01

    Methods for the synthesis of selectivety functionalized calix[4]arenes have been developed. These functionalized calix[4]arenes have been coupled to cavitands and cyclodextrins. A number of practical applications of calix[4]arenes are described.

  4. A study of nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite as the positive electrode material for electrochemical hybrid capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-qiao; Zou, Ying; Xia, Yong-yao [Chemistry Department and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2007-01-01

    We present a new concept of the hybrid electrochemical capacitor technology in which a poly(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy methacrylate) nitroxide polyradical/activated carbon composite (PTMA-AC) is used as the positive electrode material and activated carbon is used as the negative electrode material. On the positive electrode, both reversible reduction and oxidation of nitroxide polyradical and non-faradic ion sorption/de-sorption of activated carbon are involved during charge and discharge process. The capacity of the composite electrode is 30% larger than that of the pure activated carbon electrode. A hybrid capacitor fabricated by the PTMA-AC composite positive electrode and the activated carbon negative electrode shows a good cycling life, it can be charged/discharged for over 1000 cycles with slight capacity loss. The hybrid capacitor also has a good rate capability, it maintains 80% of the initial capacity even at the high discharge current of up to 20C. (author)

  5. 1,3-Alternate-25,27-bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 as an extraordinarily strong receptor for the univalent silver cation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makrlík, E.; Dybal, Jiří; Vaňura, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 8 (2017), s. 1379-1383 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : calixarenes * macrocycles * complexation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  6. Cobalt bis(dicarbollides)(1-) covalently attached to the calix[4]arene platform: The first combination of organic bowl-shaped matrices and inorganic metallaborane cluster anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Mikulášek, Libor; Báča, Jiří; Císařová, I.; Böhmer, V.; Danila, C.; Reinoso-García, M.M.; Verboom, W.; Reinhoudt, D.N.; Casnati, A.; Ungaro, R.

    -, č. 10 (2005), s. 2022-2039 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC523; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Grant - others:EEC(XE) F16W-CT-2003-508854 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : calixarenes * carboranes * dicarbollides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2005

  7. Recovery of cesium from nuclear waste using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane containing calix[4]arene-bis-(2,3-naphtho)-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandwal, P.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Manchanda, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Transport behaviour of cesium through hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) containing calix[4]arenebis-(2,3-naphtho)-crown-6 (CNC) as carrier extractant, has been investigated under various experimental conditions. At tracer concentration of cesium, > 99% recovery of cesium was achieved from 3M HNO 3 solution to distilled water with 1 mM of CNC in 80% NPOE + 20 % n-dodecane mixture. Effect of feed phase acidity, ligand concentration, metal ion concentration etc. has been investigated. Recovery of cesium from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor Simulated High Level Waste (PHWR-SHLW) using 1 mM CNC dissolved proposed diluent as the extractant, was carried out and it was found that it takes 12 hours of continuous operation for 88% recovery of metal ion. Nevertheless, the complete recovery of cesium from SHLW was possible after neutralization of strip phase acidity with NaOH. (author)

  8. Selective separation of cesium from simulated high level liquid waste solution using 1,3-dioctyloxy calix[4]arene-benzo-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikas Kumar; Sharma, J.N.; Hubli, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    The 25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 (CBC) in 1,3-alternate conformation was synthesized indigenously starting from its intermediates in good yield and purity. The extraction studies of CBC were carried out by using two different phase modifiers namely isodecyl alcohol and ortho-nitrophenyl hexyl ether. Detailed investigations on the effect of various parameters like, concentration of phase modifiers, aqueous phase acidity, ligand concentration, nitrate ion concentration and effect of temperature on extraction of cesium have been carried out. The concentration of phase modifiers was optimized to be 30 % in n-dodecane to ensure optimum extraction of cesium. Stoichiometry of the extracted complex determined by slope analysis method reveals 1:1:1 molar ratio for CsNO 3 :CBC:HNO 3 . The extraction process was found to be exothermic as determined from the plot of log K ex versus 1/T. The solvent system with a composition 0.01 M CBC/30 % phase modifier/n-dodecane was found to be effective for selective separation of cesium from simulated high level liquid waste solution. (author)

  9. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Scaffolded biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  11. Semiotic scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Life processes at all levels (from the genetic to the behavioral) are coordinated by semiotic interactions between cells, tissues, membranes, organs, or individuals and tuned through evolution to stabilize important functions. A stabilizing dynamics based on a system of semiotic scaffoldings impl...... semiotic scaffolding is not, of course, exclusive for phylogenetic and ontogenetic development, it is also an important dynamical element in cultural evolution.......Life processes at all levels (from the genetic to the behavioral) are coordinated by semiotic interactions between cells, tissues, membranes, organs, or individuals and tuned through evolution to stabilize important functions. A stabilizing dynamics based on a system of semiotic scaffoldings...... (the representamen) and the effect. Semiotic interaction patterns therefore provide fast and versatile mechanisms for adaptations, mechanisms that depend on communication and “learning” rather than on genetic preformation. Seen as a stabilizing agency supporting the emergence of higher-order structure...

  12. Developmental Scaffolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2015-01-01

    . Within the developmental hierarchy, each module yields an inter-level relationship that makes it possible for the scaffolding to mediate the production of selectable variations. Awide range of genetic, cellular and morphological mechanisms allows the scaffolding to integrate these modular variations...... to the complexity of sign recognition proper of a cellular community. In this semiotic perspective, the apparent goal directness of any developmental strategy should no longer be accounted for by a predetermined genetic program, but by the gradual definition of the relationships selected amongst the ones...

  13. Cobalt bis(dicarbollides)(1-) covalently attached to the calyx[4]arene platform: the first combination of organic bowl-shaped matrices and inorganic metallaborane cluster anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Bohumír; Mikulasek, Libor; Baca, Jirí; Cisarova, Ivana; Böhmer, Volker; Danila, Crenguta; Reinoso garcia, M.M.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David; Casnati, Alessandro; Ungaro, Rocco

    2005-01-01

    Various calix[4]arene and resorc[4]arene ionic compounds substituted by cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anions (1) have been prepared for the first time. From tBu-calix[4]arene (A) the complete series of mono-, di-, tri- and tetrasubstituted derivatives bearing one to four cluster anions on the lower rim

  14. Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral Diimido-di-L-alanine Diesters and Chiral Phthaloyl-L-alanine Ester of Tripropoxy p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene and Study of Their Hosting Ability for Alanine and Na+. Bis-symmetrical tripropoxy p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene esters were ...

  15. Anionic tert-butyl-calix[4]arenes substituted at the narrow and wide rim by cobalt bis(dicarbollide)(1-) ions and CMPO-groups. Effect of stereochemistry and ratios of the functional groups on the platform on the extraction efficiency for Ln(III)/An(III)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grüner, Bohumír; Böhmer, V.; Dordea, C.; Selucký, P.; Bubeníková, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 747, december (2013), s. 155-166 ISSN 0022-328X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0668 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Actinides * Calixarenes * Carboranes * Lanthanides * Liquid-liquid extraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.302, year: 2013

  16. Low-generation dendrimers with a calixarene core and based on a chiral C2-symmetric pyrrolidine as iminosugar mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marradi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of low-generation dendrimers based on a simple calix[4]arene scaffold by insertion of the iminosugar-analogue C2-symmetric 3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine is described. This methodology allows a rapid incorporation of a considerable number of iminosugar-like moieties in a reduced volume and in a well-defined geometry. The inclusion of alkali-metal ions (sodium and potassium in the polar cavity defined by the acetamide moieties at the lower rim of the calixarene was demonstrated, which allows also the rigidification of the dendrimer structure and the iminosugar presentation in the clusters. The combination of the supramolecular properties of calixarenes with the advantage of a dendrimeric presentation of repetitive units opens up the possibility of generating well-defined multivalent and multifaceted systems with more complex and/or biologically relevant iminosugars.

  17. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calix[4]arenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calix[4]-arenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4 f combinations......(Figure Presented). Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise...

  18. Non-covalent synthesis of organic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.J.; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the synthesis, characterization and functionalization of hydrogen bonded, box-like assemblies. These assemblies are formed upon mixing bismelamine calix[4]arenes with a complementary barbiturate in apolar solvents. Various techniques for the characterization have been used,

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of the enantiomers of phenylglycine with nanopores of ZSM-5 zeolite .... Colorimetric detection of Cu and Pb ions using calix[4]arene functionalized gold ..... cytotoxicity of novel N-benzylpiperidin-4-one oximes on human cervical cancer cells.

  20. Exact approaches for scaffolding

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Mathias; Chateau, Annie; Giroudeau, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new structural and algorithmic results around the scaffolding problem, which occurs prominently in next generation sequencing. The problem can be formalized as an optimization problem on a special graph, the "scaffold graph". We prove that the problem is polynomial if this graph is a tree by providing a dynamic programming algorithm for this case. This algorithm serves as a basis to deduce an exact algorithm for general graphs using a tree decomposition of the input. We ex...

  1. Semiotic Scaffolding in Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mikkel Willum; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the notion of semiotic scaffolding in relation to mathematics by considering its influence on mathematical activities, and on the evolution of mathematics as a research field. We will do this by analyzing the role different representational forms play in mathematical...... cognition, and more broadly on mathematical activities. In the main part of the paper, we will present and analyze three different cases. For the first case, we investigate the semiotic scaffolding involved in pencil and paper multiplication. For the second case, we investigate how the development of new...... in both mathematical cognition and in the development of mathematics itself, but mathematical cognition cannot itself be reduced to the use of semiotic scaffolding....

  2. Bone tissue engineering scaffolding: computer-aided scaffolding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavornyutikarn, Boonlom; Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    Tissue engineering is essentially a technique for imitating nature. Natural tissues consist of three components: cells, signalling systems (e.g. growth factors) and extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM forms a scaffold for its cells. Hence, the engineered tissue construct is an artificial scaffold populated with living cells and signalling molecules. A huge effort has been invested in bone tissue engineering, in which a highly porous scaffold plays a critical role in guiding bone and vascular tissue growth and regeneration in three dimensions. In the last two decades, numerous scaffolding techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnective, porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. This review provides an update on the progress of foaming technology of biomaterials, with a special attention being focused on computer-aided manufacturing (Andrade et al. 2002) techniques. This article starts with a brief introduction of tissue engineering (Bone tissue engineering and scaffolds) and scaffolding materials (Biomaterials used in bone tissue engineering). After a brief reviews on conventional scaffolding techniques (Conventional scaffolding techniques), a number of CAM techniques are reviewed in great detail. For each technique, the structure and mechanical integrity of fabricated scaffolds are discussed in detail. Finally, the advantaged and disadvantage of these techniques are compared (Comparison of scaffolding techniques) and summarised (Summary).

  3. Parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Andrew; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Rege, Kaushal

    2018-07-01

    Scaffolds generated from naturally occurring and synthetic polymers have been investigated in several applications because of their biocompatibility and tunable chemo-mechanical properties. Existing methods for generation of 3D polymeric scaffolds typically cannot be parallelized, suffer from low throughputs, and do not allow for quick and easy removal of the fragile structures that are formed. Current molds used in hydrogel and scaffold fabrication using solvent casting and porogen leaching are often single-use and do not facilitate 3D scaffold formation in parallel. Here, we describe a simple device and related approaches for the parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds. This approach was employed for the generation of macroporous and non-macroporous materials in parallel, in higher throughput and allowed for easy retrieval of these 3D scaffolds once formed. In addition, macroporous scaffolds with interconnected as well as non-interconnected pores were generated, and the versatility of this approach was employed for the generation of 3D scaffolds from diverse materials including an aminoglycoside-derived cationic hydrogel ("Amikagel"), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, and collagen. Macroporous scaffolds generated using the device were investigated for plasmid DNA binding and cell loading, indicating the use of this approach for developing materials for different applications in biotechnology. Our results demonstrate that the device-based approach is a simple technology for generating scaffolds in parallel, which can enhance the toolbox of current fabrication techniques. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...... objects. The article presents the results of empirical research on tasks given in Danish and British learning materials. This work is based on a further development of my PhD thesis: “Learning materials in the subject of Danish” (Slot 2010). The main focus is how cognitive models (and subsidiary explicit...... learning goals) can help students structure their argumentative and communica-tive learning processes, and how various multimodal representations can give more open-ended learning possibilities for collaboration. The article presents a short introduction of the skills for 21st century learning and defines...

  5. Using Scaffolds in Problem-Based Hypermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuyan; Klein, James D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of scaffolds in problem-based hypermedia. Three hundred and twelve undergraduate students enrolled in a computer literacy course worked in project teams to use a hypermedia PBL program focused on designing a personal computer. The PBL program included content scaffolds, metacognitive scaffolds, or no scaffolds.…

  6. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Based on MCM-41 and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana M. Alahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the covalent attachment of three different calix[4]arenes (calix[4]arene (C4, p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene (C4S, and p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene (PC4 to MCM-41, using a three-step modification process. 3-Chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (ClPTS was first attached to the mesoporous silica surface and subsequently converted to amides via the reaction with toluene diisocyanate (TDI. Finally, calix[4]arene derivatives attached to the isocyanate ending remained available on toluene di-iso-cyanate. Changes in the surface properties of the mesoporous silica caused by the chemical modification were monitored using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermal analysis (TGA, and elemental analysis. The FTIR spectra and TGA analysis verify that the calix[4]arene derivatives are covalently attached to the mesoporous silica. The preservation of the MCM-41 channel system was checked by the X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analysis. These materials were then used to evaluate the sorption properties of some organotins compounds (Tributyltin (TBT, Triphenyltin (TPT, and Dibutyltin (DBT.

  7. Chromoionophoric Recognition of Alkylamines by Nitro Derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Hwang, Ah Ran; Choe, Jong In; Chang, Suk Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The molecular design of efficient and selective chromogenic and fluorogenic ionophore systems for the sensing of chemically and biologically important ionic guests has attracted much attention in the past decade. Many of the compounds are based on the well-known molecular framework of crown ethers, calixarenes, and other EDTA type efficient chelating compounds. Among them the calix[4]arenes are particularly attractive for their selective ionophoric properties toward many of interesting organic ammonium guests. Particularly, the calix[4]arene-crown ethers are known to have unique binding properties toward some of alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, and biogenic amines. Many of the chromogenic sensing materials are developed by conjugating molecular framework of calix[4]- arene-crown ethers with suitable signaling functions of azophenols, thiazoles, and indophenols. Quite unexpectedly, however, the ionophoric properties of simple nitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown ethers were not reported, except for the closely related structure having ester-ether functions in crown moiety, in spite of their synthetically easy availability and expectedly efficient ionophoric properties toward organic amine guests. In this paper, we report the ionophoric properties of dinitro derivative of calix[4]arene-crown-5 ether 1 toward representative alkylammonium ions aiming for the development of efficient and selective chromogenic sensing material for the biologically important organic amine guests. The Ba 2+ -selective chromogenic behavior of 1 over the representative alkali and alkaline earth metal ions has been reported earlier.

  8. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  9. Separation and preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in blood samples by inclusion emulsion membranes and its determination by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Bahram; Pourabdollah, Kobra

    2012-10-15

    The nano-mediated preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from blood samples was reported by inclusion-facilitated emulsion liquid membrane process. The novelty of this study was application of nano-baskets of calixarene and emulsion liquid membranes in selective and efficient preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. For this aim, four derivatives of p-tert-calix[4]arene bearing different sulfonamide moieties were synthesized and their inclusion-extraction parameters were optimized including calixarenes' scaffold and concentration (3, 4 wt%), diluent type in membrane, phase and treat ratios (0.8 and 0.3), mixing speed (300 rpm), and initial solute concentrations (0.1-10 pg g(-1)). The extraction efficiency was determined by dioxin's concentration using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector and the results revealed that in optimized operating conditions, the preconcentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was improved and the limit of detection decreased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chelation of heavy group 2 (radio)metals by p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,3-crown-6 and logK determination via NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David; Gott, Matthew; Steinbach, Jörg; Mamat, Constantin

    2018-06-01

    A crown-bridged calix[4]arene scaffold was investigated as lead compound for the ligation of heavy alkaline earth metals such as strontium and barium, which appear to be useful for radiopharmaceutical applications in diagnosis as well as in radiotherapy. In particular barium, due to its chemical similarities, could serve as a surrogate for radium, a metal of high radiopharmaceutical interest. The ability of p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,3-crown-6 (1) in particular to chelate cations, such as group 1 and 2 metal ions or ammonium ions is well known. Also, the manifold possibilities of structural modification on the upper- and lower-rim as well as on the crown itself produce properties that may lead to a highly selective and effective chelating agent. In this work, titration experiments of the perchlorate salts of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Pb2+ with ligand 1 were performed to determine their stability constants (logK = 4.7, 4.3, and 3.3, respectively) by 1H NMR measurements in acetonitrile-d3.

  11. Neuronal Networks on Nanocellulose Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Malin; Brackmann, Christian; Puchades, Maja; Brattås, Karoline; Ewing, Andrew; Gatenholm, Paul; Enejder, Annika

    2015-11-01

    Proliferation, integration, and neurite extension of PC12 cells, a widely used culture model for cholinergic neurons, were studied in nanocellulose scaffolds biosynthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus to allow a three-dimensional (3D) extension of neurites better mimicking neuronal networks in tissue. The interaction with control scaffolds was compared with cationized nanocellulose (trimethyl ammonium betahydroxy propyl [TMAHP] cellulose) to investigate the impact of surface charges on the cell interaction mechanisms. Furthermore, coatings with extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, and laminin) were investigated to determine the importance of integrin-mediated cell attachment. Cell proliferation was evaluated by a cellular proliferation assay, while cell integration and neurite propagation were studied by simultaneous label-free Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and second harmonic generation microscopy, providing 3D images of PC12 cells and arrangement of nanocellulose fibrils, respectively. Cell attachment and proliferation were enhanced by TMAHP modification, but not by protein coating. Protein coating instead promoted active interaction between the cells and the scaffold, hence lateral cell migration and integration. Irrespective of surface modification, deepest cell integration measured was one to two cell layers, whereas neurites have a capacity to integrate deeper than the cell bodies in the scaffold due to their fine dimensions and amoeba-like migration pattern. Neurites with lengths of >50 μm were observed, successfully connecting individual cells and cell clusters. In conclusion, TMAHP-modified nanocellulose scaffolds promote initial cellular scaffold adhesion, which combined with additional cell-scaffold treatments enables further formation of 3D neuronal networks.

  12. Inclusion Complexes of a New Family of Non-Ionic Amphiphilic Dendrocalix[4]arene and Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs Naproxen and Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion complexes of a new family of nonionic amphiphilic calix[4]arenes with the anti-inflammatory hydrophobic drugs naproxen (NAP and ibuprofen (IBP were investigated. The effects of the alkyl chain’s length and the inner core of calix[4]arenes on the interaction of the two drugs with the calix[4]arenes were explored. The inclusion complexes of Amphiphiles 1a–c with NAP and IBP increased the solubility of these drugs in aqueous media. The interaction of 1a–c with the drugs in aqueous media was investigated through fluorescence, molecular modeling, and 1H-NMR analysis. TEM studies further supported the formation of inclusion complexes. The length of lipophilic alkyl chains and the intrinsic cyclic nature of cailx[4]arene derivatives 1a–c were found to have a significant impact on the solubility of NAP and IBP in pure water.

  13. Mechanical anisotropy of titanium scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegg Jasmine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical performance of an implant, e.g. for the treatment of large bone defects, depends on the implant material, anchorage, surface topography and chemistry, but also on the mechanical properties, like the stiffness. The latter can be adapted by the porosity. Whereas foams show isotropic mechanical properties, digitally modelled scaffolds can be designed with anisotropic behaviour. In this study, we designed and produced 3D scaffolds based on an orthogonal architecture and studied its angle-dependent stiffness. The aim was to produce scaffolds with different orientations of the microarchitecture by selective laser melting and compare the angle-specific mechanical behaviour with an in-silico simulation. The anisotropic characteristics of open-porous implants and technical limitations of the production process were studied.

  14. A scaffold easy to decontaminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourek, D.

    1992-01-01

    The conventional scaffold used in the assembling work and in revisions of technological facilities at nuclear power plants has many drawbacks. The most serious of them are a high amount of radioactive waste arising from the decontamination (planing) of the floor timber and from the discarding of damaged irreparable parts, and a considerable corrosion of the carbon steel supporting structure after the decontamination. A detailed description is given of a novel scaffold assembly which can be decontaminated and which exhibits many assets, in particular a good mechanical resistance (also to bad weather), a lower weight, and the use of prepreg floor girders for the construction of service platforms or scaffold bridges which can readily be assembled from the pressed pieces in a modular way. (Z.S.). 4 figs., 4 refs

  15. Systematic Prediction of Scaffold Proteins Reveals New Design Principles in Scaffold-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianfei; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Heng; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold proteins play a crucial role in facilitating signal transduction in eukaryotes by bringing together multiple signaling components. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of scaffold proteins in signal transduction by integrating protein-protein interaction and kinase-substrate relationship networks. We predicted 212 scaffold proteins that are involved in 605 distinct signaling pathways. The computational prediction was validated using a protein microarray-based approach. The predicted scaffold proteins showed several interesting characteristics, as we expected from the functionality of scaffold proteins. We found that the scaffold proteins are likely to interact with each other, which is consistent with previous finding that scaffold proteins tend to form homodimers and heterodimers. Interestingly, a single scaffold protein can be involved in multiple signaling pathways by interacting with other scaffold protein partners. Furthermore, we propose two possible regulatory mechanisms by which the activity of scaffold proteins is coordinated with their associated pathways through phosphorylation process. PMID:26393507

  16. A practice scaffolding interactive platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    A Practice Scaffolding Interactive Platform (PracSIP) is a social learning platform which supports students in collaborative project based learning by simulating a professional practice. A PracSIP puts the core tools of the simulated practice at the students' disposal, it organizes collaboration...

  17. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  18. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

  19. Bioactive polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Stratton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of engineered scaffolds have been created for tissue engineering using polymers, ceramics and their composites. Biomimicry has been adopted for majority of the three-dimensional (3D scaffold design both in terms of physicochemical properties, as well as bioactivity for superior tissue regeneration. Scaffolds fabricated via salt leaching, particle sintering, hydrogels and lithography have been successful in promoting cell growth in vitro and tissue regeneration in vivo. Scaffold systems derived from decellularization of whole organs or tissues has been popular due to their assured biocompatibility and bioactivity. Traditional scaffold fabrication techniques often failed to create intricate structures with greater resolution, not reproducible and involved multiple steps. The 3D printing technology overcome several limitations of the traditional techniques and made it easier to adopt several thermoplastics and hydrogels to create micro-nanostructured scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering and drug delivery. This review highlights scaffold fabrication methodologies with a focus on optimizing scaffold performance through the matrix pores, bioactivity and degradation rate to enable tissue regeneration. Review highlights few examples of bioactive scaffold mediated nerve, muscle, tendon/ligament and bone regeneration. Regardless of the efforts required for optimization, a shift in 3D scaffold uses from the laboratory into everyday life is expected in the near future as some of the methods discussed in this review become more streamlined.

  20. Alginate based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, J.F.A.; Valente, T.A.M. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Alves, P.; Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, A. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-12-01

    The design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is yet unable to completely reproduce the native bone properties. In the present study new alginate microparticle and microfiber aggregated scaffolds were produced to be applied in this area of regenerative medicine. The scaffolds' mechanical properties were characterized by thermo mechanical assays. Their morphological characteristics were evaluated by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The density of both types of scaffolds was determined by helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, scaffolds' cytotoxic profiles were evaluated in vitro by seeding human osteoblast cells in their presence. The results obtained showed that scaffolds have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their application as bone substitutes. Moreover, scaffold's biocompatibility was confirmed by the observation of cell adhesion and proliferation after 5 days of being seeded in their presence and by non-radioactive assays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microparticle and microfiber alginate scaffolds were produced through a particle aggregation technique; Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds' mechanically and biologically properties were characterized through in vitro studies;.

  1. Antimicrobial Cu-bearing stainless steel scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Ren, Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Shuyuan; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Yang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Copper-bearing stainless steel scaffolds with two different structures (Body Centered Cubic and Gyroid labyrinth) at two solid fractions (25% and 40%) were fabricated from both 316L powder and a mixture of 316L and elemental Cu powder using selective laser melting, and relative 316L scaffolds were served as control group. After processing, the antimicrobial testing demonstrated that the 316L-Cu scaffolds presented excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the cell viability assay indicated that there was no cytotoxic effect of 316L-Cu scaffolds on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As such, these have the potential to reduce implant-associated infections. The Cu was also found to homogeneously distribute within the microstructure by scanning electronic microcopy. The addition of Cu would not significantly affect its strength and stiffness compared to 316L scaffold, and the stiffness of all the scaffolds (3-20GPa) is similar to that of bone and much less than that of bulk stainless steel. Consequently, fabrication of such low stiffness porous structures, especially coupled with the addition of antimicrobial Cu, may provide a new direction for medical stainless steels. - Highlights: • 316L-Cu scaffolds were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • 316L-Cu scaffolds showed satisfied antimicrobial activities. • 316L-Cu scaffolds have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of 316L-Cu scaffolds were similar to 316L scaffolds. • 316L-Cu scaffolds have the potential to be used in orthopedic applications.

  2. Antimicrobial Cu-bearing stainless steel scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: mfqwang@163.com [School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110002 (China); Ren, Ling [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Li, Xiaopeng [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Zhang, Shuyuan [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sercombe, Timothy B., E-mail: tim.sercombe@uwa.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2016-11-01

    Copper-bearing stainless steel scaffolds with two different structures (Body Centered Cubic and Gyroid labyrinth) at two solid fractions (25% and 40%) were fabricated from both 316L powder and a mixture of 316L and elemental Cu powder using selective laser melting, and relative 316L scaffolds were served as control group. After processing, the antimicrobial testing demonstrated that the 316L-Cu scaffolds presented excellent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, and the cell viability assay indicated that there was no cytotoxic effect of 316L-Cu scaffolds on rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As such, these have the potential to reduce implant-associated infections. The Cu was also found to homogeneously distribute within the microstructure by scanning electronic microcopy. The addition of Cu would not significantly affect its strength and stiffness compared to 316L scaffold, and the stiffness of all the scaffolds (3-20GPa) is similar to that of bone and much less than that of bulk stainless steel. Consequently, fabrication of such low stiffness porous structures, especially coupled with the addition of antimicrobial Cu, may provide a new direction for medical stainless steels. - Highlights: • 316L-Cu scaffolds were fabricated by using selective laser melting (SLM). • 316L-Cu scaffolds showed satisfied antimicrobial activities. • 316L-Cu scaffolds have no cytotoxic effect on normal cells. • Other properties of 316L-Cu scaffolds were similar to 316L scaffolds. • 316L-Cu scaffolds have the potential to be used in orthopedic applications.

  3. Cell–scaffold interaction within engineered tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haiping; Liu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: Yuanyuan_liu@shu.edu.cn; Jiang, Zhenglong; Chen, Weihua; Yu, Yongzhe; Hu, Qingxi

    2014-05-01

    The structure of a tissue engineering scaffold plays an important role in modulating tissue growth. A novel gelatin–chitosan (Gel–Cs) scaffold with a unique structure produced by three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology combining with vacuum freeze-drying has been developed for tissue-engineering applications. The scaffold composed of overall construction, micro-pore, surface morphology, and effective mechanical property. Such a structure meets the essential design criteria of an ideal engineered scaffold. The favorable cell–matrix interaction supports the active biocompatibility of the structure. The structure is capable of supporting cell attachment and proliferation. Cells seeded into this structure tend to maintain phenotypic shape and secreted large amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell growth decreased the mechanical properties of scaffold. This novel biodegradable scaffold has potential applications for tissue engineering based upon its unique structure, which acts to support cell growth. - Highlights: • The scaffold is not only for providing a surface for cell residence but also for determining cell phenotype and retaining structural integrity. • The mechanical property of scaffold can be affected by activities of cell. • The scaffold provides a microenvironment for cell attachment, growth, and migration.

  4. Platelet lysate embedded scaffolds for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Mori, Michela; Cervio, Marila; Riva, Federica; Liakos, Ioannis; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Saporito, Francesca; Marini, Lara; Caramella, Carla

    2015-04-01

    The work presents the development of acellular scaffolds extemporaneously embedded with platelet lysate (PL), as an innovative approach in the field of tissue regeneration/reparation. PL embedded scaffolds should have a tridimensional architecture to support cell migration and growth, in order to restore skin integrity. For this reason, chondroitin sulfate (CS) was associated with sodium alginate (SA) to prepare highly porous systems. The developed scaffolds were characterized for chemical stability to γ-radiation, morphology, hydration and mechanical properties. Moreover, the capability of fibroblasts and endothelial cells to populate the scaffold was evaluated by means of proliferation test 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy study. The scaffolds, not altered by sterilization, were characterized by limited swelling and high flexibility, by foam-like structure with bubbles that formed a high surface area and irregular texture suitable for cell adhesion. Cell growth and scaffold population were evident on the bubble surface, where the cells appeared anchored to the scaffold structure. Scaffold network based on CS and SA demonstrated to be an effective support to enhance and to allow fibroblasts and endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells, HUVEC) adhesion and proliferation. In particular, it could be hypothesized that cell adhesion was facilitated by the synergic effect of PL and CS. Although further in vivo evaluation is needed, on the basis of in vitro results, PL embedded scaffolds seem promising systems for skin wound healing.

  5. WiseScaffolder: an algorithm for the semi-automatic scaffolding of Next Generation Sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Gregory K; Hoebeke, Mark; Partensky, Frédéric; Andres, Gwendoline; Corre, Erwan; Garczarek, Laurence

    2015-09-03

    The sequencing depth provided by high-throughput sequencing technologies has allowed a rise in the number of de novo sequenced genomes that could potentially be closed without further sequencing. However, genome scaffolding and closure require costly human supervision that often results in genomes being published as drafts. A number of automatic scaffolders were recently released, which improved the global quality of genomes published in the last few years. Yet, none of them reach the efficiency of manual scaffolding. Here, we present an innovative semi-automatic scaffolder that additionally helps with chimerae resolution and generates valuable contig maps and outputs for manual improvement of the automatic scaffolding. This software was tested on the newly sequenced marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH8103 as well as two reference datasets used in previous studies, Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Homo sapiens chromosome 14 (http://gage.cbcb.umd.edu/). The quality of resulting scaffolds was compared to that of three other stand-alone scaffolders: SSPACE, SOPRA and SCARPA. For all three model organisms, WiseScaffolder produced better results than other scaffolders in terms of contiguity statistics (number of genome fragments, N50, LG50, etc.) and, in the case of WH8103, the reliability of the scaffolds was confirmed by whole genome alignment against a closely related reference genome. We also propose an efficient computer-assisted strategy for manual improvement of the scaffolding, using outputs generated by WiseScaffolder, as well as for genome finishing that in our hands led to the circularization of the WH8103 genome. Altogether, WiseScaffolder proved more efficient than three other scaffolders for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and is thus likely applicable to most genome projects. The scaffolding pipeline described here should be of particular interest to biologists wishing to take advantage of the high added value of complete genomes.

  6. SHOP: scaffold hopping by GRID-based similarity searches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Rikke; Linusson, Anna; Zamora, Ismael

    2007-01-01

    A new GRID-based method for scaffold hopping (SHOP) is presented. In a fully automatic manner, scaffolds were identified in a database based on three types of 3D-descriptors. SHOP's ability to recover scaffolds was assessed and validated by searching a database spiked with fragments of known...... scaffolds were in the 31 top-ranked scaffolds. SHOP also identified new scaffolds with substantially different chemotypes from the queries. Docking analysis indicated that the new scaffolds would have similar binding modes to those of the respective query scaffolds observed in X-ray structures...

  7. Cell penetration to nanofibrous scaffolds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rampichová, Michala; Buzgo, Matej; Chvojka, J.; Prosecká, Eva; Kofroňová, Olga; Amler, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 36-41 ISSN 1933-6918 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 384311; GA UK(CZ) 626012; GA UK(CZ) 270513; GA UK(CZ) 330611; GA UK(CZ) 648112; GA MZd(CZ) NT12156; GA MŠk(CZ) project IPv6 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : fibrous scaffold * mesenchymal stem cells * Forcespinning (R) Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 4.505, year: 2014

  8. Recombinant protein scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkmeister, Jerome A; Ramshaw, John A M

    2012-01-01

    New biological materials for tissue engineering are now being developed using common genetic engineering capabilities to clone and express a variety of genetic elements that allow cost-effective purification and scaffold fabrication from these recombinant proteins, peptides or from chimeric combinations of these. The field is limitless as long as the gene sequences are known. The utility is dependent on the ease, product yield and adaptability of these protein products to the biomedical field. The development of recombinant proteins as scaffolds, while still an emerging technology with respect to commercial products, is scientifically superior to current use of natural materials or synthetic polymer scaffolds, in terms of designing specific structures with desired degrees of biological complexities and motifs. In the field of tissue engineering, next generation scaffolds will be the key to directing appropriate tissue regeneration. The initial period of biodegradable synthetic scaffolds that provided shape and mechanical integrity, but no biological information, is phasing out. The era of protein scaffolds offers distinct advantages, particularly with the combination of powerful tools of molecular biology. These include, for example, the production of human proteins of uniform quality that are free of infectious agents and the ability to make suitable quantities of proteins that are found in low quantity or are hard to isolate from tissue. For the particular needs of tissue engineering scaffolds, fibrous proteins like collagens, elastin, silks and combinations of these offer further advantages of natural well-defined structural scaffolds as well as endless possibilities of controlling functionality by genetic manipulation. (topical review)

  9. Scaffolding Mathematical Modelling with a Solution Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schukajlow, Stanislaw; Kolter, Jana; Blum, Werner

    2015-01-01

    In the study presented in this paper, we examined the possibility to scaffold mathematical modelling with strategies. The strategies were prompted using an instrument called "solution plan" as a scaffold. The effects of this step by step instrument on mathematical modelling competency and on self-reported strategies were tested using…

  10. Scaffolding proteins: not such innocent bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F Donelson; Scott, John D

    2013-06-17

    Sequential transfer of information from one enzyme to the next within the confines of a protein kinase scaffold enhances signal transduction. Though frequently considered to be inert organizational elements, two recent reports implicate kinase-scaffolding proteins as active participants in signal relay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Scaffolding Proteins: Not Such Innocent Bystanders

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, F. Donelson; Scott, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential transfer of information from one enzyme to the next within the confines of a protein kinase scaffold enhances signal transduction. Though frequently considered to be inert organizational elements, two recent reports implicate kinase-scaffolding proteins as active participants in signal relay.

  12. Metacognitive Scaffolding in an Innovative Learning Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; van Boxtel, Carla A. M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of metacognitive scaffolds on learning outcomes of collaborating students in an innovative learning arrangement. The triads were supported by computerized scaffolds, which were dynamically integrated into the learning process and took a structuring or problematizing form. In an experimental design the two…

  13. Teaching language teachers scaffolding professional learning

    CERN Document Server

    Maggioli, Gabriel Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Teaching Language Teachers: Scaffolding Professional Learning provides an updated view of as well as a reader-friendly introduction to the field of Teaching Teachers, with special reference to language teaching. By taking a decidedly Sociocultural perspective, the book addresses the main role of the Teacher of Teachers (ToT) as that of scaffolding the professional learning of aspiring teachers.

  14. Control of structural isomerism in noncovalent hydrogen-bonded assemblies using peripheral chiral information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.J.; Jolliffe, K.A.; Hulst, A.J.R.L.; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    2000-01-01

    The results of a systematic study of the structural isomerism in more than 30 noncovalent hydrogen-bonded assemblies are described. These dynamic assemblies, composed of three calix[4]arene dimelamines and six barbiturates/cyanurates, can be present in three isomeric forms with either D3, C3h, or Cs

  15. Induction of liquid crystallinity of by self-assembled molecular boxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piermattei, A.; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T.M.; Mendes, Eduardo; Picken, Stephen J.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    Jewel-box: In a hierarchical process, three molecules of a calix[4]arene (blue) and six of barbituric or cyanuric acid (green) assemble into double-rosette boxes, which assemble into columns, which in turn assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline phases (see picture). The resulting mesophases have

  16. Induction of Liquid Crystallinity by Self-Assembled Molecular Boxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piermattei, A.; Giesbers, M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Mendes, E.; Picken, S.J.; Crego-Calama, M.; Reinhoudt, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    In a hierarchical process, three molecules of a calix[4]arene (blue) and six of barbituric or cyanuric acid (green) assemble into double-rosette boxes, which assemble into columns, which in turn assemble into columnar liquid-crystalline phases (see picture). The resulting mesophases have a

  17. Self-assembly and stability of double rosette nanostructures with biological functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, M.G.J.; Omerovic, Merdan; Oshovsky, G.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    The syntheses of calix[4]arene dimelamines that are functionalized with alkyl, aminoalkyl, ureido, pyridyl, carbohydrate, amino acid and peptide functionalities, and their self-assembly with barbituric acid or cyanuric acid derivatives into well-defined hydrogen-bonded nanostructures are described.

  18. Noncovalent assembly of a fifteen-component hydrogen-bonded nanostructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolliffe, K.A.; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    A total of 72 hydrogen bonds are formed in the spontaneous association of calix[4]arene tetramelamine and barbituric acid derivatives to give nanosized assemblies of the type represented in the picture. These consist of 15 components that assemble in a completely diastereoselective sense: of the

  19. Heme-Protein Active Site Models via Self-Assembly in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiammengo, R.; Wojciechowski, Kamil; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Figoli, A.; Wessling, Matthias; Reinhoudt, David; Timmerman, P.

    2003-01-01

    Water-soluble models of heme-protein active sites are obtained via the self-assembly of cationic porphyrins 1 and tetrasulfonato calix[4]arene 2 (K1·2 = 105 M-1). Selective binding of ligands either outside or inside the cavity of assemblies 1·2 via coordination to the zinc center has been observed.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and ion recognition studies of lower rim ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Rhodamine conjugate of calix[4]arene; ratiometric sensor for Hg2+; ion recognition; emission ... rhodamine-based receptor is dependent on the changes that occur in ..... (DRDL) for allowing him to register for Ph.D. pro- gramme at ...

  1. Anion complexation by calix[4]arene–TTF conjugates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flídrová, K.; Tkadlecová, M.; Lang, Kamil; Lhoták, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2012), s. 668-673 ISSN 0143-7208 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0691 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : calix[4]arene * tetrathiafulvalene * anion recognition * receptor * NMR titration * UV/vis spectroscopy Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.532, year: 2012

  2. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Though the reactions have both electrostatic control and frontier orbital control the former dominates in the initial stages of the reaction. pp 237-247. Influence of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the -alkylation of the lower rim phenolic-OH groups of -tert-butyl-calix[4]arene to result in amide-pendants: Template action of K ...

  3. Polyacrylonitrile based composite materials with extracting agents containing chemically bonded CMPO groups for separation of actinoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Šebesta, F.; John, J.; Böhmer, V.; Rudzevich, V.; Grüner, Bohumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, č. 1 (2015), s. 313-319 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : actinoids * CMPO * Calix[4]arene * cobalt bis(dicarbollide) * polyacrylonitrile * composite material Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  4. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Role of vanadium and pyridine in heteropolycompounds for selective oxidation of ... in the selective oxidation of aromatic methyl group to aldehyde without mediators .... ion recognition studies of lower rim 1,3-di{rhodamine} conjugate of calix[4]arene ... Two expedient one-pot methods have been developed for synthesis of ...

  5. Synthesis of inherently chiral calixarenes via direct mercuration of the partial cone conformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slavík, P.; Kohout, M.; Böhm, S.; Eigner, Václav; Lhoták, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 11 (2016), s. 2366-2369 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12653S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calix[4]arene * mercuration * brigding * X-ray crystallography * Jana2006 Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016

  6. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 2. Influence of alkali and alkaline earth ions on the -alkylation of the lower rim phenolic-OH groups of -tert-butyl-calix[4]arene to result in amide-pendants: Template action of K+ and the structure of K+ bound tetra-amide derivative crystallized with a ...

  7. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: an excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gujar, R.B.; Ansari, S.A.; Verboom, Willem; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide

  8. NMR evidence for protonated tetraethyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetracacetate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří; Makrlík, E.; Vaňura, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 7 (2007), s. 1321-1326 ISSN 0137- 5083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : calix[4]arene * protonation * NMR * acetonitrile Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2007

  9. Teenaged Internet Tutors' Use of Scaffolding with Older Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambaum, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses how teenaged instructors paired with older learners make use of scaffolding. Video data were categorised according to 15 types of direct scaffolding tactics, indirect scaffolding, and unused scaffolding opportunities. The results show that a teenager who is unprepared for the role of an instructor of Internet skills for older…

  10. Titanate nanotube coatings on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632, Pécs (Hungary); Scarpellini, A. [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Anjum, F.; Brandi, F. [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    Rigid, biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were coated with titanate nanotubes (TNTs) by using a spin-coating method. TNTs were synthesized by a hydrothermal process at 150 °C under 4.7 bar ambient pressure. The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. For scaffold coating, a stable ethanolic TNT sol was prepared by a simple colloid chemical route without the use of any binding compounds or additives. Scanning electron microscopy along with elemental analysis revealed that the scaffolds were homogenously coated by TNTs. The developed TNT coating can further improve the surface geometry of fabricated scaffolds, and therefore it can further increase the cell adhesion. Highlights: ► Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. ► Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. ► The titanate nanotube coating can further improve the surface geometry of scaffolds. ► These reproducible platforms will be of high importance for biological applications.

  11. Scaffold translation: barriers between concept and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2011-12-01

    Translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies to clinical use remains, bluntly, a failure. This dearth of translated tissue engineering therapies (including scaffolds) remains despite 25 years of research, research funding totaling hundreds of millions of dollars, over 12,000 papers on BTE and over 2000 papers on BTE scaffolds alone in the past 10 years (PubMed search). Enabling scaffold translation requires first an understanding of the challenges, and second, addressing the complete range of these challenges. There are the obvious technical challenges of designing, manufacturing, and functionalizing scaffolds to fill the Form, Fixation, Function, and Formation needs of bone defect repair. However, these technical solutions should be targeted to specific clinical indications (e.g., mandibular defects, spine fusion, long bone defects, etc.). Further, technical solutions should also address business challenges, including the need to obtain regulatory approval, meet specific market needs, and obtain private investment to develop products, again for specific clinical indications. Finally, these business and technical challenges present a much different model than the typical research paradigm, presenting the field with philosophical challenges in terms of publishing and funding priorities that should be addressed as well. In this article, we review in detail the technical, business, and philosophical barriers of translating scaffolds from Concept to Clinic. We argue that envisioning and engineering scaffolds as modular systems with a sliding scale of complexity offers the best path to addressing these translational challenges. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  12. Inverse Opal Scaffolds and Their Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Zhu, Chunlei; Xia, Younan

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional porous scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine by functioning as biomimetic substrates to manipulate cellular behaviors. While many techniques have been developed to fabricate porous scaffolds, most of them rely on stochastic processes that typically result in scaffolds with pores uncontrolled in terms of size, structure, and interconnectivity, greatly limiting their use in tissue regeneration. Inverse opal scaffolds, in contrast, possess uniform pores inheriting from the template comprised of a closely packed lattice of monodispersed microspheres. The key parameters of such scaffolds, including architecture, pore structure, porosity, and interconnectivity, can all be made uniform across the same sample and among different samples. In conjunction with a tight control over pore sizes, inverse opal scaffolds have found widespread use in biomedical applications. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion on this new class of advanced materials. After a brief introduction to their history and fabrication, we highlight the unique advantages of inverse opal scaffolds over their non-uniform counterparts. We then showcase their broad applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, followed by a summary and perspective on future directions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atesok, Kivanc; Doral, M Nedim; Karlsson, Jon; Egol, Kenneth A; Jazrawi, Laith M; Coelho, Paulo G; Martinez, Amaury; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Owens, Brett D; Ochi, Mitsuo; Hurwitz, Shepard R; Atala, Anthony; Fu, Freddie H; Lu, Helen H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the recent developments in the field of tissue engineering as they relate to multilayer scaffold designs in musculoskeletal regeneration. Clinical and basic research studies that highlight the current knowledge and potential future applications of the multilayer scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering were evaluated and the best evidence collected. Studies were divided into three main categories based on tissue types and interfaces for which multilayer scaffolds were used to regenerate: bone, osteochondral junction and tendon-to-bone interfaces. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the use of stratified scaffolds composed of multiple layers with distinct compositions for regeneration of distinct tissue types within the same scaffold and anatomic location is feasible. This emerging tissue engineering approach has potential applications in regeneration of bone defects, osteochondral lesions and tendon-to-bone interfaces with successful basic research findings that encourage clinical applications. Present data supporting the advantages of the use of multilayer scaffolds as an emerging strategy in musculoskeletal tissue engineering are promising, however, still limited. Positive impacts of the use of next generation scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering can be expected in terms of decreasing the invasiveness of current grafting techniques used for reconstruction of bone and osteochondral defects, and tendon-to-bone interfaces in near future.

  14. Scaffolding With and Through Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Khoo, Elaine; Cowie, Bronwen

    2012-01-01

    In New Zealand and internationally claims are being made about the potential for information and communication technologies (ICTs) to transform teaching and learning. However, the theoretical underpinnings explaining the complex interplay between the content, pedagogy and technology a teacher needs...... to scaffold learning. It showcases the intricate interplay between teachers’ knowledge about content, digital video technology, and students’ learning needs based on a qualitative study of two science teachers and their students in a New Zealand primary school....... to consider must be expanded. This article explicates theoretical and practical ideas related to teachers’ application of their ICT technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in science. The article unpacks the social and technological dimensions of teachers’ use of TPACK when they use digital videos...

  15. Semiotic Scaffolding in Living Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The apparently purposeful nature of living systems is obtained through a sophisticated network of semiotic controls whereby biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes become tuned to the needs of the system. The operation of these semiotic controls takes place and is enabled across...... a diversity of levels. Such semiotic controls may be distinguished from ordinary deterministic control mechanisms through an inbuilt anticipatory capacity based on a distinct kind of causation that I call here "semiotic causation" to denote the bringing about of changes under the guidance of interpretation...... in a local .context. Anticipation through the skilled interpretation of indicators of temporal relations in the context of a particular survival project (or life strategy) guides organismic behavior towards local ends. This network of semiotic controls establishes an enormously complex semiotic scaffolding...

  16. Computational Exploration of Molecular Scaffolds in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-12

    The scaffold concept is widely applied in medicinal chemistry. Scaffolds are mostly used to represent core structures of bioactive compounds. Although the scaffold concept has limitations and is often viewed differently from a chemical and computational perspective, it has provided a basis for systematic investigations of molecular cores and building blocks, going far beyond the consideration of individual compound series. Over the past 2 decades, alternative scaffold definitions and organization schemes have been introduced and scaffolds have been studied in a variety of ways and increasingly on a large scale. Major applications of the scaffold concept include the generation of molecular hierarchies, structural classification, association of scaffolds with biological activities, and activity prediction. This contribution discusses computational approaches for scaffold generation and analysis, with emphasis on recent developments impacting medicinal chemistry. A variety of scaffold-based studies are discussed, and a perspective on scaffold methods is provided.

  17. Analog series-based scaffolds: computational design and exploration of a new type of molecular scaffolds for medicinal chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Computational design of and systematic search for a new type of molecular scaffolds termed analog series-based scaffolds. Materials & methods: From currently available bioactive compounds, analog series were systematically extracted, key compounds identified and new scaffolds isolated from them. Results: Using our computational approach, more than 12,000 scaffolds were extracted from bioactive compounds. Conclusion: A new scaffold definition is introduced and a computational methodology developed to systematically identify such scaffolds, yielding a large freely available scaffold knowledge base. PMID:28116132

  18. Comprehensive assessment of electrospun scaffolds hemocompatibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková, J.; Mikeš, P.; Šaman, A.; Švarcová, T.; Jenčová, V.; Suchý, Tomáš; Heczková, B.; Jakubková, Š.; Jiroušová, J.; Procházková, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 82, JAN 1 (2018), s. 330-335 ISSN 0928-4931 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : fibrous scaffolds * blood compatibility * polycaprolactone * copolymer of polylactide and polycaprolactone * collagen Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  19. Biomimetic nanoclay scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambre, Avinash Harishchandra

    Tissue engineering offers a significant potential alternative to conventional methods for rectifying tissue defects by evoking natural regeneration process via interactions between cells and 3D porous scaffolds. Imparting adequate mechanical properties to biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is an important challenge and extends from molecular to macroscale. This work focuses on the use of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) to design polymer composite scaffolds having enhanced mechanical properties along with multiple interdependent properties. Materials design beginning at the molecular level was used in which Na-MMT clay was modified with three different unnatural amino acids and further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on improved bicompatibility with human osteoblasts (bone cells) and intermediate increase in d-spacing of MMT clay (shown by XRD), 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was further used to prepare biopolymer (chitosan-polygalacturonic acid complex) scaffolds. Osteoblast proliferation in biopolymer scaffolds containing 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay was similar to biopolymer scaffolds containing hydroxyapatite (HAP). A novel process based on biomineralization in bone was designed to prepare 5-aminovaleric acid modified clay capable of imparting multiple properties to the scaffolds. Bone-like apatite was mineralized in modified clay and a novel nanoclay-HAP hybrid (in situ HAPclay) was obtained. FTIR spectroscopy indicated a molecular level organic-inorganic association between the intercalated 5-aminovaleric acid and mineralized HAP. Osteoblasts formed clusters on biopolymer composite films prepared with different weight percent compositions of in situ HAPclay. Human MSCs formed mineralized nodules on composite films and mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) in composite scaffolds without the use of osteogenic supplements. Polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer, was

  20. Super dielectric capacitor using scaffold dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Patent A capacitor having first and second electrodes and a scaffold dielectric. The scaffold dielectric comprises an insulating material with a plurality of longitudinal channels extending across the dielectric and filled with a liquid comprising cations and anions. The plurality of longitudinal channels are substantially parallel and the liquid within the longitudinal channels generally has an ionic strength of at least 0.1. Capacitance results from the migrations of...

  1. A review: fabrication of porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, H; Marzec, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of tissue engineering is the fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds that can be used for the reconstruction and regeneration of damaged or deformed tissues and organs. A wide variety of techniques have been developed to create either fibrous or porous scaffolds from polymers, metals, composite materials and ceramics. However, the most promising materials are biodegradable polymers due to their comprehensive mechanical properties, ability to control the rate of degradation and similarities to natural tissue structures. Polyurethanes (PUs) are attractive candidates for scaffold fabrication, since they are biocompatible, and have excellent mechanical properties and mechanical flexibility. PU can be applied to various methods of porous scaffold fabrication, among which are solvent casting/particulate leaching, thermally induced phase separation, gas foaming, emulsion freeze-drying and melt moulding. Scaffold properties obtained by these techniques, including pore size, interconnectivity and total porosity, all depend on the thermal processing parameters, and the porogen agent and solvents used. In this review, various polyurethane systems for scaffolds are discussed, as well as methods of fabrication, including the latest developments, and their advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Scaffolds for peripheral nerve repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sheng; Xu, Lai; Gu, Xiaosong

    2018-06-02

    Trauma-associated peripheral nerve defect is a widespread clinical problem. Autologous nerve grafting, the current gold standard technique for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, has many internal disadvantages. Emerging studies showed that tissue engineered nerve graft is an effective substitute to autologous nerves. Tissue engineered nerve graft is generally composed of neural scaffolds and incorporating cells and molecules. A variety of biomaterials have been used to construct neural scaffolds, the main component of tissue engineered nerve graft. Synthetic polymers (e.g. silicone, polyglycolic acid, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) and natural materials (e.g. chitosan, silk fibroin, and extracellular matrix components) are commonly used along or together to build neural scaffolds. Many other materials, including the extracellular matrix, glass fabrics, ceramics, and metallic materials, have also been used to construct neural scaffolds. These biomaterials are fabricated to create specific structures and surface features. Seeding supporting cells and/or incorporating neurotrophic factors to neural scaffolds further improve restoration effects. Preliminary studies demonstrate that clinical applications of these neural scaffolds achieve satisfactory functional recovery. Therefore, tissue engineered nerve graft provides a good alternative to autologous nerve graft and represents a promising frontier in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies for osteochondral repair: Focus on scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seog-Jin Seo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in osteochondral repair has been increasing with the growing number of sports-related injuries, accident traumas, and congenital diseases and disorders. Although therapeutic interventions are entering an advanced stage, current surgical procedures are still in their infancy. Unlike other tissues, the osteochondral zone shows a high level of gradient and interfacial tissue organization between bone and cartilage, and thus has unique characteristics related to the ability to resist mechanical compression and restoration. Among the possible therapies, tissue engineering of osteochondral tissues has shown considerable promise where multiple approaches of utilizing cells, scaffolds, and signaling molecules have been pursued. This review focuses particularly on the importance of scaffold design and its role in the success of osteochondral tissue engineering. Biphasic and gradient composition with proper pore configurations are the basic design consideration for scaffolds. Surface modification is an essential technique to improve the scaffold function associated with cell regulation or delivery of signaling molecules. The use of functional scaffolds with a controllable delivery strategy of multiple signaling molecules is also considered a promising therapeutic approach. In this review, we updated the recent advances in scaffolding approaches for osteochondral tissue engineering.

  4. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    scaffolding. These interactions transpire between energetic causal chains and a wide range of converging semiotic transactions unfolding within each individual organism and between organisms and their environment. The perspective advanced here helps elucidate the manner in which physical and semiotic causation cooperate in an orchestrated fashion, giving rise to an ever-expanding profusion of scaffolding structures and processes. Using simple examples I outline some mechanisms that bring about this orchestration as well as the resultant channeling activities that eventually merge and find their culmination in the enactment of goal-oriented behavior. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  6. DNA-scaffolded nanoparticle structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, Bjoern; Olin, Haakan [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    DNA self-assembly is a powerful route to the production of very small, complex structures. When used in combination with nanoparticles it is likely to become a key technology in the production of nanoelectronics in the future. Previously, demonstrated nanoparticle assemblies have mainly been periodic and highly symmetric arrays, unsuited as building blocks for any complex circuits. With the invention of DNA-scaffolded origami reported earlier this year (Rothemund P W K 2006 Nature 440 (7082) 297-302), a new route to complex nanostructures using DNA has been opened. Here, we give a short review of the field and present the current status of our experiments were DNA origami is used in conjunction with nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles are functionalized with thiolated single stranded DNA. Strands that are complementary to the gold particle strands can be positioned on the self-assembled DNA-structure in arbitrary patterns. This property should allow an accurate positioning of the particles by letting them hybridize on the lattice. We report on our recent experiments on this system and discuss open problems and future applications.

  7. DNA-scaffolded nanoparticle structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, Bjoern; Olin, Haakan

    2007-01-01

    DNA self-assembly is a powerful route to the production of very small, complex structures. When used in combination with nanoparticles it is likely to become a key technology in the production of nanoelectronics in the future. Previously, demonstrated nanoparticle assemblies have mainly been periodic and highly symmetric arrays, unsuited as building blocks for any complex circuits. With the invention of DNA-scaffolded origami reported earlier this year (Rothemund P W K 2006 Nature 440 (7082) 297-302), a new route to complex nanostructures using DNA has been opened. Here, we give a short review of the field and present the current status of our experiments were DNA origami is used in conjunction with nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles are functionalized with thiolated single stranded DNA. Strands that are complementary to the gold particle strands can be positioned on the self-assembled DNA-structure in arbitrary patterns. This property should allow an accurate positioning of the particles by letting them hybridize on the lattice. We report on our recent experiments on this system and discuss open problems and future applications

  8. Modifying bone scaffold architecture in vivo with permanent magnets to facilitate fixation of magnetic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panseri, S; Russo, A; Sartori, M; Giavaresi, G; Sandri, M; Fini, M; Maltarello, M C; Shelyakova, T; Ortolani, A; Visani, A; Dediu, V; Tampieri, A; Marcacci, M

    2013-10-01

    The fundamental elements of tissue regeneration are cells, biochemical signals and the three-dimensional microenvironment. In the described approach, biomineralized-collagen biomaterial functions as a scaffold and provides biochemical stimuli for tissue regeneration. In addition superparamagnetic nanoparticles were used to magnetize the biomaterials with direct nucleation on collagen fibres or impregnation techniques. Minimally invasive surgery was performed on 12 rabbits to implant cylindrical NdFeB magnets in close proximity to magnetic scaffolds within the lateral condyles of the distal femoral epiphyses. Under this static magnetic field we demonstrated, for the first time in vivo, that the ability to modify the scaffold architecture could influence tissue regeneration obtaining a well-ordered tissue. Moreover, the association between NdFeB magnet and magnetic scaffolds represents a potential technique to ensure scaffold fixation avoiding micromotion at the tissue/biomaterial interface. © 2013.

  9. Biodegradable Polymer-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sultana, Naznin

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the principles, methods and applications of biodegradable polymer based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The general principle of bone tissue engineering is reviewed and the traditional and novel scaffolding materials, their properties and scaffold fabrication techniques are explored. By acting as temporary synthetic extracellular matrices for cell accommodation, proliferation, and differentiation, scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering. This book does not only provide the comprehensive summary of the current trends in scaffolding design but also presents the new trends and directions for scaffold development for the ever expanding tissue engineering applications.

  10. Computational design of new molecular scaffolds for medicinal chemistry, part II: generalization of analog series-based scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Extending and generalizing the computational concept of analog series-based (ASB) scaffolds. Materials & methods: Methodological modifications were introduced to further increase the coverage of analog series (ASs) and compounds by ASB scaffolds. From bioactive compounds, ASs were systematically extracted and second-generation ASB scaffolds isolated. Results: More than 20,000 second-generation ASB scaffolds with single or multiple substitution sites were extracted from active compounds, achieving more than 90% coverage of ASs. Conclusion: Generalization of the ASB scaffold approach has yielded a large knowledge base of scaffold-capturing compound series and target information. PMID:29379641

  11. Improving Students' Speaking Ability through Scaffolding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Ginaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Students often got confused and felt hesitant when they speak English. This situation had caused poor speaking ability, which then lead to serious problem in the teaching-learning process.  The application of scaffolding technique in the EFL learning might be the ideal solution; it had some principles that could improve the students’ speaking ability. This research is aimed at finding out the effect of the implementing Scaffolding Technique towards the students’ speaking ability. Participants were 50 (27 males and 23 females third-semester students, enrolled in a three-year diploma program in Travel and Tourism Business, State Polytechnic of Bali in 2017/2018 academic year. The students in the experimental group were given communicative activities such as brainstorming, business games, simulation, WebQuest, problem-solving, which were carefully designed to necessitate the implementation of the scaffolding technique. The students in the control group were taught by the deductive method of the lesson book. The students’ performance in the post-test was compared for both groups in order to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups in relation to the treatment. Significant differences occurring in the experimental group’s post-test speaking performance when compared to the pre-test indicate that the implementation of scaffolding technique can improve students’ speaking ability. The result of this study indicates scaffolding technique has the potential for use in promoting students’ speaking ability

  12. Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Edgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering (TE offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs including but not limited to: biocompatibility, immunogenicity, biodegradation, and toxicity. Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely mimic the characteristics of desired organ, their function and their in vivo environments. A review of biomaterials used in TE highlighted natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and decellularized organs as sources of scaffolding. Studies of discarded organs supported that decellularization offers a remedy to reducing waste of donor organs, but does not yet provide an effective solution to organ demand because it has shown varied success in vivo depending on organ complexity and physiological requirements. Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single polymer scaffolds because it allows copolymers to offset disadvantages a single polymer may possess. Selection of biomaterials for use in TE is essential for transplant success. There is not, however, a singular biomaterial that is universally optimal.

  13. Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathani, Kinjal M.; Raghavendra, Srinidhi Surya

    2016-01-01

    Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. ‘A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria ‘Platelet rich plasma’, ‘Platelet rich fibrin’, ‘Stem cells’, ‘Natural and artificial scaffolds’ from 1982–2015’. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon. PMID:27857762

  14. Scaffolds in regenerative endodontics: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjal M Gathani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root canal therapy has enabled us to save numerous teeth over the years. The most desired outcome of endodontic treatment would be when diseased or nonvital pulp is replaced with healthy pulp tissue that would revitalize the teeth through regenerative endodontics. ′A search was conducted using the Pubmed and MEDLINE databases for articles with the criteria ′Platelet rich plasma′, ′Platelet rich fibrin′, ′Stem cells′, ′Natural and artificial scaffolds′ from 1982-2015′. Tissues are organized as three-dimensional structures, and appropriate scaffolding is necessary to provide a spatially correct position of cell location and regulate differentiation, proliferation, or metabolism of the stem cells. Extracellular matrix molecules control the differentiation of stem cells, and an appropriate scaffold might selectively bind and localize cells, contain growth factors, and undergo biodegradation over time. Different scaffolds facilitate the regeneration of different tissues. To ensure a successful regenerative procedure, it is essential to have a thorough and precise knowledge about the suitable scaffold for the required tissue. This article gives a review on the different scaffolds providing an insight into the new developmental approaches on the horizon.

  15. In vitro osteoclastogenesis on textile chitosan scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Heinemann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Textile chitosan fibre scaffolds were evaluated in terms of interaction with osteoclast-like cells, derived from human primary monocytes. Part of the scaffolds was further modified by coating with fibrillar collagen type I in order to make the surface biocompatible. Monocytes were cultured directly on the scaffolds in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL for up to 18 days. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the formation of multinuclear osteoclast-like cells on both the raw chitosan fibres and the collagen-coated scaffolds. The modified surface supported the osteoclastogenesis. Differentiation towards the osteoclastic lineage was confirmed by the microscopic detection of cathepsin K, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, acidic compartments using 3-(2,4-dinitroanillino-3’-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP, immunological detection of TRAP isoform 5b, and analysis of gene expression of the osteoclastic markers TRAP, cathepsin K, vitronectin receptor, and calcitonin receptor using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The feature of the collagen-coated but also of the raw chitosan fibre scaffolds to support attachment and differentiation of human monocytes facilitates cell-induced material resorption – one main requirement for successful bone tissue engineering.

  16. A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    On August 30, 1996, OSHA issued revised standards for scaffolds. The revised standard, known as "Safety Standards for Scaffolds Used in the Construction Industry" is found in Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part, Subpart L...

  17. Biodegradation and bioresorption of poly(-caprolactone) nanocomposite scaffolds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhabela, V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available confirmed the elemental composition of the scaffolds. The phase composition of the scaffolds was shown by XRD, which also indicated a decrease in crystallinity with the introduction of nanoclay. Biodegradability studies which were conducted in simulated...

  18. Knowledge scaffolding visualizations: A guiding framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a guiding framework for understanding and selecting visual representations in the knowledge management (KM practice. We build on an interdisciplinary analogy between two connotations of the notion of “scaffolding”: physical scaffolding from an architectural-engineering perspective and scaffolding of the “everyday knowing in practice” from a KM perspective. We classify visual structures for knowledge communication in teams into four types of scaffolds: grounded (corresponding e.g., to perspectives diagrams or dynamic facilitation diagrams, suspended (e.g., negotiation sketches, argument maps, panel (e.g., roadmaps or timelines and reinforcing (e.g., concept diagrams. The article concludes with a set of recommendations in the form of questions to ask whenever practitioners are choosing visualizations for specific KM needs. Our recommendations aim at providing a framework at a broad-brush level to aid choosing a suitable visualization template depending on the type of KM endeavour.

  19. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  20. SCAFFOLDING IN CONNECTIVIST MOBILE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem OZAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Social networks and mobile technologies are transforming learning ecology. In this changing learning environment, we find a variety of new learner needs. The aim of this study is to investigate how to provide scaffolding to the learners in connectivist mobile learning environment: Ø to learn in a networked environment, Ø to manage their networked learning process, Ø to interact in a networked society, and Ø to use the tools belonging to the network society. The researcher described how Vygotsky's “scaffolding” concept, Berge’s “learner support” strategies, and Siemens’ “connectivism” approach can be used together to satisfy mobile learners’ needs. A connectivist mobile learning environment was designed for the research, and the research was executed as a mixed-method study. Data collection tools were Facebook wall entries, personal messages, chat records; Twitter, Diigo, blog entries; emails, mobile learning management system statistics, perceived learning survey and demographic information survey. Results showed that there were four major aspects of scaffolding in connectivist mobile learning environment as type of it, provider of it, and timing of it and strategies of it. Participants preferred mostly social scaffolding, and then preferred respectively, managerial, instructional and technical scaffolding. Social scaffolding was mostly provided by peers, and managerial scaffolding was mostly provided by instructor. Use of mobile devices increased the learner motivation and interest. Some participants stated that learning was more permanent by using mobile technologies. Social networks and mobile technologies made it easier to manage the learning process and expressed a positive impact on perceived learning.

  1. Simulations as Scaffolds in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renken, Maggie; Peffer, Melanie; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    This book outlines key issues for addressing the grand challenges posed to educators, developers, and researchers interested in the intersection of simulations and science education. To achieve this, the authors explore the use of computer simulations as instructional scaffolds that provide...... strategies and support when students are faced with the need to acquire new skills or knowledge. The monograph aims to provide insight into what research has reported on navigating the complex process of inquiry- and problem-based science education and whether computer simulations as instructional scaffolds...

  2. Scaffold Diversity from N-Acyliminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful reactive species for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Strategies relying on intramolecular reactions of N-acyliminium intermediates, also referred to as N-acyliminium ion cyclization reactions, have been employed for the construction...... of structurally diverse scaffolds, ranging from simple bicyclic skeletons to complex polycyclic systems and natural-product-like compounds. This review aims to provide an overview of cyclization reactions of N-acyliminium ions derived from various precursors for the assembly of structurally diverse scaffolds...

  3. Scaffolds of polycaprolactone with hydroxyapatite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Guinea B.C.; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C.; Arruda, Antonio Celso F.

    2009-01-01

    Scaffolds of poly (ε-caprolactone) has been studied in many researches in tissue engineering. The used of hydroxyapatite fibers, allowed increase its resistance mechanical, beside the character bioactive and osteoconductive. Improving, its role in tissue engineering. The aim in this study was developed polycaprolactone matrix with dispersed hydroxyapatite fibers. The characterizations were by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffractometer (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy dispersive X-Ray Detector (EDX). Was able reviewed its composition, morphology and possible contaminations. The results were scaffolds with porosity and distribution of the fibers in all its area. (author)

  4. Bio-functionalized PCL nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Ramakrishna, S.

    2010-01-01

    Surface properties of scaffolds such as hydrophilicity and the presence of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds play a key role in cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Different modification methods for hydrophilicity improvement and introduction of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds have been carried out on synthetic biodegradable polymers, for tissue engineering applications. In this study, alkaline hydrolysis of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out for different time periods (1 h, 4 h and 12 h) to increase the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. The formation of reactive groups resulting from alkaline hydrolysis provides opportunities for further surface functionalization of PCL nanofibrous scaffolds. Matrigel was attached covalently on the surface of an optimized 4 h hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds and additionally the fabrication of blended PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out. Chemical and mechanical characterization of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurement. In vitro cell adhesion and proliferation study was carried out after seeding nerve precursor cells (NPCs) on different scaffolds. Results of cell proliferation assay and SEM studies showed that the covalently functionalized PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds promote the proliferation and neurite outgrowth of NPCs compared to PCL and hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds, providing suitable substrates for nerve tissue engineering.

  5. Patterns of Scaffolding in Computer-Mediated Collaborative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2005-01-01

    There is wide agreement on the importance of scaffolding for student learning. Yet, models of individual and face-to-face scaffolding are not necessarily applicable to educational settings in which a group of learners is pursuing a process of inquiry mediated by technology. The scaffolding needed for such a process may be examined from three…

  6. Fluorescent composite scaffolds made of nanodiamonds/polycaprolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Hou, Yanwen; Lafdi, Khalid; Urmey, Kirk

    2015-11-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) has been widely studied for biological applications. Biodegradable PCL fibrous scaffold can work as an appropriate substrate for tissue regeneration. In this letter, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) were prepared after surface passivation with octadecylamine. The FNDs were then mixed with PCL polymer and subsequently electrospun into FNDs/PCL fibrous scaffolds. The obtained scaffolds not only exhibited photoluminescence, but also showed reinforced mechanical strength. Toxicity study indicated FNDs/PCL scaffolds were nontoxic. This biocompatible fluorescent composite fibrous scaffold can support in vitro cell growth and also has the potential to act as an optical probe for tissue engineering application in vitro and in vivo.

  7. "Scaffolding" through Talk in Groupwork Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panselinas, Giorgos; Komis, Vassilis

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we develop and deploy a conceptual framework of "scaffolding" in groupwork learning, through the analysis of the pursuit of a learning goal over time. The analysis follows individuals' different experiences of an interaction as well as collective experiences, considering individual attainment as a result of a bi-directional…

  8. Acellular organ scaffolds for tumor tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.

  9. Teacher Scaffolding of Oral Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, May G.

    2011-01-01

    This research involved two observational studies. It explored the scaffolding processes as part of classroom pedagogy. The research shed light on the way a teacher's instructional methodology took shape in the classroom. The target event for this study was the time in which a novice learner was engaged publicly in uttering a sentence in Arabic in…

  10. Membrane supported scaffold architectures for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli Narasimha, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue. Often the tissue recreation occurs by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, onto a 3D porous matrix, functioning as a scaffold. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is the inability to provide sufficient

  11. Communication Scaffolds for Project Management in PBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shigeru; Arai, Masayuki; Takai, Kumiko; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the role-playing situation and the system requirement list are adopted into project-based learning classes to develop web applications. In the classes, the third-year undergraduate project managers communicate with the client of the project rolled by teachers on the Web bulletin board. These are expected to act as scaffolds to…

  12. Polylactic acid organogel as versatile scaffolding technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punet, Xavier; Levato, Riccardo; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering requires scaffolding techniques based on non-toxic processes that permits the fabrication of constructs with tailored properties. Here, a two-step methodology based on the gelation and precipitation of the poly(lactic) acid/ethyl lactate organogel system is presented. With this

  13. Comparison of TALEN scaffolds in Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakajima

    2013-11-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are facile and potent tools used to modify a gene of interest for targeted gene knockout. TALENs consist of an N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain, and a C-terminal domain, which are derived from a transcription activator-like effector, and the non-specific nuclease domain of FokI. Using Xenopus tropicalis (X. tropicalis, we compared the toxicities and somatic mutation activities of four TALEN architectures in a side-by-side manner: a basic TALEN, a scaffold with the same truncated N- and C-terminal domains as GoldyTALEN, a scaffold with the truncated N- and C-terminal domains and an obligate heterodimeric nuclease domain, and a scaffold with the truncated N- and C-terminal domains and an obligate heterodimeric Sharkey nuclease domain. The strongest phenotype and targeted somatic gene mutation were induced by the injection of TALEN mRNAs containing the truncated N- and C-terminal domains and an obligate heterodimeric nuclease domain. The obligate heterodimeric TALENs exhibited reduced toxicity compared to the homodimeric TALENs, and the homodimeric GoldyTALEN-type scaffold showed both a high activity of somatic gene modification and high toxicity. The Sharkey mutation in the heterodimeric nuclease domain reduced the TALEN-mediated somatic mutagenesis.

  14. Enhancing Student Learning through Scaffolded Client Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the current status of client projects (CPs) in business communication courses, provides a scaffolded model for implementing CP, and assesses student learning in CPs. Using a longitudinal mixed method research design, survey data and qualitative materials from six semesters are presented. The instructor survey indicated need…

  15. Muscle fragments on a scaffold in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    -PLGA scaffolds seeded with autologous MFF affected some histological and biomechanical properties of native tissue repair in an abdominal wall defect model in rats. The method thus appears to be a simple tissue engineering concept with potential relevance for native tissue repair of POP....

  16. Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pêgo, A.P.; Poot, Andreas A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Elastomeric copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) and copolymers of TMC and D,L-lactide (DLLA) have been evaluated as candidate materials for the preparation of biodegradable scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. TMC-DLLA copolymers are amorphous and degrade more

  17. Peer scaffolding in an EFL writing classroom: An investigation of writing accuracy and scaffolding behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the tenets of Sociocultural Theory with its emphasis on co-construction of knowledge, L2 writing can be regarded as a co-writing practice whereby assistance is provided to struggling writers. To date, most studies have dealt with peer scaffolding in the revision phase of writing, as such planning and drafting are remained untouched. The present study examines the impact of peer scaffolding on writing accuracy of a group of intermediate EFL learners, and explores scaffolding behaviors employed by them in planning and drafting phases of writing. To these ends, 40 freshmen majoring in English Language and Literature in the University of Guilan were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group consisting of dyads in which a competent writer provided scaffolding to a less competent one using the process approach to writing. Results of independent samples t-tests revealed that learners in the experimental group produced more accurate essays. Microgenetic analysis of one dyad’s talks showed that scaffolding behaviors used in planning and drafting phases of writing were more or less the same as those identified in the revision phase. These findings can be used to inform peer intervention in L2 writing classes, and assist L2 learners in conducting successful peer scaffolding in the planning and drafting phases of writing.

  18. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Hydrogel Infused Network Silk Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminath Kundanati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is of great importance. In recent times, silk scaffolds were developed and successfully tested in tissue engineering and drug release applications. We developed a novel composite scaffold by mechanical infusion of silk hydrogel matrix into a highly porous network silk scaffold. The mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was thoroughly examined for their possible use in load bearing applications. Firstly, unconfined compression experiments show that the denser composite scaffolds displayed significant enhancement in the elastic modulus as compared to either of the components. This effect was examined and further explained with the help of foam mechanics principles. Secondly, results from confined compression experiments that resemble loading of cartilage in confinement, showed nonlinear material responses for all scaffolds. Finally, the confined creep experiments were performed to calculate the hydraulic permeability of the scaffolds using soil mechanics principles. Our results show that composite scaffolds with some modifications can be a potential candidate for use of cartilage like applications. We hope such approaches help in developing novel scaffolds for tissue engineering by providing an understanding of the mechanics and can further be used to develop graded scaffolds by targeted infusion in specific regions.

  19. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Weng, J. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jweng@swjtu.cn

    2008-12-30

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  20. Scaffold diversification enhances effectiveness of a superlibrary of hyperthermophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahmud; Gera, Nimish; Hill, Andrew B; Rao, Balaji M

    2013-01-18

    The use of binding proteins from non-immunoglobulin scaffolds has become increasingly common in biotechnology and medicine. Typically, binders are isolated from a combinatorial library generated by mutating a single scaffold protein. In contrast, here we generated a "superlibrary" or "library-of-libraries" of 4 × 10(8) protein variants by mutagenesis of seven different hyperthermophilic proteins; six of the seven proteins have not been used as scaffolds prior to this study. Binding proteins for five different model targets were successfully isolated from this library. Binders obtained were derived from five out of the seven scaffolds. Strikingly, binders from this modestly sized superlibrary have affinities comparable or higher than those obtained from a library with 1000-fold higher sequence diversity but derived from a single stable scaffold. Thus scaffold diversification, i.e., randomization of multiple different scaffolds, is a powerful alternate strategy for combinatorial library construction.

  1. Polyelectrolyte-complex nanostructured fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Devendra; Katti, Kalpana S.; Katti, Dinesh R.

    2009-01-01

    In the current work, polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering have been synthesized and a mechanism of their formation has been investigated. The scaffolds are synthesized using polygalacturonic acid and chitosan using the freeze drying methodology. Highly interconnected pores of sizes in the range of 5-20 μm are observed in the scaffolds. The thickness of the fibers was found to be in the range of 1-2 μm. Individual fibers have a nanogranular structure as observed using AFM imaging. In these scaffolds, PEC nanoparticles assemble together at the interface of ice crystals during freeze drying process. Further investigation shows that the freezing temperature and concentration have a remarkable effect on structure of scaffolds. Biocompatibility studies show that scaffold containing chitosan, polygalacturonic acid and hydroxyapatite promotes cell adhesion and proliferation. On the other hand, cells on scaffolds fabricated without hydroxyapatite nanoparticles showed poor adhesion.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene on Diopside Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Wu, Ping; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    A synergetic effect between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene on diopside (Di) scaffolds was demonstrated. 3D network architecture in the matrix was formed through the 1D CNTs inlaid among the 2D graphene platelets (GNPs). The mechanical properties of the CNTs/GNPs/Di scaffolds were significantly improved compared with the CNTs/Di scaffolds and GNPs/Di scaffolds. In addition, the scaffolds exhibited excellent apatite-forming ability, a modest degradation rate, and stable mechanical properties in simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, cell culturing tests indicated that the scaffolds supported the cells attachment and proliferation. Taken together, the CNTs/GNPs/Di scaffolds offered great potential for bone tissue engineering.

  3. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B.; Weng, J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications

  4. Use of Interim Scaffolding and Neotissue Development to Produce a Scaffold-Free Living Hyaline Cartilage Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ting Ting; Leong, Wenyan; Peck, Yvonne; Su, Kai; Wang, Dong-An

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) constructs relies heavily on the use of biomaterial-based scaffolds. These are required as mechanical supports as well as to translate two-dimensional cultures to 3D cultures for clinical applications. Regardless of the choice of scaffold, timely degradation of scaffolds is difficult to achieve and undegraded scaffold material can lead to interference in further tissue development or morphogenesis. In cartilage tissue engineering, hydrogel is the highly preferred scaffold material as it shares many similar characteristics with native cartilaginous matrix. Hence, we employed gelatin microspheres as porogens to create a microcavitary alginate hydrogel as an interim scaffold to facilitate initial chondrocyte 3D culture and to establish a final scaffold-free living hyaline cartilaginous graft (LhCG) for cartilage tissue engineering.

  5. Polycaprolactone nanofiber interspersed collagen type-I scaffold for bone regeneration: a unique injectable osteogenic scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylan, Nuray; Ditto, Maggie; Lawrence, Joseph G; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Bhat, Samerna; Lecka-Czernik, Beata

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for an injectable cell coupled three-dimensional (3D) scaffold to be used as bone fracture augmentation material. To address this demand, a novel injectable osteogenic scaffold called PN-COL was developed using cells, a natural polymer (collagen type-I), and a synthetic polymer (polycaprolactone (PCL)). The injectable nanofibrous PN-COL is created by interspersing PCL nanofibers within pre-osteoblast cell embedded collagen type-I. This simple yet novel and powerful approach provides a great benefit as an injectable bone scaffold over other non-living bone fracture stabilization polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and calcium content resin-based materials. The advantages of injectability and the biomimicry of collagen was coupled with the structural support of PCL nanofibers, to create cell encapsulated injectable 3D bone scaffolds with intricate porous internal architecture and high osteoconductivity. The effects of PCL nanofiber inclusion within the cell encapsulated collagen matrix has been evaluated for scaffold size retention and osteocompatibility, as well as for MC3T3-E1 cells osteogenic activity. The structural analysis of novel bioactive material proved that the material is chemically stable enough in an aqueous solution for an extended period of time without using crosslinking reagents, but it is also viscous enough to be injected through a syringe needle. Data from long-term in vitro proliferation and differentiation data suggests that novel PN-COL scaffolds promote the osteoblast proliferation, phenotype expression, and formation of mineralized matrix. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of creating a structurally competent, injectable, cell embedded bone tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the results demonstrate the advantages of mimicking the hierarchical architecture of native bone with nano- and micro-size formation through introducing PCL nanofibers within macron-size collagen fibers and in

  6. Magnetic responsive hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds construction for bone defect reparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao Bo; Hu, Hao; Xie, Li Qin; Lan, Fang; Jiang, Wen; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhong Wei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. A type of magnetic scaffold composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) for bone repair has been developed by our research group. In this study, to investigate the influence of the MNP content (in the scaffolds) on the cell behaviors and the interactions between the magnetic scaffold and the exterior magnetic field, a series of MNP-HA magnetic scaffolds with different MNP contents (from 0.2% to 2%) were fabricated by immersing HA scaffold into MNP colloid. ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro, with and without an exterior magnetic field, respectively. The cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy; confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein activity tests. The results demonstrated the positive influence of the magnetic scaffolds on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, a higher amount of MNPs on the magnetic scaffolds led to more significant stimulation. The magnetic scaffold can respond to the exterior magnetic field and engender some synergistic effect to intensify the stimulating effect of a magnetic field to the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

  7. 3D Printing of Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Anh-Vu; Khorsand, Behnoush; Geary, Sean M.; Salem, Aliasger K.

    2015-01-01

    The current need for organ and tissue replacement, repair and regeneration for patients is continually growing such that supply is not meeting the high demand primarily due to a paucity of donors as well as biocompatibility issues that lead to immune rejection of the transplant. In an effort to overcome these drawbacks, scientists working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have investigated the use of scaffolds as an alternative to transplantation. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) by providing structural support as well as promoting attachment, proliferation, and differentiation with the ultimate goal of yielding functional tissues or organs. Initial attempts at developing scaffolds were problematic and subsequently inspired a growing interest in 3D printing as a mode for generating scaffolds. Utilizing three-dimensional printing (3DP) technologies, ECM-like scaffolds can be produced with a high degree of complexity and precision, where fine details can be included at a micron level. In this review, we discuss the criteria for printing viable and functional scaffolds, scaffolding materials, and 3DP technologies used to print scaffolds for tissue engineering. A hybrid approach, employing both natural and synthetic materials, as well as multiple printing processes may be the key to yielding an ECM-like scaffold with high mechanical strength, porosity, interconnectivity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and high processability. Creating such biofunctional scaffolds could potentially help to meet the demand by patients for tissues and organs without having to wait or rely on donors for transplantation. PMID:26097108

  8. Surface modified electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Venugopal, J; Chan, Casey K; Ramakrishna, S

    2008-01-01

    The development of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with surface properties that dominate interactions between the material and biological environment is of great interest in biomedical applications. In this regard, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated by an electrospinning process and surface modified by a simple plasma treatment process for enhancing the Schwann cell adhesion, proliferation and interactions with nanofibers necessary for nerve tissue formation. The hydrophilicity of surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds (p-PCL) was evaluated by contact angle and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. Naturally derived polymers such as collagen are frequently used for the fabrication of biocomposite PCL/collagen scaffolds, though the feasibility of procuring large amounts of natural materials for clinical applications remains a concern, along with their cost and mechanical stability. The proliferation of Schwann cells on p-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds showed a 17% increase in cell proliferation compared to those on PCL/collagen nanofibrous scaffolds after 8 days of cell culture. Schwann cells were found to attach and proliferate on surface modified PCL nanofibrous scaffolds expressing bipolar elongations, retaining their normal morphology. The results of our study showed that plasma treated PCL nanofibrous scaffolds are a cost-effective material compared to PCL/collagen scaffolds, and can potentially serve as an ideal tissue engineered scaffold, especially for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  9. A Review on Fabricating Tissue Scaffolds using Vat Photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrain, Nicholas A; Williams, Christopher B; Whittington, Abby R

    2018-05-09

    Vat Photopolymerization (stereolithography, SLA), an Additive Manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing technology, holds particular promise for the fabrication of tissue scaffolds for use in regenerative medicine. Unlike traditional tissue scaffold fabrication techniques, SLA is capable of fabricating designed scaffolds through the selective photopolymerization of a photopolymer resin on the micron scale. SLA offers unprecedented control over scaffold porosity and permeability, as well as pore size, shape, and interconnectivity. Perhaps even more significantly, SLA can be used to fabricate vascular networks that may encourage angio and vasculogenesis. Fulfilling this potential requires the development of new photopolymers, the incorporation of biochemical factors into printed scaffolds, and an understanding of the effects scaffold geometry have on cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation. This review compares SLA to other scaffold fabrication techniques, highlights significant advances in the field, and offers a perspective on the field's challenges and future directions. Engineering de novo tissues continues to be challenging due, in part, to our inability to fabricate complex tissue scaffolds that can support cell proliferation and encourage the formation of developed tissue. The goal of this review is to first introduce the reader to traditional and Additive Manufacturing scaffold fabrication techniques. The bulk of this review will then focus on apprising the reader of current research and provide a perspective on the promising use of vat photopolymerization (stereolithography, SLA) for the fabrication of complex tissue scaffolds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, Melissa L; Morgan, Stephen P; Crowe, John A; White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Tai, Hongyun; Howdle, Steven M; Kockenberger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Tissue scaffolds are integral to many regenerative medicine therapies, providing suitable environments for tissue regeneration. In order to assess their suitability, methods to routinely and reproducibly characterize scaffolds are needed. Scaffold structures are typically complex, and thus their characterization is far from trivial. The work presented in this paper is centred on the application of the principles of scaffold characterization outlined in guidelines developed by ASTM International. Specifically, this work demonstrates the capabilities of different imaging modalities and analysis techniques used to characterize scaffolds fabricated from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using supercritical carbon dioxide. Three structurally different scaffolds were used. The scaffolds were imaged using: scanning electron microscopy, micro x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging. In each case two-dimensional images were obtained from which scaffold properties were determined using image processing. The findings of this work highlight how the chosen imaging modality and image-processing technique can influence the results of scaffold characterization. It is concluded that in order to obtain useful results from image-based scaffold characterization, an imaging methodology providing sufficient contrast and resolution must be used along with robust image segmentation methods to allow intercomparison of results

  11. ASTM International Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carl G.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Tomlins, Paul; Luginbuehl, Reto; Tesk, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The “Workshop on Standards & Measurements for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds” was held on May 21, 2013 in Indianapolis, IN and was sponsored by the ASTM International (ASTM). The purpose of the workshop was to identify the highest priority items for future standards work for scaffolds used in the development and manufacture of tissue engineered medical products (TEMPs). Eighteen speakers and 78 attendees met to assess current scaffold standards and to prioritize needs for future standards. A key finding was that the ASTM TEMPs subcommittees (F04.41-46) have many active “guide” documents for educational purposes, but that few standard “test methods” or “practices” have been published. Overwhelmingly, the most clearly identified need was standards for measuring the structure of scaffolds, followed by standards for biological characterization, including in vitro testing, animal models and cell-material interactions. The third most pressing need was to develop standards for assessing the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Additional needs included standards for assessing scaffold degradation, clinical outcomes with scaffolds, effects of sterilization on scaffolds, scaffold composition and drug release from scaffolds. Discussions also highlighted the need for additional scaffold reference materials and the need to use them for measurement traceability. Finally, dialogue emphasized the needs to promote the use of standards in scaffold fabrication, characterization, and commercialization and to assess the use and impact of standards in the TEMPs community. Many scaffold standard needs have been identified and focus should now turn to generating these standards to support the use of scaffolds in TEMPs. PMID:25220952

  12. A radiopaque electrospun scaffold for engineering fibrous musculoskeletal tissues: Scaffold characterization and in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Ikuta, Kensuke; Poudel, Subash; Pfeifer, Christian G; Elliott, Dawn M; Smith, Harvey E; Mauck, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Tissue engineering strategies have emerged in response to the growing prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions, with many of these regenerative methods currently being evaluated in translational animal models. Engineered replacements for fibrous tissues such as the meniscus, annulus fibrosus, tendons, and ligaments are subjected to challenging physiologic loads, and are difficult to track in vivo using standard techniques. The diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions depends heavily on radiographic assessment, and a number of currently available implants utilize radiopaque markers to facilitate in vivo imaging. In this study, we developed a nanofibrous scaffold in which individual fibers included radiopaque nanoparticles. Inclusion of radiopaque particles increased the tensile modulus of the scaffold and imparted radiation attenuation within the range of cortical bone. When scaffolds were seeded with bovine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro, there was no change in cell proliferation and no evidence of promiscuous conversion to an osteogenic phenotype. Scaffolds were implanted ex vivo in a model of a meniscal tear in a bovine joint and in vivo in a model of total disc replacement in the rat coccygeal spine (tail), and were visualized via fluoroscopy and microcomputed tomography. In the disc replacement model, histological analysis at 4 weeks showed that the scaffold was biocompatible and supported the deposition of fibrous tissue in vivo. Nanofibrous scaffolds that include radiopaque nanoparticles provide a biocompatible template with sufficient radiopacity for in vivo visualization in both small and large animal models. This radiopacity may facilitate image-guided implantation and non-invasive long-term evaluation of scaffold location and performance. The healing capacity of fibrous musculoskeletal tissues is limited, and injury or degeneration of these tissues compromises the standard of living of millions in the US. Tissue engineering repair

  13. The design of 3D scaffold for tissue engineering using automated scaffold design algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Shahenda; Eldeib, Ayman; Samy, Sherif

    2015-06-01

    Several progresses have been introduced in the field of bone regenerative medicine. A new term tissue engineering (TE) was created. In TE, a highly porous artificial extracellular matrix or scaffold is required to accommodate cells and guide their growth in three dimensions. The design of scaffolds with desirable internal and external structure represents a challenge for TE. In this paper, we introduce a new method known as automated scaffold design (ASD) for designing a 3D scaffold with a minimum mismatches for its geometrical parameters. The method makes use of k-means clustering algorithm to separate the different tissues and hence decodes the defected bone portions. The segmented portions of different slices are registered to construct the 3D volume for the data. It also uses an isosurface rendering technique for 3D visualization of the scaffold and bones. It provides the ability to visualize the transplanted as well as the normal bone portions. The proposed system proves good performance in both the segmentation results and visualizations aspects.

  14. Dynamic Scaffolding of Socially Regulated Learning in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla; Sleegers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N=56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N=54) do not receive scaffolds. The scaffolds are…

  15. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  16. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  17. Optimized Diazo Scaffold for Protein Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Kalie A.

    2015-01-01

    The O-alkylation of carboxylic acids with diazo compounds provides a means to esterify carboxylic acids in aqueous solution. A Hammett analysis of the reactivity of diazo compounds derived from phenylglycinamide revealed that the p-methylphenylglycinamide scaffold has an especially high reaction rate and ester:alcohol product ratio, and esterifies protein carboxyl groups more efficiently than does any known reagent. PMID:25938936

  18. In Vitro Degradation of PHBV Scaffolds and nHA/PHBV Composite Scaffolds Containing Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naznin Sultana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the long-term in vitro degradation properties of scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and osteoconductive bioceramic/polymer composite materials for the application of bone tissue engineering. The three-dimensional porous scaffolds were fabricated using emulsion-freezing/freeze-drying technique using poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV which is a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Nanosized hydroxyapatite (nHA particles were successfully incorporated into the PHBV scaffolds to render the scaffolds osteoconductive. The PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds were systematically evaluated using various techniques in terms of mechanical strength, porosity, porous morphology, and in vitro degradation. PHBV and nHA/PHBV scaffolds degraded over time in phosphate-buffered saline at 37°C. PHBV polymer scaffolds exhibited slow molecular weight loss and weight loss in the in vitro physiological environment. Accelerated weight loss was observed in nHA incorporated PHBV composite scaffolds. An increasing trend of crystallinity was observed during the initial period of degradation time. The compressive properties decreased more than 40% after 5-month in vitro degradation. Together with interconnected pores, high porosity, suitable mechanical properties, and slow degradation profile obtained from long-term degradation studies, the PHBV scaffolds and osteoconductive nHA/PHBV composite scaffolds showed promises for bone tissue engineering application.

  19. Soy Protein Scaffold Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Karen B.

    Developing functional biomaterials using highly processable materials with tailorable physical and bioactive properties is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Soy protein is an abundant, natural resource with potential use for regenerative medicine applications. Preliminary studies show that soy protein can be physically modified and fabricated into various biocompatible constructs. However, optimized soy protein structures for tissue regeneration (i.e. 3D porous scaffolds) have not yet been designed. Furthermore, little work has established the in vivo biocompatibility of implanted soy protein and the benefit of using soy over other proteins including FDA-approved bovine collagen. In this work, freeze-drying and 3D printing fabrication processes were developed using commercially available soy protein to create porous scaffolds that improve cell growth and infiltration compared to other soy biomaterials previously reported. Characterization of scaffold structure, porosity, and mechanical/degradation properties was performed. In addition, the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells seeded on various designed soy scaffolds was analyzed. Biological characterization of the cell-seeded scaffolds was performed to assess feasibility for use in liver tissue regeneration. The acute and humoral response of soy scaffolds implanted in an in vivo mouse subcutaneous model was also investigated. All fabricated soy scaffolds were modified using thermal, chemical, and enzymatic crosslinking to change properties and cell growth behavior. 3D printing allowed for control of scaffold pore size and geometry. Scaffold structure, porosity, and degradation rate significantly altered the in vivo response. Freeze-dried soy scaffolds had similar biocompatibility as freeze-dried collagen scaffolds of the same protein content. However, the soy scaffolds degraded at a much faster rate, minimizing immunogenicity. Interestingly, subcutaneously implanted soy scaffolds affected blood

  20. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853

  1. Microfibrous silver-coated polymeric scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Kalakonda, Parvathalu.; Aldhahri, Musab A.; Abdel-wahab, Mohamed Shaaban; Tamayol, Ali; Moghaddam, K. Mollazadeh; Ben Rached, Fathia; Pain, Arnab; Khademhosseini, Ali; Memic, Adnan; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds of poly(glycerol sebacate)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS/PCL) have been used for engineered tissues due to their desirable thermal and mechanical properties as well as their tunable degradability. In this paper, we fabricated micro-fibrous scaffolds from a composite of PGS/PCL using a standard electrospinning method and coated them with silver (Ag). The low temperature coating method prevented substrate melting and the Ag coating decreases the pore size and increases the diameter of fibers which resulted in enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. We further compared the mechanical properties of the composite fibrous scaffolds with different thicknesses of Ag coated scaffolds. The composite fibrous scaffold with a 275 nm Ag coating showed higher tensile modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without any post-processing treatment. Lastly, potential controlled release of the Ag coating from the composite fibrous scaffolds could present interesting biomedical applications.

  2. Microfibrous silver-coated polymeric scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Kalakonda, Parvathalu.

    2017-07-07

    Electrospun scaffolds of poly(glycerol sebacate)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PGS/PCL) have been used for engineered tissues due to their desirable thermal and mechanical properties as well as their tunable degradability. In this paper, we fabricated micro-fibrous scaffolds from a composite of PGS/PCL using a standard electrospinning method and coated them with silver (Ag). The low temperature coating method prevented substrate melting and the Ag coating decreases the pore size and increases the diameter of fibers which resulted in enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. We further compared the mechanical properties of the composite fibrous scaffolds with different thicknesses of Ag coated scaffolds. The composite fibrous scaffold with a 275 nm Ag coating showed higher tensile modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) without any post-processing treatment. Lastly, potential controlled release of the Ag coating from the composite fibrous scaffolds could present interesting biomedical applications.

  3. Bioactive Nano-fibrous Scaffold for Vascularized Craniofacial Bone Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul Damodaran; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Harkness, Linda

    2018-01-01

    the limitation of cell penetration of electrospun scaffolds and improve on its osteoconductive nature, in this study, we fabricated a novel electrospun composite scaffold of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - poly (ε) caprolactone (PCL) - Bioceramic (HAB), namely, PVA-PCL-HAB. The scaffold prepared by dual...... electrospinning of PVA and PCL with HAB overcomes reduced cell attachment associated with hydrophobic poly (ε) caprolactone (PCL) by combination with a hydrophilic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and the bioceramic (HAB) can contribute to enhance osteo-conductivity. We characterized the physicochemical...... and biocompatibility properties of the new scaffold material. Our results indicate PVA-PCL-HAB scaffolds support attachment and growth of stromal stem cells; (human bone marrow skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSC)). In addition, the scaffold supported in vitro osteogenic...

  4. Porous magnesium-based scaffolds for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Moharamzadeh, Keyvan; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Tayebi, Lobat

    2017-01-01

    Significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Although at present most of the studies are focused on non-load bearing scaffolds, many scaffolds have also been investigated for hard tissue repair. In particular, metallic scaffolds are being studied for hard tissue engineering due to their suitable mechanical properties. Several biocompatible metallic materials such as stainless steels, cobalt alloys, titanium alloys, tantalum, nitinol and magnesium alloys have been commonly employed as implants in orthopedic and dental treatments. They are often used to replace and regenerate the damaged bones or to provide structural support for healing bone defects. Among the common metallic biomaterials, magnesium (Mg) and a number of its alloys are effective because of their mechanical properties close to those of human bone, their natural ionic content that may have important functional roles in physiological systems, and their in vivo biodegradation characteristics in body fluids. Due to such collective properties, Mg based alloys can be employed as biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable scaffolds for load-bearing applications. Recently, porous Mg and Mg alloys have been specially suggested as metallic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. With further optimization of the fabrication techniques, porous Mg is expected to make a promising hard substitute scaffold. The present review covers research conducted on the fabrication techniques, surface modifications, properties and biological characteristics of Mg alloys based scaffolds. Furthermore, the potential applications, challenges and future trends of such degradable metallic scaffolds are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A porous 3D material provides the required pathways for cells to grow, proliferate, and differentiate • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys could be used as load-bearing scaffolds • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys are good

  5. Porous magnesium-based scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Razavi, Mehdi [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Vashaee, Daryoosh [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Moharamzadeh, Keyvan [School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, Claremont Crescent, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Boccaccini, Aldo R. [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Significant amount of research efforts have been dedicated to the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Although at present most of the studies are focused on non-load bearing scaffolds, many scaffolds have also been investigated for hard tissue repair. In particular, metallic scaffolds are being studied for hard tissue engineering due to their suitable mechanical properties. Several biocompatible metallic materials such as stainless steels, cobalt alloys, titanium alloys, tantalum, nitinol and magnesium alloys have been commonly employed as implants in orthopedic and dental treatments. They are often used to replace and regenerate the damaged bones or to provide structural support for healing bone defects. Among the common metallic biomaterials, magnesium (Mg) and a number of its alloys are effective because of their mechanical properties close to those of human bone, their natural ionic content that may have important functional roles in physiological systems, and their in vivo biodegradation characteristics in body fluids. Due to such collective properties, Mg based alloys can be employed as biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable scaffolds for load-bearing applications. Recently, porous Mg and Mg alloys have been specially suggested as metallic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. With further optimization of the fabrication techniques, porous Mg is expected to make a promising hard substitute scaffold. The present review covers research conducted on the fabrication techniques, surface modifications, properties and biological characteristics of Mg alloys based scaffolds. Furthermore, the potential applications, challenges and future trends of such degradable metallic scaffolds are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A porous 3D material provides the required pathways for cells to grow, proliferate, and differentiate • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys could be used as load-bearing scaffolds • Porous magnesium and Mg alloys are good

  6. Intrinsic Osteoinductivity of Porous Titanium Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tamaddon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large bone defects and nonunions are serious complications that are caused by extensive trauma or tumour. As traditional therapies fail to repair these critical-sized defects, tissue engineering scaffolds can be used to regenerate the damaged tissue. Highly porous titanium scaffolds, produced by selective laser sintering with mechanical properties in range of trabecular bone (compressive strength 35 MPa and modulus 73 MPa, can be used in these orthopaedic applications, if a stable mechanical fixation is provided. Hydroxyapatite coatings are generally considered essential and/or beneficial for bone formation; however, debonding of the coatings is one of the main concerns. We hypothesised that the titanium scaffolds have an intrinsic potential to induce bone formation without the need for a hydroxyapatite coating. In this paper, titanium scaffolds coated with hydroxyapatite using electrochemical method were fabricated and osteoinductivity of coated and noncoated scaffolds was compared in vitro. Alizarin Red quantification confirmed osteogenesis independent of coating. Bone formation and ingrowth into the titanium scaffolds were evaluated in sheep stifle joints. The examinations after 3 months revealed 70% bone ingrowth into the scaffold confirming its osteoinductive capacity. It is shown that the developed titanium scaffold has an intrinsic capacity for bone formation and is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimkin, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Senatov, F.S., E-mail: senatov@misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevskiy, M.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zalepugin, D.Yu.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Tilkunova, N.A. [State Plant of Medicinal Drugs, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kaloshkin, S.D. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79 ± 2%; the pore size range was 80–700 μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility - Highlights: • Porous UHMWPE scaffold mimics cancellous bone architecture, maintaining its flexibility. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffold is able to simulate different types of bone tissue. • Fixation of scaffolds in the bone provides through ingrowths of the connective tissue into pores. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds can be used for the formation of bone implants.

  8. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimkin, A.V.; Senatov, F.S.; Anisimova, N.Yu.; Kiselevskiy, M.V.; Zalepugin, D.Yu.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Tilkunova, N.A.; Kaloshkin, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79 ± 2%; the pore size range was 80–700 μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility - Highlights: • Porous UHMWPE scaffold mimics cancellous bone architecture, maintaining its flexibility. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffold is able to simulate different types of bone tissue. • Fixation of scaffolds in the bone provides through ingrowths of the connective tissue into pores. • Multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds can be used for the formation of bone implants.

  9. Biochemical properties of Hemigraphis alternata incorporated chitosan hydrogel scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annapoorna, M; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Lakshman, Lakshmi R; Lakshmanan, Vinoth-Kumar; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-02-15

    In this work, Hemigraphis alternata extract incorporated chitosan scaffold was synthesized and characterized for wound healing. The antibacterial activity of Hemigraphis incorporated chitosan scaffold (HIC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated which showed a reduction in total colony forming units by 45-folds toward E. coli and 25-fold against S. aureus respectively. Cell viability studies using Human Dermal Fibroblast cells (HDF) showed 90% viability even at 48 h when compared to the chitosan control. The herbal scaffold made from chitosan was highly haemostatic and antibacterial. The obtained results were in support that the herbal scaffold can be effectively applied for infectious wounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low elastic modulus titanium–nickel scaffolds for bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Huifeng; Ruan, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    The superelastic nature of repeating the human bones is crucial to the ideal artificial biomedical implants to ensure smooth load transfer and foster the ingrowth of new bone tissues. Three dimensional interconnected porous TiNi scaffolds, which have the tailorable porous structures with micro-hole, were fabricated by slurry immersing with polymer sponge and sintering method. The crystallinity and phase composition of scaffolds were studied by X-ray diffraction. The pore morphology, size and distribution in the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The porosity ranged from 65 to 72%, pore size was 250–500 μm. Compressive strength and elastic modulus of the scaffolds were ∼ 73 MPa and ∼ 3GPa respectively. The above pore structural and mechanical properties are similar to those of cancellous bone. In the initial cell culture test, osteoblasts adhered well to the scaffold surface during a short time, and then grew smoothly into the interconnected pore channels. These results indicate that the porous TiNi scaffolds fabricated by this method could be bone substitute materials. - Highlights: • A novel approach for the fabrication of porous TiNi scaffolds • Macroporous structures are replicated from the polymer sponge template. • The pore characteristics and mechanical properties of TiNi scaffolds agree well with the requirement of trabecular bone. • Cytocompatibility of TiNi scaffolds is assessed, and it closely associated with pore property

  11. [Strategies to choose scaffold materials for tissue engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingdong; Zhu, Xulong; Xiang, Junxi; Lü, Yi; Li, Jianhui

    2016-02-01

    Current therapies of organ failure or a wide range of tissue defect are often not ideal. Transplantation is the only effective way for long time survival. But it is hard to meet huge patients demands because of donor shortage, immune rejection and other problems. Tissue engineering could be a potential option. Choosing a suitable scaffold material is an essential part of it. According to different sources, tissue engineering scaffold materials could be divided into three types which are natural and its modified materials, artificial and composite ones. The purpose of tissue engineering scaffold is to repair the tissues or organs damage, so could reach the ideal recovery in its function and structure aspect. Therefore, tissue engineering scaffold should even be as close as much to the original tissue or organs in function and structure. We call it "organic scaffold" and this strategy might be the drastic perfect substitute for the tissues or organs in concern. Optimized organization with each kind scaffold materials could make up for biomimetic structure and function of the tissue or organs. Scaffold material surface modification, optimized preparation procedure and cytosine sustained-release microsphere addition should be considered together. This strategy is expected to open new perspectives for tissue engineering. Multidisciplinary approach including material science, molecular biology, and engineering might find the most ideal tissue engineering scaffold. Using the strategy of drawing on each other strength and optimized organization with each kind scaffold material to prepare a multifunctional biomimetic tissue engineering scaffold might be a good method for choosing tissue engineering scaffold materials. Our research group had differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile canaliculi like cells. We prepared poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ε-caprolactone) biliary stent. The scaffold's internal played a part in the long-term release of cytokines which

  12. Novel biodegradable porous scaffold applied to skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chou, Yi-Ting; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Chau-Zen; Wang, Zhao-Ren; Chen, Chun-Hong; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments.

  13. Novel biodegradable porous scaffold applied to skin regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Wang

    Full Text Available Skin wound healing is an important lifesaving issue for massive lesions. A novel porous scaffold with collagen, hyaluronic acid and gelatin was developed for skin wound repair. The swelling ratio of this developed scaffold was assayed by water absorption capacity and showed a value of over 20 g water/g dried scaffold. The scaffold was then degraded in time- and dose-dependent manners by three enzymes: lysozyme, hyaluronidase and collagenase I. The average pore diameter of the scaffold was 132.5±8.4 µm measured from SEM images. With human skin cells growing for 7 days, the SEM images showed surface fractures on the scaffold due to enzymatic digestion, indicating the biodegradable properties of this scaffold. To simulate skin distribution, the human epidermal keratinocytes, melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts were seeded on the porous scaffold and the cross-section immunofluorescent staining demonstrated normal human skin layer distributions. The collagen amount was also quantified after skin cells seeding and presented an amount 50% higher than those seeded on culture wells. The in vivo histological results showed that the scaffold ameliorated wound healing, including decreasing neutrophil infiltrates and thickening newly generated skin compared to the group without treatments.

  14. Chitosan composite three dimensional macrospheric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Veena; Kaur, Tejinder; Thirugnanam, Arunachalam

    2017-11-01

    The present work deals with the fabrication of chitosan composite scaffolds with controllable and predictable internal architecture for bone tissue engineering. Chitosan (CS) based composites were developed by varying montmorillonite (MMT) and hydroxyapatite (HA) combinations to fabricate macrospheric three dimensional (3D) scaffolds by direct agglomeration of the sintered macrospheres. The fabricated CS, CS/MMT, CS/HA and CS/MMT/HA 3D scaffolds were characterized for their physicochemical, biological and mechanical properties. The XRD and ATR-FTIR studies confirmed the presence of the individual constituents and the molecular interaction between them, respectively. The reinforcement with HA and MMT showed reduced swelling and degradation rate. It was found that in comparison to pure CS, the CS/HA/MMT composites exhibited improved hemocompatibility and protein adsorption. The sintering of the macrospheres controlled the swelling ability of the scaffolds which played an important role in maintaining the mechanical strength of the 3D scaffolds. The CS/HA/MMT composite scaffold showed 14 folds increase in the compressive strength when compared to pure CS scaffolds. The fabricated scaffolds were also found to encourage the MG 63 cell proliferation. Hence, from the above studies it can be concluded that the CS/HA/MMT composite 3D macrospheric scaffolds have wider and more practical application in bone tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Facile method of building hydroxyapatite 3D scaffolds assembled from porous hollow fibers enabling nutrient delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamon, David; Da Silva Teixeira, Sandra; Dutczak, S.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, diffusion through scaffold and tissue usually limits transport, and forms potentially hypoxic regions. Several methods are used for preparation of 3D hydroxyapatite scaffolds, however, production of a scaffold including porous hollow fibers for nutrition delivery is difficult and

  16. Composite porous scaffold of PEG/PLA support improved bone matrix deposition in vitro compared to PLA-only scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Birru; Owen, Robert; Bahmaee, Hossein; Wally, Zena; Sreenivasa Rao, Parcha; Reilly, Gwendolen C

    2018-05-01

    Controllable pore size and architecture are essential properties for tissue-engineering scaffolds to support cell ingrowth colonization. To investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) addition on porosity and bone-cell behavior, porous polylactic acid (PLA)-PEG scaffolds were developed with varied weight ratios of PLA-PEG (100/0, 90/10, 75/25) using solvent casting and porogen leaching. Sugar 200-300 µm in size was used as a porogen. To assess scaffold suitability for bone tissue engineering, MLO-A5 murine osteoblast cells were cultured and cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone-matrix production determined using (alizarin red S staining for calcium and direct red 80 staining for collagen). It was found that metabolic activity was significantly higher over time on scaffolds containing PEG, ALP activity and mineralized matrix production were also significantly higher on scaffolds containing 25% PEG. Porous architecture and cell distribution and penetration into the scaffold were analyzed using SEM and confocal microscopy, revealing that inclusion of PEG increased pore interconnectivity and therefore cell ingrowth in comparison to pure PLA scaffolds. The results of this study confirmed that PLA-PEG porous scaffolds support mineralizing osteoblasts better than pure PLA scaffolds, indicating they have a high potential for use in bone tissue engineering applications. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1334-1340, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Meifeng; Du, Lilong; Zhang, Jiamin; Ma, Xinlong; Xu, Baoshan; Wang, Lianyong

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus

  18. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: xubaoshan99@126.com [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: wly@nankai.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  19. Scaffold hopping in drug discovery using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoyama, Kazuhisa; Amini, Ata; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H

    2008-05-01

    In chemoinformatics, searching for compounds which are structurally diverse and share a biological activity is called scaffold hopping. Scaffold hopping is important since it can be used to obtain alternative structures when the compound under development has unexpected side-effects. Pharmaceutical companies use scaffold hopping when they wish to circumvent prior patents for targets of interest. We propose a new method for scaffold hopping using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP uses the observed spatial relationships between pharmacophore types in pretested active and inactive compounds and learns human-readable rules describing the diverse structures of active compounds. The ILP-based scaffold hopping method is compared to two previous algorithms (chemically advanced template search, CATS, and CATS3D) on 10 data sets with diverse scaffolds. The comparison shows that the ILP-based method is significantly better than random selection while the other two algorithms are not. In addition, the ILP-based method retrieves new active scaffolds which were not found by CATS and CATS3D. The results show that the ILP-based method is at least as good as the other methods in this study. ILP produces human-readable rules, which makes it possible to identify the three-dimensional features that lead to scaffold hopping. A minor variant of a rule learnt by ILP for scaffold hopping was subsequently found to cover an inhibitor identified by an independent study. This provides a successful result in a blind trial of the effectiveness of ILP to generate rules for scaffold hopping. We conclude that ILP provides a valuable new approach for scaffold hopping.

  20. Cytocompatibility of a silk fibroin tubular scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiannan; Wei, Yali; Yi, Honggen; Liu, Zhiwu; Sun, Dan; Zhao, Huanrong

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) materials are increasingly used for tissue engineering applications. In order to explore the feasibility of a novel biomimetic silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG-DE), biocompatibility with cells was evaluated. The novel biomimetic design of the SFTS consisted of three distinct layers: a regenerated SF intima, a silk braided media and a regenerated SF adventitia. The SFTS exhibited even silk fibroin penetration throughout the braid, forming a porous layered tube with superior mechanical, permeable and cell adhesion properties that are beneficial to vascular regeneration. Cytotoxicity and cell compatibility were tested on L929 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926). DNA content analysis, scanning electron and confocal microscopies and MTT assay showed no inhibitory effects on DNA replication. Cell morphology, viability and proliferation were good for L929 cells, and satisfactory for EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, the suture retention strength of the SFTS was about 23 N and the Young's modulus was 0.2–0.3 MPa. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PEG-DE crosslinked SFTS possesses the appropriate cytocompatibility and mechanical properties for use as vascular scaffolds as an alternative to vascular autografts. - Highlights: • A PEG-DE cross-linked small caliber porous silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) • PEG-DE cross-linked SF film had no inhibitory effect on DNA replication of cells. • Cells cultured on the SFTS showed good morphology, cell viability and proliferative activity. • SFTS would be beneficial to endothelialization. • SFTS had good suture retention strength and flexibility

  1. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Zhao

    Full Text Available Strontium (Sr can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05. Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes.

  2. Scaffold engineering: a bridge to where?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, Scott J

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of federal research funding (over $4 billion) has gone into tissue engineering over the last 20 years. This has led to an exponential increase in research productivity as evidenced by the number of published papers referencing 'tissue engineering' and 'scaffold'. However, the number of tissue engineering products resulting from this research remains a paltry few, of which true tissue engineering products can be counted using the fingers of two hands. The fundamental question remains 'Why does such a gap exist between research and translation?'. This paper argues that such a gap exists in part due to the research paradigms followed in tissue engineering, in which a linear model is followed that assumed individual technical discovery can be bundled into model tissue engineering systems, followed by manufacturing scale up and regulatory approval. As such, most research funding follows this linear model with the vast majority of research spent on the discovery phase. This includes funding on both cell therapy and scaffold materials and engineering. It is assumed that therapy systems can readily be constructed by combining disparate technologies derived in different laboratories and that these therapies can readily achieve regulatory approval. Yet, most tissue engineering technologies fail to make it to clinical application because they simply have not been engineered for these specific applications or cannot be scaled to clinical level production. This paper argues that a different research paradigm is needed, essentially that of Pasteur's Quadrant proposed by Donald Stokes in the book of the same name. In this paradigm, research is pursued from the twin perspective of end use and the need for fundamental understanding. From this perspective, more funding emphasis should be placed on scalable manufacturing of systems that are designed for specific clinical applications that can attain regulatory approval. Funding of such scaffold/cell manufacturing

  3. Scaffolded filmmaking in PlayOFF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    How is it possible to make an entire short film in only 48 hours? This task was carried out in the global online film contest, called PlayOFF, held by Odense International Film Festival (OFF) in August 2010 and -11. Contestants from all over the world - as different countries as Palestine, China...... the productions. This article is based on an empirical study of film processes in PlayOFF 2010 and -11, and I will point out how these findings could be used in developing creativity. Based on my empirical studies I will suggest a learning design for scaffolded filmmaking and propose some ideas of how to transfer...

  4. Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Brian

    2012-11-01

    New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. A more exciting prospect is the printing and patterning in three dimensions of all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) to generate structures analogous to tissues; this has been termed bioprinting. Such techniques have opened new areas of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  5. Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, E.; Franco, J.; Deville, S.; Hunger, P.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.

    2008-06-01

    This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.

  6. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elders, L.A.M.; Burdorf, A.; Öry, F.G.

    2004-01-01

    The number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large scaffolding company. Medical files for

  7. The effect of scaffold pore size in cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Michele M; Draghi, Lorenza; Giordano, Carmen; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2016-07-26

    The effect of scaffold pore size and interconnectivity is undoubtedly a crucial factor for most tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pore size and porosity on cartilage construct development in different scaffolds seeded with articular chondrocytes. We fabricated poly-L-lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate scaffolds with different pore sizes, using a solvent-casting/particulate-leaching technique. We seeded primary bovine articular chondrocytes on these scaffolds, cultured the constructs for 2 weeks and examined cell proliferation, viability and cell-specific production of cartilaginous extracellular matrix proteins, including GAG and collagen. Cell density significantly increased up to 50% with scaffold pore size and porosity, likely facilitated by cell spreading on the internal surface of bigger pores, and by increased mass transport of gases and nutrients to cells, and catabolite removal from cells, allowed by lower diffusion barriers in scaffolds with a higher porosity. However, both the cell metabolic activity and the synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins significantly decreased by up to 40% with pore size. We propose that the association of smaller pore diameters, causing 3-dimensional cell aggregation, to a lower oxygenation caused by a lower porosity, could have been the condition that increased the cell-specific synthesis of cartilaginous matrix proteins in the scaffold with the smallest pores and the lowest porosity among those tested. In the initial steps of in vitro cartilage engineering, the combination of small scaffold pores and low porosity is an effective strategy with regard to the promotion of chondrogenesis.

  8. Using the Community of Inquiry Framework to Scaffold Online Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoying; Xie, Jingjing; Liu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Tutoring involves providing learners with a suitable level of structure and guidance to support their learning. This study reports on an exploration of how to design such structure and guidance (i.e., learning scaffolds) in the Chinese online educational context, and in so doing, answer the following two questions: (a) What scaffolding strategies…

  9. Enzymatically biomineralized chitosan scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dash, M.; Samal, S.K.; Douglas, T.E.L.; Schaubroeck, D.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Voort, P. van der; Declercq, H.A.; Dubruel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Porous biodegradable scaffolds represent promising candidates for tissue-engineering applications because of their capability to be preseeded with cells. We report an uncrosslinked chitosan scaffold designed with the aim of inducing and supporting enzyme-mediated formation of apatite minerals in the

  10. Scaffolding of Small Groups' Metacognitive Activities with an Avatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; Chiu, Ming Ming; Sleegers, Peter; van Boxtel, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Metacognitive scaffolding in a computer-supported learning environment can influence students' metacognitive activities, metacognitive knowledge and domain knowledge. In this study we analyze how metacognitive activities mediate the relationships between different avatar scaffolds on students' learning. Multivariate, multilevel analysis of the…

  11. Metacognitive Scaffolding during Collaborative Learning: A Promising Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Inge; Sleegers, Peter; van Boxtel, Carla

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of computerized scaffolding with different scaffolds (structuring vs. problematizing) on intra-group metacognitive interaction. In this study, we investigate 4 types of intra-group social metacognitive activities; namely ignored, accepted, shared and co-constructed metacognitive activities in 18 triads (6 control…

  12. Maternal Scaffolding and Attention Regulation in Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julia B.; Burns, Barbara M.; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation of maternal scaffolding and children's attention regulation abilities in preschool children from low-income families within the context of a parent-child interaction task and in a child-alone task. Maternal scaffolding behaviors differed for mothers of children with different attention regulation skills. Mothers…

  13. Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: christine.asuncion@u.nus.edu [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.

  14. Bioactive Scaffolds for Regeneration of Cartilage and Subchondral Bone Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cuijun; Zhu, Huiying; Li, Jiayi; Feng, Chun; Yao, Qingqiang; Wang, Liming; Chang, Jiang; Wu, Chengtie

    2018-01-01

    The cartilage lesion resulting from osteoarthritis (OA) always extends into subchondral bone. It is of great importance for simultaneous regeneration of two tissues of cartilage and subchondral bone. 3D-printed Sr5(PO4)2SiO4 (SPS) bioactive ceramic scaffolds may achieve the aim of regenerating both of cartilage and subchondral bone. We hypothesized that strontium (Sr) and silicon (Si) ions released from SPS scaffolds play a crucial role in osteochondral defect reconstruction. Methods: SPS bioactive ceramic scaffolds were fabricated by a 3D-printing method. The SEM and ICPAES were used to investigate the physicochemical properties of SPS scaffolds. The proliferation and maturation of rabbit chondrocytes stimulated by SPS bioactive ceramics were measured in vitro. The stimulatory effect of SPS scaffolds for cartilage and subchondral bone regeneration was investigated in vivo. Results: SPS scaffolds significantly stimulated chondrocyte proliferation, and SPS extracts distinctly enhanced the maturation of chondrocytes and preserved chondrocytes from OA. SPS scaffolds markedly promoted the regeneration of osteochondral defects. The complex interface microstructure between cartilage and subchondral bone was obviously reconstructed. The underlying mechanism may be related to Sr and Si ions stimulating cartilage regeneration by activating HIF pathway and promoting subchondral bone reconstruction through activating Wnt pathway, as well as preserving chondrocytes from OA via inducing autophagy and inhibiting hedgehog pathway. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that SPS scaffolds can help osteochondral defect reconstruction and well reconstruct the complex interface between cartilage and subchondral bone, which represents a promising strategy for osteochondral defect regeneration. PMID:29556366

  15. Multiscale fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds for tympanic membrane tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Carlos; Danti, Serena; D’Alessandro, Delfo; Trombi, Luisa; Ricci, Claudio; Berrettini, Stefano; Puppi, Dario; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Chiellini, Federica; Milazzo, Mario; Stefanini, Cesare; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The tympanic membrane (TM) is a thin tissue able to efficiently collect and transmit sound vibrations across the middle ear thanks to the particular orientation of its collagen fibers, radiate on one side and circular on the opposite side. Through the combination of advanced scaffolds and autologous cells, tissue engineering (TE) could offer valuable alternatives to autografting in major TM lesions. In this study, a multiscale approach based on electrospinning (ES) and additive manufacturing (AM) was investigated to fabricate scaffolds, based on FDA approved copolymers, resembling the anatomic features and collagen fiber arrangement of the human TM. A single scale TM scaffold was manufactured using a custom-made collector designed to confer a radial macro-arrangement to poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun fibers during their deposition. Dual and triple scale scaffolds were fabricated combining conventional ES with AM to produce poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer scaffolds with anatomic-like architecture. The processing parameters were optimized for each manufacturing method and copolymer. TM scaffolds were cultured in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells, which were viable, metabolically active and organized following the anisotropic character of the scaffolds. The highest viability, cell density and protein content were detected in dual and triple scale scaffolds. Our findings showed that these biomimetic micro-patterned substrates enabled cell disposal along architectural directions, thus appearing as promising substrates for developing functional TM replacements via TE. (paper)

  16. Scaffolding and Dialogic Teaching in Mathematics Education: Introduction and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arthur; Smit, Jantien; Wegerif, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    This article has two purposes: firstly to introduce this special issue on scaffolding and dialogic teaching in mathematics education and secondly to review the recent literature on these topics as well as the articles in this special issue. First we define and characterise scaffolding and dialogic teaching and provide a brief historical overview…

  17. Scaffolding Performance in EPSSs: Bridging Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannafin, Michael J; McCarthy, James E.; Hannafin, Kathleen M.; Radtke, Paul

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) help users accomplish tasks, using computational technologies. Scaffolding is the process through which efforts are supported while engaging a learning or performance task. A number of different types of scaffolds are possible, including conceptual, metacognitive, procedural, and strategic. Each of…

  18. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  19. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds for 3D mammalian cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Modulevsky

    Full Text Available There are numerous approaches for producing natural and synthetic 3D scaffolds that support the proliferation of mammalian cells. 3D scaffolds better represent the natural cellular microenvironment and have many potential applications in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that 3D cellulose scaffolds produced by decellularizing apple hypanthium tissue can be employed for in vitro 3D culture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, mouse C2C12 muscle myoblasts and human HeLa epithelial cells. We show that these cells can adhere, invade and proliferate in the cellulose scaffolds. In addition, biochemical functionalization or chemical cross-linking can be employed to control the surface biochemistry and/or mechanical properties of the scaffold. The cells retain high viability even after 12 continuous weeks of culture and can achieve cell densities comparable with other natural and synthetic scaffold materials. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds are easily produced, inexpensive and originate from a renewable source. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally derived cellulose scaffolds offer a complementary approach to existing techniques for the in vitro culture of mammalian cells in a 3D environment.

  20. 29 CFR 1915.71 - Scaffolds or staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construction of scaffolds shall be spruce, fir, long leaf yellow pine, Oregon pine or wood of equal strength... large, loose or dead knots. It shall also be free from dry rot, large checks, worm holes or other... accidentally disengaged from the crane hook. (c) Independent pole wood scaffolds. (1) All pole uprights shall...

  1. Design of a bioresorbable polymeric scaffold for osteoblast culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditaranto, Vincent M., Jr.

    Bioresorbable polymeric scaffolds were designed for the purpose of growing rat osteosarcoma cells (ROS 17/2.8) using the compression molding method. The material used in the construction of the scaffolds was a mixture of polycaprolactone (PCL), Hydroxyapatite (HA), Glycerin (GL) and salt (NaCl) for porosity. The concentration of the several materials utilized, was determined by volume. Past research at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) has successfully utilized the compression molding method for the construction of scaffolds, but was unable to accomplish the goal of long term cell survival and complete cellular proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. This research investigated various concentrations of the materials and molding temperatures used for the manufacture of scaffolds in order to improve the scaffold design and address those issues. The design of the scaffold using the compression molding process is detailed in the Method and Materials section of this thesis. The porogen (salt) used for porosity was suspected as a possible source of contamination causing cell apoptosis in past studies. This research addressed the issues for cell survival and proliferation throughout a three dimensional scaffold. The leaching of the salt was one major design modification. This research successfully used ultrasonic leaching in addition to the passive method. Prior to cell culture, the scaffolds were irradiated to 2.75 Mrad, with cobalt-60 gamma radionuclide. The tissue culture consisted of two trials: (1) cell culture in scaffolds cleaned with passive leaching; (2) cell culture with scaffolds cleaned with ultrasonic leaching. Cell survival and proliferation was accomplished only with the addition of ultrasonic leaching of the scaffolds. Analysis of the scaffolds included Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Nikon light microscopy and x-ray mapping of the calcium, sodium and chloride ion distribution. The cells were analyzed by Environmental Scanning

  2. Bionic Design, Materials and Performance of Bone Tissue Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Design, materials, and performance are important factors in the research of bone tissue scaffolds. This work briefly describes the bone scaffolds and their anatomic structure, as well as their biological and mechanical characteristics. Furthermore, we reviewed the characteristics of metal materials, inorganic materials, organic polymer materials, and composite materials. The importance of the bionic design in preoperative diagnosis models and customized bone scaffolds was also discussed, addressing both the bionic structure design (macro and micro structure and the bionic performance design (mechanical performance and biological performance. Materials and performance are the two main problems in the development of customized bone scaffolds. Bionic design is an effective way to solve these problems, which could improve the clinical application of bone scaffolds, by creating a balance between mechanical performance and biological performance.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cell ingrowth and differentiation on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Stiehler, Maik; Baatrup, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Culture of osteogenic cells on a porous scaffold could offer a new solution to bone grafting using autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from the patient. We compared coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with pore sizes of 200 and 500 microm for expansion and differentiation of hMSCs. We...... polymerase chain reaction for 10 osteogenic markers. The 500-microm scaffolds had increased proliferation rates and accommodated a higher number of cells (shown by DNA content, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy). Thus the porosity of a 3D microporous biomaterial may be used to steer h......MSC in a particular direction. We found that dynamic spinner flask cultivation of hMSC/scaffold constructs resulted in increased proliferation, differentiation and distribution of cells in scaffolds. Therefore, spinner flask cultivation is an easy-to-use inexpensive system for cultivating hMSCs on small...

  4. Electrospun PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte

    2015-01-01

    -caprolactone (PCL)- triphasic bioceramic(HAB) scaffold to biomimic native tissue and we tested its ability to support osteogenic differentiation of stromal stem cells ( MSC) and its suitability for regeneration of craniofa- cial defects. Physiochemical characterizations of the scaffold, including con- tact angle...... body fluid immersed scaffold samples. Culturing human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human bone marrow derived MSC seeded on PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold showed enhanced cell proliferation and in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. Cell-containing scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in immune...... deficient mice. Histologic ex- amination of retrieved implant sections stained with H&E, Col- lagenType I and Human Vimentin antibody demonstrated that the cells survived in vivo in the implants for at least 8 weeks with evidence of osteoblastic differentiation and angiogenesis within the implants. Our...

  5. Caesium extraction from acidic high level liquid wastes with functionalized calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of French law programme, studies are under way to selectively remove caesium from acidic high activity wastes. Calix[4]arene crown derivatives exhibit outstanding efficiency and selectivity for caesium. An optimisation of the formulation of a selective extractant system for Cs based on crown calixarenes and usable in a process which use liquid-liquid extraction is presented. A system involving a monoamide as a modifier is proposed. Besides these improvements, a reference solvent based on a standard 1,3-di-(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix(4)arene crown is studied. Flow-sheets related to this system are calculated and easily transferable to the optimised new system. (authors)

  6. Magnetic responsive hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds construction for bone defect reparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng XB

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Bo Zeng, Hao Hu, Li Qin Xie, Fang Lan, Wen Jiang, Yao Wu, Zhong Wei GuNational Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of ChinaIntroduction: In recent years, interest in magnetic biomimetic scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased considerably. A type of magnetic scaffold composed of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and hydroxyapatite (HA for bone repair has been developed by our research group.Aim and methods: In this study, to investigate the influence of the MNP content (in the scaffolds on the cell behaviors and the interactions between the magnetic scaffold and the exterior magnetic field, a series of MNP-HA magnetic scaffolds with different MNP contents (from 0.2% to 2% were fabricated by immersing HA scaffold into MNP colloid. ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the scaffolds in vitro, with and without an exterior magnetic field, respectively. The cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were evaluated via scanning electron microscopy; confocal laser scanning microscopy; and 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, alkaline phosphatase, and bone gla protein activity tests.Results: The results demonstrated the positive influence of the magnetic scaffolds on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Further, a higher amount of MNPs on the magnetic scaffolds led to more significant stimulation.Conclusion: The magnetic scaffold can respond to the exterior magnetic field and engender some synergistic effect to intensify the stimulating effect of a magnetic field to the proliferation and differentiation of cells.Keywords: magnetic therapy, magnetic nanoparticles, bone repair, magnetic responsive

  7. Scaffold library for tissue engineering: a geometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarapanich, Nattapon; Puttawibul, Puttisak; Sucharitpwatskul, Sedthawatt; Jeamwatthanachai, Pongnarin; Inglam, Samroeng; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering scaffold is a biological substitute that aims to restore, to maintain, or to improve tissue functions. Currently available manufacturing technology, that is, additive manufacturing is essentially applied to fabricate the scaffold according to the predefined computer aided design (CAD) model. To develop scaffold CAD libraries, the polyhedrons could be used in the scaffold libraries development. In this present study, one hundred and nineteen polyhedron models were evaluated according to the established criteria. The proposed criteria included considerations on geometry, manufacturing feasibility, and mechanical strength of these polyhedrons. CAD and finite element (FE) method were employed as tools in evaluation. The result of evaluation revealed that the close-cellular scaffold included truncated octahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. In addition, the suitable polyhedrons for using as open-cellular scaffold libraries included hexahedron, truncated octahedron, truncated hexahedron, cuboctahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. However, not all pore size to beam thickness ratios (PO:BT) were good for making the open-cellular scaffold. The PO:BT ratio of each library, generating the enclosed pore inside the scaffold, was excluded to avoid the impossibility of material removal after the fabrication. The close-cellular libraries presented the constant porosity which is irrespective to the different pore sizes. The relationship between PO:BT ratio and porosity of open-cellular scaffold libraries was displayed in the form of Logistic Power function. The possibility of merging two different types of libraries to produce the composite structure was geometrically evaluated in terms of the intersection index and was mechanically evaluated by means of FE analysis to observe the stress level. The couples of polyhedrons presenting low intersection index and high stress level were excluded. Good couples for

  8. Scaffold Library for Tissue Engineering: A Geometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Chantarapanich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering scaffold is a biological substitute that aims to restore, to maintain, or to improve tissue functions. Currently available manufacturing technology, that is, additive manufacturing is essentially applied to fabricate the scaffold according to the predefined computer aided design (CAD model. To develop scaffold CAD libraries, the polyhedrons could be used in the scaffold libraries development. In this present study, one hundred and nineteen polyhedron models were evaluated according to the established criteria. The proposed criteria included considerations on geometry, manufacturing feasibility, and mechanical strength of these polyhedrons. CAD and finite element (FE method were employed as tools in evaluation. The result of evaluation revealed that the close-cellular scaffold included truncated octahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. In addition, the suitable polyhedrons for using as open-cellular scaffold libraries included hexahedron, truncated octahedron, truncated hexahedron, cuboctahedron, rhombicuboctahedron, and rhombitruncated cuboctahedron. However, not all pore size to beam thickness ratios (PO : BT were good for making the open-cellular scaffold. The PO : BT ratio of each library, generating the enclosed pore inside the scaffold, was excluded to avoid the impossibility of material removal after the fabrication. The close-cellular libraries presented the constant porosity which is irrespective to the different pore sizes. The relationship between PO : BT ratio and porosity of open-cellular scaffold libraries was displayed in the form of Logistic Power function. The possibility of merging two different types of libraries to produce the composite structure was geometrically evaluated in terms of the intersection index and was mechanically evaluated by means of FE analysis to observe the stress level. The couples of polyhedrons presenting low intersection index and high stress

  9. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbar, S G; Nukavarapu, S P; Laurencin, C T; James, R

    2008-01-01

    Electrospinning has emerged to be a simple, elegant and scalable technique to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetics have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices. Physiochemical properties of nanofiber matrices can be controlled by manipulating electrospinning parameters to meet the requirements of a specific application. Such efforts include the fabrication of fiber matrices containing nanofibers, microfibers, combination of nano-microfibers and also different fiber orientation/alignments. Polymeric nanofiber matrices have been extensively investigated for diversified uses such as filtration, barrier fabrics, wipes, personal care, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained a lot of attention, and are being explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to their properties that can modulate cellular behavior. Electrospun nanofiber matrices show morphological similarities to the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM), characterized by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity and variable pore-size distribution. Efforts have been made to modify nanofiber surfaces with several bioactive molecules to provide cells with the necessary chemical cues and a more in vivo like environment. The current paper provides an overlook on such efforts in designing nanofiber matrices as scaffolds in the regeneration of various soft tissues including skin, blood vessel, tendon/ligament, cardiac patch, nerve and skeletal muscle

  10. Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds: engineering soft tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbar, S G; Nukavarapu, S P; Laurencin, C T [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia, VA 22908 (United States); James, R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, VA 22908 (United States)], E-mail: laurencin@virginia.edu

    2008-09-01

    Electrospinning has emerged to be a simple, elegant and scalable technique to fabricate polymeric nanofibers. Pure polymers as well as blends and composites of both natural and synthetics have been successfully electrospun into nanofiber matrices. Physiochemical properties of nanofiber matrices can be controlled by manipulating electrospinning parameters to meet the requirements of a specific application. Such efforts include the fabrication of fiber matrices containing nanofibers, microfibers, combination of nano-microfibers and also different fiber orientation/alignments. Polymeric nanofiber matrices have been extensively investigated for diversified uses such as filtration, barrier fabrics, wipes, personal care, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Recently electrospun nanofiber matrices have gained a lot of attention, and are being explored as scaffolds in tissue engineering due to their properties that can modulate cellular behavior. Electrospun nanofiber matrices show morphological similarities to the natural extra-cellular matrix (ECM), characterized by ultrafine continuous fibers, high surface-to-volume ratio, high porosity and variable pore-size distribution. Efforts have been made to modify nanofiber surfaces with several bioactive molecules to provide cells with the necessary chemical cues and a more in vivo like environment. The current paper provides an overlook on such efforts in designing nanofiber matrices as scaffolds in the regeneration of various soft tissues including skin, blood vessel, tendon/ligament, cardiac patch, nerve and skeletal muscle.

  11. Engineered porous scaffolds for periprosthetic infection prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iviglia, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.iviglia@polito.it [Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10121 Torino (Italy); Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele [Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro (Italy); Baino, Francesco [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10121 Torino (Italy); Torre, Elisa; Morra, Marco [Nobil Bio Ricerche Srl, 14037 Portacomaro (Italy); Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara [Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10121 Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Periprosthetic infection is a consequence of implant insertion procedures and strategies for its prevention involve either an increase in the rate of new bone formation or the release of antibiotics such as vancomycin. In this work we combined both strategies and developed a novel, multifunctional three-dimensional porous scaffold that was produced using hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), coupled with a pectin (PEC)-chitosan (CHIT) polyelectrolyte (PEI), and loaded with vancomycin (VCA). By this approach, a controlled vancomycin release was achieved and serial bacterial dilution test demonstrated that, after 1 week, the engineered construct still inhibits the bacterial growth. Degradation tests show an excellent behavior in a physiological and acidic environment (< 10% of mass loss). Furthermore, the PEI coating shows an anti-inflammatory response, and good cell proliferation and migration were demonstrated in vitro using osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line. This new engineered construct exhibits excellent properties both as an antibacterial material and as a stimulator of bone formation, which makes it a good candidate to contrast periprosthetic infection. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional ceramic scaffold was developed for infection prevention. • Pectin/chitosan coating stabilizes the degradation behavior in acidic environment. • Polyelectrolyte complex allows sustained release of vancomycin. • Inhibition of bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation was assessed. • PEI coating elicits anti-inflammatory response.

  12. Engineered porous scaffolds for periprosthetic infection prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iviglia, Giorgio; Cassinelli, Clara; Bollati, Daniele; Baino, Francesco; Torre, Elisa; Morra, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Periprosthetic infection is a consequence of implant insertion procedures and strategies for its prevention involve either an increase in the rate of new bone formation or the release of antibiotics such as vancomycin. In this work we combined both strategies and developed a novel, multifunctional three-dimensional porous scaffold that was produced using hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), coupled with a pectin (PEC)-chitosan (CHIT) polyelectrolyte (PEI), and loaded with vancomycin (VCA). By this approach, a controlled vancomycin release was achieved and serial bacterial dilution test demonstrated that, after 1 week, the engineered construct still inhibits the bacterial growth. Degradation tests show an excellent behavior in a physiological and acidic environment (< 10% of mass loss). Furthermore, the PEI coating shows an anti-inflammatory response, and good cell proliferation and migration were demonstrated in vitro using osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line. This new engineered construct exhibits excellent properties both as an antibacterial material and as a stimulator of bone formation, which makes it a good candidate to contrast periprosthetic infection. - Highlights: • A novel three-dimensional ceramic scaffold was developed for infection prevention. • Pectin/chitosan coating stabilizes the degradation behavior in acidic environment. • Polyelectrolyte complex allows sustained release of vancomycin. • Inhibition of bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation was assessed. • PEI coating elicits anti-inflammatory response.

  13. Superamphiphilic nanocontainers based on the resorcinarene - Cationic surfactant system: Synergetic self-assembling behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynanova, Gulnara A.; Bekmukhametova, Alina M.; Kashapov, Ruslan R.; Ziganshina, Albina Yu.; Zakharova, Lucia Ya.

    2016-05-01

    Self-organization in the mixed system based on water-soluble aminomethylated calix[4]arene with sulfonatoethyl groups at the lower rim and classical cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been studied by the methods of tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering. The values of the critical association concentration, the size and zeta potential values, and the solubilization capacity of mixed aggregates toward the hydrophobic probe (Sudan I) were determined.

  14. 15,17-Di-2-propenylcalix[4]arene-25,26,27,28-tetrol: self-complexation and C-H...O interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, Sybolt; van Loon, Jan-Dirk; van Loon, Jan-Dirk; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    The crystal structure of 15,17-di-2-propenylcalix[4]arene-25,26,27,28-tetrol [systematic name: 15,17-di-2-propenylpentacyclo[19.3.1.13,7.19,13.115,19]octacosa-1(25), 3,5,7(26),9,11,13 (27),15,17,19 (28),21,23-dodecaene-25,26,27,28-tetrol], C34H32O4, was determined. The calix[4]arene molecule shows a

  15. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Chemical Engineering (Tianjin) Tianjin 300072 (China); Yao, Fanglian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Wencheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatin onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds (method a). To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, PEGMAs were grafted onto the scaffold surface by SI-ATRP. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by method b. The gelatin modified scaffolds exhibited high hydrophilicity, low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity, and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation capacity. They might have potential applications as tissue engineering scaffolds for artificial blood vessels. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic scaffolds were prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilization of gelatins. • Grafting PEGMA enhanced the immobilization amount of gelatin

  16. Bioresorbable scaffold -fourth revolution or failed revolution: Is low scaffold strut thickness the wrong target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Mishra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioresorbable scaffold (BRS technology has currently fallen into disrepute because of inordinately high risk of scaffold thrombosis and post-procedure myocardial infarction. Low tensile and radial strengths of polymeric BRS contributing to improper strut embedment have been identified as major correlates of poor outcomes following BRS implantation. Magnesium has a better tensile/radial strength compared with polymeric BRS but it is still far lower than cobalt-chromium. Newers innovations utilizing alteration in polymer composition and orientation or even newer polymers have focused on attempts to reduce strut thickness but may have little effect on tensile/radial strength of finished product and therefore may not impact the BRS outcome on long run. Currently, newer generation BRS usage may be restricted to suitable low risk younger patients with proper vessel preparation and application of technique.

  17. Bioresorbable scaffold -fourth revolution or failed revolution: Is low scaffold strut thickness the wrong target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sundeep

    Bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) technology has currently fallen into disrepute because of inordinately high risk of scaffold thrombosis and post-procedure myocardial infarction. Low tensile and radial strengths of polymeric BRS contributing to improper strut embedment have been identified as major correlates of poor outcomes following BRS implantation. Magnesium has a better tensile/radial strength compared with polymeric BRS but it is still far lower than cobalt-chromium. Newers innovations utilizing alteration in polymer composition and orientation or even newer polymers have focused on attempts to reduce strut thickness but may have little effect on tensile/radial strength of finished product and therefore may not impact the BRS outcome on long run. Currently, newer generation BRS usage may be restricted to suitable low risk younger patients with proper vessel preparation and application of technique. Copyright © 2017 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnik, Sonali

    Bone injuries are commonly termed as fractures and they vary in their severity and causes. If the fracture is severe and there is loss of bone, implant surgery is prescribed. The response to the implant depends on the patient's physiology and implant material. Sometimes, the compromised physiology and undesired implant reactions lead to post-surgical complications. [4, 5, 20, 28] Efforts have been directed towards the development of efficient implant materials to tackle the problem of post-surgical implant failure. [ 15, 19, 24, 28, 32]. The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involves the use of cells to form a new tissue on bio-absorbable or inert scaffolds. [2, 32] One of the applications of this field is to regenerate the damaged or lost bone by using stem cells or osteoprogenitor cells on scaffolds that can integrate in the host tissue without causing any harmful side effects. [2, 32] A variety of natural, synthetic materials and their combinations have been used to regenerate the damaged bone tissue. [2, 19, 30, 32, 43]. Growth factors have been supplied to progenitor cells to trigger a sequence of metabolic pathways leading to cellular proliferation, differentiation and to enhance their functionality. [56, 57] The challenge persists to supply these proteins, in the range of nano or even picograms, and in a sustained fashion over a period of time. A delivery system has yet to be developed that would mimic the body's inherent mechanism of delivering the growth factor molecules in the required amount to the target organ or tissue. Titanium is the most preferred metal for orthopedic and orthodontic implants. [28, 46, 48] Even though it has better osteogenic properties as compared to other metals and alloys, it still has drawbacks like poor integration into the surrounding host tissue leading to bone resorption and implant failure. [20, 28, 35] It also faces the problem of postsurgical infections that contributes to the implant failure. [26, 37

  19. Design, Materials, and Mechanobiology of Biodegradable Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Marco A.; Narváez-Tovar, Carlos A.; Garzón-Alvarado, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    A review about design, manufacture, and mechanobiology of biodegradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering is given. First, fundamental aspects about bone tissue engineering and considerations related to scaffold design are established. Second, issues related to scaffold biomaterials and manufacturing processes are discussed. Finally, mechanobiology of bone tissue and computational models developed for simulating how bone healing occurs inside a scaffold are described. PMID:25883972

  20. Accounting for structural compliance in nanoindentation measurements of bioceramic bone scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Vivanco; Joseph E. Jakes; Josh Slane; Heidi-Lynn Ploeg

    2014-01-01

    Structural properties have been shown to be critical in the osteoconductive capacity and strength of bioactive ceramic bone scaffolds. Given the cellular foam-like structure of bone scaffolds, nanoindentation has been used as a technique to assess the mechanical properties of individual components of the scaffolds. Nevertheless, nanoindents placed on scaffolds may...

  1. Electrospinning versus knitting: two scaffolds for tisssue engineering of the aortic valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.I.; Vaz, C.M.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Peters, G.W.M.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2006-01-01

    Two types of scaffolds were developed for tissue engineering of the aortic valve; an electrospun valvular scaffold and a knitted valvular scaffold. These scaffolds were compared in a physiologic flow system and in a tissue-engineering process. In fibrin gel enclosed human myofibroblasts were seeded

  2. Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds with Gradations in Fiber Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandalavala, Karl; Jiang, Jiang; Shuler, Franklin D.; Xie, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this protocol is to report a simple method for generating nanofiber scaffolds with gradations in fiber organization and test their possible applications in controlling cell morphology/orientation. Nanofiber organization is controlled with a new fabrication apparatus that enables the gradual decrease of fiber organization in a scaffold. Changing the alignment of fibers is achieved through decreasing deposition time of random electrospun fibers on a uniaxially aligned fiber mat. By covering the collector with a moving barrier/mask, along the same axis as fiber deposition, the organizational structure is easily controlled. For tissue engineering purposes, adipose-derived stem cells can be seeded to these scaffolds. Stem cells undergo morphological changes as a result of their position on the varied organizational structure, and can potentially differentiate into different cell types depending on their locations. Additionally, the graded organization of fibers enhances the biomimicry of nanofiber scaffolds so they more closely resemble the natural orientations of collagen nanofibers at tendon-to-bone insertion site compared to traditional scaffolds. Through nanoencapsulation, the gradated fibers also afford the possibility to construct chemical gradients in fiber scaffolds, and thereby further strengthen their potential applications in fast screening of cell-materials interaction and interfacial tissue regeneration. This technique enables the production of continuous gradient scaffolds, but it also can potentially produce fibers in discrete steps by controlling the movement of the moving barrier/mask in a discrete fashion. PMID:25938562

  3. Cell-derived matrix coatings for polymeric scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaris, Martin L; Binder, Bernard Y; Soicher, Matthew A; Bhat, Archana; Leach, J Kent

    2012-10-01

    Cells in culture deposit a complex extracellular matrix that remains intact following decellularization and possesses the capacity to modulate cell phenotype. The direct application of such decellularized matrices (DMs) to 3D substrates is problematic, as transport issues influence the homogeneous deposition, decellularization, and modification of DM surface coatings. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, we hypothesized that DMs deposited by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be transferred to the surface of polymeric scaffolds while maintaining their capacity to direct cell fate. The ability of the transferred DM (tDM)-coated scaffolds to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of undifferentiated and osteogenically induced MSCs under osteogenic conditions in vitro was confirmed. tDM-coated scaffolds increased MSC expression of osteogenic marker genes (BGLAP, IBSP) and intracellular alkaline phosphatase production. In addition, undifferentiated MSCs deposited significantly more calcium when seeded onto tDM-coated scaffolds compared with control scaffolds. MSC-seeded tDM-coated scaffolds subcutaneously implanted in nude rats displayed significantly higher blood vessel density after 2 weeks compared with cells on uncoated scaffolds, but we did not observe significant differences in mineral deposition after 8 weeks. These data demonstrate that DM-coatings produced in 2D culture can be successfully transferred to 3D substrates and retain their capacity to modulate cell phenotype.

  4. Highly charged cyanine fluorophores for trafficking scaffold degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, Eric A; Alyabyev, Sergey; Henary, Maged; Hyun, Hoon; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Park, GwangLi; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Choi, Jungmun; Hong, Gloria H; Choi, Hak Soo; Lee, Sang Jin; Khang, Gilson

    2013-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively used in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, noninvasive monitoring of in vivo scaffold degradation is still lacking. In order to develop a real-time trafficking technique, a series of meso-brominated near-infrared (NIR) fluorophores were synthesized and conjugated to biodegradable gelatin scaffolds. Since the pentamethine cyanine core is highly lipophilic, the side chain of each fluorophore was modified with either quaternary ammonium salts or sulfonate groups. The physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity and net charge of fluorophores played a key role in the fate of NIR-conjugated scaffolds in vivo after biodegradation. The positively charged fluorophore-conjugated scaffold fragments were found in salivary glands, lymph nodes, and most of the hepatobiliary excretion route. However, halogenated fluorophores intensively accumulated into lymph nodes and the liver. Interestingly, balanced-charged gelatin scaffolds were degraded into urine in a short period of time. These results demonstrate that the noninvasive optical imaging using NIR fluorophores can be useful for the translation of biodegradable scaffolds into the clinic. (paper)

  5. Crossing kingdoms: Using decellularized plants as perfusable tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershlak, Joshua R; Hernandez, Sarah; Fontana, Gianluca; Perreault, Luke R; Hansen, Katrina J; Larson, Sara A; Binder, Bernard Y K; Dolivo, David M; Yang, Tianhong; Dominko, Tanja; Rolle, Marsha W; Weathers, Pamela J; Medina-Bolivar, Fabricio; Cramer, Carole L; Murphy, William L; Gaudette, Glenn R

    2017-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the fabrication of bioengineered scaffolds for tissue engineering, delivery of nutrients in complex engineered human tissues remains a challenge. By taking advantage of the similarities in the vascular structure of plant and animal tissues, we developed decellularized plant tissue as a prevascularized scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Perfusion-based decellularization was modified for different plant species, providing different geometries of scaffolding. After decellularization, plant scaffolds remained patent and able to transport microparticles. Plant scaffolds were recellularized with human endothelial cells that colonized the inner surfaces of plant vasculature. Human mesenchymal stem cells and human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes adhered to the outer surfaces of plant scaffolds. Cardiomyocytes demonstrated contractile function and calcium handling capabilities over the course of 21 days. These data demonstrate the potential of decellularized plants as scaffolds for tissue engineering, which could ultimately provide a cost-efficient, "green" technology for regenerating large volume vascularized tissue mass. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Microwell Scaffolds for the Extrahepatic Transplantation of Islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitinga, Mijke; Truckenmüller, Roman; Engelse, Marten A.; Moroni, Lorenzo; Ten Hoopen, Hetty W. M.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; de Koning, Eelco JP.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Karperien, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic islet transplantation into the liver has the potential to restore normoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, the suboptimal microenvironment for islets in the liver is likely to be involved in the progressive islet dysfunction that is often observed post-transplantation. This study validates a novel microwell scaffold platform to be used for the extrahepatic transplantation of islet of Langerhans. Scaffolds were fabricated from either a thin polymer film or an electrospun mesh of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)-poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) block copolymer (composition: 4000PEOT30PBT70) and were imprinted with microwells, ∼400 µm in diameter and ∼350 µm in depth. The water contact angle and water uptake were 39±2° and 52.1±4.0 wt%, respectively. The glucose flux through electrospun scaffolds was three times higher than for thin film scaffolds, indicating enhanced nutrient diffusion. Human islets cultured in microwell scaffolds for seven days showed insulin release and insulin content comparable to those of free-floating control islets. Islet morphology and insulin and glucagon expression were maintained during culture in the microwell scaffolds. Our results indicate that the microwell scaffold platform prevents islet aggregation by confinement of individual islets in separate microwells, preserves the islet’s native rounded morphology, and provides a protective environment without impairing islet functionality, making it a promising platform for use in extrahepatic islet transplantation. PMID:23737999

  7. Novel mechanically competent polysaccharide scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbar, S G; Toti, U S; Deng, M; James, R; Laurencin, C T; Aravamudhan, A; Harmon, M; Ramos, D M

    2011-01-01

    The success of the scaffold-based bone regeneration approach critically depends on the biomaterial's mechanical and biological properties. Cellulose and its derivatives are inherently associated with exceptional strength and biocompatibility due to their β-glycosidic linkage and extensive hydrogen bonding. This polymer class has a long medical history as a dialysis membrane, wound care system and pharmaceutical excipient. Recently cellulose-based scaffolds have been developed and evaluated for a variety of tissue engineering applications. In general porous polysaccharide scaffolds in spite of many merits lack the necessary mechanical competence needed for load-bearing applications. The present study reports the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) porous sintered microsphere scaffolds based on cellulose derivatives using a solvent/non-solvent sintering approach for load-bearing applications. These 3D scaffolds exhibited a compressive modulus and strength in the mid-range of human trabecular bone and underwent degradation resulting in a weight loss of 10–15% after 24 weeks. A typical stress–strain curve for these scaffolds showed an initial elastic region and a less-stiff post-yield region similar to that of native bone. Human osteoblasts cultured on these scaffolds showed progressive growth with time and maintained expression of osteoblast phenotype markers. Further, the elevated expression of alkaline phosphatase and mineralization at early time points as compared to heat-sintered poly(lactic acid–glycolic acid) control scaffolds with identical pore properties affirmed the advantages of polysaccharides and their potential for scaffold-based bone regeneration.

  8. BESST--efficient scaffolding of large fragmented assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Kristoffer; Vezzi, Francesco; Nystedt, Björn; Lundeberg, Joakim; Arvestad, Lars

    2014-08-15

    The use of short reads from High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) techniques is now commonplace in de novo assembly. Yet, obtaining contiguous assemblies from short reads is challenging, thus making scaffolding an important step in the assembly pipeline. Different algorithms have been proposed but many of them use the number of read pairs supporting a linking of two contigs as an indicator of reliability. This reasoning is intuitive, but fails to account for variation in link count due to contig features.We have also noted that published scaffolders are only evaluated on small datasets using output from only one assembler. Two issues arise from this. Firstly, some of the available tools are not well suited for complex genomes. Secondly, these evaluations provide little support for inferring a software's general performance. We propose a new algorithm, implemented in a tool called BESST, which can scaffold genomes of all sizes and complexities and was used to scaffold the genome of P. abies (20 Gbp). We performed a comprehensive comparison of BESST against the most popular stand-alone scaffolders on a large variety of datasets. Our results confirm that some of the popular scaffolders are not practical to run on complex datasets. Furthermore, no single stand-alone scaffolder outperforms the others on all datasets. However, BESST fares favorably to the other tested scaffolders on GAGE datasets and, moreover, outperforms the other methods when library insert size distribution is wide. We conclude from our results that information sources other than the quantity of links, as is commonly used, can provide useful information about genome structure when scaffolding.

  9. Microporous dermal-like electrospun scaffolds promote accelerated skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Paul P; Culpepper, Bonnie K; Bain, Jennifer L; Schultz, Matthew J; Thomas, Steven J; Bellis, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to synthesize skin substitutes that blend native extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules with synthetic polymers which have favorable mechanical properties. To this end, scaffolds were electrospun from collagen I (col) and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and then pores were introduced mechanically to promote fibroblast infiltration, and subsequent filling of the pores with ECM. A 70:30 col/PCL ratio was determined to provide optimal support for dermal fibroblast growth, and a pore diameter, 160 μm, was identified that enabled fibroblasts to infiltrate and fill pores with native matrix molecules, including fibronectin and collagen I. Mechanical testing of 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with 160 μm pores revealed a tensile strength of 1.4 MPa, and the scaffolds also exhibited a low rate of contraction (pores. Keratinocytes formed a stratified layer on the surface of fibroblast-remodeled scaffolds, and staining for cytokeratin 10 revealed terminally differentiated keratinocytes at the apical surface. When implanted, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds degraded within 3-4 weeks, an optimal time frame for degradation in vivo. Finally, 70:30 col/PCL scaffolds with or without 160 μm pores were implanted into full-thickness critical-sized skin defects. Relative to nonporous scaffolds or sham wounds, scaffolds with 160 μm pores induced accelerated wound closure, and stimulated regeneration of healthy dermal tissue, evidenced by a more normal-appearing matrix architecture, blood vessel in-growth, and hair follicle development. Collectively, these results suggest that microporous electrospun scaffolds are effective substrates for skin regeneration.

  10. Nanoengineered Carbon Scaffolds for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A. D.; Hudson, J. L.; Fan, H.; Booker, R.; Simpson, L. J.; O' Neill, K. J.; Parilla, P. A.; Heben, M. J.; Pasquali, M.; Kittrell, C.; Tour, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fibers were engineered to become a scaffold for the storage of hydrogen. Carbon nanotube fibers were swollen in oleum (fuming sulfuric acid), and organic spacer groups were covalently linked between the nanotubes using diazonium functionalization chemistry to provide 3-dimensional (3-D) frameworks for the adsorption of hydrogen molecules. These 3-D nanoengineered fibers physisorb twice as much hydrogen per unit surface area as do typical macroporous carbon materials. These fiber-based systems can have high density, and combined with the outstanding thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes, this points a way toward solving the volumetric and heat-transfer constraints that limit some other hydrogen-storage supports.

  11. Polymer scaffold degradation control via chemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Dirk, Shawn; Cicotte, Kirsten

    2016-01-05

    A variety of polymers and copolymers suitable for use as biologically compatible constructs and, as a non-limiting specific example, in the formation of degradable tissue scaffolds as well methods for synthesizing these polymers and copolymers are described. The polymers and copolymers have degradation rates that are substantially faster than those of previously described polymers suitable for the same uses. Copolymers having a synthesis route which enables one to fine tune the degradation rate by selecting the specific stoichiometry of the monomers in the resulting copolymer are also described. The disclosure also provides a novel synthesis route for maleoyl chloride which yields monomers suitable for use in the copolymer synthesis methods described herein.

  12. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Abruzzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  13. Investigating the Effect of Scaffolding in Modern Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Halkjær; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of not knowing what to do. This paper investigates the effects that scaffolding in games has on players’ experience of a game. To this end, a custom game was designed and implemented that contained a number of different scenarios with different types of scaffolding. This was used to conduct an experiment on 18......Nowadays, game developers are much more focused on providing players with short-term rewards for overcoming challenges than they have been previously. This has resulted in a lot of games having more scaffolding to teach the players what to do, so they don’t quit the games in frustration...

  14. Nerve regeneration using tubular scaffolds from biodegradable polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, T; Schmidhammer, R; Zandieh, S; Hopf, R; Schultz, A; Gogolewski, S; Hertz, H; Redl, H

    2007-01-01

    In severe nerve lesion, nerve defects and in brachial plexus reconstruction, autologous nerve grafting is the golden standard. Although, nerve grafting technique is the best available approach a major disadvantages exists: there is a limited source of autologous nerve grafts. This study presents data on the use of tubular scaffolds with uniaxial pore orientation from experimental biodegradable polyurethanes coated with fibrin sealant to regenerate a 8 mm resected segment of rat sciatic nerve. Tubular scaffolds: prepared by extrusion of the polymer solution in DMF into water coagulation bath. The polymer used for the preparation of tubular scaffolds was a biodegradable polyurethane based on hexamethylene diisocyanate, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and dianhydro-D-sorbitol. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL: Eighteen Sprague Dawley rats underwent mid-thigh sciatic nerve transection and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups with immediate repair: (1) tubular scaffold, (2) 180 degrees rotated sciatic nerve segment (control). Serial functional measurements (toe spread test, placing tests) were performed weekly from 3rd to 12th week after nerve repair. On week 12, electrophysiological assessment was performed. Sciatic nerve and scaffold/nerve grafts were harvested for histomorphometric analysis. Collagenic connective tissue, Schwann cells and axons were evaluated in the proximal nerve stump, the scaffold/nerve graft and the distal nerve stump. The implants have uniaxially-oriented pore structure with a pore size in the range of 2 micorm (the pore wall) and 75 x 700 microm (elongated pores in the implant lumen). The skin of the tubular implants was nonporous. Animals which underwent repair with tubular scaffolds of biodegradable polyurethanes coated with diluted fibrin sealant had no significant functional differences compared with the nerve graft group. Control group resulted in a trend-wise better electrophysiological recovery but did not show statistically significant

  15. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, cellulose and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction employing crown ethers and calix-crown derivatives as extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Two crown ethers (CEs) viz. dibenzo18crown6, and dibenzo12crown7 and three calix-crown derivatives viz. (octyloxy)calix[4]arene-mono-crown-6 (CMC), calix[4]arene-bis(o-benzocrown-6) (CBC), and calix[4]arene-bis(naphthocrown-6) (CNC) were evaluated for the recovery of 137 Cs from synthetic soil, cellulose (tissue paper), and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route. CEs showed poor extraction of 137 Cs from soil matrix. SFE experiments using 1 × 10 -3 M solutions of CMC, CBC and CNC in acetonitrile at 3 M HNO 3 as modifiers displayed better extraction of 137 Cs, viz. 21(±2) % (CMC), 16.5(±3) % (CBC), and 4(±1) % (CNC). It was not possible to recover 137 Cs quantitatively from soil matrix. The inefficient extraction of 137 Cs from soil matrix was attributed to its incorporation into the interstitial sites. Experiments on tissue papers using CMC showed near quantitative 137 Cs recovery. On the other hand, recovery from plant samples varied between 50(±5) % (for stems) and 75(±5) % (for leaves). (author)

  16. Formation of Neural Networks in 3D Scaffolds Fabricated by Means of Laser Microstereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedunova, M V; Timashev, P S; Mishchenko, T A; Mitroshina, E V; Koroleva, A V; Chichkov, B N; Panchenko, V Ya; Bagratashvili, V N; Mukhina, I V

    2016-08-01

    We developed and tested new 3D scaffolds for neurotransplantation. Scaffolds of predetermined architectonic were prepared using microstereolithography technique. Scaffolds were highly biocompatible with the nervous tissue cells. In vitro studies showed that the material of fabricated scaffolds is not toxic for dissociated brain cells and promotes the formation of functional neural networks in the matrix. These results demonstrate the possibility of fabrication of tissue-engineering constructs for neurotransplantation based on created scaffolds.

  17. Development of keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I. [Biomedical Engineering Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Madhan, B., E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200–250 °C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (> 1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of novel Keratin-Chitosan-Gelatin composite scaffold • Keratin composite scaffold shows excellent water uptake capacity and porosity • Keratin composite scaffold shows good thermal and physical stability • Biocompatibility of the developed scaffold is comparable to collagen scaffolds • Developed scaffold is a promising material for soft tissue engineering applications.

  18. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Tissue Scaffolds by Phase Contrast Imaging and Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawolin, Nahshon K; Dolovich, Allan T; Chen, Daniel X B; Zhang, Chris W J

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, the cell and scaffold approach has shown promise as a treatment to regenerate diseased and/or damaged tissue. In this treatment, an artificial construct (scaffold) is seeded with cells, which organize and proliferate into new tissue. The scaffold itself biodegrades with time, leaving behind only newly formed tissue. The degradation qualities of the scaffold are critical during the treatment period, since the change in the mechanical properties of the scaffold with time can influence cell behavior. To observe in time the scaffold's mechanical properties, a straightforward method is to deform the scaffold and then characterize scaffold deflection accordingly. However, experimentally observing the scaffold deflection is challenging. This paper presents a novel study on characterization of mechanical properties of scaffolds by phase contrast imaging and finite element modeling, which specifically includes scaffold fabrication, scaffold imaging, image analysis, and finite elements (FEs) modeling of the scaffold mechanical properties. The innovation of the work rests on the use of in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging at 20 KeV to characterize tissue scaffold deformation caused by ultrasound radiation forces and the use of the Fourier transform to identify movement. Once deformation has been determined experimentally, it is then compared with the predictions given by the forward solution of a finite element model. A consideration of the number of separate loading conditions necessary to uniquely identify the material properties of transversely isotropic and fully orthotropic scaffolds is also presented, along with the use of an FE as a form of regularization.

  19. Manufacture of degradable polymeric scaffolds for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zigang; Jin, Zhaoxia; Cao, Tong

    2008-06-01

    Many innovative technology platforms for promoting bone regeneration have been developed. A common theme among these is the use of scaffolds to provide mechanical support and osteoconduction. Scaffolds can be either ceramic or polymer-based, or composites of both classes of material. Both ceramics and polymers have their own merits and drawbacks, and a better solution may be to synergize the advantageous properties of both materials within composite scaffolds. In this current review, after a brief introduction of the anatomy and physiology of bone, different strategies of fabricating polymeric scaffolds for bone regeneration, including traditional and solid free-form fabrication, are critically discussed and compared, while focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques.

  20. Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners struggling with reading. ... are intended to open up for debate a topic of critical importance to the country's education system. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belland, Brian R.; Kim, ChanMin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed. PMID:24273351

  2. Protein scaffolds and higher-order complexes in synthetic biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.; Rosier, B.J.H.M.; Brunsveld, L.; de Greef, T.F.A.; Ryadnov, M.; Brunsveld, L.; Suga, H.

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between proteins control molecular functions such as signalling or metabolic activity. Assembly of proteins via scaffold proteins or in higher-order complexes is a key regulatory mechanism. Understanding and functionally applying this concept requires the construction, study, and

  3. Extracellular matrix scaffolds for cartilage and bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, K.E.M.; van Weeren, P.R.; Badylak, S.F.; Saris, Daniël B.F.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Malda, J.

    2013-01-01

    Regenerative medicine approaches based on decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds and tissues are rapidly expanding. The rationale for using ECM as a natural biomaterial is the presence of bioactive molecules that drive tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Moreover, appropriately

  4. Manufacture of degradable polymeric scaffolds for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zigang; Jin Zhaoxia; Cao Tong

    2008-01-01

    Many innovative technology platforms for promoting bone regeneration have been developed. A common theme among these is the use of scaffolds to provide mechanical support and osteoconduction. Scaffolds can be either ceramic or polymer-based, or composites of both classes of material. Both ceramics and polymers have their own merits and drawbacks, and a better solution may be to synergize the advantageous properties of both materials within composite scaffolds. In this current review, after a brief introduction of the anatomy and physiology of bone, different strategies of fabricating polymeric scaffolds for bone regeneration, including traditional and solid free-form fabrication, are critically discussed and compared, while focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques. (topical review)

  5. Novel blood protein based scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Antonia I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cardiovascular tissue engineering is the fabrication of scaffolds, which provide appropriate morphological and mechanical properties while avoiding undesirable immune reactions. In this study electrospinning was used to fabricate scaffolds out of blood proteins for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Lyophilised porcine plasma was dissolved in deionised water at a final concentration of 7.5% m/v and blended with 3.7% m/v PEO. Electrospinning resulted in homogeneous fibre morphologies with a mean fibre diameter of 151 nm, which could be adapted to create macroscopic shapes (mats, tubes. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde vapour improved the long-term stability of protein based scaffolds in comparison to untreated scaffolds, resulting in a mass loss of 41% and 96% after 28 days of incubation in aqueous solution, respectively.

  6. Bioactive glass-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, J.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed to fill and restore bone defects, bioactive glasses are currently also being intensively investigated for bone tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds made from bioactive silicate

  7. Influence of preparation method on hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is extensively used in medical applications as an artificial bone because of its similarity to ... system, have been applied to fabricate HA porous scaffolds. In this work .... ceramic structured by the colloidal processing was.

  8. Biomimetic Composite Scaffold for Breast Reconstruction Following Tumor Resection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick, Jr, Charles W

    2005-01-01

    ... of life and outcomes are markedly improved. We hypothesized that a novel composite material consisting of silk fibroin and chitosan will act as a biomimetic scaffold amenable to in vivo adipogenesis. The specific aims (SAs...

  9. Alveolar bone tissue engineering using composite scaffolds for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Matsuno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many years, bone graft substitutes have been used to reconstruct bone defects in orthopedic and dental fields. However, synthetic bone substitutes such as hydroxyapatite or β-tricalcium phosphate have no osteoinductive or osteogenic abilities. Bone tissue engineering has also been promoted as an alternative approach to regenerating bone tissue. To succeed in bone tissue engineering, osteoconductive scaffolding biomaterials should provide a suitable environment for osteogenic cells and provide local controlled release of osteogenic growth factors. In addition, the scaffold for the bone graft substitute should biodegrade to replace the newly formed bone. Recent advances in bone tissue engineering have allowed the creation of composite scaffolds with tailored functional properties. This review focuses on composite scaffolds that consist of synthetic ceramics and natural polymers as drug delivery carriers for alveolar bone tissue engineering.

  10. PENGARUH METODE SCAFFOLDING BERBASIS KONSTRUKTIVISME TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study is motivated by the fact that many students have difficulties in learning mathematics especially for junior highschool students. This study aims to know the implementation of scaffolding method based on constructivism to students’ mathematics achievement. This is an experimental study with one group pretest and posttest design. The sample were 32 students grade VIII. Data is analyzed by t-test and n-gain test. T-test result shows that sig=0,000<0,05, The average score increases 15,63 and based on N-gain test shows that students competence increases too. It means that scaffolding method based on constructivism influence students’ mathematics achievement significantly. Thus scaffolding method based on constructivism can be implemented in any instruction, because it can increase students’ achievement and students will get learning variation that can reduce boredom and motivate them to learn actively. Keywords: mathematics achievement; constructivism; scaffolding.

  11. Biological effects of functionalizing copolymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhe; Pedersen, Torbjorn O; Wu, Xujun; Xue, Ying; Sun, Yang; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Kloss, Frank R; Waag, Thilo; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Mustafa, Kamal

    2013-08-01

    Significant evidence has indicated that poly(L-lactide)-co-(ɛ-caprolactone) [(poly(LLA-co-CL)] scaffolds could be one of the suitable candidates for bone tissue engineering. Oxygen-terminated nanodiamond particles (n-DP) were combined with poly(LLA-co-CL) and revealed to be positive for cell growth. In this study, we evaluated the influence of poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds modified by n-DP on attachment, proliferation, differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro, and on bone formation using a sheep calvarial defect model. BMSCs were seeded on either poly(LLA-co-CL)- or n-DP-coated scaffolds and incubated for 1 h. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy were used in addition to protein and DNA measurements to evaluate cellular attachment on the scaffolds. To determine the effect of n-DP on proliferation of BMSCs, cell/scaffold constructs were harvested after 3 days and evaluated by Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) protein assay and SEM. In addition, the osteogenic differentiation of cells grown for 2 weeks on the various scaffolds and in a dynamic culture condition was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Unmodified and modified scaffolds were implanted into the calvaria of six-year-old sheep. The expression of collagen type I (COL I) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) after 4 weeks as well as the formation of new bone after 12 and 24 weeks were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Scaffolds modified with n-DP supported increased cell attachment and the mRNA expression of osteopontin (OPN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and BMP-2 were significantly increased after 2 weeks of culture. The BMSCs had spread well on the various scaffolds investigated after 3 days in the study with no significant difference in cell proliferation. Furthermore, the in vivo data revealed more positive staining of COL I and BMP-2 in relation to the n-DP-coated scaffolds after 4 weeks and presented more bone formation after 12 and 24 weeks. n

  12. Role of scaffold mean pore size in meniscus regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Jiang, Dong; Ding, Jian-Xun; Wang, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ji-Ying; Qi, Yan-Song; Chen, Xue-Si; Yu, Jia-Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Recently, meniscus tissue engineering offers a promising management for meniscus regeneration. Although rarely reported, the microarchitectures of scaffolds can deeply influence the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation in meniscus tissue engineering. Herein, a series of three-dimensional (3D) poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with three distinct mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The scaffold with the mean pore size of 215μm significantly improved both the proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production/deposition of mesenchymal stem cells compared to all other groups in vitro. Moreover, scaffolds with mean pore size of 215μm exhibited the greatest tensile and compressive moduli in all the acellular and cellular studies. In addition, the relatively better results of fibrocartilaginous tissue formation and chondroprotection were observed in the 215μm scaffold group after substituting the rabbit medial meniscectomy for 12weeks. Overall, the mean pore size of 3D-printed PCL scaffold could affect cell behavior, ECM production, biomechanics, and repair effect significantly. The PCL scaffold with mean pore size of 215μm presented superior results both in vitro and in vivo, which could be an alternative for meniscus tissue engineering. Meniscus tissue engineering provides a promising strategy for meniscus regeneration. In this regard, the microarchitectures (e.g., mean pore size) of scaffolds remarkably impact the behaviors of cells and subsequent tissue formation, which has been rarely reported. Herein, three three-dimensional poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffolds with different mean pore sizes (i.e., 215, 320, and 515μm) were fabricated via fused deposition modeling. The results suggested that the mean pore size significantly affected the behaviors of endogenous or exogenous stem/progenitor cells and subsequent tissue formation. This study furthers

  13. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Dawkins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  14. Microscale versus nanoscale scaffold architecture for mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Shobana; Chaudhry, Hans; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2011-03-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds, produced by the electrospinning technique, have gained widespread attention in tissue engineering due to their morphological similarities to the native extracellular matrix. For cartilage repair, studies have examined their feasibility; however these studies have been limited, excluding the influence of other scaffold design features. This study evaluated the effect of scaffold design, specifically examining a range of nano to micron-sized fibers and resulting pore size and mechanical properties, on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the adult bone marrow during chondrogenesis. MSC differentiation was examined on these scaffolds with an emphasis on temporal gene expression of chondrogenic markers and the pluripotent gene, Sox2, which has yet to be explored for MSCs during chondrogenesis and in combination with tissue engineering scaffolds. Chondrogenic markers of aggrecan, chondroadherin, sox9, and collagen type II were highest for cells on micron-sized fibers (5 and 9 μm) with pore sizes of 27 and 29 μm, respectively, in comparison to cells on nano-sized fibers (300 nm and 600 to 1400 nm) having pore sizes of 2 and 3 μm, respectively. Undifferentiated MSCs expressed high levels of the Sox2 gene but displayed negligible levels on all scaffolds with or without the presence of inductive factors, suggesting that the physical features of the scaffold play an important role in differentiation. Micron-sized fibers with large pore structures and mechanical properties comparable to the cartilage ECM enhanced chondrogenesis, demonstrating architectural features as well as mechanical properties of electrospun fibrous scaffolds enhance differentiation.

  15. Impact of scaffolding and question structure on the gender gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Hedgeland, Holly; Jordan, Sally

    2017-12-01

    We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question scaffolding into account, we identify questions that exhibit real bias in favor of male students. We find that both multidimensional context and use of diagrams are common elements of such questions.

  16. Tubular Scaffold with Shape Recovery Effect for Cell Guide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi M. Zakir Hossain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tubular scaffolds with aligned polylactic acid (PLA fibres were fabricated for cell guide applications by immersing rolled PLA fibre mats into a polyvinyl acetate (PVAc solution to bind the mats. The PVAc solution was also mixed with up to 30 wt % β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP content. Cross-sectional images of the scaffold materials obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the aligned fibre morphology along with a significant number of voids in between the bundles of fibres. The addition of β-TCP into the scaffolds played an important role in increasing the void content from 17.1% to 25.3% for the 30 wt % β-TCP loading, which was measured via micro-CT (µCT analysis. Furthermore, µCT analyses revealed the distribution of aggregated β-TCP particles in between the various PLA fibre layers of the scaffold. The compressive modulus properties of the scaffolds increased from 66 MPa to 83 MPa and the compressive strength properties decreased from 67 MPa to 41 MPa for the 30 wt % β-TCP content scaffold. The scaffolds produced were observed to change into a soft and flexible form which demonstrated shape recovery properties after immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS media at 37 °C for 24 h. The cytocompatibility studies (using MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line revealed preferential cell proliferation along the longitudinal direction of the fibres as compared to the control tissue culture plastic. The manufacturing process highlighted above reveals a simple process for inducing controlled cell alignment and varying porosity features within tubular scaffolds for potential tissue engineering applications.

  17. Collagen as potential cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, N; Spier, R E

    2004-05-01

    Selections of collagen available commercially were tested for their biocompatibility as scaffold to promote cell growth in vitro via simple collagen fast test and cultivation of mammalian cells on the selected type of collagen. It was found that collagen type C9791 promotes the highest degree of aggregation as well as cells growth. This preliminary study also indicated potential use of collagen as scaffold in engineered tissue.

  18. A Guide to Scaffold Use in the Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    1926.451(e)(5)) and •integral prefabricated frames. (1926.451(e)(6)) What are the access requirements for employees erecting and dismantling supported...guardrails which block employee access to the cantilevered end. (6) On scaffolds where scaffold planks are abutted to create a long platform, each... abutted end shall rest on a separate support surface. This provision does not preclude the use of common support members, such as “T” sections, to support

  19. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G.; Henriques, C.M.R.; Silva, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds

  20. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, S.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental / Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, FCUL, 1749-016 Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, C.M.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Silva, J.C., E-mail: jcs@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds.

  1. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-04-01

    The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration.

  2. Laser printing of cells into 3D scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovsianikov, A; Gruene, M; Koch, L; Maiorana, F; Chichkov, B; Pflaum, M; Wilhelmi, M; Haverich, A

    2010-01-01

    One of the most promising approaches in tissue engineering is the application of 3D scaffolds, which provide cell support and guidance in the initial tissue formation stage. The porosity of the scaffold and internal pore organization influence cell migration and play a major role in its biodegradation dynamics, nutrient diffusion and mechanical stability. In order to control cell migration and cellular interactions within the scaffold, novel technologies capable of producing 3D structures in accordance with predefined design are required. The two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique, used in this report for the fabrication of scaffolds, allows the realization of arbitrary 3D structures with submicron spatial resolution. Highly porous 3D scaffolds, produced by 2PP of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol), are seeded with cells by means of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT). In this laser printing approach, a propulsive force, resulting from laser-induced shock wave, is used to propel individual cells or cell groups from a donor substrate towards the receiver substrate. We demonstrate that with this technique printing of multiple cell types into 3D scaffolds is possible. Combination of LIFT and 2PP provides a route for the realization of 3D multicellular tissue constructs and artificial ECM engineered on the microscale.

  3. Automated quality characterization of 3D printed bone scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Liang Bill Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of design is an important step in obtaining tissue engineering scaffolds with appropriate shapes and inner microstructures. Different shapes and sizes of scaffolds are modeled using UGS NX 6.0 software with variable pore sizes. The quality issue we are concerned is the scaffold porosity, which is mainly caused by the fabrication inaccuracies. Bone scaffolds are usually characterized using a scanning electron microscope, but this study presents a new automated inspection and classification technique. Due to many numbers and size variations for the pores, the manual inspection of the fabricated scaffolds tends to be error-prone and costly. Manual inspection also raises the chance of contamination. Thus, non-contact, precise inspection is preferred. In this study, the critical dimensions are automatically measured by the vision camera. The measured data are analyzed to classify the quality characteristics. The automated inspection and classification techniques developed in this study are expected to improve the quality of the fabricated scaffolds and reduce the overall cost of manufacturing.

  4. Investigation of cancer cell behavior on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szot, Christopher S.; Buchanan, Cara F. [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Gatenholm, Paul [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Rylander, Marissa Nichole [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Freeman, Joseph W., E-mail: jwfreeman@vt.edu [School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering and the use of nanofibrous biomaterial scaffolds offer a unique perspective for studying cancer development in vitro. Current in vitro models of tumorigenesis are limited by the use of static, two-dimensional (2D) cell culture monolayers that lack the structural architecture necessary for cell-cell interaction and three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that are too simplistic for studying basic pathological mechanisms. In this study, two nanofibrous biomaterials that mimic the structure of the extracellular matrix, bacterial cellulose and electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen I, were investigated as potential 3D scaffolds for an in vitro cancer model. Multiple cancer cell lines were cultured on each scaffold material and monitored for cell viability, proliferation, adhesion, infiltration, and morphology. Both bacterial cellulose and electrospun PCL/collagen I, which have nano-scale structures on the order of 100-500 nm, have been used in many diverse tissue engineering applications. Cancer cell adhesion and growth were limited on bacterial cellulose, while all cellular processes were enhanced on the electrospun scaffolds. This initial analysis has demonstrated the potential of electrospun PCL/collagen I scaffolds toward the development of an improved 3D in vitro cancer model.

  5. Scaffolding as an effort for thinking process optimization on heredity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, N. R.; Masykuri, M.; Prayitno, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Thinking is an activity and process of manipulating and transforming data or information into memory. Thinking process is different between one and other person. Thinking process can be developed by interaction between student and their environment, such as scaffolding. Given scaffolding is based on each student necessity. There are 2 level on scaffolding such as explaining, reviewing, and restructuring; and developing conceptual thinking. This research is aimed to describe student’s thinking process on heredity especially on inheritance that is before and after scaffolding. This research used descriptive qualitative method. There were three kinds of subject degree such as the students with high, middle, and low achieving students. The result showed that subjects had some difficulty in dihybrid inheritance question in different place. Most difficulty was on determining the number of different characteristic, parental genotype, gamete, and ratio of genotype and phenotype F2. Based on discussed during scaffolding showed that the subjects have some misunderstanding terms and difficulty to determine parental, gamete, genotype, and phenotype. Final result in this research showed that the subjects develop thinking process higher after scaffolding. Therefore the subjects can solve question properly.

  6. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticles scaffolds with shape memory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cristina O; Leite, Álvaro J; Mano, João F

    2015-06-05

    We propose a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce CHT/BG-NPs scaffolds that combine the shape memory properties of chitosan and the biomineralization ability of BG-NPs for applications in bone regeneration. The addition of BG-NPs prepared by a sol-gel route to the CHT polymeric matrix improved the bioactivity of the nanocomposite scaffold, as seen by the precipitation of bone-like apatite layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Shape memory tests were carried out while the samples were immersed in varying compositions of water/ethanol mixtures. Dehydration with ethanol enables to fix a temporary shape of a deformed scaffold that recovers the initial geometry upon water uptake. The scaffolds present good shape memory properties characterized by a recovery ratio of 87.5% for CHT and 89.9% for CHT/BG-NPs and a fixity ratio of 97.2% for CHT and 98.2% for CHT/BG-NPs (for 30% compressive deformation). The applicability of such structures was demonstrated by a good geometrical accommodation of a previously compressed scaffold in a bone defect. The results indicate that the developed CHT/BG-NPs nanocomposite scaffolds have potential for being applied in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanoactive scaffold induces tendon remodeling and expression of fibrocartilage markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Vyner, Moira C; Jacobs, Matthew T; Moffat, Kristen L; Lu, Helen H

    2008-08-01

    Biological fixation of soft tissue-based grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction poses a major clinical challenge. The ACL integrates with subchondral bone through a fibrocartilage enthesis, which serves to minimize stress concentrations and enables load transfer between two distinct tissue types. Functional integration thus requires the reestablishment of this fibrocartilage interface on reconstructed ACL grafts. We designed and characterized a novel mechanoactive scaffold based on a composite of poly-alpha-hydroxyester nanofibers and sintered microspheres; we then used the scaffold to test the hypothesis that scaffold-induced compression of tendon grafts would result in matrix remodeling and the expression of fibrocartilage interface-related markers. Histology coupled with confocal microscopy and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the effects of scaffold-induced compression on tendon matrix collagen distribution, cellularity, proteoglycan content, and gene expression over a 2-week period. Scaffold contraction resulted in over 15% compression of the patellar tendon graft and upregulated the expression of fibrocartilage-related markers such as Type II collagen, aggrecan, and transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3). Additionally, proteoglycan content was higher in the compressed tendon group after 1 day. The data suggest the potential of a mechanoactive scaffold to promote the formation of an anatomic fibrocartilage enthesis on tendon-based ACL reconstruction grafts.

  8. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rounsley Steve

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Results Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. Conclusions The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  9. Scaffold filling, contig fusion and comparative gene order inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Adriana; Zheng, Chunfang; Zhu, Qian; Albert, Victor A; Rounsley, Steve; Sankoff, David

    2010-06-04

    There has been a trend in increasing the phylogenetic scope of genome sequencing without finishing the sequence of the genome. Increasing numbers of genomes are being published in scaffold or contig form. Rearrangement algorithms, however, including gene order-based phylogenetic tools, require whole genome data on gene order or syntenic block order. How then can we use rearrangement algorithms to compare genomes available in scaffold form only? Can the comparative evidence predict the location of unsequenced genes? Our method involves optimally filling in genes missing from the scaffolds, while incorporating the augmented scaffolds directly into the rearrangement algorithms as if they were chromosomes. This is accomplished by an exact, polynomial-time algorithm. We then correct for the number of extra fusion/fission operations required to make scaffolds comparable to full assemblies. We model the relationship between the ratio of missing genes actually absent from the genome versus merely unsequenced ones, on one hand, and the increase of genomic distance after scaffold filling, on the other. We estimate the parameters of this model through simulations and by comparing the angiosperm genomes Ricinus communis and Vitis vinifera. The algorithm solves the comparison of genomes with 18,300 genes, including 4500 missing from one genome, in less than a minute on a MacBook, putting virtually all genomes within range of the method.

  10. Fabrication of chitin-chitosan/nano TiO2-composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Ramachandran, Roshni; Divyarani, V V; Chennazhi, K P; Tamura, H; Nair, S V

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we prepared chitin-chitosan/nano TiO(2) composite scaffolds using lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering. The prepared composite scaffold was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. In addition, swelling, degradation and biomineralization capability of the composite scaffolds were evaluated. The developed composite scaffold showed controlled swelling and degradation when compared to the control scaffold. Cytocompatibility of the scaffold was assessed by MTT assay and cell attachment studies using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63), fibroblast cells (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Results indicated no sign of toxicity and cells were found attached to the pore walls within the scaffolds. These results suggested that the developed composite scaffold possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering scaffolds and it can be used for tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Porous poly (lactic-co-glycolide) microsphere sintered scaffolds for tissue repair applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingjun; Shi Xuetao; Ren Li; Wang Chunming; Wang Dongan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new route to preparing porous poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds for bone tissue repair applications was developed. Novel porous PLGA scaffolds were fabricated via microsphere sintered technique and gas forming technique. Ammonium bicarbonate was used to regulate porosity of these porous scaffolds. Porosity of the scaffolds, and cell attachment, viability and proliferation on the scaffolds were evaluated. The results indicated that PLGA porous scaffolds were with the porosity from around 30% to 95% by regulating ammonium bicarbonate content from 0 to 10%. We also found that PLGA porous microsphere scaffolds benefited cell attachment and viability. Taken together, the achieved porous scaffolds have controlled porosity and also support mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, which could serve as potential scaffolds for bone repair applications.

  12. Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Reinforced Electrospun Alginate-Based Nanofibrous Scaffolds with Improved Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. De Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically robust alginate-based nanofibrous scaffolds were successfully fabricated by electrospinning method to mimic the natural extracellular matrix structure which benefits development and regeneration of tissues. Alginate-based nanofibres were electrospun from an alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA polyelectrolyte complex. SEM images revealed the spinnability of the complex composite nanofibrous scaffolds, showing randomly oriented, ultrafine, and virtually defects-free alginate-based/MgO nanofibrous scaffolds. Here, it is shown that an alginate/PVA complex scaffold, blended with near-spherical MgO nanoparticles (⌀ 45 nm at a predetermined concentration (10% (w/w, is electrospinnable to produce a complex composite nanofibrous scaffold with enhanced mechanical stability. For the comparison purpose, chemically cross-linked electrospun alginate-based scaffolds were also fabricated. Tensile test to rupture revealed the significant differences in the tensile strength and elastic modulus among the alginate scaffolds, alginate/MgO scaffolds, and cross-linked alginate scaffolds (P<0.05. In contrast to cross-linked alginate scaffolds, alginate/MgO scaffolds yielded the highest tensile strength and elastic modulus while preserving the interfibre porosity of the scaffolds. According to the thermogravimetric analysis, MgO reinforced alginate nanofibrous scaffolds exhibited improved thermal stability. These novel alginate-based/MgO scaffolds are economical and versatile and may be further optimised for use as extracellular matrix substitutes for repair and regeneration of tissues.

  13. [Three-dimensional parallel collagen scaffold promotes tendon extracellular matrix formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zefeng; Shen, Weiliang; Le, Huihui; Dai, Xuesong; Ouyang, Hongwei; Chen, Weishan

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of three-dimensional parallel collagen scaffold on the cell shape, arrangement and extracellular matrix formation of tendon stem cells. Parallel collagen scaffold was fabricated by unidirectional freezing technique, while random collagen scaffold was fabricated by freeze-drying technique. The effects of two scaffolds on cell shape and extracellular matrix formation were investigated in vitro by seeding tendon stem/progenitor cells and in vivo by ectopic implantation. Parallel and random collagen scaffolds were produced successfully. Parallel collagen scaffold was more akin to tendon than random collagen scaffold. Tendon stem/progenitor cells were spindle-shaped and unified orientated in parallel collagen scaffold, while cells on random collagen scaffold had disorder orientation. Two weeks after ectopic implantation, cells had nearly the same orientation with the collagen substance. In parallel collagen scaffold, cells had parallel arrangement, and more spindly cells were observed. By contrast, cells in random collagen scaffold were disorder. Parallel collagen scaffold can induce cells to be in spindly and parallel arrangement, and promote parallel extracellular matrix formation; while random collagen scaffold can induce cells in random arrangement. The results indicate that parallel collagen scaffold is an ideal structure to promote tendon repairing.

  14. Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joon; Park, Ju Young; Jeong, Wonju; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-04-01

    The regeneration of articular cartilage consisting of hyaline cartilage and hydrogel scaffolds has been generally used in tissue engineering. However, success in in vivo studies has been rarely reported. The hydrogel scaffolds implanted into articular cartilage defects are mechanically unstable and it is difficult for them to integrate with the surrounding native cartilage tissue. Therefore, it is needed to regenerate cartilage and bone tissue simultaneously. We developed hybrid scaffolds with hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue and with ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue. For in vivo study, hybrid scaffolds were press-fitted into osteochondral tissue defects in a rabbit knee joints and the cartilage tissue regeneration in blank, hydrogel scaffolds, and hybrid scaffolds was compared. In 12th week after implantation, the histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the cartilage tissue regeneration. In the blank and hydrogel scaffold groups, the defects were filled with fibrous tissues and the implanted hydrogel scaffolds could not maintain their initial position; in the hybrid scaffold group, newly generated cartilage tissues were morphologically similar to native cartilage tissues and were smoothly connected to the surrounding native tissues. This study demonstrates hybrid scaffolds containing hydrogel and ceramic scaffolds can provide mechanical stability to hydrogel scaffolds and enhance cartilage tissue regeneration at the defect site. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fabrication of chitosan/gallic acid 3D microporous scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ponrasu; Ramachandran, Balaji; Muthuvijayan, Vignesh

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the potential of gallic acid incorporated chitosan (CS/GA) 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Scaffolds were prepared by freezing and lyophilization technique and characterized. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of GA in chitosan (CS) gel. DSC and TGA analysis revealed that the structure of chitosan was not altered due to the incorporation of GA, but thermal stability was significantly increased compared to the CS scaffold. SEM micrographs showed smooth, homogeneous, and microporous architecture of the scaffolds with good interconnectivity. CS/GA scaffolds exhibited approximately 90% porosity on average, increased swelling (600-900%) and controlled biodegradation (15-40%) in PBS (pH 7.4 at 37°C) with 1 mg/mL of lysozyme. CS/GA scaffolds showed 2-4 fold decrease in CFUs (p < 0.05) for both gram positive and gram negative bacteria compared to the CS scaffold. Cytotoxicity of these scaffolds was evaluated using NIH 3T3 L1 fibroblast cells. CS/GA 0.25% scaffold showed similar viability with CS scaffold at 24 and 48 h. CS/GA scaffolds (0.5-1.0%) showed 60-75% viability at 24 h and 90% at 48 h. SEM images showed that an increased cell attachment was observed for CS/GA scaffolds compared to CS scaffolds. These findings authenticate that CS/GA scaffolds were cytocompatible and would be useful for tissue engineering applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gelatin–PMVE/MA composite scaffold promotes expansion of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Hemlata; Gupta, Priyanka; Verma, Paul J.; Jadhav, Sameer; Bellare, Jayesh R.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new composite scaffold of gelatin and polymethyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE/MA) for expansion of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in an in vitro environment. To optimize the scaffold, we prepared a gelatin scaffold (G) and three composite scaffolds namely GP-1, GP-2, and GP-3 with varying PMVE/MA concentrations (0.2–1%) and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling study, compression testing and FTIR. SEM micrographs revealed interconnected porous structure in all the scaffolds. The permissible hemolysis ratio and activation of platelets by scaffolds confirmed the hemocompatibility of scaffolds. Initial biocompatibility assessment of scaffolds was conducted using hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2) cells and adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of Hep G2 cells in depth of scaffolds were observed, proving the scaffold's biocompatibility. Further Oct4B2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which harbor a green fluorescence protein transgene under regulatory control of the Oct4 promotor, were examined for expansion on scaffolds with MTT assay. The GP-2 scaffold demonstrated the best cell proliferation and was further explored for ESC adherence and infiltration in depth (SEM and confocal), and pluripotent state of mESCs was assessed with the expression of Oct4-GFP and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1). This study reports the first demonstration of biocompatibility of gelatin–PMVE/MA composite scaffold and presents this scaffold as a promising candidate for embryonic stem cell based tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds of gelatin and PMVE/MA were prepared by freeze-drying method. • SEM micrographs showed porous structure in all scaffolds of varying pore dimension. • GP-2 composite exhibited better cellular response in comparison to other scaffolds. • mESCs proliferated and expressed Oct-4 and SSEA-1, when cultured on GP-2 scaffold

  17. The response of tenocytes to commercial scaffolds used for rotator cuff repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RDJ Smith

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients’ cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds, BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold, GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds. Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape. Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket promoted the greatest proliferation of cells over 13 days. Expression of collagen types I and III were upregulated in cells grown on non-cross-linked porcine dermis (Conexa. Interestingly, the ratio of collagen I to collagen III mRNA was lower on all dermal scaffolds compared to synthetic and biosynthetic scaffolds. These findings demonstrate significant differences in the response of patient-derived tendon cells to scaffolds that are routinely used for rotator cuff surgery. Synthetic scaffolds promoted increased cell adhesion and a tendon-like cellular phenotype, while biological scaffolds promoted cell proliferation and expression of collagen genes. However, no single scaffold was superior. Our results may help understand the way that patients’ cells interact with scaffolds and guide the development of new scaffolds in the future.

  18. Gelatin–PMVE/MA composite scaffold promotes expansion of embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Hemlata [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Gupta, Priyanka [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); IITB-Monash Research Academy, Mumbai (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Verma, Paul J. [Turretfield Research Centre, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Rosedale, South Australia (Australia); Jadhav, Sameer; Bellare, Jayesh R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a new composite scaffold of gelatin and polymethyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE/MA) for expansion of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in an in vitro environment. To optimize the scaffold, we prepared a gelatin scaffold (G) and three composite scaffolds namely GP-1, GP-2, and GP-3 with varying PMVE/MA concentrations (0.2–1%) and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling study, compression testing and FTIR. SEM micrographs revealed interconnected porous structure in all the scaffolds. The permissible hemolysis ratio and activation of platelets by scaffolds confirmed the hemocompatibility of scaffolds. Initial biocompatibility assessment of scaffolds was conducted using hepatocarcinoma (Hep G2) cells and adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of Hep G2 cells in depth of scaffolds were observed, proving the scaffold's biocompatibility. Further Oct4B2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which harbor a green fluorescence protein transgene under regulatory control of the Oct4 promotor, were examined for expansion on scaffolds with MTT assay. The GP-2 scaffold demonstrated the best cell proliferation and was further explored for ESC adherence and infiltration in depth (SEM and confocal), and pluripotent state of mESCs was assessed with the expression of Oct4-GFP and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1). This study reports the first demonstration of biocompatibility of gelatin–PMVE/MA composite scaffold and presents this scaffold as a promising candidate for embryonic stem cell based tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds of gelatin and PMVE/MA were prepared by freeze-drying method. • SEM micrographs showed porous structure in all scaffolds of varying pore dimension. • GP-2 composite exhibited better cellular response in comparison to other scaffolds. • mESCs proliferated and expressed Oct-4 and SSEA-1, when cultured on GP-2 scaffold.

  19. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, R; Rhodes, J; Ellis, R; Scoville, N; Capak, P [CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rhodes, J [CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Leauthaud, A; Kneib, J P [Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13376 Marseille, (France); Finoguenov, A [Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, (Germany); Bacon, D; Taylor, A [Inst Astron, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, (United Kingdom); Aussel, H; Refregier, A [CNRS, CEA, Unite Mixte Rech, AIM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Koekemoer, A; Mobasher, B [Univ Paris 07, CE Saclay, UMR 7158, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); McCracken, H [Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pires, S; Starck, J L [Univ Paris 06, Inst Astrophys Paris, F-75014 Paris, (France); Pires, S [Ctr Etud Saclay, CEA, DSM, DAPNIA, SEDI, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Sasaki, S; Taniguchi, Y [Ehime Univ, Dept Phys, Matsuyama, Ehime 7908577, (Japan); Taylor, J [Univ Waterloo, Dept Phys and Astron, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter - whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built. (authors)

  20. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Ellis, R.; Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Rhodes, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Kneib, J.P.; Finoguenov, A.; Bacon, D.; Taylor, A.; Aussel, H.; Refregier, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Mobasher, B.; McCracken, H.; Pires, S.; Starck, J.L.; Pires, S.; Sasaki, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Taylor, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter - whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built. (authors)

  1. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick; Leauthaud, Alexie; Finoguenov, Alexis; Capak, Peter; Bacon, David; Aussel, Hervé; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koekemoer, Anton; McCracken, Henry; Mobasher, Bahram; Pires, Sandrine; Refregier, Alexandre; Sasaki, Shunji; Starck, Jean-Luc; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Taylor, Andy; Taylor, James

    2007-01-18

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter--whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built.

  2. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Scaffolding conceptual change in early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn

    1990-01-01

    The general educational literature draws our attention to the limitations of Piaget’s work and presents a number of interesting ideas that science educators and researchers could consider. Of interest are Soviet psychologist Lev Vygotsky’s writings on the zone of proximal development and the more recent writings of Jerome Bruner on scaffolding. The notion of learning as a a socially constructed process in opposition to the more individualistic orientation of Piaget has challenged much of our educational practice. This paper will briefly explore the basic tenets of constructivism and contrast the theories developed from within this paradigm to the work of Vygotsky and Bruner through an analysis of classroom discourse collected from a number of early childhood classes involved in the interactive teaching approach to science. Transcripts of teacher-child discourse are presented as evidence to support the proposition that when the teacher’s role is not clearly defined, the range of teacher-child interactions will vary enormously, and the subsequent learning outcomes for children will be quite different.

  4. Novel Textile Scaffolds Generated by Flock Technology for Tissue Engineering of Bone and Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Anja; Hoyer, Birgit; Springer, Armin; Mrozik, Birgit; Hanke, Thomas; Cherif, Chokri; Pompe, Wolfgang; Gelinsky, Michael

    2012-03-22

    Textile scaffolds can be found in a variety of application areas in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In the present study we used electrostatic flocking-a well-known textile technology-to produce scaffolds for tissue engineering of bone. Flock scaffolds stand out due to their unique structure: parallel arranged fibers that are aligned perpendicularly to a substrate, resulting in mechanically stable structures with a high porosity. In compression tests we demonstrated good mechanical properties of such scaffolds and in cell culture experiments we showed that flock scaffolds allow attachment and proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and support their osteogenic differentiation. These matrices represent promising scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  5. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  6. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  7. An in vitro study of bone cells grown on an electrospun scaffold for bone repair and reconstruction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wepener, I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focuses on the manufacturing of the electrospun scaffold and the in vitro testing of this scaffold by making use of human cells. This scaffold is a possible candidate for repair and reconstruction of bone tissue....

  8. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Erika; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Takita, Hiroko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Momose, Takehito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Murakami, Shusuke; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold were, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold greater than those of the control. Particularly, the infiltration of ED2-positive (M2) macrophages and blood vessels were prominent in the GO scaffold. Dog bone-formation tests showed that 1 µg/mL GO scaffold implantation enhanced bone formation. New bone formation following GO scaffold implantation was enhanced fivefold compared to that in control subjects. These results suggest that GO was biocompatible and had high bone-formation capability for the scaffold

  9. Spiral-structured, nanofibrous, 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Valmikinathan, Chandra M; Liu, Wei; Laurencin, Cato T; Yu, Xiaojun

    2010-05-01

    Polymeric nanofiber matrices have already been widely used in tissue engineering. However, the fabrication of nanofibers into complex three-dimensional (3D) structures is restricted due to current manufacturing techniques. To overcome this limitation, we have incorporated nanofibers onto spiral-structured 3D scaffolds made of poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL). The spiral structure with open geometries, large surface areas, and porosity will be helpful for improving nutrient transport and cell penetration into the scaffolds, which are otherwise limited in conventional tissue-engineered scaffolds for large bone defects repair. To investigate the effect of structure and fiber coating on the performance of the scaffolds, three groups of scaffolds including cylindrical PCL scaffolds, spiral PCL scaffolds (without fiber coating), and spiral-structured fibrous PCL scaffolds (with fiber coating) have been prepared. The morphology, porosity, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds have been characterized. Furthermore, human osteoblast cells are seeded on these scaffolds, and the cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition on the scaffolds are evaluated. The results indicated that the spiral scaffolds possess porosities within the range of human trabecular bone and an appropriate pore structure for cell growth, and significantly lower compressive modulus and strength than cylindrical scaffolds. When compared with the cylindrical scaffolds, the spiral-structured scaffolds demonstrated enhanced cell proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization and allowed better cellular growth and penetration. The incorporation of nanofibers onto spiral scaffolds further enhanced cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. These studies suggest that spiral-structured nanofibrous scaffolds may serve as promising alternatives for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuoyue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Song, Yue [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Zhang, Jing [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); Liu, Wei [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Cui, Jihong, E-mail: cjh@nwu.edu.cn [Lab of Tissue Engineering, Faculty of Life Science, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Shaanxi, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710069 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Modern Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, 229 TaiBai North Road, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province, 710069 (China); and others

    2017-03-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  11. Laminated electrospun nHA/PHB-composite scaffolds mimicking bone extracellular matrix for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Song, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Cui, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning is an effective means to generate nano- to micro-scale polymer fibers resembling native extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. However, a major problem of electrospun materials is that limited pore size and porosity may prevent adequate cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. In this study, we first prepared thin layers of hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHA)/poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) via electrospinning. We then laminated the nHA/PHB thin layers to obtain a scaffold for cell seeding and bone tissue engineering. The results demonstrated that the laminated scaffold possessed optimized cell-loading capacity. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibited better adherence, proliferation and osteogenic phenotypes on nHA/PHB scaffolds than on PHB scaffolds. Thereafter, we seeded MSCs onto nHA/PHB scaffolds to fabricate bone grafts. Histological observation showed osteoid tissue formation throughout the scaffold, with most of the scaffold absorbed in the specimens 2 months after implantation, and blood vessels ingrowth into the graft could be observed in the graft. We concluded that electrospun and laminated nanoscaled biocomposite scaffolds hold great therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • We laminated the nHA/PHB layers to obtain a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. • The laminated scaffold performed optimized cell-loading capacity. • MSCs exhibited osteogenic phenotypes on the laminated scaffold. • Osteoid tissue formed throughout the laminated scaffold after 2 months in vivo. The laminated bio-composite scaffolds can be applied to bone regeneration.

  12. Reinforced nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 scaffolds by chitosan coating for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Wang, Yanying; Gao, Shibo; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Haohuai; Li, Yubao

    2012-01-01

    High porosity of scaffold is always accompanied by poor mechanical property; the aim of this study was to enhance the strength and modulus of the highly porous scaffold of nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) by coating chitosan (CS) and to investigate the effect of CS content on the scaffold physical properties and cytological properties. The results show that CS coating can reinforce the scaffold effectively. The compress modulus and strength of the CS coated n-HA/PA66 scaffolds are improved to 32.71 and 2.38 MPa, respectively, being about six times and five times of those of the uncoated scaffolds. Meanwhile, the scaffolds still exhibit a highly interconnected porous structure and the porosity is approximate about 78%, slightly lower than the value (84%) of uncoated scaffold. The cytological properties of scaffolds were also studied in vitro by cocultured with osteoblast-like MG63 cells. The cytological experiments demonstrate that the reinforced scaffolds display favorable cytocompatibility and have no significant difference with the uncoated n-HA/PA66 scaffolds. The CS reinforced n-HA/PA66 scaffolds can meet the basic mechanical requirement of bone tissue engineering scaffold, presenting a potential for biomedical application in bone reconstruction and repair. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C.; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold with interconnected pores was prepared • Cytotoxicity test showed that the scaffold was not cytotoxic towards MC3T3-E1 cells • The scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells • A 3D cell colonization was confirmed using the fluorescence microscopy • The scaffold might be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering

  14. 3D conductive nanocomposite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahini A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aref Shahini,1 Mostafa Yazdimamaghani,2 Kenneth J Walker,2 Margaret A Eastman,3 Hamed Hatami-Marbini,4 Brenda J Smith,5 John L Ricci,6 Sundar V Madihally,2 Daryoosh Vashaee,1 Lobat Tayebi2,7 1School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, 2School of Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, 4School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA; 6Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, New York University, New York, NY; 7School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK, USA Abstract: Bone healing can be significantly expedited by applying electrical stimuli in the injured region. Therefore, a three-dimensional (3D ceramic conductive tissue engineering scaffold for large bone defects that can locally deliver the electrical stimuli is highly desired. In the present study, 3D conductive scaffolds were prepared by employing a biocompatible conductive polymer, ie, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene poly(4-styrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS, in the optimized nanocomposite of gelatin and bioactive glass. For in vitro analysis, adult human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded in the scaffolds. Material characterizations using hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance, in vitro degradation, as well as thermal and mechanical analysis showed that incorporation of PEDOT:PSS increased the physiochemical stability of the composite, resulting in improved mechanical properties and biodegradation resistance. The outcomes indicate that PEDOT:PSS and polypeptide chains have close interaction, most likely by forming salt bridges between arginine side chains and sulfonate groups. The morphology of the scaffolds and cultured human mesenchymal stem cells were observed and analyzed via scanning electron microscope, micro-computed tomography, and confocal fluorescent

  15. Cell-matrix mechanical interaction in electrospun polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering: Implications for scaffold design and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2017-03-01

    Engineered scaffolds produced by electrospinning of biodegradable polymers offer a 3D, nanofibrous environment with controllable structural, chemical, and mechanical properties that mimic the extracellular matrix of native tissues and have shown promise for a number of tissue engineering applications. The microscale mechanical interactions between cells and electrospun matrices drive cell behaviors including migration and differentiation that are critical to promote tissue regeneration. Recent developments in understanding these mechanical interactions in electrospun environments are reviewed, with emphasis on how fiber geometry and polymer structure impact on the local mechanical properties of scaffolds, how altering the micromechanics cues cell behaviors, and how, in turn, cellular and extrinsic forces exerted on the matrix mechanically remodel an electrospun scaffold throughout tissue development. Techniques used to measure and visualize these mechanical interactions are described. We provide a critical outlook on technological gaps that must be overcome to advance the ability to design, assess, and manipulate the mechanical environment in electrospun scaffolds toward constructs that may be successfully applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering requires design of scaffolds that interact with cells to promote tissue development. Electrospinning is a promising technique for fabricating fibrous, biomimetic scaffolds. Effects of electrospun matrix microstructure and biochemical properties on cell behavior have been extensively reviewed previously; here, we consider cell-matrix interaction from a mechanical perspective. Micromechanical properties as a driver of cell behavior has been well established in planar substrates, but more recently, many studies have provided new insights into mechanical interaction in fibrillar, electrospun environments. This review provides readers with an overview of how electrospun scaffold mechanics and

  16. Development of nanofibrous scaffolds containing gum tragacanth/poly (ε-caprolactone) for application as skin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrami, S. Hajir, E-mail: hajirb@aut.ac.ir [Textile Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center for excellence Modern Textile Characterization, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-01

    Outstanding wound healing activity of gum tragacanth (GT) and higher mechanical strength of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) may produce an excellent nanofibrous patch for either skin tissue engineering or wound dressing application. PCL/GT scaffold containing different concentrations of PCL with different blend ratios of GT/PCL was produced using 90% acetic acid as solvent. The results demonstrated that the PCL/GT (3:1.5) with PCL concentration of 20% (w/v) produced nanofibers with proper morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize the nanofibers. Surface wettability, functional groups analysis, porosity and tensile properties of nanofibers were evaluated. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of GT to PCL solution results in decreasing the average diameter of the PCL/GT nanofibers. However, the hydrophilicity increased in the PCL/GT nanofibers. Slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. PCL/GT nanofibers were used for in vitro cell culture of human fibroblast cell lines AGO and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. MTT assay and SEM results showed that the biocomposite PCL/GT mats enhanced the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation compared to PCL scaffolds. The antibacterial activity of PCL/GT and GT nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also examined. - Highlights: • A new skin tissue engineering scaffold from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gum tragacanth (GT) has been developed. • These scaffolds might be an effectual simulator of the structure and composition of native skin. • Very slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. • Biodegradation, water uptake and hydrophilicity properties of these scaffolds showed that produced scaffolds were adherent. • The electrospun PCL/GT scaffold can promote the skin regeneration of full

  17. Development of nanofibrous scaffolds containing gum tragacanth/poly (ε-caprolactone) for application as skin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Bahrami, S. Hajir

    2015-01-01

    Outstanding wound healing activity of gum tragacanth (GT) and higher mechanical strength of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) may produce an excellent nanofibrous patch for either skin tissue engineering or wound dressing application. PCL/GT scaffold containing different concentrations of PCL with different blend ratios of GT/PCL was produced using 90% acetic acid as solvent. The results demonstrated that the PCL/GT (3:1.5) with PCL concentration of 20% (w/v) produced nanofibers with proper morphology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to characterize the nanofibers. Surface wettability, functional groups analysis, porosity and tensile properties of nanofibers were evaluated. Morphological characterization showed that the addition of GT to PCL solution results in decreasing the average diameter of the PCL/GT nanofibers. However, the hydrophilicity increased in the PCL/GT nanofibers. Slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. PCL/GT nanofibers were used for in vitro cell culture of human fibroblast cell lines AGO and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. MTT assay and SEM results showed that the biocomposite PCL/GT mats enhanced the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation compared to PCL scaffolds. The antibacterial activity of PCL/GT and GT nanofibers against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also examined. - Highlights: • A new skin tissue engineering scaffold from poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gum tragacanth (GT) has been developed. • These scaffolds might be an effectual simulator of the structure and composition of native skin. • Very slight increase in melting peaks was observed due to the blending of PCL with GT nanofibers. • Biodegradation, water uptake and hydrophilicity properties of these scaffolds showed that produced scaffolds were adherent. • The electrospun PCL/GT scaffold can promote the skin regeneration of full

  18. Effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The affiliated hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000 (China); Qing, Quan [Sichuan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Mianyang 621000 (China); Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chen, Xi; Liu, Cheng-Jun; Luo, Jing-Cong [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jin-Lian [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Qin, Ting-Wu, E-mail: tingwuqin@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The shapes of tenocytes varied when seeded on different surface of scaffolds. • Tenocytes were flat on smooth surface and spindle on micro-grooved surface. • Tenocytes were ellipse or spindle on porous surface. • Tenocytes got varying adhesion shape and elongation index on varying surfaces. • The tenocyte survival on porous surface was superior to the other two groups. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scaffold surface morphology on cell adhesion and survival rate in vitreous cryopreservation of tenocyte-scaffold constructs. Tenocytes were obtained from tail tendons of rats. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate three types of scaffolds with varying surface morphological characteristics, i.e., smooth, micro-grooved, and porous surfaces, respectively. The tenocytes were seeded on the surfaces of the scaffolds to form tenocyte-scaffold constructs. The constructs were cryopreserved in a vitreous cryoprotectant (CPA) with a multi-step protocol. The cell adhesion to scaffolds was observed with electronic scanning microscopy (SEM). The elongation index of the living tenocytes and ratio of live/dead cell number were examined based on a live/dead dual fluorescent staining technique, and the survival rate of tenocytes was studied with flow cytometry (FC). The results showed the shapes of tenocytes varied between the different groups: flat or polygonal (on smooth surface), spindle (on micro-grooved surface), and spindle or ellipse (on porous surface). After thawing, the porous surface got the most living tenocytes and a higher survival rate, suggesting its potential application for vitreous cryopreservation of engineered tendon constructs.

  19. Polycaprolactone Scaffolds Fabricated via Bioextrusion for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Domingos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The most promising approach in Tissue Engineering involves the seeding of porous, biocompatible/biodegradable scaffolds, with donor cells to promote tissue regeneration. Additive biomanufacturing processes are increasingly recognized as ideal techniques to produce 3D structures with optimal pore size and spatial distribution, providing an adequate mechanical support for tissue regeneration while shaping in-growing tissues. This paper presents a novel extrusion-based system to produce 3D scaffolds with controlled internal/external geometry for TE applications.The BioExtruder is a low-cost system that uses a proper fabrication code based on the ISO programming language enabling the fabrication of multimaterial scaffolds. Poly(ε-caprolactone was the material chosen to produce porous scaffolds, made by layers of directionally aligned microfilaments. Chemical, morphological, and in vitro biological evaluation performed on the polymeric constructs revealed a high potential of the BioExtruder to produce 3D scaffolds with regular and reproducible macropore architecture, without inducing relevant chemical and biocompatibility alterations of the material.

  20. Injectable biomimetic liquid crystalline scaffolds enhance muscle stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Eduard; McClendon, Mark T.; Preslar, Adam T.; Chen, Charlotte H.; Sangji, M. Hussain; Pérez, Charles M. Rubert; Haynes, Russell D.; Meade, Thomas J.; Blau, Helen M.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle stem cells are a potent cell population dedicated to efficacious skeletal muscle regeneration, but their therapeutic utility is currently limited by mode of delivery. We developed a cell delivery strategy based on a supramolecular liquid crystal formed by peptide amphiphiles (PAs) that encapsulates cells and growth factors within a muscle-like unidirectionally ordered environment of nanofibers. The stiffness of the PA scaffolds, dependent on amino acid sequence, was found to determine the macroscopic degree of cell alignment templated by the nanofibers in vitro. Furthermore, these PA scaffolds support myogenic progenitor cell survival and proliferation and they can be optimized to induce cell differentiation and maturation. We engineered an in vivo delivery system to assemble scaffolds by injection of a PA solution that enabled coalignment of scaffold nanofibers with endogenous myofibers. These scaffolds locally retained growth factors, displayed degradation rates matching the time course of muscle tissue regeneration, and markedly enhanced the engraftment of muscle stem cells in injured and noninjured muscles in mice. PMID:28874575

  1. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Manufacturing of calcium phosphate scaffolds by pseudomorphic transformation of gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Batista, H. de.; Batista Cardoso, M.; Sales Vasconcelos, A.; Vinicius Lia Fook, M.; Rodriguez Barbero, M. A.; Garcia Carrodeguas, R.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been employed for decades as constituents of scaffolds for bone regeneration because they chemically resemble bone mineral. In this study, the feasibility to manufacture CHAp/β-TCP scaffolds by pseudomorphic transformation of casted blocks of gypsum was investigated. The transformation was carried out by immersing the precursor gypsum block in 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}/1.33 M NH{sub 4}OH solution with liquid/solid ratio of 10 mL/g and autoclaving at 120 degree centigrade and 203 kPa (2 atm) for 3 h at least. Neither shape nor dimensions significantly changed during transformation. The composition of scaffolds treated for 3 h was 70 wt.% CHAp and 30 wt.% β-TCP, and their compressive and diametral compressive strengths were 6.5 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ±0.7 MPa, respectively. By increasing the time of treatment to 6 h, the composition of the scaffold enriched in β-TCP (60 wt.% CHAp and 40 wt.% β-TCP) but its compressive and diametral compressive strengths were not significantly affected (6.7 ± 0.9 and 5.4 ± 0.6 MPa, respectively). On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that this route is a good approach to the manufacturing of biphasic (CHAp/β-TCP) scaffolds from previously shaped pieces of gypsum. (Author)

  3. Emerging bone tissue engineering via Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-based scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Janice; You, Mingliang; Li, Jian; Li, Zibiao

    2017-10-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a class of biodegradable polymers derived from microorganisms. On top of their biodegradability and biocompatibility, different PHA types can contribute to varying mechanical and chemical properties. This has led to increasing attention to the use of PHAs in numerous biomedical applications over the past few decades. Bone tissue engineering refers to the regeneration of new bone through providing mechanical support while inducing cell growth on the PHA scaffolds having a porous structure for tissue regeneration. This review first introduces the various properties PHA scaffold that make them suitable for bone tissue engineering such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical properties as well as vascularization. The typical fabrication techniques of PHA scaffolds including electrospinning, salt-leaching and solution casting are further discussed, followed by the relatively new technology of using 3D printing in PHA scaffold fabrication. Finally, the recent progress of using different types of PHAs scaffold in bone tissue engineering applications are summarized in intrinsic PHA/blends forms or as composites with other polymeric or inorganic hybrid materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel scaffold design with multi-grooved PLA fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sangwon; King, Martin W; Gamcsik, Mike P

    2011-01-01

    A novel prototype nonwoven textile structure containing polylactide (PLA) multigrooved fibers has been proposed as a possible scaffold material for superior cell attachment and proliferation. Grooved cross-sectional fibers with larger surface area were obtained by a bi-component spinning system and the complete removal of the sacrificial component was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. These PLA nonwoven scaffolds containing the grooved fibers exhibited enhanced wettability, greater flexibility and tensile properties, and a larger surface area compared to a traditional PLA nonwoven fabric containing round fibers. To evaluate cellular attachment on the two types of PLA nonwoven scaffolds, NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured for up to 12 days. It was evident that the initial cellular attachment was superior on the scaffold with grooved fibers, which was confirmed by MTT viability assay (p < 0.01) and SEM analysis. In the future, by modulating the size of the grooves on the fibers, such a scaffold material with a large surface area could serve as an alternative matrix for culturing different types of cells.

  5. Osteochondral tissue engineering: scaffolds, stem cells and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Salih, Vehid; Beier, Justus P; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondral tissue engineering has shown an increasing development to provide suitable strategies for the regeneration of damaged cartilage and underlying subchondral bone tissue. For reasons of the limitation in the capacity of articular cartilage to self-repair, it is essential to develop approaches based on suitable scaffolds made of appropriate engineered biomaterials. The combination of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics in a variety of composite structures is promising in this area, whereby the fabrication methods, associated cells and signalling factors determine the success of the strategies. The objective of this review is to present and discuss approaches being proposed in osteochondral tissue engineering, which are focused on the application of various materials forming bilayered composite scaffolds, including polymers and ceramics, discussing the variety of scaffold designs and fabrication methods being developed. Additionally, cell sources and biological protein incorporation methods are discussed, addressing their interaction with scaffolds and highlighting the potential for creating a new generation of bilayered composite scaffolds that can mimic the native interfacial tissue properties, and are able to adapt to the biological environment. PMID:22452848

  6. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S R; Rodrigues, G; Martins, G G; Henriques, C M R; Silva, J C

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Porzionato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, E. de; Motisuke, M.; Bertran, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    In Tissue Engineering, the need for scaffolds which are capable of guiding the organization, differentiation and growth of cells leading to the formation of new tissues is highly relevant. For the development of new scaffolds focused on bone tissue therapy, calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have great potential, because besides their resorbability, they present morphology and chemical composition similar to the bone mineral phase. Moreover, there are several processing techniques to produce ceramic scaffolds: polymeric sponge replication, incorporation of organic material into the ceramic powder, gelcasting, emulsion, among others. The aim of this work was to obtain CPCs scaffolds by using two techniques, emulsion and gelcasting. The scaffolds were characterized by their physical and mechanical properties and the crystalline phases formed after the setting reaction of cement were determined by X-ray diffraction. The samples obtained by both methods presented porosity between 61-65% and the microstructure consists of nearly spherical pores (d5o = 50-100 μm). The mechanical strength of the samples ranged from 5.5 to 1.5 MPa. The crystalline phases found were monetite (CaHPO 4 ) and brushite (CaHPO 4 2H 2 O). (author)

  9. Computer aided design of architecture of degradable tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heljak, M K; Kurzydlowski, K J; Swieszkowski, W

    2017-11-01

    One important factor affecting the process of tissue regeneration is scaffold stiffness loss, which should be properly balanced with the rate of tissue regeneration. The aim of the research reported here was to develop a computer tool for designing the architecture of biodegradable scaffolds fabricated by melt-dissolution deposition systems (e.g. Fused Deposition Modeling) to provide the required scaffold stiffness at each stage of degradation/regeneration. The original idea presented in the paper is that the stiffness of a tissue engineering scaffold can be controlled during degradation by means of a proper selection of the diameter of the constituent fibers and the distances between them. This idea is based on the size-effect on degradation of aliphatic polyesters. The presented computer tool combines a genetic algorithm and a diffusion-reaction model of polymer hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we show how to design the architecture of scaffolds made of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) with the required Young's modulus change during hydrolytic degradation.

  10. Multilayer porous UHMWPE scaffolds for bone defects replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimkin, A V; Senatov, F S; Anisimova, N Yu; Kiselevskiy, M V; Zalepugin, D Yu; Chernyshova, I V; Tilkunova, N A; Kaloshkin, S D

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the structural integrity of the damaged bone tissue is an urgent problem. UHMWPE may be potentially used for the manufacture of porous implants simulating as closely as possible the porous cancellous bone tissue. But the extremely high molecular weight of the polymer does not allow using traditional methods of foaming. Porous and multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds with nonporous bulk layer and porous layer that mimics cancellous bone architecture were obtained by solid-state mixing, thermopressing and washing in subcritical water. Structural and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. Porous UHMWPE samples were also studied in vitro and in vivo. The pores of UHMWPE scaffold are open and interconnected. Volume porosity of the obtained samples was 79±2%; the pore size range was 80-700μm. Strong connection of the two layers in multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds was observed with decreased number of fusion defects. Functionality of implants based on multilayer UHMWPE scaffolds is provided by the fixation of scaffolds in the bone defect through ingrowths of the connective tissue into the pores, which ensures the maintenance of the animals' mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Proangiogenic scaffolds as functional templates for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauran R; Mortisen, Derek J; Sussman, Eric M; Dupras, Sarah K; Fugate, James A; Cuy, Janet L; Hauch, Kip D; Laflamme, Michael A; Murry, Charles E; Ratner, Buddy D

    2010-08-24

    We demonstrate here a cardiac tissue-engineering strategy addressing multicellular organization, integration into host myocardium, and directional cues to reconstruct the functional architecture of heart muscle. Microtemplating is used to shape poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel into a tissue-engineering scaffold with architectures driving heart tissue integration. The construct contains parallel channels to organize cardiomyocyte bundles, supported by micrometer-sized, spherical, interconnected pores that enhance angiogenesis while reducing scarring. Surface-modified scaffolds were seeded with human ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes and cultured in vitro. Cardiomyocytes survived and proliferated for 2 wk in scaffolds, reaching adult heart densities. Cardiac implantation of acellular scaffolds with pore diameters of 30-40 microm showed angiogenesis and reduced fibrotic response, coinciding with a shift in macrophage phenotype toward the M2 state. This work establishes a foundation for spatially controlled cardiac tissue engineering by providing discrete compartments for cardiomyocytes and stroma in a scaffold that enhances vascularization and integration while controlling the inflammatory response.

  12. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  13. Novel Resorbable and Osteoconductive Calcium Silicophosphate Scaffold Induced Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This aim of this research was to develop a novel ceramic scaffold to evaluate the response of bone after ceramic implantation in New Zealand (NZ rabbits. Ceramics were prepared by the polymer replication method and inserted into NZ rabbits. Macroporous scaffolds with interconnected round-shaped pores (0.5–1.5 mm = were prepared. The scaffold acted as a physical support where cells with osteoblastic capability were found to migrate, develop processes, and newly immature and mature bone tissue colonized on the surface (initially and in the material’s interior. The new ceramic induced about 62.18% ± 2.28% of new bone and almost complete degradation after six healing months. An elemental analysis showed that the gradual diffusion of Ca and Si ions from scaffolds into newly formed bone formed part of the biomaterial’s resorption process. Histological and radiological studies demonstrated that this porous ceramic scaffold showed biocompatibility and excellent osteointegration and osteoinductive capacity, with no interposition of fibrous tissue between the implanted material and the hematopoietic bone marrow interphase, nor any immune response after six months of implantation. No histological changes were observed in the various organs studied (para-aortic lymph nodes, liver, kidney and lung as a result of degradation products being released.

  14. Surface-modified functionalized polycaprolactone scaffolds for bone repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal; Svend Le, Dang Quang

    2014-01-01

    A porcine calvaria defect study was carried out to investigate the bone repair potential of three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with nanoporous PCL. A microscopic grid network was created by rapid prototyping making a 3D-fused deposition model (FDM-PCL). Af......A porcine calvaria defect study was carried out to investigate the bone repair potential of three-dimensional (3D)-printed poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds embedded with nanoporous PCL. A microscopic grid network was created by rapid prototyping making a 3D-fused deposition model (FDM......-PCL). Afterward, the FDM-PCL scaffolds were infused with a mixture of PCL, water, and 1,4-dioxane and underwent a thermal-induced phase separation (TIPS) followed by lyophilization. The TIPS process lead to a nanoporous structure shielded by the printed microstructure (NSP-PCL). Sixteen Landrace pigs were divided...... into two groups with 8 and 12 weeks follow-up, respectively. A total of six nonpenetrating holes were drilled in the calvaria of each animal. The size of the cylindrical defects was h 10 mm and Ø 10 mm. The defects were distributed randomly using following groups: (a) NSP-PCL scaffold, (b) FDM-PCL scaffold...

  15. Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael

    2013-11-12

    A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.

  16. A gelatin composite scaffold strengthened by drug-loaded halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijun; Qiao, Wei; Zhang, Yuheng; Wu, Huayu; Miao, Shiyong; Cheng, Zhilin; Gong, Qianming; Liang, Ji; Zhu, Aiping

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical properties and anti-infection are two of the most concerned issues for artificial bone grafting materials. Bone regeneration porous scaffolds with sustained drug release were developed by freeze-drying the mixture of nanosized drug-loaded halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and gelatin. The scaffolds showed porous structure and excellent biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of the obtained composite scaffolds were enhanced significantly by HNTs to >300%, comparing to those of gelatin scaffold, and match to those of natural cancellous bones. The ibuprofen-loaded HNTs incorporated in the scaffolds allowed extended drug release over 100h, comparing to 8h when directly mixed the drug into the gelatin scaffold. The biological properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated by culturing MG63 cells on them. The HNTs/gelatin scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties and sustained drug release could be a promising artificial bone grating material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of electrospun scaffolds prepared from distinct polymers on proliferation and viability of endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, V. G., E-mail: matveeva-vg@mail.ru; Antonova, L. V., E-mail: antonova.la@mail.ru; Velikanova, E. A.; Sergeeva, E. A.; Krivkina, E. O.; Glushkova, T. V.; Kudryavtseva, Yu. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, 650002 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    We compared electrospun nonwoven scaffolds from polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and polyhydroxybutyrate/valerate (PHBV)/polycaprolactone (PHBV/PCL). The surface of PHBV/PCL and PCL scaffolds was highly porous and consisted of randomly distributed fibers, whilst the surface of PLA scaffolds consisted of thin straight fibers, which located more sparsely, forming large pores. Culture of EA.hy 926 endothelial cells on these scaffolds during 7 days and further fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that the surface of PHBV/PCL scaffolds was most favorable for efficient adhesion, proliferation, and viability of endothelial cells. The lowest proliferation rate and cell viability were detected on PLA scaffolds. Therefore, PHBV/PCL electrospun nonwoven scaffolds demonstrated the best results regarding endothelial cell proliferation and viability as compared to PCL and PLA scaffolds.

  18. Improved cell activity on biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds using titanate nanotube coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beke, S., E-mail: szabolcs.beke@iit.it [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Barenghi, R. [IEIIT, National Research Council (CNR), Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Farkas, B.; Romano, I. [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Kőrösi, L. [Department of Biotechnology, Nanophage Therapy Center, Enviroinvest Corporation, Kertváros u. 2, H-7632 Pécs (Hungary); Scaglione, S. [IEIIT, National Research Council (CNR), Via De Marini 6, 16149 Genova (Italy); Brandi, F. [Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124-Pisa (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    The development of bioactive materials is in the premise of tissue engineering. For several years, surface functionalization of scaffolds has been one of the most promising approaches to stimulate cellular activity and finally improve implant success. Herein, we describe the development of a bioactive composite scaffold composed of a biodegradable photopolymer scaffold and titanate nanotubes (TNTs). The biodegradable photopolymer scaffolds were fabricated by applying mask-projection excimer laser photocuring at 308 nm. TNTs were synthesized and then spin-coated on the porous scaffolds. Upon culturing fibroblast cells on scaffolds, we found that nanotubes coating affects cell viability and proliferation demonstrating that TNT coatings enhance cell growth on the scaffolds by further improving their surface topography. - Highlights: • Biodegradable scaffolds were produced by mask-assisted UV laser photocuring. • Titanate nanotube deposition was carried out without binding compounds or additives. • Titanate nanotube coatings enhanced cell viability and proliferation.

  19. Conducting Polymer Scaffolds for Hosting and Monitoring 3D Cell Culture

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika; Hama, Adel; Ferro, Magali; Pitsalidis, Charalampos; Oziat, Julie; Iandolo, Donata; Pappa, Anna-Maria; Hadida, Mikhael; Huerta, Miriam; Marchat, David; Mailley, Pascal; Owens, Ró isí n M.

    2017-01-01

    to their biocompatibility and tissue-like elasticity, which can be manipulated by inclusion of biopolymers such as collagen. Integration of a media perfusion tube inside the scaffold enables homogenous cell spreading and fluid transport throughout the scaffold, ensuring

  20. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  1. Image-Based Three-Dimensional Analysis to Characterize the Texture of Porous Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Massai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to characterize the microstructure of composite scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration containing different ratios of chitosan/gelatin blend and bioactive glasses. Starting from realistic 3D models of the scaffolds reconstructed from micro-CT images, the level of heterogeneity of scaffold architecture is evaluated performing a lacunarity analysis. The results demonstrate that the presence of the bioactive glass component affects not only macroscopic features such as porosity, but mainly scaffold microarchitecture giving rise to structural heterogeneity, which could have an impact on the local cell-scaffold interaction and scaffold performances. The adopted approach allows to investigate the scale-dependent pore distribution within the scaffold and the related structural heterogeneity features, providing a comprehensive characterization of the scaffold texture.

  2. Surface-enrichment with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in stereolithography-fabricated composite polymer scaffolds promotes bone repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume, O.; Geven, M. A.; Sprecher, C. M.; Stadelmann, V. A.; Grijpma, D. W.; Tang, T.T.; Qin, L.; Lai, Y.; Alini, M.; de Bruijn, J. D.; Yuan, H.; Richards, R.G.; Eglin, D.

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of composite scaffolds using stereolithography (SLA) for bone tissue engineering has shown great promises. However, in order to trigger effective bone formation and implant integration, exogenous growth factors are commonly combined to scaffold materials. In this study, we fabricated

  3. A comparison of scaffold-free and scaffold-based reconstructed human skin models as alternatives to animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikoglu, Beste

    2017-12-01

    Tissue engineered full-thickness human skin substitutes have various applications in the clinic and in the laboratory, such as in the treatment of burns or deep skin defects, and as reconstructed human skin models in the safety testing of drugs and cosmetics and in the fundamental study of skin biology and pathology. So far, different approaches have been proposed for the generation of reconstructed skin, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. Here, the classic tissue engineering approach, based on cell-seeded polymeric scaffolds, is compared with the less-studied cell self-assembly approach, where the cells are coaxed to synthesise their own extracellular matrix (ECM). The resulting full-thickness human skin substitutes were analysed by means of histological and immunohistochemical analyses. It was found that both the scaffold-free and the scaffold-based skin equivalents successfully mimicked the functionality and morphology of native skin, with complete epidermal differentiation (as determined by the expression of filaggrin), the presence of a continuous basement membrane expressing collagen VII, and new ECM deposition by dermal fibroblasts. On the other hand, the scaffold-free model had a thicker epidermis and a significantly higher number of Ki67-positive proliferative cells, indicating a higher capacity for self-renewal, as compared to the scaffold-based model. 2017 FRAME.

  4. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Komisarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study, performed with participation of research workers of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry and Institute of Organic Chemist­ry of NAS of Ukraine, is devoted to analysis of biochemical effects of some calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids (cyclic phenol oligomers on two well-known biological phenomenons – Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis (myosin subfragment-1 of myometrium smooth muscle was used as an example and fibrin polymerization. Calix[4]arene С-97 (calix[4]arene methylene bisphosphonic acids is a macrocyclic substance, which contains intramolecular highly ordered lipophilic cavity formed by four aromatic rings, one of which is functionalized at the upper rim with methylene bisphosphonic group. At concentration of 100 µM, this substance was shown to effectively inhibit ATPase activity of pig myometrium myosin subfragment-1 (inhibition coefficient І0.5 = 83 ± 7 µM. At the same time, this calix[4]arene causes significant (vs. control increase of myosin subfragment-1 hydrodynamic diameter, which may indicate formation of an intermolecular complex between calixa­rene and myosin head. Computer simulation methods (docking and molecular dynamics with addition of grid technologies enabled to elucidate the grounds of intermolecular interactions between calix[4]arene С-97 and myometrium myosin subfragment-1, that involve hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π-stacking interactions, some of which are close to the ATPase active centre. In view of the ability of calixarenes to penetrate into the cell and their low toxicity, the results obtained may be used as a basis for further development of a new generation of supramolecular effectors (starting from the above mentioned substances, in particular calix[4]arene С-97 for regulation of smooth muscle contractile activity at the level of ATP dependent actin-myosin interaction. Calix[4]arenes bearing two or four methylenebisphosphonic acid groups at the macrocyclic upper

  5. Electrospinning polymer blends for biomimetic scaffolds for ACL tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Vanessa Lizeth

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the most common knee injuries. Current ACL reconstructive strategies consist of using an autograft or an allograft to replace the ligament. However, limitations have led researchers to create tissue engineered grafts, known as scaffolds, through electrospinning. Scaffolds made of natural and synthetic polymer blends have the potential to promote cell adhesion while having strong mechanical properties. However, enzymes found in the knee are known to degrade tissues and affect the healing of intra-articular injuries. Results suggest that the natural polymers used in this study modify the thermal properties and tensile strength of the synthetic polymers when blended. Scanning electron microscopy display bead-free and enzyme biodegradability of the fibers. Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of the natural and synthetic polymers in the scaffolds while, amino acid analysis present the types of amino acids and their concentrations found in the natural polymers.

  6. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joshua D; Doidge, Gregory P; Carrion, Enrique A; Koepke, Justin C; Kaitz, Joshua A; Datye, Isha; Behnam, Ashkan; Hewaparakrama, Jayan; Aruin, Basil; Chen, Yaofeng; Dong, Hefei; Haasch, Richard T; Lyding, Joseph W; Pop, Eric

    2015-02-06

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications.

  7. Living bacterial sacrificial porogens to engineer decellularized porous scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available Decellularization and cellularization of organs have emerged as disruptive methods in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Porous hydrogel scaffolds have widespread applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug discovery as viable tissue mimics. However, the existing hydrogel fabrication techniques suffer from limited control over pore interconnectivity, density and size, which leads to inefficient nutrient and oxygen transport to cells embedded in the scaffolds. Here, we demonstrated an innovative approach to develop a new platform for tissue engineered constructs using live bacteria as sacrificial porogens. E.coli were patterned and cultured in an interconnected three-dimensional (3D hydrogel network. The growing bacteria created interconnected micropores and microchannels. Then, the scafold was decellularized, and bacteria were eliminated from the scaffold through lysing and washing steps. This 3D porous network method combined with bioprinting has the potential to be broadly applicable and compatible with tissue specific applications allowing seeding of stem cells and other cell types.

  8. 3D printing process of oxidized nanocellulose and gelatin scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jiping; Jiang, Yani; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Hongcan; Liu, Dongfang

    2018-08-01

    For tissue engineering applications tissue scaffolds need to have a porous structure to meet the needs of cell proliferation/differentiation, vascularisation and sufficient mechanical strength for the specific tissue. Here we report the results of a study of the 3D printing process for composite materials based on oxidized nanocellulose and gelatin, that was optimised through measuring rheological properties of different batches of materials after different crosslinking times, simulation of the pneumatic extrusion process and 3D scaffolds fabrication with Solidworks Flow Simulation, observation of its porous structure by SEM, measurement of pressure-pull performance, and experiments aimed at finding out the vitro cytotoxicity and cell morphology. The materials printed are highly porous scaffolds with good mechanical properties.

  9. Design properties of hydrogel tissue-engineering scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junmin; Marchant, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the recent progress in the design and synthesis of hydrogels as tissue-engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels are attractive scaffolding materials owing to their highly swollen network structure, ability to encapsulate cells and bioactive molecules, and efficient mass transfer. Various polymers, including natural, synthetic and natural/synthetic hybrid polymers, have been used to make hydrogels via chemical or physical crosslinking. Recently, bioactive synthetic hydrogels have emerged as promising scaffolds because they can provide molecularly tailored biofunctions and adjustable mechanical properties, as well as an extracellular matrix-like microenvironment for cell growth and tissue formation. This article addresses various strategies that have been explored to design synthetic hydrogels with extracellular matrix-mimetic bioactive properties, such as cell adhesion, proteolytic degradation and growth factor-binding. PMID:22026626

  10. Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of three-dimensional (3D-printing processes have been applied to tissue engineering. This paper presents a state-of-the-art study of 3D-printing technologies for tissue-engineering applications, with particular focus on the development of a computer-aided scaffold design system; the direct 3D printing of functionally graded scaffolds; the modeling of selective laser sintering (SLS and fused deposition modeling (FDM processes; the indirect additive manufacturing of scaffolds, with both micro and macro features; the development of a bioreactor; and 3D/4D bioprinting. Technological limitations will be discussed so as to highlight the possibility of future improvements for new 3D-printing methodologies for tissue engineering.

  11. Fabrication of scaffolds in tissue engineering: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Gu, Haibing; Mi, Haoyang; Rao, Chengchen; Fu, Jianzhong; Turng, Lih-sheng

    2018-03-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is an integrated discipline that involves engineering and natural science in the development of biological materials to replace, repair, and improve the function of diseased or missing tissues. Traditional medical and surgical treatments have been reported to have side effects on patients caused by organ necrosis and tissue loss. However, engineered tissues and organs provide a new way to cure specific diseases. Scaffold fabrication is an important step in the TE process. This paper summarizes and reviews the widely used scaffold fabrication methods, including conventional methods, electrospinning, three-dimensional printing, and a combination of molding techniques. Furthermore, the differences among the properties of tissues, such as pore size and distribution, porosity, structure, and mechanical properties, are elucidated and critically reviewed. Some studies that combine two or more methods are also reviewed. Finally, this paper provides some guidance and suggestions for the future of scaffold fabrication.

  12. Scaffolding in geometry based on self regulated learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuningsih, A. S.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2017-12-01

    This research aim to know the influence of problem based learning model by scaffolding technique on junior high school student’s learning achievement. This research took location on the junior high school in Banyumas. The research data obtained through mathematic learning achievement test and self-regulated learning (SRL) questioner. Then, the data analysis used two ways ANOVA. The results showed that scaffolding has positive effect to the mathematic learning achievement. The mathematic learning achievement use PBL-Scaffolding model is better than use PBL. The high SRL category student has better mathematic learning achievement than middle and low SRL categories, and then the middle SRL category has better than low SRL category. So, there are interactions between learning model with self-regulated learning in increasing mathematic learning achievement.

  13. Soft chitosan microbeads scaffold for 3D functional neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Maria Teresa; Di Lisa, Donatella; Massobrio, Paolo; Colistra, Nicolò; Pesce, Mattia; Catelani, Tiziano; Dellacasa, Elena; Raiteri, Roberto; Martinoia, Sergio; Pastorino, Laura

    2018-02-01

    The availability of 3D biomimetic in vitro neuronal networks of mammalian neurons represents a pivotal step for the development of brain-on-a-chip experimental models to study neuronal (dys)functions and particularly neuronal connectivity. The use of hydrogel-based scaffolds for 3D cell cultures has been extensively studied in the last years. However, limited work on biomimetic 3D neuronal cultures has been carried out to date. In this respect, here we investigated the use of a widely popular polysaccharide, chitosan (CHI), for the fabrication of a microbead based 3D scaffold to be coupled to primary neuronal cells. CHI microbeads were characterized by optical and atomic force microscopies. The cell/scaffold interaction was deeply characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by immunocytochemistry using confocal microscopy. Finally, a preliminary electrophysiological characterization by micro-electrode arrays was carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tailored PVA/ECM Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Stocco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine due to cartilage low self-ability repair in case of damage. Hence, a significant goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering is the development of suitable structures in virtue of their matrix composition and biomechanical properties. The objective of our study was to design in vitro a supporting structure for autologous chondrocyte growth. We realized a biohybrid composite scaffold combining a novel and nonspecific extracellular matrix (ECM, which is decellularized Wharton’s jelly ECM, with the biomechanical properties of the synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Wharton’s jelly ECM was tested for its ability in promoting scaffold colonization by chondrocytes and compared with polyvinyl alcohol itself and the more specific decellularized cartilage matrix. Our preliminary evidences highlighted the chance of using Wharton’s jelly ECM in combination with PVA hydrogels as an innovative and easily available scaffold for cartilage restoration.

  15. Efficient Computational Design of a Scaffold for Cartilage Cell Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajsoleiman, Tannaz; Jafar Abdekhodaie, Mohammad; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2018-01-01

    Due to the sensitivity of mammalian cell cultures, understanding the influence of operating conditions during a tissue generation procedure is crucial. In this regard, a detailed study of scaffold based cell culture under a perfusion flow is presented with the aid of mathematical modelling...... and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). With respect to the complexity of the case study, this work focuses solely on the effect of nutrient and metabolite concentrations, and the possible influence of fluid-induced shear stress on a targeted cell (cartilage) culture. The simulation set up gives the possibility...... of predicting the cell culture behavior under various operating conditions and scaffold designs. Thereby, the exploitation of the predictive simulation into a newly developed stochastic routine provides the opportunity of exploring improved scaffold geometry designs. This approach was applied on a common type...

  16. Annealing free, clean graphene transfer using alternative polymer scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Joshua D; Doidge, Gregory P; Carrion, Enrique A; Koepke, Justin C; Datye, Isha; Behnam, Ashkan; Hewaparakrama, Jayan; Aruin, Basil; Chen, Yaofeng; Lyding, Joseph W; Kaitz, Joshua A; Dong, Hefei; Haasch, Richard T; Pop, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We examine the transfer of graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with polymer scaffolds of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(phthalaldehyde) (PPA), and poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC). We find that optimally reactive PC scaffolds provide the cleanest graphene transfers without any annealing, after extensive comparison with optical microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Comparatively, films transferred with PLA, PPA, PMMA/PC, and PMMA have a two-fold higher roughness and a five-fold higher chemical doping. Using PC scaffolds, we demonstrate the clean transfer of CVD multilayer graphene, fluorinated graphene, and hexagonal boron nitride. Our annealing free, PC transfers enable the use of atomically-clean nanomaterials in biomolecule encapsulation and flexible electronic applications. (paper)

  17. 3D-printed scaffolds based on PLA/HA nanocomposites for trabecular bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaza, K V; Senatov, F S; Kaloshkin, S D; Maksimkin, A V; Chukov, D I

    2016-01-01

    In the present work porous PLA scaffolds filled with micro- and nano- HA were studied. Both composites with micro- and nano-HA were obtained by extrusion in the same conditions. Scaffolds were obtained by 3D-printing by fused filament fabrication method. Structure of porous scaffolds was pre-modeled by computer software. Compression and three - point flexural tests were used to study mechanical properties of the scaffolds. (paper)

  18. Mechanical and cytotoxicity evaluation of nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite scaffolds for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilbagi, Marjan; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Raeissi, Keyvan [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kharaziha, Mahshid, E-mail: ma.kharaziha@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Valiani, Ali [Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Despite the attractive characteristics of three-dimensional pure hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds, due to their weak mechanical properties, researches have focused on the development of composite scaffolds via introducing suitable secondary components. The aim of this study was to develop, for the first time, three-dimensional HA-bredigite (Ca{sub 7}MgSi{sub 4}O{sub 16}) scaffolds containing various amounts of bredigite nanopowder (0, 5, 10 and 15 wt.%) using space holder technique. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were applied in order to study the morphology, fracture surface and phase compositions of nanopowders and scaffolds. Furthermore, the effects of scaffold composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, biodegradability, and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. Results showed that the composite scaffolds with average pore size in the range of 220–310 μm, appearance porosity of 63.1–75.9% and appearance density of 1.1 ± 0.04 g/cm{sup 3} were successfully developed, depending on bredigite content. Indeed, the micropore size of the scaffolds reduced with increasing bredigite content confirming that the sinterability of the scaffolds was improved. Furthermore, the compression strength and modulus of the scaffolds significantly enhanced via incorporation of bredigite content from 0 to 15 wt.%. The composite scaffolds revealed superior bioactivity and biodegradability with increasing bredigite content. Moreover, MTT assay confirmed that HA-15 wt.% bredigite scaffold significantly promoted cell proliferation compared to tissue culture plate (control) and HA scaffold. Based on these results, three-dimensional HA-bredigite scaffolds could be promising replacements for HA scaffolds in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Nanostructured hydroxyapatite-bredigite composite scaffolds were developed using space holder technique. • Presence of bredigite

  19. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds: The Effect of Hydroxyapatite and β-tri-Calcium Phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Boyang Huang; Guilherme Caetano; Cian Vyas; Jonny James Blaker; Carl Diver; Paulo Bártolo

    2018-01-01

    The design of bioactive scaffolds with improved mechanical and biological properties is an important topic of research. This paper investigates the use of polymer-ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Different ceramic materials (hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tri-calcium phosphate (TCP)) were mixed with poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). Scaffolds with different material compositions were produced using an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system. The produced scaffolds were physi...

  20. Rapid prototyping for tissue-engineered bone scaffold by 3D printing and biocompatibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Mi, Xue; Hu, Yang; Gu, Xiao-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold (calcined goat spongy bone-biphasic ceramic composite/PVA gel) by 3D printing was performed, and the biocompatibility of the fabricated bone scaffold was studied. Pre-designed STL file was imported into the GXYZ303010-XYLE 3D printing system, and the tissue-engineered bone scaffold was fabricated by 3D printing using gel extrusion. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in vitro and then inoculated to the sterilized bone scaffold obtained by 3D printing. The growth of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of the tissue-engineered bone scaffold on the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs using MTT assay. Universal testing machine was adopted to test the tensile strength of the bone scaffold. The leachate of the bone scaffold was prepared and injected into the New Zealand rabbits. Cytotoxicity test, acute toxicity test, pyrogenic test and intracutaneous stimulation test were performed to assess the biocompatibility of the bone scaffold. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing had uniform pore size with the porosity of about 68.3%. The pores were well interconnected, and the bone scaffold showed excellent mechanical property. Rabbit BMSCs grew and proliferated on the surface of the bone scaffold after adherence. MTT assay indicated that the proliferation and differentiation of rabbit BMSCs on the bone scaffold did not differ significantly from that of the cells in the control. In vivo experiments proved that the bone scaffold fabricated by 3D printing had no acute toxicity, pyrogenic reaction or stimulation. Bone scaffold manufactured by 3D printing allows the rabbit BMSCs to adhere, grow and proliferate and exhibits excellent biomechanical property and high biocompatibility. 3D printing has a good application prospect in the prototyping of tissue-engineered bone scaffold.

  1. 3D-printed scaffolds based on PLA/HA nanocomposites for trabecular bone reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaza, K. V.; Senatov, F. S.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Maksimkin, A. V.; Chukov, D. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work porous PLA scaffolds filled with micro- and nano- HA were studied. Both composites with micro- and nano-HA were obtained by extrusion in the same conditions. Scaffolds were obtained by 3D-printing by fused filament fabrication method. Structure of porous scaffolds was pre-modeled by computer software. Compression and three - point flexural tests were used to study mechanical properties of the scaffolds.

  2. Relationship between micro-porosity, water permeability and mechanical behavior in scaffolds for cartilage engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikingsson, L; Claessens, B; Gómez-Tejedor, J A; Gallego Ferrer, G; Gómez Ribelles, J L

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering the design and optimization of biodegradable polymeric scaffolds with a 3D-structure is an important field. The porous scaffold provide the cells with an adequate biomechanical environment that allows mechanotransduction signals for cell differentiation and the scaffolds also protect the cells from initial compressive loading. The scaffold have interconnected macro-pores that host the cells and newly formed tissue, while the pore walls should be micro-porous to transport nutrients and waste products. Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with a double micro- and macro-pore architecture have been proposed for cartilage regeneration. This work explores the influence of the micro-porosity of the pore walls on water permeability and scaffold compliance. A Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) with tailored mechanical properties has been used to simulate the growing cartilage tissue inside the scaffold pores. Unconfined and confined compression tests were performed to characterize both the water permeability and the mechanical response of scaffolds with varying size of micro-porosity while volume fraction of the macro-pores remains constant. The stress relaxation tests show that the stress response of the scaffold/hydrogel construct is a synergic effect determined by the performance of the both components. This is interesting since it suggests that the in vivo outcome of the scaffold is not only dependent upon the material architecture but also the growing tissue inside the scaffold׳s pores. On the other hand, confined compression results show that compliance of the scaffold is mainly controlled by the micro-porosity of the scaffold and less by hydrogel density in the scaffold pores. These conclusions bring together valuable information for customizing the optimal scaffold and to predict the in vivo mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of glutaraldehyde and carbodiimides to crosslink tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by decellularized porcine menisci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shuang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Guo, Weimin; Chen, Mingxue; Liu, Shuyun; Xi, Tingfei; Guo, Quanyi

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to fabricate porous scaffolds using decellularized meniscus, and to explore a preferable crosslinking condition to enhance mechanical properties of scaffolds. Moreover, the microstructure, porosity, biodegradation and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. EDAC or GTA in different concentration was used to crosslink scaffolds. FTIR demonstrated functional groups change in crosslinking process. SEM photography showed that crosslinked scaffolds had blurry edges, which resulted scaffolds crosslinked by 1.2 mol/l EDAC had smaller porosity than other groups. The structure change enhanced antidegradation property. After immersing in enzyme solution for 96 h, scaffolds crosslinked by GTA and EDAC could maintain their mass > 70% and 80%. Most importantly, mechanical properties of crosslinked scaffolds were also improved. Uncrosslinked Scaffolds had only 0.49 kPa in compression modulus and 12.81 kPa in tensile modulus. The compression and tensile modulus of scaffolds crosslinked by 1.0% GTA were 1.42 and 567.44 kPa respectively. The same value of scaffolds crosslinked by 1.2 mol/l EDAC were 1.49 and 532.50 kPa. Scaffolds crosslinked by 1.0% and 2.5% GTA were toxic to cells, while EDAC groups showed no cytotoxicity. Chondrocytes could proliferate and infiltrate within scaffolds after seeding. Overall, 1.2 mol/l EDAC was a preferable crosslinking condition. - Highlights: • Porous meniscus scaffolds were fabricated using decellularized meniscus tissue. • Mechanical properties of meniscus scaffolds were enhanced by chemical crosslinking. • The crosslinked scaffold showed enhanced anti-degradation properties. • Chondrocytes could infiltrate and proliferate within crosslinked scaffolds.

  4. Comparison of glutaraldehyde and carbodiimides to crosslink tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by decellularized porcine menisci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Shuang [Center for Biomedical Material and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yuan, Zhiguo; Guo, Weimin; Chen, Mingxue; Liu, Shuyun [Beijing Key Lab of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopaedics, Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Key Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Trauma & War Injuries, Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Xi, Tingfei, E-mail: tingfeixi@163.com [Center for Biomedical Material and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Institute, Peking University, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Guo, Quanyi, E-mail: doctorguo_301@163.com [Beijing Key Lab of Regenerative Medicine in Orthopaedics, Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Key Laboratory of Musculoskeletal Trauma & War Injuries, Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to fabricate porous scaffolds using decellularized meniscus, and to explore a preferable crosslinking condition to enhance mechanical properties of scaffolds. Moreover, the microstructure, porosity, biodegradation and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. EDAC or GTA in different concentration was used to crosslink scaffolds. FTIR demonstrated functional groups change in crosslinking process. SEM photography showed that crosslinked scaffolds had blurry edges, which resulted scaffolds crosslinked by 1.2 mol/l EDAC had smaller porosity than other groups. The structure change enhanced antidegradation property. After immersing in enzyme solution for 96 h, scaffolds crosslinked by GTA and EDAC could maintain their mass > 70% and 80%. Most importantly, mechanical properties of crosslinked scaffolds were also improved. Uncrosslinked Scaffolds had only 0.49 kPa in compression modulus and 12.81 kPa in tensile modulus. The compression and tensile modulus of scaffolds crosslinked by 1.0% GTA were 1.42 and 567.44 kPa respectively. The same value of scaffolds crosslinked by 1.2 mol/l EDAC were 1.49 and 532.50 kPa. Scaffolds crosslinked by 1.0% and 2.5% GTA were toxic to cells, while EDAC groups showed no cytotoxicity. Chondrocytes could proliferate and infiltrate within scaffolds after seeding. Overall, 1.2 mol/l EDAC was a preferable crosslinking condition. - Highlights: • Porous meniscus scaffolds were fabricated using decellularized meniscus tissue. • Mechanical properties of meniscus scaffolds were enhanced by chemical crosslinking. • The crosslinked scaffold showed enhanced anti-degradation properties. • Chondrocytes could infiltrate and proliferate within crosslinked scaffolds.

  5. Decellularized Human Dental Pulp as a Scaffold for Regenerative Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J S; Takimoto, K; Jeon, M; Vadakekalam, J; Ruparel, N B; Diogenes, A

    2017-06-01

    Teeth undergo postnatal organogenesis relatively late in life and only complete full maturation a few years after the crown first erupts in the oral cavity. At this stage, development can be arrested if the tooth organ is damaged by either trauma or caries. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are a treatment alternative to conventional root canal treatment for immature teeth. These procedures rely on the transfer of apically positioned stem cells, including stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP), into the root canal system. Although clinical success has been reported for these procedures, the predictability of expected outcomes and the organization of the newly formed tissues are affected by the lack of an available suitable scaffold that mimics the complexity of the dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we evaluated 3 methods of decellularization of human dental pulp to be used as a potential autograft scaffold. Tooth slices of human healthy extracted third molars were decellularized by 3 different methods. One of the methods generated the maximum observed decellularization with minimal impact on the ECM composition and organization. Furthermore, recellularization of the scaffold supported the proliferation of SCAP throughout the scaffold with differentiation into odontoblast-like cells near the dentinal walls. Thus, this study reports that human dental pulp from healthy extracted teeth can be successfully decellularized, and the resulting scaffold supports the proliferation and differentiation of SCAP. The future application of this form of an autograft in REPs can fulfill a yet unmet need for a suitable scaffold, potentially improving clinical outcomes and ultimately promoting the survival and function of teeth with otherwise poor prognosis.

  6. Analogical scaffolding: Making meaning in physics through representation and analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolefsky, Noah Solomon

    This work reviews the literature on analogy, introduces a new model of analogy, and presents a series of experiments that test and confirm the utility of this model to describe and predict student learning in physics with analogy. Pilot studies demonstrate that representations (e.g., diagrams) can play a key role in students' use of analogy. A new model of analogy, Analogical Scaffolding, is developed to explain these initial empirical results. This model will be described in detail, and then applied to describe and predict the outcomes of further experiments. Two large-scale (N>100) studies will demonstrate that: (1) students taught with analogies, according to the Analogical Scaffolding model, outperform students taught without analogies on pre-post assessments focused on electromagnetic waves; (2) the representational forms used to teach with analogy can play a significant role in student learning, with students in one treatment group outperforming students in other treatment groups by factors of two or three. It will be demonstrated that Analogical Scaffolding can be used to predict these results, as well as finer-grained results such as the types of distracters students choose in different treatment groups, and to describe and analyze student reasoning in interviews. Abstraction in physics is reconsidered using Analogical Scaffolding. An operational definition of abstraction is developed within the Analogical Scaffolding framework and employed to explain (a) why physicists consider some ideas more abstract than others in physics, and (b) how students conceptions of these ideas can be modeled. This new approach to abstraction suggests novel approaches to curriculum design in physics using Analogical Scaffolding.

  7. Engineering bone grafts with enhanced bone marrow and native scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ben P; Salter, Erin K; Temple, Josh; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Brazio, Philip; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Grayson, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The translation of tissue engineering approaches to the clinic has been hampered by the inability to find suitable multipotent cell sources requiring minimal in vitro expansion. Enhanced bone marrow (eBM), which is obtained by reaming long bone medullary canals and isolating the solid marrow putty, has large quantities of stem cells and demonstrates significant potential to regenerate bone tissues. eBM, however, cannot impart immediate load-bearing mechanical integrity or maintain the gross anatomical structure to guide bone healing. Yet, its putty-like consistency creates a challenge for obtaining the uniform seeding necessary to effectively combine it with porous scaffolds. In this study, we examined the potential for combining eBM with mechanically strong, osteoinductive trabecular bone scaffolds for bone regeneration by creating channels into scaffolds for seeding the eBM. eBM was extracted from the femurs of adult Yorkshire pigs using a Synthes reamer-irrigator-aspirator device, analyzed histologically, and digested to extract cells and characterize their differentiation potential. To evaluate bone tissue formation, eBM was seeded into the channels in collagen-coated or noncoated scaffolds, cultured in osteogenic conditions for 4 weeks, harvested and assessed for tissue distribution and bone formation. Our data demonstrates that eBM is a heterogenous tissue containing multipotent cell populations. Furthermore, coating scaffolds with a collagen hydrogel significantly enhanced cellular migration, promoted uniform tissue development and increased bone mineral deposition. These findings suggest the potential for generating customized autologous bone grafts for treating critical-sized bone defects by combining a readily available eBM cell source with decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Scaffolds for Tendon and Ligament Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Anthony; Butler, David L; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Cagle, Paul J; Proctor, Christopher S; Ratcliffe, Seena S; Flatow, Evan L

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced tendon and ligament repair would have a major impact on orthopaedic surgery outcomes, resulting in reduced repair failures and repeat surgeries, more rapid return to function, and reduced health care costs. Scaffolds have been used for mechanical and biologic reinforcement of repair and regeneration with mixed results. This review summarizes efforts made using biologic and synthetic scaffolds using rotator cuff and ACL as examples of clinical applications, discusses recent advances that have shown promising clinical outcomes, and provides insight into future therapy. PMID:25650098

  9. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E. [Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Materials Science and Metallurgy Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wardale, R. J., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk [Division of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  10. Modern materials in fabrication of scaffolds for bone defect replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazlov, V. A.; Mamuladze, T. Z.; Pavlov, V. V.; Kirilova, I. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The article defines the requirements for modern scaffold-forming materials and describes the main advantages and disadvantages of various synthetic materials. Osseointegration of synthetic scaffolds approved for use in medical practice is evaluated. Nylon 618 (certification ISO9001 1093-1-2009) is described as the most promising synthetic material used in medical practice. The authors briefly highlight the issues of individual bone grafting with the use of 3D printing technology. An example of contouring pelvis defect after removal of a giant tumor with the use of 3D models is provided.

  11. Semiotic scaffolding of the social self in reflexivity and friendship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    scaffolding is a multi-level phenomenon. Focusing upon levels of semiosis specific to humans, the formation of the personal self and the role of friendship and similar interpersonal relations in this process is explored through Aristotle’s classical idea of the friend as ‘another self’, and sociologist...... Margaret Archer’s empirical and theoretical work on the interplay between individual subjectivity, social structure and interpersonal relations in a dynamics of human agency. It is shown that although processes of reflexivity and friendship can indeed be seen as instances of semiotic scaffolding...

  12. MODEL SCAFFOLDING PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS DENGAN PENDEKATAN PROSES BAGI ANAK TUNARUNGU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliyati Endang Purbaningrum Endang Purbaningrum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim for this researach is (1 to describe the needs analysis and challenges and (2 to produce the scaffolding draft model in learning writing using process ap-proach combined with the reflective maternal method (MMR. This research develop-ment applies R2D2 model which emphasizes users’ need based on the context (teacher-student with difable  and developed collaboratively. Based on the needs analysis in the field in the first year, scaffolding draft model was produced using approach elaborated with the reflective maternal method (MMR.

  13. Graphene foam as a biocompatible scaffold for culturing human neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Cristiana; Nasr, Babak; Hudson, Emma J.; Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian P.; Dottori, Mirella; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation. PMID:29657752

  14. Scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of tissue scaffold properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia M; Baczewski, Andrew D; Udpa, Lalita; Kumar, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    Scanning probe recognition microscopy is a new scanning probe microscopy technique which enables selective scanning along individual nanofibers within a tissue scaffold. Statistically significant data for multiple properties can be collected by repetitively fine-scanning an identical region of interest. The results of a scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of the surface roughness and elasticity of a series of tissue scaffolds are presented. Deconvolution and statistical methods were developed and used for data accuracy along curved nanofiber surfaces. Nanofiber features were also independently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, with results that supported the scanning probe recognition microscopy-based analysis. PMID:18203431

  15. The Effect of Various Media Scaffolding on Increasing Understanding of Students' Geometry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiarso, Sugeng; Coesamin, M.; Nurhanurawati

    2018-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design, which aims to determine (1) the tendency of students in using various media scaffolding based on gender, and (2) effect of media scaffolding on increasing understanding of students' geometry concepts. Media scaffolding used this study is chart, props, and…

  16. Embroidered polymer-collagen hybrid scaffold variants for ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, M; Drechsel, N; Meyer, M; Meier, C; Hinüber, C; Breier, A; Hahner, J; Heinrich, G; Rentsch, C; Garbe, L-A; Ertel, W; Schulze-Tanzil, G; Lohan, A

    2014-10-01

    Embroidery techniques and patterns used for scaffold production allow the adaption of biomechanical scaffold properties. The integration of collagen into embroidered polylactide-co-caprolactone [P(LA-CL)] and polydioxanone (PDS) scaffolds could stimulate neo-tissue formation by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test embroidered P(LA-CL) and PDS scaffolds as hybrid scaffolds in combination with collagen hydrogel, sponge or foam for ligament tissue engineering. ACL cells were cultured on embroidered P(LA-CL) and PDS scaffolds without or with collagen supplementation. Cell adherence, vitality, morphology and ECM synthesis were analyzed. Irrespective of thread size, ACL cells seeded on P(LA-CL) scaffolds without collagen adhered and spread over the threads, whereas the cells formed clusters on PDS and larger areas remained cell-free. Using the collagen hydrogel, the scaffold colonization was limited by the gel instability. The collagen sponge layers integrated into the scaffolds were hardly penetrated by the cells. Collagen foams increased scaffold colonization in P(LA-CL) but did not facilitate direct cell-thread contacts in the PDS scaffolds. The results suggest embroidered P(LA-CL) scaffolds as a more promising basis for tissue engineering an ACL substitute than PDS due to superior cell attachment. Supplementation with a collagen foam presents a promising functionalization strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Online Process Scaffolding and Students' Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Thomas, Leslie; Seibert, Diane; Tron, Myriam

    This study examined the role of different scaffolding instructional interventions in facilitating students' shift to more sophisticated mental models as indicated by both performance and process data. Undergraduate students (n=53) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 scaffolding conditions (adaptive content and process scaffolding (ACPS), adaptive…

  18. Impedance Spectroscopic Characterisation of Porosity in 3D Cell Culture Scaffolds with Different Channel Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Heiskanen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    We present the application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a method for discriminating between different polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffolds for three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. The validity of EIS characterisation for scaffolds having different degree of porosity...... serve as means of single-frequency measurements for fast scaffold characterization combined with in vitro monitoring of 3D cell cultures....

  19. 29 CFR 1926.452 - Additional requirements applicable to specific types of scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (h) Roof bracket scaffolds. (1) Scaffold brackets shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof... metal plates and angles. Each pump jack bracket shall have two positive gripping mechanisms to prevent... ensure that it will not chafe at any point where a change in direction occurs, and (iv) The scaffold is...

  20. Directed Self-Inquiry: A Scaffold for Teaching Laboratory Report Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, L. Jay; Newsome, Daniel; Samaroo, Diana

    2012-01-01

    A scaffold was created for the explicit instruction of laboratory report writing. The scaffold breaks the laboratory report into sections and teaches students to ask and answer questions in order to generate section-appropriate content and language. Implementation of the scaffold is done through a series of section-specific worksheets that are…

  1. Dynamic Scaffolding of Socially Regulated Learning in a Computer-Based Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Roda, Claudia; van Boxtel, Carla A.M.; Sleegers, P.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the effects of dynamically scaffolding social regulation of middle school students working in a computer-based learning environment. Dyads in the scaffolding condition (N = 56) are supported with computer-generated scaffolds and students in the control condition (N =

  2. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Ye Xiaojian; Li Jiashun

    2009-01-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  3. Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Ming-Yih; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. - Highlights: • Selective laser sintered polycaprolactone scaffolds are prepared. • Scaffolds are surface modified through immersion coating with gelatin or collagen. • Collagen-scaffold is the best for cartilage tissue engineering in vitro. • Chondrocytes/collagen-scaffold reveals enhanced cartilage tissue formation in vivo

  4. Designing and Implementing Web-Based Scaffolding Tools for Technology-Enhanced Socioscientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Suhkyung; Brush, Thomas A.; Glazewski, Krista D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how web-based scaffolding tools provide instructional support while implementing a socio-scientific inquiry (SSI) unit in a science classroom. This case study focused on how students used web-based scaffolding tools during SSI activities, and how students perceived the SSI unit and the scaffolding tools embedded in the SSI…

  5. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özarslan, Ali Can, E-mail: alicanozarslan@gmail.com; Yücel, Sevil, E-mail: syucel@yildiz.edu.tr

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Production of 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds from different silica sources • The effect of biosilica from rice hull ash on the bioactive glass scaffold • Sr additive impact on the bioactivity and biodegradability properties of scaffolds.

  6. Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chih-Hao [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishann, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Yih [Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishann, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-07-01

    Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. - Highlights: • Selective laser sintered polycaprolactone scaffolds are prepared. • Scaffolds are surface modified through immersion coating with gelatin or collagen. • Collagen-scaffold is the best for cartilage tissue engineering in vitro. • Chondrocytes/collagen-scaffold reveals enhanced cartilage tissue formation in vivo.

  7. Conductive vancomycin-loaded mesoporous silica polypyrrole-based scaffolds for bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Shatalin, Yuri V.

    2018-01-01

    -conductive scaffolds. Osteoblast cells were perfectly immersed into the gelatin matrix and remained viable for 14 days. Overall, new conductive composite bone scaffolds were created and the obtained results strongly verified the applicability of this conductive scaffold in drug delivery, encouraging its further...

  8. Developing bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films were fabricated using the method of dissolving and evaporation. PLLA scaffold was prepared by solid-liquid phase separation of polymer solutions and subsequent sublimation of solvent. Bonelike apatite coating was formed on PLLA films, PLLA scaffolds and poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) scaffolds in 24 hours through an accelerated biomimetic process. The ion concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) were nearly 5 times of those in human blood plasma. The apatite formed was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The apatite formed in 5SBF was similar in morphology and composition to that formed in the classical biomimetic process employing SBF or 1.5SBF, and similar to that of natural bone. This indicated that the biomimetic apatite coating process could be accelerated by using concentrated simulated body fluid at 37°C. Besides saving time, the accelerated biomimetic process is particularly significant to biodegradable polymers. Some polymers which degrade too fast to be coated with apatite by a classical biomimetic process, for example PGA, could be coated with bone-like apatite in an accelerated biomimetic process. Collagen and apatite were co-precipitated as a composite coating on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in an accelerated biomimetic process. The incubation solution contained collagen (1g/L) and simulated body fluid (SBF) with 5 times inorganic ionic concentrations as human blood plasma. The coating formed on PLLA films and scaffolds after 24 hours incubation was characterized using EDX, XRD, FTIR, and SEM. It was shown that the coating contained carbonated bone-like apatite and collagen, the primary constituents of natural bone. SEM showed a complex composite coating of submicron bone-like apatite particulates combined with collagen fibrils. This work provided an efficient process to obtain

  9. Biomimetic composite coating on rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, M Tarik; Lam, Christopher X F; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; Gibson, Ian

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this present study was to improve the functional performance of rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering through biomimetic composite coating. Rapid prototyped poly(ε-caprolactone)/tri-calcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using the screw extrusion system (SES). The fabricated PCL/TCP scaffolds were coated with a carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA)-gelatin composite via biomimetic co-precipitation. The structure of the prepared CHA-gelatin composite coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the coating process did not have any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The cell-scaffold interaction was studied by culturing porcine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the scaffolds and assessing the proliferation and bone-related gene and protein expression capabilities of the cells. Confocal laser microscopy and SEM images of the cell-scaffold constructs showed a uniformly distributed cell sheet and accumulation of extracellular matrix in the interior of CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. The proliferation rate of BMSCs on CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds was about 2.3 and 1.7 times higher than that on PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds, respectively, by day 10. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs the most, compared with PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. These results demonstrate that CHA-gelatin composite-coated rapid prototyped PCL/TCP scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear scaffold organization in the X-ray sensitive Chinese hamster mutant cell line, xrs-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, L.S.; Fink, T.J.; Enrique, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear organization was probed in the radiation-sensitive Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, xrs-5, and compared with parental CHO K1 cells using the resinless section technique and DNase I digestions. The resinless section data showed no gross morphological differences in core filaments from the nuclear scaffolds of unirradiated CHO K1 and xrs-5 cells. However, the nuclear scaffolds of irradiated xrs-5 cells (1 Gy) had significantly increased ground substance. Irradiated and unirradiated CHO K1 cell nuclear scaffolds were morphologically identical. These data suggest that both CHO K1 and xrs-5 cell nuclear scaffolds had internal nuclear scaffolding networks that could provide DNA attachment sites. (author)

  11. Ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); F.G. Öry; L.A.M. Elders (Leo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe number of native Dutch and Turkish workers receiving a permanent disability pension in the Netherlands is still rising. To assess ethnic differences in disability risk between Dutch and Turkish scaffolders, a retrospective study was conducted within a large

  12. Nanofibrous nonmulberry silk/PVA scaffold for osteoinduction and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Promita; Kundu, Banani; Naskar, Deboki; Maiti, Tapas K; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Kundu, Subhas C

    2015-05-01

    Poly-vinyl alcohol and nonmulberry tasar silk fibroin of Antheraea mylitta are blended to fabricate nanofibrous scaffolds for bone regeneration. Nanofibrous matrices are prepared by electrospinning the equal volume ratio blends of silk fibroin (2 and 4 wt%) with poly-vinyl alcohol solution (10 wt%) and designated as 2SF/PVA and 4SF/PVA, respectively with average nanofiber diameters of 177 ± 13 nm (2SF/PVA) and 193 ± 17 nm (4SF/PVA). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms retention of the secondary structure of fibroin in blends indicating the structural stability of neo-matrix. Both thermal stability and contact angle of the blends decrease with increasing fibroin percentage. Conversely, fibroin imparts mechanical stability to the blends; greater tensile strength is observed with increasing fibroin concentration. Blended scaffolds are biodegradable and support well the neo-bone matrix synthesis by human osteoblast like cells. The findings indicate the potentiality of nanofibrous scaffolds of nonmulberry fibroin as bone scaffolding material. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Scaffolding Preservice Teachers' WebQuest Design: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how participating preservice teachers reported their perceptions and use of different scaffolds provided to support their WebQuest design. Sixteen preservice teachers participated in a succession of course activities designed to guide WebQuest design and development. Results indicated that while participants followed, adapted,…

  14. The Azobenzene Optical Storage Puzzle - Demands on the Polymer Scaffold?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, PS

    2001-01-01

    of the nature of the main chain on polyester morphology and on the permanency of the induced anisotropy are discussed. Arguments for the design and methods of preparation of other very different polymer scaffolds supporting the cyanoazobenzene are elucidated. Whereas oligopeptides invariably form amorphous...

  15. Polymer scaffolds bearing azobenzene - Potential for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    % or greater, and erasability. The implications of the main chain nature for polyester morphology and for the permanency of the induced anisotropy are discussed. The design and methods of preparation of other significantly different polymer scaffolds supporting cyanoazobenzene are elaborated. Oligopeptides...

  16. The azobenzene optical storage puzzle - Demands on the polymer scaffold?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    of the nature of the main chain on polyester morphology and on the permanency of the induced anisotropy are discussed. Arguments for the design and methods of preparation of other very different polymer scaffolds supporting the cyanoazobenzene are elucidated. Whereas oligopeptides invariably form amorphous...

  17. The Bisphosphonate Clodronate Modifying Hydroxyapatite Bioceramics for Bone Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency of clodronate modifying HA bioceramics , and to evaluate the effect of clodronate modifying HA bioceramies on the cells in vitro, clodronate modified the porous HA bioceramics for bone scaffold by chelation. The outermost layer of the specimens was analyzed by XPS and FI- IR. The depth profile was investigated by the argon-ion sputtering method. The cell culture test was conducted using MC3 T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The cells were inoculated and cultured on the scaffolds. Morphological observation of the cells,MTT test and ALP activity test evaluated the cell attachment, proliferation and activity on the materials. Characteristic peaks in XPS and FT-IR spectra indicated clodronate being immobilized on the surface of the bioceramics.The cell culture test in cell quantity and morphology indicated active proliferation of the cells on the scaffolds. The ALP activity of the cells cultured for 3d and 7 d on clodronate- HA bioceramics was slightly higher than that on HA bioceramics, but the difference was not significant. This result indicated that clodronate- HA bioceramics had favorable cytocompatibility to be used as bone scaffold with potential ability to improve osteogenesis.

  18. Nanocomposite bone scaffolds based on biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Johannes; Lu, Lichun; Runge, M Brett; Zeng, Heng; Yaszemski, Michael J; Dadsetan, Mahrokh

    2015-08-01

    In tissue engineering, development of an osteoconductive construct that integrates with host tissue remains a challenge. In this work, the effect of bone-like minerals on maturation of pre-osteoblast cells was investigated using polymer-mineral scaffolds composed of poly(propylene fumarate)-co-poly(caprolactone) (PPF-co-PCL) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA). The HA of varying concentrations was added to an injectable formulation of PPF-co-PCL and the change in thermal and mechanical properties of the scaffolds was evaluated. No change in onset of degradation temperature was observed due to the addition of HA, however compressive and tensile moduli of copolymer changed significantly when HA amounts were increased in composite formulation. The change in mechanical properties of copolymer was found to correlate well to HA concentration in the constructs. Electron microscopy revealed mineral nucleation and a change in surface morphology and the presence of calcium and phosphate on surfaces was confirmed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. To characterize the effect of mineral on attachment and maturation of pre-osteoblasts, W20-17 cells were seeded on HA/copolymer composites. We demonstrated that cells attached more to the surface of HA containing copolymers and their proliferation rate was significantly increased. Thus, these findings suggest that HA/PPF-co-PCL composite scaffolds are capable of inducing maturation of pre-osteoblasts and have the potential for use as scaffold in bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fluorinated Polyurethane Scaffolds for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan; Mertens, Marianne E.; Schuster, Philipp; Rahimi, Khosrow; Shi, Yang; Schulz, Volkmar; Kuehne, Alexander J.C.; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Researchers used fluorinated polyurethane scaffolds for 19F magnetic resonance imaging. They generated a novel fluorinated polymer based on thermoplastic polyurethane (19F -TPU) which possesses distinct properties rendering it suitable for fluorine-based MRI. The 19F -TPU is synthesized from a

  20. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashit Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid, poly(aspartic acid and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules.

  1. Impact of Scaffolding and Question Structure on the Gender Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Hillary; Hedgeland, Holly; Jordan, Sally

    2017-01-01

    We address previous hypotheses about possible factors influencing the gender gap in attainment in physics. Specifically, previous studies claim that scaffolding may preferentially benefit female students, and we present some alternative conclusions surrounding this hypothesis. By taking both student attainment level and the degree of question…

  2. Scaffolding Java Programming on a Mobile Phone for Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Chao; Blake, Edwin; Suleman, Hussein

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of mobile phones provides an opportunity to use them as a resource for construction of programs beyond the classroom. However, limitations of mobile phones impede their use as typical programming environments. This research proposes that programming environments on mobile phones should include scaffolding techniques specifically…

  3. SOS: Observation, Intervention, and Scaffolding towards Successful Online Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsa, Trisha

    2017-01-01

    Research, reflection, and evaluation of online classes indicated a need for graduated scaffolding for first time students experiencing distance learning. In order to promote student engagement in the online learning process, I designed SOS for beginning online students. Sixty-three online students were offered an opportunity to participate in a…

  4. Biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for regenerative endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dephne Jack Xin Leong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The biocompatibility of two experimental scaffolds for potential use in revascularization or pulp regeneration was evaluated. Materials and Methods One resilient lyophilized collagen scaffold (COLL, releasing metronidazole and clindamycin, was compared to an experimental injectable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold (PLGA, releasing clindamycin. Human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs were seeded at densities of 1.0 × 104, 2.5 × 104, and 5.0 × 104. The cells were investigated by light microscopy (cell morphology, MTT assay (cell proliferation and a cytokine (IL-8 ELISA test (biocompatibility. Results Under microscope, the morphology of cells coincubated for 7 days with the scaffolds appeared healthy with COLL. Cells in contact with PLGA showed signs of degeneration and apoptosis. MTT assay showed that at 5.0 × 104 hDPSCs, COLL demonstrated significantly higher cell proliferation rates than cells in media only (control, p < 0.01 or cells co-incubated with PLGA (p < 0.01. In ELISA test, no significant differences were observed between cells with media only and COLL at 1, 3, and 6 days. Cells incubated with PLGA expressed significantly higher IL-8 than the control at all time points (p < 0.01 and compared to COLL after 1 and 3 days (p < 0.01. Conclusions The COLL showed superior biocompatibility and thus may be suitable for endodontic regeneration purposes.

  5. The assessment of natural scaffolds ability in chondrogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of cartilage to repair damage is limited due to lack of blood vessels and low cell density. Recently, tissue engineering is considerably preferred to other treatments as a way to solve this problem. Regardless of cell sources, one of the crucial factors in tissue engineering is to select an appropriate scaffold, which is ...

  6. Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yutian

    Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

  7. Fostering Analysis in Historical Inquiry through Multimedia Embedded Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, David; Doolittle, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study designed to assess the utility of a multimedia tutorial intended to scaffold the development of historical source analysis through the use of the SCIM strategy. Seventy-seven undergraduate students (29 males, 48 females) with a mean age of 19.4 years engaged in a 2.5-hour tutorial across three…

  8. Scaffolding Collaborative Technical Writing with Procedural Facilitation and Synchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Huang, Jeng-Jia

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of computer technology, researchers and instructors are attempting to devise computer support for effective collaborative technical writing. In this study, a computer-supported environment for collaborative technical writing was developed. This system (Process-Writing Wizard) provides process-oriented scaffolds and a synchronous…

  9. Progress in scaffold-free bioprinting for cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Nicanor I

    2018-06-01

    Biofabrication of tissue analogues is aspiring to become a disruptive technology capable to solve standing biomedical problems, from generation of improved tissue models for drug testing to alleviation of the shortage of organs for transplantation. Arguably, the most powerful tool of this revolution is bioprinting, understood as the assembling of cells with biomaterials in three-dimensional structures. It is less appreciated, however, that bioprinting is not a uniform methodology, but comprises a variety of approaches. These can be broadly classified in two categories, based on the use or not of supporting biomaterials (known as "scaffolds," usually printable hydrogels also called "bioinks"). Importantly, several limitations of scaffold-dependent bioprinting can be avoided by the "scaffold-free" methods. In this overview, we comparatively present these approaches and highlight the rapidly evolving scaffold-free bioprinting, as applied to cardiovascular tissue engineering. © 2018 The Author. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Scaffolding EFL Students' Writing through the Writing Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This research reports a study conducted at Koya University/English Language Department, and it aims at presenting the effect of scaffolding on EFL students' writing ability through the writing process. In this study, the students have taken the role of writers, so they need to follow the same steps that writers apply during their writing process.…

  11. Building bone tissue: matrices and scaffolds in physiology and biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riminucci M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of bone in physiology involves timed secretion, deposition and removal of a complex array of extracellular matrix proteins which appear in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. Mineralization itself plays a role in dictating and spatially orienting the deposition of matrix. Many aspects of the physiological process are recapitulated in systems of autologous or xenogeneic transplantation of osteogenic precursor cells developed for tissue engineering or modeling. For example, deposition of bone sialoprotein, a member of the small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoprotein family, represents the first step of bone formation in ectopic transplantation systems in vivo. The use of mineralized scaffolds for guiding bone tissue engineering has revealed unexpected manners in which the scaffold and cells interact with each other, so that a complex interplay of integration and disintegration of the scaffold ultimately results in efficient and desirable, although unpredictable, effects. Likewise, the manner in which biomaterial scaffolds are "resorbed" by osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo highlights more complex scenarios than predicted from knowledge of physiological bone resorption per se. Investigation of novel biomaterials for bone engineering represents an essential area for the design of tissue engineering strategies.

  12. Aligned and random nanofibrous nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Doustgani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Aligned and random nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL, poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA. The morphology and mechanical characteristics of the nanofibers were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed fibers with an average diameter of 123 ± 32 nm and 339 ± 107 nm for aligned and random nanofibers, respectively. The mechanical data indicated the higher tensile strength and elastic modulus of aligned nanofibers. The in vitro biocompatibility of aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds was also assessed by growing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, and investigating the proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP on different nanofibrous scaffolds. Our  findings  showed  that  the  alignment  orientation  of  nanofibers  enhanced  the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. The in vitro results showed that the aligned biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds of PCL/nHA/PVA could be a potential substrate for tissue engineering applications, especially in the field of artificial bone implant.

  13. Emerging Perspectives in Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Presta, Rossella; Benedetti, Laura; Cusella De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Lupi, Saturnino Marco; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ruggero

    2017-01-01

    Bone regeneration is currently one of the most important and challenging tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine. Bone regeneration is a promising approach in dentistry and is considered an ideal clinical strategy in treating diseases, injuries, and defects of the maxillofacial region. Advances in tissue engineering have resulted in the development of innovative scaffold designs, complemented by the progress made in cell-based therapies. In vitro bone regeneration can be achieved by the combination of stem cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. The biomimetic approach to create an ideal bone substitute provides strategies for developing combined scaffolds composed of adult stem cells with mesenchymal phenotype and different organic biomaterials (such as collagen and hyaluronic acid derivatives) or inorganic biomaterials such as manufactured polymers (polyglycolic acid (PGA), polylactic acid (PLA), and polycaprolactone). This review focuses on different biomaterials currently used in dentistry as scaffolds for bone regeneration in treating bone defects or in surgical techniques, such as sinus lift, horizontal and vertical bone grafts, or socket preservation. Our review would be of particular interest to medical and surgical researchers at the interface of cell biology, materials science, and tissue engineering, as well as industry-related manufacturers and researchers in healthcare, prosthetics, and 3D printing, too.

  14. Emerging Perspectives in Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Oral Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ceccarelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone regeneration is currently one of the most important and challenging tissue engineering approaches in regenerative medicine. Bone regeneration is a promising approach in dentistry and is considered an ideal clinical strategy in treating diseases, injuries, and defects of the maxillofacial region. Advances in tissue engineering have resulted in the development of innovative scaffold designs, complemented by the progress made in cell-based therapies. In vitro bone regeneration can be achieved by the combination of stem cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors. The biomimetic approach to create an ideal bone substitute provides strategies for developing combined scaffolds composed of adult stem cells with mesenchymal phenotype and different organic biomaterials (such as collagen and hyaluronic acid derivatives or inorganic biomaterials such as manufactured polymers (polyglycolic acid (PGA, polylactic acid (PLA, and polycaprolactone. This review focuses on different biomaterials currently used in dentistry as scaffolds for bone regeneration in treating bone defects or in surgical techniques, such as sinus lift, horizontal and vertical bone grafts, or socket preservation. Our review would be of particular interest to medical and surgical researchers at the interface of cell biology, materials science, and tissue engineering, as well as industry-related manufacturers and researchers in healthcare, prosthetics, and 3D printing, too.

  15. Development of Composite Scaffolds for Load Bearing Segmental Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    osteoarthritis [24], generic infections, congenital deformity corrections [25], pathological degenerative bone destruction and other degenerative diseases [20...resection and reconstruction), osteoporosis, osteoarthritis , generic infections, congenital deformity corrections, pathological degenerative bone...the construct. Pore size/ Porosity: Quality of a bone scaffold to have pore size and porosity percent similar to established guidelines . Ideal

  16. Utilizing dendritic scaffold for feasible formation of naphthalene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the effect of dendritic scaffolds on the feasibility of naphthalene excimer formation has not been reported in the literature. Here, we report synthesis and photophysical study of naphthalene functionalized zero and first genera- tion PAMAM dendrimers in order to understand the mechanism of excimer formation in the system.

  17. Hybrid 3D-2D printing for bone scaffolds fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. A.; Prinz, V. Ya

    2017-02-01

    It is a well-known fact that bone scaffold topography on micro- and nanometer scale influences the cellular behavior. Nano-scale surface modification of scaffolds allows the modulation of biological activity for enhanced cell differentiation. To date, there has been only a limited success in printing scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale features exposed on the surface. To improve on the currently available imperfect technologies, in our paper we introduce new hybrid technologies based on a combination of 2D (nano imprint) and 3D printing methods. The first method is based on using light projection 3D printing and simultaneous 2D nanostructuring of each of the layers during the formation of the 3D structure. The second method is based on the sequential integration of preliminarily created 2D nanostructured films into a 3D printed structure. The capabilities of the developed hybrid technologies are demonstrated with the example of forming 3D bone scaffolds. The proposed technologies can be used to fabricate complex 3D micro- and nanostructured products for various fields.

  18. Ovalbumin-BasedPorous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Farrar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation on glutaraldehyde cross-linked ovalbumin scaffolds was the main focus of this research. Salt leaching and freeze drying were used to create a three-dimensional porous structure. Average pore size was 147.84±40.36 μm and 111.79±30.71 μm for surface and cross sectional area, respectively. Wet compressive strength and elastic modulus were 6.8±3.6 kPa. Average glass transition temperature was 320.1±1.4°C. Scaffolds were sterilized with ethylene oxide prior to seeding MC3T3-E1 cells. Cells were stained with DAPI and Texas red to determine morphology and proliferation. Average cell numbers increased between 4-hour- and 96-hour-cultured scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were measured at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. Differentiation studies showed an increase in osteocalcin at 21 days and alkaline phosphatase levels at 14 days, both indicating differentiation occurred. This work demonstrated the use of ovalbumin scaffolds for a bone tissue engineering application.

  19. New cholesterol esterase inhibitors based on rhodanine and thiazolidinedione scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heng, Sabrina; Tieu, William; Hautmann, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    We present a new class of inhibitors of pancreatic cholesterol esterase (CEase) based on 'priviledged' 5-benzylidenerhodanine and 5-benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione structural scaffolds. The lead structures (5-benzylidenerhodanine 4a and 5-benzylidene-2,4-thiazolidinedione 4b) were identified in...

  20. Channelled scaffolds for engineering myocardium with mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Wan, Leo Q; Xiong, Zhuo; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Park, Miri; Yan, Yongnian; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-10-01

    The characteristics of the matrix (composition, structure, mechanical properties) and external culture environment (pulsatile perfusion, physical stimulation) of the heart are important characteristics in the engineering of functional myocardial tissue. This study reports on the development of chitosan-collagen scaffolds with micropores and an array of parallel channels (~ 200 µm in diameter) that were specifically designed for cardiac tissue engineering using mechanical stimulation. The scaffolds were designed to have similar structural and mechanical properties of those of native heart matrix. Scaffolds were seeded with neonatal rat heart cells and subjected to dynamic tensile stretch using a custom designed bioreactor. The channels enhanced oxygen transport and facilitated the establishment of cell connections within the construct. The myocardial patches (14 mm in diameter, 1-2 mm thick) consisted of metabolically active cells that began to contract synchronously after 3 days of culture. Mechanical stimulation with high tensile stress promoted cell alignment, elongation, and expression of connexin-43 (Cx-43). This study confirms the importance of scaffold design and mechanical stimulation for the formation of contractile cardiac constructs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Channeled Scaffolds for Engineering Myocardium with Mechanical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Wan, Leo Q.; Xiong, Zhuo; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Park, Miri; Yan, Yongnian; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the matrix (composition, structure, mechanical properties) and external culture environment (pulsatile perfusion, physical stimulation) are critically important for engineering functional myocardial tissue. We report the development of chitosan-collagen scaffolds with micro-pores and an array of parallel channels (~200 μm in diameter) that were specifically designed for cardiac tissue engineering with mechanical stimulation. The scaffolds were designed to have the structural and mechanical properties similar to those of the native human heart matrix. Scaffolds were seeded with neonatal rat heart cells and subjected to dynamic tensile stretch using a custom-designed bioreactor. The channels enhanced oxygen transport and facilitated the establishment of cell connections within the construct. The myocardial patches (14 mm in diameter, 1–2 mm thick) consisted of metabolically active cells and started to contract synchronously after 3 days of culture. Mechanical stimulation with high tensile stresses promoted cell alignment, elongation, and the expression of connexin-43 (Cx-43). This study confirms the importance of scaffold design and mechanical stimulation for the formation of contractile cardiac constructs. PMID:22081518

  2. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  3. Biocompatible xanthan/polypyrrole scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasques Bueno, Vania; Harumi Takahashi, Suelen; Catalani, Luiz Henrique; Cordoba de Torresi, Susana Ines; Siqueira Petri, Denise Freitas, E-mail: dfsp@iq.usp.br

    2015-07-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was electropolymerized in xanthan hydrogels (XCA), resulting in electroactive XCAPPy scaffolds with (15 ± 3) wt.% PPy and (40 ± 10) μm thick. The physicochemical characterization of hybrid XCAPPy scaffolds was performed by means of cyclic voltammetry, swelling tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile tests. XCAPPy swelled ~ 80% less than XCA. FTIR spectra and thermal analyses did not evidence strong interaction between PPy and XCA matrix. XCAPPy presented a porous stratified structure resulting from the arrangement of PPy chains parallel to XCA surface. Under stress XCAPPy presented larger strain than neat XCA probably due to the sliding of planar PPy chains. The adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts onto XCA and XCAPPy were evaluated in the absence and in the presence of external magnetic field (EMF) of 0.4 T, after one day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Fibroblast proliferation was more pronounced onto XCAPPy than onto XCA, due to its higher hydrophobicity and surface roughness. EMF stimulated cell proliferation onto both scaffolds. - Highlights: • Hybrid networks of xanthan and polypyrrole were used as scaffolds for fibroblasts. • Hybrid networks were more hydrophobic and more elastic than neat xanthan. • Cell proliferation onto hybrid networks and neat xanthan increased with the time. • Cell proliferation was more pronounced onto hybrid networks than on neat xanthan. • External magnetic field stimulated cell growth onto hybrid networks and neat xanthan.

  4. Teaching Physics Novices at University: A Case for Stronger Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Christine; Sharma, Manjula D.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 a new type of tutorial, called Map Meeting, was successfully trialled with novice first year physics students at the University of Sydney, Australia. Subsequently, in first semester 2007 a large-scale experiment was carried out with 262 students who were allocated either to the strongly scaffolding Map Meetings or to the less scaffolding…

  5. Stories, Proverbs, and Anecdotes as Scaffolds for Learning Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutonyi, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Few research studies in science education have looked at how stories, proverbs, and anecdotes can be used as scaffolds for learning. Stories, proverbs, and anecdotes are cultural tools used in indigenous communities to teach children about their environment. The study draws on Bruner's work and the theory of border crossing to argue that stories,…

  6. Model of Models: Preservice Teachers in a Vygotskian Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Lev Vygotsky's revolutionary ideas have extended knowledge on the process of education--in particular, on mediating learning through language--for over 40 years. The zone of proximal development strengthened a new paradigm for learning and instruction, one which others, such as Bruner, formulated into the concept of scaffolding. Action research…

  7. Nanorod mediated collagen scaffolds as extra cellular matrix mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedhanayagam, Mohan; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Mohan, Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Creating collagen scaffolds that mimic extracellular matrices without using toxic exogenous materials remains a big challenge. A new strategy to create scaffolds through end-to-end crosslinking through functionalized nanorods leading to well-designed architecture is presented here. Self-assembled scaffolds with a denaturation temperature of 110 °C, porosity of 70%, pore size of 0.32 μm and Young’s modulus of 231 MPa were developed largely driven by imine bonding between 3-mercapto-1-propanal (MPA) functionalized ZnO nanorods and collagen. The mechanical properties obtained were much higher than that of native collagen, collagen—MPA, collagen—3-mercapto-1-propanol (3MPOH) or collagen- 3-MPOH-ZnO, clearly bringing out the relevance of nanorod mediated assembly of fibrous networks. This new strategy has led to scaffolds with mechanical properties much higher than earlier reports and can provide support for cell growth and facilitation of cell attachment. (paper)

  8. Optimizing Segmental Bone Regeneration Using Functionally Graded Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    mechanical strength (130– 190 MPa).4 Cancellous bone accounts for the other 20% of the total bone mass and is highly porous (50%–90%), with *10% of the...bionanotechnology. Adv Mater 18, 1345, 2006. 96. Drury , J.L., and Mooney, D.J. Hydrogels for tissue engi- neering: scaffold design variables and applications. Bio

  9. Deformation behaviour of a natural-shaped bone scaffold

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Doktor, Tomáš; Jiroušek, O.; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Zlámal, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 301-305 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : bone scaffold * polylactic acid * additive manufacturing * compression loading * microtomography Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit163/kytyr.pdf

  10. Biomimetic synthesis of hybrid nanocomposite scaffolds by freeze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this study is to biomimetically synthesize hydroxyapatite–hydrophilic polymer scaffolds for biomedical applications. This organic–inorganic hybrid has been structurally characterized and reveals a good microstructural control as seen by the SEM analysis and the nanosize of the particulates is confirmed by AFM ...

  11. 3D printing of novel osteochondral scaffolds with graded microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Margaret A.; Castro, Nathan J.; Plesniak, Michael W.; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-10-01

    Osteochondral tissue has a complex graded structure where biological, physiological, and mechanical properties vary significantly over the full thickness spanning from the subchondral bone region beneath the joint surface to the hyaline cartilage region at the joint surface. This presents a significant challenge for tissue-engineered structures addressing osteochondral defects. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D bioprinters present a unique solution to this problem. The objective of this study is to use FDM-based 3D bioprinting and nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for improved bone marrow human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion, growth, and osteochondral differentiation. FDM printing parameters can be tuned through computer aided design and computer numerical control software to manipulate scaffold geometries in ways that are beneficial to mechanical performance without hindering cellular behavior. Additionally, the ability to fine-tune 3D printed scaffolds increases further through our investment casting procedure which facilitates the inclusion of nanoparticles with biochemical factors to further elicit desired hMSC differentiation. For this study, FDM was used to print investment-casting molds innovatively designed with varied pore distribution over the full thickness of the scaffold. The mechanical and biological impacts of the varied pore distributions were compared and evaluated to determine the benefits of this physical manipulation. The results indicate that both mechanical properties and cell performance improve in the graded pore structures when compared to homogeneously distributed porous and non-porous structures. Differentiation results indicated successful osteogenic and chondrogenic manipulation in engineered scaffolds.

  12. Characterization of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Nanobiomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emul, E.; Saglam, S.; Ates, H.; Korkusuz, F.; Saglam, N.

    2016-08-01

    The electrospinning method is employed in the production of porous fiber scaffolds, and the usage of electrospun scaffolds especially as drug carrier and bone reconstructive material such as implants is promising for future applications in tissue engineering. The number of publications has grown very rapidly in this field through the fabrication of complex scaffolds, novel approaches in nanotechnology, and improvements of imaging methods. Hence, characterization of these materials has also grown significantly important for getting satisfied and accurate results. This advantageous and versatile method is ideal for mimicking bone extracellular matrix, and many biodegradable and biocompatible polymers are preferred in the field of bone reconstruction. In this study, gelatin, gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) and gelatin/PLLA/nHAp scaffolds were fabricated by the electrospinning process. These composite fibers showed clear and continuous morphology according to observation through a scanning electron microscope and their component analyses were also determined by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer analyses. These characterization experiments revealed the great effects of the electrospinning method for biomedical applications and have an especially important role in bone reconstruction and production of implant coating material.

  13. Biocompatibility of hydrogel-based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naahidi, Sheva; Jafari, Mousa; Logan, Megan; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Yongfang; Bae, Hojae; Dixon, Brian; Chen, P

    2017-09-01

    Recently, understanding of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has expanded rapidly due to the accessibility of cellular and molecular techniques and the growing potential and value for hydrogels in tissue engineering. The fabrication of hydrogel-based cellular scaffolds for the generation of bioengineered tissues has been based on knowledge of the composition and structure of ECM. Attempts at recreating ECM have used either naturally-derived ECM components or synthetic polymers with structural integrity derived from hydrogels. Due to their increasing use, their biocompatibility has been questioned since the use of these biomaterials needs to be effective and safe. It is not surprising then that the evaluation of biocompatibility of these types of biomaterials for regenerative and tissue engineering applications has been expanded from being primarily investigated in a laboratory setting to being applied in the multi-billion dollar medicinal industry. This review will aid in the improvement of design of non-invasive, smart hydrogels that can be utilized for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. In this review, the biocompatibility of hydrogels and design criteria for fabricating effective scaffolds are examined. Examples of natural and synthetic hydrogels, their biocompatibility and use in tissue engineering are discussed. The merits and clinical complications of hydrogel scaffold use are also reviewed. The article concludes with a future outlook of the field of biocompatibility within the context of hydrogel-based scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scaffolding for Second Language Writers: Producing an Academic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterall, Sara; Cohen, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Describes how a group of intermediate learners of English were guided through the process of producing their first academic essays in English. The approach applied the concept of scaffolding to the academic writing process by proving flexible support for the learners throughout the writing of their essays. (Author/VWL)

  15. Reassignment of Drosophila willistoni Genome Scaffolds to Chromosome II Arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Delprat, Alejandra; Ruiz, Alfredo; Valente, Vera L S

    2015-10-04

    Drosophila willistoni is a geographically widespread Neotropical species. The genome of strain Gd-H4-1 from Guadeloupe Island (Caribbean) was sequenced in 2007 as part of the 12 Drosophila Genomes Project. The assembled scaffolds were joined based on conserved linkage and assigned to polytene chromosomes based on a handful of genetic and physical markers. This paucity of markers was particularly striking in the metacentric chromosome II, comprised two similarly sized arms, IIL and IIR, traditionally considered homologous to Muller elements C and B, respectively. In this paper we present the cytological mapping of 22 new gene markers to increase the number of markers mapped by in situ hybridization and to test the assignment of scaffolds to the polytene chromosome II arms. For this purpose, we generated, by polymerase chain reaction amplification, one or two gene probes from each scaffold assigned to the chromosome II arms and mapped these probes to the Gd-H4-1 strain's polytene chromosomes by nonfluorescent in situ hybridization. Our findings show that chromosome arms IIL and IIR correspond to Muller elements B and C, respectively, directly contrasting the current homology assignments in D. willistoni and constituting a major reassignment of the scaffolds to chromosome II arms. Copyright © 2015 Garcia et al.

  16. Bioresorbable scaffolds: talking of a new interventional revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassell, M. E. C. J.; Grundeken, M. J. D.; Woudstra, P.; Delewi, R.; Wykrzykowska, J. J.; Piek, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    After the introduction of coronary balloon angioplasty, bare-metal, and drug-eluting stents, fully bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) could be the fourth revolution in interventional cardiology. The BRS technology shares the advantages of metallic stents regarding acute gain and prevention of acute

  17. Multimodal Scaffolding in the Secondary English Classroom Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche, Benjamin; Henning, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the topic of multimodal scaffolding in the secondary English classroom curriculum through the viewpoint of one teacher's experiences. With technology becoming more commonplace and readily available in the English classroom, we must pinpoint specific and tangible ways to help teachers use and teach multimodalities in their…

  18. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  19. Chitosan/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blend scaffolds for cartilage repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, Sara C.; Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; Moroni, Lorenzo; Reis, Rui L.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Alves, Natália M.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; Mano, João F.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) blend 3D fiber-mesh scaffolds were studied as possible support structures for articular cartilage tissue (ACT) repair. Micro-fibers were obtained by wet-spinning of three different polymeric solutions: 100:0 (100CHT), 75:25 (75CHT) and 50:50 (50CHT) wt.%

  20. Software scaffolds to promote regulation during scientific inquiry learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manlove, S.A.; Lazonder, Adrianus W.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This research addresses issues in the design of online scaffolds for regulation within inquiry learning environments. The learning environment in this study included a physics simulation, data analysis tools, and a model editor for students to create runnable models. A regulative support tool called