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Sample records for polypyrrole zirconium titanium

  1. Titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard Legry, G.

    1994-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium pure and base alloys are protected by an oxide film with anionic vacancies which gives a very good resistance to corrosion in oxidizing medium, in some ph ranges. Results of pitting and crevice corrosion are given for Cl - , Br - , I - ions concentration with temperature and ph dependence, also with oxygenated ions effect. (A.B.). 32 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Chemistry of titanium, zirconium and thorium picramates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.S.; Agrawal, S.P.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Picramates of titanium, zirconium and thorium are prepared by treating the aqueous sulphate, chloride and nitrate solutions with sodium picramate. Micro-analysis, colorimetry and spectrophotometry are used to establish the compositions (metal : ligand ratio) of these picramates as 1 : 2 (for titanium and zirconium) and 1 : 4 (for thorium). IR studies indicate H 2 N → Me coordination (where Me denotes the metal). A number of explosive properties of these picramates point to the fact that the zirconium picramate is thermally more stable than the picramates of titanium and thorium. (orig.) [de

  3. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; Schöllchen, Maximilian; Gauer, Tobias; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-02-01

    To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants. Zirconium, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line-distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. While titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium-zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting.

  4. Titanium(IV), zirconium, hafnium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Titanium can exist in solution in a number of oxidation states. The titanium(IV) exists in acidic solutions as the oxo-cation, TiO 2+ , rather than Ti 4+ . Zirconium is used in the ceramics industry and in nuclear industry as a cladding material in reactors where its reactivity towards hydrolysis reactions and precipitation of oxides may result in degradation of the cladding. In nature, hafnium is found together with zirconium and as a consequence of the contraction in ionic radii that occurs due to the 4f -electron shell, the ionic radius of hafnium is almost identical to that of zirconium. All isotopes of thorium are radioactive and, as a consequence of it being fertile, thorium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle. The polymeric hydrolysis species that have been reported for thorium are somewhat different to those identified for zirconium and hafnium, although thorium does form the Th 4 (OH) 8 8+ species.

  5. Manufacture of titanium and zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares, F.; Hanslik, T.

    1973-01-01

    A method is described of manufacturing titanium and zirconium hydrides by hydrogenation of said metals characterized by the reaction temperature ranging between 250 to 500 degC, hydrogen pressure of 20 to 300 atm and possibly by the presence of a hydride of the respective metal. (V.V.)

  6. Obtention of titanium and zirconium metallic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.R.G.; Rover, C.F.S.; Amaral, F.L.L.

    1988-01-01

    The development works of techniques and equipments for titanium and zirconium sponges obtention are mentioned. The Kroll Process used for the sponges production is described, consisting in the reduction of the metal tetracloride with magnesium in an inert atmosphere of helium or argon. (C.G.C.) [pt

  7. Titanium zirconium and hafnium coordination compounds with vanillin thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konunova, Ts.B.; Kudritskaya, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Coordination compounds of titanium zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides with vanillin thiosemicarbazone of MCl 4 x nLig composition, where n=1.5, 4 for titanium and 1, 2, 4 for zirconium and hafnium, are synthesized. Molar conductivity of ethanol solutions is measured; IR spectroscopic and thermochemical investigation are carried out. The supposition about ligand coordination via sulfur and azomethine nitrogen atoms is made. In all cases hafnium forms stable compounds than zirconium

  8. ZIRCONIUM-TITANIUM-BERYLLIUM BRAZING ALLOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, R.G.; Patriarca, P.; Slaughter, G.M.; Williams, L.C.

    1962-06-12

    A new and improved ternary alloy is described which is of particular utility in braze-bonding parts made of a refractory metal selected from Group IV, V, and VI of the periodic table and alloys containing said metal as a predominating alloying ingredient. The brazing alloy contains, by weight, 40 to 50 per cent zirconium, 40 to 50 per cent titanium, and the balance beryllium in amounts ranging from 1 to 20 per cent, said alloy having a melting point in the range 950 to 1400 deg C. (AEC)

  9. Sorption of cesium on titanium and zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.N.; Mel'nik, N.A.; Rudenko, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium phosphates were prepared from mineral raw materials of the Kola Peninsula. Their capability to recover cesium cations from the model solutions and liquid radioactive waste (LRW) was studied. Titanium phosphate prepared from solutions formed by titanite breakdown demonstrates greater distribution coefficients of cesium as compared to zirconium phosphate. Titanium phosphate as a cheaper agent featuring greater sorption capacity was recommended for treatment of LRW to remove cesium [ru

  10. High temperature evaporation of titanium, zirconium and hafnium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Evaporation of cubic nonstoichiometric carbides of titanium, zirconium and hafnium in a comparatively low-temperature interval (1800-2700) with detailed crystallochemical sample certification is studied. Titanium carbide is characterized by the maximum evaporation rate: at T>2300 K it loses 3% of sample mass during an hour and at T>2400 K titanium carbide evaporation becomes extremely rapid. Zirconium and hafnium carbide evaporation rates are several times lower than titanium carbide evaporation rates at similar temperatures. Partial pressures of metals and carbon over the carbides studied are calculated on the base of evaporation rates

  11. Effects of titanium and zirconium on iron aluminide weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulac, B.L.; Edwards, G.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Welding, Joining, and Coatings Research; Burt, R.P. [Alumax Technical Center, Golden, CO (United States); David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1997-12-01

    When gas-tungsten arc welded, iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure which is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Titanium inoculation effectively refined the fusion zone microstructure in iron aluminide weldments, but the inoculated weldments had a reduced fracture strength despite the presence of a finer microstructure. The weldments fractured by transgranular cleavage which nucleated at cracked second phase particles. With titanium inoculation, second phase particles in the fusion zone changed shape and also became more concentrated at the grain boundaries, which increased the particle spacing in the fusion zone. The observed decrease in fracture strength with titanium inoculation was attributed to increased spacing of second phase particles in the fusion zone. Current research has focused on the weldability of zirconium- and carbon-alloyed iron aluminides. Preliminary work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has shown that zirconium and carbon additions affect the weldability of the alloy as well as the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of the weldments. A sigmajig hot cracking test apparatus has been constructed and tested at Colorado School of Mines. Preliminary characterization of hot cracking of three zirconium- and carbon-alloyed iron aluminides, each containing a different total concentration of zirconium at a constant zirconium/carbon ratio of ten, is in progress. Future testing will include low zirconium alloys at zirconium/carbon ratios of five and one, as well as high zirconium alloys (1.5 to 2.0 atomic percent) at zirconium/carbon ratios of ten to forty.

  12. Artefacts in multimodal imaging of titanium, zirconium and binary titanium–zirconium alloy dental implants: an in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöllchen, Maximilian; Aarabi, Ghazal; Assaf, Alexandre T; Rendenbach, Carsten; Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta; Semmusch, Jan; Sedlacik, Jan; Heiland, Max; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze and evaluate imaging artefacts induced by zirconium, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy dental implants. Methods: Zirconium, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy implants were embedded in gelatin and MRI, CT and CBCT were performed. Standard protocols were used for each modality. For MRI, line–distance profiles were plotted to quantify the accuracy of size determination. For CT and CBCT, six shells surrounding the implant were defined every 0.5 cm from the implant surface and histogram parameters were determined for each shell. Results: While titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy induced extensive signal voids in MRI owing to strong susceptibility, zirconium implants were clearly definable with only minor distortion artefacts. For titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy, the MR signal was attenuated up to 14.1 mm from the implant. In CT, titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy resulted in less streak artefacts in comparison with zirconium. In CBCT, titanium–zirconium alloy induced more severe artefacts than zirconium and titanium. Conclusions: MRI allows for an excellent image contrast and limited artefacts in patients with zirconium implants. CT and CBCT examinations are less affected by artefacts from titanium and titanium–zirconium alloy implants compared with MRI. The knowledge about differences of artefacts through different implant materials and image modalities might help support clinical decisions for the choice of implant material or imaging device in the clinical setting. PMID:27910719

  13. Methods for determination of zirconium in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Two methods for determining zirconium content in titanium alloys are specified in this standard. One is the ion-exchange/mandelic acid gravimetry for Zr content below 20 % down to 1 % while the other is the mandelic acid gravimetry for Zr content below 20 % down to 0.5 %. In the former, a specimen is decomposed by hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. After substances such as titanium are oxidized by adding nitric acid, the liquid is adjusted into a 4N hydrochloric acid - gN hydrofluoric acid solution, which is them passed through an ion-exchange column. The niobium and tantalum contents are absorbed while the titanium and zirconium contents flow out. Perchloric acid and sulfuric acid are poured in the solution to remove hydrofluoric acid. Aqueous ammonia is added to produce hydroxide of titanium and zirconium, which is then filtered out. The hydroxyde is dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and mandelic acid is poured to precipitate the zirconium content. The precipitate is ignited and the weight of the oxide formed is measured. The coprecipitated titanium content is determined by the absorptiometric method using hydrogen peroxide. Finally, the weight of the oxide is corrected. In the latter determination method, on the other hand, only several steps of the above procedure are used, namely, decomposition by hydrochloric acid, precipitation of zirconium, ignition of precipitate, measurement of oxide weight and weight correction. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-05

    of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison Is...Uniformed Services University Date: 02/20/2015 Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison By...the thesis manuscript entitled: Primary Stability of Zirconium vs Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Comparison Is appropriately acknowledged

  15. Nitrogen annealing of zirconium or titanium metals and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucken, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of continuously nitrogen annealing zirconium and titanium metals and their alloys at temperatures at from 525 0 to 875 0 C for from 1/2 minute to 15 minutes. The examples include the annealing of Zircaloy-4. (U.K.)

  16. Polypyrrole/titanium oxide nanotube arrays composites as an active material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Seok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2011-05-01

    The authors present the first reported use of vertically oriented titanium oxide nanotube/polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposites to increase the specific capacitance of TiO2 based energy storage devices. To increase their electrical storage capacity, titanium oxide nanotubes were coated with PPy and their morphologies were characterized. The incorporation of PPy increased the specific capacitance of the titanium oxide nanotube based supercapacitor system, due to their increased surface area and additional pseudo-capacitance.

  17. Electrically controlled drug release from nanostructured polypyrrole coated on titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown out of anodized nanotubular titanium (MWNT-Ti) can be used as a sensing electrode for various biomedical applications; such sensors detected the redox reactions of certain molecules, specifically proteins deposited by osteoblasts during extracellular matrix bone formation. Since it is known that polypyrrole (PPy) can release drugs upon electrical stimulation, in this study antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin, P/S) or an anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone, Dex), termed PPy[P/S] or PPy[Dex], respectively, were electrodeposited in PPy on titanium. The objective of the present study was to determine if such drugs can be released from PPy on demand and (by applying a voltage) control cellular behavior important for orthopedic applications. Results showed that PPy films possessed nanometer-scale roughness as analyzed by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of P/S and Dex encapsulated within the PPy films. Results from cyclic voltammetry showed that 80% of the drugs were released on demand when sweep voltages were applied for five cycles at a scan rate of 0.1 V s -1 . Furthermore, osteoblast (bone-forming cells) and fibroblast (fibrous tissue-forming cells) adhesion were determined on the PPy films. Results showed that PPy[Dex] enhanced osteoblast adhesion after 4 h of culture compared to plain Ti. PPy-Ti (with or without anionic drug doping) inhibited fibroblast adhesion compared to plain Ti. These in vitro results confirmed that electrodeposited PPy[P/S] and PPy[Dex] can release drugs on demand to potentially fight bacterial infection, reduce inflammation, promote bone growth or reduce fibroblast functions, further implicating the use of such materials as implant sensors.

  18. Electrically controlled drug release from nanostructured polypyrrole coated on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh; Webster, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown out of anodized nanotubular titanium (MWNT-Ti) can be used as a sensing electrode for various biomedical applications; such sensors detected the redox reactions of certain molecules, specifically proteins deposited by osteoblasts during extracellular matrix bone formation. Since it is known that polypyrrole (PPy) can release drugs upon electrical stimulation, in this study antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin, P/S) or an anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone, Dex), termed PPy[P/S] or PPy[Dex], respectively, were electrodeposited in PPy on titanium. The objective of the present study was to determine if such drugs can be released from PPy on demand and (by applying a voltage) control cellular behavior important for orthopedic applications. Results showed that PPy films possessed nanometer-scale roughness as analyzed by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of P/S and Dex encapsulated within the PPy films. Results from cyclic voltammetry showed that 80% of the drugs were released on demand when sweep voltages were applied for five cycles at a scan rate of 0.1 V s - 1. Furthermore, osteoblast (bone-forming cells) and fibroblast (fibrous tissue-forming cells) adhesion were determined on the PPy films. Results showed that PPy[Dex] enhanced osteoblast adhesion after 4 h of culture compared to plain Ti. PPy-Ti (with or without anionic drug doping) inhibited fibroblast adhesion compared to plain Ti. These in vitro results confirmed that electrodeposited PPy[P/S] and PPy[Dex] can release drugs on demand to potentially fight bacterial infection, reduce inflammation, promote bone growth or reduce fibroblast functions, further implicating the use of such materials as implant sensors.

  19. Electrically controlled drug release from nanostructured polypyrrole coated on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh; Webster, Thomas J, E-mail: Thomas_Webster@Brown.edu [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Previous studies have demonstrated that multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown out of anodized nanotubular titanium (MWNT-Ti) can be used as a sensing electrode for various biomedical applications; such sensors detected the redox reactions of certain molecules, specifically proteins deposited by osteoblasts during extracellular matrix bone formation. Since it is known that polypyrrole (PPy) can release drugs upon electrical stimulation, in this study antibiotics (penicillin/streptomycin, P/S) or an anti-inflammatory drug (dexamethasone, Dex), termed PPy[P/S] or PPy[Dex], respectively, were electrodeposited in PPy on titanium. The objective of the present study was to determine if such drugs can be released from PPy on demand and (by applying a voltage) control cellular behavior important for orthopedic applications. Results showed that PPy films possessed nanometer-scale roughness as analyzed by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of P/S and Dex encapsulated within the PPy films. Results from cyclic voltammetry showed that 80% of the drugs were released on demand when sweep voltages were applied for five cycles at a scan rate of 0.1 V s{sup -1}. Furthermore, osteoblast (bone-forming cells) and fibroblast (fibrous tissue-forming cells) adhesion were determined on the PPy films. Results showed that PPy[Dex] enhanced osteoblast adhesion after 4 h of culture compared to plain Ti. PPy-Ti (with or without anionic drug doping) inhibited fibroblast adhesion compared to plain Ti. These in vitro results confirmed that electrodeposited PPy[P/S] and PPy[Dex] can release drugs on demand to potentially fight bacterial infection, reduce inflammation, promote bone growth or reduce fibroblast functions, further implicating the use of such materials as implant sensors.

  20. Research on development and application of titanium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Sasano, Hisaoki; Uehara, Shigeaki; Nakano, Osamu; Shibata, Michio

    1983-01-01

    It can be said that titanium and zirconium are new metals from the viewpoint of the history of metals, but both have grown to the materials supporting modern industries, titanium alloys in aerospace and ocean development, and zirconium alloys in nuclear power application. However, the properties of both alloys have not yet been clarified. In this study, the synthesis of TiNi and its properties, precipitation hardening type titanium alloys, and the effect of oxygen on the mechanical properties of both alloys were examined. TiNi is the typical intermetallic compound which shows the peculiar properties. The method of its synthesis by diffusion was examined, and it was clarified that it is useful as a structural material and also as a functional material. Precipitation hardening type alloys have not been developed in titanium alloys, but in this study, the feasibility of several alloy systems was found. Both titanium and zirconium have large affinity to oxygen, and the oxygen absorbed in the manufacturing process cannot be reduced. The tensile property of both alloys was examined in wide temperature range, and the effect of oxygen was clarified. (Kako, I.)

  1. Corrosion resistance of high-performance materials titanium, tantalum, zirconium

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion resistance is the property of a material to resist corrosion attack in a particular aggressive environment. Although titanium, tantalum and zirconium are not noble metals, they are the best choice whenever high corrosion resistance is required. The exceptionally good corrosion resistance of these high–performance metals and their alloys results from the formation of a very stable, dense, highly adherent, and self–healing protective oxide film on the metal surface. This naturally occurring oxide layer prevents chemical attack of the underlying metal surface. This behavior also means, however, that high corrosion resistance can be expected only under neutral or oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, a lower resistance must be reckoned with. Only very few inorganic and organic substances are able to attack titanium, tantalum or zirconium at ambient temperature. As the extraordinary corrosion resistance is coupled with an excellent formability and weldability these materials are very valua...

  2. Plastic deformation of particles of zirconium and titanium carbide subjected to vibration grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchik, A.E.; Neshpor, V.S.; Savel' ev, G.A.; Ordan' yan, S.S.

    1976-12-01

    A study is made of the influence of stoichiometry on the characteristics of microplastic deformation in powders of zirconium and titanium carbide subjected to vibration grinding. The carbide powders were produced by direct synthesis from the pure materials: metallic titanium and zirconium and acetylene black. As to the nature of their elastic deformation, zirconium and titanium carbides can be considered elastic-isotropic materials. During vibration grinding, the primary fracture planes are the (110) planes. Carbides of nonstoichiometric composition are more brittle.

  3. Studies in group IV organometallic chemistry XXX. Synthesis of compounds containing tin---titanium and tin---zirconium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Verbeek, F.; Noltes, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Starting from the tetrakis(diethylamino) derivatives of titanium and zirconium and pheyltin hydrides six intermetalic compounds contianing up to nine tin and titanium(or zirconium) atoms have been obtained by hydrostannolysis type reactions.

  4. Numerical assessment of bone remodeling around conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kıvanç; Eser, Atılım; Çavuşoğlu, Yeliz; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Çehreli, Murat Cavit

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants by three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Three-dimensional model of a dental implant was created and a thread area was established as a region of interest in trabecular bone to study a localized part of the global model with a refined mesh. The peri-implant tissues around conventionally loaded (model 1) and early loaded (model 2) implants were implemented and were used to explore principal stresses, displacement values, and equivalent strains in the peri-implant region of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants under static load of 300 N with or without 30° inclination applied on top of the abutment surface. Under axial loading, principal stresses in both models were comparable for both implants and models. Under oblique loading, principal stresses around titanium-zirconium implants were slightly higher in both models. Comparable stress magnitudes were observed in both models. The displacement values and equivalent strain amplitudes around both implants and models were similar. Peri-implant bone around titanium and titanium-zirconium implants experiences similar stress magnitudes coupled with intraosseous implant displacement values under conventional loading and early loading simulations. Titanium-zirconium implants have biomechanical outcome comparable to conventional titanium implants under conventional loading and early loading.

  5. Incorporating catechol into electroactive polypyrrole nanowires on titanium to promote hydroxyapatite formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengao Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the osteointegration property of biomedical titanium, nano-architectured electroactive coating was synthesized through the electrochemical polymerization of dopamine and pyrrole. The highly binding affinity of Ca2+ to the catechol moiety of doped dopamine enabled efficient interaction between polypyrrole/polydopamine nanowires and mineral ions. The results indicate that the PPy/PDA nanowires preserved its efficient electro-activity and accelerated the hydroxyapatite deposition in a simulated body fluid. The PPy/PDA nanowires coating could be applied to promote the osteointegration of titanium implant.

  6. Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium is the 20th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. It occurs in a variety of rock types and geologic environments but most often in igneous rocks in the form of zircon (ZrSiO4). Zircon is recovered as a coproduct of the mining and processing of heavy mineral sands for the titanium minerals ilmenite and rutile. The sands are formed by the weathering and erosion of rock containing zircon and titanium heavy minerals and their subsequent concentration in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. A small quantity of zirconium, less than 10 kt/a (11,000 stpy), compared with total world production of 1.4 Mt (1.5 million st) in 2012, was derived from the mineral baddeleyite (ZrO2), produced from a single source in Kovdor, Russia.

  7. Hydrogen content in titanium and a titanium–zirconium alloy after acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Walter, Martin S. [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lyngstadaas, S. Petter [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway); Wintermantel, Erich [Institute of Medical and Polymer Engineering, Chair of Medical Engineering, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Haugen, Håvard J., E-mail: h.j.haugen@odont.uio.no [Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1109, Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-01

    Dental implant alloys made from titanium and zirconium are known for their high mechanical strength, fracture toughness and corrosion resistance in comparison with commercially pure titanium. The aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in the surface chemistry and/or surface topography of titanium and titanium–zirconium surfaces after sand blasting and acid etching. The two surfaces were compared by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and profilometry. The 1.9 times greater surface hydrogen concentration of titanium zirconium compared to titanium was found to be the major difference between the two materials. Zirconium appeared to enhance hydride formation on titanium alloys when etched in acid. Surface topography revealed significant differences on the micro and nanoscale. Surface roughness was increased significantly (p < 0.01) on the titanium–zirconium alloy. High-resolution images showed nanostructures only present on titanium zirconium. - Highlights: ► TiZr alloy showed increased hydrogen levels over Ti. ► The alloying element Zr appeared to catalyze hydrogen absorption in Ti. ► Surface roughness was significantly increased for the TiZr alloy over Ti. ► TiZr alloy revealed nanostructures not observed for Ti.

  8. Coordination compounds of titanium, zirconium, tin, thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.G.; Jain, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Reactions of isatin, furoic acid and picolinic acid have been carried out with titanium tetrachloride, tin tetrachloride, thorium tetrachloride, zirconyl chloride and uranyl nitrate. While 2:3(metal:ligand) type compounds of isatin have been obtained with Ti(IV) and Sn(IV), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV), and uranium(VI) do not react with the ligand under similar experimental conditions. Furoic acid (FAH) and picolinic acid(PicH) form various chloro furoates and picolinates when reacted with TiCl 4 , ZrOCl 2 and ThCl 4 , but do not react with SnCl 4 . The various compounds synthesised have been characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared studies, conductivity and thermogravimetric measurements. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  9. Strength of zirconium--titanium martensites and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Vijayakar, S.J.; Krishnan, R.

    1978-01-01

    The deformation behavior of pure zirconium and of zirconium--titanium alloys containing 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt % titanium was studied in two heat treated conditions: furnace cooled and water quenched from the β phase field. By comparing the flow stresses of the furnace cooled α and the water quenched α' (martensite) structures it was possible to isolate the strengthening contributions of the martensitic structure (comprising the contributions due to the small size of the martensite units and to the distributions of defects like dislocations and internal twins) from those arising from the solid solution. The internally twinned plate martensite structure in the Zr--15% Ti and the Zr--20% Ti alloys was responsible for a significant increase in strength, while the strengthening due to the dislocated lath martensite structure in the more dilute alloys was only marginal. Stress relaxation experiments revealed that strengthening associated with the martensite structure was mainly due to an increase in the athermal component of the flow stress. The effectiveness of the lath boundaries and the (10 anti 11) twin boundaries in offering resistance to an approaching deformation front (either slip or twin) was examined. While the lath boundaries were found to be transparent with respect to the propagation of slip dislocations and deformation twins, a majority of plate as well as twin boundaries were effective barriers against their propagation. TEM observations showed an extensive accumulation of geometrically necessary dislocations in the plastically deformed twinned martensites. Enhanced work hardening was related to the geometric slip distances in these structures in accordance with Ashby's one parameter work hardening theory for plastically inhomogeneous materials. The effect of the martensite structure on different components of the flow stress (dependent on or independent of grain size and strain) was discussed

  10. Calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Takayuki; Chen, Peng; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Doi, Hisashi; Ashida, Maki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Moriyama, Keiji; Hanawa, Takao

    2015-01-01

    To confirm similarity of hard tissue compatibility between titanium and zirconium, calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on titanium and zirconium was evaluated in this study. Mirror-polished titanium (Ti) and zirconium (Zr) disks and zirconium-sputter deposited titanium (Zr/Ti) were employed in this study. The surface of specimens were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Then, the cellular proliferation, differentiation and calcification of MC3T3-E1 cells on specimens were investigated. The surface of Zr/Ti was much smoother and cleaner than those of Ti and Zr. The proliferation of the cell was the same among three specimens, while the differentiation and calcification on Zr/Ti were faster than those on Ti and Zr. Therefore, Ti and Zr showed the identical hard tissue compatibility according to the evaluation with MC3T3-E1 cells. Sputter deposition may improve cytocompatibility.

  11. Osteogenic potential of laser modified and conditioned titanium zirconium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P David Charles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The osseointegration of dental implant is related to their composition and surface treatment. Titanium zirconium (TiZr has been introduced as an alternative to the commercially pure titanium and its alloys as dental implant material, which is attributed to its superior mechanical and biological properties. Surface treatments of TiZr have been introduced to enhance their osseointegration ability; however, reliable, easy to use surface modification technique has not been established. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd-YAG laser surface treatment of TiZr implant alloy on their osteogenic potential. Materials and Methods: Twenty disc-shaped samples of 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height were milled from the TiZr alloy ingot. The polished discs were ultrasonically cleaned in distilled water. Ten samples each were randomly selected as Group A control samples and Group B consisted of Nd-YAG laser surface etched and conditioned test samples. These were evaluated for cellular response. Cellular adhesion and proliferation were quantified, and the results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric analysis. Cellular morphology was observed using electron and epiflurosence microscopy. Results: Nd-YAG laser surface modified and conditioned TiZr samples increased the osteogenic potential. Conclusion: Nd-YAG laser surface modification of TiZr, improves the cellular activity, surface roughness, and wettability, thereby increasing the osteogenic potential.

  12. Cell Attachment Following Instrumentation with Titanium and Plastic Instruments, Diode Laser, and Titanium Brush on Titanium, Titanium-Zirconium, and Zirconia Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Melissa S; Cerutis, D Roselyn; Miyamoto, Takanari; Nunn, Martha E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface characteristics and gingival fibroblast adhesion of disks composed of implant and abutment materials following brief and repeated instrumentation with instruments commonly used in procedures for implant maintenance, stage-two implant surgery, and periimplantitis treatment. One hundred twenty disks (40 titanium, 40 titaniumzirconium, 40 zirconia) were grouped into treatment categories of instrumentation by plastic curette, titanium curette, diode microlaser, rotary titanium brush, and no treatment. Twenty strokes were applied to half of the disks in the plastic and titanium curette treatment categories, while half of the disks received 100 strokes each to simulate implant maintenance occurring on a repetitive basis. Following analysis of the disks by optical laser profilometry, disks were cultured with human gingival fibroblasts. Cell counts were conducted from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Differences in surface roughness across all instruments tested for zirconia disks were negligible, while both titanium disks and titaniumzirconium disks showed large differences in surface roughness across the spectrum of instruments tested. The rotary titanium brush and the titanium curette yielded the greatest overall mean surface roughness, while the plastic curette yielded the lowest mean surface roughness. The greatest mean cell counts for each disk type were as follows: titanium disks with plastic curettes, titanium-zirconium disks with titanium curettes, and zirconia disks with the diode microlaser. Repeated instrumentation did not result in cumulative changes in surface roughness of implant materials made of titanium, titanium-zirconium, or zirconia. Instrumentation with plastic implant curettes on titanium and zirconia surfaces appeared to be more favorable than titanium implant curettes in terms of gingival fibroblast attachment on these surfaces.

  13. In vitro assessment of artifacts induced by titanium, titanium-zirconium and zirconium dioxide implants in cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Benic, Goran I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether or not the intensity of artifacts around implants in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) differs between titanium, titanium-zirconium and zirconium dioxide implants. Twenty models of a human mandible, each containing one implant in the single-tooth gap position 45, were cast in dental stone. Five test models were produced for each of the following implant types: titanium 4.1 mm diameter (Ti4.1 ), titanium 3.3 mm diameter (Ti3.3 ), titanium-zirconium 3.3 mm diameter (TiZr3.3 ) and zirconium dioxide 3.5-4.5 mm diameter (ZrO3.5-4.5 ) implants. For control purposes, three models without implants were produced. Each model was scanned using a CBCT device. Gray values (GV) were recorded at eight circumferential positions around the implants at 0.5 mm, 1 mm and 2 mm from the implant surface (GVT est ). GV were assessed in the corresponding volumes of interest (VOI) in the control models without implants (GVC ontrol ). Differences of gray values (ΔGV) between GVT est and GVC ontrol were calculated as percentages. One-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were applied to detect differences between implant types. Mean ΔGV for ZrO3.5-4.5 presented the highest absolute values, generally followed by TiZr3.3 , Ti4.1 and Ti3.3 implants. The differences of ΔGV between ZrO3.5-4.5 and the remaining groups were statistically significant in the majority of the VOI (P ≤ 0.0167). ΔGV for TiZr3.3 , Ti4.1 and Ti3.3 implants did not differ significantly in the most VOI. For all implant types, ΔGV showed positive values buccally, mesio-buccally, lingually and disto-lingually, whereas negative values were detected mesially and distally. Zirconium dioxide implants generate significantly more artifacts as compared to titanium and titanium-zirconium implants. The intensity of artifacts around zirconium dioxide implants exhibited in average the threefold in comparison with titanium implants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  14. Inhibitors for the corrosion of reactive metals: titanium and zirconium and their alloys in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.A.; Chatainier, G.; Dabosi, F.

    1981-01-01

    The search for effective corrosion inhibitors for titanium and zirconium in acid media is growing because of the considerable increase in the use of these materials in chemical process equipment. It still remains limited, as appears from this review, because of the exceptionally high corrosion resistance of the metals. Titanium has received the greater attention. Its corrosion rate can be lowered by introduction in the medium of multivalent ions, inorganic and organic oxidants. Care should be taken to hold the concentration at a level exceeding some critical value, otherwise the corrosion rate increases. Complexing organic agents do not show such hazardous behaviour. The very rapid corrosion of titanium and zirconium in fluoride media may be lessened by complexing the fluoride ions. Though rarely encountered, localized corrosion may be avoided by using inhibitors. In some cases good corrosion inhibitors for titanium are dissolution accelerators for zirconium. (author)

  15. Arsenic removal from aqueous solutions by sorption onto zirconium- and titanium-modified sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ljubiša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic reduction in drinking water can include treatment by adsorption, switching to alternative water sources, or blending with water that has a lower arsenic concentration. Commercial sorbents MTM, Greensand and BIRM (Clack Corporation were modified with zirconium and titanium after activation. The modifications were performed with titanium tetrachloride and zirconium tetrachloride. The modified sorbents were dried at different temperatures. The sorption of arsenate and arsenite dissolved in drinking water (200μg L-1 onto the sorbents were tested using a batch procedure. After removal of the sorbent, the concentration of arsenic was determined by HG-AAS. Zirconium-modified BIRM showed the best performance for the removal of both arsenite and arsenate. Modification of the greensand did not affect arsenic sorption ability. Zirconium-modified BIRM diminished the concentration of total As to below 5 μg L-1.

  16. Difference in surface reactions between titanium and zirconium in Hanks' solution to elucidate mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium using XPS and cathodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Doi, H.; Nomura, N.; Hanawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and zirconium were immersed in Hanks' solution with and without calcium and phosphate ions, and the surfaces were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the mechanism of calcium phosphate formation on titanium in simulated body fluids and in a living body. In addition, they were cathodically polarized in the above solutions. XPS characterization and cathodic polarization revealed differences in the surface properties in the ability of calcium phosphate formation between titanium and zirconium. The surface oxide film on titanium is not completely oxidized and is relatively reactive; that on zirconium is more passive and protective than that on titanium. Neither calcium nor phosphate stably exists alone on titanium, and calcium phosphate is naturally formed on it; calcium phosphate formed on titanium is stable and protective. On the other hand, calcium is never incorporated on zirconium, while zirconium phosphate, which is easily formed on zirconium, is highly stable and protective. Our study presents new information regarding the surface property of titanium and demonstrates that the characteristics of titanium and zirconium may be applied to various medical devices and new surface modification techniques.

  17. Geologic structure of Gofitsky deposit of titanium and zirconium and perspectives of the reserve base of titanium and zirconium in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhmazov, Iskander

    2016-04-01

    With the fall of the Soviet Union, all the mining deposits of titanium and zirconium appeared outside of Russian Federation. Therefore the studying of deposits of titanium and zirconium in Russia is very important nowadays. There is a paradoxical situation in the country: in spite of possible existence of national mineral resource base of Ti-Zr material, which can cover needs of the country, Russia is the one of the largest buyers of imported Ti-Zr material in the world. Many deposits are not mined, and those which are in the process of mining have poor reserves. Demand for this raw material is very great not only for Russia, but also for the world in general. Today there is a scarcity of zircon around the world and it will only increase through time. Therefore prices of products of titanium and zirconium also increase. Consequently Russian deposits of titanium and zirconium with higher content than foreign may become competitive. Russia is forced to buy raw materials (zirconium and titanium production) from former Soviet Union countries at prices higher than the world's and thus incur huge losses, including customs charges. Russia should create its own mineral resource base of Ti-Zr. Studied titanium-zirconium deposits of Stavropol region may become the basis for the south part of Russia. At first, Beshpagirsky deposit should be pointed out. It has large reserves of ore sands with high content of Ti-Zr. A combination of favorable geographical position of the area with developed industrial infrastructure makes it very beneficial as an object for high priority development. Gofitsky deposit should be pointed out as well. Its sands have a wide areal distribution and a high content of titanium and zirconium. Chokrak, Karagan-Konksk and Sarmatian sediments of the Miocene of Gofitsky deposit are productive for titanium and zirconium placers within Stavropol region of Russia. Gofitsky deposit was evaluated from financial and economic point of view and the following data

  18. Arylimido zirconium and titanium complexes. Characteristic structures and application in ethylene polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Shifang; Zhang, Jing [Shanxi Univ., Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Applied Chemistry; Wang, Lijing [Shanxi Univ., Taiyuan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Hua, Yupeng [Shanxi Univ., Taiyuan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Inner Mongolia Univ., Ordos (China). College of Ordos; Sun, Wen-Hua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Engineering Plastics

    2016-07-01

    Dimeric anilidolithium (ArHNLi.Et{sub 2}O){sub 2} (Ar=2,6-{sup i}Pr{sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}) reacted with zirconium tetrachloride in THF to give the heterometallic zirconium-lithium complex [(Et{sub 2}O){sub 2}Li(μ-Cl){sub 2}(ArHN)(ArN=)Zr(μ-Cl)]{sub 2} (C1) and with titanium tetrachloride in toluene to give the titanium complex [(ArN=)TiCl{sub 2}.(Et{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (C2) each in good isolated yields. Their molecular structures in the solid state were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Upon activation with methylaluminoxane, both arylimido zirconium and titanium complexes exhibited good catalytic activities toward ethylene polymerization.

  19. Ultrasonic texture characterization of aluminum, zirconium and titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work attempts to show the feasibility of nondestructive characterization of non-ferrous alloys. Aluminum alloys have a small single crystal anisotropy which requires very precise ultrasonic velocity measurements for derivation of orientation distribution coefficients (ODCs); the precision in the ultrasonic velocity measurement required for aluminum alloys is much greater than is necessary for iron alloys or other alloys with a large single crystal anisotropy. To provide greater precision, some signal processing corrections need to be applied to account for the inherent, half-bandwidth offset in triggered pulses when using a zero-crossing technique for determining ultrasonic velocity. In addition, alloys with small single crystal anisotropy show a larger dependence on the single crystal elastic constants (SCECs) when predicting ODCs which require absolute velocity measurements. Attempts were made to independently determine these elastics constants in an effort to improve correlation between ultrasonically derived ODCs and diffraction derived ODCs. The greater precision required to accurately derive ODCs in aluminum alloys using ultrasonic nondestructive techniques is easily attainable. Ultrasonically derived ODCs show good correlation with derivations made by Bragg diffraction techniques, both neutron and X-ray. The best correlation was shown when relative velocity measurements could be used in the derivations of the ODCs. Calculation of ODCs in materials with hexagonal crystallites can also be done. Because of the crystallite symmetries, more information can be extracted using ultrasonic techniques, but at a cost of requiring more physical measurements. Some industries which use materials with hexagonal crystallites, e.g. zirconium alloys and titanium, have traditionally used texture parameters which provide some specialized measure of the texture. These texture parameters, called Kearns factors, can be directly related to ODCs

  20. A comparative study of zirconium and titanium implants in rat: osseointegration and bone material quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, María R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Ceré, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8 weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments.

  1. Histomorphometric and histologic evaluation of titanium-zirconium (aTiZr) implants with anodized surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; McQuillan, A James; Shibata, Yo; Sharma, Lavanya A; Waddell, John Neil; Duncan, Warwick John

    2016-05-01

    The choice of implant surface has a significant influence on osseointegration. Modification of TiZr surface by anodization is reported to have the potential to modulate the osteoblast cell behaviour favouring more rapid bone formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of anodizing the surface of TiZr discs with respect to osseointegration after four weeks implantation in sheep femurs. Titanium (Ti) and TiZr discs were anodized in an electrolyte containing DL-α-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate at 300 V. The surface characteristics were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and goniometry. Forty implant discs with thickness of 1.5 and 10 mm diameter (10 of each-titanium, titanium-zirconium, anodized titanium and anodized titanium-zirconium) were placed in the femoral condyles of 10 sheep. Histomorphometric and histologic analysis were performed 4 weeks after implantation. The anodized implants displayed hydrophilic, porous, nano-to-micrometer scale roughened surfaces. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis revealed calcium and phosphorous incorporation into the surface of both titanium and titanium-zirconium after anodization. Histologically there was new bone apposition on all implanted discs, slightly more pronounced on anodised discs. The percentage bone-to-implant contact measurements of anodized implants were higher than machined/unmodified implants but there was no significant difference between the two groups with anodized surfaces (P > 0.05, n = 10). The present histomorphometric and histological findings confirm that surface modification of titanium-zirconium by anodization is similar to anodised titanium enhances early osseointegration compared to machined implant surfaces.

  2. Strengthening and elongation mechanism of Lanthanum-doped Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ping, E-mail: huping1985@126.com [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Hu, Bo-liang; Wang, Kuai-she; Song, Rui; Yang, Fan [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Yu, Zhi-tao [Ruifulai Tungsten & Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 721914 (China); Tan, Jiang-fei [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Cao, Wei-cheng; Liu, Dong-xin; An, Geng [Jinduicheng Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 710068 (China); Guo, Lei [Ruifulai Tungsten & Molybdenum Co., Ltd., Xi’an 721914 (China); Yu, Hai-liang [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    The microstructural contributes to understand the strengthening and elongation mechanism in Lanthanum-doped Titanium-Zirconium-Molybdenum alloy. Lanthanum oxide particles not only act as heterogeneous nucleation core, but also act as the second phase to hinder the grain growth during sintering crystallization. The molybdenum substrate formed sub-grain under the effect of second phase when the alloy rolled to plate.

  3. Improved antibacterial behavior of titanium surface with torularhodin–polypyrrole film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungureanu, Camelia; Popescu, Simona; Purcel, Gabriela; Tofan, Vlad; Popescu, Marian; Sălăgeanu, Aurora; Pîrvu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    The problem of microorganisms attaching and proliferating on implants and medical devices surfaces is still attracting interest in developing research on different coatings based on antibacterial agents. The aim of this work is centered on modifying titanium (Ti) based implants surfaces through incorporation of a natural compound with antimicrobial effect, torularhodin (T), by means of a polypyrrole (PPy) film. This study tested the potential antimicrobial activity of the new coating against a range of standard bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morphology, physical and electrochemical properties of the synthesized films were assessed by SEM, AFM, UV–Vis, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, biocompatibility of this new coating was evaluated using L929 mouse fibroblast cells. The results showed that PPy–torularhodin composite film acts as a corrosion protective coating with antibacterial activity and it has no harmful effect on cell viability. - Highlights: • Modification of titanium surfaces by incorporating a natural compound • new PPy - torularhodin corrosion protective composite coatings • antibacterial activity for the new PPy - torularhodin coating • cytocompatibility of new coating was demonstrated using mouse fibroblast cells

  4. Improved antibacterial behavior of titanium surface with torularhodin–polypyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungureanu, Camelia; Popescu, Simona; Purcel, Gabriela [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 1-7 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Tofan, Vlad [“Cantacuzino” National Institute of Research-Development for Microbiology and Immunology, 103 Splaiul Independentei, Sector 5, 050096 Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, Marian [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 1-7 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 126A, Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Sălăgeanu, Aurora [“Cantacuzino” National Institute of Research-Development for Microbiology and Immunology, 103 Splaiul Independentei, Sector 5, 050096 Bucharest (Romania); Pîrvu, Cristian, E-mail: c_pirvu@chim.pub.ro [University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, 1-7 Polizu, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-09-01

    The problem of microorganisms attaching and proliferating on implants and medical devices surfaces is still attracting interest in developing research on different coatings based on antibacterial agents. The aim of this work is centered on modifying titanium (Ti) based implants surfaces through incorporation of a natural compound with antimicrobial effect, torularhodin (T), by means of a polypyrrole (PPy) film. This study tested the potential antimicrobial activity of the new coating against a range of standard bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The morphology, physical and electrochemical properties of the synthesized films were assessed by SEM, AFM, UV–Vis, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, biocompatibility of this new coating was evaluated using L929 mouse fibroblast cells. The results showed that PPy–torularhodin composite film acts as a corrosion protective coating with antibacterial activity and it has no harmful effect on cell viability. - Highlights: • Modification of titanium surfaces by incorporating a natural compound • new PPy - torularhodin corrosion protective composite coatings • antibacterial activity for the new PPy - torularhodin coating • cytocompatibility of new coating was demonstrated using mouse fibroblast cells.

  5. Effect of zirconium nitride physical vapor deposition coating on preosteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation onto titanium screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Manuela; Gatti, Giorgio; Migliario, Mario; Marchese, Leonardo; Rocchetti, Vincenzo; Renò, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    Titanium has long been used to produce dental implants. Problems related to its manufacturing, casting, welding, and ceramic application for dental prostheses still limit its use, which highlights the need for technologic improvements. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the biologic performance of titanium dental implants coated with zirconium nitride in a murine preosteoblast cellular model. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical and morphologic characteristics of titanium implants coated with zirconium nitride by means of physical vapor deposition. Chemical and morphologic characterizations were performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and the bioactivity of the implants was evaluated by cell-counting experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis found that physical vapor deposition was effective in covering titanium surfaces with zirconium nitride. Murine MC-3T3 preosteoblasts were seeded onto titanium-coated and zirconium nitride-coated screws to evaluate their adhesion and proliferation. These experiments found a significantly higher number of cells adhering and spreading onto zirconium nitride-coated surfaces (Pzirconium nitride surfaces were completely covered with MC-3T3 cells. Analysis of these data indicates that the proposed zirconium nitride coating of titanium implants could make the surface of the titanium more bioactive than uncoated titanium surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Process for forming seamless tubing of zirconium or titanium alloys from welded precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, G.P.; Barry, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for forming seamless tubing of a material selected from zirconium, zirconium alloys, titanium, and titanium alloys, from welded precursor tubing of the material, having a heterogeneous structure resulting from the welding thereof. The process consists of: heating successive axial segments of the welded tubing, completely through the wall thereof, including the weld, to uniformly transform the heterogeneous, as welded, material into the beta phase; quenching the beta phase tubing segments, the heating and quenching effected sufficiently rapid enough to produce a fine sized beta grain structure completely throughout the precursor tubing, including the weld, and to prevent growth of beta grains within the material larger than 200 micrometers in diameter; and subsequently uniformly deforming the quenched precursor tubing by cold reduction steps to produce a seamless tubing of final size and shape

  7. Characterization of polypyrrole films electrosynthesized onto titanium in the presence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Films of polypyrrole (PPy) were successfully electrosynthesized onto titanium in neutral and alkaline solutions of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) by potentiodynamic, galvanostatic and potentiostatic techniques. Results of the characterization of the films by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion measurements are presented. It was found that the AOT molecule remains entrapped within the polymer matrix. The initial growth of the polymer produces electroactive toroidal deposits whereas for electropolymerization of longer duration the typical globular structure is developed. Adherence to Ti increases with deposition time and this result is interpreted as a consequence of the growth of a composite PPy/Ti oxide.

  8. Effects of titanium and zirconium on iron aluminide weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, R.P.; Edwards, G.R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure when gas-tungsten arc welded. This microstructure is susceptible to hydrogen cracking when water vapor is present in the welding environment. Because fusion zone microstructural refinement can reduce the hydrogen cracking susceptibility, titanium was used to inoculate the weld pool in iron aluminide alloy FA-129. Although the fusion zone microstructure was significantly refined by this method, the fracture stress was found to decrease with titanium additions. This decrease is attributed to an increase in inclusions at the grain boundaries.

  9. Effects of different titanium zirconium implant surfaces on initial supragingival plaque formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gordon; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was the evaluation of biofilm development on different implant surfaces. Initial biofilm formation was investigated on five different implant surfaces, machined titanium (MTi), modified machined acid-etched titanium (modMATi), machined titanium zirconium (MTiZr), modified machined and acid-etched titanium zirconium (modMATiZr) and sandblasted large grid and acid-etched titanium zirconium surface (SLATiZr) for 24 and 48 h. Biocompatibility was tested after tooth brushing of the samples via cell viability testing with human gingival fibroblasts. After 24 h of biofilm collection, mean plaque surface was detected in the following descending order: After 24 h: MTiZr > MTi > SLATiZr > modMATiZr > modMATi. Both M surfaces showed significant higher biofilm formation than the other groups. After 48 h: MTiZr > MTi > SLATiZr > modMATiZr > modMATi. After tooth brushing: SLATiZr > modMATi > modMATiZr > MTi > MTiZr. All native samples depicted significant higher cell viability than their corresponding surfaces after biofilm removal procedure. The TiZr groups especially the modMATiZr group showed slower and less biofilm formation. In combination with the good biocompatibility, both modMA surfaces seem to be interesting candidates for surfaces in transgingival implant design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Solvent extraction of titanium(IV), zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) salicylates using liquid ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthi, N M; Shinde, V M

    1989-02-01

    A solvent extraction method is proposed for the extraction of quadrivalent titanium, zirconium an hafnium from salicylate media using liquid ion exchangers such as Aliquat 336 and trioctylamine dissolved in xylene. The optimum conditions were evaluated from a critical study of the following: pH, salicylate concentration, amine concentration, diluent and period of equilibration. The method allows the separation of titanium, zirconium and hafnium from binary mixtures containing commonly associated metal ions and is applicable to the analysis of real samples such as BCS-CRM 387 nimonic 901, BCS-CRM 243/4 ferro-titanium, BCS-CRM 307 magnesium alloy and BCS-CRM 388 zircon. Titanium is determined either with hydrogen peroxide or by atomic absorption spectrometry whereas zirconium and hafnium are determined spectrophotometrically with Alizarin Red S and Zylenol Orange, respectively. The results of both separation and analysis are reported. The method is precise, accurate and fast.

  11. High-intensity low energy titanium ion implantation into zirconium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchikov, A. I.; Kashkarov, E. B.; Pushilina, N. S.; Syrtanov, M. S.; Shevelev, A. E.; Korneva, O. S.; Sutygina, A. N.; Lider, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This research describes the possibility of ultra-high dose deep titanium ion implantation for surface modification of zirconium alloy Zr-1Nb. The developed method based on repetitively pulsed high intensity low energy titanium ion implantation was used to modify the surface layer. The DC vacuum arc source was used to produce metal plasma. Plasma immersion titanium ions extraction and their ballistic focusing in equipotential space of biased electrode were used to produce high intensity titanium ion beam with the amplitude of 0.5 A at the ion current density 120 and 170 mA/cm2. The solar eclipse effect was used to prevent vacuum arc titanium macroparticles from appearing in the implantation area of Zr sample. Titanium low energy (mean ion energy E = 3 keV) ions were implanted into zirconium alloy with the dose in the range of (5.4-9.56) × 1020 ion/cm2. The effect of ion current density, implantation dose on the phase composition, microstructure and distribution of elements was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, respectively. The results show the appearance of Zr-Ti intermetallic phases of different stoichiometry after Ti implantation. The intermetallic phases are transformed from both Zr0.7Ti0.3 and Zr0.5Ti0.5 to single Zr0.6Ti0.4 phase with the increase in the implantation dose. The changes in phase composition are attributed to Ti dissolution in zirconium lattice accompanied by the lattice distortions and appearance of macrostrains in intermetallic phases. The depth of Ti penetration into the bulk of Zr increases from 6 to 13 μm with the implantation dose. The hardness and wear resistance of the Ti-implanted zirconium alloy were increased by 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. The higher current density (170 mA/cm2) leads to the increase in the grain size and surface roughness negatively affecting the tribological properties of the alloy.

  12. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys solidify in large grains columnar structure which tends to reduce their mechanical behaviour and surface quality. Therefore, they are industrially grain refined by titanium or titanium + boron. Furthermore, aluminum oxidizes in ordinary atmosphere which makes its weldability difficult and weak. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight percentages of 0.1% (which proved to be an effective grain refiner on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti) is worthwhile investigating. This formed the objective of this research work. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition at a weight percentage of 0.1%, which corresponds to the peritctic limit on the aluminum-zirconium phase diagram, on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti is investigated. Rolled sheets of commercially pure aluminum, Al grain refined Ti of 3 mm thickness were welded together using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding method (GTAW), formerly known as TIG. A constant air gap was maintained at a constant current level, 30 ampere AC, was used because it removes the oxides of the welding process under the same process parameters. Metallographic examination of weldments of the different combinations of aluminum and its microalloys at the heat affected zone, HAZ, and base metal was carried out and examined for width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining of commercially pure aluminum by Ti resulted in enhancement of its weldability. Similarly, addition of zirconium to Al grain refined by Ti resulted in further enhancement of the weldment. Photomicrographs of the HAZ regions are presented and discussed. (author)

  13. Trivalent metallocene chemistry of some uranium, titanium, and zirconium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, W.W. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    Dicyclopentadienyluranium halide dimers have been prepared and their solution behavior examined. These molecules exist as dimers in solution, and the halide ligands undergo rapid site exchange on the NMR timescale above 50 C. Analogous dicyclopentadienyluranium hydroxide dimers have also been prepared; they oxidatively eliminate hydrogen to give the corresponding oxide dimers. Mechanism of this reaction is consistent with αmigration of one of the hydroxide hydrogen atoms to a uranium center followed by elimination of hydrogen. Ground state of [(Me 3 Si) 2 C 5 H 3 ] 3 M M = Nd, U and their base adducts has been examined by variable temperature magnetic susceptibility and EPR spectroscopy. The ground state is found to be 4 I 9/2 with a crystal field state consisting largely of J z = 1/2 lowest, in agreement with previous studies on tris-cyclopentadienylneodymium complexes. The zirconium metallocene Cp 3 Zr has been prepared, characterized crystallographically, and its reactivity studied. Its chemical behavior is controlled by presence of an electron in the non-bonding, d z 2 orbital which prevents formation of base adducts Of Cp 3 Zr, but allows Cp 3 Zr to abstract atoms from other molecules. Electonic and EPR spectra of Cp* 2 TiX complexes, where Cp* is Me 5 C 5 and X is a monodentate, anionic ligand such as halide, have been studied. A π-bonding spectrochemical series is developed, and trends in π-bonding ability are found similar to those in other inorganic complexes. The β-agostic interactions in Cp* 2 TiN(Me)Ph have been examined using variable temperature EPR spectroscopy, and the enthalpy/entropy of the interaction determined. In Cp* 2 TiEt, enthalpy of the β-agostic interaction is -1.9 kcal/mol. The titanocene anion, Cp* 2 TiLi(TMEDA) (TMEDA is N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine), has been prepared and its structure determined

  14. Composition and Performance of Nanostructured Zirconium Titanium Conversion Coating on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-xue Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured conversion coating of Al-Mg alloy was obtained via the surface treatment with zirconium titanium salt solution at 25°C for 10 min. The zirconium titanium salt solution is composed of tannic acid 1.00 g·L−1, K2ZrF6 0.75 g·L−1, NaF 1.25 g·L−1, MgSO4 1.0 g/L, and tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBT 0.08 g·L−1. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR were used to characterize the composition and structure of the obtained conversion coating. The morphology of the conversion coating was obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results exhibit that the zirconium titanium salt conversion coating of Al-Mg alloy contains Ti, Zr, Al, F, O, Mg, C, Na, and so on. The conversion coating with nm level thickness is smooth, uniform, and compact. Corrosion resistance of conversion coating was evaluated in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl electrolyte through polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS. Self-corrosion current density on the nanostructured conversion coating of Al-Mg alloy is 9.7×10-8A·cm-2, which is only 2% of that on the untreated aluminum-magnesium alloy. This result indicates that the corrosion resistance of the conversion coating is improved markedly after chemical conversion treatment.

  15. Investigation of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol–titanium dioxide composite films for photo-catalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Song, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jianling; Yang, Haigang; Jiang, Long, E-mail: jianglong@scu.edu.cn; Dan, Yi, E-mail: danyichenweiwei@163.com

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The study provides an easy and convenient method to fabricate films, which will give guidance for the preparation of three-dimensional materials. • The PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} films can keep better photo-catalytic activities both under UV and visible light irradiation when compared with TiO{sub 2} film. • There exist electron transfers between PPy/PVA and TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol–titanium dioxide (PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2}) composite films used as photo-catalysts were fabricated by combining TiO{sub 2} sol with PPy/PVA solution in which PPy was synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and loaded on glass. The prepared photo-catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the composites have same crystal structure as the TiO{sub 2} and extend the optic absorption from UV region to visible light region. By detecting the variation ratio, detected by ultraviolet–vis spectroscopy, of model pollutant rhodamine B (RhB) solution in the presence of the composite films under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic performance of the composite films was investigated. The results show that the PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} composite films show better photo-catalytic properties than TiO{sub 2} film both under UV and visible light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic degradation of RhB follows the first-order kinetics. The effects of the composition of composite films and the concentration of RhB on the photo-catalytic performance, as well as the possible photo-catalytic mechanism, were also discussed. By photo-catalytic recycle experiments, the structure stability of the PPy/PVA–TiO{sub 2} composite film was investigated and the results show that

  16. Studies on mobility in electric and magnetic fields of tritium ions occluded in titanium and zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrzak, R [Wyzsza Szkola Pedagogiczna, Opole (Poland); Rozenfeld, B [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    Migration of tritium ions in zirconium and titanium in electric field has been investigated. The effect of simultaneous action of crossed electric and magnetic fields on ions migration has also been studied. The averaged values taken from the large number of measurements allow us to suggest the relation between the rate of electromobility and electric field intensity oriented in the direction of migration. In case of migration caused by simultaneously applied both field, the mobility varied monotonously with the increase of magnetic induction; a linear dependence, however, was observed between the mobility of tritium and the current density in a sample.

  17. Trivalent metallocene chemistry of some uranium, titanium, and zirconium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Jr., Wayne Wendell [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Dicyclopentadienyluranium halide dimers have been prepared and their solution behavior examined. These molecules exist as dimers in solution, and the halide ligands undergo rapid site exchange on the NMR timescale above 50 C. Analogous dicyclopentadienyluranium hydroxide dimers have also been prepared; they oxidatively eliminate hydrogen to give the corresponding oxide dimers. Mechanism of this reaction is consistent with αmigration of one of the hydroxide hydrogen atoms to a uranium center followed by elimination of hydrogen. Ground state of [(Me3Si)2C5H3]3M M = Nd, U and their base adducts has been examined by variable temperature magnetic susceptibility and EPR spectroscopy. The ground state is found to be 4I9/2 with a crystal field state consisting largely of Jz = 1/2 lowest, in agreement with previous studies on tris-cyclopentadienylneodymium complexes. The zirconium metallocene Cp3Zr has been prepared, characterized crystallographically, and its reactivity studied. Its chemical behavior is controlled by presence of an electron in the non-bonding, dz2 orbital which prevents formation of base adducts Of Cp3Zr, but allows Cp3Zr to abstract atoms from other molecules. Electonic and EPR spectra of Cp*2TiX complexes, where Cp* is Me5C5 and X is a monodentate, anionic ligand such as halide, have been studied. A π-bonding spectrochemical series is developed, and trends in π-bonding ability are found similar to those in other inorganic complexes. The β-agostic interactions in Cp*2TiN(Me)Ph have been examined using variable temperature EPR spectroscopy, and the enthalpy/entropy of the interaction determined. In Cp*2TiEt, enthalpy of the β-agostic interaction is -1.9 kcal/mol. The titanocene anion, Cp*2TiLi(TMEDA) (TMEDA is N,N,N`,N`-tetramethylethylenediamine), has been

  18. Synthesis and structural characterisation using Rietveld and pair distribution function analysis of layered mixed titanium-zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnell, Victoria A.; Readman, Jennifer E.; Tang, Chiu C.; Parker, Julia E.; Thompson, Stephen P.; Hriljac, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Crystalline metal (IV) phosphates with variable zirconium-to-titanium molar ratios of general formula (Ti 1-x Zr x )(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O have been prepared by precipitation of soluble salts of the metals with phosphoric acid and heating the amorphous solids in 12 M H 3 PO 4 in an autoclave. The new materials are structurally characterised by Rietveld analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering data. A broad range of zirconium-titanium phosphate solid solutions were formed showing isomorphous substitution of titanium by zirconium in the α-titanium phosphate lattice and vice versa for titanium substitution into the α-zirconium phosphate lattice. In both cases the solubility is partial with the coexistence of two substituted phases observed in samples with nominal compositions between the solubility limits. - Graphical abstract: Layered phosphates of general formula (Ti 1-x Zr x )(HPO 4 ).H 2 O have been prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of amorphous gels in phosphoric acid and characterised by Rietveld analysis of high resolution synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and pair distribution function analysis of high energy synchrotron X-ray total scattering data.

  19. Polarographic determination of the titanium and niobium content of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, R; Gabra, J.

    1978-03-01

    A method is described for the polarographic determination of titanium and niobium in zirconium alloys in the concentration range of 0.1% to 4% of each of the determined metals. To assure the complete dissolution of the sample a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid is used. After evaporating these acids in the presence of sulphuric acid, the contents are determined polarographically with a supporting electrolyte solution of 0.1M EDTA, 0.33M potassium sulfate and 0.4M sodium acetate, buffered to pH 4 with acetic acid. The half-wave potential (Esub(1/2)) of titanium is -0.35V and that of niobium is -0.67 V. (author)

  20. Electrochemical heterogeneity and corrosion resistance of a welded titanium-zirconium joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, S.G.; Goncharov, A.B.; Onoprienko, L.M.; Smiyan, O.D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior and corrosion resistance of various welded joints of zirconium alloy N-2.5 with commercial titanium VT1 made by the argon-arc method are studied. Electrochemical heterogeneity is studied by measuring the distribution of potentials over the surface, galvanic currents, and recording of polarization curves for different zones of a welded joint in 5% sulfuric acid solution at 340 K. It is established that electrochemical heterogeneity of the zones of an N-2.5 + VT1 welded joint leads to acceleration of the cathodic process in a welded joint and the anodic process along the fusion line from the titanium direction where the greatest hydrogenation of the metal and corrosion damage is correspondingly observed

  1. Study of physicochemical processes and parameters of regime of diffusion brazing of niobium with titanium, zirconium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.L.; Lashko, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Physicochemical processes at diffusion brazing of niobium with titanium, zirconium and vanadium, producing continious series of solid solutions with niobium are studied. Diffusion coefficients, time of isothermal crystallization of soldered welds, as well as the duration of homogenized thermal treatment of soldered welds necessary to provide the given temperature of weld unsoldering

  2. The Effect of Luting Cement and Titanium Base on the Final Color of Zirconium Oxide Core Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Nuray; Tuncel, Ilkin; Tak, Onjen; Usumez, Aslihan

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of different types of luting cements and different colors of zirconium cores on the final color of the restoration that simulates implant-supported fixed partial dentures (FPDs) by using a titanium base on the bottom. One hundred and twenty zirconium oxide core plates (Zr-Zahn; 10 mm in width, 5 mm in length, 0.5 mm in height) were prepared in different shades (n = 20; noncolored, A2, A3, B1, C2, D2). The specimens were subdivided into two subgroups for the two types of luting cements (n = 10). The initial color measurements were made on zirconium oxide core plates using a spectrometer. To create the cement thicknesses, stretch strips with holes in the middle (5 mm in diameter, 70 μm in height) were used. The second measurement was done on the zirconium oxide core plates after the application of the resin cement (U-200, A2 Shade) or polycarboxylate cement (Lumicon). The final measurement was done after placing the titanium discs (5 mm in diameter, 3 mm in height) in the bottom. The data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant differences (HSD) tests (α = 0.05). The ∆E* ab value was higher in the resin cement-applied group than in the polycarboxylate cement-applied group (p zirconium oxide core-resin cement-titanium base, and the lowest was recorded for the polycarboxylate cement-zirconium oxide core (p zirconium are all important factors that determine the final shade of zirconia cores in implant-supported FPDs. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Effects of surface treatment on the cavitation erosion of high-chrome steel, zirconium, titanium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinin, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The erosion resistance of some structural materials used for equipment components of the first and second circuits of NPPs is studied under cavitation created by an ultrasonic vibrator. It appears that after various thermomechanical treatments (programmed loading, low-temperature rolling) and coating deposition (titanium, zirconium and titanium nitride), the erosion resistance of the materials under consideration increases and the plasticity value is not notably modified. The titanium coatings deposited onto the steel increase the corrosion-fatigue resistance in a sodium chloride environment, in several cases

  4. Analysis of x-ray diffraction pattern and complex plane impedance plot of polypyrrole/titanium dioxide nanocomposite: A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikiran, Y. T.; Vijaya Kumari, S. C.

    2013-06-01

    To innovate the properties of Polypyrrole/Titanium dioxide (PPy/TiO2) nanocomposite further, it has been synthesized by chemical polymerization technique. The nanostructure and monoclinic phase of the prepared composite have been confirmed by simulating the X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). Also, complex plane impedance plot of the composite has been simulated to find equivalent resistance capacitance circuit (RC circuit) and numerical values of R and C have been predicted.

  5. Comparison of surface modified zirconia implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants: a histological study in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kubasiewicz-Ross, Pawel; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2014-08-01

    New biomaterials and their various surface modifications should undergo in vitro and in vivo evaluation before clinical trials. The objective of our in vivo study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of newly created zirconium implant surfaces after implantation in the lower jaw of pigs and compare the osseointegration of these dental implants with commercially available zirconium and titanium implants. After a healing period of 12 weeks, a histological analysis of the soft and hard tissues and a histomorphometric analysis of the bone-implant contact (BIC) were performed. The implant surfaces showed an intimate connection to the adjacent bone for all tested implants. The 3 newly created zirconium implant surfaces achieved a BIC of 45% on average in comparison with a BIC of 56% from the reference zirconium implants and 35% from titanium implants. Furthermore, the new zirconium implants had a better attachment to gingival and bone tissues in the range of implant necks as compared with the reference implants. The results suggest that the new implants comparably osseointegrate within the healing period, and they have a good in vivo biocompatibility.

  6. Process for optimizing titanium and zirconium additions to aluminum welding consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornak, M.J.; Frost, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing an aluminum welding consumable. It comprises: creating an aluminum melt; adding to the aluminum melt solid pieces of a master alloy, comprising aluminum and a weld-enhancing additive to form a mixture, wherein the weld-enhancing additive being a material selected from the group consisting of titanium and zirconium, so that the weld-enhancing additive exists in the alloy prior to addition to the melt in the form of intermetallic particles relatively large in size and small in number, and after addition to the melt the weld-enhancing additive exists in the form of fractured intermetallic particles of refined size having dissolved fractured interfaces, casting the mixture into a chill mold to form an ingot; reducing the ingot to rods of rough wire dimension by cold rolling; annealing the reduced rods; and drawing the rods into wire

  7. Clinical evidence on titanium-zirconium dental implants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, P; Lucas-Taulé, E; Gargallo-Albiol, J; Figueras-Álvarez, O; Hernández-Alfaro, F; Nart, J

    2016-07-01

    The use of titanium implants is well documented and they have high survival and success rates. However, when used as reduced-diameter implants, the risk of fracture is increased. Narrow diameter implants (NDIs) of titanium-zirconium (Ti-Zr) alloy have recently been developed (Roxolid; Institut Straumann AG). Ti-Zr alloys (two highly biocompatible materials) demonstrate higher tensile strength than commercially pure titanium. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the existing clinical evidence on dental NDIs made from Ti-Zr. A systematic literature search was performed using the Medline database to find relevant articles on clinical studies published in the English language up to December 2014. Nine clinical studies using Ti-Zr implants were identified. Overall, 607 patients received 922 implants. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.36±0.06mm after 1 year and 0.41±0.09mm after 2 years. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 36 months. Mean survival and success rates were 98.4% and 97.8% at 1 year after implant placement and 97.7% and 97.3% at 2 years. Narrow diameter Ti-Zr dental implants show survival and success rates comparable to regular diameter titanium implants (>95%) in the short term. Long-term follow-up clinical data are needed to confirm the excellent clinical performance of these implants. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Felemban, Nayef H.; Ebrahim, Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. Methods ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3?M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with di...

  9. Structural studies of calcium phosphate doped with titanium and zirconium obtained by high-energy mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C C; Sombra, A S B [Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (LOCEM), Physics Department, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pii, Postal Code 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza-Ceara (Brazil)], E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.br

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, we present a new variation of the solid-state procedure on the synthesis of bioceramics with titanium (CapTi) and zirconium (CapZr), considering that zirconium (ZrO{sub 2}) and titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) are strengthening agents, due to their superb force and fracture toughness. The high efficiency of the calcination process opens a new way of producing commercial amounts of nanocrystalline bioceramics. In this work, a new variation of the solid-state procedure method was used to produce nanocrystalline powders of titanium and zirconium, using two different experimental chemical routes: CapTi: Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}+TiO{sub 2} and CapZr: Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}+ZrO{sub 2}. The powders were submitted to calcination processes (CapTic and CapZrc) at 800, 900 and 1000 deg. C. The calcium titanium phosphate phase, CaTi{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}, was obtained in the CapTic reaction and the calcium zirconium phosphate, CaZr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}, was obtained in the CapZrc reaction. The obtained ceramics were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. This method was compared with the milling process (CapTim and CapZrm), where in the last process the melting is not necessary and the powder obtained is nanocrystalline. The calcium titanium phosphate phase, CaTi{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}, was obtained in the reaction CapTim, but in CapZrm the formation of any calcium phosphate phase even after 15 h of dry mechanical alloying was not observed.

  10. Ab initio modeling of plasticity in HCP metals: pure zirconium and titanium and effect of oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaari, Nermine

    2015-01-01

    We performed atomistic simulations to determine screw dislocations properties in pure zirconium and titanium and to explain the hardening effect attributed to oxygen alloying in both hexagonal close-packed transition metals. We used two energetic models: ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory and calculations with an empirical potential. The complete energetic profile of the screw dislocation when gliding in the different slip planes is obtained in pure Zr. Our calculations reveal the existence of a metastable configuration of the screw dislocation partially spread in the first order pyramidal plane. This configuration is responsible for the cross slip of screw dislocations from prismatic planes, the easiest glide planes, to pyramidal or basal planes. This energy profile is affected by oxygen addition. Ab initio calculations reveal two main effects: oxygen enhances pyramidal cross slip by modifying the dislocation core structure, and pins the dislocation in its metastable sessile configuration. The same modeling approach is applied to titanium. In pure Ti, the same configurations of the screw dislocation in Zr are obtained, but with different energy levels. This leads to a different gliding mechanism. The same way as in Zr, oxygen enhances pyramidal glide in Ti by modifying the dislocation core structure. Besides, oxygen atom lowers the energy of the metastable configuration but not enough to pin the dislocation in this sessile configuration. (author) [fr

  11. Behavior of cationic, anionic and colloidal species of titanium, zirconium and thorium in presence of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, G. de; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of titanium, zirconium and thorium is aqueous and resin phases has been studied using strong cationic resin in the R-NH 4 form. Solutions of the above elements in perchloric, nitric, hydrochloric and suphuric media were used. Each set of experiments was made by separately varying one of the five parameters - type of anion present, acidity of solution, temperature of percolation, age of solution and concentration of the element. It was found that, depending on the particular balance of these parameters, the elements investigated may be found in acidic solutions either as cationic, anionic or colloidal species. It is emphasized that the colloidal species of titanium, zirconium or thorium are not retained by the ion exchangers, and from this property a method for the separation and purification of the above elements has been outlined [pt

  12. The Study of Titanium and Zirconium Ions in Water by MPT-LTQ Mass Spectrometry in Negative Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junqing; Zheng, Mei; Liu, Qiuju; Yang, Meiling Zhu Chushan; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-26

    Microwave plasma torches (MPTs) can be used as simple and low power-consumption ambient ion sources. When MPT-mass spectrometry (MPT-MS) is applied in the detection of some metal elements, the metallic ions exhibit some novel features which are significantly different with those obtained by the traditional inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and may be helpful for metal element analysis. As the representative elements of group IVA, titanium and zirconium are both of importance and value in modern industry, and they have impacts on human health. Here, we first provide a study on the complex anions of titanium and zirconium in water by using the MPT as ion source and a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ-MS). These complex anions were produced in the plasma flame by an aqueous solution flowing through the central tube of the MPT, and were introduced into the inlet of the mass spectrometry working in negative ion mode to get the feature mass spectrometric signals. Moreover, the feature fragment patterns of these ions in multi-step collision- induced dissociation processes have been explained. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) using the MS² (the second tandem mass spectrometry) procedure was estimated to be at the level of 10μg/L for titanium and 20 μg/L for zirconium with linear dynamics ranges that cover at least two orders of magnitude, i.e., between 0-500 μg/L and 20-200 μg/L, respectively. These experimental data demonstrated that the MPT-MS is a promising and useful tool in field analysis of titanium and zirconium ions in water, and can be applied in many fields, such as environmental control, hydrogeology, and water quality inspection. In addition, MPT-MS could also be used as a supplement of ICP-MS for the rapid and on-site analysis of metal ions.

  13. Electrorheological properties of suspensions of hollow globular titanium oxide/polypyrrole particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlačík, M.; Mrlík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Sáha, P.; Quadrat, Otakar

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2012), s. 41-48 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : electrorheology * titanium oxide * hollow globular clusters Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.161, year: 2012

  14. Response to antiseptic agents of periodontal pathogens in in vitro biofilms on titanium and zirconium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Fernández, E; Llama-Palacios, A; Figuero, E; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop in vitro biofilms on SLA titanium (Ti-SLA) and zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) surfaces and to evaluate the effect of antiseptic agents on the number of putative periodontal pathogenic species. An in vitro biofilm model was developed on sterile discs of Ti-SLA and ZrO 2 . Three antiseptic agents [chlorhexidine and cetyl-pyridinium-chloride (CHX/CPC), essential oils (EEOOs) and cetyl-peridinium-chloride (CPC)] were applied to 72-h biofilms, immersing discs during 1min in the antiseptic solution, either with or without mechanical disruption. Viable bacteria [colony forming units (CFU/mL)] were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) combined with propidium monoazide. A generalized lineal model was constructed to determine the effect of the agents on the viable bacterial counts of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum on each surface. The exposure to each antiseptic solution resulted in a statistically significant reductions in the number of viable target species included in the in vitro multi-species biofilm, on both Ti-SLA and ZrO 2 (pzirconium surfaces, in spite of the described structural differences between these bacterial communities. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study of the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansari, A; Sun, Y

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical behaviour of thermally oxidised commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) and commercially pure zirconium (CP-Zr). For this purpose, these two bio-metals were thermally oxidised under the same condition (650°C for 6h) and the oxidised specimens were characterised using various analytical and experimental techniques, including oxygen uptake analysis, layer thickness and hardness measurements, scratch tests, dry sliding friction and wear tests and tribocorrosion tests in Ringer's solution. The results show that under the present thermal oxidation condition, 4 times more oxygen is introduced into CP-Zr than into CP-Ti and the oxide layer produced on CP-Zr is nearly 6 times thicker than that on CP-Ti. Thermally oxidised CP-Zr possesses a higher hardness, a deeper hardening depth and better scratch resistance than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Under dry sliding and tribocorrosion conditions, thermally oxidised CP-Zr also possesses much better resistance to material removal and a higher load bearing capacity than thermally oxidised CP-Ti. Thus, thermally oxidised Zr possesses much better mechanical behaviour than thermally oxidised Ti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Open magnetic resonance imaging using titanium-zirconium needles: improved accuracy for interstitial brachytherapy implants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popowski, Youri; Hiltbrand, Emile; Joliat, Dominique; Rouzaud, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the benefit of using an open magnetic resonance (MR) machine and new MR-compatible needles to improve the accuracy of brachytherapy implants in pelvic tumors. Methods and Materials: The open MR machine, foreseen for interventional procedures, allows direct visualization of the pelvic structures that are to be implanted. For that purpose, we have developed MR- and CT-compatible titanium-zirconium (Ti-Zr) brachytherapy needles that allow implantations to be carried out under the magnetic field. In order to test the technical feasibility of this new approach, stainless steel (SS) and Ti-Zr needles were first compared in a tissue-equivalent phantom. In a second step, two patients implanted with Ti-Zr needles in the brachytherapy operating room were scanned in the open MR machine. In a third phase, four patients were implanted directly under open MR control. Results: The artifacts induced by both materials were significantly different, strongly favoring the Ti-Zr needles. The implantation in both first patients confirmed the excellent quality of the pictures obtained with the needles in vivo and showed suboptimal implant geometry in both patients. In the next 4 patients, the tumor could be punctured with excellent accuracy, and the adjacent structures could be easily avoided. Conclusion: We conclude that open MR using MR-compatible needles is a very promising tool in brachytherapy, especially for pelvic tumors

  17. Spectral emissivities at wavelengths in the range 500--653 nm, enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Roesner-Kuhn, M.; Drewes, K.; Thiedemann, U.; Kuppermann, G.; Camin, B.; Blume, R.; Frohberg, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the literature data for spectral emissivities at wavelengths (λ) in the range 500--653 nm, the enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium. Emissivity measurements were carried out by means of electromagnetic levitation at the solid-to-liquid transition with a partial-radiation pyrometer operating at λ = 547 and 650 nm. Considering the sensitivity of the optical properties to surface impurities, investigations on the surfaces of several titanium and zirconium samples by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed that confirmed a nitrogen- and oxygen-free process atmosphere during the measurements. Liquid phase normal emissivities obtained were var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.331 for cobalt, var-epsilon n,547 = 0.409 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.393 for titanium, and var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.355 for zirconium. Enthalpy measurements on the liquid metals were carried out by means of levitation-drop calorimetry in the range 1591--2159 K for cobalt, 1847--2430 K for titanium, and 2025--2897 K for zirconium. The resulting heat capacities (values in J·mol -1 ·K -1 ) obtained were 42.78 for cobalt, 43.79 for titanium, and 39.81 for zirconium

  18. Influence of zirconium doping on the activities of zirconium and iodine co-doped titanium dioxide in the decolorization of methyl orange under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shuang; Hong Fangyue; He Zhiqiao; Wang Hongyu; Xu Xianghong; Chen Jianmeng

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium and iodine co-doped titanium dioxide (Zr-I-TiO 2 ) was prepared by the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate, premixed with zirconium nitrate in an iodic acid aqueous solution, followed by calcination in air. The structure and properties of the resultant catalyst powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was evaluated by monitoring the photocatalytic decolorization of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the activities of Zr-I-TiO 2 catalysts were higher than that of TiO 2 doped with iodine alone (I-TiO 2 ), and the optimal doping concentration in the Zr-I-TiO 2 calcined at 400 deg. C was determined to be about 0.05 (molar ratio of Zr:Ti). In addition, the photocatalytic activity of Zr-I-TiO 2 calcined at 400 deg. C was found to be significantly higher than that calcined at 500 or 600 deg. C. Based on the physico-chemical characterization, we concluded that the role of zirconium on the I-TiO 2 surface is to increase the number of reactive sites by generating a small crystal size and large surface area. The inhibition of electron-hole pair recombination, by trapping photo-generated electrons with Zr 4+ , did not contribute markedly to the improved photocatalytic activity of Zr-I-TiO 2 .

  19. Differences in the calcification of preosteoblast cultured on sputter-deposited titanium, zirconium, and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Nagai, Akiko; Tsutsumi, Yusuke; Ashida, Maki; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao

    2016-03-01

    In this study, osteogenic differentiation and calcification of preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1) cultured on sputter-deposited titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), and gold (Au) on cover glasses were evaluated to understand the differences in bone formation ability among these three metals; these metals show the same high corrosion resistance, but Ti and Zr are covered by surface passive oxide film while Au is not covered by the oxide film. Ti and Zr promoted cellular proliferation without osteogenic differentiation. Cells cultured on Ti and Zr expressed higher levels of Runx2, Col1α1, and Akp2 at an earlier stage, which indicated faster promotion of osteogenic differentiation, as compared to those cultured on Au. Moreover, after 21 days of culture, the Bglap1 and Ifitm5 expression peaks in cells cultured on Ti and Zr were higher than those in cells cultured on Au, which indicated faster promotion of calcification. Cells cultured on Ti showed an advantage in osteogenic differentiation at an early stage, while cells on Zr showed better calcification promotion with a long-term culture. The amount of extracellular calcified deposits was in good agreement with the gene expression results. On the other hand, the intracellular calcium content of cells on Au specimens was higher than that of cells on Ti and Zr specimens. The results indicate that preosteoblasts on Ti and Zr showed faster osteogenic differentiation and calcification than those on Au, whereas Au improved the intracellular calcium content. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 639-651, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Annealing of a ferritic stainless steel 409 stabilized with titanium and zirconium additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano, P.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferritic stainless steel 409 stabilized with titanium and zirconium was subject to thermomechanical processing. It was heated at 1210 °C for one hour, followed by a 75 % hot reduction in three passes, this rolling schedule ended at 980 °C. Samples were cooled to 600 °C by water spraying followed by air-cooling. The alloy was pickled, and was reduced 80 % by cold rolling. The alloy was annealed at different temperatures for 105 s. Additional annealing treatments were carried out at temperatures of 800, 850 and 900 °C for different times. Mechanical testing and texture were made to corroborate the degree of annealing and formability. Mechanical properties and Texture analyses showed that the alloy annealed at 850 °C for 14 min was both completely recrystallized and a very good formability.

    Un acero inoxidable ferrítico 409 estabilizado con titanio y zirconio fue sujeto a procesos termomecánicos. El acero fue calentado a 1210 ºC durante una hora, seguido por un laminado en caliente del 75 % en tres pases, el proceso terminó a los 980 ºC. Las muestras fueron enfriadas hasta 600 ºC por agua atomizada seguido de enfriamiento al aire. La aleación fue decapada y laminada en frío un 80 %. Posteriormente de desarrollaron tratamientos térmicos de recocido a diferentes temperaturas por un tiempo de 105 s. Adicionalmente se desarrollaron tratamientos de recocido a temperaturas de 800, 850 y 900 ºC a diferentes tiempos. Pruebas mecánicas y textura fueron realizadas para corroborar el grado de recocido y su formalidad. El análisis de las propiedades mecánicas y la Textura mostraron que la aleación recocida a 850 ºC por 14 min (840 s fue completamente recristalizada obteniendo la mejor formabilidad.

  1. Erosion resistance of composite materials on titanium, zirconium and aluminium nitride base under the electron beam effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Kuzenkova, M.A.; Slutskin, M.G.; Kravchuk, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Erosion resistance of composites based on nitrides of titanium, zirconium and aluminium to spark and electron beam processing has been studied. The erosion resistance in spark processing is shown to depend on specific electric resistance of the alloys. TiN-AlN and ZrN-AlN alloys containing more than 70% AlN (with specific electric resistance more than 10 6 -10 7 ohm/cm) caot be processed by spark method. It is shown that erosion of the composites by an electron beam depends primarily on the rate of evaporation of the components

  2. Interaction of titanium and zirconium hydroxides with aqueous solutions of lead(2) salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savenko, V.G.; Sakharov, V.V.; Nurgalieva, A.A.; Petrov, K.I.

    1980-01-01

    The mixed phases, characterized by the Pb : Zr 4 ratio are synthesized during the process of geterophase interaction of zirconium hydroxide with solutions of lead nitrate and acetate. The process of the mixed phases thermolysis on the base of amorphous zirconium hydroxides is investigated by the methods of DTA, X-ray phase analysis and IR spectroscopy. The metastable phases are formed during the thermolysis process

  3. High temperature synthesis of ceramic composition by directed reaction of molten titanium or zirconium with boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative methods of producing ceramics and ceramic composites include sintering, hot pressing and more recently hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Though each of these techniques has its advantages, each suffers from several restrictions as well. Sintering may require long times at high temperatures and for most materials requires sintering aids to get full density. These additives can, and generally do, change (often degrade) the properties of the ceramic. Hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing are convenient methods to quickly prepare samples of some materials to full density, but generally are expensive and may damage some types of reinforcements during densification. This paper focuses on the preparation and processing of composites prepared by the directed reaction of molten titanium or zirconium with boron carbide. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach when compared to traditional methods are discussed, with reference to specific examples. Examples of microstructure are properties of these materials are reported

  4. Characterization of hard nitride and carbide titanium and zirconium coatings on high-speed steel cutting tool inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.; Kaufherr, N.; Albertson, C.; Mapalo, G.; Nielsen, R.; Kaminsky, M.

    1986-01-01

    Hard nitride and carbide coatings of titanium and zirconium deposited by reactive evaporation and reactive sputtering techniques were characterized by electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy to determine the effect of coating process on coating composition and microstructure. Analysis of the chemical composition by Auger spectroscopy revealed the coatings were of high purity with slight differences in stoichiometry depending on the coating technique. Both techniques produced coatings with a columnar microstructure. However, the reactive sputtering technique produced coarser (shorter and wider) columnar grains than the reactive evaporation technique. Furthermore, selected area diffraction analysis of reactively sputtered ZrN coatings showed a two-phased zone (hcp Zr and fcc ZrN) near the substrate/coating interface, while TiC coatings deposited by reactive sputtering and evaporation only showed a single-phase region of fcc TiC

  5. A theoretical model of grain boundary self-diffusion in metals with phase transitions (case study into titanium and zirconium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenycheva, Alexandra V.; Chuvil'deev, Vladimir N.; Nokhrin, Aleksey V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper offers a model describing the process of grain boundary self-diffusion in metals with phase transitions in the solid state. The model is based on ideas and approaches found in the theory of non-equilibrium grain boundaries. The range of application of basic relations contained in this theory is shown to expand, as they can be used to calculate the parameters of grain boundary self-diffusion in high-temperature and low-temperature phases of metals with a phase transition. The model constructed is used to calculate grain boundary self-diffusion activation energy in titanium and zirconium and an explanation is provided as to their abnormally low values in the low-temperature phase. The values of grain boundary self-diffusion activation energy are in good agreement with the experiment.

  6. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  7. The shock and spall response of three industrially important hexagonal close-packed metals: magnesium, titanium and zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, P J; Appleby-Thomas, G J; Wielewski, E; Escobedo, J P

    2014-08-28

    Magnesium, titanium and zirconium and their alloys are extensively used in industrial and military applications where they would be subjected to extreme environments of high stress and strain-rate loading. Their hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystal lattice structures present interesting challenges for optimizing their mechanical response under such loading conditions. In this paper, we review how these materials respond to shock loading via plate-impact experiments. We also discuss the relationship between a heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, typical of HCP materials, and the directional dependency of the elastic limit and, in some cases, the strength prior to failure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomic scale modeling of twinning in hexagonal metals: germination and migration of disconnections in zirconium, titanium and magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackain, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We perform an atomic scale study of twinning in three hexagonal close packed metals: zirconium, titanium and magnesium. For that, we use two energetic models, an empirical potential suited for the study of zirconium and ab initio calculations in order to compare the three metals. The study of perfect twin boundaries shows that their surface energies are not relevant to predict which twin system is going to activate experimentally. We study nucleation and then migration of disconnections, that is to say interfacial dislocations whose glide along twin plane leads to twin thickening. We show that disconnections nucleation, rather than their migration, is the rate limiting step of twin thickening. In particular, by developing a coupling with elastic theory, we extract the core energies of each disconnection. With this method we prove that for a given twin system, the disconnection with the lowest formation energy is always the one compatible with twin mode observed experimentally, even if its elastic energy is higher. Finally, we construct the preliminary elements of a model considering the effect of stress on nucleation of disconnection. (author) [fr

  9. One-year results of maxillary overdentures supported by 2 titanium-zirconium implants - implant survival rates and radiographic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Tahmaseb, Ali; Jung, Ronald E; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    To assess implant survival rates and peri-implant bone loss of 2 titanium-zirconium implants supporting maxillary overdentures at 1 year of loading. Twenty maxillary edentulous patients (5 women and 15 men) being dissatisfied with their complete dentures were included. In total, 40 diameter-reduced titanium-zirconium implants were placed in the anterior maxilla. Local guided bone regeneration (GBR) was allowed if the treatment did not compromise implant stability. Following 3 to 5 months of healing, implant-supported overdentures were inserted on two ball anchors. Implants and overdentures were assessed at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implant insertion and 2, 4, and 12 months after insertion of overdentures (baseline). Standardized radiographs were taken at implant loading and 1 year. Implant survival rates and bone loss were the primary outcomes. Nineteen patients (1 dropout) with 38 implants were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 1.1 years (range 1.0-1.7 years). One implant failed resulting in an implant survival rate of 97.3%. There was a significant peri-implant bone loss of the implants at 1 year of function (mean, 0.7 mm, SD = 1.1 mm; median: 0.48 mm, IQR = 0.56 mm). There was a high 1-year implant survival rate for edentulous patients receiving 2 maxillary implants and ball anchors as overdenture support. However, several implants exhibited an increased amount of bone loss of more than 2 mm. Overdentures supported by 2 maxillary implants should thus be used with caution as minimally invasive treatment for specific patients encountering problems with their upper dentures until more long-term data is available. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of mono- and dicyclopentadienyl titanium (IV)/zirconium (IV) derivatives with S-alkyl-β-N-(acetylferrocenyl) methylene dithiocarbazates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, B.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Pandey, O.P.; Sengupta, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    The reactions of dicyclopentadienyl titanium (IV)/zirconium (IV) dichloride and monocyclopentadienyl titanium (IV) trichloride with thio-Schiff bases (LH), derived by the condensation of S-methyl/ethyl/propyl dithiocarbazic acid and acetylferrocene have been carried out under inert atmosphere and anhydrous conditions in different stoichiometric ratios. Complexes of the types Cp 2 M(L)Cl, CpM(L) 2 Cl (M= Ti(IV) or Zr(IV)), CpTi(L)Cl 2 , CpTi(L) 2 Cl are synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic moment and spectral (electronic, infrared, 1 H NMR) data. (author). 12 refs., 1 tab

  11. Three-dimensional ordered titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide film-based microfluidic device for efficient on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De; He, Zhongyuan; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-09-15

    Microfluidic technology plays a significant role in separating biomolecules, because of its miniaturization, integration, and automation. Introducing micro/nanostructured functional materials can improve the properties of microfluidic devices, and extend their application. Inverse opal has a three-dimensional ordered net-like structure. It possesses a large surface area and exhibits good mass transport, making it a good candidate for bio-separation. This study exploits inverse opal titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide films for on-chip phosphopeptide enrichment. Titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based microfluidic devices were constructed from templates of 270-, 340-, and 370-nm-diameter poly(methylmethacrylate) spheres. The phosphopeptide enrichments of these devices were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The device constructed from the 270-nm-diameter sphere template exhibited good comprehensive phosphopeptide enrichment, and was the best among these three devices. Because the size of opal template used in construction was the smallest, the inverse opal film therefore had the smallest pore sizes and the largest surface area. Enrichment by this device was also better than those of similar devices based on nanoparticle films and single component films. The titanium dioxide-zirconium dioxide inverse opal film-based device provides a promising approach for the efficient separation of various biomolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1% (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Ti+B on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Ti+B or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment.

  13. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1 percentage (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Tau i+Beta on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Tau i+Beta or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment. (author)

  14. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A I O

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1% (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Ti+B on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Ti+B or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment

  15. Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles. Triton X-100 based size modification, characterization and application in radiochemical separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, R.; Sen, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. [Burdwan Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-07-01

    Zirconium-titanium-phosphate nanoparticles (ZTP) of different sizes were synthesized using tritron X-100 (polyethylene glycol-p-isooctylphenyl ether) surfactant. The materials were characterized by FTIR and powdered X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structural and morphological details of the material were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The SEM study was followed by energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis (EDS) for elemental analysis of the sample. The important peaks of the XRD spectra were analyzed to determine the probable composition of the material. The particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. Ion exchange capacity was measured for different metal ions with sizes of the ZTP nanoparticles and size-dependent ion exchange property of the material was investigated thoroughly. The nanomaterial of the smallest size of around 5 nm was employed to separate carrier-free {sup 137m}Ba from {sup 137}Cs in column chromatographic technique using 1.0 M HNO{sub 3} as eluting agent at pH = 5. (orig.)

  16. Zirconium and Titanium Propylene Polymerization Precatalysts Supported by a Fluxional C 2 -Symmetric Bis(anilide)pyridine Ligand

    KAUST Repository

    Tonks, Ian A.

    2012-03-12

    Titanium and zirconium complexes supported by a bis(anilide)pyridine ligand (NNN = pyridine-2,6-bis(N-mesitylanilide)) have been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. C 2-symmetric bis(dimethylamide) complexes were generated from aminolysis of M(NMe 2) 4 with the neutral, diprotonated NNN ligand or by salt metathesis of the dipotassium salt of NNN with M(NMe 2) 2Cl 2. In contrast to the case for previously reported pyridine bis(phenoxide) complexes, the ligand geometry of these complexes appears to be dictated by chelate ring strain rather than metal-ligand π bonding. The crystal structures of the five-coordinate dihalide complexes (NNN)MCl 2 (M = Ti, Zr) display a C 1-symmetric geometry with a stabilizing ipso interaction between the metal and the anilido ligand. Coordination of THF to (NNN)ZrCl 2 generates a six-coordinate C 2-symmetric complex. Facile antipode interconversion of the C 2 complexes, possibly via flat C 2v intermediates, has been investigated by variable-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy for (NNN)MX 2(THF) n (M = Ti, Zr; X = NMe 2, Cl) and (NNN)Zr(CH 2Ph) 2. These complexes were tested as propylene polymerization precatalysts, with most complexes giving low to moderate activities (10 2-10 4 g/(mol h)) for the formation of stereoirregular polypropylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. Hexagonal close packed to face centered cubic polymorphic transformation in nanocrystalline titanium-zirconium system by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, S.; Manna, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present study reports a reversible hexagonal close packed (hcp) to face centered cubic (fcc) polymorphic phase transformation in four different nanocrystalline titanium-zirconium binary alloys in the course of mechanical alloying in a planetary ball mill. This transformation is monitored at appropriate stages by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Lattice parameter of the nanocrystalline fcc phase is a function of the alloy composition. For a given alloy, the lattice parameter and hence volume per atom increase with increase in milling time under comparable conditions. On the other hand, crystallite size, measured from X-ray peak broadening, significantly decreases with the progress of milling. It is suggested that structural instability due to plastic strain, increasing lattice expansion, and negative (from core to boundary) hydrostatic pressure is responsible for this hcp → fcc polymorphic transformation. The said transformation seems reversible as isothermal annealing at 1000 deg. C for 1 h or melting the powder mass leads to partial or complete transformation of the milled product from single phase fcc to hcp

  18. Concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste using sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, A. V.; Noskova, A. Y.; Gritskevich, E. Y.; Mashkovtsev, M. A.; Semenishchev, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of use of sorbents based on hydrated titanium and zirconium oxides (T-3A, T-35, NPF-HTD) for concentration and immobilization of 137Cs from liquid radioactive waste of various chemical composition (fresh water, seawater, solutions containing NaNO3, ammonium acetate, EDTA) was evaluated. It was shown that the NPF-HTD and T-35 sorbents separate 137Cs from fresh water and seawater with distribution coefficients as high as 6.2.104 and 6.1.104, 4.0.105 and 1.6.105 L kg-1 respectively; in 1 M ammonium acetate these values were 2.0.103 and 1.0.103 L kg-1. The NPF-HTD sorbent showed the highest selectivity for cesium in NaNO3 solution: cesium distribution coefficients in 1M NaNO3 was 1.4.106 L kg-1. All studied sorbents are suitable for deactivation of solutions containing EDTA. Cesium distribution coefficients were around 102-103 L kg-1 depending on EDTA concentration. Chemical stability of the sorbents was also studied. It was shown that 137Cs leaching rate from all sorbents meet the requirements for matrix materials.

  19. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  20. External attachment of titanium sheathed thermocouples to zirconium nuclear fuel rods for the LOFT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., acting as a Subcontractor to EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, has developed a welding process to attach titanium sheathed thermocouples to the outside of the zircaloy clad fuel rods. The fuel rods and thermocouples are used to test simulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in a pressurized water reactor (LOFT Reactor, Idaho National Laboratory). A laser beam was selected as the optimum welding process because of the extremely high energy input per unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was installed along with specialized welding fixtures. Laser room facility requirements and tolerances were established. Performance qualifications, and detailed welding procedures were also developed. Product performance tests were conducted to assure that engineering design requirements could be met on a production basis

  1. Synthesis of a Bis(thiophenolate)pyridine Ligand and Its Titanium, Zirconium, and Tantalum Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Lenton, Taylor N.

    2012-11-12

    A precursor to a new tridentate LX 2 type ligand, bis(thiophenol)pyridine ((SNS)H 2 = (2-C 6H 4SH) 2-2,6-C 5H 3N), was prepared. Bis(thiophenolate)pyridine complexes of Ti, Zr, and Ta having dialkylamido coligands were synthesized and structurally characterized. The zirconium complex (SNS)Zr(NMe 2) 2 (4) displays C 2 symmetry in the solid state, unlike a related bis(phenolate)pyridine compound, C s-symmetric (ONO)Ti(NMe 2) 2. This change is likely the result of strain about the sulfur atom in the six-membered chelate with longer metal-sulfur and carbon-sulfur bonds. Solid-state structures of tantalum complexes (SNS)Ta(NMe 2) 3 (5) and (SNS)TaCl(NEt 2) 2 (6) also display pronounced C 2 twisting of the SNS ligand. 1D and 2D NMR experiments show that 5 is fluxional, with rotation about the Ta-N(amide) bonds occurring on the NMR time scale that interchange the equatorial amide methyl groups (ΔG ‡ 393 = 25.0(3) kcal/mol). The fluxional behavior of 6 in solution was also studied by variable-temperature 1H NMR. Observation of separate signals for the diastereotopic protons of the methylene unit of the diethylamide indicates that the complex remains locked on the NMR time scale in one diastereomeric conformation at temperatures below -50 °C, fast rotation about the equatorial amide Ta-N bonds occurs at higher temperature (ΔG ‡ 393 = 13.4(3) kcal/mol), and exchange of diastereomeric methylene protons occurs via inversion at Ta that interconverts antipodes (ΔG ‡ 393 ≈ 14(1) kcal/mol). © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Zirconium oxide deposits (ZrO2) and titanium oxide (TiO2) on 304l stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila N, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    This research project aims to carry out the surface and electrochemical characterization to obtain the optimum conditions of the hydrothermal deposits of zirconium oxide ZrO 2 (baddeleyite) and titanium oxide TiO 2 (anatase and rutile phases) on 304l stainless steel, simulating an inhibiting protective layer. 304l steel specimens were cut, pre-oxidized in water at a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and 8 MPa, similar to those of a typical BWR conditions. From the titanium oxide anatase crystalline phase, the rutile phase was obtained by a heat treatment at 1000 degrees Celsius. The Sigma-Aldrich pre-oxidized powders and steel 304l were characterized using techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, chemical mapping and Raman spectrometry. The pre-oxidized steel has two oxide layers, an inner layer with nano metric crystals and another outer of larger crystals to 1μm, with the formation of hematite and magnetite, this predominating. The surface that contacted the sample holder has larger crystals. Hydrothermal deposits were carry out from suspensions of 10, 100 and 1000 ppm, of the crystal phases of anatase, rutile and baddeleyite, on the pre-oxidized steel at a temperature of 150 degrees Celsius for 2 and 7 days, samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, Raman spectrometry and Tafel polarization. The suspension to 1000 ppm for 7 days coated surface most; the baddeleyite deposit is noticed more homogeneous than anatase and rutile. The deposit is favored when hematite and magnetite crystals are larger. The chemical mapping on deposits show that even after being immersed in water to 288 degrees Celsius during 30 days, the deposits are still present although a loss is observed. A reference electrode was assembled to conduct electrochemical tests of Tafel able to withstand a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and pressure of 8 MPa. The baddeleyite deposit presented

  3. Niobium 1 percent zirconium/potassium and titanium/potassium life-test heat pipe design and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, J. Tom; Merrigan, Michael A.

    Experimental lifetime performance studies currently in progress use Niobium 1 percent Zirconium (Nb-1Zr) and Titanium (Ti) heat pipes with potassium (K) as the working fluid. A heat pipe life test matrix was developed for testing the heat pipes. Because the corrosion rates in alkali metal heat pipes are affected by temperature and working fluid evaporation flux, the variable parameters of the experimental matrix are established as steady operating temperature and input heat flux density. Total impurity inventory is a factor in corrosion rate so impurity levels are being evaluated in the heat pipe materials before and after testing. Eight Nb-1Zr/K heat pipes were designed, fabricated, and tested. Two of the heat pipes have completed testing whereas the other six are currently in test. These are gravity assist heat pipes operating in a reflux mode. The heat pipes are tested by sets, one set of two and two sets of three heat pipes. Three Ti/K heat pipes are also in life test. These heat pipes are tested as a set in a horizontal position in a capillary pumped annular flow mode. Each of the heat pipes is encapsulated in a quartz vacuum container with a water calorimeter over the vacuum container for power throughput measurements. Thermocouples are attached to the heat pipes for measuring temperature. Heat input to the heat pipes is via an RF coil. The heat pipes are operating at between 800 and 900 K, with heat input fluxes of 13.8 to 30 W/sq cm. Of the Nb-1Zr/K heat pipes, two of the heat pipes have been in operation for 14,000 hours, three over 10,000 hours, and three over 7,000 hours. The Ti/K heat pipes have been in operation for 1,266 hours.

  4. Review of corrosion phenomena on zirconium alloys, niobium, titanium, inconel, stainless steel, and nickel plate under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The role of nuclear fluxes in corrosion processes was investigated in ATR, ETR, PRTR, and in Hanford production reactors. Major effort was directed to zirconium alloy corrosion parameter studies. Corrosion and hydriding results are reported as a function of oxygen concentration in the coolant, flux level, alloy composition, surface pretreatment, and metallurgical condition. Localized corrosion and hydriding at sites of bonding to dissimilar metals are described. Corrosion behavior on specimens transferred from oxygenated to low-oxygen coolants in ETR and ATR experiments is compared. Mechanism studies suggest that a depression in the corrosion of the Zr--2.5Nb alloy under irradiation is due to radiation-induced aging. The radiation-induced onset of transition on several alloys is in general a gradual process which nucleates locally, causing areas of oxide prosity which eventually encompass the surface. Examination of Zry-2 process tubes reveals that accelerated corrosion has occurred in low-oxygen coolants. Hydrogen contents are relatively low, but show some localized profiles. Gross hydriding has occurred on process tubes containing aluminum spacers, apparently by a galvanic charging mechanism. Titanium paralleled Zry-2 in corrosion behavior under irradiation. Niobium corrosion was variable, but did not appear to be strongly influenced by radiation. Corrosion rates on Inconel and stainless steel were only slightly higher in-flux than out-of-reactor. Corrosion rates on nickel-plated aluminum appeared to vary substantially with preexposure treatments, but the rates generally were accelerated compared to rates on unirradiated coupons. (59 references, 11 tables, 12 figs.)

  5. Preparation of coherent deposits of metallic titanium and zirconium by fused salts electrolysis. Preparacion de depositos coherentes de titanio y circonio metalicos por electrolisis de sales fundidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, J. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Departamento de Desarrollo de Procesos, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1994-01-01

    The production of coherent deposits of metallic titanium and zirconium bath composition and operating conditions were studied. The cathode was a striated iron cylinder and a graphite crucible served as anode. K[sub 2]TiF[sub 6] and K[sub 2]ZrF[sub 6] dissolved in fused NaCl at 800 degree centigree may be electrolyzed under an insert gas atmosphere. It was found that the deposits depend on the electrolytic composition of the bath while other variables in the studied values do not influence significantly. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Fibroblast response to initial attachment and proliferation on titanium and zirconium surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Meza-Rodríguez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, dental implants have become one of the best options for comprehensive dental restoration; their placement is a multidisciplinary task that requires a solid understanding of biological, periodontal, surgical and prosthetic principles. Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify in vitro the adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF response on titanium (Ti and zirconia (Zr surfaces. Methodology: Samples of Ti and Zr were observed under atomic force microscopy (AFM. HGFs were inoculated in each sample to determine adhesion and cell proliferation. The reagent MTT was mixed with medium DMEM and inoculated in each plate; formazan was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed at 540nm in a microplate spectrophotometer. The test was performed with three independent experiments. Data were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (Lilliefors, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney test comparisons. Results: Topography of the Zr plates showed greater roughness (Ra=0.39μm than Ti (Ra=0.049μm. Quantification of HGF adhesion was significantly higher (p<0.05 in Ti, while proliferation showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion: It is noteworthy that, even though Ti initially showed increased cell adhesion on the surface, after 24h Zr samples showed similar proliferation; this demonstrates that both surfaces have a comparable biological response.

  7. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Zhao, Ye

    2013-12-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO{sub 2}) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity.

  8. Electrochemical biosensing based on polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yibing; Zhao, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The glucose oxidase (GOD) modified polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is fabricated for electrochemical biosensing application. The titania nanotube array is grown directly on a titanium substrate through an anodic oxidation process. A thin film of polypyrrole is coated onto titania nanotube array to form polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid through a normal pulse voltammetry process. GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode is prepared by the covalent immobilization of GOD onto polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid via the cross-linker of glutaraldehyde. The morphology and microstructure of nanotube electrodes are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The biosensing properties of this nanotube enzyme electrode have been investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid provides highly accessible nanochannels for GOD encapsulation, presenting good enzymatic affinity. As-formed GOD-polypyrrole/titania nanotube enzyme electrode well conducts bioelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose, exhibiting a good biosensing performance with a high sensitivity, low detection limit and wide linear detection range. - Graphical abstract: The schematic diagram presents the fabrication of glucose oxidase modified polypyrrole/titania (GOD-PPy/TiO 2 ) nanotube enzyme electrode for biosensing application. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic polypyrrole/titania nanotube hybrid is well used as biosensing substrate. • Polypyrrole promotes GOD immobilization on titania nanotubes via glutaraldehyde. • GOD-polypyrrole/titania enzyme electrode shows good bioelectrocatalytic reactivity

  9. Study of the thermal oxidation of titanium and zirconium under argon ion irradiation in the low MeV range (E = 15 MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, N.-L.

    2012-01-01

    We have shown that argon ion irradiation between 1 and 15 MeV produces damage on both titanium and zirconium surfaces, taking the form of accelerated oxidation and/or craterization effects, varying as a function of the projectile energy and the annealing atmosphere (temperature and pressure) simulating the environmental conditions of the fuel/cladding interface of PWR fuel rods. Using AFM, we have shown that the titanium and zirconium surface is attacked under light argon ion bombardment at high temperature (up to 500 C) in weakly oxidizing medium (under rarefied dry air pressure ranging from 5,7 10 -5 Pa to 5 10 -3 Pa) for a fixed fluence of about 5 10 14 ions.cm -2 . We observed the formation of nano-metric craters over the whole titanium surface irradiated between 2 and 9 MeV and the whole zirconium surface irradiated at 4 MeV, the characteristics of which vary depending on the temperature and the pressure. In the case of the Ar/Ti couple, the superficial damage efficiency increases when the projectile energy decreases from 9 to 2 MeV. Moreover, whereas the titanium surface seems to be transparent under the 15-MeV ion beam, the zirconium surface exhibits numerous micrometric craters surrounded by a wide halo. The crater characteristics (size and superficial density) differ significantly from that observed both in the low energy range (keV) where the energy losses are controlled by ballistic collisions (Sn) and in the high energy range (MeV - GeV) where the energy losses are controlled by electronic excitations (Se), which was not completely unexpected in this intermediate energy range for which combined Sn - Se stopping power effects are possibly foreseen. Using XPS associated to ionic sputtering, we have shown that there is an irradiation effect on thermal oxidation of titanium, enhanced under the argon ion beam between 2 and 9 MeV, and that there is also an energy effect on the oxide thickness and stoichiometry. The study conducted using Spectroscopic

  10. Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Bedinger, George M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Titanium is a mineral commodity that is essential to the smooth functioning of modern industrial economies. Most of the titanium produced is refined into titanium dioxide, which has a high refractive index and is thus able to impart a durable white color to paint, paper, plastic, rubber, and wallboard. Because of their high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance, titanium metal and titanium metal alloys are used in the aerospace industry as well as for welding rod coatings, biological implants, and consumer goods.Ilmenite and rutile are currently the principal titanium-bearing ore minerals, although other minerals, including anatase, perovskite, and titanomagnetite, could have economic importance in the future. Ilmenite is currently being mined from two large magmatic deposits hosted in rocks of Proterozoic-age anorthosite plutonic suites. Most rutile and nearly one-half of the ilmenite produced are from heavy-mineral alluvial, fluvial, and eolian deposits. Titanium-bearing minerals occur in diverse geologic settings, but many of the known deposits are currently subeconomic for titanium because of complications related to the mineralogy or because of the presence of trace contaminants that can compromise the pigment production process.Global production of titanium minerals is currently dominated by Australia, Canada, Norway, and South Africa; additional amounts are produced in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, and Sri Lanka. The United States accounts for about 4 percent of the total world production of titanium minerals and is heavily dependent on imports of titanium mineral concentrates to meet its domestic needs.Titanium occurs only in silicate or oxide minerals and never in sulfide minerals. Environmental considerations for titanium mining are related to waste rock disposal and the impact of trace constituents on water quality. Because titanium is generally inert in the environment, human health risks from titanium and titanium

  11. A Prospective Case-Control Clinical Study of Titanium-Zirconium Alloy Implants with a Hydrophilic Surface in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Domínguez, José; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Machuca-Portillo, Guillermo

    To evaluate prospectively the behavior of narrow-diameter (3.3-mm) titanium-zirconium alloy implants with a hydrophilic surface (Straumann Roxolid SLActive) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in single-unit restorations, compared with a healthy control group (assessed using the glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c test). The patients evaluated in this study required single-unit implant treatment; 15 patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients were healthy (control group [CG]). Marginal bone level (MBL) change around the implants was evaluated using conventional, sequential periapical digital radiographs. Patient HbA1c was assessed in each check-up. Normality test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov), univariate and multivariate logistic regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. No differences in MBL change and implant survival and success rates were found between the diabetes mellitus group (DMG) versus the control group, either during the initial recording (DMG, 0.99 ± 0.56 vs CG, 0.68 ± 0.54; P > .05) or 6 months after restoration (DMG, 1.28 ± 0.38 vs CG, 1.11 ± 0.59; P > .05). No significant correlation between HbA1c levels and MBL change was detected in these patients (P > .05). Patients with glycemic control exhibit similar outcomes to healthy individuals with regard to the investigated parameters. In light of these findings, the titanium-zirconium alloy small-diameter implants can be used in the anterior region of the mouth in type 2 diabetic patients.

  12. Study of the microstructural and mechanical properties of titanium-niobium-zirconium based alloys processed with hydrogen and powder metallurgy for use in dental implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvaizem, Jose Helio

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen has been used as pulverization agent in alloys based on rare earth and transition metals due to its extremely high diffusion rate even on low temperatures. Such materials are used on hydrogen storage dispositives, generation of electricity or magnetic fields, and are produced by a process which the first step is the transformation of the alloy in fine powder by miling. Besides those, hydrogenium is also being used to obtain alloys based on titanium - niobium - zirconium in the pulverization. Powder metallurgy is utilized on the production of these alloys, making it possible to obtain structures with porous surface as result, requirement for its application as biomaterials. Other advantages of powder metallurgy usage include better surface finish and better microstructural homogeneity. In this work samples were prepared in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr composition. The hydrogenation was performed at 700 degree C, 600 degree C, and 500 degree C for titanium, niobium and zirconium respectively. After hydrogenation, the milling stage was carried out on high energy planetary ball milling with 200rpm during 90 minutes, and also in conventional ball milling for 30 hours. Samples were pressed in uniaxial press, followed by isostatic cold press, and then sintered at 1150 degree C for 7-13 hours. Microstructural properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction. Mechanical and structural properties determined were density, microhardness and moduli of elasticity. The sample sintered at 1150 degree C for 7h, hydrogenated using 10.000 mbar and produced by milling on high energy planetary ball milling presented the best mechanical properties and microstructural homogeneity. (author)

  13. Comparison of changes in irregularity and transverse width with nickel-titanium and niobium-titanium-tantalum-zirconium archwires during initial orthodontic alignment in adolescents: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Barrett; Shoji, Toshihiro; Anderson, W Cameron; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Deguchi, Toru

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was to compare the clinical efficiency of nickel-titanium (NiTi) and niobium-titanium-tantalum-zirconium (TiNbTaZr) archwires during initial orthodontic alignment. All subjects (ages between 12 and 20 years) underwent nonextraction treatment using 0.022-inch brackets. All patients were randomized into two groups for initial alignment with 0.016-inch NiTi archwires (n = 14), or with 0.016-inch TiNbTaZr archwires (n = 14). Digital scans were taken during the course of treatment and were used to compare the improvement in Little's Irregularity Index and the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths. There was approximately a 27% reduction in crowding during the first month with the use of 0.016-inch TiNbTaZr (Gummetal) wire, and an additional 25% decrease in crowding was observed during the next month. There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups in the decrease in irregularity over time ( P = .29). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the changes in intercanine and intermolar width ( P = .80). It can be concluded that Gummetal wires and conventional NiTi wires possess a similar ability to align teeth, and Gummetal wires have additional advantages over conventional NiTi, such as formability and use in patients with nickel allergy.

  14. Multifunctional zirconium nitride/copper multilayer coatings on medical grade 316L SS and titanium substrates for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D Dinesh; Kaliaraj, Gobi Saravanan

    2018-01-01

    Protecting from wear and corrosion of many medical devices in the biomedical field is an existing scientific challenge. Surface modification with multilayer ZrN/Cu coating was deposited on medical grade stainless steel (SS) and titanium substrates to enhance their surface properties. Structural results revealed that the ZrN/Cu coatings are highly crystalline and uniform microstructure on both the substrates. Dry and wet tribological measurements of the coated titanium substrate exhibit enhanced wear resistance and low friction coefficient due to the improved microstructure. Similarly, the corrosion resistance was exceptionally improved on titanium substrates, resulting from the high inertness of coating to the SBF electrolyte solution. Antibacterial activity and epifluorescence results signify the effective killing of pathogens by means of ion release killing as well as contact killing mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH

    2011-08-02

    A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

  16. The influence of adding modified zirconium oxide-titanium dioxide nano-particles on mechanical properties of orthodontic adhesive: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felemban, Nayef H; Ebrahim, Mohamed I

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to examine the effect of incorporating different concentrations of Zirconium oxide-Titanium dioxide (ZrO2-TiO2) nanoparticles, which can have antibacterial properties, on the mechanical properties of an orthodontic adhesive. ZrO2-TiO2 (Zirconium oxide, HWNANO, Hongwu International Group Ltd, China) -Titanium dioxide, Nanoshell, USA) nanopowder were incorporated into orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT, 3 M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) with different concentrations (0.5% weight nonofiller and 1% weight nanofiller). The size of nanoparticle was 70-80 nm for ZrO2 and less than 50 nm for TiO2. For measuring the shear bond strength of the three groups of orthodontic adhesives [Transbond (control), Transbond mixed with 0.5% weight ZrO2-TiO2, and Transbond mixed with 1% weight ZrO2-TiO2], 30 freshly extracted human first premolars were used and bonded with stainless steel metal brackets (Dentaurum®, Discovery®, Deutschland), using the 3 orthodontic adhesives and 3 M Unitek; Transbond TM Plus Self-Etching Primer (10 samples in each group). The recorded values of compressive strength and tensile strength (measured separately on 10 samples of orthodontic adhesives (add the 3 D size of sample, light cured for 40 s on both sides) of each orthodontic adhesives), as well as the shear bond strength in Mega Pascal unit (MPa) were collected and exposed to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc tests. orthodontic adhesive with 1% weight ZrO2-TiO2 showed the highest mean compressive (73.42 ± 1.55 MPa, p: 0.003, F: 12.74), tensile strength (8.65 ± 0.74 MPa, p: 0.001, F: 68.20), and shear bond strength (20.05 ± 0.2 MPa, p: 0.001, F: 0.17). Adding ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticle to orthodontic adhesive increased compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear bond strength in vitro, but in vivo studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to validate the present findings.

  17. Immobilization of transition metal ions on zirconium phosphate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melezhik, A.V.; Brej, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that ions of transition metals (copper, iron, vanadyl, titanium) are adsorbed on zirconium phosphate monolayers. The zirconium phosphate threshold capacity corresponds to substitution of all protons of hydroxyphosphate groups by equivalent amounts of copper, iron or vanadyl. Adsorption of polynuclear ions is possible in case of titanium. The layered substance with specific surface up to 300 m 2 /g, wherein ultradispersed titanium dioxide particles are intercalirated between zirconium-phosphate layers, is synthesized

  18. Effect of zirconium addition on the ductility and toughness of cast zinc-aluminum alloy5, zamak5, grain refined by titanium plus boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, I.O.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc-aluminum casting alloys are frequently employed in design. They are inexpensive and have mechanical properties in many respects superior to aluminum and copper alloys. Common applications of zinc-aluminum alloys are in the automobile industry for manufacturing carburetors bodies, fuel pump bodies, driving wheels and door handles. They are mainly used for die casting due to their low melting points which ranges from 375 to 487 degree C, good fluidity, pollution free melting in addition to their high corrosion resistance. Against these advantages there exists the deficiency as these alloys solidify in a coarse dentititic structure which tends to deteriorate the mechanical properties and impact strength. It was found that addition of some rare earth materials e.g. titanium or titanium plus boron results in modifying its structure into a petal-like or nodular type. The available literature reveals that most of the published work is directed towards the metallurgical aspects and little or no work is published on the effect of those elements on its mechanical strength, ductility, toughness and impact strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of Zirconium on the microstructure, mechanical behavior, hardness, ductility and impact strength of zinc-aluminum alloy5, Zamak5, is investigated. It was found that addition of Ti+B or Zr or Ti+B+Zr resulted in modifying the coarse dentritic structure of the Zamak5 alloy into a fine nodular one. Further more, addition of any of these elements alone or together resulted in enhancement of the mechanical strength, hardness, ductility, toughness and impact strength of this alloy, for example an increase of 11% in hardness was achieved in case of Zr addition and 100% increase of ductility and 12.5% increase in impact strength were achieved in case of Ti+B addition. (author)

  19. Preconcentration of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium with oxine supported on microcrystalline naphthalene and their determinations by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen Kumar, P.; Sanjay Kumar; Vijay Kumar; Nandakishore, S.S.; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid method for the determination of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after solid-liquid extraction with microcrystalline naphthalene is developed. Analytes were quantitatively adsorbed as their oxinate complexes on naphthalene and determined by ICP-AES after stripping with 2 M HCl. The effect of various experimental parameters such as pH, reagent amounts, naphthalene amount and stripping conditions on the determination of these elements was investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of this method for U (VI), Th (IV), Zr (IV), Ti (IV), Mo (VI) and V (V) were 20.0 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviations obtained for three replicate determinations at a concentration of 1.0 µg mL -1 were 1.5-3.0%. The proposed method has been applied in the analysis of SY-2, SY-3 and pre-analysed samples for U, Th, Zr, Ti, Mo and V the analytical results are in good agreement with recommended values. (author)

  20. Reactive Spark Plasma Sintering and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Diboride–Titanium Diboride Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic Solid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiselva N. S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh temperature ceramics (UHTCs such as diborides of zirconium, hafnium tantalum and their composites are considered to be the candidate materials for thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicles due to their exceptional combination of physical, chemical and mechanical properties. A composite of ZrB2-TiB2 is expected to have better properties. In this study, an attempt has been made to fabricate ZrB2-TiB2 ceramics using mechanically activated elemental powders followed by reactive spark plasma sintering (RSPS at 1400 °C. Microstructure and phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD and electron microscopy to understand microstructure evolution. Fracture toughness and hardness were evaluated using indentation methods. Nanoindentation was used to measure elastic modulus. Compressive strength of the composites has been reported.

  1. Zirconium and cast zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krone, K

    1977-04-01

    A survey is given on the occurence of zirconium, production of Zr sponge and semi-finished products, on physical and mechanical properties, production of Zr cast, composition of the commercial grades and reactor grades qualities, metal cutting, welding, corrosion behavior and use.

  2. Purification of zirconium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.E.P.

    1976-01-01

    A commercial grade ZrO 2 and an ammonium uranate (yellow cake) are obtained from the caldasito ore processing. This ore is found in the Pocos de Caldas Plateau, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Caldasito is an uranigerous zirconium ore, a mixture of zircon and baddeleyite and contains 60% ZrO 2 and 0,3% U 3 O 8 . The chemical opening of the ore was made by alkaline fusion with NaOH at controlled temperature. The zirconium-uranium separation took place by a continuous liquid-liquid extraction in TBP-varsol-HNO 3 -H 2 O system. The raffinate containing zirconium + impurities (aluminium, iron and titanium) was purified by an ion exchange operation using a strong cationic resin [pt

  3. External attachment of titanium sheathed thermocouples to zirconium nuclear fuel rods for the loss-of-fluid-test (LOFT) Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A welding process to attach titanium sheathed thermocouples to the outside of the zircaloy clad fuel rods has been developed. A laser beam was selected as the optimum welding process because of the extremely high energy input per unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. Irradiation tests showed no degradation of thermocouples or weld structure. Fast thermal cycle and heater rod blowdown reflood tests were made to subject the weldments to high temperatures, high pressure steam, and fast water quench cycles. From the behavior of these tests, it was concluded that the attachment welds would survive a series of reactor safety tests. 2 refs

  4. Titanium and Zirconium Levels Are Associated with Changes in MicroRNAs Expression: Results from a Human Cross-Sectional Study on Obese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioni, Laura; Angelici, Laura; Vigna, Luisella; Farronato, Giampietro; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study on 90 individuals we aimed at evaluating the microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile associated with personal levels of Titanium (Ti) and Zirconium (Zr) traced in hair samples. Ti and Zr materials are broadly used for dental implants but the biological reactions triggered by a long term presence of these materials in the oral cavity still need to be assessed. MiRNAs are mechanisms that need to be investigated as they play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression following external stimuli and contribute to a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Methods Using the TaqMan® Low-Density Array, we assessed the expression levels of 377 human miRNAs in peripheral blood of 90 subjects. Hair samples were analyzed for Ti and Zr content using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. We performed multivariable regression analysis to investigate the effects of Ti and Zr exposure on miRNA expression levels. We used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software to explore the functional role of the investigated miRNAs and the related target genes. Results Seven miRNAs (miR-99b, miR-142-5p, miR-152, miR-193a-5p, miR-323-3p, miR-335, miR-494) resulted specifically associated with Zr levels. The functional target analysis showed that miRNAs are involved in mechanisms such as inflammation, skeletal and connective tissue disorders. Conclusions Our data suggest that Zr is more bioactive than Ti and show that miRNAs are relevant molecular mechanisms sensitive to Zr exposure. PMID:27611787

  5. Titanium carbide nanocube core induced interfacial growth of crystalline polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol lamellar shell for wide-temperature range supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Ting; Pan, Hsiao-An; Wu, Nae-Lih; Chen, Geroge Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This is the first investigation on electrically conducting polymers-based supercapacitor electrodes over a wide temperature range, from -18 °C to 60 °C. A high-performance supercapacitor electrode material consisting of TiC nanocube core and conformal crystalline polypyrrole (PPy)/poly-vinyl-alcohol (PVA) lamellar shell has been synthesized by heterogeneous nucleation-induced interfacial crystallization. PPy is induced to crystallize on the negatively charged TiC nanocube surfaces via strong interfacial interactions. In this organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite, the long chain PVA enables enhanced cycle life due to improved mechanical properties, and the TiC nanocube not only contributes to electron conduction, but also dictates the PPy morphology/crystallinity for maximizing the charging-discharging performance. The crystalline PPy/PAV layer on the TiC nanocube offers unprecedented high capacity (>350 F g-1-PPy at 300 mV s-1 with ΔV = 1.6 V) and cycling stability in a temperature range from -18 °C to 60 °C. The presented hybrid-filler and interfacial crystallization strategies can be applied to the exploration of new-generation high-power conducting polymer-based supercapacitor materials.

  6. Titanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Muris, Joris; Jakobsen, Stig S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to titanium (Ti) from implants and from personal care products as nanoparticles (NPs) is common. This article reviews exposure sources, ion release, skin penetration, allergenic effects, and diagnostic possibilities. We conclude that human exposure to Ti mainly derives from dental...... and medical implants, personal care products, and foods. Despite being considered to be highly biocompatible relative to other metals, Ti is released in the presence of biological fluids and tissue, especially under certain circumstances, which seem to be more likely with regard to dental implants. Although...... most of the studies reviewed have important limitations, Ti seems not to penetrate a competent skin barrier, either as pure Ti, alloy, or as Ti oxide NPs. However, there are some indications of Ti penetration through the oral mucosa. We conclude that patch testing with the available Ti preparations...

  7. Zirconium and hafnium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Bedinger, George M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Zirconium and hafnium are corrosion-resistant metals that are widely used in the chemical and nuclear industries. Most zirconium is consumed in the form of the main ore mineral zircon (ZrSiO4, or as zirconium oxide or other zirconium chemicals. Zirconium and hafnium are both refractory lithophile elements that have nearly identical charge, ionic radii, and ionic potentials. As a result, their geochemical behavior is generally similar. Both elements are classified as incompatible because they have physical and crystallochemical properties that exclude them from the crystal lattices of most rock-forming minerals. Zircon and another, less common, ore mineral, baddeleyite (ZrO2), form primarily as accessory minerals in igneous rocks. The presence and abundance of these ore minerals in igneous rocks are largely controlled by the element concentrations in the magma source and by the processes of melt generation and evolution. The world’s largest primary deposits of zirconium and hafnium are associated with alkaline igneous rocks, and, in one locality on the Kola Peninsula of Murmanskaya Oblast, Russia, baddeleyite is recovered as a byproduct of apatite and magnetite mining. Otherwise, there are few primary igneous deposits of zirconium- and hafnium-bearing minerals with economic value at present. The main ore deposits worldwide are heavy-mineral sands produced by the weathering and erosion of preexisting rocks and the concentration of zircon and other economically important heavy minerals, such as ilmenite and rutile (for titanium), chromite (for chromium), and monazite (for rare-earth elements) in sedimentary systems, particularly in coastal environments. In coastal deposits, heavy-mineral enrichment occurs where sediment is repeatedly reworked by wind, waves, currents, and tidal processes. The resulting heavy-mineral-sand deposits, called placers or paleoplacers, preferentially form at relatively low latitudes on passive continental margins and supply 100 percent of

  8. Zirconium nitride hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Daiane; Amorim, Cintia Lugnani Gomes de; Soares, Gabriel Vieira; Figueroa, Carlos Alejandro; Baumvol, Israel Jacob Rabin; Basso, Rodrigo Leonardo de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) nanometric films were deposited onto different substrates, in order to study the surface crystalline microstructure and also to investigate the electrochemical behavior to obtain a better composition that minimizes corrosion reactions. The coatings were produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The influence of the nitrogen partial pressure, deposition time and temperature over the surface properties was studied. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and corrosion experiments were performed to characterize the ZrN hard coatings. The ZrN films properties and microstructure changes according to the deposition parameters. The corrosion resistance increases with temperature used in the films deposition. Corrosion tests show that ZrN coating deposited by PVD onto titanium substrate can improve the corrosion resistance. (author)

  9. Titanium and zirconium based wrought alloys and bulk metallic glasses for fluoride ion containing 11.5 M HNO3 medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, J.; Ningshen, S.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2016-01-01

    Aqueous reprocessing of plutonium-rich mixed oxide fuels require fluoride as a catalyst in boiling nitric acid for an effective dissolution of the spent fuel. The corrosion behavior of the candidate dissolver materials zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) and commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti grade 2) in boiling 11.5 M HNO 3 + 0.05 M NaF has been established. High corrosion rates were obtained for Zr- 4 and CP-Ti in nitric acid containing fluoride ions. Complexing the fluoride ions either with Al(NO 3 ) 3 or ZrO(NO 3 ) 2 aided in decreasing the corrosion rates of Zr-4 and CP-Ti. High corrosion resistance is claimed as one of the principal property of the amorphous alloy when compared to the crystalline alloy. Thus Ni 60 Nb 40 and Ni 60 Nb 30 Ta 10 amorphous ribbons were prepared and exposed in boiling 11.5 M HNO 3 and 11.5 M HNO 3 + 0.05 M NaF. In nitric acid these alloys did not show any sign of corrosion attack. XPS analysis confirmed that the passivity was due to the formation passive films of thickness ≈3 nm enriched with Nb 2 O 5 and of ≈1.5 nm enriched with both Nb 2 O 5 and Ta 2 O 5 on the respective surfaces of the ribbons. In boiling 11.5 M HNO 3 + 0.05 M NaF, severe corrosion attack was observed on Ni 60 Nb 40 ribbon, due to the instability of the oxide/metal interface. The Ni 60 Nb 30 Ta 10 amorphous ribbon exhibited corrosion resistance of at least an order of magnitude higher than that for Ni 60 Nb 40 ribbon

  10. Phase change induced by polypyrrole in iron-oxide polypyrrole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    polymer. Polypyrrole, one of the conducting polymers, has received lot of attention in the preparation of nanocomposites due to its high stability in conducting oxidized form (Partch et al 1991; Huang and Matijevic. 1995; Maeda and Armes 1995). Nanocomposite materials based on nanosized magnetic materials have been ...

  11. Polypyrrole nanotubes: mechanism of formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Kopecký, D.; Vrňata, M.; Fitl, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Prokeš, J.; Sapurina, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2014), s. 1551-1558 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polypyrrole * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  12. The addition zirconium effect on the solubility and activity of sulfur in liquid iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burylev, B.P.; Mojsov, L.P.

    1994-01-01

    Critical analysis of reference data on thermodynamic properties of zirconium sulfides is conducted for evaluation of zirconium desulfonation ability in liquid steel. Sulfur solubility dependence on zirconium concentration in liquid iron is presented. Curves of sulfur solubility in liquid iron in the presence of other elements, including titanium, manganese, vanadium and chromium are presented for comparison. It is shown that equilibrium concentration of sulfur is much lower than standard sulfur concentrations in steel, therefore zirconium appears to be the best desulfonator among the metals considered

  13. Method of reducing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)

  14. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  15. Analysis of the influence of the macro- and microstructure of dental zirconium implants on osseointegration: a minipig study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Cornelia Katharina; Solcher, Philipp; Peisker, Andrè; Mtsariashvilli, Maia; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Hildebrand, Gerhard; Rost, Juergen; Liefeith, Klaus; Chen, Jiang; Schultze-Mosgau, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to analyze the influence of implant design and surface topography on the osseointegration of dental zirconium implants. Six different implant designs were tested in the study. Nine or 10 test implants were inserted in the frontal skull in each of 10 miniature pigs. Biopsies were harvested after 2 and 4 months and subjected to microradiography. No significant differences between titanium and zirconium were found regarding the microradiographically detected bone-implant contact (BIC). Cylindric zirconium implants showed a higher BIC at the 2-month follow-up than conic zirconium implants. Among zirconium implants, those with an intermediate Ra value showed a significantly higher BIC compared with low and high Ra implants 4 months after surgery. Regarding osseointegration, titanium and zirconium showed equal properties. Cylindric implant design and intermediate surface roughness seemed to enhance osseointegration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Low stress creep behaviour of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, N.

    1989-01-01

    Creep behaviour of alpha zirconium of grain size varying between 16 and 55 μm has been investigated in the temperature range 813 to 1003K at stresses upto 5.5 MNm -2 using high sensitive spring specimen geometry. Creep experiments on specimens of 50 μm grain size revealed a transition from lattice diffusion controlled viscous creep at temperatures greater than 940K to grain boundary diffusion controlled viscous creep at lower temperatures. Tests conducted on either side of the transition suggest the dominance of Nabarro-Herring and Coble creep processes respectively. Evidence for power-law creep has been observed in practically all the creep tests. Based on the experimental data obtained in the present study and those recently reported by Novotny et al (1985), Langdon creep mechanism maps have bee n constructed at 873 and 973K. With the help of these maps for zirconium and those published for titanium the low stress creep behaviour of zirconium and titanium are compared. (author). 22 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Study of the microstructural and mechanical properties of titanium-niobium-zirconium based alloys processed with hydrogen and powder metallurgy for use in dental implants; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas e microestruturais de ligas a base de titanio-niobiozirconio processados com hidrogenio e metalurgia do po para utilizacao em implantes dentarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvaizem, Jose Helio

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen has been used as pulverization agent in alloys based on rare earth and transition metals due to its extremely high diffusion rate even on low temperatures. Such materials are used on hydrogen storage dispositives, generation of electricity or magnetic fields, and are produced by a process which the first step is the transformation of the alloy in fine powder by miling. Besides those, hydrogenium is also being used to obtain alloys based on titanium - niobium - zirconium in the pulverization. Powder metallurgy is utilized on the production of these alloys, making it possible to obtain structures with porous surface as result, requirement for its application as biomaterials. Other advantages of powder metallurgy usage include better surface finish and better microstructural homogeneity. In this work samples were prepared in the Ti-13Nb-13Zr composition. The hydrogenation was performed at 700 degree C, 600 degree C, and 500 degree C for titanium, niobium and zirconium respectively. After hydrogenation, the milling stage was carried out on high energy planetary ball milling with 200rpm during 90 minutes, and also in conventional ball milling for 30 hours. Samples were pressed in uniaxial press, followed by isostatic cold press, and then sintered at 1150 degree C for 7-13 hours. Microstructural properties of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray diffraction. Mechanical and structural properties determined were density, microhardness and moduli of elasticity. The sample sintered at 1150 degree C for 7h, hydrogenated using 10.000 mbar and produced by milling on high energy planetary ball milling presented the best mechanical properties and microstructural homogeneity. (author)

  18. Thermofluency in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco M, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is presented about the theoretical and experimental results obtained at present in thermofluency under radiation in zirconium alloys. The phenomenon of thermofluency is presented in a general form, underlining the thermofluency at high temperature because this phenomenon is similar to the thermofluency under radiation, which ocurrs in zirconium alloys into the operating reactor. (author)

  19. Metallurgy of zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshnikov, N.V.; Geger, V.Eh.; Denisova, N.D.; Kazajn, A.A.; Kozhemyakin, V.A.; Nekhamkin, L.G.; Rodyakin, V.V.; Tsylov, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are those properties of zirconium and of hafnium, which are of practical interest for the manufacture of these elements. Systematized are the theoretical and the practical data on the procedures for thermal decomposition of zirconia and for obtaining zirconium dioxide and hafnium dioxide by a thermal decomposition of compounds and on the hydrometallurgical methods for extracting zirconium and hafnium. Zirconium and hafnium fluorides and chlorides production procedures are described. Considered are the iodide and the electrolytic methods of refining zirconium and hafnium

  20. The Roll of NaPSS Surfactant on the Ceria Nanoparticles Embedding in Polypyrrole Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Popescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs in crystalline form have been synthesized by a coprecipitation method. CeO2 nanoparticles were then embedded in polypyrrole (PPy films during the electropolymerization of pyrrole (Py on titanium substrate. The influence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (NaPSS surfactant used during polymerization on the embedding of CeO2 NPs in polypyrrole films was investigated. The new films were characterized in terms of surface analysis, wettability, electrochemical behaviour, and antibacterial effect. The surface and electrochemical characterization revealed the role of surfactant on PPy doping process cerium oxide incorporation. In the presence of surfactant, CeO2 NPs are preferentially embedded in the polymeric film while, without surfactant, the ceria nanoparticles are quasiuniformly spread as agglomerates onto polymeric films. The antibacterial effect of studied PPy films was substantially improved in the presence of cerium oxide and depends by the polymerization conditions.

  1. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...

  2. SEPARATING HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, B.A.J.; Duncan, J.F.

    1956-08-21

    A dilute aqueous solution of zirconyl chloride which is 1N to 2N in HCl is passed through a column of a cation exchange resin in acid form thereby absorbing both zirconium and associated hafnium impurity in the mesin. The cation exchange material with the absorbate is then eluted with aqueous sulfuric acid of a O.8N to 1.2N strength. The first portion of the eluate contains the zirconium substantially free of hafnium.

  3. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  4. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting

  5. Electrodeposition of polypyrrole onto NiTi and the corrosion behaviour of the coated alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) films were electrodeposited onto nickel--titanium alloy (NiTi) employing sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (Aerosol OT or AOT) solutions. Polarizing anodically NiTi samples recovered by PPy in a monomer-free solution increases adhesion of the coating. Electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and element analysis were used in determining the corrosion performance of the coated samples in chloride solution. The polymer improves the corrosion performance at the open circuit potential and at potentials where the bare substrate suffers pitting attack. The improvement in both, adhesion and corrosion performance, is discussed considering substrate/polymer interaction, overoxidation of PPy and the role played by AOT.

  6. ZIRCONIUM-CLADDING OF THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, R.J.

    1961-11-21

    A method of cladding thorium with zirconium is described. The quality of the bond achieved between thorium and zirconium by hot-rolling is improved by inserting and melting a thorium-zirconium alloy foil between the two materials prior to rolling. (AEC)

  7. Corrosion resistant zirconium alloys prepared by powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojeik, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    Pure zirconium and zirconium 2.5% niobium were prepared by powder metallurgy. The powders were prepared directly from sponge and consolidated by cold isostatic pressing and sintering. Hot isostatic pressing was also used to obtain full density after sintering. For pure zirconium the effects of particle size, compaction pressure, sintering temperature and purity were investigated. Fully densified zirconium and Zr-2.5%Nb exhibited tensile properties comparable to cast material at room temperature and 300 0 F (149 0 C). Pressed and sintered material having density of 94-99% had slightly lower tensile properties. Corrosion tests were performed in boiling 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, 70% HNO/sub 3/, 20% HCl and 20% HCl + 500 ppm FeCl/sub 3/ (a known pitting solution). For fully dense material the observed corrosion behavior was nearly equivalent to cast material. A slightly higher rate of attack was observed for samples which were only 94-99% dense. Welding tests were also performed on zirconium and Zr-2.5%Nb alloy. Unlike P/M titanium alloys, these materials had good weldability due to the lower content of volatile impurities in the powder. A slight amount of weld porosity was observed but joint efficiencies were always not 100%, even for 94-99% density samples. Several practical applications of the P/M processed material will be briefly described

  8. Solvent extraction of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Yoon, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The extraction of zirconium(VI) from an aqueous solution of constant ionic strength with versatic acid-10 dissolved in benzen was studied as a function of pH and the concentration of zirconium(VI) and organic acid. The effects of sulphate and chlorine ions on the extraction of the zirconium(VI) were briefly examined. It was revealed that (ZrOR 2 .2RH) is the predominant species of extracted zirconium(VI) in the versatic acid-10. The chemical equation and the apparent equilibrium constants thereof have been determined as follows. (ZrOsup(2+))aq+ 2(R 2 H 2 )sub(org) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)+2(H + )aq Ksub(Zr) = (ZrOR 2 .2RH)sub(org)(H + ) 2 /(ZrOsup(2+))sub(aq)(R 2 H 2 )sup(2)sub(org) = 3.3 x 10 -7 . The synergistic effects of TBP and D2EHPA were also studied. In the mixed solvent with 0.1M TBP, the synergistic effect was observed, while the mixed solvent with D2EHPA showed the antisynergistic effect. (Author)

  9. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  10. Electroless deposition process for zirconium and zirconium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Robert E.; Sherman, Anna H.

    1981-01-01

    A method is disclosed for preventing stress corrosion cracking or metal embrittlement of a zirconium or zirconium alloy container that is to be coated on the inside surface with a layer of a metal such as copper, a copper alloy, nickel, or iron and used for holding nuclear fuel material as a nuclear fuel element. The zirconium material is etched in an etchant solution, desmutted mechanically or ultrasonically, oxidized to form an oxide coating on the zirconium, cleaned in an aqueous alkaline cleaning solution, activated for electroless deposition of a metal layer and contacted with an electroless metal plating solution. This method provides a boundary layer of zirconium oxide between the zirconium container and the metal layer.

  11. Biomechanical testing of zirconium dioxide osteosynthesis system for Le Fort I advancement osteotomy fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingsammer, Lukas; Grillenberger, Markus; Schagerl, Martin; Malek, Michael; Hunger, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The following work is the first evaluating the applicability of 3D printed zirconium dioxide ceramic miniplates and screws to stabilize maxillary segments following a Le-Fort I advancement surgery. Conventionally used titanium and individual fabricated zirconium dioxide miniplates were biomechanically tested and compared under an occlusal load of 120N and 500N using 3D finite element analysis. The overall model consisted of 295,477 elements. Under an occlusal load of 500N a safety factor before plastic deformation respectively crack of 2.13 for zirconium dioxide and 4.51 for titanium miniplates has been calculated. From a biomechanical point of view 3D printed ZrO 2 mini-plates and screws are suggested to constitute an appropriate patient specific and metal-free solution for maxillary stabilization after Le Fort I osteotomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Titanium ; dream new material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Kim Seung Eon; Heoon, Yong Taek; Jung, Hui Won

    2001-11-01

    The contents of this book are history of Titanium, present situation of Titanium industry, property of Titanium alloy, types of it, development of new alloy of Titanium smelting of Titanium, cast of Titanium and heat treatment of Titanium, Titanium alloy for plane, car parts, biological health care, and sport leisure and daily life, prospect, and Titanium industrial development of Titanium in China.

  13. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  14. Towards conducting inks: polypyrrole-silver colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, N.; Kaplanová, M.; Syrový, T.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, 10 March (2014), s. 296-302 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting inks * polypyrrole * colloids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  15. Electrosynthesis and characterization of conducting polypyrrole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preparation of polypyrrole conducting polymer in aqueous medium by electrochemical method containing several alkylsulfonate dopants such as methylsulfonate (C1), butylsulfonate (C4), octylsulfonate (C8) and dodecylsulfonate (C12) are reported. The prepared polymer films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, ...

  16. Polypyrrole Doped with Alkyl Benzene Sulphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; Mogensen, Naja; Skaarup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The properties of polypyrrole (PPy) are to a large extent determined by the condition of synthesis and especially by the counterion incorporated as dopant during synthesis. In this work, PPy doped with different alkyl benzenesulfonates are compared. The polymer films are prepared by constant curr...

  17. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming

  18. Zirconium microstructures: uncharted possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samajdar, I.; Kumar, Gulshan; Singh, Jaiveer; Lodh, Arijit; Srivastava, D.; Tewari, R.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    The 'conventional' Zirconium microstructures can be significantly extended with information on: (i) microtexture, (ii) residual stresses and (iii) local mechanical properties. Though these involve different tools, but a consolidated microstructure can be crated. This is the theme of this presentation. Examples of this consolidated picture will be made from deformation twinning, recovery-recrystallization, burst ductility and orientation versus solid solution hardening. (author)

  19. Zirconium elasticity modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, G.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr

  20. Metal/not metal joints: analysis of graphite junction for electric use of titanium by direct brazing with reactive alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Rebello, J.M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The usual techniques of joining graphite (for electrical use) and titanium by brazing with zirconium alloys are described. The morphological and the chemical aspects obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  1. Beryllium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesse, Marc

    1959-01-01

    Pure beryllium and zirconium, both isolated at about the same date but more than a century ago remained practically unused for eighty years. Fifteen years ago they were released from this state of inactivity by atomic energy, which made them into current metal a with an annual production which runs into tens of tons for the one and thousands for the other. The reasons for this promotion promise well for the future of the two metals, which moreover will probably find additional uses in other branches of industry. The attraction of beryllium and zirconium for atomic energy is easily explained. The curve of figure 1 gives the price per gram of uranium-235 as a function of enrichment: this price increases by about a factor of 3 on passing from natural uranium (0, 7 percent 235 U) to almost pure uranium-235. Because of their tow capture cross-section beryllium and zirconium make it possible, or at least easier, to use natural uranium and they thus enjoy an advantage the extent of which must be calculated for each reactor or fuel element project, but which is generally considerable. It will be seen later that this advantage should be based on figures which are even more favourable that would appear from the simple ratio 3 of the price of pure uranium- 235 contained in natural uranium. Reprint of a paper published in 'Industries Atomiques' - n. 1-2, 1959

  2. Zirconium oxide deposits (ZrO{sub 2}) and titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) on 304l stainless steel; Depositos de oxido de circonio (ZrO{sub 2}) y oxido de titanio (TiO{sub 2}) sobre acero inoxidable 304L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila N, M. L.

    2015-07-01

    This research project aims to carry out the surface and electrochemical characterization to obtain the optimum conditions of the hydrothermal deposits of zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2} (baddeleyite) and titanium oxide TiO{sub 2} (anatase and rutile phases) on 304l stainless steel, simulating an inhibiting protective layer. 304l steel specimens were cut, pre-oxidized in water at a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and 8 MPa, similar to those of a typical BWR conditions. From the titanium oxide anatase crystalline phase, the rutile phase was obtained by a heat treatment at 1000 degrees Celsius. The Sigma-Aldrich pre-oxidized powders and steel 304l were characterized using techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, chemical mapping and Raman spectrometry. The pre-oxidized steel has two oxide layers, an inner layer with nano metric crystals and another outer of larger crystals to 1μm, with the formation of hematite and magnetite, this predominating. The surface that contacted the sample holder has larger crystals. Hydrothermal deposits were carry out from suspensions of 10, 100 and 1000 ppm, of the crystal phases of anatase, rutile and baddeleyite, on the pre-oxidized steel at a temperature of 150 degrees Celsius for 2 and 7 days, samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy, Raman spectrometry and Tafel polarization. The suspension to 1000 ppm for 7 days coated surface most; the baddeleyite deposit is noticed more homogeneous than anatase and rutile. The deposit is favored when hematite and magnetite crystals are larger. The chemical mapping on deposits show that even after being immersed in water to 288 degrees Celsius during 30 days, the deposits are still present although a loss is observed. A reference electrode was assembled to conduct electrochemical tests of Tafel able to withstand a temperature of 288 degrees Celsius and pressure of 8 MPa. The baddeleyite deposit

  3. Characterization and electrocatalytic application of silver modified polypyrrole electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    A. DEKANSKI; S. TERZIC; V. M. JOVANOVIC

    2005-01-01

    Silver modified polypyrrole electrodeswere preparedwith the aim of testing them for the electrooxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline solution. The modification of polypyrrole by immersion in aqueous AgNO3 solution was studied by cyclic voltammetry and vacuum techniques (AES and XPS). The influence of time of immersion and the thickness of the polypyrrole film, prepared by electrochemical polymerization, on the modification of the polymer were examined. The results acquired from both electroch...

  4. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800 degrees C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800 degrees C to below about 300 degrees C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300 degrees C

  5. Zirconium: The material of the future in modern implantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasiewicz-Ross, Paweł; Dominiak, Marzena; Gedrange, Tomasz; Botzenhart, Ute U

    2017-01-01

    The authors present the contemporary state of knowledge concerning alternative materials for dental implantology. First of all, factors influencing osseointegration are stated. The most important factors seem to be the type of implant surface. Among the numerous parameters describing them, the most important are: average roughness and porous density. Some studies proved that materials with comparable surface roughness provide similar osseointegration. In modern implantology titanium is the material still considered as a "gold standard". However, aesthetic features of titanium still bear several disadvantages, especially in the case of periodontium with a thin biotype in the anterior, aesthetic sensitive area of the jaw. If a titanium implant is used in such a case, the mucosa at the implant's neck may become grayish and, consequently limits the success of the overall treatment. That was the reason for seeking alternative materials to manufacture dental implants. Initiated by general medicine, mainly orthopedics, the search led to the discovery of zirconium dioxide used in dental implantology. A small number of complications, good chemical parameters, anticorrosion, mechanical strength, elasticity module close to the one of steel, and especially biocompatibility made zirconium a perfect material for this purpose, although this material presents several problems in achieving optimal roughness. In this overview one of the probable methods, a process of partial synterization, is presented.

  6. ZIRCONIUM PHOSPHATE ADSORPTION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Schubert, J.; Boyd, G.E.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for separating plutonium values from fission product values in aqueous acidic solution. This is accomplished by flowing the solutlon containing such values through a bed of zirconium orthophosphate. Any fission products adsorbed can subsequently be eluted by washing the column with a solution of 2N HNO/sub 3/ and O.lN H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Plutonium values may subsequently be desorbed by contacting the column with a solution of 7N HNO/sub 3/ .

  7. Modification in band gap of zirconium complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mayank, E-mail: mayank30134@gmail.com; Singh, J.; Chouhan, S. [Department of Physics, ISLE, IPS Academy, Indore (M.P.) (India); Mishra, A. [School of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (M.P.) (India); Shrivastava, B. D. [Govt. P. G. College, Biora (M.P.) (India)

    2016-05-06

    The optical properties of zirconium complexes with amino acid based Schiff bases are reported here. The zirconium complexes show interesting stereo chemical features, which are applicable in organometallic and organic synthesis as well as in catalysis. The band gaps of both Schiff bases and zirconium complexes were obtained by UV-Visible spectroscopy. It was found that the band gap of zirconium complexes has been modified after adding zirconium compound to the Schiff bases.

  8. Polypyrrole-silver Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Nerkar; S. V. Panse; S. P. Patil; S. E. Jaware; G. G. Padhye

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole-Silver (PPy-Ag) nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with iron (III) chloride as an oxidant, in the presence of a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles. Turkevich method (Citrate reduction method) was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed an absorption band at 423 nm confirming the formation of nanoparticles. P...

  9. Thermal properties of conducting polypyrrole nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajevová, A.; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Kopecká, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 730-736 ISSN 0587-4246. [ISPMA 13 - International Symposium on Physics of Materials /13./. Praha, 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * polypyrrole Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  10. Fabrication of Conductive Polypyrrole Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqun Cong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrospinning is employed to prepare conductive polypyrrole nanofibers with uniform morphology and good mechanical strength. Soluble PPy was synthesized with NaDEHS as dopant and then applied to electrospinning with or without PEO as carrier. The PEO contents had great influence on the morphology and conductivity of the electrospun material. The results of these experiments will allow us to have a better understanding of PPy electrospun nanofibers and will permit the design of effective electrodes in the BMIs fields.

  11. Electronic structure and equilibrium properties of hcp titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electronic structures of hexagonal-close-packed divalent titanium (3-d) and zirconium (4-d) transition metals are studied by using a non-local model potential method. From the present calculation of energy bands, Fermi energy, density of states and the electronic heat capacity of these two metals are determined and ...

  12. Zirconium for nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The excellent corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid has been known for over 30 years. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using zirconium for nitric acid services. Therefore, an extensive research effort has been carried out to achieve a better understanding of the corrosion properties of zirconium in nitric acid. Particular attention is paid to the effect of concentration, temperature, structure, solution impurities, and stress. Immersion, autoclave, U-bend, and constant strain-rate tests were used in this study. Results of this study indicate that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid is little affected by changes in temperature and concentration, and the presence of common impurities such as seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, iron, and stainless steel. Moreover, the presence of seawater, sodium chloride, ferric chloride, and stainless steel has little effect on the stress corrosion craking (SCC) susceptibility of zirconium in 70% nitric acid at room temperatures. However, zirconium could be attacked by fluoride-containing nitric acid and the vapors of chloride-containing nitric acid. Also, high sustained tensile stresses should be avoided when zirconium is used to handle 70% nitric acid at elevated temperatures or > 70% nitric acid

  13. Polypyrrole and polyaniline prepared with cerium(IV) sulfate oxidant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Mosnáčková, K.; Trchová, Miroslava; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Fedorko, P.; Prokeš, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 7-8 (2010), s. 701-707 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypyrrole * polypyrrole base * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  14. SEPARATION OF HAFNIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholser, L.B.; Barton, C.J. Sr.; Ramsey, J.W.

    1960-05-31

    The separation of hafnium impurities from zirconium can be accomplished by means of organic solvent extraction. The hafnium-containing zirconium feed material is dissolved in an aqueous chloride solution and the resulting solution is contacted with an organic hexone phase, with at least one of the phases containing thiocyanate. The hafnium is extracted into the organic phase while zirconium remains in the aqueous phase. Further recovery of zirconium is effected by stripping the onganic phase with a hydrochloric acid solution and commingling the resulting strip solution with the aqueous feed solution. Hexone is recovered and recycled by means of scrubbing the onganic phase with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the hafnium, and thiocyanate is recovered and recycled by means of neutralizing the effluent streams to obtain ammonium thiocyanate.

  15. The deposition of globular polypyrrole and polypyrrole nanotubes on cotton textile

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Šeděnková, Ivana; Trchová, Miroslava; Martinková, L.; Marek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 356, 30 November (2015), s. 737-741 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting textile * cotton * globular polypyrrole Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  16. Polypyrrole-silver composites prepared by the reduction of silver ions with polypyrrole nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škodová, J.; Kopecký, D.; Vrňata, M.; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Cieslar, M.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2013), s. 3610-3616 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * silver * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.368, year: 2013

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemistry of nanotubular polypyrrole and polypyrrole-derived carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciric-Marjanovic, G.; Mentus, S.; Pašti, I.; Gavrilov, N.; Krstic, J.; Travas-Sejdic, J.; Strover, L. T.; Kopecká, J.; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 27 (2014), s. 14770-14784 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0911; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * conductive polymer * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  18. Zirconium-barrier cladding attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, H.S.; Rand, R.A.; Tucker, R.P.; Cheng, B.; Adamson, R.B.; Davies, J.H.; Armijo, J.S.; Wisner, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    This metallurgical study of Zr-barrier fuel cladding evaluates the importance of three salient attributes: (1) metallurgical bond between the zirconium liner and the Zircaloy substrate, (2) liner thickness (roughly 10% of the total cladding wall), and (3) softness (purity). The effect that each of these attributes has on the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) resistance of the Zr-barrier fuel was studied by a combination of analytical model calculations and laboratory experiments using an expanding mandrel technique. Each of the attributes is shown to contribute to PCI resistance. The effect of the zirconium liner on fuel behavior during off-normal events in which steam comes in contact with the zirconium surface was studied experimentally. Simulations of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) showed that the behavior of Zr-barrier cladding is virtually indistinguishable from that of conventional Zircaloy cladding. If steam contacts the zirconium liner surface through a cladding perforation and the fuel rod is operated under normal power conditions, the zirconium liner is oxidized more rapidly than is Zircaloy, but the oxidation rate returns to the rate of Zircaloy oxidation when the oxide phase reaches the zirconium-Zircaloy metallurgical bond

  19. Design and Fabrication of Titanium Target for Portable Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Oh, Byunghoon; Chang, Daesik; Jang, Dohyun; In Sang Yeol; Park, Jaewon; Hong, Kwangpyo

    2014-01-01

    For the neutron generator to produce a neutron flux of the above order, a target that produces fast neutrons in the generator plays an important role, and the target is used and applied to develop the generator due to its simplicity and inexpensive. Making suitable targets for neutron production, especially mono-energy neutrons, has always been of interest. These targets have been used for neutron production reaction studies, calibration of detectors, and neutron therapy. Different studies have been carried out on deuterium and tritium for making solid targets to produce mono-energy neutron from D-D and D-T reactions. A lot of investigations have been carried out on solid target properties such as lifetime, thermal stability, neutron yield, and energy. Vaporized zirconium and titanium layers on a high thermal conductivity substrate (Cu, Mo, Ag) have been used as deuterium and tritium absorbing metals. The density of titanium is smaller than zirconium and the range of charged particles in the titanium targets is more than that in zirconium targets. Thus, titanium targets have more neutron yield than zirconium targets in a low energy beam and titanium is usually used to make a target. The titanium target was designed and simulated to determine the suitable thickness of the target. As a result of the simulation, the target was fabricated to generate fast neutrons by the reaction. The thickness of the target was measured using a profiler. The thickness of the two targets is 2.108 and 2.190 μm. The target will be applied to produce neutrons in a neutron generator

  20. Precipitation of γ-zirconium hydride in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, G.J.C.

    1978-01-01

    A mechanism for the precipitation of γ-zirconium hydride in zirconium is presented which does not require the diffusion of zirconium. The transformation is completed by shears caused by 1/3 (10 anti 10) Shockley partial dislocations on alternate zirconium basal planes, either by homogeneous nucleation or at lattice imperfections. Homogeneous nucleation is considered least likely in view of the large nucleation barrier involved. Hydrides may form at dislocations by the generation of partials by means of either a pole or ratchet mechanism. The former requires dislocations with a component of Burgers vector along the c-axis, but contrast experiments show that these are not normally observed in annealed zirconium. It is therefore most likely that intragranular hydrides form at the regular 1/3 (11 anti 20) dislocations, possibly by means of a ratchet mechanism. Contrast experiments in the electron microscope show that the precipitates have a shear character consistent with the mechanism suggested. The possibility that the shear dislocations associated with the hydrides are emissary dislocations is considered and a model suggested in which this function is satisfied together with the partial relief of misfit stresses. The large shear strains associated with the precipitation mechanism may play an important role in the preferential orientation of hydrides under stress

  1. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  2. Properties of electropolymerised polypyrrole thin film on silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamadade, Shivaji A.; Puri, Vijaya

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the properties of electropolymerised polypyrrole thin film on silver. The transmission, reflection, conductivity and dielectric behavior of polypyrrole coated silver has been studied in the 8-12 GHz frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The polypyrrole thin film makes silver a better conductor for microwaves. The microwave conductivity is larger than the DC conductivity by many orders of magnitude. The real and imaginary part of dielectric constant increases in magnitude with increasing doping level and also it decreases in magnitude with increasing frequency.

  3. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Šetka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  4. Corrosion and hydrogen absorption of commercially pure zirconium in acid fluoride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ken’ichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Sakai, Jun’ichi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Zirconium corrodes and absorbs hydrogen in acid fluoride solutions. •Hydrogen thermal desorption is observed at 300–700 °C. •The resistance to hydrogen absorption of zirconium is higher than that of titanium. -- Abstract: The corrosion and hydrogen absorption of commercially pure zirconium have been investigated in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solutions. Upon immersion in 2.0% APF solution of pH 5.0 at 25 °C, a granular corrosion product (Na 3 ZrF 7 ) deposits over the entire side surface of the specimen, thereby inhibiting further corrosion. In 0.2% APF solution, marked corrosion is observed from the early stage of immersion; no deposition of the corrosion product is observed by scanning electron microscopy. A substantial amount of hydrogen absorption is confirmed in both APF solutions by hydrogen thermal desorption analysis. The amount of absorbed hydrogen of the specimen immersed in the 2.0% APF solution is smaller than that in the 0.2% APF solution in the early stage of immersion. The hydrogen absorption behavior is not always consistent with the corrosion behavior. Hydrogen thermal desorption occurs in the temperature range of 300–700 °C for the specimen without the corrosion product. Under the same immersion conditions, the amount of absorbed hydrogen in commercially pure zirconium is smaller than that in commercially pure titanium as reported previously. The present results suggest that commercially pure zirconium, compared with commercially pure titanium, is highly resistant to hydrogen absorption, although corrosion occurs in fluoride solutions

  5. Fine-grained zirconium-base material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houten, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for making zirconium with inhibited grain growth characteristics, by the process of vacuum melting the zirconium, adding 0.3 to 0.5% carbon, stirring, homogenizing, and cooling. (Official Gazette)

  6. Plasma-Activated Tropoelastin Functionalization of Zirconium for Improved Bone Cell Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yeo, G. C.; Santos, M.; Kondyurin, A.; Lišková, Jana; Weiss, A. S.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 662-676 ISSN 2373-9878 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-32497A; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bone * plasma-activated coating * titanium * tropoelastin * zirconium Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2016

  7. Problems of zirconium metal production in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vareka, J.; Vaclavik, E.

    1975-01-01

    The problems are summed up of the production and quality control of zirconium sponge. A survey is given of industrial applications of zirconium in form of pure metal or alloys in nuclear power production, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemical engineering and electrical engineering. A survey is also presented of the manufacture of zirconium metal in advanced capitalist countries. (J.B.)

  8. Anisotropy of mechanical properties of zirconium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    In studies of technological applications of zirconium to fuel elements of nuclear reactor, it was found that the use of plasticity equations for isotropic materials is not in agreement with experimental results, because of the strong anisotropy of zirconium. The present review describes recent progress on the knowledge of the influence of anisotropy on mechanical properties, after Douglass' review in 1971. The review was written to be selfconsistent, changing drastically the presentation of some of the referenced papers. It is also suggested some particular experiments to improve developments in this area

  9. The Regulation of Osteogenesis Using Electroactive Polypyrrole Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of electrical conductivity of biomaterials on osteogenesis, polypyrrole (PPy was fabricated by oxidative chemical polymerization as substrates for cell culture. Through adjusting the concentrations of monomer and initiator, polypyrrole films with different electrical conductivities were fabricated. These fabricated polypyrrole films are transparent enough for easy optical microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and four-point probe were used to assess the microstructures, surface chemical compositions and electrical sheet resistance of films, respectively. Results indicate that higher monomer and initiator concentration leads to highly-branched PPy chains and thus promotes the electron mobility and electrical conductivity. Selected polypyrrole films then were applied for culturing rat bone marrow stromal cells. Cell viability and mineralization assays reveal that not only these films are biocompatible, but also capable of enhancing the calcium deposition into the extra cellular matrix by the differentiated cells.

  10. Intramolecularly Hydrogen-Bonded Polypyrroles as Electro-Optical Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholson, Jesse

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new class of polypyrroles bearing both hydrogen-bond acceptor and hydrogen-donor groups such that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding holds the system planar enhancing conjugation...

  11. Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of polypyrrole-coated stainless steel electrodes - Estimation of specific ... is carried out on stainless steel electrodes using -toluene sulphonic acid. ... The feasibility of the electrode for supercapacitor applications is investigated.

  12. Soft-Template Construction of 3D Macroporous Polypyrrole Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Wang, Faxing; Dong, Renhao; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Zhikun; Mai, Yiyong; Feng, Xinliang

    2017-04-01

    A bottom-up approach toward 3D hierarchical macroporous polypyrrole aerogels is demonstrated via soft template-directed synthesis and self-assembly of ultrathin polypyrrole nanosheets in solution, which present interconnected macropores, ultrathin walls, and large specific surface areas, thereby exhibiting a high capacity, satisfactory rate capability, and excellent cycling stability for Na-ion storage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. PROCESS OF DISSOLVING ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, R.S.; Vogler, S.

    1958-01-21

    A process is described for dissolving binary zirconium-uranium alloys where the uranium content is about 2%. In prior dissolution procedures for these alloys, an oxidizing agent was added to prevent the precipitation of uranium tetrafluoride. In the present method complete dissolution is accomplished without the use of the oxidizing agent by using only the stoichiometric amount or slight excess of HF required by the zirconium. The concentration of the acid may range from 2M to 10M and the dissolution is advatageously carried out at a temperature of 80 deg C.

  14. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  15. Titanium and zirconium metal powder spheroidization by thermal plasma processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bissett, H.; van der Walt, I.J.; Havenga, J.L.; Nel, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies used to manufacture high-quality components, such as direct laser sintering, require spherical powders of a narrow particle size distribution as this affects the packing density and sintering mechanism. The powder also has to be chemically pure as impurities such as H, O, C, N, and S causes brittleness, influence metal properties such as tensile strength, hardness, and ductility, and also increase surface tension during processing. Two new metal powder processes have been dev...

  16. Zirconium alloy barrier having improved corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, R.B.; Rosenbaum, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor has a composite cladding container having a substrate and a dilute zirconium alloy liner bonded to the inside surface of the substrate. The dilute zirconium alloy liner forms about 1 to about 20 percent of the thickness of the cladding and is comprised of zirconium and a metal selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, iron plus chromium, and copper. The dilute zirconium alloy liner shields the substrate from impurities or fission products from the nuclear fuel material and protects the substrate from stress corrosion and stress cracking. The dilute zirconium alloy liner displays greater corrosion resistance, especially to oxidation by hot water or steam than unalloyed zirconium. The substrate material is selected from conventional cladding materials, and preferably is a zirconium alloy. (author)

  17. Process for etching zirconium metallic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panson, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a process for etching of zirconium metallic articles formed from zirconium or a zirconium alloy, wherein the zirconium metallic article is contacted with an aqueous hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid etching bath having an initial ratio of hydrofluoric acid to nitric acid and an initial concentration of hydrofluoric and nitric acids, the improvement, is described comprising: after etching of zirconium metallic articles in the bath for a period of time such that the etching rate has diminished from an initial rate to a lesser rate, adding hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid to the exhausted bath to adjust the concentration and ratio of hydrofluoric acid to nitric acid therein to a value substantially that of the initial concentration and ratio and thereby regenerate the etching solution without removal of dissolved zirconium therefrom; and etching further zirconium metallic articles in the regenerated etching bath

  18. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROPOLYMERIZATION METHOD ON MORPHOLOGIES AND CAPACITIVE PROPERTIES OF POLYPYRROLE FILMS GROWING ON SILICON

    OpenAIRE

    IMENE CHIKOUCHE; ALI SAHARI; AHMED ZOUAOUI

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of Pyrrole electropolymerization were investigated to prepare polypyrrole films growing onto n-doped silicon n-Si (111): Polypyrrole films prepared by galvanostatic method exhibits toroidal morphology for thin films, and mixture of toroidal and globular morphologies for thick films. Polypyrrole films obtained from this method were characterized by lower surface roughness. Electropolymerization of pyrrole by potentiodynamic method provided Polypyrrole films with beans-like structur...

  19. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  20. Polypyrrole for Artificial Muscles: Ionic Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    the matrix of a polymer electrode – thereby causing volume expansion which can be converted into work. Solvent molecules are able to penetrate the polymer too. A precise description of the nature of these ionic and solvent movements is therefore important for understanding and improving the performance....... This work examines the influence of solvent, ionic species and electrolyte concentration on the fundamental question about the ionic mechanism involved: Is the actuation process driven by anion motion, cation motion, or a mixture of the two? In addition: What is the extent of solvent motion? The discussion...... is centered on polypyrrole (PPy), which is the material most used and studied. The tetraethyl ammonium cation (TEA) is shown to be able to move in and out of PPy(DBS) polymer films, in contrast to expectations. There is a switching between ionic mechanisms during cycling in TEACl electrolyte....

  1. On the mechanism of ion exchange in zirconium phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Frianeza, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    α-titanium phosphate, Ti(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, was found to form two sodium ion exchanged phases. A half exchanged phase of ideal composition TiNaH(PO 4 ) 2 .4H 2 O formed first. However, before all of the titanium phosphate was converted to this phase a second phase of higher Na + content formed. Thus, a three phase solid existed until sufficient sodium ion uptake (approximately 5.5 meq/g) produced only the two exchanged phases. Finally, the half exchanged phase was converted to the more highly loaded one and this latter phase existed from 6 to 8 meq/g of Na + uptake. Severe disordering of the crystal lattice during exchange is proposed to explain this unusual exchange behavior. A broad range of titanium phosphate-zirconium phosphate solid solutions was found to form. Their behavior towards Na + -H + exchange was determined and interpreted on the basis of the known behavior of the pure phases. Mixed Ti-Zr solid solutions of their pyrophosphates were obtained at elevated temperatures. (author)

  2. Novel polypyrrole films with excellent crystallinity and good thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeju, Pullarkat P.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Francis Xavier, Puthampadath A.; Sajimol, Augustine M.; Jayalekshmi, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    Polypyrrole has drawn a lot of interest due to its high thermal and environmental stability in addition to high electrical conductivity. The present work highlights the enhanced crystallinity of polypyrrole films prepared from the redoped sample solution. Initially hydrochloric acid doped polypyrrole was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using ammonium peroxidisulphate as oxidant. The doped polypyrrole was dedoped using ammonia solution and then redoped with camphor sulphonic acid. Films were coated on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates from the redoped sample solution in meta-cresol. The enhanced crystallinity of the polypyrrole films has been established from X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the redoped polypyrrole film is about 30 times higher than that of the hydrochloric acid doped pellet sample. The results of Raman spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the samples support the enhancement in crystallinity. Percentage crystallinity of the samples is estimated from XRD and DSC data. The present work is significant, since crystallinity of films is an important parameter for selecting polymers for specific applications. - Highlights: ► Polypyrrole films redoped with CSA have been prepared from meta-cresol solution. ► The solution casted films exhibit semi-crystallinity and good thermal stability. ► Percentage crystallinity estimated using XRD and DSC analysis is about 65%. ► Raman studies support the enhancement in crystallinity based on XRD and DSC data. ► The conductivity of the film is 30 times higher than that of HCl doped sample.

  3. Novel polypyrrole films with excellent crystallinity and good thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeeju, Pullarkat P., E-mail: jeejupp@gmail.com [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India); Varma, Sreekanth J.; Francis Xavier, Puthampadath A.; Sajimol, Augustine M. [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, Sankaran, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kerala (India)

    2012-06-15

    Polypyrrole has drawn a lot of interest due to its high thermal and environmental stability in addition to high electrical conductivity. The present work highlights the enhanced crystallinity of polypyrrole films prepared from the redoped sample solution. Initially hydrochloric acid doped polypyrrole was prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole using ammonium peroxidisulphate as oxidant. The doped polypyrrole was dedoped using ammonia solution and then redoped with camphor sulphonic acid. Films were coated on ultrasonically cleaned glass substrates from the redoped sample solution in meta-cresol. The enhanced crystallinity of the polypyrrole films has been established from X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the redoped polypyrrole film is about 30 times higher than that of the hydrochloric acid doped pellet sample. The results of Raman spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the samples support the enhancement in crystallinity. Percentage crystallinity of the samples is estimated from XRD and DSC data. The present work is significant, since crystallinity of films is an important parameter for selecting polymers for specific applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polypyrrole films redoped with CSA have been prepared from meta-cresol solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solution casted films exhibit semi-crystallinity and good thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Percentage crystallinity estimated using XRD and DSC analysis is about 65%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman studies support the enhancement in crystallinity based on XRD and DSC data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conductivity of the film is 30 times higher than that of HCl doped sample.

  4. Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Based Impedimentric Sensor for Theophylline Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratautaite, Vilma; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Haenen, Ken; Nesládek, Milos; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Baleviciute, Ieva; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensor based on polypyrrole imprinted by theophylline (MIP) deposited on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond was developed. • This structure was applied as impedimetric sensor sensitive for theophylline. • Optimal polymer formation conditions suitable for MIP formation were elaborated. • Some analytical parameters were determined and evaluated. - Abstract: In this study development of impedimetric sensor based on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD:O) modified with theophylline imprinted polypyrrole is described. Hydrogen peroxide induced chemical formation of polypyrrole molecularly imprinted by theophylline was applied for the modification of conducting silicon substrate covered by B:NCD:O film. Non-imprinted polypyrrole layer was formed on similar substrate in order to prove efficiency of imprinted polypyrrole. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied for the evaluation of analyte-induced changes in electrochemical capacitance/resistance. The impact of polymerization duration on the capacitance of impedimetric sensor was estimated. A different impedance behavior was observed at different ratio of polymerized monomer and template molecule in the polymerization media. The influence of ethanol as additive to polymerization media on registered changes in capacitance/resistance was evaluated. Degradation of sensor stored in buffer solution was evaluated

  5. Neutron activation of chlorine in zirconium and zirconium alloys use of the matrix as comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.; Gomez, C.D.; Mila, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described for neutron activation analysis of chlorine in zirconium and zirconium alloys. Calculation of chlorine concentration is performed relative to zirconium concentration in the matrix in order to minimize effects of differences in irradiation and counting geometry. Principles of the method and the results obtained are discussed. (author)

  6. Spectrophotometric titration of zirconium in siliceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, K.F.; Su, Y.-S.; Strzegowski, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    An accurate and selective complexometric titration procedure based upon a spectrophotometrically detected end-point has been developed for the determination of zirconium in glasses, glass-ceramics and refractories. A p-bromomandelic acid separation step for zirconium imparts excellent selectivity to the procedure. The method is particularly important for the 1 to 5% concentration range where a simple, accurate and selective method for the determination of zirconium has been lacking. (author)

  7. Voltammetric determination of zirconium using azo compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orshulyak, O.O.; Levitskaya, G.D.

    2008-01-01

    The optimum conditions for zirconium complexation with azo compounds are found. The applicability of Eriochrome Red B, Calcon, and Calcion to the voltammetric determination of zirconium, total Zr(IV) and Hf(IV), and Zr(IV) in the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), or Ti(IV) is demonstrated. The developed procedures are used to determine zirconium in a terbium alloy and in an alloy for airplane wheel drums [ru

  8. Applications for zirconium and columbium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condliff, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Currently, zirconium and columbium are used in a wide range of applications, overlapping only in the field of corrosion control. As a construction material, zirconium is primarily used by the nuclear power industry. The use of zirconium in the chemical processing industry (CPI) is, however, increasing steadily. Columbian alloys are primarily applied as superconducting alloys for research particle accelerators and fusion generators as well as in magnetic resonance imaging for medical diagnosis

  9. Electrochemically Deposited Polypyrrole for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Counter Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamsone Keothongkham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole films were coated on conductive glass by electrochemical deposition (alternative current or direct current process. They were then used as the dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that polypyrrole forms a nanoparticle-like structure on the conductive glass. The amount of deposited polypyrrole (or film thickness increased with the deposition duration, and the performance of polypyrrole based-dye-sensitized solar cells is dependant upon polymer thickness. The highest efficiency of alternative current and direct current polypyrrole based-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs is 4.72% and 4.02%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy suggests that the superior performance of alternative current polypyrrole solar cells is due to their lower charge-transfer resistance between counter electrode and electrolyte. The large charge-transfer resistance of direct current solar cells is attributed to the formation of unbounded polypyrrole chains minimizing the I3 − reduction rate.

  10. Zirconium Phosphate Supported MOF Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham

    2016-06-06

    We report a rare example of the preparation of HKUST-1 metal-organic framework nanoplatelets through a step-by-step seeding procedure. Sodium ion exchanged zirconium phosphate, NaZrP, nanoplatelets were judiciously selected as support for layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly of Cu(II) and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) linkers. The first layer of Cu(II) is attached to the surface of zirconium phosphate through covalent interaction. The successive LBL growth of HKUST-1 film is then realized by soaking the NaZrP nanoplatelets in ethanolic solutions of cupric acetate and H3BTC, respectively. The amount of assembled HKUST-1 can be readily controlled by varying the number of growth cycles, which was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption analyses. The successful construction of HKUST-1 on NaZrP was also supported by its catalytic performance for the oxidation of cyclohexene.

  11. Method of separating hafnium from zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    English. A new anhydrous method was developed for separating zirconium and hafnium, which gives higher separation factors and is more economical than previous methods. A molten phase, comprising a solution of unseparated zirconium and hafnium and a solvent metal, is first prepared. The molten metal phase is contacted with a fused salt phase which includes a zirconium salt. Zirconium and hafnium separation is effected by mutual displacement with hafnium being transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, while zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The solvent metal is less electropositive than zirconium. Zinc was chosen as the solvent metal, from a group which also included cadmium, lead, bismuth, copper, and tin. The fused salt phase cations are more electropositive than zirconium and were selected from a group comprising the alkali elements, the alkaline earth elements, the rare earth elements, and aluminum. A portion of the zirconium in the molten metal phase was oxidized by injecting an oxidizing agent, chlorine, to form zirconium tetrachlorid

  12. Microhardness and microplasticity of zirconium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshpor, V.S.; Eron'yan, M.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Kravchik, A.E.

    1978-01-01

    To experimentally check the concentration dependence of microhardness of 4 group nitrides, microhardness of zirconium nitride compact samples was measured. The samples were obtained either by bulk saturation of zirconium iodide plates or by chemical precipitation from gas. As nitrogen content decreased within the limits of homogeneity of zirconium nitride samples where the concentration of admixed oxygen was low, the microhardness grew from 1500+-100 kg/mm 2 for ZrNsub(1.0) to 27000+-100 kg/mm 2 for ZrNsub(0.78). Microplasticity of zirconium nitride (resistance to fracture) decreased, as the concentration of nitrogen vacancies was growing

  13. Production kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjoko, D.; Masduki, B.; Sunardjo; Sulistyo, B.

    1996-01-01

    This research was intended to study the kinetics of zirconium tetrachloride production. The process was carried out in semi continuous reactor, equipped with heater, temperature controller, sublimator and scrubber. The variables investigated were time, temperature and the pellet forming pressure. Within the range of variables studied, the expression of the process in the chemical reaction controller region and diffusion controller region were both presented. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic Database for Zirconium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerlerud Perez, Rosa

    2003-05-01

    For many decades zirconium alloys have been commonly used in the nuclear power industry as fuel cladding material. Besides their good corrosion resistance and acceptable mechanical properties the main reason of using these alloys is the low neutron absorption. Zirconium alloys are exposed to a very severe environment during the nuclear fission process and there is a demand for better design of this material. To meet this requirement a thermodynamic database is developed to support material designers. In this thesis some aspects about the development of a thermodynamic database for zirconium alloys are presented. A thermodynamic database represents an important facility in applying thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for a given material providing: 1) relevant information about the thermodynamic properties of the alloys e.g. enthalpies, activities, heat capacity, and 2) significant information for the manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment temperature. The basic information in the database is first the unary data, i.e. pure elements; those are taken from the compilation of the Scientific Group Thermodata Europe (SGTE) and then the binary and ternary systems. All phases present in those binary and ternary systems are described by means of the Gibbs energy dependence on composition and temperature. Many of those binary systems have been taken from published or unpublished works and others have been assessed in the present work. All the calculations have been made using Thermo C alc software and the representation of the Gibbs energy obtained by applying Calphad technique

  15. Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

    2008-09-01

    Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity.

  16. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Investigations of titamium and zirconium hydrides to determine suitability of recoverable tritium immobilization for the Pickering tritium removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noga, J.O.

    1981-11-01

    A tritium removal system will be constructed at Pickering Nuclear Generating station to reduce the adverse effects of this radioactive hydrogen isotope. This report summarizes various properties of titanium and zirconium sponge hydrides which have been selected as suitable candidates for tritium product immobilization. Equilibrium pressure-composition-temperature data indicates that both materials behave suitably to provide a safe, solid form of tritium storage. Titanium tritide is recommended as the best choice due to higher dissociation pressures which can be achieved at equivalent temperatures when compared to zirconium tritide. Higher dissociation pressures would result in faster and more efficient recovery of tritium gas from the immobilized state. It is evident from the stability of these compounds that their utilization as tritides will greatly enhance the integrity of tritium storage

  18. Ammonium ions determination with polypyrrole modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work relates the preparation of polypyrrole films (PPy deposited on surfaces of glass carbon, nickel and ITO (tin oxide doped with indium on PET plastic, in order to study the ammonium detection. The popypyrrole films were polymerized with dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBSA on the electrodes, at + 0,70 V vs. Ag/AgCl, based on a solution containing the pyrrole monomer and the amphiphilic salt. Films deposited on glass carbon presented better performance. Cyclic voltammetries, between – 1,50 to + 0,5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, were repeated adding different concentrations of NH4Cl, in order to observe the behavior of the film as a possible detector of ions NH4+. The peak current for oxidation varies with the concentration of ammonium. A linear region can be observed in the band of 0 to 80 mM, with a sensibility (Sppy approximately similar to 4,2 mA mM-1 cm-2, showing the efficacy of the electrodes as sensors of ammonium ions. The amount of deposited polymer, controlled by the time of growth, does not influence on the sensor sensibility. The modified electrode was used to determine ammonium in grounded waters.

  19. Melt cationic and anionic composition effect on titanium group metal corrosion in halogenides of alkali earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkhaj, V.; Kovalik, O.Yu.; Dikunov, Yu.G.; P'yankova, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    A study was made on interaction of titanium group metals with melts of chlorides and chloride-fluorides of alkaline earth metals and magnesium. It was revealed that the rate of metal corrosion increased from BaCl 2 2 2 2 in chloride series. It is explained by amplification of oxidation activity of salt cation in the series: Ba 2+ 2+ 2+ 2+ . It was also determined that corrosion rate of titanium exceeded the one of zirconium and hafnium, became reducing power of titanium was the highest in the given group

  20. Analysis of hydrogen in zirconium metallic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.N.; Vega Bustillos, J.O.W.

    1991-02-01

    Determination of hydrogen in zirconium metallic have been performed using the hot vacuum extraction system and the gas chromatographic technique. The zirconium metallic samples were hydrieded by electrolitic technique at difference temperatures and times, then the samples were annealing at vacuum and eatching by fluoridric acid solution. The details of the hydrieded process, analytical technique and the data obtained are discussed. (author)

  1. Localized deformation of zirconium-liner tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Fumihisa; Uchida, Masaaki

    1988-03-01

    Zirconium-liner tube has come to be used in BWR. Zirconium liner mitigates the localized stress produced by the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). In this study, simulating the ridging, stresses were applied to the inner surfaces of zirconium-liner tubes and Zircaloy-2 tubes, and, to investigate the mechanism and the extent of the effect, the behavior of zirconium liner was examined. As the result of examination, stress was concentrated especially at the edge of the deformed region, where zirconium liner was highly deformed. Even after high stress was applied, the deformation of Zircaloy part was small, since almost the concentrated stress was mitigated by the deformation of zirconium liner. In addition, stress and strain distributions in the cross section of specimen were calculated with a computer code FEMAXI-III. The results also showed that zirconium liner mitigated the localized stress in Zircaloy, although the affected zone was restricted to the region near the boundary between zirconium liner and Zircaloy. (author)

  2. Zirconium behaviour in purex process solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, J.

    1982-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of zirconium, as fission product, in TBP/diluent- HNO 3 -H 2 O systems, simulating Purex solutions, is studied. The main purpose is to attain an increasing in the zirconium decontamination factor by adjusting the extraction parameters. Equilibrium diagram, TBP concentration, aqueous:organic ratio, salting-out effects and, uranium loading in the organic phase were the main factors studied. All these experiments had been made with zirconium in the 10 - 2 - 10 - 3 concentration range. The extractant degradation products influence uppon the zirconium behaviour was also verified. With the obtained data it was possible to introduce some modification in the standard Purex flow-sheet in order to obtain the uranium product with higher zirconium decontamination. (Author) [pt

  3. A molecular dynamics study of high-energy displacement cascades in α-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooding, S.J.; Howe, L.M.; Gao, F.; Calder, A.F.; Bacon, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The damage produced in α-zirconium at 100 K by displacement cascades with energy, E p , up to 20 keV has been investigated by molecular dynamics using a many-body interatomic potential. The results are compared with similar data for cascades of energy up to 10 keV in α-titanium. The production efficiency of Frenkel pairs falls to about 25% of the NRT value as E p rises above 10 keV in zirconium, and to about 30% at 10 keV in titanium. The power-law dependence of the number of Frenkel pairs, N F , on E p found previously is obeyed, i.e., N F = A(E p ) m . Interstitial and vacancy clusters with sizes of the same order are created in the cascade process, and clusters containing up to 25 interstitials and 30 vacancies were formed in zirconium by 20 keV cascades. Two thirds of the SIAs are produced in clusters in zirconium at high cascade energy. Most interstitial clusters have dislocation character with perfect Burgers vectors of the form 1/3(11 2 - 0), but a few metastable clusters are formed and are persistent over the timescale of MD simulations. Collapse of the 30-vacancy cluster to a faulted loop on the prism plane was found to occur over a period of more than 100 ps. Annealing over this timescale has a stronger effect on the number and clustering of defects in cascades that are dispersed over a large region of crystal than in cascades that form a compact region of damage. (author)

  4. Characterization and electrocatalytic application of silver modified polypyrrole electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. DEKANSKI

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Silver modified polypyrrole electrodeswere preparedwith the aim of testing them for the electrooxidation of formaldehyde in alkaline solution. The modification of polypyrrole by immersion in aqueous AgNO3 solution was studied by cyclic voltammetry and vacuum techniques (AES and XPS. The influence of time of immersion and the thickness of the polypyrrole film, prepared by electrochemical polymerization, on the modification of the polymer were examined. The results acquired from both electrochemical and spectroscopic examinations show that immersion of a polypyrrole electrode in a AgNO3 solution results in its modificationwith silver, which is deposited in the elemental state on the surface. The quantity of silver deposited depends not only on the immersion time but also on the thickness of the polymer film. A modified PPy/Ag electrode exhibits catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of CH2O in NaOH. In spite of the low quantity of silver, the activity of the electrode for this reaction is comparable to that of a polycrystalline silver electrode.

  5. Electropolymerized Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Film for Sensing of Clofibric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Bianca; Kim, Jungtae; Kim, Young; Ulbricht, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric quartz crystals and analogous gold substrates were electrochemically coated with molecularly imprinted polypyrrole films for pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) of clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate. Cyclic voltammetry data obtained during polymerization and deposited weight estimations revealed a decrease of the polymerization rate with increasing clofibric acid concentration. XPS measurements indicated that clofibric acid could be removed after imprinting with an aqueo...

  6. The ageing of polypyrrole nanotubes synthesized with methyl orange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, M.; Kopecký, D.; Kopecká, J.; Křivka, I.; Hanuš, J.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Trchová, Miroslava; Vrňata, M.; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, November (2017), s. 176-189 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole nanotubes * ageing * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  7. Effects of preparation temperature on the conductivity of polypyrrole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-04-02

    Apr 2, 2002 ... polymer formed at low temperature has higher conductivity and is stronger than that ... it offers mass production at reasonable cost. ... its good intrinsic properties, polypyrrole appears promising for use in batteries, super ... actuators, electromagnetic interference shielding, anti-static coating and drug delivery.

  8. Chemical Changes and photoluminescence properties of UV modified polypyrrole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galář, P.; Dzurňák, B.; Malý, P.; Čermák, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Omastová, M.; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 57-70 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photoluminescence * polypyrrole * monocrystalline diamond Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013 http://www.electrochemsci.org/papers/vol8/80100057.pdf

  9. Electrorheological properties of suspensions of polypyrrole coated titanate nanorods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Saha, P.; Quadrat, Otakar

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2011), 52365_1-52365_7 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypyrrole * nanorods * electrorheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2011

  10. Synthesis of polypyrrole on nanodiamonds with hydrogenated and oxidized surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miliaieva, Daria; Stehlík, Štěpán; Štenclová, Pavla; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 10 (2016), 2687-2692 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01809S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * composites * diamond * infrared spectroscopy * nanomaterials * polypyrrole Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  11. ROOM TEMPERATURE BULK SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOCABLES WRAPPED WITH POLYPYRROLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wet chemical synthesis of silver cables wrapped with polypyrrole is reported in aqueous media without use of any surfactant/capping agent and/or template. The method employs direct polymerization of pyrrole of an aqueous solution with AgNO3 as an oxidizing agent. The four probe c...

  12. Dye-stimulated control of conducting polypyrrole morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valtera, S.; Prokeš, J.; Kopecká, J.; Vrňata, M.; Trchová, Miroslava; Varga, M.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Kopecký, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 81 (2017), s. 51495-51505 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * conducting polymers * hybrid materials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  13. Hydrogen desorption kinetics from zirconium hydride and zirconium metal in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xunxiang; Terrani, Kurt A.; Wirth, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrogen desorption from zirconium hydride is important in many nuclear design and safety applications. In this paper, a coordinated experimental and modeling study has been used to explicitly demonstrate the applicability of existing kinetic theories for hydrogen desorption from zirconium hydride and α-zirconium. A static synthesis method was used to produce δ-zirconium hydride, and the crystallographic phases of the zirconium hydride were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Three obvious stages, involving δ-zirconium hydride, a two-phase region, and α-zirconium, were observed in the hydrogen desorption spectra of two zirconium hydride specimens with H/Zr ratios of 1.62 and 1.64, respectively, which were obtained using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). A continuous, one-dimensional, two-phase moving boundary model, coupled with the zero- and second-order kinetics of hydrogen desorption from δ-zirconium hydride and α-zirconium, respectively, has been developed to reproduce the TDS experimental results. A comparison of the modeling predictions with the experimental results indicates that a zero-order kinetic model is valid for description of hydrogen flux away from the δ-hydride phase, and that a second-order kinetic model works well for hydrogen desorption from α-Zr if the activation energy of desorption is optimized to be 70% of the value reported in the literature

  14. Polypyrrole-silver Nanocomposite: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Nerkar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole-Silver (PPy-Ag nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole with iron (III chloride as an oxidant, in the presence of a colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles. Turkevich method (Citrate reduction method was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy which showed an absorption band at 423 nm confirming the formation of nanoparticles. PPy-Ag nanocomposite was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques for morphological and structural confirmations. TEM and SEM images revealed that the silver nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PPy matrix. XRD pattern showed that PPy is amorphous but the presence of the peaks at 2q values of 38.24°, 44.57°, 64.51° and 78.45° corresponding to a cubic phase of silver, revealed the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in the PPy matrix. A possible formation mechanism of PPy-Ag nanocomposite was also proposed. The electrical conductivity of PPy-Ag nanocomposite was studied using two probe method. The electrical conductivity of the PPy-Ag nanocomposite prepared was found to be 4.657´10- 2 S/cm, whereas that of pure PPy was found to be 9.85´10-3 S/cm at room temperature (303 K. The value of activation energy (Ea for pure PPy was 0.045 eV while it decreased to 0.034 eV for PPy-Ag nanocomposite. The synthesized nanocomposite powder can be utilized as a potential material for fabrication of gas sensors operating at room temperature.

  15. Microstructure characterization of laser-deposited titanium carbide and zirconium-based titanium metal matrix composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ochonogor, OF

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available . In this work, the technique is used to fabricate metal matrix composites (MMCs) by using an elementally blended feedstock combining metal and ceramic powders in the melt pool, which melt and solidify to create the required morphology. Ti6Al4V + TiC MMCs were...

  16. Polypyrrole electrodeposited on copper from an aqueous phosphate solution: Corrosion protection properties

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo, Clara; Breslin, Carmel B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly adherent and homogenous polypyrrole films were electrodeposited at copper from a dihydrogen phosphate solution. The polypyrrole films were electrosynthesized in the overoxidized state by cycling the copper electrode from –0.4 to 1.8 V (SCE) in a pyrrole-containing phosphate solution. The growth of the polypyrrole films was facilitated by the initial oxidation of the copper electrode in the phosphate solution to generate a mixed copper–phosphate, copper oxide or hydroxide layer. This la...

  17. Thermal electric effects and heat generation in polypyrrole coated PET fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Avloni, J.; Florio, L.; Henn, A. R.; Sparavigna, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polypyrrole chemically synthesized on PET gives rise to textiles with a high electric conductivity, suitable for several applications from antistatics to electromagnetic interference shielding devices. Here, we discuss investigations on thermal electric performances of the polypyrrole coated PET in a wide range of temperatures above room temperature. The Seebeck coefficient turns out to be comparable with that of metal thermocouple materials. Since polypyrrole shows extremely low thermal diff...

  18. Opportunities in the electrowinning of molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available used, the following forms of titanium are produced: titanium sponge, sintered electrode sponge, powder, molten titanium, electroplated titanium, hydride powder, and vapor-phase depos- ited titanium. Comparing the economics of alter- native...-up for producing titanium via the Kroll process is approximately as follows: ilmenite ($0.27/kg titanium sponge); titanium slag ($0.75/kg titanium sponge); TiCl4 ($3.09/kg titanium sponge); titanium sponge raw materials costs ($5.50/kg titanium sponge); total...

  19. Simple One-Step Method to Synthesize Polypyrrole-Indigo Carmine-Silver Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Fernandes Loguercio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nanocomposite of indigo carmine doped polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles was obtained by a one-step electrochemical process. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The simple one-step process allowed the growth of silver nanoparticles during the polymerization of polypyrrole, resulting in films with electrochromic behavior and improved electroactivity. In addition, polypyrrole chains in the nanocomposite were found to present longer conjugation length than pristine polypyrrole films.

  20. URANIUM DECONTAMINATION WITH RESPECT TO ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, S.; Beederman, M.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranium values from a nitric acid aqueous solution containing uranyl values, zirconium values and tetravalent plutonium values. The process comprises contacting said solution with a substantially water-immiscible liquid organic solvent containing alkyl phosphate, separating an organic extract phase containing the uranium, zirconium, and tetravalent plutonium values from an aqueous raffinate, contacting said organic extract phase with an aqueous solution 2M to 7M in nitric acid and also containing an oxalate ion-containing substance, and separating a uranium- containing organic raffinate from aqueous zirconium- and plutonium-containing extract phase.

  1. Biocompatibility implications of polypyrrole synthesis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonner, John M; Nguyen, Hieu; Byrne, James D; Kou, Yann-Fuu; Syeda-Nawaz, Jeja; Schmidt, Christine E; Forciniti, Leandro

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) is an inherently conducting polymer that has shown great promise for biomedical applications within the nervous system. However, to effectively use PPy as a biomaterial implant, it is important to understand and reproducibly control the electrical properties, physical topography and surface chemistry of the polymer. Although there is much research published on the use of PPy in various applications, there is no systematic study linking the methodologies used for PPy synthesis to PPy's basic polymeric properties (e.g., hydrophilicity, surface roughness), and to the biological effects these properties have on cells. Electrochemically synthesized PPy films differ greatly in their characteristics depending on synthesis parameters such as dopant, substrate and thickness, among other parameters. In these studies, we have used three dopants (chloride (Cl), tosylate (ToS), polystyrene sulfonate (PSS)), two substrates (gold and indium tin oxide-coated glass), and a range of thicknesses, to measure and compare the biomedically important characteristics of surface roughness, contact angle, conductivity, dopant stability and cell adhesion (using PC-12 cells and Schwann cells). As predicted, we discovered large differences in roughness depending on the dopant used and the thickness of the film, while substrate choice had little effect. From contact angle measurements, PSS was found to yield the most hydrophilic material, most likely because of free charges from the long PSS chains exposed on the surface of the PPy. ToS-doped PPy films were tenfold more conductive than Cl- or PSS-doped films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were used to evaluate dopant concentrations of PPy films stored in water and phosphate buffered saline over 14 days, and conductance studies over the same timeframe measured electrical stability. PSS proved to be the most stable dopant, though all films experienced significant decay in conductivity and dopant concentration. Cell

  2. Oxidized zirconium on ceramic; Catastrophic coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, V E; Saglam, N; Dikmen, G; Tozun, I R

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized zirconium (Oxinium™; Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) articulated with polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty (THA) appeared to have the potential to reduce wear dramatically. The thermally oxidized metal zirconium surface is transformed into ceramic-like hard surface that is resistant to abrasion. The exposure of soft zirconium metal under hard coverage surface after the damage of oxidized zirconium femoral head has been described. It occurred following joint dislocation or in situ succeeding disengagement of polyethylene liner. We reported three cases of misuse of Oxinium™ (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA) heads. These three cases resulted in catastrophic in situ wear and inevitable failure although there was no advice, indication or recommendation for this use from the manufacturer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of nuclear grade zirconium: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L., E-mail: L.Xu-2@tudelft.nl [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Xiao, Y. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan 243002 (China); Zr-Hf-Ti Metallurgie B.V., Den Haag 2582 SB (Netherlands); Sandwijk, A. van [Zr-Hf-Ti Metallurgie B.V., Den Haag 2582 SB (Netherlands); Xu, Q. [School of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Yang, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    Zirconium is an ideal material for nuclear reactors due to its low absorption cross-section for thermal neutrons, whereas the typically contained hafnium with strong neutron-absorption is very harmful for zirconium as a fuel cladding material. This paper provides an overview of the processes for nuclear grade zirconium production with emphasis on the methods of Zr–Hf separation. The separation processes are roughly classified into hydro- and pyrometallurgical routes. The known pyrometallurgical Zr–Hf separation methods are discussed based on the following reaction features: redox characteristics, volatility, electrochemical properties and molten salt–metal equilibrium. In the present paper, the available Zr–Hf separation technologies are compared. The advantages and disadvantages as well as future directions of research and development for nuclear grade zirconium production are discussed.

  4. Study for the chlorination of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, E.S.M.; Takiishi, H.; Paschoal, J.O.A.; Andreoli, M.

    1990-12-01

    In the development of new ceramic and metallic materials the chlorination process constitutes step in the formation of several intermediate compounds, such as metallic chlorides, used for the production of high, purity raw materials. Chlorination studies with the aim of fabrication special zirconium-base alloys have been carried out at IPEN. Within this program the chlorination technique has been used for zirconium tetrachloride production from zirconium oxide. In this paper some relevant parameters such as: time and temperature of reaction, flow rate of chloride gas and percentage of the reducing agent which influence the efficiency of chlorination of zirconium oxide are evaluated. Thermodynamical aspects about the reactions involved in the process are also presented. (author)

  5. Towards an understanding of zirconium alloy corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1976-08-01

    A brief historical summary is given of the development of a programme for understanding the corrosion mechanisms operating for zirconium alloys. A general summary is given of the progress made, so far, in carrying through this programme. (author)

  6. Zirconium determination in refractories (gravimetric method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiotto, N.; Narahashi, Y.; Perish, C.G.; Souza, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The zirconium determination in refractories is described, consisting in two separation methods for eliminating the interferences. The formatted product is calcined at 1100 0 C and determined gravimetrically as Zr P z 07. (author)

  7. Joint titrimetric determination of zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Botbol, Moises; Bianco de Salas, G.N.; Cornell de Casas, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the joint titrimetric determination of zirconium and hafnium, which are elements of similar chemical behaviour, is described. The disodic salt of the ethylendiaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) is used for titration, while xilenol orange serves as final point indicator. Prior to titration it is important to evaporate with sulfuric acid, the solution resulting from the zirconium depolymerization process, to adjust the acidity and to eliminate any interferences. The method, that allows the quick and precise determination of zirconium and hafnium in quantities comprised between 0.01 and mg, was applied to the analysis of raw materials and of intermediate and final products in the fabrication of zirconium sponge and zircaloy. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Zirconium determination in refractories (gravimetric method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiotto, N.; Narahashi, Y.; Perish, P.G.; Souza, J.R. de

    1991-01-01

    A gravimetric method for zirconium determination in refractories is described. X-ray fluorescence analysis is also employed in this experiment and considerations about interfering elements are presented. (M.V.M.)

  9. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaviria, Juan P.

    2002-01-01

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl 4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of Si x Zr y intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  10. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1961-07-11

    The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

  11. METHOD OF IMPROVING CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, D.W.

    1961-03-28

    An improved intermediate rinse for zirconium counteracts an anomalous deposit that often results in crevices and outof-the-way places when ordinary water is used to rinse away a strong fluoride etching solution designed to promote passivation of the metal. The intermediate rinse, which is used after the etching solution and before the water, is characterized by a complexing agent for fluoride ions such as aluminum or zirconium nitrates or chlorides.

  12. Ammonia sensing properties of silver nanocomposite with polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, N. S.; Kothari, D. C.; Bhat, N. V.

    2013-02-01

    Silver-polypyrrole nanocomposite thin film was prepared by a novel method. UV-Vis spectroscopic studies confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles and also polymerization of pyrrole surrounding the silver nanoparticles. All the important X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to silver were present in the composites. The silver nanoparticles and its composites with polypyrrole were observed by SEM and TEM. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using two probe method and it was found that the conductivity of nanocomposites is 10-5 S/cm. It was found that functionalized silver nanoparticles can act as efficient gas sensor for ammonia. The present result of the increase in conductivity with ammonia exposure is in contrast with the previously reported results of the decrease in conductivity.

  13. Methanol sensing characteristics of conducting polypyrrole-silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, L.; Mandal, S. K.

    2012-05-01

    Methanol sensing characteristics of conducting polypyrrole-silver nanocomposites are reported here. The nanocomposites are synthesized by wet chemical technique with different amount of silver loadings (5-15 mol%). The sensitivity of the nanocomposites upon exposure to gas molecules is critically dependent on the silver loadings and the concentration of the exposed gas. This is possibly instigated by the modified metal-polymer interface and the polar nature of the constituent metal and the exposed gas. Interaction of the alcohol gas with the polypyrrole chains in the presence of silver effectively determines the change in resistance and hence the sensitivity of the nanocomposites upon exposure to methanol. The adsorption of methanol molecules within the nanocomposites and the subsequent chemical reactions are studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  14. Corrosion properties of the Mg alloy coated with polypyrrole films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubač, Zoran; Rončević, Ivana Škugor; Metikoš-Huković, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electropolymerization of pyrrole on Mg-alloy surface in presence of salicylate. • Salicylate dual role in PPy deposition: passivation and electron transfer mediation. • Redox potential of salicylate corresponds to potential of PPy nucleation. • EIS and polarization corrosion studies of PPy coated Mg-alloy in Hanks’ solution. • Polypyrrole significantly slowdown Mg alloy corrosion in Hanks’ solution. - Abstract: In the present study the reactive surface of Mg alloy was coated with the nontoxic biocompatible polypyrrole (PPy) film synthesized by electrochemical oxidation from an aqueous salicylate solution. Salicylate ions prevent Mg dissolution and act as an electron transfer mediator during the PPy film nucleation, formation and growth on the alloy surface. Kinetics of the pyrrole polymerization as well as corrosion resistance of the PPy coated Mg alloy in the Hanks’ solution were investigated using dc electrochemical methods and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Characterization of the surface film was performed by optical and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  15. Electrochemically synthesized stretchable polypyrrole/fabric electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Binbin; Wang, Caiyun; Ding, Xin; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. Being an indispensable part of these electronics, lightweight, stretchable and wearable power sources are strongly demanded. Here we describe a daily-used cotton fabric coated with polypyrrole as electrode for stretchable supercapacitors. Polypyrrole was synthesized on the Au coated fabric via an electrochemical polymerization process with p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TS) as dopant from acetonitrile solution. This material was characterized with FESEM, tensile stress, and studied as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M NaCl. This conductive textile electrode can sustain up to 140% strain without electric failure. It delivers a high specific capacitance of 254.9 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 , and keeps almost unchanged at an applied strain (i.e. 30% and 50%) but with an improved cycling stability

  16. Analytical dynamic modeling of fast trilayer polypyrrole bending actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri Moghadam, Amir Ali; Moavenian, Majid; Tahani, Masoud; Torabi, Keivan

    2011-01-01

    Analytical modeling of conjugated polymer actuators with complicated electro-chemo-mechanical dynamics is an interesting area for research, due to the wide range of applications including biomimetic robots and biomedical devices. Although there have been extensive reports on modeling the electrochemical dynamics of polypyrrole (PPy) bending actuators, mechanical dynamics modeling of the actuators remains unexplored. PPy actuators can operate with low voltage while producing large displacement in comparison to robotic joints, they do not have friction or backlash, but they suffer from some disadvantages such as creep and hysteresis. In this paper, a complete analytical dynamic model for fast trilayer polypyrrole bending actuators has been proposed and named the analytical multi-domain dynamic actuator (AMDDA) model. First an electrical admittance model of the actuator will be obtained based on a distributed RC line; subsequently a proper mechanical dynamic model will be derived, based on Hamilton's principle. The purposed modeling approach will be validated based on recently published experimental results

  17. Ionic transport in polypyrrole doped with dianionic counterion hexafluorosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepas, Anna; Grzeszczuk, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Electrodeposition, redox switching, ion transport/exchange, surface topography for a thin polypyrrole film on gold in aqueous sodium hexafluorosilicate solution is reported. The properties have been compared with that corresponding to polypyrrole doped with hexafluoroaluminate and related systems. The dianionic counterion enhances electroactivity of the polymer, slows down ionic transport in the polymer phase, makes a strong impact on a surface structure of the polymer film. An improvement in stability of the anion-exchanger properties is observed. Several electroanalytical methods: chronoamperometry (Canada), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and a microscopic examination of the polymer film surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used in the experimental work

  18. Impact ionisation mass spectrometry of polypyrrole-coated pyrrhotite microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Jon K.; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Armes, Steven P.; Fielding, Lee A.; Postberg, Frank; Bugiel, Sebastian; Drake, Keith; Srama, Ralf; Kearsley, Anton T.; Trieloff, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Cation and anion impact ionization mass spectra of polypyrrole-coated pyrrhotite cosmic dust analogue particles are analysed over a range of cosmically relevant impact speeds. Spectra with mass resolutions of 150-300 were generated by hypervelocity impacts of charged particles, accelerated to up to 37 km s-1 in a Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator, onto a silver target plate in the Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA) spectrometer. Ions clearly indicative of the polypyrrole overlayer are identified at masses of 93, 105, 117, 128 and 141 u. Organic species, predominantly derived from the thin (20 nm) polypyrrole layer on the surface of the particles, dominate the anion spectra even at high (>20 km s-1) impact velocities and contribute significantly to the cation spectra at velocities lower than this. Atomic species from the pyrrhotite core (Fe and S) are visible in all spectra at impact velocities above 6 km s-1 for 56Fe+, 9 km s-1 for 32S+ and 16 km s-1 for 32S- ions. Species from the pyrrhotite core are also frequently visible in cation spectra at impact speeds at which surface ionisation is believed to dominate (Silver was confirmed as an excellent choice for the target plate of an impact ionization mass spectrometer, as it provided a unique isotope signature for many target-projectile cluster peaks at masses above 107-109 u. The affinity of Ag towards a dominant organic fragment ion (CN-) derived from fragmentation of the polypyrrole component led to molecular cluster formation. This resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to a particular particle component, which may be of great use when investigating astrobiologically relevant chemicals, such as amino acids.

  19. Electrochemical synthesis and electronic properties of polypyrrole on intrinsic diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Kočka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 9 (2009), 1098-1101 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * polypyrrole * electrochemistry * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2009

  20. Bilayers Polypyrrole Coatings for Corrosion Protection of SAE 4140 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study polypyrrole (PPy) bilayers films were electrodeposited onto SAE 4140 steel. The inner layer was electropolymerized in the presence of molibdate and nitrate and the outer layer in a solution containing sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT). The electrosynthesis was done under potentiostatic conditions. The corrosion protection properties of the films were examined in sodium chloride solution by open circuit measurements, linear polarization and electrochemical impedance ...

  1. Colloids of polypyrrole nanotubes/nanorods: a promising conducting ink

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Yu; Bober, Patrycja; Apaydin, D. H.; Syrový, T.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Sapurina, Irina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 221, November (2016), s. 67-74 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : colloids * polypyrrole * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  2. Present status of titanium removable dentures--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, C; Hanatani, S; Hosoi, T

    2008-09-01

    Although porcelain and zirconium oxide might be used for fixed partial dental prostheses instead of conventional dental metals in the near future, removable partial denture (RPD) frameworks will probably continue to be cast with biocompatible metals. Commercially pure (CP) titanium has appropriate mechanical properties, it is lightweight (low density) compared with conventional dental alloys, and has outstanding biocompatibility that prevents metal allergic reactions. This literature review describes the laboratory conditions needed for fabricating titanium frameworks and the present status of titanium removable prostheses. The use of titanium for the production of cast RPD frameworks has gradually increased. There are no reports about metallic allergy apparently caused by CP titanium dentures. The laboratory drawbacks still remain, such as the lengthy burn-out, inferior castability and machinability, reaction layer formed on the cast surface, difficulty of polishing, and high initial costs. However, the clinical problems, such as discoloration of the titanium surfaces, unpleasant metal taste, decrease of clasp retention, tendency for plaque to adhere to the surface, detachment of the denture base resin, and severe wear of titanium teeth, have gradually been resolved. Titanium RPD frameworks have never been reported to fail catastrophically. Thus, titanium is recommended as protection against metal allergy, particularly for large-sized prostheses such as RPDs or complete dentures.

  3. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by oxidative polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkuviene, Aida [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kaseta, Vytautas [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Voronovic, Jaroslav [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanauskaite, Giedre; Biziuleviciene, Gene [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanaviciene, Almira [NanoTechnas–Center of Nanotechnology and Material Science at Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanavicius, Arunas, E-mail: Arunas.Ramanavicius@chf.vu.lt [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Laboratory of BioNanoTechnology, Department of Materials Science and Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, State Scientific Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by environmentally friendly polymerization at high concentrations are cytotoxic. ► Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, mouse hepatoma and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell lines were treated by Ppy nanoparticles. ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles at high concentrations inhibit cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Polypyrrole (Ppy) is known as biocompatible material, which is used in some diverse biomedical applications and seeming to be a very promising for advanced biotechnological applications. In order to increase our understanding about biocompatibility of Ppy, in this study pure Ppy nanoparticles (Ppy-NPs) of fixed size and morphology were prepared by one-step oxidative polymerization and their cyto-compatibility was evaluated. The impact of different concentration of Ppy nanoparticles on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), mouse hepatoma cell line (MH-22A), and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line was investigated. Cell morphology, viability/proliferation after the treatment by Ppy nanoparticles was evaluated. Obtained results showed that Ppy nanoparticles at low concentrations are biocompatible, while at high concentrations they became cytotoxic for Jurkat, MEF and MH-22A cells, and it was found that cytotoxic effect is dose-dependent.

  4. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagul, Sagar B., E-mail: nano.sbbagul@gmail.com; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: rps.phy@gmail.com [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (India)

    2016-05-06

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  5. Growth of N-substituted polypyrrole layers in ionic liquids: synthesis and its electrochromic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahmad, S.; Sen Gursoy, S.; Kazim, Samrana; Uygun, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 99, SI (2012), s. 95-100 ISSN 0927-0248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypyrrole * substituted polypyrrole * ionic liquids Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2012

  6. Synthesis of functional polypyrrole/prussian blue and polypyrrole/Ag composite microtubes by using a reactive template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xiaomiao; Sun Zhengzong; Hou Wenhua; Zhu Junjie [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-05-16

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/PB and PPy/Ag composite microtubes were synthesized in one pot by using methyl orange (MO) as a reactive self-degraded template. In contrast to reported conventional template approaches, the MO template did not need to be removed after polymerization. The formation mechanism, structural characteristics, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the obtained PPy/PB and PPy/Ag microtubes are reported.

  7. Synthesis of functional polypyrrole/prussian blue and polypyrrole/Ag composite microtubes by using a reactive template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiaomiao; Sun Zhengzong; Hou Wenhua; Zhu Junjie

    2007-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/PB and PPy/Ag composite microtubes were synthesized in one pot by using methyl orange (MO) as a reactive self-degraded template. In contrast to reported conventional template approaches, the MO template did not need to be removed after polymerization. The formation mechanism, structural characteristics, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the obtained PPy/PB and PPy/Ag microtubes are reported

  8. Ag@polypyrrole: A highly efficient nanocatalyst for the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi, Usha; Kundu, Sudipta K; Salam, Noor; Bhaumik, Asim; Islam, Sk Manirul

    2016-04-01

    We have synthesized Ag@polypyrrole nanomaterial by dispersing ultrafine silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) over the organic polymer polypyrrole. The Ag@polypyrrole material has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis) and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD pattern suggested the cubic crystalline phase of Ag NPs in Ag@polypyrrole. TEM image analysis revealed that silver nanoparticles are highly dispersed in the polymer matrix. The Ag@polypyrrole acts as an efficient and versatile heterogeneous nanocatalyst in the N-alkylation of amines using alcohols. The catalyst can be easily prepared, highly robust and reused several times without decrease in its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical-metallothermic reduction of zirconium in molten salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Talko, F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for separating hafnium from zirconium of the type wherein a feed containing zirconium and hafnium chlorides is prepared from zirconium-hafnium chloride and the feed is introduced into a distillation column, which distillation column has a reboiler connected at the bottom and a reflux condenser connected at the top and wherein a hafnium chloride enriched stream is taken from the top of the column and a zirconium enriched chloride stream is taken from the bottom of the column. It comprises: reducing the zirconium enriched chloride stream taken from the distillation column to metal by electrochemically reducing an alkaline earth metal in a molten salt bath with the molten salt in the molten salt bath consisting essentially of a mixture of at least one alkali metal chloride and at least one alkaline earth metal chloride and zirconium chloride, with the reduced alkaline earth metal reacting with the zirconium chloride to produce zirconium metal and alkaline earth metal chloride

  10. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  11. Titanium and titanium alloys: fundamentals and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyens, C; Peters, M

    2003-01-01

    ... number of titanium alloys have paved the way for light metals to vastly expand into many industrial applications. Titanium and its alloys stand out primarily due to their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance, at just half the weight of steels and Ni-based superalloys. This explains their early success in the aerospace and the...

  12. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  13. The chemical vapor deposition of zirconium carbide onto ceramic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass A, John Jr.; Palmisiano, Nick Jr.; Welsh R, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Zirconium carbide is an attractive ceramic material due to its unique properties such as high melting point, good thermal conductivity, and chemical resistance. The controlled preparation of zirconium carbide films of superstoichiometric, stoichiometric, and substoichiometric compositions has been achieved utilizing zirconium tetrachloride and methane precursor gases in an atmospheric pressure high temperature chemical vapor deposition system

  14. Processing fissile material mixtures containing zirconium and/or carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael Ernest; Maloney, Martin David

    2013-07-02

    A method of processing spent TRIZO-coated nuclear fuel may include adding fluoride to complex zirconium present in a dissolved TRIZO-coated fuel. Complexing the zirconium with fluoride may reduce or eliminate the potential for zirconium to interfere with the extraction of uranium and/or transuranics from fission materials in the spent nuclear fuel.

  15. 40 CFR 721.9973 - Zirconium dichlorides (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zirconium dichlorides (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9973 Zirconium dichlorides (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as zirconium dichlorides (PMNs P...

  16. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, D.O.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl 3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl 3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  17. Automatic measuring system of zirconium thickness for zirconium liner cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hiroshima, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Murayama, R.

    1985-01-01

    An automatic system of pure zirconium liner thickness for zirconium-zircaloy cladding tubes has been successfully developed. The system consists of three parts. (1) An ultrasonic thickness measuring method for mother tubes before cold rolling. (2) An electromagnetic thickness measuring method for the manufactured tubes. (3) An image processing method for the cross sectional view of the manufactured cut tube samples. In Japanese nuclear industry, zirconium-zircaloy cladding tubes have been tested in order to realize load following operation in the atomic power plant. In order to provide for the practical use in the near future, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. has been studied and established the practical manufacturing process of the zirconium liner cladding tubes. The zirconium-liner cladding tube is a duplex tube comprising an inner layer of pure zirconium bonded to zircaloy metallurgically. The thickness of the pure zirconium is about 10 % of the total wall thickness. Several types of the automatic thickness measuring methods have been investigated instead of the usual microscopic viewing method in which the liner thickness is measured by the microscopic cross sectional view of the cut tube samples

  18. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis of zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I.; Salimov, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys are used on nuclear technology, as fuel cladding of nuclear reactors. Their nuclear-physical, mechanical and thermophysical properties are influenced them matrix and impurity composition, therefore determination of matrix and impurity content of these materials is a very important task. Neutron activation analysis is one from multielemental and high sensible techniques that are widely applied in analysis of high purity materials. Investigation of nuclear-physical characteristics of zirconium has shown that instrumental variant NAA is unusable for analysis due to high radioactivity of a matrix. Therefore it is necessary carrying out radiochemical separation of impurity radionuclides from matrix. Study of the literature datum have shown, that zirconium and niobium are very well extracted from muriatic solution with 5% tributyl phosphineoxide (TBPO) solution in toluene and 0,75 M solution of di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in cyclohexanone. Investigation of these elements extraction in these systems has shown that more effective and selective separation of matrix radionuclides is achieved in HDEHP-3M HCI system. This system is also extracted and hafnium, witch is an accompanying element of zirconium and its high content prevented determination of other impurity elements in sample. Therefore we used extraction system HDEHP-3M HCl for analysis of zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloys in chromatographic variant. By measurement of distribution profile of a matrix and of elution curve of determined elements is established, that for effective separation of impurity and matrix radionuclides there is enough chromatographic column with diameter 1 cm and height of a sorbent layer 7 cm, thus volume of elute, necessary for complete elution of determinate elements is 35-40 ml. On the basis of the carried out researches the technique of radiochemical NAA of high purity zirconium and zirconium-niobium alloy, which allows to

  19. Experimental and thermodynamic study of the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.

    2009-11-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of innovative concepts for fuel cladding in pressurized water nuclear reactors. This concept implies the insertion of rare earth (erbium and gadolinium) in the zirconium fuel cladding. The determination of phase equilibria in the systems is essential prior to the implementation of such a promising solution. This study consisted in an experimental determination of the erbium-zirconium phase diagram. For this, we used many different techniques in order to obtain diagram data such as solubility limits, solidus, liquidus or invariant temperatures. These data allowed us to present a new diagram, very different from the previous one available in the literature. We also assessed the diagram using the CALPHAD approach. In the gadolinium-zirconium system, we determined experimentally the solubility limits. Those limits had never been determined before, and the values we obtained showed a very good agreement with the experimental and assessed versions of the diagram. Because these alloys are subjected to oxygen diffusion throughout their life, we focused our attention on the erbium-oxygen-zirconium and gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium systems. The first system has been investigated experimentally. The alloys fabrication has been performed using powder metallurgy. In order to obtain pure raw materials, we fabricated powder from erbium and zirconium bulk metals using hydrogen absorption/desorption. The characterisation of the ternary pellets allowed the determination of two ternary isothermal sections at 800 and 1100 C. For the gadolinium-oxygen-zirconium system, we calculated the phase equilibria at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 C, using a homemade database compiled from literature assessments of the oxygen-zirconium, gadolinium-zirconium and gadolinia-zirconia systems. Finally, we determined the mechanical properties, in connexion with the microstructure, of industrial quality alloys in order to identify the influence of

  20. Titanium dioxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowires for all solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minghao; Zeng, Yinxiang; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Xihong; Zeng, Chenghui; Yao, Chenzhong; Yang, Yangyi; Tong, Yexiang

    2013-10-01

    Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance.Herein, we developed a facile two-step process to synthesize TiO2@PPy core-shell nanowires (NWs) on carbon cloth and reported their improved electrochemical performance for flexible supercapacitors (SCs). The fabricated solid-state SC device based on TiO2@PPy core-shell NWs not only has excellent flexibility, but also exhibits remarkable electrochemical performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD pattern, FT-IR absorption spectrum and CV curves of TiO2@PPy NWs, and SEM images of the PPy. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03578f

  1. Review of zirconium-zircaloy pyrophoricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1984-11-01

    Massive zirconium metal scrap can be handled, shipped, and stored with no evidence of combustion or pyrophoricity hazards. Mechanically produced fine scrap such as shavings, turnings, or powders can burn but are not pyrophoric unless the particle diameter is less than 54 μm. Powders with particle diameters less than 54 μm can be both pyrophoric and explosive. Pyrophoric powders should be collected and stored underwater or under inert gas cover to reduce the flammability hazard. Opening sealed containers of zirconium stored underwater should be attempted with caution since hydrogen may be present. The factors that influence the ignition temperature have been explored in depth and recommendations are included for the safe handling, shipping, and storage of pyrophoric or flammable zirconium. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing of Zirconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Sahasrabudhe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing of zirconium is attempted using commercial Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENSTM technique. A LENSTM-based approach towards processing coatings and bulk parts of zirconium, a reactive metal, aims to minimize the inconvenience of traditional metallurgical practices of handling and processing zirconium-based parts that are particularly suited to small volumes and one-of-a-kind parts. This is a single-step manufacturing approach for obtaining near net shape fabrication of components. In the current research, Zr metal powder was processed in the form of coating on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS as well as phase analysis via X-ray diffraction (XRD were studied on these coatings. In addition to coatings, bulk parts were also fabricated using LENS™ from Zr metal powders, and measured part accuracy.

  3. Superficial effects during the activation of zirconium AB2 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, J; Visitin, A; Triaca, W

    2005-01-01

    The activation of zirconium nickel alloys with and without the addition of chromium and titanium is investigated through electrochemical and optical techniques.These alloys show high hydrogen absorption capacity and are extensively used in metal hydride batteries.Recent investigations in aqueous 1 M KOH indicate oxide layer growth and occlusion of hydrogen species in the alloys during the application of different cathodic potential programmes currently used in the activation process.In this research several techniques such as voltammetry, ellipsometry, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays EDAX, and scanning electron microscopy SEM are applied on the polished massive alloy Zr 1 -xTi x , x=0.36 y 0.43, and Zr 1 -xTi x CrNi, x=0.1,0.2 y 0.4.Data analysis shows that the stability, compactness and structure of the passive layers are strongly dependent on the applied potential programme.The alloy activation depends on the formation of deepen crevices that remain after a new polishing. Microscopic observation shows increase in the crevices thickness after the cathodic sweep potential cycling, which produces fragmentation of the grains and oxide growth during the activation process.This indicates metal breaking and intergranular dissolution that take place together with oxide and hydride formation.In some cases the resultant crevice thickness is one or two orders higher than that of the superficial oxide growth indicating intergranular localised corrosion

  4. Analysis of hafnium in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Isao; Sakai, Fumiaki; Ohuchi, Yoshifusa; Nakamura, Hisashi

    1977-01-01

    It is required to analyse alloying components and impurity elements in the acceptance analysis of zirconium alloys as the material for fuel cladding tubes and pressure tubes for advanced thermal reactors. Because of extreme similarity in chemical properties between zirconium and hafnium, about 100 ppm of hafnium is usually contained in zirconium alloys. Zircaloy-2 alloy and 2.5% Nb-zirconium with the addition of hafnium had been prepared as in-house standard samples for rapid analysis. Study was made on fluorescent X-ray analysis and emission spectral analysis to establish the analytical method. By using these in-house standard samples, acceptance analysis was successfully carried out for the fuel cladding tubes for advanced thermal reactors. Sulfuric acid solution was prepared from JAERI-Z 1, 2 and 3, the standard sample for zircaloy-2 prepared by the Analytical Committee on Nuclear Fuel and Reactor Materials, JAERI, and zirconium oxide (Hf 1 ppm/Zr). Standard Hf solution was added to the sulfuric acid solution step by step, to make up a series of the standard oxide samples by the precipitation process. By the use of these standard samples, the development of the analytical method and joint analysis were made by the three-member analytical technique research group including PNC. The analytical precision for the fluorescent X-ray analysis was improved by attaching a metallic yttrium filter to the window of an X-ray tube so as to suppress the effect due to zirconium matrix. The variation factor of the joint analysis was about 10% to show good agreement, and the indication value was determined. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. Zirconium diselenite microstructures, formation and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Chandan C.; Salker, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a series of microstructures of zirconium diselenite (Zr(SeO3)2) has been prepared via a simple precipitation method at room temperature without adding any organic surfactants. Phase purity of the sample has been checked by X-ray Diffraction. From the SEM, FESEM, and TEM images spheroid nanoparticles to the starfish-like structure of zirconium diselenite are detected. The morphological evolution processes were investigated carefully following time-dependent experiments and a growth mechanism has been proposed. Two different crystal growth processes, the oriented attachment process accompanying the Ostwald ripening process were held responsible for the formation of a structure resembling starfish having four arms.

  6. Cathodic behavior of zirconium in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, F.; Yasuda, M.; Sato, H.

    1977-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Zr was studied by polarization measurements. The surface oxide and zirconium hydride formed by cathodic polarization of Zr have been examined by X-ray, SEM, and a hardness tester. Zirconium hydride would form on Zr cathode after the surface oxide is reduced at the potential, which is several hundred mV more noble than the predicted value shown by the Pourbaix diagram. The parameters for the hydrogen evolution reaction on the hydride formed Zr cathode differs from that on the oxide covered surface, which means that hydrogen evolution takes place on both surfaces under a different mechanism, while details are still veiled at present

  7. Hydrogen outbreak of Zirconium Molybdate Hihydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Ochi, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    JNFL is planning to construct a facility for enclosing the hull and end pieces produced due to reprocessing of spent fuel into stainless canisters after compressing, while those hull and end pieces enclosed into the stainless canisters are called 'compressed hulls'. Since the compressed hulls contain moisture absorbent Zirconium Molybdate Hihydrate accompanying hull and end pieces, there is a risk of outbreak of radiolysisradiolysis gas such as hydrogen, etc. by radiolysisradiolysis. This report intends to state the result of radiation irradiation experiment with the purpose of examining the volume of hydrogen outbreak from Zirconium Molybdate Hihydrate of the compressed hulls. (author)

  8. Electron microscopy of nuclear zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versaci, R.A.; Ipohorski, Miguel

    1986-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of the microstructure of zirconium alloys used in fuel sheaths of nuclear power reactors are reported. Specimens were observed after different thermal and mechanical treatment, similar to those actually used during fabrication of the sheaths. Electron micrographs and electron diffraction patterns of second phase particles present in zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 were also obtained, as well as some characteristic parameters. Images of oxides and hydrides most commonly present in zirconium alloys are also shown. Finally, the structure of a Zr-2,5Nb alloy used in CANDU reactors pressure tubes, is observed by electron microscopy. (Author) [es

  9. The fluorimetric titration of zirconium in the ppm-range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, W.E. von der; Boef, G. den; Ozinga, W.

    1976-01-01

    A fluorimetric titration of zirconium(IV) with EDTA is proposed. The fluorescence intensity of the zirconium-morin complex is used to indicate the end-point. More than twenty other cations were investigated and it was found that they did not interfere, neither did common anions. Mercury(II) can only be tolerated in amount not exceeding that of zirconium. Bismuth(III) interferes and hafnium(IV0 is titrated together with zirconium. The relative standard deviation of the titration of 10ml of a solution containing 1 ppm of zirconium does not exceed 1.5%

  10. Contribution to the study of zirconium self-diffusion in zirconium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Chul

    1972-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to determine experimental conditions allowing the measurement of the self-diffusion coefficient of zirconium in zirconium carbide. The author reports the development of a method of preparation of zirconium carbide samples. He reports the use of ion implantation as technique to obtain a radio-tracer coating. The obtained results give evidence of the impossibility to use sintered samples with small grains because of the demonstrated importance of intergranular diffusion. The self-diffusion coefficient is obtained in the case of zirconium carbide with grains having a diameter of few millimetres. The presence of 95 Nb from the disintegration of 95 Zr indicates that these both metallic elements have very close diffusion coefficients at 2.600 C [fr

  11. Photocurrent and photothermal current of polypyrrole (PPy) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Chongjun; Wang Haihong; Jiang Zhiyu

    2003-02-28

    The photoelectrochemical properties of polypyrrole (PPy) film in aqueous solutions in the potential region of -0.7 to 0.5 V (versus Ag/AgCl) were investigated by using photocurrent, photothermal and photothermal current methods under the irradiation of laser beams with wavelength of 532 and 632.8 nm, respectively. It was found that the photocurrent at more negative potential was caused by the p-type semiconductor properties, while the photocurrent at more positive potential was caused by the local temperature rather than the semiconductor properties of the films. The effect of the film thickness on the photocurrent of PPy films was studied in detail.

  12. Photocurrent and photothermal current of polypyrrole (PPy) film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Chongjun; Wang Haihong; Jiang Zhiyu

    2003-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical properties of polypyrrole (PPy) film in aqueous solutions in the potential region of -0.7 to 0.5 V (versus Ag/AgCl) were investigated by using photocurrent, photothermal and photothermal current methods under the irradiation of laser beams with wavelength of 532 and 632.8 nm, respectively. It was found that the photocurrent at more negative potential was caused by the p-type semiconductor properties, while the photocurrent at more positive potential was caused by the local temperature rather than the semiconductor properties of the films. The effect of the film thickness on the photocurrent of PPy films was studied in detail

  13. Hybride magnetic nanostructure based on amino acids functionalized polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Alexandrina, E-mail: alexandrina.nan@itim-cj.ro; Bunge, Alexander; Turcu, Rodica [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Conducting polypyrrole is especially promising for many commercial applications because of its unique optical, electric, thermal and mechanical properties. We report the synthesis and characterization of novel pyrrole functionalized monomers and core-shell hybrid nanostructures, consisting of a conjugated polymer layer (amino acids functionalized pyrrole copolymers) and a magnetic nanoparticle core. For functionalization of the pyrrole monomer we used several amino acids: tryptophan, leucine, phenylalanine, serine and tyrosine. These amino acids were linked via different types of hydrophobic linkers to the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole monomer. The magnetic core-shell hybrid nanostructures are characterized by various methods such as FTIR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and magnetic measurements.

  14. High purity zirconium obtainment through the iodine compounds transport method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolcich, J.C.; Zuzek, E.; Dutrus, S.M.; Corso, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental method and the equipment designed, constructed and actually applied for the high purity zirconium obtainment from a zirconium sponge of the nuclear type. The mechanism of purification is based on the impure metal attack with gaseous iodine (at 200 deg C) to obtain zirconium tetra iodine as main product which is then transformed into a pure zirconium base (at 1000-1300 deg C), precipitating the metallic zirconium and releasing the gaseous iodine. From the first experiences carried out, pure zirconium has been obtained from an initial filament of 0.5 mm of diameter as well as wires up to 2.5 mm of diameter. This work presents the results from the studies and analysis made to characterize the material obtained. Finally, the refining methods to which the zirconium produced may be submitted so as to optimize the final purity are discussed. (Author)

  15. Extractive metallurgy of zirconium--1945 to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, D.G.; Adamson, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Although the history of the reduction of zirconium dates from 1824 and the first ductile zirconium metal was produced in the laboratory in 1914, modern reduction practice was pioneered by the U.S. Bureau of Mines starting in 1945. This paper reviews the history of the extractive metallurgy of zirconium from the early work of W. J. Kroll and co-workers at the Bureau of Mines in Albany, Ore., through the commercial development of the production of reactor-grade zirconium metal which was spurred by the requirements of the Naval Reactor Program and the development of commercial nuclear power. Technical subjects covered include processes for opening the ore, zirconium-hafnium separation, chlorination of zirconium oxide, reduction processes, and electrowinning of zirconium metal. Proposed new processes and process modifications are reviewed

  16. Determination of diffusion coefficients in polypyrrole thin films using a current pulse relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Vandyke, Leon S.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The current pulse E sub oc relaxation method and its application to the determination of diffusion coefficients in electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films is described. Diffusion coefficients for such films in Et4NBF4 and MeCN are determined for a series of submicron film thicknesses. Measurement of the double-layer capacitance, C sub dl, and the resistance, R sub u, of polypyrrole thin films as a function of potential obtained with the galvanostatic pulse method is reported. Measurements of the electrolyte concentration in reduced polypyrrole films are also presented to aid in the interpretation of the data.

  17. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basin, N.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl 4 + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl 2 . By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  18. Experimental studies of relevance on zirconium nitrate raffinate sludge for its disposal as well as zirconium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Ravindra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the many routes of production of nuclear grade zirconium dioxide involve separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction of zirconium nitrate using tri-n-butyl phosphate followed by precipitation of zirconium with ammonia and finally calcination of the so obtained hydrated zirconia at elevated temperature. The zirconium feed solution as is generated from digestion of zirconium washed dried frit (produced by the caustic fusion of zircon sand which is one of the beach sand heavy minerals) in nitric acid contain considerable amount of sludge material and after solvent extraction this whole sludge material rests with raffinate. This sludge material has a scope to contain considerable amounts of zirconium along with other metal ions such as hafnium, aluminium, iron, etc. besides nitric acid and it constitutes one of the important solid wastes that needs to be disposed suitably. One of the disposal means of this sludge material is to use it as a land fill for which two important criteria are to be viz the pH of 10% solid waste solution should be near to neutral pH and the loss on ignition at 550℃ on dry basis of the sludge to be below 20%. In order to study the implications of presence of varying amounts of zirconium nitrate in the sludge on the pH of 10% solution of the sludge various synthetic zirconium nitrate solid waste were prepared using the sludge material generated at the laboratory during the analysis of zirconium washed dried frit. Presence of zirconium in the sludge is expected to decrease the overall pH of the 10% solution of the sludge because zirconium is prone to hydrolyze especially locally when zirconium ion comes into contact with water according to the chemical equation Zr 4+ H 2 O → ZrO 2+ + 2H + . From this equation, it is clear that for every one mole of zirconium ions two moles of hydrogen ions are produced. This is verified experimentally using the synthetically prepared sludge materials with varying amounts of zirconium

  19. Thermo-mechanical treatment of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    A zirconium alloy comprising at least 95 percent Zr (Zircaloy), which has been thoroughly annealed, is greatly increased in strength without substantial loss in ductility by subjecting it to tensile creep deformation in a temperature range in which creep will occur, yet which is below the temperature for significant recovery. (U.S.)

  20. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  1. Structuring of gels of zirconium oxohydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukharev, Yu.I.; Skuratovich, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic relationship between formation of mesophase states of zirconium oxohydrate gel, coprecipitated with dimethylamine, and ordered macrocrystallites of sorption material after cryogranulation or decryptation granulating is shown. This phenomenon is followed on example of formation of flattened crystallites when preparing granules in the presence of appl. The successive polymerization growth of crystallites leads to the frame ordered aggregation or aggregation of another type

  2. Accelerated irradiation growth of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.; Gilbert, R.W.; Fidleris, V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how sponge zirconium and Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, Zircaloy, or Excel alloys all exhibit accelerated irradiation growth compared with high-purity crystal-bar zirconium for irradiation temperatures between 550 to 710 K and fluences between 0.1 to 10 x 10 25 n · m -2 (E > 1 MeV). There is generally an incubation period or fluence before the onset of accelerated or breakaway growth, which is dependent on the particular material being irradiated, its metallurgical condition before irradiation, and the irradiation temperature. Transmission electron microscopy has shown that there is a correlation between accelerated irradiation growth and the appearance of c-component vacancy loops on basal planes. Measurements in some specimens indicate that a significant fraction of the strain can be directly attributed to the loops themselves. There is considerable evidence to show that their formation is dependent both on the specimen purity and on the irradiation temperature. Materials that have a high interstitial-solute content contain c-component loops and exhibit high growth rates even at low fluences ( 2 :5 n · m -2 , E > 1 MeV). For sponge zirconium and the Zircaloys, c-component loop formation and the associated acceleration of growth (breakaway) during irradiation occurs because the intrinsic interstitial solute (mainly, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen) in the zirconium matrix is supplemented by interstitial iron, chromium, and nickel from the radiation-induced dissolution of precipitates. (author)

  3. Zirconium (IV) complexes with some polymethylenediimines | Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The syntheses of zirconium (IV) complexes have been carried out by the reaction of oxozirconium (IV) chloride with the appropriate diimines (Schiff bases). The complexes were isolated as yellow solids which are stable to heat. The complexes were found to be insoluble in most solvents. The infrared spectra, elemental ...

  4. Intercalation chemistry of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav; Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate is a layered material which can be employed as a host for the intercalation reactions with basic molecules. A wide range of organic compounds were chosen to represent intercalation ability of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. These were a series of alkylamines from methylamine to dodecylamine, 1,4-phenylenediamine, p-toluidine, 1,8-diaminonaphthalene, 1-aminopyrene, imidazole, pyridine, 4,4′-bipyridine, poly(ethylene imine), and a series of amino acids from glycine to 6-aminocaproic acid. The prepared compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis and IR spectroscopy and probable arrangement of the guest molecules in the interlayer space of the host is proposed based on the interlayer distance of the prepared intercalates and amount of the intercalated guest molecules. - Graphical abstract: Nitrogen-containing organic compounds can be intercalated into the interlayer space of zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate. - Highlights: • Zirconium 4-sulfophenylphosphonate was examined as a host material in intercalation chemistry. • A wide range of nitrogen-containing organic compounds were intercalated. • Possible arrangement of the intercalated species is described

  5. Studies on inorganic exchanger: zirconium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The inorganic exchanger zirconium antimonate has been prepared and its characteristics evaluated. A method has been developed for the separation of 90 Sr and 144 Ce from fission products solution using this exchanger. (author). 23 refs., 18 f igs., 9 tabs

  6. Mechanism for iodine cracking of zirconium claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of iodine cracking of zirconium cladding is analyzed taking into account the effect of stresses on diffusion. A decisive effect of the stress gradiemt on crack propagation in an agressive medium is shown. The experimental data are compared with the proposed model

  7. Superconductivity in zirconium-rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegler, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Metallographic studies and transition temperature measurements were made with isothermally annealed and water-quenched zirconium-rhodium alloys. The results clarify both the solid-state phase relations at the Zr-rich end of the Zr-Rh alloy system and the influence upon the superconducting transition temperature of structure and composition.

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic study of passive zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai Jiahe; Chen Yingzi [Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Macdonald, Digby D. [Center for Electrochemical Science and Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: ddm2@psu.edu

    2008-09-30

    Spent, unreproccessed nuclear fuel is generally contained within the operational fuel sheathing fabricated from a zirconium alloy (Zircaloy 2, Zircaloy 4, or Zirlo) and is then stored in a swimming pool and/or dry storage facilities until permanent disposal in a licensed repository. During this period, which begins with irradiation of the fuel in the reactor during operation, the fuel sheathing is exposed to various, aggressive environments. The objective of the present study was to characterize the nature of the passive film that forms on pure zirconium in contact with an aqueous phase [0.1 M B(OH){sub 3} + 0.001 M LiOH, pH 6.94] at elevated temperatures (in this case, 250 deg. C), prior to storage, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with the data being interpreted in terms of the point defect model (PDM). The results show that the corrosion resistance of zirconium in high temperature, de-aerated aqueous solutions is dominated by the outer layer. The extracted model parameter values can be used in deterministic models for predicting the accumulation of general corrosion damage to zirconium under a wide range of conditions that might exist in some repositories.

  9. Corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajimura, H.; Morikawa, H.; Nagano, H.

    1987-01-01

    Slow strain rate tests are effected on zirconium in boiling nitric acid to study the influence of nitric acid concentration, of oxidizing ions (Cr and Ce) and of electric potential. Corrosion resistance is excellent and stress corrosion cracking occurs only for severe conditions: 350 mV over electric potential for corrosion with nitric acid concentration of 40 % [fr

  10. Atomic absorption analysis of serial titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlova, M.N.; Feofanova, N.M.; Kornyushkova, Yu.D.

    1977-01-01

    Atom-absorption technique is described, which makes it possible to rapidly and precisely determine the following alloying elements and admixtures in titanium alloys: Al (2.0 - 8.5%); Mo (0.5 - 8%); Cr (0.5 - 12%); Si (0.2 - 0.5%); Mn(0.2 - 2.5%); V(0.5 - 6%); Sn(2.0 - 3.0%); Fe(0.1 - 1.0%); Zr(2.0 - 12.0%). The atom absorption method with flame atomization of the sample provides for best results if the alloy is dissolved in a mixture HCl + HBF 4 in the ratio 2:1. In order to obtain correct results the standard solutions must contain titanium in concentrations corresponding to the weight of the sample being analyzed. Sensitivity of zirconium determination may be increased approximately twofold by adding 10 mg/ml of FeCl 3 into the solution. Being as precise, as the classic analytical methods, the atom absorption technique is about 5 times more efficient

  11. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    Zircon, a zirconium silicate, is currently the most important commercial zirconium-bearing mineral. Baddeleyite, a natural form of zirconia, is less important but has some specific end uses. Both zircon and baddeleyite occur in hard-rock and placer deposits, but at present all zircon production is from placer deposits. Most baddeleyite production is from hard-rock deposits, principally as a byproduct of copper and phosphate-rock mining. World zirconium resources in identified, economically exploitable deposits are about 46 times current production rates. Of these resources, some 71 percent are in South Africa, Australia, and the United States. The principal end uses of zirconium minerals are in ceramic applications and as refractories, abrasives, and mold linings in foundries. A minor amount, mainly of zircon, is used for the production of hafnium-free zirconium metal, which is used principally for sheathing fuel elements in nuclear reactors and in the chemical-processing industry, aerospace engineering, and electronics. Australia and South Africa are the largest zircon producers and account for more than 70 percent of world output; the United States and the Soviet Union account for another 20 percent. South Africa accounts for almost all the world's production of baddeleyite, which is about 2 percent of world production of contained zirconia. Australia and South Africa are the largest exporters of zircon. Unless major new deposits are developed in countries that have not traditionally produced zircon, the pattern of world production is unlikely to change by 2020. The proportions, however, of production that come from existing producing countries may change somewhat.

  12. Hybrid materials of kaolinite clay with polypyrrole and polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Kerstin A; Johnston, James H; Borrmann, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Composites of the alumino silicate mineral kaolinite, with the conducting polymers polypyrrole and polyaniline have been successfully synthesised. In doing so hybrid materials have been produced in which the high surface area of the mineral is retained, whilst also incorporating the desired chemical and physical properties of the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy shows polypyrrole coatings to comprise of individual polymer spheres, approximately 10 to 15 nm in diameter. The average size of the polymer spheres of polyaniline was observed to be approximately 5 nm in diameter. These spheres fuse together in a continuous sheet to coat the kaolinite platelets in their entirety. The reduction of silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles onto the redox active surface of the polymers has also been successful, and thus imparts anti-microbial properties to the hybrid materials. This gives rise to further applications requiring the inhibition of microbial growth. The chemical and physical characterization of the hybrid materials has been undertaken through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electrical conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction, infra red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and the testing of their anti-microbial activity.

  13. The Electrical Conductivity of Stretched Polyaniline and Polypyrrole Coated Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nouri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The nylon and nylon/lycra yarns were coated with electrically conductive polymers such as polyaniline and polypyrrole, via chemical polymerization process. Electrical conductivity of the coated yarns was measured at variousstrain levels using two-point probe technique and their strain sensitivities were studied. The results showed that, electrical conductivity of the coated yarns decreased with an increase in strain level. A sharp decrease in the electrical conductivity of the nylon/lycra coated yarn with the strain level was recorded whereas, a small drop in the electrical conductivity of the nylon coated yarn was observed. Linear relationships were found between the electrical conductivity and length for the nylon and nylon/lycra coated yarns. The polyaniline coated yarns showed higher strain sensitivity compared to polypyrrole coated yarns. Repeatability of the strain sensitivity of the coated yarns was examined and the coated nylon/lycra yarn showed better repeatability compared to that of coated nylon yarn. The coated yarns were proposed as a flexible strain sensor in the field of intelligent materials.

  14. High performance polypyrrole coating for corrosion protection and biocidal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Amit; Qiao, Mingyu; Cook, Jonathan Edwin; Zhang, Xinyu; Huang, Tung-Shi

    2018-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) coating was electrochemically synthesized on carbon steel using sulfonic acids as dopants: p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA), sulfuric acid (SA), (±) camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). The effect of acidic dopants (p-TSA, SA, CSA) on passivation of carbon steel was investigated by linear potentiodynamic and compared with morphology and corrosion protection performance of the coating produced. The types of the dopants used were significantly affecting the protection efficiency of the coating against chloride ion attack on the metal surface. The corrosion performance depends on size and alignment of dopant in the polymer backbone. Both p-TSA and SDBS have extra benzene ring that stack together to form a lamellar sheet like barrier to chloride ions thus making them appropriate dopants for PPy coating in suppressing the corrosion at significant level. Further, adhesion performance was enhanced by adding long chain carboxylic acid (decanoic acid) directly in the monomer solution. In addition, PPy coating doped with SDBS displayed excellent biocidal abilities against Staphylococcus aureus. The polypyrrole coatings on carbon steels with dual function of anti-corrosion and excellent biocidal properties shows great potential application in the industry for anti-corrosion/antimicrobial purposes.

  15. Polypyrrole Actuators Working at 2 to 30 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    2007-01-01

    “Soft actuators” based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) may be especially suitable for use in combination with human limbs. A research project under the European Union Quality of Life program (DRIFTS, Dynamically Responsive Intervention for Tremor Suppression, http://www.gerontech.org.......“Soft actuators” based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) may be especially suitable for use in combination with human limbs. A research project under the European Union Quality of Life program (DRIFTS, Dynamically Responsive Intervention for Tremor Suppression, http......://www.gerontech.org.il/drifts/) focuses on the development of practical tremor suppression orthoses prototypes [1]. One of the choices of actuation mechanism is to use conducting polymers. The main challenge is to provide significant forces at the frequencies relevant to tremor in upper limbs: 2-16 Hz. Forces in the range of 0.1-1 kg......, and 0.32 mm at 15 Hz for the 1 kg limit. The required mass of the actuator itself at 15 Hz is ~100 mg. The results indicate the feasibility of using PPy actuators for tremor suppression....

  16. Environmental Effects on the Polypyrrole Tri-layer Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirul Masurkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroactive polymer actuators such as polypyrrole (PPy are exciting candidates to drive autonomous devices that require low weight and low power. A simple PPy tri-layer bending type cantilever which operates in the air has been demonstrated previously, but the environmental effect on this actuator is still unknown. The major obstacle in the development of the PPy tri-layer actuator is to create proper packaging that reduces oxidation of the electrolyte and maintains constant displacement. Here, we report the variation in the displacement as well as the charge transfer at the different environmental condition. PPy trilayer actuators were fabricated by depositing polypyrrole on gold-coated porous poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF using the electro-synthesis method. It has been demonstrated that the charge transfer of tri-layer actuators is more in an inert environment than in open air. In addition, tri-layer actuators show constant deflection and enhancement of life due to the negligible oxidation rate of the electrolyte in an inert environment.

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL SYNTHEZIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPYRROLE FOR DODECYLSULFATE SENSOR MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haris Watoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A conducting polymer, polypyrrole, has been electrochemically synthesized from pyrrole monomer using cyclic voltammetry technique in aqueous solution in the presence of HDS dopant and KNO3 supporting electrolyte. The polymer was deposited on the surface of an Au-wire and the modified electrode obtained was then used as dodecylsulfate (DS- ion sensor electrode. The best performance PPy-DS modified-Au electrode conditioned in the air system without HDS or SDS solution gave linear potential response for the concentration range of 1.0 x 10-5 - 1.0 x 10-3 M, sensitivity of 54.5 mV/decade, detection limit of 1.0 x 10-5 M, and response time of 23 - 30 second.  The electrode showed good selectivity towards other anions, therefore can be used to determine SDS concentration in real samples system without any change of the samples matrix.   Keywords: polypyrrole, SDS, cyclic voltammetry

  18. Capacitive properties of polypyrrole/activated carbon composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porjazoska-Kujundziski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy and polypyrrole / activated carbon (PPy / AC - composite films, with a thickness between 0.5 and 15 μm were performed in a three electrode cell containing 0.1 mol dm-3 Py, 0.5 mol dm-3 NaClO4 dissolved in ACN, and dispersed particles of AC (30 g dm-3. Electrochemical characterization of PPy and PPy / AC composites was performed using cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. The linear dependences of the capacitance (qC, redox capacitance (qred, and limiting capacitance (CL of PPy and PPy / AC - composite films on their thickness (L, obtained by electrochemical and impedance analysis, indicate a nearly homogeneous distribution of the incorporated AC particles in the composite films (correlation coefficient between 0.991 and 0.998. The significant enhancement of qC, qred, and CL, was observed for composite films (for ∼40 ± 5% in respect to that of the “pure” PPy. The decreased values of a volume resistivity in the reduced state of the composite film, ρ = 1.3 ⋅ 106 Ω cm (for L = 7.5 μm, for two orders of magnitude, compared to that of PPy - film with the same thickness, ρ ∼ 108 Ω cm, was also noticed.

  19. Biocompatible xanthan/polypyrrole scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasques Bueno, Vania; Harumi Takahashi, Suelen; Catalani, Luiz Henrique; Cordoba de Torresi, Susana Ines; Siqueira Petri, Denise Freitas, E-mail: dfsp@iq.usp.br

    2015-07-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) was electropolymerized in xanthan hydrogels (XCA), resulting in electroactive XCAPPy scaffolds with (15 ± 3) wt.% PPy and (40 ± 10) μm thick. The physicochemical characterization of hybrid XCAPPy scaffolds was performed by means of cyclic voltammetry, swelling tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile tests. XCAPPy swelled ~ 80% less than XCA. FTIR spectra and thermal analyses did not evidence strong interaction between PPy and XCA matrix. XCAPPy presented a porous stratified structure resulting from the arrangement of PPy chains parallel to XCA surface. Under stress XCAPPy presented larger strain than neat XCA probably due to the sliding of planar PPy chains. The adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts onto XCA and XCAPPy were evaluated in the absence and in the presence of external magnetic field (EMF) of 0.4 T, after one day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Fibroblast proliferation was more pronounced onto XCAPPy than onto XCA, due to its higher hydrophobicity and surface roughness. EMF stimulated cell proliferation onto both scaffolds. - Highlights: • Hybrid networks of xanthan and polypyrrole were used as scaffolds for fibroblasts. • Hybrid networks were more hydrophobic and more elastic than neat xanthan. • Cell proliferation onto hybrid networks and neat xanthan increased with the time. • Cell proliferation was more pronounced onto hybrid networks than on neat xanthan. • External magnetic field stimulated cell growth onto hybrid networks and neat xanthan.

  20. Morphology and electrical properties of template-synthesized polypyrrole nanocylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mativetsky, J.M.; Datars, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Polypyrrole nanocylinders were fabricated by chemically synthesizing polypyrrole within the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate particle track-etched membranes. The morphology of the nanostructures was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanocylinders were observed to be cigar-shaped, with the diameter at the center being up to 2.5 times the diameter at the ends. The electrical conductivity of the nanocylinders was measured by leaving the nanocylinders embedded in the insulating template membrane and measuring the trans-membrane resistance. The cigar-like shape of the nanocylinders was taken into account in calculating the conductivity. Contrary to previous reports, the smallest diameter nanocylinders exhibited a slightly lower conductivity relative to the larger diameter nanocylinders. The temperature dependence of the resistance and magnetoresistance was in accordance with Mott variable range hopping at temperatures above 5±1 K and Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping at temperatures below 5±1 K. Based on the measurements in the Mott regime, the localization length, the density of states at the Fermi energy, and the temperature dependence of the average hopping distance were calculated

  1. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  2. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2016-01-01

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  3. Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite as a potential adsorbent for Cr (VI) removal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Setshedi, KZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliated polypyrrole-organically modified montmorillonite clay nanocomposite (PPy OMMT NC), was prepared as a potential adsorbent, via in situ polymerization of pyrrole monomer for adsorption of toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The WAXD...

  4. Optimisation of polypyrrole/Nafion composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Sattler, Rita R.; Garsuch, Arnd; Yepez, Omar; Pickup, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    Acidic and neutral Nafion[reg] 115 perfluorosulphonate membranes have been modified by in situ polymerization of pyrrole using Fe(III) and H 2 O 2 as oxidizing agents, in order to decrease methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells. Improved selectivities for proton over methanol transport and improved fuel cell performances were only obtained with membranes that were modified while in the acid form. Use of Fe(III) as the oxidizing agent can produce a large decrease in methanol crossover, but causes polypyrrole deposition on the surface of the membrane. This increases the resistance of the membrane, and leads to poor fuel cell performances due to poor bonding with the electrodes. Surface polypyrrole deposition can be minimized, and surface polypyrrole can be removed, by using H 2 O 2 . The use of Nafion in its tetrabutylammonium form leads to very low methanol permeabilities, and appears to offer potential for manipulating the location of polypyrrole within the Nafion structure

  5. Biocomposites of nanofibrillated cellulose, polypyrrole, and silver nanoparticles with electroconductive and antimicrobial properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Liu, J.; Mikkonen, K. S.; Ihalainen, P.; Pesonen, M.; Plumed-Ferrer, C.; Von Wright, A.; Lindfors, T.; Xu, C.; Latonen, R.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2014), s. 3655-3663 ISSN 1525-7797 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biocomposites * polypyrrole * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.750, year: 2014

  6. Investigation of Zirconium Oxide Films in Different Dissolved Hydrogen Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeho; Choi, Kyoung Joon; Yoo, Seung Chang; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that in pre-transition zirconium oxide, the volume fraction of tetragonal zirconium oxide increased near the oxide/metal (O/M) interface, and the sub-stoichiometric zirconium oxide layer was observed. The diffusion of oxygen ion through the oxide layer is the rate-limiting process during the pre-transition oxidation process, and this diffusion mainly occurs in the grain boundaries. The two layered oxide structure is formed in pre-transition oxide for the zirconium alloy in high-temperature water environment. It is known that the corrosion rate is related to the volume fraction of zirconium oxide and the pores in the oxides; therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate the oxidation behavior in the pre-transition zirconium oxide in high-temperature water chemistry. In this study, in situ Raman and TEM analysis were conducted for investigating the phase transformation of zirconium alloy in primary water. From this study, the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The zirconium alloy was oxidized in primary water chemistry for 100 d, and Raman and TEM were measured after 30, 50, 80, and 100 d from start-up. 2. TEM and FFT analysis showed that the zirconium oxide mostly consisted of the monoclinic phase. The tetragonal zirconium oxide was just found near the O/M interface

  7. Determination of zirconium by fluoride ion selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanty, B.N.; Sonar, V.R.; Gaikwad, R.; Raul, S.; Das, D.K.; Prakash, A.; Afzal, Md.; Panakkal, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Zirconium is used in a wide range of applications including nuclear clad, catalytic converters, surgical appliances, metallurgical furnaces, superconductors, ceramics, lamp filaments, anti corrosive alloys and photographical purposes. Irradiation testing of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuel pins has also demonstrated their feasibility as fuel in liquid metal reactors. Different methods that are employed for the determination of zirconium are spectrophotometry, potentiometry, neutron activation analysis and mass spectrometry. Ion-selective electrode (ISE), selective to zirconium ion has been studied for the direct potentiometric measurements of zirconium ions in various samples. In the present work, an indirect method has been employed for the determination of zirconium in zirconium nitrate sample using fluoride ion selective electrode. This method is based on the addition of known excess amount of fluoride ion to react with the zirconium ion to produce zirconium tetra fluoride at about pH 2-3, followed by determination of residual fluoride ion selective electrode. The residual fluoride ion concentrations were determined from the electrode potential data using calibration plot. Subsequently, zirconium ion concentrations were determined from the concentration of consumed fluoride ions. A precision of about 2% (RSD) with the mean recovery of more than 94% has been achieved for the determination of zirconium at the concentration of 4.40 X 10 -3 moles lit -1

  8. Synthesis of polypyrrole nanowires with positive effect on MC3T3-E1 cell functions through electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuan; Wang, Shihui [Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Mu, Jing, E-mail: mujing@picb.ac.cn [Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences-Max Planck Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Dai, Lingfeng [Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Zhong [Department of Stomatology, The Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Sun, Yanan; Shi, Wei [Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Ge, Dongtao, E-mail: gedt@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Biomaterials, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) possesses good biocompatibility and conductivity and has been used as functional coatings in bone tissue regeneration. In this study, a cholic acid doped PPy nanowires (PPy NWs) coating was electrochemically polymerized on the surface of titanium (Ti). The porous intertwined PPy NWs coating exhibited excellent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity, better hydrophilicity and higher surface energy. In vitro cell experiments demonstrated that the PPy NWs coating together with a 10 μA substrate-mediate electrical stimulation (ES) was capable to positive regulate the functions of MC3T3-E1 such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Further long-term functions of cell tests including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bone-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGP) and calcium deposition were all thoroughly increased. These confirmed that the combination of PPy NWs and ES could accelerate MC3T3-E1 cells mature and osteogenesis. Hence, the PPy NWs coating was an electro bioactive coating and may have potential applications in the treatment of bone damage repairing and regeneration with ES. - Highlights: • The porous PPy nanowire coating was electrochemically polymerized on Ti. • PPy NWs had good electrical conductivity, electrochemical stability and hydrophilicity. • Pure PPy NWs with ES could obviously promote the growth and cell functions of MC3T3-E1.

  9. Synthesis of polypyrrole nanowires with positive effect on MC3T3-E1 cell functions through electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yuan; Wang, Shihui; Mu, Jing; Dai, Lingfeng; Zhang, Zhong; Sun, Yanan; Shi, Wei; Ge, Dongtao

    2017-01-01

    Conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) possesses good biocompatibility and conductivity and has been used as functional coatings in bone tissue regeneration. In this study, a cholic acid doped PPy nanowires (PPy NWs) coating was electrochemically polymerized on the surface of titanium (Ti). The porous intertwined PPy NWs coating exhibited excellent electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity, better hydrophilicity and higher surface energy. In vitro cell experiments demonstrated that the PPy NWs coating together with a 10 μA substrate-mediate electrical stimulation (ES) was capable to positive regulate the functions of MC3T3-E1 such as cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Further long-term functions of cell tests including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, bone-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein (BGP) and calcium deposition were all thoroughly increased. These confirmed that the combination of PPy NWs and ES could accelerate MC3T3-E1 cells mature and osteogenesis. Hence, the PPy NWs coating was an electro bioactive coating and may have potential applications in the treatment of bone damage repairing and regeneration with ES. - Highlights: • The porous PPy nanowire coating was electrochemically polymerized on Ti. • PPy NWs had good electrical conductivity, electrochemical stability and hydrophilicity. • Pure PPy NWs with ES could obviously promote the growth and cell functions of MC3T3-E1.

  10. Simple One-Step Method to Synthesize Polypyrrole-Indigo Carmine-Silver Nanocomposite

    OpenAIRE

    Loguercio, Lara Fernandes; Demingos, Pedro; Manica, Luiza de Mattos; Griep, Jordana Borges; Santos, Marcos José Leite; Ferreira, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    A nanocomposite of indigo carmine doped polypyrrole/silver nanoparticles was obtained by a one-step electrochemical process. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The simple one-step process allowed the growth of silver nanoparticles during the polymerization of polypyrrole, resulting in films with electrochromic behavior and improved electroactivity. In addition, poly...

  11. Trapping of microwave radiation in hollow polypyrrole microsphere through enhanced internal reflection: A novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ritwik Panigrahi; Suneel K. Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    In present work, spherical core (polystyrene, PS)/shell (polypyrrole, PPy) has been synthesized via in situ chemical oxidative copolymerization of pyrrole (Py) on the surface of sulfonated PS microsphere followed by the formation of hollow polypyrrole (HPPy) shell by dissolving PS inner core in THF. Thereafter, we first time established that such fabricated novel art of morphology acts as a conducting trap in absorbing electromagnetic (EM) wave by internal reflection. Further studies have bee...

  12. POLYPYRROLE COATED CELLULOSIC SUBSTRATE MODIFIED BY COPPER OXIDE AS ELECTRODE FOR NITRATE ELECTROREDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. HAMAM; D. OUKIL; A. DIB; H. HAMMACHE; L. MAKHLOUFI; B. SAIDANI

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to synthesize polypyrrole (PPy) films on nonconducting cellulosic substrate and modified by copper oxide particles for use in the nitrate electroreduction process. Firstly, the chemical polymerization of polypyrrole onto cellulosic substrate is conducted by using FeCl3 as an oxidant and pyrrole as monomer. The thickness and topography of the different PPy films obtained were estimated using a profilometer apparatus. The electrochemical reactivity of the obtained electr...

  13. Conducting polypyrrole films as a potential tool for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in textile wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Md. Mominul [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Smith, Warren T. [Samadha Pacifica Pty Ltd, Woonona, NSW 2517 (Australia); Wong, Danny K.Y., E-mail: Danny.Wong@mq.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Anion exchange property of polypyrrole films exploited in developing a treatment method for Acid Red 1. • An environmentally friendly treatment method for Acid Red 1 without generating any toxic by-products. • Acid Red 1 is anodically entrapped and cathodically liberated at polypyrrole films. • Analytical characteristics of Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole films. - Abstract: In this paper, we demonstrate conducting polypyrrole films as a potential green technology for electrochemical treatment of azo dyes in wastewaters using Acid Red 1 as a model analyte. These films were synthesised by anodically polymerising pyrrole in the presence of Acid Red 1 as a supporting electrolyte. In this way, the anionic Acid Red 1 is electrostatically attracted to the cationic polypyrrole backbone formed to maintain electroneutrality, and is thus entrapped in the film. These Acid Red 1-entrapped polypyrrole films were characterised by electrochemical, microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Based on a two-level factorial design, the solution pH, Acid Red 1 concentration and polymerisation duration were identified as significant parameters affecting the entrapment efficiency. The entrapment process will potentially aid in decolourising Acid Red 1-containing wastewaters. Similarly, in a cathodic process, electrons are supplied to neutralise the polypyrrole backbone, liberating Acid Red 1 into a solution. In this work, following an entrapment duration of 480 min in 2000 mg L{sup −1} Acid Red 1, we estimated 21% of the dye was liberated after a reduction period of 240 min. This allows the recovery of Acid Red 1 for recycling purposes. A distinctive advantage of this electrochemical Acid Red 1 treatment, compared to many other techniques, is that no known toxic by-products are generated in the treatment. Therefore, conducting polypyrrole films can potentially be applied as an environmentally friendly treatment method for textile effluents.

  14. The influence of monomer concentration on the optical properties of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thombare, J. V.; Fulari, V. J.; Rath, M. C.; Han, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) thin films were deposited on stainless steel and ITO coated glass substrate at a constant deposition potential of 0.8 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) by using the electrochemical polymerization method. The PPy thin films were deposited at room temperature at various monomer concentrations ranging from 0.1 M to 0.3 M pyrrole. The structural and optical properties of the polypyrrole thin films were investigated using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet—visible (UV—vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results show that polypyrrole thin films have a semi crystalline structure. Higher monomer concentration results in a slight increase of crystallinity. The polypyrrole thin films deposited at higher monomer concentration exhibit high visible absorbance. The refractive indexes of the polypyrrole thin films are found to be in the range of 1 to 1.3 and vary with monomer concentration as well as wavelength. The extinction coefficient decreases slightly with monomer concentration. The electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole thin film shows optical band gap energy of 2.14 eV. (semiconductor materials)

  15. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  16. Classification of titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias B, L.R.; Garcia C, R.M.; Maya M, M.E.; Ita T, A. De; Palacios G, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) and the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy techniques are used with the purpose to achieve a complete identification of phases and mixture of phases of a crystalline material as titanium dioxide. The problem for solving consists of being able to distinguish a sample of titanium dioxide being different than a titanium dioxide pigment. A standard sample of titanium dioxide with NIST certificate is used, which indicates a purity of 99.74% for the TiO 2 . The following way is recommended to proceed: a)To make an analysis by means of X-ray diffraction technique to the sample of titanium dioxide pigment and on the standard of titanium dioxide waiting not find differences. b) To make a chemical analysis by the X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy via in a microscope, taking advantage of the high vacuum since it is oxygen which is analysed and if it is concluded that the aluminium oxide appears in a greater proportion to 1% it is established that is a titanium dioxide pigment, but if it is lesser then it will be only titanium dioxide. This type of analysis is an application of the nuclear techniques useful for the tariff classification of merchandise which is considered as of difficult recognition. (Author)

  17. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  18. Advances in zirconium technology for nuclear reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Zirconium alloys are extensively used as a material for cladding nuclear fuels and for making core structurals of water-cooled nuclear power reactors all over the world for generation of nearly 16 percent of the worlds electricity. Only four countries in the world, namely France, USA, Russia and India, have large zirconium industry and capability to manufacture reactor grade zirconium sponge, a number of zirconium alloys and a wide variety of structural components for water cooled nuclear reactor. The present paper summarises the status of zirconium technology and highlights the achievement of Nuclear Fuel Complex during the last ten years in developing a wide variety of zirconium alloys and components for water-cooled nuclear power programme

  19. Investigation of anodic oxide coatings on zirconium after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, Maciej; Dercz, Grzegorz; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Simka, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxide layers prepared via PEO of zirconium were subjected to heat treatment. • Surface characteristics were determined for the obtained oxide coatings. • Heat treatment led to the partial destruction of the anodic oxide layer. • Pitting corrosion resistance of zirconium was improved after the modification. - Abstract: Herein, results of heat treatment of zirconium anodised under plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) conditions at 500–800 °C are presented. The obtained oxide films were investigated by means of SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The corrosion resistance of the zirconium specimens was evaluated in Ringer's solution. A bilayer oxide coatings generated in the course of PEO of zirconium were not observed after the heat treatment. The resulting oxide layers contained a new sublayer located at the metal/oxide interface is suggested to originate from the thermal oxidation of zirconium. The corrosion resistance of the anodised metal was improved after the heat treatment

  20. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Zirconium -Oxide Materials presented at/published to the Journal of General Dentistry with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local file #16208. 2...Zirconia-Oxide Materials 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...OBSOLETE 48. DATE Page 3 of 3 Pages Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials

  1. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of treating cold worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain growth during thermal treatment above its recrystallization temperature. The method comprises heating the zirconium alloy at a temperature of about 1300 0 F. to 1350 0 F. for about 1 to 3 hours subsequent to cold working the zirconium alloy and prior to the thermal treatment at a temperature of between 1450 0 -1550 0 F., the thermal treatment temperature being above the recrystallization temperature

  2. Preparation of zirconium molybdate gel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, S.; Aungurarat, G.; Laohawilai, S.; Sukontpradit, W.; Jingjit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of 99mTc generator based on conversion to zirconium molybdate gel of 99Mo produced by neutron activation was reported. The gel was prepared from zirconium oxychloride solution pH 1.6, ammonium molybdate solution pH 3-5 and mole ratio of Zr:Mo 1:1 which had water content about 7-8%. Small generators containing 1-1.5 g of gel were eluted with average efficiencies of 77% and the activity peak in the first 3 ml of 10 ml of saline solution. The amount of Mo and Zr in eluates were below the acceptance limit. The gel generators of activity about 100 mCi were prepared and had the good performance in elutability and stability

  3. Study of some properties of zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospert, J.

    1963-05-01

    Zirconium phosphate has been studied with a view to using it as an ion exchanger: the first objective was to develop a method of preparation easy to apply and also reproducible. To this end, several tests were carried out varying the molar ratios of phosphorus and of zirconium. Some physical properties such as the diffraction of X-rays were examined. The work then involved certain chemical properties, particularly the percentages of free water and structural water given by the loss on calcination, the Karl-Fisher method and the weight losses by thermogravimetry. Finally an attempts was made to apply the exchanger to the separation of alkaline ions. The static tests showed that the order of fixation of these ions was Cs + > Rb + >> K + > Na + . Tests with columns showed that Na + and K + were easily separable, as was the Rb + -Cs + mixture, this last pair being fairly difficult to dissociate. (author) [fr

  4. Separation process of zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hure, J.; Saint-James, R.

    1955-01-01

    About the separation different processes of zirconium-hafnium, the extraction by solvent in cross-current is the most easily the process usable on an industrial scale. It uses tributyl phosphate as solvent, diluted with white spirit to facilitate the decanting. Some exploratory tests showed that nitric environment seemed the most favorable for extraction; but a lot of other factors intervene in the separation process. We studied the influence of the acidity successively, the NO 3 - ions concentration, the role of the cation coming with NO 3 - , as well as the influence of the concentration of zirconium in the solution on the separation coefficient β = α Zr / α Hf . (M.B.) [fr

  5. Sorption of Europium in zirconium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.

    2004-01-01

    Some minerals have the property of sipping radioactive metals in solution, that it takes advantage to manufacture contention barriers that are placed in the repositories of nuclear wastes. The more recent investigations are focused in the development of new technologies guided to the sorption of alpha emissors on minerals which avoid their dispersion in the environment. In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this type of properties, some studies of sorption of Europium III are presented like homologous of the americium, on the surface of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ). In this work the results of sorption experiences are presented as well as the interpretation of the phenomena of the formation of species in the surface of the zirconium silicate. (Author)

  6. Electrowinning molten titanium from titanium dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in it quest for global competitiveness CSIR Manufacturing and Materials Technology 3 Rationale – Titanium Cost Build-up Material Cost Ilmenite $0.27/kg Ti sponge Titanium slag $0.75/kg Ti Sponge TiCl4 and TiO2 $3....10/kg Ti Sponge Ti Sponge raw materials costs $5.50/kg Ti Sponge Total Ti Sponge cost $9-$11/kg Ti Sponge Ti ingot $15-17/kg Ti Aluminium $1.7/kg Al Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitivenessorting...

  7. New solvent extraction process for zirconium and hafnium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Katoh, Y.; Miyazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The authors' company developed a new solvent extraction process for zirconium and hafnium separation, and started production of zirconium sponge by this new process in September 1979. The process utilizes selective extraction of zirconium oxysulfate using high-molecular alkyl amine, and has the following advantages: 1. This extraction system has a separation factor as high as 10 to 20 for zirconium and hafnium in the range of suitable acid concentration. 2. In the scrubbing section, removal of all the hafnium that coexists with zirconium in the organic solvent can be effectively accomplished by using scrubbing solution containing hafnium-free zirconium sulfate. Consequently, hafnium in the zirconium sponge obtained is reduced to less than 50 ppm. 3. The extractant undergoes no chemical changes but is very stable for a long period. In particular, its solubility in water is small, about 20 ppm maximum, posing no environmental pollution problems such as are often caused by other process raffinates. At the present time, the zirconium and hafnium separation operation is very stable, and zirconium sponge made by this process can be applied satisfactorily to nuclear reactors

  8. Traps in Zirconium Alloys Oxide Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Frank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxide films long-time grown on tubes of three types of zirconium alloys in water and in steam were investigated, by analysing I-V characteristic measured at constant voltages with various temperatures. Using theoretical concepts of Rose [3] and Gould [5], ZryNbSn(Fe proved to have an exponential distribution of trapping centers below the conduction band edge, wheras Zr1Nb and IMP Zry-4 proved to have single energy trap levels.

  9. Structure of zirconium dioxide based porous glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gubanova, N. N.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Ezdakova, K. V.; Baranchikov, A. Y.; Angelov, Borislav; Feoktystov, A.; Pipich, V.; Ryukhtin, Vasyl; Ivanov, V. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2014), s. 967-975 ISSN 1027-4510 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : zirconium dioxide * porous glasse * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (UJF-V) Impact factor: 0.359, year: 2012

  10. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  11. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.; Martins, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  12. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  13. Study of zirconium-addition binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniakova, B.; Kuchar, L.

    1975-01-01

    The curves are given of the solid and the liquid of binary zirconium-addition systems. Most additions reduce the melting temperature of zirconium. The only known additions to increase the melting temperature are nitrogen, oxygen and hafnium. Also given are the transformation curves of the systems and the elements are given which reduce or raise the temperature of α-β transformation. From the Mendeleev table into which are plotted the curves of the solid and the liquid of binary systems it is possible to predict the properties of unknown binary systems. For the calculations of the curves of the solid and the liquid, 1860 degC was taken as the temperature of zirconium melting. For the calculations of transformation curves, 865 degC was taken as the temperature of α-β transformation. The equations are given of the curves of the solid and the liquid and of the transformation curves of some Zr-addition systems. Also given are the calculated equilibrium distribution coefficients and the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the transformation of additions in Zr and their limit values for temperatures approximating the melting point or the temperature of the transformation of pure Zr, and the values pertaining to eutectic and peritectic or eutectoid and peritectoid temperatures. (J.B.)

  14. Development of zirconium alloy tube manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Kyu; Park, Chan Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Chung, Sun Kyo

    2009-01-01

    In late 2004, Korea Nuclear Fuel Company (KNF) launched a government funded joint development program with Westinghouse Electric Co. (WEC) to establish zirconium alloy tube manufacturing technology in Korea. Through this program, KNF and WEC have developed a state of the art facility to manufacture high quality nuclear tubes. KNF performed equipment qualification tests for each manufacturing machine with the support of WEC, and independently carried out product qualification tests for each tube product to be commercially produced. Apart from those tests, characterization test program consisting of specification test and characterization test was developed by KNF and WEC to demonstrate to customers of KNF the quality equivalency of products manufactured by KNF and WEC plants respectively. As part of establishment of performance evaluation technology for zirconium alloy tube in Korea, KNF carried out analyses of materials produced for the characterization test program using the most advanced techniques. Thanks to the accomplishment of the development of zirconium alloy tube manufacturing technology, KNF is expected to acquire positive spin off benefits in terms of technology and economy in the near future

  15. Neutronographic Texture Analysis of Zirconium Based Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruz'elová, M; Vratislav, S; Kalvoda, L; Dlouhá, M

    2012-01-01

    Neutron diffraction is a very powerful tool in texture analysis of zirconium based alloys used in nuclear technique. Textures of five samples (two rolled sheets and three tubes) were investigated by using basal pole figures, inversion pole figures, and ODF distribution function. The texture measurement was performed at diffractometer KSN2 on the Laboratory of Neutron Diffraction, Department of Solid State Engineering, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague. Procedures for studying textures with thermal neutrons and procedures for obtaining texture parameters (direct and inverse pole figures, three dimensional orientation distribution function) are also described. Observed data were processed by software packages HEXAL and GSAS. Our results can be summarized as follows: i) All samples of zirconium alloys show the distribution of middle area into two maxima in basal pole figures. This is caused by alloying elements. A characteristic split of the basal pole maxima tilted from the normal direction toward the transverse direction can be observed for all samples, ii) Sheet samples prefer orientation of planes (100) and (110) perpendicular to rolling direction and orientation of planes (002) perpendicular to normal direction, iii) Basal planes of tubes are oriented parallel to tube axis, meanwhile (100) planes are oriented perpendicular to tube axis. Level of resulting texture and maxima position is different for tubes and for sheets. The obtained results are characteristic for zirconium based alloys.

  16. low dose irradiation growth in zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortis, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Low dose neutron irradiation growth in textured and recrystallized zirconium, is studied, at the Candu Reactors Calandria temperature (340 K) and at 77 K. It was necessary to design and build 1: A facility to irradiate at high temperatures, which was installed in the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission's RA1 Reactor; 2: Devices to carry out thermal recoveries, and 3: Devices for 'in situ' measurements of dimensional changes. The first growth kinetics curves were obtained at 365 K and at 77 K in a cryostat under neutron fluxes of similar spectra. Irradiation growth experiments were made in zirconium doped with fissionable material (0,1 at % 235 U). In this way an equivalent dose two orders of magnitude greater than the reactor's fast neutrons dose was obtained, significantly reducing the irradiation time. The specimens used were bimetallic couples, thus obtaining a great accuracy in the measurements. The results allow to determine that the dislocation loops are the main cause of irradiation growth in recrystallized zirconium. Furthermore, it is shown the importance of 'in situ' measurements as a way to avoid the effect that temperature changes have in the final growth measurement; since they can modify the residual stresses and the overconcentrations of defects. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Development of Zirconium alloys (for pressure tubes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Choo, Ki Nam; Jung, Chung Hwan; Yim, Kyong Soo; Kim, Sung Soo; Baek, Jong Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyong Ho; Cho, Hae Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, S. K.; Kim, M. H. [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, S. I [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, I. S. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this research is to set up the basic technologies for the evaluation of pressure tube integrity and to develop improved zirconium alloys to prevent pressure tube failures due to DHC and hydride blister caused by excessive creep-down of pressure tubes. The experimental procedure and facilities for characterization of pressure tubes were developed. The basic research related to a better understanding of the in-reactor performances of pressure tubes leads to noticeable findings for the first time : the microstructural effect on corrosion and hydrogen pick-up behavior of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes, texture effect on strength and DHC resistance and enhanced recrystallization by Fe in zirconium alloys and etc. Analytical methodology for the assessment of pressure tubes with surface flaws was set up. A joint research is being under way with AECL to determine the fracture toughness of O-8 at the EOL (End of Life) that had been quadruple melted and was taken out of the Wolsung Unit-1 after 10 year operation. In addition, pressure tube with texture controlled is being made along with VNINM in Russia as a joint project between KAERI and Russia. Finally, we succeeded in developing 4 different kinds of zirconium alloys with better corrosion resistance, low hydrogen pickup fraction and higher creep strength. (author). 121 refs., 65 tabs., 260 figs

  18. Work behaviors of artificial muscle based on cation driven polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisue, Hisashi; Sendai, Tomokazu; Yamato, Kentaro; Takashima, Wataru; Kaneto, Keiichi

    2007-06-01

    A soft actuator mimicking natural muscles (artificial muscle) has been developed using a flexible conducting polymer of polypyrrole films, which were driven by electrical stimulus in a saline solution. The work characteristics were studied under various load stresses and found to behave like natural muscles. The artificial muscles shrunk and stiffened by the positive electrical stimulus by 2-3% at the maximum force of 5 MPa, and relaxed by application of negative voltages. At larger load stresses, the artificial muscle shrunk slowly as natural muscles do. The driving current also lasted longer at larger loads, indicating that the muscle sensed the magnitude of the load stress. During contraction of the muscle, the conversion efficiency from the electrical input and mechanical output energies was estimated to be around 0.06%. The maximum volumetric work was approximately estimated to be 100 kJ m(-3). These figures are unexpectedly small compared with those of natural muscles.

  19. Bending behaviour of polypyrrole films with anisotropy for artificial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Shonaka, Hirokazu; Tada, Kazuya

    2006-01-01

    A polypyrrole (PPy) film electrochemically grown in a thin slab vessel consisting of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) walls exhibits a notable anisotropy along the thickness direction. This anisotropy allows the film to bend in a regular direction upon electrochemical undoping and revert upon doping. In this study, the size effect, i.e. the length dependence of reduction current, of the actuator has been studied. The length was changed by trimming the tip of the actuator, 12 mm of which was initially soaked in an electrolyte. It has been clarified that current saturates when the actuator exceeds a certain length. This may reflect the reduction in the conductivity of PPy upon undoping, which makes the tip of the actuator almost insulated from the power source. It is also found that the width of the actuator and the electrolyte do not influence the size effect

  20. Silk-polypyrrole biocompatible actuator performance under biologically relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Jo'elen; Peterson, Ben; Murphy, Amanda; Leger, Janelle

    Biocompatible actuators that are capable of controlled movement and can function under biologically relevant conditions are of significant interest in biomedical fields. Previously, we have demonstrated that a composite material of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) can be formed into a bilayer device that can bend under applied voltage. Further, these silk-PPy composites can generate forces comparable to human muscle (>0.1 MPa) making them ideal candidates for interfacing with biological tissues. Here silk-PPy composite films are tested for performance under biologically relevant conditions including exposure to a complex protein serum and biologically relevant temperatures. Free-end bending actuation performance, current response, force generation and, mass degradation were investigated . Preliminary results show that when exposed to proteins and biologically relevant temperatures, these silk-PPy composites show minimal degradation and are able to generate forces and conduct currents comparable to devices tested under standard conditions. NSF.

  1. The infrared spectrum of polypyrrole-T2O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanesaka, Isao; Oda, Kazuhiro

    1995-01-01

    The infrared spectra of polypyrrole contacting with T 2 O gas were observed for ca. 100 days. After adding T 2 O (1.2 Ci; isotopic purity: 15%) the band at 2180 cm -1 was observed, which is assigned to the N-T stretch. Although the bands at 1560 and 1204 cm -1 were initially strong, they became relatively weak by Tβ-irradiation. On the other hand, the bands at 1655 and 1400 cm -1 , as well as 1700 cm -1 , became relatively strong by Tβ-irradiation. This is explained in that the quinonoid-type structure with partially aromatic-type structure decreases and a structure with probable C=N bonds is formed. It was also found that many carbonyl defects are formed in both the atmosphere and Tβ-radiolysis. (author)

  2. Silver incorporated polypyrrole/polyacrylic acid electrode for electrochemical supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipali S.; Pawar, Sachin A.; Kamble, Archana S.; Patil, Pramod S.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, we study Ag doping effect on the specific capacitance of Polypyrrole/Polyacrylic Acid (PPy/PAA). Ag incorporated films were prepared by simple chemical route. Fourier transform-infrared and Fourier transform-Raman techniques were used for the phase identification. Surface morphology of the films was examined by Field Emission scanning electron microscopy and revealed granular structure for PPY, attached granules for PPy/PAA and granules with bright spots of Ag particles for the PPy/PAA/Ag films. The supercapacitive behavior of the electrodes was tested in three electrode system with 0.1 M H2SO4 electrolyte by using cyclic voltammetry. The highest specific capacitance value 226 Fg-1 was observed for the PPy/PAA/Ag film.

  3. Ionic polymer metal composites with polypyrrole-silver electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, F.; Grillo, A.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft active materials that are finding increasing application in robotics, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of IPMCs via in-situ photoinduced polymerization of polypyrrole-silver electrodes on an ionomeric membrane. The composition, morphology, and sheet resistance of the electrodes are extensively characterized through a range of experimental techniques. We experimentally investigate IPMC electrochemistry through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and we propose a modified Randle's model to interpret the impedance spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate in-air dynamic actuation and sensing and assess IPMC performance against more established fabrication methods. Given the simplicity of the process and the short time required for the formation of the electrodes, we envision the application of our technique in the development of a rapid prototyping technology for IPMCs.

  4. Polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate film based disposable nucleic acid biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Nirmal [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Arora, Kavita [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Surinder P. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, Manoj K. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Harpal [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Malhotra, Bansi D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2007-04-18

    Double stranded calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid entrapped polypyrrole-polyvinyl sulphonate (dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS) films fabricated onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass plates have been used to detect organophosphates such as chlorpyrifos and malathion. These disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry, Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. These biosensing electrodes have a response time of 30 s, are stable for about 5 months when stored in desiccated conditions at 25 deg. C and can be used to amperometrically detect chlorpyrifos (0.0016-0.025 ppm) and malathion (0.17-5.0), respectively. The additive effect of these pesticides on the amperometric response of the disposable dsCT-DNA-PPy-PVS/ITO bioelectrodes has also been investigated.

  5. Electrosynthesis and characterization of polypyrrole/Au nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wei [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, C.M. [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: ecmli@ntu.edu.sg; Chen Peng [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, C.Q. [School of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2006-11-12

    Polypyrrole films containing gold nanoparticles (PPy/Au) were electrosynthesized on a glassy carbon electrode. This was done by applying a constant current of 1.43 mA cm{sup -2} in solutions containing colloidal Au particles and pyrrole monomer. A chloroaurate medium with a citrate/tannic acid reducing/protection agent was employed for generating the Au colloids. The PPy/Au films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. Also, electrochemical behaviors of the PPy/Au films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance measurements. Experimental results demonstrate that PPy/Au has greater conductivity and better stability than PPy. The effect of incorporated Au nanoparticles in PPy matrix was studied and the mechanism was suggested.

  6. Polypyrrole RVC biofuel cells for powering medical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Daniel N; Ting, S R Simon; Nguyen, Hung T

    2017-07-01

    Batteries for implanted medical devices such as pacemakers typically require surgical replacement every 5 to 10 years causing stress to the patient and their families. A Biofuel cell uses two electrodes with enzymes embedded to convert sugar into electricity. To evaluate the power producing capabilities of biofuel cells to replace battery technology, polypyrrole electrodes were fabricated by compression with Glucose oxidase and Laccase. Vitreous carbon was added to increase the conductivity, whilst glutaraldehyde acted as a crosslinking molecule. A maximum open circuit potential of 558.7 mV, short circuit current of 1.09 mA and maximum power of 0.127 mW was obtained from the fuel cells. This was able to turn on a medical thermometer through a TI BQ25504 energy harvesting circuit, hence showing the powering potential for biomedical devices.

  7. Magnetoreresistance of carbon nanotube-polypyrrole composite yarns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, R.; Ghorbani, S. R.; Arabi, H.; Foroughi, J.

    2018-05-01

    Three types of samples, carbon nanotube yarn and carbon nanotube-polypyrrole composite yarns had been investigated by measurement of the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The conductivity was well explained by 3D Mott variable range hopping (VRH) law at T < 100 K. Both positive and negative magnetoresistance (MR) were observed by increasing magnetic field. The MR data were analyzed based a theoretical model. A quadratic positive and negative MR was observed for three samples. It was found that the localization length decreases with applied magnetic field while the density of states increases. The increasing of the density of states induces increasing the number of available energy states for hopping. Thus the electron hopping probability increases in between sites with the shorter distance that results to small the average hopping length.

  8. Polypyrrol/chitosan hydrogel hybrid microfiber as sensing artificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Yahya A.; Martínez, Jose G.; Al Harrasi, Ahmad S.; Kim, Seon J.; Fernández Otero, Toribio F.

    2011-04-01

    An electrochemical actuator demands that it should act as a sensor of the working conditions for its efficient application in devices. Actuation and sensing characteristics of a biopolymer/conducting polymer hybrid microfiber artificial muscle fabricated through wet spinning of a chitosan solution followed by in situ chemical polymerization with pyrrol employing bis(triflouro methane sulfonyl) imide as dopant and ferric chloride as a catalyst is presented. The polypyrrol/chitosan hybrid microfiber was investigated by FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrical conductivity measurement, cyclic voltammetric and chronopotentiometric methods. The electrochemical measurements related to the sensing abilities were performed as a function of applied current, concentration and temperature keeping two of the variables constant at a given time using NaCl as electrolyte. Cyclic voltammograms confirmed that the electro activity is imparted by polypyrrol (pPy). The fiber showed an electrical conductivity of 3.21x10-1 Scm-1and an average linear electrochemical actuation strain of 0.54%. The chronopotentiometric responses during the oxidation/reduction processes of the microfiber for the different anodic/cathodic currents and the linear fit observed for the consumed electrical energy during the reaction for various applied currents suggested that it can act as a sensor of applied current. The chronopotentiometric responses and the linear fit of consumed electrical energy at different temperatures suggested that the actuator can act as a temperature sensor. Similarly a semi logarithmic dependence of the consumed electrical energy with concentration of the electrolyte during reaction is suggestive of its applicability as a concentration sensor. The demand that an electrochemical actuator to be a sensor of the working conditions, for its efficient application in devices is thus verified in this material.

  9. Asymmetric electrochemical supercapacitor, based on polypyrrole coated carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polypyrrole (PPy) coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were prepared. • New method is based on the use of new electrochemically active dopants for PPy. • The dopans provided dispersion of MWCNT and promoted PPy coating formation. • Symmetric PPy–MWCNT supercapacitors showed high capacitance and low resistance. • Asymmetric PPy–MWCNT/VN–MWCNT devices and modules allowed larger voltage window. - Abstract: Conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer – multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were synthesized using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) and sulfonazo III sodium salt (CHR-BS) as anionic dopants for chemical polymerization of PPy. The composites were tested for application in electrodes of electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). Sedimentation tests, electrophoretic deposition experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) investigations showed that strong adsorption of anionic CHR-BS on MWCNT provided MWCNT dispersion. The analysis of scanning and transmission electron microscopy data demonstrated that the use of CHR-BS allowed the formation of PPy coatings on MWCNT. As a result, the composites, prepared using CHR-BS, showed higher capacitance, compared to the composites, prepared using SPADNS. The electrodes, containing MWCNT, coated with PPy showed a capacitance of 179 F g −1 for active mass loading of 10 mg cm −2 , good capacitance retention at scan rates in the range of 2–100 mV s −1 and excellent cyclic stability. Asymmetric ES devices, containing positive PPy–MWCNT electrodes and negative vanadium nitride (VN)–MWCNT electrodes showed significant improvement in energy storage performance, compared to the symmetric ES due to the larger voltage window. The low impedance and high capacitance of the individual cells paved the way to the development of modules with higher voltage, which showed good electrochemical performance

  10. Quantitative analysis of nickel in zirconium and zircaloy; Dosage du nickel dans le zirconium et dans le zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastoix, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A rapid spectrophotometric has been developed for determination of 10 to 1000 ppm of Ni in zirconium and zircaloy using dimethylglyoxime. Iron, copper, tin and chromium, do not interfere at the concentration usually present in zirconium and its alloys. (author) [French] On determine colorimetriquenent 10 a 1000 ppm de Ni dans le zirconium et le zircaloy par photo colorimetrie a 440 m{mu} de la dimethylglyoxime nickelique. Le dosage est rapide. Le fer, le cuivre, l'etain, le chrome ne genent pas aux concentrations habituellement rencontrees dans le zirconium et ses alliages. (auteur)

  11. Chitosan patterning on titanium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gilabert Chirivella, Eduardo; Pérez Feito, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Ribeiro, Sylvie; Correia, Daniela; González Martin, María Luisa; Manero Planella, José María; Lanceros Méndez, Senentxu; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Gómez Ribelles, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in medical implants because of their excellent properties. However, bacterial infection is a frequent cause of titanium-based implant failure and also compromises its osseointegration. In this study, we report a new simple method of providing titanium surfaces with antibacterial properties by alternating antibacterial chitosan domains with titanium domains in the micrometric scale. Surface microgrooves were etched on pure titanium disks at i...

  12. Production of titanium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Botbol, O.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from theoperation of a laboratory scale for the production in batches of approximately 100 gs of titanium tetrachloride by chlorination with chloroform and carbon tetrachloride between 340 deg C and 540 deg C. Chlorination agent vapors were passed through a quartz column reacting with titanium oxide powder agglomerated in little spheres. Obtained titanium tetrachloride was condensed in a condenser, taken in a ballon and then purified by fractional distillation. Optimun temperature for chloroform was 400 deg C with 74 % yield and for carbon tetrachloride was 500 deg C with 69 % yield. (Author) [es

  13. Chemical and Electrochemical Synthesis of Polypyrrole Using Carrageenan as a Dopant: Polypyrrole/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafizur Rahaman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, iota-carrageenan (IC and kappa-carrageenan (KC are used as dopants for the chemical and electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy. The composites of chemically synthesized PPy with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs were prepared using an in situ technique. Both the dialyzed and non-dialyzed IC and KC were used as dopants for electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole. Chemically synthesized PPy and PPy/MWNTs composites were studied by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis absorption spectra to investigate the effect of the concentration and the incorporation of MWNTs. In addition, the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and microscopic characterizations of these films were performed to examine the effect of the dopants and MWNTs on these properties, along with their surface morphology. The films of electrochemically polymerized PPy were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. The results were then compared with the chemical polymerized PPy.

  14. Polypyrrole salts and bases: superior conductivity of nanotubes and their stability towards the loss of conductivity by deprotonation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Kopecký, D.; Vrňata, M.; Prokeš, J.; Varga, M.; Watzlová, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 91 (2016), s. 88382-88391 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole salt * polypyrrole base * methyl orange Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  15. Terminal solid solubility of hydrogen in titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroldi, J.P.; Vizcaino, Pablo; Banchik, Abraham David

    2003-01-01

    A Research and Development program to build a data base is currently under progress to support the local titanium fabrication. In the present work the temperature of the Terminal Solid Solubility on dissolution (TSSd) and precipitation (TSSp) of titanium hydrides in the Ti α-phase were both measured in the same thermal cycle with a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The local titanium producer (FAESA) provided ASTM grade 1 pure Ti bars of about 2,5 cm in diameter. Samples weighting between 50 to 200 mg were cut with a diamond disc and the parallelepiped faces were all carefully ground with SiC papers, then picked in a HNO 3 plus HF aqueous solution and finally dried out with ethanol and hot air. Pairs of (TSSd, TSSp) values for α + δ → α and α → α + δ transformation temperatures in titanium were determined with the same calorimetric procedure already used to calculate the TSS values in zirconium. Data were taken from the same sample during the heating up and cooling down cycle of the second calorimeter run made with the same rate of 20 C degrees / minute. The Cathodic Charging technique was used to charge the samples at different hydrogen concentrations between the 'as fabricated' value and the concentration corresponding to the eutectoid temperature. A mixture of glycerin and phosphoric acid in a 2:1 ratio and a current density of 0,05 to 0,1 Amp/cm 2 were applied to different samples during 24 to 96 hours to get a wide range of hydrogen concentrations. A homogenization heat treatment at 400 C degrees for 45 minutes -made at open air in an electric furnace- was applied to each sample to dissolve the massive hydrides at the sample surfaces and diffuse them into the bulk of the sample. The hydrogen concentration of each sample was measured after the final calorimetric run using the Extraction Method in Liquid State under an inert atmosphere using a Leco RH-404 model Hydrogen Determinator. The experimental data follows a linear relationship -with a

  16. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  17. [The clinical application of zirconium-dioxide-ceramics. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Dóra; Zsigmond, Ágnes; Károlyházy, Katalin; Kispély, Barbara; Hermann, Péter

    2015-12-01

    Due to its outstanding physical, mechanical and esthetic properties, zirconium-dioxide is one of the most popular non-metal denture, capable of surpassing PFM in most cases. The recent advances of CAD/CAM technology makes it a good alternitve. Here we show the usefulness of zirconium-dioxide in everyday dental practice through three case reports.

  18. Thermotransport of nitrogen and oxygen in β-zirconium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.L.; Rieck, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation of thermotransport of nitrogen in ß-zirconium is reported. Using a method previously described, the heat of transport turned out to be 25.1 kcal/mole with a standard deviation of 2.5 kcal/mole. The formerly published value of the heat of transport of oxygen in ß-zirconium, viz. 20

  19. Quantitative analysis of nickel in zirconium and zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastoix, M.

    1957-01-01

    A rapid spectrophotometric has been developed for determination of 10 to 1000 ppm of Ni in zirconium and zircaloy using dimethylglyoxime. Iron, copper, tin and chromium, do not interfere at the concentration usually present in zirconium and its alloys. (author) [fr

  20. Effect of zirconium addition on the recrystallization behaviour of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, zirconium was added to a commercial Al–Cu–Mg alloy and by heat treatment Al3Zr particles were precipitated and after forging, the grain size was an order of magnitude lower than the alloy without zirconium. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to characterize the second phase particles, ...

  1. Molten salt scrubbing of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.D.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a continuous process for removing impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both from vaporous zirconium or hafnium chloride or both. It comprises: introducing impure zirconium or hafnium chloride vapor or both into a middle portion of an absorbing column containing a molten salt phase, the molten salt phase absorbing the impurities of iron or aluminum chloride or both to produce chloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium chloride; introducing sodium or potassium chloride or both into a top portion of the column; controlling the top portion of the column to between 300--375 degrees C.; heating a bottom portion of the column to 450--550 degrees C. To vaporize zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride from the molten salt; withdrawing molten salt substantially free of zirconium and hafnium chloride from the bottom portion of the column; and withdrawing zirconium chloride or hafnium chloride or hafnium and zirconium chloride vapor substantially free of impurities of iron and aluminum chloride from the top of the column

  2. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of cotton fabric coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, and with deposited silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maráková, Nela; Humpolíček, Petr; Kašpárková, Věra; Capáková, Zdenka; Martinková, Lenka; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-02-01

    Cotton fabric was coated with conducting polymers, polyaniline or polypyrrole, in situ during the oxidation of respective monomers. Raman and FTIR spectra proved the complete coating of substrates. Polypyrrole content was 19.3 wt.% and that of polyaniline 6.0 wt.%. Silver nanoparticles were deposited from silver nitrate solutions of various concentrations by exploiting the reduction ability of conducting polymers. The content of silver was up to 11 wt.% on polypyrrole and 4 wt.% on polyaniline. The sheet resistivity of fabrics was determined. The conductivity was reduced after deposition of silver. The chemical cleaning reduced the conductivity by less than one order of magnitude for polypyrrole coating, while for polyaniline the decrease was more pronounced. The good antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli and low cytotoxicity of polypyrrole-coated cotton, both with and without deposited silver nanoparticles

  3. Osseointegration of titanium, titanium alloy and zirconia dental implants: current knowledge and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Dieter D; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bone healing around dental implants follows the pattern and sequence of intramembraneous osteogenesis with formation of woven bone first of all followed later by formation of parallel-fibered and lamellar bone. Bone apposition onto the implant surface starts earlier in trabecular bone than in compact bone. While the first new bone may be found on the implant surface around 1 week after installation, bone remodeling starts at between 6 and 12 weeks and continues throughout life. Bone remodeling also involves the bone-implant interface, thus transiently exposing portions of the implant surface. Surface modifications creating micro-rough implant surfaces accelerate the osseointegration process of titanium implants, as demonstrated in numerous animal experiments. Sandblasting followed by acid-etching may currently be regarded as the gold standard technique to create micro-rough surfaces. Chemical surface modifications, resulting in higher hydrophilicity, further increase the speed of osseointegration of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants in both animals and humans. Surface modifications of zirconia and alumina-toughened zirconia implants also have an influence on the speed of osseointegration, and some implant types reach high bone-to-implant contact values in animals. Although often discussed independently of each other, surface characteristics, such as topography and chemistry, are virtually inseparable. Contemporary, well-documented implant systems with micro-rough implant surfaces, placed by properly trained and experienced clinicians, demonstrate high long-term survival rates. Nevertheless, implant failures do occur. A low percentage of implants are diagnosed with peri-implantitis after 10 years in function. In addition, a low number of implants seem to be lost for primarily reasons other than biofilm-induced infection. Patient factors, such as medications interfering with the immune system and bone cells, may be an element contributing to continuous bone

  4. Formation of zirconium dioxide layers on microelectrode of zirconium. Inhibition of the hydrogen evolution reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Lubomír; Fanelli, N.; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 49, C (2017), s. 128-133 ISSN 0324-1130 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03085S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : zirconium * ZrO2 * corrosion Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 0.238, year: 2016

  5. PROCESS FOR DISSOLVING BINARY URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM OR ZIRCONIUM-BASE ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Barghusen, J.J.; Levitz, N.M.

    1962-08-14

    A process of dissolving uranium-- zirconium and zircaloy alloys, e.g. jackets of fuel elements, with an anhydrous hydrogen fluoride containing from 10 to 32% by weight of hydrogen chloride at between 400 and 450 deg C., preferably while in contact with a fluidized inert powder, such as calcium fluoride is described. (AEC)

  6. Phase Transformations in a Uranium-Zirconium Alloy containing 2 weight per cent Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerberg, G

    1961-04-15

    The phase transformations in a uranium-zirconium alloy containing 2 weight percent zirconium have been examined metallographically after heat treatments involving isothermal transformation of y and cooling from the -y-range at different rates. Transformations on heating and cooling have also been studied in uranium-zirconium alloys with 0.5, 2 and 5 weight per cent zirconium by means of differential thermal analysis. The results are compatible with the phase diagram given by Howlett and Knapton. On quenching from the {gamma}-range the {gamma} phase transforms martensitically to supersaturated a the M{sub S} temperature being about 490 C. During isothermal transformation of {gamma} in the temperature range 735 to 700 C {beta}-phase is precipitated as Widmanstaetten plates and the equilibrium structure consists of {beta} and {gamma}{sub 1}. Below 700 C {gamma} transforms completely to Widmanstaetten plates which consist of {beta} above 660 C and of a at lower temperatures. Secondary phases, {gamma}{sub 2} above 610 C and {delta} below this temperature, are precipitated from the initially supersaturated Widmanstaetten plates during the isothermal treatments. At and slightly below 700 C the cooperative growth of |3 and {gamma}{sub 2} is observed. The results of isothermal transformation are summarized in a TTTdiagram.

  7. Titanium oxide fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, D.; Visser, J.

    2012-01-01

    One measure to improve air quality is to apply photo-catalytic substances that capture NOx onto the road surface or onto baffle boards alongside the roads. The effect of titanium oxide containing clinkers with coating was discussed in the report 'Demonstration project of air-purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands' that was published in May 2011. This article examines the way in which the effectiveness of this study was determined. Can titanium oxide containing clinkers and coatings indeed capture NOx?. [nl

  8. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  9. Non-linear time variant model intended for polypyrrole-based actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahi, Meisam; Madden, John D. W.; Sassani, Farrokh

    2014-03-01

    Polypyrrole-based actuators are of interest due to their biocompatibility, low operation voltage and relatively high strain and force. Modeling and simulation are very important to predict the behaviour of each actuator. To develop an accurate model, we need to know the electro-chemo-mechanical specifications of the Polypyrrole. In this paper, the non-linear time-variant model of Polypyrrole film is derived and proposed using a combination of an RC transmission line model and a state space representation. The model incorporates the potential dependent ionic conductivity. A function of ionic conductivity of Polypyrrole vs. local charge is proposed and implemented in the non-linear model. Matching of the measured and simulated electrical response suggests that ionic conductivity of Polypyrrole decreases significantly at negative potential vs. silver/silver chloride and leads to reduced current in the cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests. The next stage is to relate the distributed charging of the polymer to actuation via the strain to charge ratio. Further work is also needed to identify ionic and electronic conductivities as well as capacitance as a function of oxidation state so that a fully predictive model can be created.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide sensor: Uniformly decorated silver nanoparticles on polypyrrole for wide detection range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Meng, Woi Pei; Alias, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical method was used for depositing silver nanoparticles and polypyrrole. • Silver nanoparticles (25 nm) were uniformly decorated on electrodeposited polypyrrole. • (Ag(NH 3 ) 2 OH) precursor showed better electrochemical performance than (AgNO 3 ). • The sensor showed superior performance toward H 2 O 2 . - Abstract: Electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole (PPy) decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was prepared and used as a nonenzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) detection. Polypyrrole was fabricated through electrodeposition, while silver nanoparticles were deposited on polypyrrole by the same technique. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that the electrodeposited AgNPs were aligned along the PPy uniformly and the mean particle size of AgNPs is around 25 nm. The electrocatalytic activity of AgNPs-PPy-GCE toward H 2 O 2 was studied using chronoamperometry and cyclic voltammetry. The first linear section was in the range of 0.1–5 mM with a limit of detection of 0.115 μmol l −1 and the second linear section was raised to 120 mM with a correlation factor of 0.256 μmol l −1 (S/N of 3). Moreover, the sensor presented excellent stability, selectivity, repeatability and reproducibility. These excellent performances make AgNPs-PPy/GCE an ideal nonenzymatic H 2 O 2 sensor.

  11. Understanding the gas sensing properties of polypyrrole coated tin oxide nanofiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Sudeshna; Ghanshyam, C.

    2017-03-01

    Tin oxide-polypyrrole composites have been widely studied for their enhanced sensing performance towards ammonia vapours, but further investigations are required for an understanding of the interaction mechanisms with different target analytes. In this work, polypyrrole coated tin oxide fibers have been synthesized using a two-step approach of electrospinning and vapour phase polymerization for the sensing of ammonia, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and acetone vapours. The resistance variation in the presence of these vapours of different nature and concentration is investigated for the determination of sensor response. A decrease in resistance occurred on interaction of tin oxide-polypyrrole with ammonia, as opposed to previous reported works. Partial reduction of polypyrrole due to interfacial interaction with tin oxide has been proposed to explain this behavior. High sensitivity of 7.45 is achieved for 1 ppm ammonia concentration. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited high sensitivity and a faster response towards ethanol vapours although methanol has the highest electron donating capability. The catalytic mechanism has been discussed to explain this interesting behavior. The results reveal that interaction between tin oxide and polypyrrole is crucial to control the predominant sensing mechanism.

  12. Mechanism study of selective heavy metal ion removal with polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Luo, Chao [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Qi, Genggeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Pan, Kai, E-mail: pankai@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cao, Bing, E-mail: bcao@mail.buct.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAN/PPy core/shell nanofiber used for Cr(VI) removal. • Adsorption mechanisms were investigated. • Selective adsorption performances were investigated. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole (PAN/PPy) core/shell nanofiber mat was prepared through electrospinning followed by a simple chemical oxidation method. The polypyrrole-functionalized nanofiber mats showed selective adsorption performance for anions. The interaction between heavy metal anions and polypyrrole (especially the interaction between Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 2−} and polypyrrole) during the adsorption process was studied. The results showed that the adsorption process included two steps: one was the anion exchange process between the Cl{sup −} and Cr(VI), and the other was the redox process for the Cr(VI) ions. The adsorption amount was related to the protonation time of the PAN/PPy nanofiber mat and increased as protonation time increased. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) ions were reduced to Cr(III) through the reaction with amino groups of polypyrrole (from secondary amines to tertiary amines). PAN/PPy nanofiber mat showed high selectivity for Cr(VI), and the adsorption performance was nearly unaffected by other co-existing anions (Cl{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) except for PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} for the pH change.

  13. Mechanism study of selective heavy metal ion removal with polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Luo, Chao; Qi, Genggeng; Pan, Kai; Cao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PAN/PPy core/shell nanofiber used for Cr(VI) removal. • Adsorption mechanisms were investigated. • Selective adsorption performances were investigated. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile/polypyrrole (PAN/PPy) core/shell nanofiber mat was prepared through electrospinning followed by a simple chemical oxidation method. The polypyrrole-functionalized nanofiber mats showed selective adsorption performance for anions. The interaction between heavy metal anions and polypyrrole (especially the interaction between Cr 2 O 7 2− and polypyrrole) during the adsorption process was studied. The results showed that the adsorption process included two steps: one was the anion exchange process between the Cl − and Cr(VI), and the other was the redox process for the Cr(VI) ions. The adsorption amount was related to the protonation time of the PAN/PPy nanofiber mat and increased as protonation time increased. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) ions were reduced to Cr(III) through the reaction with amino groups of polypyrrole (from secondary amines to tertiary amines). PAN/PPy nanofiber mat showed high selectivity for Cr(VI), and the adsorption performance was nearly unaffected by other co-existing anions (Cl − , NO 3 − , and SO 4 2− ) except for PO 4 3− for the pH change

  14. Techniques for chemical characterization of zirconium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, K.V.; Bassan, M.K.T.; Sudersanan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical characterization of zirconium and its alloys such as zircaloy, Zr-Nb, etc for minor and trace constituents like Nb, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Sn, Al etc has been carried out. Zirconium, being a major constituent, has been determined by gravimetry as zirconium oxide while other constituents like Nb, Ti, Fe have been determined by spectrophotometric methods. Other metals of importance at trace level have been estimated by AAS or ICPAES. The judicious use of both conventional and modern instrumental methods of analysis helps in the characterization of zirconium and its alloys for various major and minor constituents. The role of matrix effect in the determination was also investigated and methods have been worked out based on a preliminary separation of zirconium by a hydroxide precipitation. (author)

  15. Determination of microquantities of zirconium and thorium in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber de D'Alessio, Ana; Zucal, Raquel.

    1975-07-01

    A method for the determination of 10 to 50 ppm of zirconium and thorium in uranium IV oxide of nuclear purity is established. Zirconium and thorium are retained in a strong cation-exchange resin Dowex 50 WX8 in 1 M HCl. Zirconium is eluted with 0,5% oxalic acid solution and thorium with 4% ammonium oxalate. The colorimetric determination of zirconium with xilenol orange is done in perchloric acid after destructtion of oxalic acid and thorium is determined with arsenazo III in 5 M HCl. 10 μg of each element were determined with a standard deviation of 2,1% for thorium and 3,4% for zirconium. (author) [es

  16. Zirconium alloy fuel cladding resistant to PCI crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, R.F.; Foster, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described cladding tube comprising: concentric tubular layers of zirconium base alloys; the concentric tubular layers including an inner layer and outer layer; the outer layer metallurgically bonded to the inner layer; the outer layer composed of a first zirconium base alloy characterized by excellent resistance to corrosion caused by exposure to high temperature and pressure aqueous environments; the inner layer composed of a second zirconium base alloy consisting of: about 0.2 to 0.6 wt.% tin, about 0.03 to 0.11 wt.% iron, less than about 0.02 wt.% chromium, up to about 350 ppm oxygen and the remainder being zirconium and incidental impurities, and the inner layer characterized by improved resistance to crack propagation under reactor operating conditions compared to the first zirconium alloy

  17. Antimony removal from aqueous solutions using Zirconium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, D.; Velciu, L.; Bucur, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an experimental test for non-radioactive antimony removal from aqueous solutions using zirconium hydroxide powder. Also, it was studied how the temperature and pH influences antimony adsorption onto zirconium hydroxide surface. After the adsorption, solutions were filtered on Cellulose Mixed Ester Membrane with 0.2 μm pore size to remove the zirconium powder and then the aqueous solutions were sent to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for quantitative analysis of Sb. Zirconium hydroxide powders were examined by optical microscopy. For the solutions that were tested at pH 4.5 and 10.2 the antimony concentration dropped below the detection limit of ICP-OES device, proof of antimony adsorption on zirconium hydroxide. Also, for the other tested solutions which had pH=12 the antimony concentration reduced with 77% and 80%. The temperature had no influence upon adsorption mechanism. (authors)

  18. Determination of hydrogen in zirconium hydride and uranium-zirconium hydride by inert gas exraction-gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Akira; Iso, Shuichi

    1976-01-01

    An inert gas extraction-gravimetric method has been applied to the determination of hydrogen in zirconium hydride and uranium-zirconium hydride which are used as neutron moderator and fuel of nuclear safety research reactor (NSRR), respectively. The sample in a graphite-enclosed quartz crucible is heated inductively to 1200 0 C for 20 min in a helium stream. Hydrogen liberated from the sample is oxidized to water by copper(I) oxide-copper(II) oxide at 400 0 C, and the water is determined gravimetrically by absorption in anhydrone. The extraction curves of hydrogen for zirconium hydride and uranium-zirconium hydride samples are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. Hydrogen in the samples is extracted quantitatively by heating at (1000 -- 1250) 0 C for (10 -- 40) min. Recoveries of hydrogen in the case of zirconium hydride were examined as follows: a weighed zirconium rod (5 phi x 6 mm, hydrogen -5 Torr. After the chamber was filled with purified hydrogen to 200 Torr, the rod was heated to 400 0 C for 15 h, and again weighed to determine the increase in weight. Hydrogen in the rod was then determined by the proposed method. The results are in excellent agreement with the increase in weight as shown in Table 1. Analytical results of hydrogen in zirconium hydride samples and an uranium-zirconium hydride sample are shown in Table 2. (auth.)

  19. Titanium by design: TRIP titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jamie

    Motivated by the prospect of lower cost Ti production processes, new directions in Ti alloy design were explored for naval and automotive applications. Building on the experience of the Steel Research Group at Northwestern University, an analogous design process was taken with titanium. As a new project, essential kinetic databases and models were developed for the design process and used to create a prototype design. Diffusion kinetic models were developed to predict the change in phase compositions and microstructure during heat treatment. Combining a mobility database created in this research with a licensed thermodynamic database, ThermoCalc and DICTRA software was used to model kinetic compositional changes in titanium alloys. Experimental diffusion couples were created and compared to DICTRA simulations to refine mobility parameters in the titanium mobility database. The software and database were able to predict homogenization times and the beta→alpha plate thickening kinetics during cooling in the near-alpha Ti5111 alloy. The results of these models were compared to LEAP microanalysis and found to be in reasonable agreement. Powder metallurgy was explored using SPS at GM R&D to reduce the cost of titanium alloys. Fully dense Ti5111 alloys were produced and achieved similar microstructures to wrought Ti5111. High levels of oxygen in these alloys increased the strength while reducing the ductility. Preliminary Ti5111+Y alloys were created, where yttrium additions successfully gettered excess oxygen to create oxides. However, undesirable large oxides formed, indicating more research is needed into the homogeneous distribution of the yttrium powder to create finer oxides. Principles established in steels were used to optimize the beta phase transformation stability for martensite transformation toughening in titanium alloys. The Olson-Cohen kinetic model is calibrated to shear strains in titanium. A frictional work database is established for common alloying

  20. Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium-Oxide Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    Capt Todd D. Church APPROVED: Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials C~t) Kraig/[ Vandewalle Date...copyrighted material in the thesis/dissertation manuscript entitled: "Translucency arid Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide...Translucency Monolithic Zirconium -Oxide Materials Abstract Dental materials manufacturers have developed more translucent monolithic zirconium oxide

  1. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient... indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the lungs...

  2. Irradiation induced effects in zirconium (A review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, P.K.

    1975-06-01

    Irradiation creep in zirconium and its alloys is comprehensively discussed. The main theories are outlined and the gaps between them and the observed creep behaviour, indicated. Although irradiation induced point defects play an important role, effects due to irradiation induced dislocation loops seem insignificant. The experimental results suggest that microstructural variations due to prior cold-working or hydrogen injection perturb the irradiation growth and the irradiation creep of zircaloy. Further investigations into these areas are required. One disadvantage of creep experiments lies in their duration. The possibility of accelerated experiments using ion implantation or electron irradiation is examined in the final section, and its possible advantages and disadvantages are outlined. (author)

  3. Minimizing hydride cracking in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.E.; Cheadle, B.A.; Ambler, J.F.R.; Eadie, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Zirconium alloy components can fail by hydride cracking if they contain large flaws and are highly stressed. If cracking in such components is suspected, crack growth can be minimized by following two simple operating rules: components should be heated up from at least 30K below any operating temperature above 450K, and when the component requires cooling to room temperature from a high temperature, any tensile stress should be reduced as much and as quickly as is practical during cooling. This paper describes the physical basis for these rules

  4. Quantitative spectrographic determination of zirconium minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocal Adell, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, F.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1958-01-01

    The method described in the following report permits the quantitative determination of zirconium in minerals and rocks in a 0,02-100% of ZrO 2 concentration rate. The excitation is carried out by a 10 ampere continuous current arc among carbon electrodes, and placing the sample in a crater of 2 mm depth. For low concentrations a dilution of the sample with the same weight as its own in carbon powder and with 1/25 of its weight of Co 3 O 4 (internal patron) is carried out. Line Zr 2571,4, Co 2585,3 and Co 2587,2 are used. (Author) 6 refs

  5. Phase equilibria at the Zirconium metal purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani-Sudjoko; Busron-Masduki; Sunardjo; Budi-Sulistyo

    1996-01-01

    It was investigated the research in the purification of zirconium metal, which was results from the reduction process, by adding heat in the vacuum environment. The process was done in batch in the stainless steel reactor, equiped with vacuum pump and electric heater. The investigated variable were process temperature and pressure. From this research it was obtained that equilibrium constant for MgCl 2 and Mg were expressed in the equation K M g C l 2 = 0.9011 P 1 .3779 1.06552 T and K M g = 6.0115P + 1.35256T - 6.93912

  6. Swelling of a Zirconium Oxide Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Mark; Hawley, Adrian; White, John; Rennie, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The structural changes that cause the change in the interlayer spacing of a surfactanttemplated zirconium oxide film have been studied using neutron diffractometry. We report that the film after drying on a glass substrate swells slightly through the addition of benzene by up to 4 Aangstroem on a lattice parameter of about 36 Aangstroem. The (001) and (002) diffraction peaks positions, widths and areas of a swollen film were then monitored by neutron diffraction as a function of benzene desorption. Disorder of the lamellar mesophase is considered as a cause of the observed effects on the diffraction signals. (authors)

  7. Swelling of a mesostructured zirconium oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M.J. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Rennie, A.R. [Uppsala University, Studsvik Neutron Research Laboratory, S-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Hawley, A.M. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); White, J.W. [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail: jww@rsc.anu.edu.au

    2006-11-15

    The structural changes that cause the change in interlayer spacing of a surfactant-templated zirconium oxide film have been studied using neutron diffractometry. We report that the film after drying on a glass substrate swells slightly through the addition of benzene by up to 4 A on a lattice parameter of about 36 A. The (0 0 1) and (0 0 2) diffraction peak widths, positions and areas of a swollen film were monitored as a function of benzene desorption. Disorder of the lamellar mesophase is considered as a cause of the observed effects on the diffraction signals.

  8. Silver-polypyrrole-silver structure fabrication and characterization over wide temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunk, Manish; Chand, Subhash

    2012-10-01

    Semiconducting polymers have applications in many electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, field effect transistors, memory devices, and many flexible electronic devices. In the organic electronic devices, metal-organic semiconductor interface plays a major role in determining the electrical transport. Earlier most of the studies were performed on electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole. In this study polypyrrole-poly(vinylidene) fluoride composite films synthesized by chemical oxidation method were used for contact fabrication in sandwiched geometry. Electrical transport measurements have been carried out in silver-polypyrrole-silver sandwich structure to understand conduction mechanism in the temperature range of 10-300K. It has been observed that Ag forms Ohmic contact with PPy and bulk controlled space charge limited conduction was the dominant current transport process in these sandwiched structures.

  9. Preparation of mesoporous carbon/polypyrrole composite materials and their supercapacitive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU-JUN ZOU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized mesoporous carbons/polypyrrole composites, using a chemical oxidative polymerization and calcium carbonate as a sacrificial template. N2 adsorption-desorption method, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the composites. The measurement results indicated that as-synthesized carbon with the disordered mesoporous structure and a pore size of approximately 5 nm was uniformly coated by polypyrrole. The electrochemical behavior of the resulting composite was examined by cyclic voltammetry and cycle life measurements, and the obtained results showed that the specific capacitance of the resulting composite electrode was as high as 313 F g−1, nearly twice the capacitance of pure mesoporous carbon electrode (163 F g–1. This reveals that the electrochemical performance of these materials is governed by a combination of the electric double layer capacitance of mesoporous carbon and pseudocapacitance of polypyrrole.

  10. Electrical Characterization and Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing Properties of Gold/Nafion:Polypyrrole/MWCNTs Electrochemical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Saitta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical devices using as substrates copier grade transparency sheets are developed by using ion conducting Nafion:polypyrrole mixtures, deposited between gold bottom electrodes and upper electrodes based on Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs. The electrical properties of the Nafion:polypyrrole blends and of the gold/Nafion:polypyrrole/MWCNTs devices are investigated under dry conditions and in deionized water by means of frequency dependent impedance measurements and time domain electrical characterization. According to current-voltage measurements carried out in deionized water, the steady state current forms cycles characterized by redox peaks, the intensity and position of which reversibly change in response to H2O2, with a lower detection limit in the micromolar range. The sensitivity that is obtained is comparable with that of other electrochemical sensors that however, unlike our devices, require supporting electrolytes.

  11. Electrochemically Controlled Ion-exchange Property of Carbon Nanotubes/Polypyrrole Nanocomposite in Various Electrolyte Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Daiwon [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States; Engelhard, Mark H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lin, Yuehe [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 United States

    2016-09-15

    The electrochemically controlled ion-exchange properties of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT)/electronically conductive polypyrrole (PPy) polymer composite in the various electrolyte solutions have been investigated. The ion-exchange behavior, rate and capacity of the electrochemically deposited polypyrrole with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) were compared and characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been found that the presence of carbon nanotube backbone resulted in improvement in ion-exchange rate, stability of polypyrrole, and higher anion loading capacity per PPy due to higher surface area, electronic conductivity, porous structure of thin film, and thinner film thickness providing shorter diffusion path. Chronoamperometric studies show that electrically switched anion exchange could be completed more than 10 times faster than pure PPy thin film. The anion selectivity of CNT/PPy film is demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  12. Three-dimensional graphene-polypyrrole hybrid electrochemical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Zhi; Zhao, Yang; Cheng, Huhu; Hu, Chuangang; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2012-11-01

    The advancement of mechanical actuators benefits from the development of new structural materials with prominent properties. A novel three-dimensional (3D) hydrothermally converted graphene and polypyrrole (G-PPy) hybrid electrochemical actuator is presented, which is prepared via a convenient hydrothermal process, followed by in situ electropolymerization of pyrrole. The 3D pore-interconnected G-PPy pillar exhibits strong actuation responses superior to pure graphene and PPy film. In response to the low potentials of +/-0.8 V, the saturated strain of 3D G-PPy pillar can reach a record of 2.5%, which is more than 10 times higher than that of carbon nanotube film and about 3 times that of unitary graphene film under an applied potential of +/-1.2 V. Also, the 3D G-PPy actuator exhibits high actuation durability with high operating load as demonstrated by an 11 day continuous measurement. Finally, a proof-of-concept application of 3D G-PPy as smart filler for on/off switch is also demonstrated, which indicates the great potential of the 3D G-PPy structure developed in this study for advanced actuator systems.The advancement of mechanical actuators benefits from the development of new structural materials with prominent properties. A novel three-dimensional (3D) hydrothermally converted graphene and polypyrrole (G-PPy) hybrid electrochemical actuator is presented, which is prepared via a convenient hydrothermal process, followed by in situ electropolymerization of pyrrole. The 3D pore-interconnected G-PPy pillar exhibits strong actuation responses superior to pure graphene and PPy film. In response to the low potentials of +/-0.8 V, the saturated strain of 3D G-PPy pillar can reach a record of 2.5%, which is more than 10 times higher than that of carbon nanotube film and about 3 times that of unitary graphene film under an applied potential of +/-1.2 V. Also, the 3D G-PPy actuator exhibits high actuation durability with high operating load as demonstrated by an 11 day

  13. The development of zirconium alloy and its manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gaihuan; Yue Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power which acts as one of low-carbon energy resources is the most realistic in large-scale application. It is also the preferred choice for many countries to develop energy resources and optimize its structure. Zirconium alloy is a key structural material for nuclear power plant fuel assemblies and cladding tubes of zirconium alloy are often referred as the first safeguard to nuclear power safety. With the development of nuclear power, three kinds of zirconium alloys Zr-Sn, Zr-Nb, Zr-Sn-Nb and with the representative products of Zr-4, M5, Zirlo respectively are developed and widely applied. Because of its severe operating environment and influence to nuclear safety, the requirements to zirconium alloys for physical and chemical properties, nuclear capability, tolerance and surface quality are very strict. The in-depth research and its manufacture capability become one of the main barriers for many countries who are developing the nuclear energy. In recent years, a stated-owned company, State Nuclear Bao Ti Zirconium Industry Company ('SNZ' for short) as well as National R and D Center for Nuclear Grade Zirconium material, is founded to meet the requirement of the rapid development of China's nuclear power industry. SNZ is dedicated for the fabrication and the research of nuclear grade zirconium products. After the successful completion of technology transfer of manufacturing for production chain and fully grasped of the manufacturing technology for the nuclear grade zirconium sponge through zirconium alloy tube, rod and strip products. National R and D Center for Nuclear Grade Zirconium material is cooperating with universities, nuclear energy research and design institutes and the owners of nuclear power plant to develop new zirconium alloy of self-owned brand. Through the selection of components, in-process testing and product inspection, four kinds of new zirconium alloys owns better performance than currently commercialized M5, Zirlo etc

  14. Extraction of zirconium from raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant raffinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Garima; Chinchale, R.; Renjith, A.U.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Shenoy, K.T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from dilute streams is a major task in nuclear industry in the view of environmental remediation and value recovery. Presently solvent extraction process is employed on the commercial scale to recover nuclear pure zirconium using TBP as extractant. The waste stream of TBP extraction process contains about 1.2 gpl of Zirconium in nitrate form. At present there is no process to recover Zirconium from this raffinate stream. Hence, under the present study recovery of zirconium from the raffinate stream of Zirconium Oxide Plant Raffinate has been investigated. TBP, which is the most commonly used solvent in the nuclear industry is not suitable for the extraction of zirconium from lean solution at low acidity as its distribution coefficient is less than one. In search of a suitable extractant Mixed Alkyl Phosphine Oxide (MAPO) was investigated as potential carrier. Parametric batch studies for various equilibrium data like extractant concentration, strippant concentration, solvent reusability, equilibration time, acidity etc. were done to optimize the process condition. For the distribution studies, equal volumes of the raffinate and organic phase were shaken at room temperature in digital wrist action shaker for 10 minutes to ensure complete equilibrium. It was found that 0.1 M MAPO in 80:20 dodecane: isodecanol is suitable for extraction of Zr at 2 N acidity. 0.1 M MAPO gives distribution coefficient in the range of 12-15 for Zr. The slope of log-log plot between MAPO concentration and K, suggests involvement of 3 molecules of MAPO in the formation of extracting species. 0.2 M Oxalic acid was able to completely back extract Zr from the organic phase into aqueous phase. Also good regeneration capacity of MAPO projects its potential to be used as extractant for the process. Based on the equilibrium studies, Dispersion Liquid Membrane configuration in hollow fiber contactor was explored for the extraction of Zirconium from Zirconium Nitrate Pure

  15. Modifying the conductivity of polypyrrole through low-energy lead ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Marsilea Adela; Leveneur, Jérôme; Costa, Alexsandro Santos; Kennedy, John; Harbison, SallyAnn; Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka

    2012-01-01

    Interest lies in the creation of novel nanocomposite materials obtained through mixing, impregnation or incorporation techniques. One such technique is ion implantation which possesses the potential for retaining properties from the base material and implanted material as well as any effects observed from combining the two. To this end low-energy (15 keV) implantation of lead ions of various fluences was performed in conducting polypyrrole films. The presence of lead-rich particles was evidenced through transmission electron microscopy. An interesting trend was observed between fluence and conductivity. Of the fluences tested, the optimum fluences of lead ion implantation in polypyrrole films for enhanced conductivity are 5 × 10 14 at. cm −2 and 2 × 10 15 at. cm −2 . The conductivity and stability appear to result from a combination of effects: polymer degradation arising from ion beam damage, an increase in charge-carriers (dications) present after implantation and precipitation of Pb-rich nanoparticles. Monitoring conductivity over time showed increased retention of conductivity levels after lead implantation. Improvements in stability for polypyrrole open avenues for application and bring polypyrrole one step closer to practical use. A mechanism is suggested for this advantageous retained conductivity. -- Highlights: ► Implanted and characterized polypyrrole films with Pb ions at different fluences. ► Samples indicate high conductivity when implanted with particular fluences. ► Increase in charge carriers and precipitation of conductive Pb-rich phase. ► Conductivity stability is higher for some implanted fluences than for pristine polypyrrole.

  16. Zirconium intermetallics and hydrogen uptake during corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1987-04-01

    The routes by which hydrogen can enter zirconium alloys containing second phase particles during corrosion are discussed. Both direct diffusion through the bulk of the oxide film, and migration through second phase particles that intersect the surface are considered. An examination of results for hydrogen uptake by zirconium alloys during the early stages of oxidation, when the oxide film is still coherent, suggests that for Zr, Zr-1%Cu and Zr-1%Fe the hydrogen enters by diffusing through the bulk ZrO 2 film, whereas for the Zircaloys the primary migration route may be through the intermetallics. The steps in the latter process are discussed and the evidence available on the properties of the intermetallics collated. A comparison of these data with results for hydrogen uptake by two series of ternary alloys (Zr-1%Nb - 1%X, Zr-1%Cu - 1%X) suggests that high hydrogen uptakes often correlate with intermetallics with high hydrogen solubilities and vice versa. The properties of Zr(Fe/Cr) 2+x intermetallics are examined in an attempt to understand the behaviour of the Zircaloys, and it is concluded that present data establishing composition and unit cell dimensions for such intermetallic particles are not of sufficient accuracy to permit a correlation

  17. Thermal behaviour of nitrogen implanted into zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, S.; Ikeyama, M.; Saitoh, K.; Nakao, S.; Niwa, H.; Tanemura, S.; Miyagawa, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Zirconium films were implanted with 15 N ions of energy 50keV to a total fluence of 1x10 18 ionscm -2 in an attempt to study the formation process and thermal stability of ZrN layers produced by high fluence implantation of nitrogen. Subsequent to the implantation at room temperature, samples were annealed at temperatures of 300 C-900 C. The depth profiles of the implanted nitrogen were measured by nuclear reaction analysis using the 15 N(p,αγ) 12 C at E R =429keV, and the surfaces were examined by thin film X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. There were many blisters 0.2-0.4μm in diameter on the surface of the as-implanted samples and double peaks were observed in the nitrogen depth profiles; they were in both sides of the mean projected range. It was found that most of the blisters became extinct after annealing above 400 C, and the XRD peak (111) intensity was increased with the increase in the annealing temperature. Moreover, 14 N and 15 N implantations were superimposed on Zr samples in order to study the atomic migration of nitrogen at each stage of high fluence implantation. It was found that the decrease in the peak at the deeper layers was related to blister extinction and nitrogen diffusion into underling zirconium which could be correlated with radiation damage induced by post-implanted ions. ((orig.))

  18. Recrystallization resistance in aluminum alloys containing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Zirconium forms a fine dispersion of the metastable β' (Al 3 Zr) phase that controls recrystallization by retarding the motion of high-angle boundaries. The primary material chosen for this research was aluminum alloy 7150 containing zinc, magnesium, and copper as the major solute elements and zirconium as the dispersoid-forming element. The size, distribution, and the volume fraction of β' was controlled by varying the alloy composition and preheat practices. Preheated ingots were subjected to a specific sequence of hot-rolling operations to evaluate the resistance to recrystallization of the different microstructures. Optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were used to investigate the influence of dispersoid morphology resulting from the thermal treatments and deformation processing on the recrystallization behavior of the alloy. Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the individual solute elements present in 7150 on the precipitation of β' and consequently on the recrystallization behavior of the material. These studies were done on compositional variants of commercial 7150

  19. Diffusion of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Vykhodets, V B; Koester, U; Kondrat'ev, V V; Kesarev, A G; Hulsen, C; Kurennykh, T E

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient of insoluble carbon in zirconium oxides has been obtained for the temperature range of 900-1000A degrees C. There are no published data on the diffusion of insoluble impurities; these data are of current interest for the diffusion theory and nuclear technologies. Tracer atoms 13C have been introduced into oxides by means of ion implantation and the kinetics of their emission from the samples in the process of annealing in air has been analyzed. The measurements have been performed using the methods of nuclear microanalysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The diffusion activation energy is 2.7 eV and the carbon diffusion coefficient is about six orders of magnitude smaller than that for oxygen self-diffusion in the same systems. This result indicates the strong anomaly of the diffusion properties of carbon in oxides. As a result, zirconium oxides cannot be used in some nuclear technologies, in particular, as a material of sources for accelerators of short-lived carbon isotopes.

  20. Radiochemical studies on amorphous zirconium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, A; Moores, G E [Salford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry

    1981-01-01

    Amorphous zirconium phosphate (ZrP) is used in some hemodialysis machines for the regeneration of dialysate. Its function is to adsorb ammonium ions formed by the pretreatment of urea by urease. It also adsorbs Ca, Mg and K ions but leaches phosphate ions which are then removed (along with F/sup -/ ions) by a bed of hydrous zirconium oxide. The sodium form of ZrP is used although other forms have been suggested for use. The work reported here describes some preliminary radiochemical studies on the mechanism of release of phosphate ions and its possible relationship to sodium ion-exchange. /sup 32/P labelled material (HHZrP) was used for elution experiments with deionized water and buffer solutions having the pH's 4.2, 7.0 and 9.2. Buffer solutions used were as supplied by BDH. Elution was at four different temperatures in the range 293 to 363/sup 0/C. In the second series of experiments HHZrP was suspended in a NaCl solution labelled with /sup 22/Na. From this, /sup 22/Na labelled ZrP (NaHZrP) was prepared and eluted in the same way as the HHZrP. Results are given and discussed.

  1. Modelling of zirconium alloys corrosion in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritskij, V.G.; Berezina, I.G.; Kritskij, A.V.; Stjagkin, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical parameters, that exerted effect on Zr+1%Nb alloy corrosion and deserved consideration during reactor operation, were defined and a model was developed to describe the influence of physical and chemical parameters on zirconium alloys corrosion in nuclear power plants. The model is based on the correlation between the zirconium oxide solubility in high-temperature water under the influence of the chemical parameters and the measured values of fuel cladding corrosion under LWR conditions. The intensity of fuel cladding corrosion in the primary circuits depends on the coolant water quality, growth of iron oxide deposits and vaporization portion. Mathematically, the oxidation rate can be expressed as a sum of heat and radiation components. The temperature dependence on the oxidation rate can be described by the Arrenius equation. The radiation component of Zr uniform corrosion equation is a function of several factors such as neutron fluency, the temperature the metallurgical composition and et. We assume that the main factor is the changing of water chemistry and the H 2 O 2 concentration play the determinative role. Probably, the influence of H 2 O 2 is based on the formation of unstable compound ZrO 3 ·nH 2 O and Zr(OH) 4 with high solubility. The validity of the used formulae was confirmed by corrosion measurements on WWER and RBMK fuel cladding. The model can be applied for calculating the reliability of nuclear fuel operation. (author)

  2. Irradiation growth in zirconium alloys: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidleris, V.

    1980-09-01

    The change in shape during irradiation without external stress, irradiation growth, was first discovered in uranium and later in graphite, zirconium and other core materials which exhibit anisotropic physical properties. The direction of maximum growth of metals invariably corresponds with the direction of minimum thermal expansion. In polycrystalline zirconium alloys growth is positive in the direction of maximum deformation during fabrication and in other directions it can be either positive or negative depending on the preferred orientation of grains (crystallographic texture). Growth increases gradually with temperature between 300 K and 620 K and rapidly with fluence up to about 1 x 10 25 n.m. -2 (Eμ1 MeV). At higher fluences the growth appears to saturate in annealed materials and reach a steady rate approximately proportional to dislocation density in cold-worked materials. Above 600 K both annealed and cold-worked materials have similar steady growth rates. Irradiation growth is caused by the segregation to different sinks of the vacancies and interstitials generated by irradiation, but the dominant types of sinks for each type of point defect and the mode of transport of the point defects to sinks cannot therefore be predicted theoretically. For the purpose of designing reactor core components empirical equations have been derived that can satisfactorily predict the steady state growth behaviour from texture and microstructure. (auth)

  3. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shibin [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shi Gaoquan [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: gshi@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2007-04-15

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles.

  4. Uniform silver/polypyrrole core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shibin; Shi Gaoquan

    2007-01-01

    Uniformly sized silver/polypyrrole (Ag/PPy) core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal reaction of pyrrole and silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as protection agent. The morphology and structures of the nanoparticles have been studied by scanning and transmission electronic microscopes, X-ray diffractometer and Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the particles had 120 nm silver cores with 20 nm polypyrrole (PPy) coatings. The reaction conditions have strong effects on the morphology of the nanoparticles

  5. Facile synthesis of polypyrrole nanowires for high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junhong; Wu, Jinping; Li, Bing; Du, Weimin; Huang, Qingli; Zheng, Mingbo; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole nanowires are facile synthesized under a mild condition with FeCl3 as an oxidant. Polypyrrole nanowires with the width of 120 nm form many nanogaps or pores due to the intertwined nanostructures. More importantly, PPy nanowires were further applied for supercapacitor electrode materials. After electrochemical testing, it was observed that the PPy nanowire based electrode showed a large specific capacitance (420 F g−1, 1.5 A g−1) and good rate capability (272 F g−1, 18.0 A g−1), wh...

  6. In situ polymerization of highly dispersed polypyrrole on reduced graphite oxide for dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2013-12-15

    A composite consisting of reduced graphite oxide and highly dispersed polypyrrole nanospheres was synthesized by a straightforward technique, by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The novel polypyrrole nanospheres can prevent the aggregation of reduced graphite oxide sheets by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and enhance their electrochemical properties in the nano-molar measurement of dopamine in biological systems with a linear range of 1-8000 nM and a detection limit as low as 0.3 nM. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dependence of Force Produced by Polypyrrole Based Artificial Muscles on Ionic Species Involved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careem, M.A.; Vidanapathirana, K.P.; Skaarup, Steen

    2004-01-01

    Artificial muscles have been fabricated in the form bilayer strips using an insulating polymer layer and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer film, and the force produced by them during redox processes have been investigated. This study reports the effects of anions in the polymerization electrol......Artificial muscles have been fabricated in the form bilayer strips using an insulating polymer layer and polypyrrole (PPy) conducting polymer film, and the force produced by them during redox processes have been investigated. This study reports the effects of anions in the polymerization...

  8. Synthesis of gels with basis of titanium tungstates as matrixes of radioactive generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galico C, L.

    2005-01-01

    The heteropolyanions, compounds formed by the union of molybdates or tungstates polyanions with atoms of metals like zirconium, titanium, cerium, thorium, tin, etc., have been used as generator matrixes of 99m Tc or 188 Re. Particularly they have been studied and produced successfully in our laboratory, generators of 99 Mo/ 99 m Tc at basis of gels zirconium molybdates and titanium molybdates. Considering that the molybdenum and tungsten, as well as the technetium and the rhenium, its belong to the same groups of transition metals, it is feasible that gels can be synthesized at basis of titanium tungstates, continuing a methodology similar to that of the gels titanium molybdates or zirconium molybdates, to produce generators 188 W/ 188 Re. The 188 Re possess nuclear characteristics that make it attractive for therapeutic applications, since, it emits β - particles of a great energy (2.12 MeV); joined to the possibility of being able to unite to different ligands (bifunctional agents) and biomolecules (antibodies or fragments of proteins), as it makes the 99m Tc, useful in radioimmunotherapy. Commercially the 188 Re generators use a chromatographic column loaded with alumina where the 188 Re, it is adsorbed and eluted the 188 ReO 4 - by means of a saline solution The alumina adsorbs around 0.2% of the 188 Re, situation that forces to use 188 Re of a high specific activity. The use of the gels technology, allows to work with medium or low specific activities of 188 Re, opening the possibility of their production in countries whose nuclear capacity is medium or low. In particular, the synthesized gels with basis of titanium offer the possibility of being synthesized with non active material, for later on to be irradiated and directly produce the generator, since, the titanium 51 Ti, unique radioisotope produced by the titanium, has a half life of 5.79 min. This synthesis method avoids the manipulation of radioactive material during the synthesis of the gels, process

  9. A Nanocellulose Polypyrrole Composite Based on Tunicate Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-dispersed conductive polypyrrole (PPy was prepared via the in situ oxidative chemical polymerization by using ammonium persulfate (APS as oxidant and tunicate cellulose nanocrystals (T-CNs as a dopant and template for tuning the morphologies of PPy nanoparticles. Highly flexible paper-like materials of PPy/T-CNs nanocomposites with high electrical conductivity values and good mechanical properties were prepared. The structure of nanocomposites of PPy/T-CNs was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses of the composites revealed that PPy consisted of nanoparticles about 2.5 nm in mean size to form a continuous coating covered on the T-CNs. The diameters of the PPy nanoparticles increased from 10 to 100 nm with the increasing pyrrole amount. Moreover, electrical properties of the obtained PPy/T-CNs films were studied using standard four-probe technique and the electrical conductivity could be as high as 10−3 S/cm.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayad, Mohamad M., E-mail: mayad12000@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt); Zaki, Eman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Tanta, Tanta (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO{sub 3}. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO{sub 3} solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, Mohamad M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3 . Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of silver-polypyrrole film composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Mohamad. M.; Zaki, Eman

    2009-11-01

    In this work, we report the chemical polymerization of pyrrole to obtain thin film of polypyrrole (PPy) hydrochloride deposited onto the electrode of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The film in the base form was exposed to a solution of AgNO 3. Electroless reduction for silver ions by the PPy film took place and silver particles were adsorbed onto the film surface. The silver particles content at the PPy films were analyzed by QCM and the results showed that the concentrations of silver uptakes increase as the original AgNO 3 solution increases. The morphology of the surface of the PPy film and the silver-PPy film composite were studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). They showed that the obtained silver particles have spherical, cubic and tetrahedral structures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the structure of the powder composite. This work reveals the capability of PPy film coating on QCM in sensing and removing silver from several environmental samples.

  13. Schwann cell response on polypyrrole substrates upon electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forciniti, Leandro; Ybarra, Jose; Zaman, Muhammad H; Schmidt, Christine E

    2014-06-01

    Current injury models suggest that Schwann cell (SC) migration and guidance are necessary for successful regeneration and synaptic reconnection after peripheral nerve injury. The ability of conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) to exhibit chemical, contact and electrical stimuli for cells has led to much interest in their use for neural conduits. Despite this interest, there has been very little research on the effect that electrical stimulation (ES) using PPy has on SC behavior. Here we investigate the mechanism by which SCs interact with PPy in the presence of an electric field. Additionally, we explored the effect that the adsorption of different serum proteins on PPy upon the application of an electric field has on SC migration. The results indicate an increase in average displacement of the SC with ES, resulting in a net anodic migration. Moreover, indirect effects of protein adsorption due to the oxidation of the film upon the application of ES were shown to have a larger effect on migration speed than on migration directionality. These results suggest that SC migration speed is governed by an integrin- or receptor-mediated mechanism, whereas SC migration directionality is governed by electrically mediated phenomena. These data will prove invaluable in optimizing conducting polymers for their different biomedical applications such as nerve repair. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electrically responsive microstructured polypyrrole-polyurethane composites for stimulated osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luculescu, Catalin Romeo; Acasandrei, Adriana Maria; Mustaciosu, Cosmin Catalin; Zamfirescu, Marian; Dinescu, Maria; Calin, Bogdan Stefanita; Popescu, Andrei; Chioibasu, Diana; Cristian, Dan; Paun, Irina Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the efficiency of substrate-mediated electrical stimulation of micropatterned polypyrrole/polyurethane (PPy/PU) composites for enhancing the osteogenesis in osteoblast-like cells. The PPy/PU substrates were obtained by dispersing electrically conductive PPy nanograins within a mechanically resistant PU matrix. Spin-coated PPy/PU layers were micropatterned with predefined 3D geometries by ultrashort laser ablation. Then they were conformally coated by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation, in order to restore their chemical and electrical integrity. The chemical structure of the laser-processed PPy/PU substrates was investigated by 2D and 3D mapping of the laser-processed areas, via Raman microspectroscopy. In vitro studies revealed that the micropatterned PPy/PU substrates facilitated the topological and electrical communication of the seeded osteoblasts. Specifically, we demonstrated the cells attachment on the predefined 3D micropatterns. More importantly, we found evidence about the cells mineralization inside the 3D micropatterns by investigating the calcium deposits by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Alizarin Red staining. We found that the substrate-mediated electrical stimulation of the PPy/PU substrates induced a twofold increase of the Ca deposits in the cultured cells.

  15. Polypyrrole electrodes doped with sulfanilic acid azochromotrop for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2013-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of polypyrrole (PPy) films by electropolymerization on stainless steel substrates and fabrication of PPy powders by chemical polymerization using sulfanilic acid azochromotrop (SPADNS) as a new anionic dopant. The problem of low adhesion of PPy films to stainless steel substrates is addressed by the use of SPADNS, which exhibits chelating properties, promoting film formation. The use of fine particles, prepared by the chemical polymerization method, allows impregnation of Ni foams and fabrication of porous electrodes with high materials loading for electrochemical supercapacitors (ES). PPy films and Ni foam based PPy electrodes show capacitive behaviour in Na2SO4 electrolyte. The electron microscopy studies, impedance spectroscopy data and analysis of the SPADNS structure provide an insight into the factors, controlling capacitive behaviour. The Ni foam based electrodes offer advantages of improved capacitive behaviour at high materials loadings and good cycling stability. The area normalized and volume normalized specific capacitances are as high as 5.43 F cm-2 and 93.6 F cm-3, respectively, for materials loading of 35.4 mg cm-2. The capacitance retention of Ni foam based electrodes is 91.5% after 1000 cycles. The Ni foam based PPy electrodes are promising for application in ES.

  16. Hierarchical polypyrrole based composites for high performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao-Feng; Liu, Zhao-Qing; Lin, Jia-Ming; Li, Nan; Su, Yu-Zhi

    2015-06-01

    An advanced asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy density, exploiting hierarchical polypyrrole (PPy) based composites as both the anode [three dimensional (3D) chuzzle-like Ni@PPy@MnO2] and (3D cochleate-like Ni@MnO2@PPy) cathode, has been developed. The ultrathin PPy and flower-like MnO2 orderly coating on the high-conductivity 3D-Ni enhance charge storage while the unique 3D chuzzle-like and 3D cochleate-like structures provide storage chambers and fast ion transport pathways for benefiting the transport of electrolyte ions. The 3D cochleate-like Ni@MnO2@PPy possesses excellent pseudocapacitance with a relatively negative voltage window while preserved EDLC and free transmission channels conducive to hold the high power, providing an ideal cathode for the asymmetric supercapacitor. It is the first report of assembling hierarchical PPy based composites as both the anode and cathode for asymmetric supercapacitor, which exhibits wide operation voltage of 1.3-1.5 V with maximum energy and power densities of 59.8 Wh kg-1 and 7500 W kg-1.

  17. Thin composite films consisting of polypyrrole and polyparaphenylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovtsov, I.; Bereznev, S.; Traksmaa, R.; Opik, A.

    2007-01-01

    This study demonstrates that the combined method for the formation of thin composite films, consisting of polypyrrole (PPy) as a film forming agent and polyparaphenylene (PPP) with controlled electrical properties and high stability, enables one to avoid the low processability of PPP and to extend the possibilities for the development of electronic devices. The high temperature (250-600 deg. C) doping method was used for PPP preparation. The crystallinity and grindability of PPP was found to be increasing with the thermochemical modification. Thin composite films were prepared onto the light transparent substrates using the simple electropolymerization technique. The properties of films were characterized by the optical transmittance and temperature-dependent conductivity measurements. The morphology and thickness of the prepared films were determined using the scanning electron microscopy. The composite films showed a better adhesion to an inorganic substrate. It was found to be connected mostly with the improved properties of the high temperature doped PPP. The current-voltage characteristics of indium tin oxide/film/Au hybrid organic-inorganic structures showed the influence of the doping conditions of PPP inclusions in the obtained films

  18. Electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polypyrrole film for sensing of clofibric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Bianca; Kim, Jungtae; Kim, Young Jun; Ulbricht, Mathias

    2015-02-26

    Piezoelectric quartz crystals and analogous gold substrates were electrochemically coated with molecularly imprinted polypyrrole films for pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) of clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate. Cyclic voltammetry data obtained during polymerization and deposited weight estimations revealed a decrease of the polymerization rate with increasing clofibric acid concentration. XPS measurements indicated that clofibric acid could be removed after imprinting with an aqueous ethanol solution, which was further optimized by using PAD. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements revealed differences between molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) layers. Binding experiments with clofibric acid and other substances showed a pronounced selectivity of the MIP for clofibric acid vs. carbamazepine, but the response of MIP and NIP to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was higher than that for clofibric acid. A smooth surface, revealed by AFM measurements, with roughness of 6-8 nm for imprinted and non-imprinted layers, might be a reason for an excessively low density of specific binding sites for clofibric acid. Furthermore, the decreased polymerization rate in the presence of clofibric acid might not result in well-defined polymer structures, which could be the reason for the lower sensitivity.

  19. Electropolymerized Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Film for Sensing of Clofibric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schweiger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric quartz crystals and analogous gold substrates were electrochemically coated with molecularly imprinted polypyrrole films for pulsed amperometric detection (PAD of clofibric acid, a metabolite of clofibrate. Cyclic voltammetry data obtained during polymerization and deposited weight estimations revealed a decrease of the polymerization rate with increasing clofibric acid concentration. XPS measurements indicated that clofibric acid could be removed after imprinting with an aqueous ethanol solution, which was further optimized by using PAD. Zeta potential and contact angle measurements revealed differences between molecularly imprinted (MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP layers. Binding experiments with clofibric acid and other substances showed a pronounced selectivity of the MIP for clofibric acid vs. carbamazepine, but the response of MIP and NIP to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid was higher than that for clofibric acid. A smooth surface, revealed by AFM measurements, with roughness of 6–8 nm for imprinted and non-imprinted layers, might be a reason for an excessively low density of specific binding sites for clofibric acid. Furthermore, the decreased polymerization rate in the presence of clofibric acid might not result in well-defined polymer structures, which could be the reason for the lower sensitivity.

  20. Supercapacitance of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes-Polypyrrole Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Raicopol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The composites based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs and conducting polymers (CPs are promising materials for supercapacitor devices due to their unique nanostructure that combines the large pseudocapacitance of the CPs with the fast charging/discharging double-layer capacitance and excellent mechanical properties of the CNTs. Here, we report a new electrochemical method to obtain polypyrrole (PPY/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT composites. In the first step, the SWCNTs are covalently functionalized with monomeric units of pyrrole by esterification of acyl chloride functionalized SWCNTs and N-(6-hydroxyhexylpyrrole. In the second step, the PPY/SWCNTs composites are obtained by copolymerizing the pyrrole monomer with the pyrrole units grafted on SWCNTs surface using controlled potential electrolysis. The composites were further characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed good electrochemical charge storage properties for the synthesized composites based on PPY and SWCNTs covalently functionalized with pyrrole units making them promising electrode materials for high power supercapacitors.

  1. Synthesis and Development of Gold Polypyrrole Actuator for Underwater Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S. K.; Bandopadhya, D.

    2018-02-01

    Electro-active polymer (EAP) such as Polypyrrole has gained much attention in the category of functional materials for fabrication of both active actuator and sensor. Particularly, PPy actuator has shown potential in fluid medium application because of high strain, large bending displacement and work density. This paper focuses on developing a low cost active actuator promising in delivering high performance in underwater environment. The proposed Au-pyrrole actuator is synthesized by adopting the layer-by-layer electrochemical polymerization technique and is fabricated as strip actuator from aqueous solution of Pyrrole and NaDBS in room temperature. In the follow-up, topographical analysis has been carried out using SEM and FESEM instruments showing surface morphology and surface integrity of chemical components of the structure. Several experiments have been conducted under DC input voltage evaluating performance effectiveness such as underwater bending displacement and tip force etc. This is observed that the actuator exhibits quite similar stress profile as of natural muscle, endowed with high modulus makes them effective in working nearly 10,000 cycles underwater environment. In addition, the bending displacement up to 5.4 mm with a low input voltage 1.3 V makes the actuator suitable for underwater micro-robotics applications.

  2. In situ polymerization process of polypyrrole ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Tada, Kazuya; Shinkuma, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A novel thin film processing technique has been developed for the fabrication of ultrathin films of conducting polymers with molecular-level control over thickness and multilayer architecture. This new self-assembly process opens up vast possibilities in applications which require large area, ultrathin films of conducting polymers and more importantly in applications that can take advantage of the unique interactions achievable in the complex, supermolecular architectures of multilayer films. In in situ polymerized polypyrrole (PPy), the deposition process strongly depends on the nature of the substrate surface. That is, for a surface that is negatively charged, there is a linear correspondence between dipping time and the amount of PPy deposited on the substrate. However, in the case of a positively charged surface, there is an apparent rest period of approximately 10-20 min, during which no PPy is deposited. From optical absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron emission studies etc., it became clear that oligomers of pyrrole were adsorbed on the positively charged surface during the rest period, as a result the polymerization reaction of PPy could proceed

  3. Chondroitin sulphate-guided construction of polypyrrole nanoarchitectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengnan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Liao, Jingwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Huang, Shishu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University (China); Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong (China); Chen, Junqi; He, Tianrui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Faculty of Light and Chemical, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-03-01

    Nanospheres, nanocones, and nanowires are three typical polypyrrole (PPy) nanoarchitectures and electrochemically polymerized with the dope of chondroitin sulphate (CS) in this study. CS, a functional biomacromolecule, guides the formation of PPy nanoarchitectures as the dopant and morphology-directing agent. Combined with our previous reported other PPy nanoarchitectures (such as nanotube arrays and nanowires), this work further proposed the novel mechanism of the construction of PPy/CS nanoarchitectures with the synergistic effect of CS molecular chains structure and the steric hindrance. Compared to the undoped PPy, MC3T3-E1 cells with PPy/CS nanoarchitectures possessed stronger proliferation and osteogenic differentiation capability. This suggests that PPy/CS nanoarchitectures have appropriate biocompatibility. Altogether, the nanoarchitectured PPy/CS may find application in the regeneration of bone defect. - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of PPy nanoarchitectures was proposed. • CS acted as biofunctional dopant and morphology-directing agent in PPy forming. • PPy-CS nanoarchitectures were dependent on the Py/CS ratio.

  4. Nanostructured Polypyrrole Powder: A Structural and Morphological Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Sanches

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPY powder was chemically synthesized using ferric chloride (FeCl3 and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Le Bail Method, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. XRD pattern showed a broad scattering of a semicrystalline structure composed of main broad peaks centered at 2θ = 11.4°, 22.1°, and 43.3°. Crystallinity percentage was estimated by the ratio between the sums of the peak areas to the area of amorphous broad halo due to the amorphous phase and showed that PPY has around 20 (1%. FTIR analysis allowed assigning characteristic absorption bands in the structure of PPY. SEM showed micrometric particles of varying sizes with morphologies similar to cauliflower. Crystal data (monoclinic, space group P 21/c, a=7.1499 (2 Å, b=13.9470 (2 Å, c=17.3316 (2 Å, α=90 Å, β=61.5640 (2 Å and γ=90 Å were obtained using the FullProf package program under the conditions of the method proposed by Le Bail. Molecular relaxation was performed using the density functional theory (DFT and suggests that tetramer polymer chains are arranged along the “c” direction. Average crystallite size was found in the range of 20 (1 Å. A value of 9.33 × 10−9 S/cm was found for PPY conductivity.

  5. Waterside corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Technically the study of corrosion of zirconium alloys in nuclear power reactors is a very active field and both experimental work and understanding of the mechanisms involved are going through rapid changes. As a result, the lifetime of any publication in this area is short. Because of this it has been decided to revise IAEA-TECDOC-684 - Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants - published in 1993. This updated, revised and enlarged version includes major changes to incorporate some of the comments received about the first version. Since this review deals exclusively with the corrosion of zirconium and zirconium based alloys in water, and another separate publication is planned to deal with the fuel-side corrosion of zirconium based fuel cladding alloys, i.e. stress corrosion cracking, it was decided to change the original title to Waterside Corrosion of Zirconium Alloys in Nuclear Power Plants. The rapid changes in the field have again necessitated a cut-off date for incorporating new data. This edition incorporates data up to the end of 1995; including results presented at the 11 International Symposium on Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, in September 1995. The revised format of the review now includes: Introductory chapters on basic zirconium metallurgy and oxidation theory; A revised chapter discussing the present extent of our knowledge of the corrosion mechanism based on laboratory experiments; a separate and revised chapter discussing hydrogen uptake; a completely reorganized chapter summarizing the phenomenological observations of zirconium alloy corrosion in reactors; a new chapter on modelling in-reactor corrosion; a revised chapter devoted exclusively to the manner in which irradiation might influence the corrosion process; finally, a summary of our present understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating in reactor

  6. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  7. Determination of impurities in zirconium by emission spectrograph method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolon, S.; Masduki, B.; Aryadi

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of B, Cd, Si and Cr elements in zirconium oxide was carried out. Zirconium oxide was made by precipitating zirconium solution with oxalic acid and calcination was at temperature 900 oC for four hours. Silver chloride compound as much as 10% was used as a distillation carrier and 7 step filtration was used to reduce the impurities element spectra having high density. It was found that B concentration is between 3.80 and 7.44 ppm, Cd less then 0.5 ppm, Si between 74.38-150.33 ppm and Cr between 19.90-45.76 ppm. (author)

  8. Research and development of zirconium industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianzhang; Tian Zhenye

    2001-01-01

    The development of uranium material for nuclear power and silicon material for information industry represents two revolutionary changes in the material field in 20-th century. The development of these kinds of materials not only brings about great revolution of technology in the material field, but also promotes the great advancement of the world economy. Zirconium or its alloy, as one of the most important material in atomic age, just as the same as foreign countries has been developed under promotion of nuclear submarine project in China, and building of civil nuclear power reactor then has been laid a solid foundation for zirconium industry and provide a broad market for zirconium material

  9. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM ZIRCONIUM-URANIUM NUCLEAR FUELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, T.A.

    1962-07-10

    An improvement was made in a process of recovering uranium from a uranium-zirconium composition which was hydrochlorinated with gsseous hydrogen chloride at a temperature of from 350 to 800 deg C resulting in volatilization of the zirconium, as zirconium tetrachloride, and the formation of a uranium containing nitric acid insoluble residue. The improvement consists of reacting the nitric acid insoluble hydrochlorination residue with gaseous carbon tetrachloride at a temperature in the range 550 to 600 deg C, and thereafter recovering the resulting uranium chloride vapors. (AEC)

  10. Industrial experience with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Titanium is a reference material for the construction of waste containers in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. It has been in industrial service for over 30 a, often in severe corrosion environments, but it is still considered a relatively exotic material with limited operating history. This has arisen because of the aerospace applications of this material and the misconception that the high strength-to-weight ratio dominates the choice of this material. In fact, the advantage of titanium lies in its high reliability and excellent corrosion resistance. It has a proven record in seawater heat exchanger service and a demonstrated excellent reliability even in polluted water. For many reasons it is the technically correct choice of material for marine applications. In this report we review the industrial service history of titanium, particularly in hot saline environments, and demonstrate that it is a viable waste container material, based upon this industrial service history and operating experience. (author)

  11. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Study of the uranium-zirconium diffusion; Etude de la diffusion uranium-zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adda, Y; Mairy, C; Bouchet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The intermetallic diffusion of uranium fuel and zirconium used as cladding is studied. Intermetallic diffusion can occur during the cladding of uranium rods and uranium can penetrate the zirconium cladding. Different parameters are involved in this mechanism as structure and mechanical properties of the diffusion area as well as presence of impurities in the metal. The uses of different analysis techniques (micrography, Castaing electronic microprobe, microhardness and autoradiography) have permitted to determine with great accuracy the diffusion coefficient in gamma phase (body centered cubic system) and the results have given important information on the intermetallic diffusion mechanisms. The existence of the Kirkendall effect in the U-Zr diffusion is also an argument in favor of the generality of the diffusion mechanism by vacancies in body centered cubic system. (M.P.)

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ester and amide derivatives of titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melánová, Klára; Beneš, Ludvík; Trchová, Miroslava; Svoboda, Jan; Zima, Vítězslav

    2013-01-01

    A set of layered ester and amide derivatives of titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate was prepared by solvothermal treatment of amorphous titanium(IV) carboxymethylphosphonate with corresponding 1-alkanols, 1,ω-alkanediols, 1-aminoalkanes, 1,ω-diaminoalkanes and 1,ω-amino alcohols and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Whereas alkyl chains with one functional group form bilayers tilted to the layers, 1,ω-diaminoalkanes and most of 1,ω-alkanediols form bridges connecting the adjacent layers. In the case of amino alcohols, the alkyl chains form bilayer and either hydroxyl or amino group is used for bonding. This simple method for the synthesis of ester and amide derivatives does not require preparation of acid chloride derivative as a precursor or pre-intercalation with alkylamines and can be used also for the preparation of ester and amide derivatives of titanium carboxyethylphosphonate and zirconium carboxymethylphosphonate. - Graphical abstract: Ester and amide derivatives of layered titanium carboxymethylphosphonate were prepared by solvothermal treatment of amorphous solid with alkanol or alkylamine. - Highlights: • Ester and amide derivatives of titanium carboxymethylphosphonate. • Solvothermal treatment of amorphous solid with alkanol or alkylamine. • Ester and amide formation confirmed by IR spectroscopy

  14. Synthesis of zirconium guanidinate complexes and the formation of zirconium carbonitride via low pressure CVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, S.E.; Carmalt, C.J.; Blackman, C.S.; Abou-Chabine, F.; Pugh, D.; Davies, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of zirconium carbonitride have been deposited on glass at 600 °C from two novel guanidinate precursors: [ZrCp'{¿2-(iPrN)2CNMe2}2Cl] (1) and [ZrCp'2{¿2-(iPrN)2CNMe2}Cl] (2) (Cp' ) monomethylcyclopentadienyl). Both compounds 1 and 2 were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography.

  15. Separation process of zirconium and hafnium; Procede de separation du zirconium et du hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J; Saint-James, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    About the separation different processes of zirconium-hafnium, the extraction by solvent in cross-current is the most easily the process usable on an industrial scale. It uses tributyl phosphate as solvent, diluted with white spirit to facilitate the decanting. Some exploratory tests showed that nitric environment seemed the most favorable for extraction; but a lot of other factors intervene in the separation process. We studied the influence of the acidity successively, the NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions concentration, the role of the cation coming with NO{sub 3}{sup -}, as well as the influence of the concentration of zirconium in the solution on the separation coefficient {beta} = {alpha}{sub Zr} / {alpha}{sub Hf}. (M.B.) [French] Des differents procedes de separation zirconium-hafnium, l'extraction par solvant en contre-courant est le procede le plus facilement utilisable a l'echelle industrielle. On utilise comme solvant le phosphate de tributyle, dilue avec du white spirit pour faciliter les decantations. Des essais preliminaires ont montre que le milieu nitrique semblait le plus favorable a l'extraction; mais beaucoup d'autres facteurs interviennent dans le processus de separation. Nous avons etudie successivement l'influence de l'acidite, celle de la concentration en ions NO{sub 3}{sup -}, le role du cation accompagnant NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ainsi que l'influence de la concentration en zirconium de la solution sur le coefficient de separation {beta} = {alpha}{sub Zr} / {alpha}{sub Hf}. (MB)

  16. Thermogravimetric experiments with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, L.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1991-02-01

    In the process of preparing for pyrophoricity experiments involving uranium, we conducted hydriding and air-exposure experiments on titanium. In these experiments the hydriding reactions and response to air-exposure was generally within the range expected based on work reported by others. One aberrant behavior was a sudden weight gain followed by a significant weight loss. We speculate that loss may be due to hydrogen evolution from the TiH 2 resulting from local heating by oxidation reactions. We verified that titanium is not pyrophoric at temperatures less than 750 degree C. 18 refs. 1 fig

  17. Morphology-controllable synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube/polypyrrole composites and their hydrogen storage capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okan, Burcu Saner, E-mail: bsanerokan@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Zanjani, Jamal Seyyed Monfared [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Letofsky-Papst, Ilse [Institute for Electron Microscopy, Graz University of Technology, Steyrergasse 17, A-8010, Graz (Austria); Cebeci, Fevzi Çakmak; Menceloglu, Yusuf Z. [Sabancı University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, SUNUM, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Sphere-like and layer-by-layer growth mechanisms of polypyrrole are controlled by changing pyrrole monomer concentration and using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as template. Pristine polypyrrole has sphere-like structures but remarkable change in types of polypyrrole growth is observed from spherical-like to layer-by-layer structures in the presence of CNT. Acid treatment enhances polypyrrole coverage on CNT surface by preventing agglomeration of polypyrrole due to an increase in surface oxygen groups and sp{sup 2} bonds in CNT structure. The crystallinity of powders comparably decreases after polypyrrole coating due to the amorphous structure of polypyrrole and a sharp decrease in the intensity of 002 peak. The influence of surface functionalization and polymer coating on the structural parameters of multi-walled CNT and their composites is investigated by tailoring the feeding ratio of polypyrrole. The hydrogen sorption measurements at ambient conditions by Intelligent Gravimetric Analyzer demonstrate that hydrogen uptake of CNT/polypyrrole composite is 1.66 wt.% which is almost 3 times higher than that of pristine CNT. Higher hydrogen uptake values are obtained by keeping the mass ratio of pyrrole monomer and CNT equal by using non-functionalized CNT in composite production. Hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics of polypyrrole/CNT composites is improved by increasing adsorption sites after polymer coating and acid treatment. The desorption curves of these modified surfaces are higher than their adsorption curves at lower pressures and hysteresis loop is observed in their isotherms since hydrogen is chemically bonded to the modified surfaces by the conversion of carbon atoms from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3} hybridization. - Highlights: • Growth mechanisms of polypyrrole are controlled by changing monomer concentration. • Lamellar structure is formed by using pristine CNT at high monomer concentration. • Homogeneous polymer coating is achieved on the surface of

  18. A computer model for hydride blister growth in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.J.; Sawatzky, A.; Woo, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    The failure of a Zircaloy-2 pressure tube in the Pickering unit 2 reactor started at a series of zirconium hydride blisters on the outside of the pressure tube. These blisters resulted from the thermal diffusion of hydrogen to the cooler regions of the pressure tube. In this report the physics of thermal diffusion of hydrogen in zirconium is reviewed and a computer model for blister growth in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry is described. The model is used to show that the blister-growth rate in a two-phase zirconium/zirconium-hydride region does not depend on the initial hydrogen concentration nor on the hydrogen pick-up rate, and that for a fixed far-field temperature there is an optimum pressure-type/calandria-tube contact temperature for growing blisters. The model described here can also be used to study large-scale effects, such as hydrogen-depletion zones around hydride blisters

  19. Ductile zirconium powder by hydride-dehydride process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, T S [BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE, BOMBAY (INDIA); CHAUDHARY, S [NUCLEAR FUEL COMPLEX, HYDERABAD (INDIA)

    1976-09-01

    The preparation of ductile zirconium powder by the hydride-dehydride process has been described. In this process massive zirconium obtained from Kroll reduction of ZrCl/sub 4/ is first rendered brittle by hydrogenation and the hydride crushed and ground in a ball mill to the required particle size. Hydrogen is then hot vacuum extracted to yield the metal powder. The process has been successfully employed for the production of zirconium powders with low oxygen content and having hardness values in the range of 115-130 BHN, starting from a zirconium sponge of 100-120 BHN hardness. Influence of surface characteristics of the starting metal on its hydriding behaviour has been studied and the optimum hydriding-dehydriding conditions established.

  20. Investigation on the corrosion resistance of zirconium in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvet, P.; Mur, P.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium in nitric solutions exhibits an excellent corrosion resistance in the passive state, and a mediocre corrosion resistance in the unpassive state with risk of stress corrosion cracking. Results of the influence of some parameters (medium, potential, temperature, stress, friction, metallurgical structure and surface state) on zirconium passivation are presented. Zirconium remains passive in a large range of HNO 3 concentration (at least up to 14.4N), in the presence of oxidizing ions (Cr 4 , Ce 4 ), in a spent fuel dissolution solution. Zirconium is depassived by friction at high speed and pressure, by platinum coupling in boiling 14.4N HNO 3 with or without stress, or by imposed deformation speed under high potential. (A.B.)

  1. Spectrophotometric titration of sulfates in the presence of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Kotova, S.S.; Molokanova, L.G.; Chekmarev, A.M.; Yagodin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The procedure has been proposed for express determination of sulphate ions in the presence of zirconium by spectrophotometric titration with the use of barium chloride and nitrochromazo as an indicator. The procedure is based on bonding zirconium into a more stable complex with EDTA (ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid). The presence of excess of EDTA and zirconium (4) complexonate in the solution being titrated does not affect the titration curve shape and the character of break on the curve in the equivalence point. A complete demasking of SO 4 2- is observed in the case of 1O-fold excess of EDTA with respect to zirconium (4). Statistic evaluation of the method has shown that the results of titration can be distorted by chance errors only

  2. Development of zirconium hydride highly effective moderator materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Changgeng

    2005-10-01

    The zirconium hydride with highly content of hydrogen and low density is new efficient moderator material for space nuclear power reactor. Russia has researched it to use as new highly moderator and radiation protection materials. Japanese has located it between the top of pressure vessel and the main protection as a shelter, the work temperature is rach to 220 degree C. The zirconium hydride moderator blocks are main parts of space nuclear power reactor. Development of zirconium hydride moderator materials have strength research and apply value. Nuclear Power Research and Design Instituteoh China (NPIC) has sep up the hydrogenation device and inspect systems, and accumurate a large of experience about zirconium hydride, also set up a strict system of QA and QC. (authors)

  3. Investigation of colourless complexes of thorium, hafnium and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiciak, S.; Stefanowicz, T.; Gontarz, H.; Swit, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The investigations conducted in the Institute of General Chemistry of Poznan Technical University in partial cooperation with Kharkhof Technical University related with thorium, hafnium and zirconium complexes are reviewed. (author)

  4. Uranium (Vi) sorption onto zirconium diphosphate chemically modified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, N.; Ordonez R, E.

    2010-10-01

    This work deals with the uranium (Vi) speciation after sorption onto zirconium diphosphate (ZrP 2 O 7 ) surface, hydrated and in a surface modified with organic acids. Oxalic and citric acids were chosen to modify the ZrP 2 O 7 surface because they have poly carboxylic groups and they mimic the organic matter in nature. Thus the interest of this work is to evaluate the uranium (Vi) sorption edge at different s ph values in natural and modified surfaces. The luminescence technique (fluorescence and phosphorescence, respectively) was used for the quantification and speciation of uranyl sorbed at the zirconium diphosphate interface. The fluorescence experiment, showed that adsorption of uranyl on surface of zirconium diphosphate tends to 100%. The speciation shows that there are different complexes in surface which were formed between zirconium diphosphate and uranyl, since it is produced a displacement of wavelength in fluorescence spectra of each system. (Author)

  5. Zirconium analysis. Impurities determination by spark mass specrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Determination of impurities in zirconium, suitable for atomic content greater than 10 -8 but particularly adapted for low contents. The method is quantitative only if a reference sample is available (metallic impurities) [fr

  6. Radiation stability of proton irradiated zirconium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Dickerson, Clayton A.; Allen, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for the deep burn (DB)-TRISO fuel as a replacement for the silicon carbide coating. The radiation stability of ZrC was studied using 2.6 MeV protons, across the irradiation temperature range from 600 to 900degC and to doses up to 1.75 dpa. The microstructural characterization shows that the irradiated microstructure is comprised of a high density of nanometer-sized dislocation loops, while no irradiation induced amorphization or voids are observed. The lattice expansion induced by point defects is found to increase as the dose increases for the samples irradiated at 600 and 800degC, while for the 900degC irradiation, a slight lattice contraction is observed. The radiation hardening is also quantified using a micro indentation technique for the temperature and doses studies. (author)

  7. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi, E-mail: tuerdi.maimaitiyili@mah.se; Blomqvist, Jakob [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Steuwer, Axel [Lund University, Ole Römers väg, Lund, Skane 22100 (Sweden); Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Gardham Avenue, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Bjerkén, Christina [Malmö University, Östra Varvsgatan 11 A, Malmö, Skane 20506 (Sweden); Zanellato, Olivier [Ensam - Cnam - CNRS, 151 Boulevard de l’Hôpital, Paris 75013 (France); Blackmur, Matthew S. [Materials Performance Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Andrieux, Jérôme [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue J Horowitz, Grenoble 38043 (France); Université de Lyon, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, Lyon 69100 (France); Ribeiro, Fabienne [Institut de Radioprotection et Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, 13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-06-26

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH{sub x} phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement.

  8. Solute redistribution studies in oxidised zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khera, S K; Kale, G B; Gadiyar, H S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Metallurgy Div.

    1977-01-01

    Electron microprobe studies on solute distribution in oxide layers and in the regions near oxide metal interface have been carried out in the case of zircaloy-2 and zirconium binary alloys containing niobium, tin, iron, copper, chromium and nickel and oxidised in steam at 550 deg C. In the case of alloys having higher oxidation rates, the oxide of solute element was found to dissolve in ZrO/sub 2/ without any composition variation. However, for solute addition with limited solubility like Cr, Cu and Fe, solute enrichment at metal/oxide interface and depletion of the same matrix has been observed. The intensity profiles for nickel distribution were also found to be identical to Fe or Cr distribution. The mode of solute distribution has been discussed in relation to oxidation behaviour of these alloys.

  9. Irradiation effects in hydrated zirconium molybdate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourdrin, C., E-mail: chloe.fourdrin@polytechnique.edu [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M-UMR 3299/Lrad, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Esnouf, S. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M-UMR 3299/Lrad, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dauvois, V. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renault, J.-P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M-UMR 3299/Lrad, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Venault, L. [CEN Valrho, DEN/DRCP/SCPS/LC2A, 30 207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Tabarant, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/LRSI, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, D. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cheniere, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/LRSI, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lamouroux-Lucas, C. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM, 91 191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cochin, F. [AREVA NC Tour, AREVA, 92 084 Paris La Defense cedex (France)

    2012-07-15

    Hydrated zirconium molybdate is a precipitate formed during the process of spent nuclear fuel dissolution. In order to study the radiation stability of this material, we performed gamma and electron irradiation in a dose range of 10-100 kGy. XRD patterns showed that the crystalline structure is not affected by irradiation. However, the yellow original sample exhibits a blue-grey color after exposure. The resulting samples were analyzed by means of EPR and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Two sites for trapped electrons were evidenced leading to a d{sup 1} configuration responsible for the observed coloration. Moreover, a third defect corresponding to a hole trapped on oxygen was observed after electron irradiation at low temperature.

  10. Progress in zirconium resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.H.; Dropinski, S.C.; Worden, E.F.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have examined the stepwise-resonant three-photon-ionization spectrum of neutral zirconium atoms using three separately-tunable pulsed visible dye lasers. The ground-level (first-step) transitions were chosen on the basis of demonstrated 91 Zr selectivity. Lifetimes of even-parity levels around 36,000 cm -1 , measured with the delayed-photoionization technique, range from 10 to 100 nsec. Direct ionization cross sections appear to be less than 10 -17 cm 2 ; newly-detected autoionizing levels give peak ionization cross sections (inferred from saturation fluences) up to 10 -15 cm 2 . Portions of Rydberg series converging to the 315 and 763 cm -1 levels of Zr + were identified. Clumps of autoionizing levels are thought to be due to Rydberg-valence mixing

  11. In situ hydrogen loading on zirconium powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimaitiyili, Tuerdi; Blomqvist, Jakob; Steuwer, Axel; Bjerkén, Christina; Zanellato, Olivier; Blackmur, Matthew S.; Andrieux, Jérôme; Ribeiro, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Commercial-grade Zr powder loaded with hydrogen in situ and phase transformations between various Zr and ZrH x phases have been monitored in real time. For the first time, various hydride phases in a zirconium–hydrogen system have been prepared in a high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation beamline and their transformation behaviour has been studied in situ. First, the formation and dissolution of hydrides in commercially pure zirconium powder were monitored in real time during hydrogenation and dehydrogenation, then whole pattern crystal structure analysis such as Rietveld and Pawley refinements were performed. All commonly reported low-pressure phases presented in the Zr–H phase diagram are obtained from a single experimental arrangement

  12. One pot synthesis of polypyrrole silver nanocomposite on cotton fabrics for multifunctional property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz Babu, K; Dhandapani, P; Maruthamuthu, S; Anbu Kulandainathan, M

    2012-11-06

    Polymer-silver nanocomposites modified cotton fabrics were prepared by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization using pyrrole and silver nitrate. In a redox reaction between pyrrole and silver nitrate, silver ions oxidize the pyrrole monomer and get reduced. This reduced silver as nanoparticles deposited on/into the polypyrrole/cotton matrix layer and the interaction between silver and polypyrrole was by adsorption or electrostatic interaction. The structure and composite formation on cotton fiber was investigated using SEM, FT-IR, XPS and XRD. The results showed that a strong interaction existing between silver nanoparticles with polypyrrole/cotton matrix. FT-IR studies clearly indicated that the interaction between polypyrrole (-N-H) and cellulose (>C-OH) was by hydrogen bonding. It is observed that the conductivity of the composite coated fabrics has been increased by the incorporation of silver nanoparticles. In the synthesized composites, silver content plays an important role in the conductivity and antimicrobial activity rate of the fabrics against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The composites of silver with globular or nanotubular polypyrrole: the control of silver content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseeva, E.; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Šeděnková, Ivana; Prokeš, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 209, November (2015), s. 105-111 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polypyrrole * nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.299, year: 2015

  14. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using polypyrrole-polyaniline nanofibers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhaumik, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole-polyaniline (PPy-PANI) nanofibers as adsorbent of Cr(VI) were prepared without template via coupling of propagating PPy+ and PANI+ free radicals by simultaneous polymerization of Py and ANI monomers in presence of FeCl3 oxidant...

  15. Polypyrrole nanotubes and their carbonized analogs: synthesis, characterization, gas sensing properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Mrlík, M.; Olejník, R.; Kopecký, D.; Vrňata, M.; Prokeš, J.; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2016), s. 1-13, č. článku 1917. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole nanotube * carbon nanotube * carbonization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  16. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  17. High efficient removal of chromium (VI) using glycine doped polypyrrole adsorbent from aqueous solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ballav, N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine doped polypyrrole (PPy-gly) adsorbent was prepared via in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) monomer in the presence of glycine (gly) for the removal of Cr(VI). Formation of PPy homopolymer and inclusion of gly in the PPy matrix were...

  18. Polypyrrole-coated halloysite nanotube clay nanocomposite: synthesis, characterization and Cr(VI) adsorption behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ballav, N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A polypyrrole-coated halloysite nanotube nanocomposite (PPy-HNTs NC) was prepared via in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in the dispersion of HNTs and assessed for the removal of toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. ATR-FTIR and XRD results...

  19. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR Phenomenon of the Oxidizing and Reducing Polypyrrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlaila Rajabiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR phenomenon of the oxidizing and reducing polypyrrole (PPy have been observed using a modified Au/PPy Kretschmann configuration. The observation was carried out through simulation Winspall 3.02 software and compared with some experimental data refractive index (n, absorbance index (, and thickness (τ reported in other literatures with spectroscopy ellipsometry. This simulation assumed that the SPR system use BK-7 halfcylinder prism (n= 1,515 and the laser beam was generated by HeNe (λ= 632,8 nm. The result showed that the optimum layer thickness of polypyrrole with neutral electrolyte solution in the reduction state is of about 20 nm. The polypyrrole with an acid solution in the oxidation state showed that the reflectivity curve is sharper and the width of the curve is smaller than the neutral electrolyte solution in the reduction state with the SPR angle of about 46,810 and the reflectivity value of about 0,217. Polypyrrole in a state of oxidation and reduction, related to the absorption, film thickness, and dielectric constant of materials, affected to the SPR angle shift and dip curve

  20. The influence of polymerization rate on conductivity and crystallinity of electropolymerized polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyreklev, P.; Granström, M.; Inganäs, O.

    1996-01-01

    We report studies on electronic conductivity and crystallinity in electropolymerized polypyrrole. Different growth rates during electropolymerization strongly influence and determine structural and electronic properties. Polymer films grown using low current density show higher electronic conduct...... a different coupling route in the polymerization, induced by the lower current density. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  1. Composite polypyrrole-containing particles and electrical properties of thin films prepared therefrom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lu, Y.; Pich, A.; Adler, H.-J.; Wang, G.; Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 23 (2008), s. 5002-5012 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : core-shell particles * polypyrrole * electrical conductivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.331, year: 2008

  2. Synthesis, characterization and a.c. conductivity of polypyrrole/Y2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bine in some special fashion with the conducting polymers to give rise to the composites. In almost all the cases some specific nature of association between the two compo- nents have been observed. Polypyrrole is an important conducting polymer with high electrical conductivity and appreciable environmental stability ...

  3. Optimization routes for high electrical conductivity of polypyrrole nanotubes prepared in presence of methyl orange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, D.; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Vrňata, M.; Trchová, Miroslava; Kopecká, J.; Václavík, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 230, August (2017), s. 89-96 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * electrical conductivity * nanotube Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  4. Surfactant Effect in Polypyrrole and Polypyrrole with Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube Counter Electrodes: Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Chau Thi Thanh; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Woo; Suresh, Thogiti; Kim, Jae Hong

    2016-05-01

    In our present study, polypyrrole-1 (PPy1), polypyrrole-2 (PPy2), and polypyrrole-2/multi wall carbon nanotube composite film (PPy2/MWCNT) were proposed as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to replace the precious Pt CE. These films were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates by using a facile electrochemical polymerization route, and served as CEs in DSSCs. It is shown that the introduction of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), enhanced the catalytic activity, thus leading to an improvement in the performance of PPy2. Further, introduction of MWCNT resulted in increase in conversion efficiency of DSSCs with PPy2/MWCNT composite film. The Tafel and electrochemical impedance analysis revealed that the PPy2 and PPy2/MWCNT CEs prepared with anionic surfactant possessed more catalytic activity and lower charge transfer resistance in comparison with PPy1 -based CE. This resulted in a better conversion efficiency of 5.88% for PPy2/MWCNT-based DSSC under 1 sun condition, reaching 86% of the DSSC based on reference Pt counter electrode (6.86%). These results indicate that the composite film with high catalytic properties for I3- reduction can potentially be used as the CE in a high-performance DSSC.

  5. Fluorimetric determination of uranium in zirconium and zircaloy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta L, E.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this procedure is to determine microquantities of uranium in zirconium and zircaloy alloys. The report also covers the determination of uranium in zirconium alloys and zircaloy in the range from 0.25 to 20 ppm on 1 g of base sample of radioactive material. These limit its can be variable if the size of the used aliquot one is changed for the final determination of uranium. (Author)

  6. Arc melting in inert gas atmosphere of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    The obtainment of metallic zirconium in laboratory scale with commercial and nuclear quality is the objective of the Metallurgy Department of IEN/CNEN - Brazil, so a melting procedure of zirconium sponge in laboratory scale using an arc furnace in inert atmosphere is developed. The effects of atmosphere operation, and the use of gas absorber and the sponge characteristics over the quality of button in as-cast reporting with hardness measures are described. (C.G.C.)

  7. Preparation of high-purity zirconium dioxide from baddeleyite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskobojnikov, N.B.; Skiba, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    Interaction of baddeleyite concentrate with calcium oxide and calcium chloride in the process of caking is studied. The influence of grain size on calcium zirconate formation is tested. Conditions for cake leaching by hydrochloric acid and zirconium(4) oxychloride purification from calcium and silicon compounds by recrystallization are reported. Zirconium dioxide corresponding to specifications (6-2 special purity) is obtained with a high (more than 90%) chemical yield. 9 refs., 1 tab

  8. Modelling of Zirconium and Hafnium separation using continuous annular chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch-Setyadji; Endang Susiantini

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear degrees of zirconium in the form of a metal alloy is the main material for fuel cladding of NPP. Zirconium is also used as sheathing UO 2 kernel in the form of ZrC as a substitute of SiC in the fuel elements of High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Difficulty separating hafnium from zirconium because it has a lot of similarities in the chemical properties of Zr and Hf. Annular chromatography is a device that can be used for separating of zirconium and hafnium to obtain zirconium nuclear grade. Therefore, it is necessary to construct the mathematical modelling that can describe the separation of zirconium and hafnium in the annular chromatography containing anion resin dowex-1X8. The aim of research is to perform separation simulation by using the equilibrium model and mass transfer coefficient resulted from research. Zr and Hf feed used in this research were 26 and 1 g/l, respectively. Height of resin (L), angular velocity (ω) and the superficial flow rate (uz) was varied to determine the effect of each parameter on the separation of Zr and Hf. By using Kd and Dv values resulted previous research. Simulation results showed that zirconium and hafnium can be separated using a continuous annular chromatography with high resin (long bed) 50 cm, superficial flow rate of 0.001 cm/s, the rotation speed of 0.006 rad/min and 20 cm diameter annular. In these conditions the results obtained zirconium concentration of 10,303.226 g/m 3 and hafnium concentration of 12.324 g/m 3 (ppm). (author)

  9. Identification and characterization of a new Zirconium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In order to control the integrity of the fuel clad, alloy of zirconium, it is necessary to predict the behavior of zirconium hydrides in the environment (temperature, stress...), at a microscopic scale. A characterization study by TEM of hydrides has been realized. It shows little hydrides about 500 nm, in hydride Zircaloy 4. Then a more detailed study identified a new hydride phase presented in this paper. (A.L.B.)

  10. Zircon Carburation Studies as Intermediate Stage in the Zirconium Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro Huertas, V.; Saenz de Tejada Gonzalez, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1963-01-01

    Zirconium carbide and carbonitride mixtures were obtained by Kroll's method.Reaction products have been identified by micrography and X-ray diffraction analysis. The optimum graphite content in the initial charge for the carburation reaction has been studied. zirconium, silicon and carbon content in the final product has been controlled as a function of current in the furnace and reaction time.Further chlorination of the final product was performed successfully. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling; Elaboration de zirconium par reduction de tetrachlorure de zirconium par magnesothermie. Etude experimentale et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basin, N

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl{sub 4} + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl{sub 2}. By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  12. Dielectric properties of zirconium dioxide-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, O.S.; Gruzdev, A.I.; Koposova, Z.L.; Lyutsareva, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the dielectric properties of materials based on stabilized zirconium dioxide with Co 3 O 4 additions possessing a high temperature-coefficient of resistance. These materials are promising for manufacturing resistance temperature gages that work under an oxidizing atmosphere at 370-1270 degrees K. The obtained results indicate the possibility of developing temperature gases possessing highsensitivity from stabilized zirconium dioxide with Co 3 O 4 additions

  13. Zirconium molybdate hydrate precipitates in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldo, A.; Noire, M.H.; Esbelin, E.; Dancausse, J.P.; Picart, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents through 2 posters a general overview studies realised by CEA teams on deposits observed in the La Hague plant dissolution facilities. Their main constituents are metallic debris bound together with zirconium molybdate hydrate. A comprehensive study of zirconium molybdate hydrate formation included nucleation and growth kinetics was developed. Fouling mechanisms were consequently explained as influenced by the operation conditions. Pu insertion was also overviewed. Its behaviour is important when curative and preventive chemical treatments are considered. (authors)

  14. Alkylation of isobutane by butenes on zirconium sulfate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenov, A.V.; Perelevskij, E.V.; Finevich, V.P.; Zajkovskij, V.I.; Paukshtis, E.A.; Duplyakiv, V.K.; Bal'zhinimaev, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Preparation of applied zirconium sulfate catalysts obtained by the method of impregnation is investigated. Results of comparative study of structural, acid-base and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconium dioxide applied on silica gel and aluminium oxide are represented. Intervals of values of synthesis basic parameters and characteristics of catalysts properties providing achievement of high activity and selectivity in isobutane alkylation by butenes in liquid phase are determined [ru

  15. An evaluated neutronic data file for elemental zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Chiba, S.

    1994-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluated neutronic data file for elemental zirconium is derived and presented in the ENDF/B-VI formats. The derivation is based upon measured microscopic nuclear data, augmented by model calculations as necessary. The primary objective is a quality contemporary file suitable for fission-reactor development extending from conventional thermal to fast and innovative systems. This new file is a significant improvement over previously available evaluated zirconium files, in part, as a consequence of extensive new experimental measurements reported elsewhere

  16. Quercetin as colorimetric reagent for determination of zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.; White, C.E.

    1953-01-01

    Methods described in the literature for the determination of zirconium are generally designed for relatively large amounts of this element. A good procedure using colorimetric reagent for the determination of trace amounts is desirable. Quercetin has been found to yield a sensitive color reaction with zirconium suitable for the determination of from 0.1 to 50?? of zirconium dioxide. The procedure developed involves the separation of zirconium from interfering elements by precipitation with p-dimethylaminoazophenylarsonic acid prior to its estimation with quercetin. The quercetin reaction is carried out in 0.5N hydrochloric acid solution. Under the operating conditions it is indicated that quercetin forms a 2 to 1 complex with zirconium; however, a 2 to 1 and a 1 to 1 complex can coexist under special conditions. Approximate values for the equilibrium constants of the complexes are K1 = 0.33 ?? 10-5 and K2 = 1.3 ?? 10-9. Seven Bureau of Standards samples of glass sands and refractories were analyzed with excellent results. The method described should find considerable application in the analysis of minerals and other materials for macro as well as micro amounts of zirconium.

  17. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of zirconium alloys at 3000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosbons, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue lives of two zirconium alloys, zirconium-2.5 wt% niobium and zirconium-1.1 wt% chronium-0.1 wt% iron, have been determined at 300 0 C. Both annealed material and cold-worked and stress-relieved material have similar fatigue lives to annealed Zircaloy-2 but β-quenched zirconium-niobium and zirconium-chromium-iron have lower fatigue lives than annealed Zircaloy-2. An atmosphere containing a concentration of iodine lower than that required for stress corrosion cracking still significantly lowers the fatigue life. A mathematical relationship between fatigue life and short-term tensile properties was used to estimate the fatigue life of zirconium alloy fuel sheaths and it was estimated that for a strain cycle of 0.1 per cent a cyclic frequency exceeding 0.116 Hz (10 000 cycles/day) would be required to cause fatigue failure of the sheath before its design life is realized. (author)

  18. Low cycle fatigue behaviour of zirconium alloys at 3000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosbons, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The low cycle fatigue lives of two zirconium alloys, zirconium--2.5 wt percent niobium and zirconium--1.1 wt percent chromium--0.1 wt percent iron, have been determined at 300 0 C. Both annealed material and cold-worked and stress-relieved material have similar fatigue lives to annealed Zircaloy-2 but β-quenched zirconium--niobium and zirconium--chromium--iron have lower fatigue lives than annealed Zircaloy-2. An atmosphere containing a concentration of iodine lower than that required for stress corrosion cracking still significantly lowers the fatigue life. A mathematical relationship between fatigue life and short-term tensile properties was used to estimate the fatigue life of zirconium alloy fuel sheaths and it was estimated that for a strain cycle of 0.1 percent a cyclic frequency exceeding 0.116 Hz (10,000 cycles/ day) would be required to cause fatigue failure of the sheath before its design life is realized

  19. Hot zirconium cathode sputtered layers for useful surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that multilayer zirconium based sputtered coatings can greatly improve the wear properties of a wide variety of mechanical components, machine tools, and metal surfaces. Although a hot (approximately 1000 0 C) cathode is employed, temperature sensitive components can be beneficially treated, and for precision parts a total coating thickness of only 0.5μm is often perfectly effective. Even at the highest coating rates substrate temperatures are below 300 0 C. For the corrosion protection of less well finished surfaces thicker layers are usually required and it is important that relatively stress free layers are produced. The authors employed a variety of tailored zirconium/zirconium nitride/zirconium oxide mixed layers to solve a number of tribological problems for some 5 or 6 years. However, it is only recently that they designed, built, and commissioned rapid cycle, multiple cathode, load-lock plant for economic production of such coatings. This paper provides an introduction to this method of depositing pure zirconium and pure synthetic zirconium nitride films

  20. Tests for depositing thin films of metallic zirconium; Essais de depot de zirconium metallique en couches minces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentolila, J.; Pattoret, A.; Platzer, R.

    1957-01-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at obtaining a thin, adhesive and non porous coating of metallic zirconium on a uranium substrate by means of chemical process. The main required condition was not to go beyond the uranium phase change temperature (650 C). Two kinds of tests have been performed: on the one hand, tests of reduction of zirconium tetrachloride in non aqueous solvent medium, and on the other hand, tests of vacuum decomposition of zirconium hydride. As far as the first tests are concerned, the authors studied organic solvent media (reduction by aluminium and lithium hydride, action of organic-magnesium compounds), and liquid ammoniac. For the second test type, they describe the apparatus, the preparation of the zirconium hydride, preparation of the substrate surfaces, coating preparation, and decomposition process. Results are discussed in terms of temperature, of presence of copper powder in the coating, of early surface hydriding of uranium, surface polishing.