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Sample records for polymethyl methacrylate-grafted polyethylene

  1. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Nurul Ilham [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, KampusTapah, 35400 Tapah Road, Tapah, Perak (Malaysia); Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan [Faculty of Defence Sciences and Technology, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ali, Ab Malik Marwan [Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-08-28

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in {sup 1}HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  2. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1 HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF 3 SO 3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF 3 SO 3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR)

  3. Effect of epoxidation on 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Khuzaimah; Aziz, Ahmad Fairoz; Adam, Nurul Ilham; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan

    2015-08-01

    Epoxidized 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (EMG 30) as a polymer host in solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been investigated. EMG30 was synthesized via performicepoxidation method onto 30% poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG30) and the formations of epoxy group were discussed. The EMG30 were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) to investigate their chemical structure and differential scanning calorimeter to determine their crystallinity. A new peak in 1HNMR spectra (2.71 ppm) confirmed the appearance of epoxy group. SPE based on EMG30 doped with 40 wt% LiCF3SO3 show the highest conductivity. The complexation between EMG30 and LiCF3SO3 were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR).

  4. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/grafted onto leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly/methyl methacrylate/ in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium/III/. 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds is discussed

  5. Radioisotope investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted onto leather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrucha, K.; Kroh, J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations on the stratigraphic distribution of poly(methyl methacrylate) in leather follow our earlier experiments on radiation grafting of vinyl monomers in situ. Polymer distribution was determined for pigskins and cattlehides tanned with basic sulphates of chromium (III). 14 C-labelled methyl methacrylate was used in present experiments. Precision slicing technique was employed to cut consecutive slices parallel to the grain surface of the radiation modified leather. Quantitative analysis of polymer distribution in leather was based on radioactivity measurements. Each layer was burned in Oxymat apparatus and resulting 14 CO 2 was analysed by liquid scintillation method. On the basis of radioactivity measurements and visual observations with light microscope conclusion on desirable distribution of polymer was reached. In the midcorium part of leather polymer is evenly distributed and its content is much higher than for outer layers next to surface and flesh. Mechanism of relevant processes as well as formation and role played by peroxide compounds are discussed. (author)

  6. Enhancement of mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride with polymethyl methacrylate-grafted halloysite nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes(HNTs grafted with Polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA were synthesized via radical polymerization. The properties of PMMA-grafted HNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results showed that PMMA grafted to the surfaces of HNTs successfully. Then, PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites were prepared by melt compounding. The morphology, mechanical properties and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. PMMA-grafted HNTs can effectively improve the toughness, strength and modulus of PVC. The glass transition and thermal decomposition temperatures of PVC phase in PVC/PMMA-grafted HNTs nanocomposites are shifted toward slightly higher temperatures. The grafted HNTs were uniformly dispersed in PVC matrix as revealed by TEM photos. The fracture surfaces of the nanocomposites exhibited plastic deformation feature indicating ductile fracture behaviors. The improvement of toughness of PVC by PMMA-grafted HNTs was attributed to the improved interfacial bonding by grafting and the toughening mechanism was explained according to the cavitation mechanism.

  7. Effect of lithium salt concentrations on blended 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber and poly(methyl methacrylate) based solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su’ait, M.S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H.; Rahman, M.Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lithium salts (lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF 4 and lithium perchlorate, LiClO 4 ) as doping salts in rubber-polymer blends, 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film for electrochemical devices application was investigated. The electrolyte films were prepared via the solution casting technique using 0–25 wt.% lithium salt. The effect of the lithium salts on chemical interaction, ionic conductivity and structural and morphological studies of (70:30) MG49-PMMA films was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Infrared analysis showed that the interactions between lithium ions and oxygen atoms occur at the ether group (C–O–C) (1500–1100 cm −1 ) on the MMA structure in both MG49 and PMMA. The oxygen atoms in the structure of the polymer host act as electron donor atoms and form a coordinate bond with the lithium ions from the doping salt to form polymer–salt complexes. The ionic conductivity was investigated at room temperature as well as at a temperature range from 303 K to 373 K. The ionic conductivity without the addition of salt was 1.1 × 10 −12 S cm −1 . The highest conductivity at room temperature for (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiBF 4 was 8.6 × 10 −6 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiBF 4 . The ionic conductivity of (70:30) MG49-PMMA–LiClO 4 was 1.5 × 10 −8 S cm −1 at 25 wt.% of LiClO 4 . However, both electrolyte systems do not exhibit Arrhenius-like behavior. Systems with LiBF 4 salt have higher ionic conductivity than those with LiClO 4 salt because of the differences in anionic size and lattice energy of the appropriate salt. The observations from structural and morphology studies showed that complexation and re-crystallization occur in the system. The XRD studies showed a reduction of the MMA peak

  8. A highly selective sorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum nanocomposite: Optimization by experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Susan, E-mail: ssadeghi@birjand.ac.ir; Rad, Fatemeh Alavi; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles (P(MMA)-g-TG-MNs) were developed for the selective removal of Cr(VI) species from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cr(III). The sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A screening study on operational variables was performed using a two-level full factorial design. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit, the significant variables were found. The central composite design (CCD) has also been employed for statistical modeling and analysis of the effects and interactions of significant variables dealing with the Cr(VI) uptake process by the developed sorbent. The predicted optimal conditions were situated at a pH of 5.5, contact time of 3.4 h, and 3.0 g L{sup −1} dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) by the absorbent, and the Langmuir isotherm showed the best concordance as an equilibrium model. The adsorption process was followed by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified with Poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum • P(MMA)-g-TG -MNPs can preferentially adsorb Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III) • The effects of operational parameters on Cr(VI) removal were evaluated by RSM • Adsorption mechanism, kinetics, and isotherm have been explored • The sorbent was successfully used to remove Cr(VI) from different water samples.

  9. A highly selective sorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions based on Fe3O4/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum nanocomposite: Optimization by experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Rad, Fatemeh Alavi; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2014-01-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum modified Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (P(MMA)-g-TG-MNs) were developed for the selective removal of Cr(VI) species from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cr(III). The sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A screening study on operational variables was performed using a two-level full factorial design. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit, the significant variables were found. The central composite design (CCD) has also been employed for statistical modeling and analysis of the effects and interactions of significant variables dealing with the Cr(VI) uptake process by the developed sorbent. The predicted optimal conditions were situated at a pH of 5.5, contact time of 3.4 h, and 3.0 g L −1 dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) by the absorbent, and the Langmuir isotherm showed the best concordance as an equilibrium model. The adsorption process was followed by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. - Highlights: • Fe3O4 nanoparticles were modified with Poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum • P(MMA)-g-TG -MNPs can preferentially adsorb Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III) • The effects of operational parameters on Cr(VI) removal were evaluated by RSM • Adsorption mechanism, kinetics, and isotherm have been explored • The sorbent was successfully used to remove Cr(VI) from different water samples

  10. Influence of Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafting on the Mechanical, Water Absorption, and Thermal Properties of Recycled High-Density Polyethylene/Rubber Seed Shell Particle Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber seed shell (RSS was modified by grafting treatment using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA at various concentrations. The RSS was then used to reinforce high-density polyethylene (HDPE. The effects of modification on the mechanical, water absorption, and thermal properties of the RSS/HDPE composites were studied using a mechanical testing instrument, weighing method, Vicat softening temperature (VST testing, thermogravimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that the GMA grafting produced an improvement in the flexural and tensile properties of the composites. The water absorption rate of the composites also had an obvious decrease. While a slight increase in VST was found, the various concentrations of GMA showed no improvement in VST. GMA modification also could elevate the thermal stability of the composites at the initial decomposition stage. The optimum grafting concentration of GMA (2.5% led to the lowest thermal weight loss (37.07% and 26.56% during the first and second decomposition stages. The E’ values of the composites had a significant increase with the addition of GMA. There were two peaks of tan δ for the untreated samples, but the modified samples exhibited a shift in the transition peak at higher temperatures; moreover, the second peak disappeared.

  11. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted titanate nanotubes by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Zhou Yongfeng; Yan Deyue; Gao Xueping

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the successful preparation of core-shell hybrid nanocomposites by a 'grafting from' approach based on in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from titanate nanotubes (TNTs). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the products provide direct evidence for the formation of a core-shell structure, possessing a hard core of TNTs and a soft shell of poly-MMA (PMMA). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine the chemical structure, morphology, and the grafted PMMA quantities of the resulting products. The grafted PMMA content was well controlled and increased with increasing monomer/initiator ratio. Further copolymerization of hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with PMMA-coated TNTs as initiators was realized, illustrating the 'living' characteristics of the ATRP method used in this paper.

  12. Carboxymethyl Cellulose From Kenaf Reinforced Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based 49 % Poly (Methyl Methacrylate)-Grafted Natural Rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serawati Jafirin; Ishak Ahmad; Azizan Ahmad; Ishak Ahmad; Azizan Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Composite polymer electrolytes based 49 % poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber (MG49) incorporating lithium triflate (LiCF 3 SO 3 ) were prepared. The study mainly focuses on the ionic conductivity performances and mechanical properties. Prior to that, carboxymethyl cellulose was synthesized from kenaf fiber. The films were characterized by electrochemical impedance (EIS) spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), universal testing machine and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity was found to increase with carboxymethyl cellulose loading. The highest conductivity value achieved was 6.5 x 10 -6 Scm -1 upon addition of 6 wt % carboxymethyl cellulose. LSV graph shows the stability of this film was extended to 2.7 V at room temperature. The composition with 6 wt % carboxymethyl cellulose composition showed the highest tensile strength value of 7.9 MPa and 273 MPa of Young's modulus. The morphology of the electrolytes showed a smooth surface of films after addition of salt and filler indicating amorphous phase in electrolytes system. Excellent mechanical properties and good ionic conductivity are obtained, enlightening that the film is suitable for future applications as thin solid polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. (author)

  13. Well-defined 4-arm stars with hydroxy-terminated polyethylene, polyethylene-b-polycaprolactone and polyethylene-b-(polymethyl methacrylate) 2 arms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2016-07-20

    Bis-boron-thexyl-silaboracycle was prepared by hydroboration of 1,4-bis(methyldivinylsilyl)butane with thexylborane and used to initiate the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide to afford well-defined hydroxy-terminated 4-arm polyethylene (PE) stars. The synthesized PE stars were transformed to (PE-b-PCL)4 starblock copolymers via the ring-opening polymerization of ϵ-caprolactone (CL) initiated by the hydroxyl end groups of (PE-OH)4 in the presence of P2-tBu phosphazene base. Esterification of the hydroxyl groups of the OH-terminated PE star with 2,2-dichloroacetyl chloride led to (PE-Cl2)4 which was used as initiator (eight initiating atom transfer radical polymerization, ATRP, sites) for the synthesis of (PE-b-PMMA2)4 dendrimer-like stars by the ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA). All intermediates and final products were characterized by high temperature gel permeation chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Rheo-optical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy study of partially miscible polymer blend of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2018-03-01

    Tensile deformations of a partially miscible blend of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) is studied by a rheo-optical characterization near-infrared (NIR) technique to probe deformation behavior during tensile deformation. Sets of NIR spectra of the polymer samples were collected by using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectrometer coupled with a tensile testing machine as an excitation device. While deformations of the samples were readily captured as strain-dependent NIR spectra, the entire feature of the spectra was overwhelmed with the baseline fluctuation induced by the decrease in the sample thickness and subsequent change in the light scattering. Several pretreatment techniques, including multiplicative scatter collection (MSC) and null-space projection, are subjected to the NIR spectra prior to the determination of the sequential order of the spectral intensity changes by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. The comparison of the MSC and null-space projection provided an interesting insight into the system, especially deformation-induced variation of light scattering observed during the tensile testing of the polymer sample. In addition, the sequential order determined with the 2D correlation spectra revealed that orientation of a specific part of PMMA chain occurs before that of the others because of the interaction between Cdbnd O group of PMMA and terminal sbnd OH group of PEG.

  15. Dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in a blend with poly(methyl methacrylate): A quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genix, A.-C.; Arbe, A.; Alvarez, F.; Colmenero, J.; Willner, L.; Richter, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we have addressed the question of the dynamic miscibility in a blend characterized by very different glass-transition temperatures, T g , for the components: poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA). The combination of quasielastic neutron scattering with isotopic labeling and fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations has allowed us to selectively investigate the dynamics of the two components in the picosecond--10 nanoseconds scale at temperatures close and above the T g of the blend. The main focus was on the PEO component, i.e., that of the lowest T g , but first we have characterized the dynamics of the other component in the blend and of the pure PEO homopolymer as reference. In the region investigated, the dynamics of PMMA in the blend is strongly affected by the α-methyl rotation; an additional process detected in the experimental window 65 K above the blend-T g can be identified as the merged αβ process of this component that shows strong deviations from Gaussian behavior. On the other hand, pure PEO displays entropy driven dynamics up to very large momentum transfers. Such kind of motion seems to freeze when the PEO chains are in the blend. There, we have directly observed a very heterogeneous and moreover confined dynamics for the PEO component. The presence of the hardly moving PMMA matrix leads to the creation of little pockets of mobility where PEO can move. The characteristic size of such confined islands of mobility might be estimated to be of ≅1 nm. These findings are corroborated by the simulation study, which has been an essential support and guide in our data analysis procedure

  16. Thermal and electrical conductivity enhancement of graphite nanoplatelets on form-stable polyethylene glycol/polymethyl methacrylate composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Graphite nanoplatelets (GnPs), obtained by sonicating the expanded graphite, were employed to simultaneously enhance the thermal (k) and electrical (σ) conductivity of organic form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs). Using the method of in situ polymerization upon ultrasonic irradiation, GnPs serving as the conductive fillers and polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the phase change material (PCM) were uniformly dispersed and embedded inside the network structure of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which contributed to the well package and self-supporting properties of composite FSPCMs. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicated that the GnPs were physically combined with PEG/PMMA matrix and did not participate in the polymerization. The GnPs additives were able to effectively enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCM. When the mass ratio of GnP was 8%, the k and σ of FSPCM changed up to 9 times and 8 orders of magnitude over that of PEG/PMMA matrix, respectively. The improvements in both k and σ were mainly attributed to the well dispersion and large aspect ratio of GnPs, which were endowed with benefit of forming conducting network in polymer matrix. It was also confirmed that all the prepared specimens possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability. -- Highlights: ► GnPs were employed to simultaneously enhance the k and σ of organic FSPCMs. ► PEG/PMMA/GnPs composite FSPCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. ► The composite FSPCMs exhibited well package and self-supporting properties. ► GnPs additives effectively enhanced the k and σ of composite FSPCMs. ► All the composites possessed available thermal storage density and thermal stability.

  17. A highly selective sorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions based on Fe₃O₄/poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum nanocomposite: optimization by experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Rad, Fatemeh Alavi; Moghaddam, Ali Zeraatkar

    2014-12-01

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted Tragacanth gum modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (P(MMA)-g-TG-MNs) were developed for the selective removal of Cr(VI) species from aqueous solutions in the presence of Cr(III). The sorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). A screening study on operational variables was performed using a two-level full factorial design. Based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 95% confidence limit, the significant variables were found. The central composite design (CCD) has also been employed for statistical modeling and analysis of the effects and interactions of significant variables dealing with the Cr(VI) uptake process by the developed sorbent. The predicted optimal conditions were situated at a pH of 5.5, contact time of 3.4 h, and 3.0 g L(-1) dose. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used to describe the equilibrium sorption of Cr(VI) by the absorbent, and the Langmuir isotherm showed the best concordance as an equilibrium model. The adsorption process was followed by a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations showed that the biosorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol/aluminum nitride composite as form-stable phase change material prepared by in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Form-stable PMMA/PEG/AlN PCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. → AlN additive effectively enhanced the heat transfer property of composite PCMs. → The composites exhibited desirable thermal performance and electric insulativity. → The composites were available for the thermal management of electronic device. - Abstract: This work was focused on the preparation and characterization of a new type of form-stable phase change material (PCM) employed in thermal management. Using the method of in situ polymerization, polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the PCM and aluminum nitride (AlN) serving as the thermal conductivity promoter were uniformly encapsulated and embedded inside the three-dimensional network structure of PMMA matrix. When the mass fraction of PEG was below 70%, the prepared composite PCMs remained solid without leakage above the melting point of the PEG. XRD and FT-IR results indicated that the PEG was physically combined with PMMA matrix and AlN additive and did not participate in the polymerization. Thermal analysis results showed that the prepared composite PCMs possess available latent heat capacity and thermal stability, and the AlN additive was able to effectively enhance the heat transfer property of organic PCM. Moreover, the volume resistivity of composite achieved (5.92 ± 0.16) x 10 10 Ω cm when the mass ratio of AlN was 30%. To sum up, the prepared form-stable PCMs were competent for the thermal management of electronic device due to their acceptable thermal performance and electric insulativity.

  19. Investigation on polyethylene-supported and nano-SiO2 doped poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) based gel polymer electrolyte for high voltage lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Huili; Liao, Youhao; Sun, Ping; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based GPE was developed for high voltage lithium ion battery. • P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE has uniform and interconnected pore structure. • The GPE exhibits improved ionic conductivity and compatibility with electrodes. • 5 V battery using the GPE presents excellent cyclic stability. - Abstract: Nano-SiO 2 as dopant was used for preparing polyethylene-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (P(MMA-co-BA)/PE) based membrane and corresponding gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is applied to improve the cyclic stability of high voltage lithium ion battery. P(MMA-co-BA)/nano-SiO 2 /PE based membranes and corresponding GPEs were characterized with scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, mechanical test, thermogravimetric analysis, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the GPE with 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 shows the best performance. Compared to the undoped membrane, the 5 wt.% nano-SiO 2 doped membrane has a better pore structure and higher electrolyte uptake, leading to the enhancement in ionic conductivity of the resulting GPE from 1.23 × 10 −3 to 2.26 × 10 −3 S.cm −1 at room temperature. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the doped membrane is increased from 300 to 320 °C while its decomposition potential of GPE is from 5.0 to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li + ). The cyclic stability of Li/GPE/Li(Li 0.13 Ni 0.30 Mn 0.57 )O 2 cell at the high voltage range of 3.5 V ∼ 5.0 V is consequently improved, the capacity retention of the cell using the doped membrane is 92.8% after 50 cycles while only 88.9% for the cell using undoped membrane and 66.9% for the cell using liquid electrolyte

  20. New CO2 adsorbent containing aminated poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted onto irradiated PE-PP nonwoven sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud Nasef, Mohamed; Abbasi, Ali; Ting, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    A new CO2 adsorbent containing triethylamine (TEA) was prepared by radiation induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene coated polypropylene (PE-PP) non-woven sheet followed by amination reaction. The degree of grafting (DOG%) was controlled by variation of monomer concentration and absorbed dose. The incorporation of aminated poly(GMA) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorbent with DOG of 350% and amination yield of 60% exhibited CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.52 mol/kg at ambient temperature and pressure.

  1. Improved surface hydrophilicity and antifouling property of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate grafted graphene oxide nanofillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haidong; Lu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xinglin; Wang, Zhenghui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Panpan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates were first synthesized by grafting hydrophilic poly (poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) method. A novel polysulfone (PSF) nanocomposite membrane using GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanoplates as nanofillers was fabricated. FTIR, TGA, 1H NMR, GPC and TEM were applied to verify the successful synthesis of the prepared nanoplates, while SEM, AFM, XPS, contact angle goniometry and filtration experiments were used to characterize the fabricated nanocomposite membranes. It was found that the new prepared nanofillers were well dispersed in organic PSF matrix, and the PSF/GO-g-P(PEGMA) nanocomposite membrane showed significant improvements in water flux and flux recovery rate. Based on the results of resistance-in-series model, the nanocomposite membrane exhibited superior resistance to the irreversible fouling. The excellent filtration and antifouling performance are attributed to the segregation of GO-g-P(PEMGA) nanofillers toward the membrane surface and the pore walls. Notably, the blended nanofillers appeared a stable retention in/on nanocomposite membrane after 30 days of washing time. The demonstrated method of synthesis GO-g-P(PEGMA) in this study can also be extended to preparation of other nanocomposite membrane in future.

  2. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dots by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Novel synthesis, characterization, properties, and cytotoxicity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md. Rafiqul [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doh Chang [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST Institute for the Nanocentury (KINC), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kwon Taek, E-mail: ktlim@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A novel approach for the synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dot (QDs) (PGMA-g-CdSe) was developed. The PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were synthesized by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate from the surface of the strategic initiator, CdSe-BrIB QDs prepared by the interaction of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrIB) and CdSe-OH QDs. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, XRD, TEM, and PL. The as-synthesized PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids having multi-epoxide groups were employed for the direct coupling of biotin via ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups to afford the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe nanobioconjugate. The covalent immobilization of biotin onto PGMA-g-CdSe was confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and EDX. Biocompatibility and imaging properties of the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe were investigated by MTT bioassay and PL analysis, respectively. The cell viability study suggested that the biocompatibility was significantly enhanced by the functionalization of CdSe QDs by biotin and PGMA.

  3. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dots by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Novel synthesis, characterization, properties, and cytotoxicity studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Long Giang; Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Lee, Doh Chang; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach for the synthesis of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted CdSe quantum dot (QDs) (PGMA-g-CdSe) was developed. The PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were synthesized by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate from the surface of the strategic initiator, CdSe-BrIB QDs prepared by the interaction of 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrIB) and CdSe-OH QDs. The structure, morphology, and optical property of the PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids were analyzed by FT-IR, XPS, TGA, XRD, TEM, and PL. The as-synthesized PGMA-g-CdSe nanohybrids having multi-epoxide groups were employed for the direct coupling of biotin via ring-opening reaction of the epoxide groups to afford the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe nanobioconjugate. The covalent immobilization of biotin onto PGMA-g-CdSe was confirmed by FT-IR, XPS, and EDX. Biocompatibility and imaging properties of the Biotin-f-PGMA-g-CdSe were investigated by MTT bioassay and PL analysis, respectively. The cell viability study suggested that the biocompatibility was significantly enhanced by the functionalization of CdSe QDs by biotin and PGMA.

  4. Phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for the fabrication of complex computer-generated phase holograms in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by means of partial-exposure e-beam lithography and subsequent carefully controlled partial development. Following the development, the pattern appears (rendered in relief) in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 3 mm square, and consisted of up to 10 millions of 0.3-2.0-micron square pixels. Data files were up to 60 Mb-long, and the exposure times ranged to several hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated with a diffraction-limited optical performance of 83-percent efficiency.

  5. Retention of krypton on polymethyl methacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciric, M.M.; Cvjeticanin, N.M.; Radak, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Retention of krypton on polymethyl methacrylate was studied as a function of kryptonation pressure (P), temperature (T) and time (t). It was found that the dependence of the retained quantity on P, T, and t is in accordance with the diffusion theory. The optimum results (i.e., the maximum retained quantity and the best stability of the kryptonate) were obtained at elevated kryptonation temperatures (200 0 C). The diffusion coefficients of krypton in polymethyl methacrylate, determined from the dekryptonation process, vary from 1 x 10 -10 cm 2 /s to 0.2 x 10 -10 cm 2 /s for samples kryptonated at 20 0 C and 200 0 C respectively. The results have been discussed from the viewpoint of radiation and thermal stability of kryptonated polymethyl methacrylate. Inadequate radiation stability could be the main obstacle for practical purposes. (U.S.)

  6. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61

  7. Tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate coated natural fabric Sterculia urens

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available stress, Young's modulus and % elongation at break were determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The effect of alkali treatment and the polymethyl methacrylate coating on tensile properties of the fabric was studied. The morphology of the fabric...

  8. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Guilherme F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (FATEC-ZL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C{sub 2}F{sub 4} after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  9. Luminescent polymethyl methacrylate modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Guilherme F.; Forster, Pedro L.; Marchini, Leonardo G.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F.

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) doped with luminescent complexes have been studied and developed for applications in advanced technologies. The problem of stability of these films is focused in this study. Films stabilization by reaction with fluorinated monomers is a recent study that aims to increase its luminescence properties for long time. The films were prepared by dilution of PMMA in chloroform with addition of europium complex, at proportion of 5% by weight of polymer. The luminescent polymer films were obtained by casting. Thin layer slides of the film were separated in three parts. One was reacted with fluorinated monomers (C 2 F 4 ) in closed reactor for 48 hours. A second part was reacted with C 2 F 4 after irradiation in gamma source at 5 kGy in simultaneous process. The last part was used as obtained. The luminescent polymer matrices were characterized using the techniques of infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG). Samples of the films were, in presence of fluorine monomers, exposed to ionizing radiation in dose of 5 kGy, for react with monomers in the doped polymer surface. In this case the effects of radiation were evaluated on the luminescent films. (author)

  10. Observations of crystallization and melting in poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends by hot-stage atomic-force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, R.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1998-01-01

    The binary blend of poly(ethylene oxide)/atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) is examined using hot-stage atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. It was found possible to follow in real time the melting process, which reveals itself to

  11. Radiation degradation of methyl methacrylate grafted natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, M.C.S.

    1998-01-01

    M G rubber is a mixture consisting of the graft copolymer and two home polymers. Natural rubber is known to undergo crosslinking during exposure to high energy radiation where as poly methyl methacrylate is a polymer where high energy radiation causes chain scission. It is interesting to determine how this partially miscible blend of scission and crosslinking polymers will behave under high energy radiation. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was used to study the variations in the glass transition regions during high energy treatment of the polymers. Another techniques that is available to obtain motional information and miscibility of blends is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR).The present study is aimed at understanding the changes in the molecular structure of rubber when exposed to high energy radiation. The changes in the dynamic mechanical properties in the glass transition region and solid state NMR were made used of for this investigation. The data obtained from the DMA results were analysed to calculate the radiation chemical yields. The local dynamics were investigated with measurement of carbon relaxation times and molecular structure was studied with focus on the level of intermolecular mixing by proton relaxation times

  12. Marine bacterial prodigiosin as dye for rubber latex, polymethyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prodigiosin is known for its immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antimycotic, antimalarial, algicidal and anticancer activities. Here, we reported the evaluation of prodigiosin pigment as a dyeing agent in rubber latex, paper and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) so that it can be considered as an alternative to synthetic pigments.

  13. Graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) composite laminates on flexible substrates for volatile organic compound detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabut, Chanoknan; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda; Muangrat, Worawut; Bunjongpru, Win; Phonyiem, Mayuree; Song, Young Jae

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a gas sensor for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection based on graphene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (GR/PMMA) composite laminates fabricated using CVD-grown graphene. Graphene was transferred to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by PMMA-supported wet transfer process without PMMA removal in order to achieve the deposition of GR/PMMA composite laminates on PET. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors show completely different sensitivities to VOC vapors. The GR/PMMA and graphene sensors showed the highest sensitivities to dichloromethane (DCM). The response of the GR/PMMA sensor to DCM was 3 times higher than that of the graphene sensor but the GR/PMMA sensor hardly responded to acetone, chloroform, or benzene. The sensing mechanism of the graphene sensor can be based on the dielectric constant of VOCs, the size of VOC molecule, and electron hopping effects on defect graphene, while that of the GR/PMMA sensor can be explained in terms of the polymer swelling owing to the Hansen solubility parameter.

  14. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) beads for nattokinase purification from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengli; Xing, Jianmin; Guan, Yueping; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-09-01

    An effective method for purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth using magnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) beads immobilized with p-aminobenzamidine was proposed in this study. Firstly, magnetic PMMA beads with a narrow size distribution were prepared by spraying suspension polymerization. Then, they were highly functionalized via transesterification reaction with polyethylene glycol. The surface hydroxyl-modified magnetic beads obtained were further modified with chloroethylamine to transfer the surface amino-modified magnetic functional beads. The morphology and surface functionality of the magnetic beads were examined by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. An affinity ligand, p-aminobenzamidine was covalently immobilized to the amino-modified magnetic beads by the glutaraldehyde method for nattokinase purification directly from the fermentation broth. The purification factor and the recovery of the enzyme activity were found to be 8.7 and 85%, respectively. The purification of nattokinase from fermentation broth by magnetic beads only took 40 min, which shows a very fast purification of nattokinase compared to traditional purification methods.

  15. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3350 is in a class of medications called osmotic laxatives. It works by causing water to be ... experience either of them, call your doctor immediately: diarrhea hives Polyethylene glycol 3350 may cause other side ...

  16. Microindentation of Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA Based Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zivic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA based bone cement subjected to cyclical loading using microindentation technique is presented in this paper. Indentation technique represents flexible mechanical testing due to its simplicity, minimal specimen preparation and short time needed for tests. The mechanical response of bone cement samples was studied. Realised microindentation enabled determination of the indentation testing hardness HIT and indentation modulus EIT of the observed bone cement. Analysis of optical photographs of the imprints showed that this technique can be effectively used for characterization of bone cements.

  17. Polyethylene-Based Tadpole Copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkayal, Nazeeha; Zhang, Zhen; Bilalis, Panayiotis; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Novel well-defined polyethylene-based tadpole copolymers ((c-PE)-b-PS, PE: polyethylene, PS: polystyrene) with ring PE head and linear PS tail are synthesized by combining polyhomologation, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and Glaser

  18. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  19. Aqueous polyethylene oxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breen, J.

    1987-01-01

    A number of aspects concerning the reorientation of polymer, water and ion hydration complexes have been studied in aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO). The polymer dynamics are investigated by 1 H-PEO and 13 C-PEO nuclear relaxation experiments. 162 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  20. Physical properties of agave cellulose graft polymethyl methacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Noor Afizah; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Anuar, Farah Hannan [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    The grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate and Agave cellulose was prepared and their structural analysis and morphology were investigated. The grafting reaction was carried out in an aqueous medium using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The structural analysis of the graft copolymers was carried out by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The graft copolymers were also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). An additional peak at 1732 cm{sup −1} which was attributed to the C=O of ester stretching vibration of poly(methyl methacrylate), appeared in the spectrum of grafted Agave cellulose. A slight decrease of crystallinity index upon grafting was found from 0.74 to 0.68 for cellulose and grafted Agave cellulose, respectively. Another evidence of grafting showed in the FESEM observation, where the surface of the grafted cellulose was found to be roughed than the raw one.

  1. Carrier transport in flexible organic bistable devices of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong-Ick; Park, Dong-Hee; Choi, Won Kook; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Won-Tae; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    The bistable effects of ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer single layer by using flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that ZnO nanoparticles were formed inside the PMMA polymer layer. Current-voltage (I-V) measurement on the Al/ZnO nanoparticles embedded in an insulating PMMA polymer layer/ITO/PET structures at 300 K showed a nonvolatile electrical bistability behavior with a flat-band voltage shift due to the existence of the ZnO nanoparticles, indicative of trapping, storing, and emission of charges in the electronic states of the ZnO nanoparticles. The carrier transport mechanism of the bistable behavior for the fabricated organic bistable device (OBD) structures is described on the basis of the I-V results by analyzing the effect of space charge.

  2. Radiation effects on polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Oki, Y.; Numajiri, M.; Miura, T.; Kondo, K.; Tanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, M.; Ito, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation effects on four kinds of polyethylenes were studied from the viewpoints of mechanical properties, free radicals and free volumes. The samples were irradiated using a cobalt 60 gamma source to give doses up to 3MGy. The degradation of mechanical strength due to gamma-irradiation was evaluated by the elongation at break and its tensile strength. Radiation induced free radicals were measured by ESR. Free volumes observed by the o-Ps component of the positron annihilation spectrum are normally the large ones located in the amorphous regions and after irradiation these are created in crystalline regions, too. The sizes and the relative numbers of free volumes were evaluated by lifetimes and intensities of a long-lived component of positronium, respectively. Using these data, the properties of polyethylenes before and after irradiation are discussed. (author)

  3. Dielectric properties of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.; Riad, A.S.; El-Shabasy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of dielectric properties in polyethylene was measured in the frequency range from 10 to 105 Hz. The frequency dependence of the complex impedance in the complex plane could be fitted by semicircles. The system could be represented by an equivalent circuit of a bulk resistance in series with parallel surface resistance-capacitance combination. The relaxation time, has been evaluated from experimental results. Results reveal that the temperature dependence, is a thermally activated process

  4. Thermal Properties of Polymethyl Methacrylate Composite Containing Copper Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Xie, Huaqing; Xin, Sha; Yin, Junshan; Jiang, Yitong; Wang, Mingzhu

    2015-04-01

    Thermal functional Materials have wide applications in thermal management fields, and inserting highly thermal conductive materials is effective in enhancing thermal conductivity of matrix. In this paper, copper nanoparticles were selected as the additive to prepare polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based nanocomposite with enhanced thermal properties. Uniform copper nanoparticles with pure face-centered lattice were prepared by liquid phase reduction method. Then, they were added into PMMA/N, N-Dimethylmethanamide (DMF) solution according to the different mass fraction for uniform dispersion. After DMF was evaporated, Cu-PMMA nanocomposites were gained. The thermal analysis measurement results showed that the decomposition temperature of nanocomposites decreased gradually with the increasing particle loadings. The thermal conductivity of the Cu-PMMA nanocomposites rose with the increasing contents of copper nanoparticles. With a 20 vol.% addition, the thermal conductivity was up to 1.2 W/m · K, a 380.5% increase compared to the pure PMMA. The results demonstrate that copper nanoparticles have great potential in enhancing thermal transport properties of polymer.

  5. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T g ) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  6. Poly(methyl methacrylate) films for organic vapour sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Capan, R; Hassan, A K; Tanrisever, T

    2003-01-01

    Optical constants and fabrication parameters are investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies on spun films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) derivatives in contact with two different dielectric media. A value of 1.503 for the refractive index of PMMA films produced from a solution having concentration of 1 mg ml sup - sup 1 at the speed of 3000 rpm is in close agreement with the data obtained from ellipsometric measurements. The film thickness shows a power-law dependence on the spin speed but the thickness increases almost linearly with the concentration of the spreading solution. These results are in good agreement with the hydrodynamic theory for a low-viscosity and highly volatile liquid. On the basis of SPR measurements under dynamic conditions, room temperature response of PMMA films to benzene vapours is found to be fast, highly sensitive and reversible. The sensitivity of detection of toluene, ethyl benzene and m-xylene is much smaller than that of benzene.

  7. Radiolytic stabilization of industrial poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterilisable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its physical properties. Therefore, radiolytic stabilization of PMMA is important for to become it commercially radio sterilisable. In this work we investigated the radiolytic stabilization of PMMA by using HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer) additive, commercially used for photo and thermo oxidative stabilization of polymers. The investigation of the radiation-induced main chain scissions was carried out by viscometric method. The additive added to the polymer system at 0.3 % w/w promotes a molecular radioprotection of 61%. That means a reduction of G value (scissions/100 eV) from 2.6 to 1.0. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA (no additive), significantly changed by radiation, does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. TGA analysis showed that the additive promotes thermal stability to the system, increasing decomposition temperature of PMMA. Spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and RMN ( 1 H), showed that the radioprotector additive added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. Analysis on mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and optical (yellowness index and refractive index) properties showed a good influence of the additive on polymer system. (author)

  8. The Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene-Polyethylene Terephthalate Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Avazverdi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, one of the thermoplastic polymers, is encountered with arduous problems in its recycling. After recycling, its mechanical properties drop dramatically and therefore it cannot be used to produce the products as virgin PET does. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic polymer which can be easily recycled using the conventional recycling processes. The decreased mechanical properties of virgin polyethylene due to the environmental factors can be improved by reinforcing fillers. In this paper, we studied the effects of adding recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET as a filler, in various amounts with different sizes, on the physical and mechanical properties of recycled polyethylene. Composite samples were prepared using an internal mixer at temperature 185°C, well below rPET melting point (250°C, and characterized by their mechanical properties. To improve the compatibility between different components, PE grafted with maleic anhydride was added as a coupling agent in all the compositions under study. The mechanical properties of the prepared samples were performed using the tensile strength, impact strength, surface hardness and melt flow index (MFI tests. To check the dispersity of the polyethylene terephthalate powder in the polyethylene matrix, light microscopy was used. The results showed that the addition of rPET improved the tensile energy, tensile modulus and surface hardness of the composites while reduced the melt flow index, elongation-at-yield, tensile strength and fracture energy of impact test. We could conclude that with increasing rPET percentage in the recycled polyethylene matrix, the composite became brittle, in other words it decreased the plastic behavior of recycled polyethylene. Decreasing particle size led to higher surface contacts, increased the mechanical properties and made the composite more brittle. The light microscopy micrographs of the samples showed a good distribution of small r

  9. Process for producing chlorinated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Shinji; Takayama, Shin-ichi; Kodama, Takashi.

    1970-01-01

    A process for chlorinated polyethylene by the chlorination of an aqueous suspension of polyethylene without the use catalysts is given, using 5-55% by gel content of cross-linked polyethylene powders. The products have favorable material workability, transparency, impact strength and tensile properties. In the case of peroxide cross-linking, a mixture of peroxides with polyethylene must be ground after heat treatment. The polyethylene may preferably have a gel content of 5-55%. The chlorination temperature may be 40 0 C or more, preferably 60 0 to 160 0 C. In one example, high pressure polymerized fine polyethylene powders of 15μ having a density of 0.935 g/cc, a softening point of 114 0 C, an average molecular weight of 35,000 were irradiated in air with 40 Mrad electron beams from a 2 MV Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator at room temperature. The thus irradiated polyethylene had a gel content of 55% and a softening point of 119 0 C. It was chlorinated upto a chlorine content of 33% at 100 0 C. Products were white crystals having a melting point of 122 0 C and a melting heat value of 32 mcal/mg. A sheet formed from this product showed a tensile strength of 280 kg/cm 2 , an elongation of 370% and a hardness of 90. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. Methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay and its poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaoxia; Jiang, David D.; Wilkie, Charles A.

    2005-01-01

    A methyl methacrylate oligomerically-modified clay was used to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate) clay nanocomposites by melt blending and the effect of the clay loading level on the modified clay and corresponding nanocomposite was studied. These nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and cone calorimetry. The results show a mixed intercalated/delaminated morphology with good nanodispersion. The compatibility between the methylacrylate-subsituted clay and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are greatly improved compared to other oligomerically-modified clays

  11. Process for irradiation of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, George.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation of polyethylene affects its processabiltiy in the fabrication of products and affects the properties of products already fabricated. The present invention relates to a process for the irradiation of polyethylene, and especially to a process for the irradiation of homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher α-olefins, in the form of granules, with low levels of electron or gamma irradiation in the presence of an atomsphere of steam

  12. Polyethylene as a possible hvdc cable insulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, W.G.; Body, R.S.; Mason, J.H.

    1966-10-01

    Many cable authorities have expressed the view that polyethylene would be attractive for this application. The dc conductivity of polyethylene is lower than that of impregnated paper, and varies less with temperature and stress. Polyethylene also has higher thermal conductivity and is resistant to moisture and electrochemical deterioration. Furthermore, processing polyethylene cables should ultimately involve lower capital and manufacturing costs. However, polyethylene has a lower limiting short circuit temperature unless it is cross linked.

  13. Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mössbauer studies of iron doped poly(methyl methacrylate) before and after ion beam modification. D R S SOMAYAJULU, C N MURTHY†, D K AWASTHI‡, N V PATEL and M SARKAR. Physics Department, Faculty of Science, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India. †Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty ...

  14. Oil-Impregnated Polyethylene Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ranit; Habibi, Mohammad; Rashed, Ziad; Berbert, Otacilio; Shi, Shawn; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) minimize the contact angle hysteresis of a wide range of liquids and aqueous food products. Although hydrophobic polymers are often used as the porous substrate for SLIPS, the choice of polymer has been limited to silicone-based or fluorine-based materials. Hydrocarbon-based polymers, such as polyethylene, are cost effective and widely used in food packaging applications where SLIPS would be highly desirable. However, to date there have been no reports on using polyethylene as a SLIPS substrate, as it is considered highly impermeable. Here, we show that thin films of low-density polyethylene can be stably impregnated with carbon-based oils without requiring any surface modification. Wicking tests reveal that oils with sufficient chemical compatibility follow Washburn's equation. The nanometric effective pore size of the polyethylene does result in a very low wicking speed, but by using micro-thin films and a drawdown coater, impregnation can still be completed in under one second. The oil-impregnated polyethylene films promoted ultra-slippery behavior for water, ketchup, and yogurt while remaining durable even after being submerged in ketchup for over one month. This work was supported by Bemis North America (AT-23981).

  15. Process for molding improved polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Masanori; Aine, Norio; Nakada, Shinsaku.

    1962-01-01

    Various configurations in size and shape of polyethylene are molded by: (a) irradiating powders of polyethylene with ionizing radiations in the presence of oxygen to the extent of producing substantially no cross-linking among the molecules of polyethylene, and thereafter (b) molding the thus irradiated powders of polyethylene at 100-250 0 C to cross-link the molding. In this process, a uniform and desirable degree of cross-linking and any desirable configuration are provided for the polyethylene molding. Any extruder and any molding machine producing heat can be employed in this process. In embodiments, the radiation dose units may preferably be 1x10 6 to 1.5x10 7 roentgen. The ionizing radiations may be X-rays, gamma-rays or electron beams, but preferably gamma-rays. The preheating prior to molding may be effected in vacuum, in inert gas, or in oxygen at 100-250 0 C, but preferably in oxygen at 100 0 C. In an example, a polyethylene powder of 100 mesh was irradiated with gamma-rays from a Co-60 source with a dose of 3.1x10 6 r at a dose rate of 5.5x10 4 r/hr in air, then preheated in air at 80 0 C for 1 hr, and finally extruded to form a rod of 5 mm phi at 200 0 C. max. The degree of product cross-linking was 0% after irradiation in step (a), and 38% after heating in step (b). (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Polyethylene-Based Tadpole Copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkayal, Nazeeha

    2017-02-15

    Novel well-defined polyethylene-based tadpole copolymers ((c-PE)-b-PS, PE: polyethylene, PS: polystyrene) with ring PE head and linear PS tail are synthesized by combining polyhomologation, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and Glaser coupling reaction. The -OH groups of the 3-miktoarm star copolymers (PE-OH)-b-PS, synthesized by polyhomologation and ATRP, are transformed to alkyne groups by esterification with propiolic acid, followed by Glaser cyclization and removal of the unreacted linear with Merrifield\\'s resin-azide. The characterization results of intermediates and final products by high-temperature size exclusion chromatography, H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry confirm the tadpole topology.

  17. [Substantiation of medical-engineering specifications for polymethyl siloxane removal by life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Aksel'-Rubinshteĭn, V Z; Mikos, K N; Nikitin, E I

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of experimental data about the quantitative and qualitative chemical make-up of air in the orbital station Mir and International space station (ISS) showed a permanent presence of silicon. The main source of silicon contaminants seems to be a variety of polymethyl siloxane liquids and siloxane coating of electronics. The article describes the volatile silicon contaminants detected in space stations air. To control concentrations of silicon, the existing air purification system needs to be augmented with carbons having the micropore entrance larger than diameters of silicon-containing molecules. It is also important to elaborate the technology of polymethyl siloxane liquids synthesis so as to reduce the amount of volatile admixtures emission and to observe rigorously the pre-flight off-gassing requirements with special concern about silicon coatings.

  18. Effect of Reinforcement Using Stainless Steel Mesh, Glass Fibers, and Polyethylene on the Impact Strength of Heat Cure Denture Base Resin - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, H B Mallikarjuna; Shaik, Sharaz; Sachdeva, Harleen; Khare, Sumit; Haralur, Satheesh B; Roopa, K T

    2015-06-01

    The impact strength of denture base resin is of great concern and many approaches have been made to strengthen acrylic resin dentures. The objective of this study was to compare the impact strength of the denture base resin with and without reinforcement and to evaluate the impact strength of denture base resin when reinforced with stainless steel mesh, glass fiber, and polyethylene fibers in the woven form. The specimens (maxillary denture bases) were fabricated using a standard polyvinylsiloxane mold with conventional heat cured polymethyl methacrylate resin. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group I specimens or control group were not reinforced. Group II specimens were reinforced with stainless steel mesh and Group III and Group IV specimens were reinforced with three percent by weight of glass fibers and polyethylene fibers in weave form respectively. All the specimens were immersed in water for 1-week before testing. The impact strength was measured with falling weight impact testing machine. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. Highest impact strength values were exhibited by the specimens reinforced with polyethylene fibers followed by glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and control group. Reinforcement of maxillary complete dentures showed a significant increase in impact strength when compared to unreinforced dentures. Polyethylene fibers exhibit better impact strength followed by glass fibers and stainless steel mesh. By using pre-impregnated glass and polyethylene fibers in woven form (prepregs) the impact strength of the denture bases can be increased effectively.

  19. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  20. Thermogravimetric studies on alkyl methacrylate polymers and poly(alkyl methacrylate)-grafted polypropylene fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Taoda, Hiroshi; Kawase, Kaoru; Tazawa, Masato; Yamakita, Hiromi

    1986-01-01

    Thermal behavior of several kinds of poly (alkyl methacrylate) and polypropylene-g-poly (alkyl methacrylate) fibers prepared by γ-irradiation was investigated by thermogravimetric measurements with the intermittent analysis of the gaseous products. The degradation of poly (methyl methacrylate) proceeded according to the deploymerization mechanism reproducing the pristine monomer exclusively. The thermogram in inert atmosphere showed the features of a two-step depolymerization, while in air it showed no such a stepwise decrease with the elevating temperature. The dissolution-precipitation treatment of polymer seemed to affect the decomposition behavior. On other alkyl methacrylate polymers, the thermal decomposition generally proceeded also according to the depolymerization mechanism. But, for instance, at least two kinds of products besides its own monomer were formed from poly (isobutyl methacrylate), and their relative fractions differed with the temperature. Polypropylene-g-poly (alkyl methacrylate) fibers showed lowering of initiation temperature of decomposition with the increase in extent of the grafting, and their initiation temperatures of decomposition in air were lower than those in inert atmosphere. (author)

  1. Immobilization of α-amylase onto poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted electrospun fibers by ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Burcu; Demir, Serap; Kayaman-Apohan, Nilhan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel α-amylase immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were prepared. The PVA nanofiber surfaces were functionalized with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBBr) and followed by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The morphology of the poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted PVA nanofibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also PGMA brushes were confirmed by X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS). α-Amylase was immobilized in a one step process onto the PGMA grafted PVA nanofiber. The characteristic properties of the immobilized and free enzymes were examined. The thermal stability of the enzyme was improved and showed maximum activity at 37 °C by immobilization. pH values of the maximum activity of the free and immobilized enzymes were also found at 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. Free enzyme lost its activity completely within 15 days. The immobilized enzyme lost only 23.8% of its activity within 30 days. - Highlights: • Electrospun photocrosslinkable PVA nanofiber was prepared. • PGMA brushes were conducted on PVA nanofiber via SI-ATRP. • The immobilized enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 6.0 and at 37 °C. • Functionalized nanofibers may be used as promising supports for enzyme immobilization

  2. Preparation and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy nanocomposites with polyglycidyl methacrylate grafted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Viswanath, Anand; Schadler, Linda S; Benicewicz, Brian C; Siegel, Richard W

    2011-09-01

    Visibly highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing polyglycidyl methacrylate (PGMA) grafted ITO nanoparticles into a commercial epoxy resin. The oleic acid stabilized, highly crystalline, and near monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a nonaqueous synthetic route with multigram batch quantities. An azido-phosphate ligand was synthesized and used to exchange with oleic acid on the ITO surface. The azide terminal group allows for the grafting of epoxy resin compatible PGMA polymer chains via Cu(I) catalyzed alkyne-azide "click" chemistry. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation shows that PGMA grafted ITO particles were homogeneously dispersed within the epoxy matrix. Optical properties of ITO/epoxy nanocomposites with different ITO concentrations were studied with an ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrometer. All the ITO/epoxy nanocomposites show more than 90% optical transparency in the visible light range and absorption of UV light from 300 to 400 nm. In the near-infrared region, ITO/epoxy nanocomposites demonstrate low transmittance and the infrared (IR) transmission cutoff wavelength of the composites shifts toward the lower wavelength with increased ITO concentration. The ITO/epoxy nanocomposites were applied onto both glass and plastic substrates as visibly transparent and UV/IR opaque optical coatings.

  3. Poly(Poly(Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether Methacrylate Grafted Chitosan for Dye Removal from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for textile products and synthetic dyes increases with the growing global population, textile dye wastewater is becoming one of the most significant water pollution contributors. Azo dyes represent 70% of dyes used worldwide, and are hence a significant contributor to textile waste. In this work, the removal of a reactive azo dye (Reactive Orange 16 from water by adsorption with chitosan grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (CTS-GMA-g-PPEGMA was investigated. The chitosan (CTS was first functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate and then grafted with poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate using a nitroxide-mediated polymerization grafting to approach. Equilibrium adsorption experiments were carried out at different initial dye concentrations and were successfully fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Adsorption isotherms showed maximum adsorption capacities of CTS-g-GMA-PPEGMA and chitosan of 200 mg/g and 150 mg/g, respectively, while the Langmuir equations estimated 232 mg/g and 194 mg/g, respectively. The fundamental assumptions underlying the Langmuir model may not be applicable for azo dye adsorption, which could explain the difference. The Freundlich isotherm parameters, n and K, were determined to be 2.18 and 17.7 for CTS-g-GMA-PPEGMA and 0.14 and 2.11 for chitosan, respectively. An “n” value between one and ten generally indicates favorable adsorption. The adsorption capacities of a chitosan-PPEGMA 50/50 physical mixture and pure PPEGMA were also investigated, and both exhibited significantly lower adsorption capacities than pure chitosan. In this work, CTS-g-GMA-PPEGMA proved to be more effective than its parent chitosan, with a 33% increase in adsorption capacity.

  4. The effect of gamma radiation on hardness evolution in high density polyethylene at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pei-Yun; Chen, C.C.; Harmon, Julie P.; Lee, Sanboh

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on characterizing hardness evolution in irradiated high density polyethylene (HDPE) at elevated temperatures. Hardness increases with increasing gamma ray dose, annealing temperature and annealing time. The hardness change is attributed to the variation of defects in microstructure and molecular structure. The kinetics of defects that control the hardness are assumed to follow the first order structure relaxation. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The rate constant follows the Arrhenius equation, and the corresponding activation energy decreases with increasing dose. The defects that control hardness in post-annealed HDPE increase with increasing dose and annealing temperature. The structure relaxation of HDPE has a lower energy of mixing in crystalline regions than in amorphous regions. Further, the energy of mixing for defects that influence hardness in HDPE is lower than those observed in polycarbonate (PC), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA). This is due to the fact that polyethylene is a semi-crystalline material, while PC, PMMA and PHEMA are amorphous. - Highlights: • Hardness of HDPE increases with increasing gamma ray dose, annealing time and temperature. • The hardness change arises from defects in microstructure and molecular structure. • Defects affecting hardness follow a kinetics of structure relaxation. • The structure relaxation has a low energy of mixing in crystalline regime

  5. The effect of gamma radiation on hardness evolution in high density polyethylene at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Pei-Yun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.C. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Harmon, Julie P. [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Lee, Sanboh, E-mail: sblee@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-01

    This research focuses on characterizing hardness evolution in irradiated high density polyethylene (HDPE) at elevated temperatures. Hardness increases with increasing gamma ray dose, annealing temperature and annealing time. The hardness change is attributed to the variation of defects in microstructure and molecular structure. The kinetics of defects that control the hardness are assumed to follow the first order structure relaxation. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The rate constant follows the Arrhenius equation, and the corresponding activation energy decreases with increasing dose. The defects that control hardness in post-annealed HDPE increase with increasing dose and annealing temperature. The structure relaxation of HDPE has a lower energy of mixing in crystalline regions than in amorphous regions. Further, the energy of mixing for defects that influence hardness in HDPE is lower than those observed in polycarbonate (PC), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA). This is due to the fact that polyethylene is a semi-crystalline material, while PC, PMMA and PHEMA are amorphous. - Highlights: • Hardness of HDPE increases with increasing gamma ray dose, annealing time and temperature. • The hardness change arises from defects in microstructure and molecular structure. • Defects affecting hardness follow a kinetics of structure relaxation. • The structure relaxation has a low energy of mixing in crystalline regime.

  6. Synthesis of Well-Defined Polyethylene-Based 3-Miktoarm Star Copolymers and Terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhen

    2016-03-25

    Novel polyethylene (PE)-based 3-miktoarm star copolymers A2B, (AB)2B and terpolymers (AC)2(BC) [A: PE; B, C: polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)] were synthesized by combining boron chemistry, polyhomologation, and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). 1,4-Pentadiene-3-yl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate was first synthesized followed by hydroboration with thexylborane to afford B-thexylboracyclanes, a multi-heterofunctional initiator with two initiating sites for polyhomologation and one for ATRP. After polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide the α,ω-dihydroxyl polyethylene (PE-OH)2-Br produced served as macroinitiator for the ATRP of styrene to afford (PE-OH)2-(PS-Br). Both (PE-OH)2-Br and (PE-OH)2-(PS-Br) were transformed to two new trifunctional macroinitiators (PE-Br)2-Br and (PE-Br)2-(PS-Br) through esterification reactions and used for the synthesis of (AB)2B and (AC)2(BC) 3-miktoarm star co/terpolymers. All intermediates and final products were characterized by 1H NMR, high temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The synthetic method is a general one and can be used for the synthesis of complex PE-based architectures by combination with other living/living-controlled polymerization techniques. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  7. Radiolysis effects on polyethylene terephtalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharescu, Traian; Ciuprina, Florin

    2005-01-01

    The effects of high energy exposure of polyethylene terephtalate, the main electrical insulator for the conduction bars in alternative current generators, is presented. For comparison γ-irradiation was performed in distilled water and air at various doses, up to about 200 kGy. The dependencies of current on time for radiation processed PET sheets allow to depict the variation in the resistivity values as a measure of chemical changes in polyethylene terephtalate macromolecules. The comparison between the evolution of currents in irradiated specimens and spectral analysis bring about a light on the accumulation of radiolysis product in PET matrix. The high energy exposure of PET in air causes an increase of final value of current, while similar experiments in water produces a contrary effect. Some considerations of degradation mechanism are presented

  8. Luminescence enhancement in irradiated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.; Owen, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for the luminescence decay in polyethylene following irradiation at liquid nitrogen temperature and its enhancement on application of an electric field. It is found that both the luminescence enhancement and its subsequent decay may be described by a model involving electron tunnelling from a monoenergetic trap distribution to the parent positive ion. The possible nature of the trap is briefly discussed. (author)

  9. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane microspheres with poly(methyl methacrylate) coating: Modelling, preparation, and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    functional PDMS microspheres were coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by spin coating with different concentrations of PMMA solutions. The quality of the resulting PMMA shell is investigated using rheological measurements at 50 8C with a timesweep procedure. The results strongly suggest that PMMA-coated...... PDMS microspheres react around 20 times slower than the uncoated ones, and that the PMMA shell significantly hinders the reaction between the PDMS microsphere and cross-linker. Thus the thin PMMA shells are very efficient in protecting the reactive PDMS microspheres, since the PMMA shell forms...

  11. Determination of trace elements in poly(methyl methacrylate) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of the neutron activation analysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) polymerized with a redox system of chromium (II) acetate and p-chlorobenzyl peroxide in dimethylformamide at 30 0 C. Since the polymer was originally synthesized in experiments for kinetic studies, the results indicate an arbitrary background of purity of polymers obtained in a laboratory. Samples were irradiated for 28m and gamma spectra detected trace amounts of chlorine, aluminum, vanadium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, copper, zinc, sodium, bromine, lanthanum, gold, and chromium. 2 figures, 1 table

  12. Fracture resistance of Kevlar-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) resin: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrong, J M; Weed, R M; Young, J M

    1990-01-01

    The reinforcing effect of Kevlar fibers incorporated in processed poly(methyl methacrylate) resin samples was studied using 0% (controls), 0.5%, 1%, and 2% by weight of the added fibers. The samples were subjected to impact testing to determine fracture resistance, and sample groups were statistically compared using an ANOVA. Each reinforced sample had significantly greater fracture resistance (P less than 0.05) than the control, and no difference was found either within or between control groups. The use of reinforcing Kevlar fibers appears to enhance the fracture resistance of acrylic resin denture base materials.

  13. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  14. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  15. 21 CFR 172.260 - Oxidized polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to 19. (b) The additive is used or intended for use as a protective coating or component of protective coatings for fresh avocados, bananas, beets, coconuts, eggplant, garlic, grapefruit, lemons, limes... Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.260 Oxidized polyethylene. Oxidized polyethylene may be safely...

  16. Tissue response to intraperitoneal implants of polyethylene oxide-modified polyethylene terephthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, N P; Hubbell, J A

    1992-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate films surface modified with polyethylene oxide of mol wt 18,500 g/mol (18.5 k) by a previously described technique, were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice, along with their respective untreated controls, for periods of 1-28 d. The implants were retrieved and examined for tissue reactivity and cellular adherence. The control polyethylene terephthalate surfaces showed an initial inflammatory reaction followed by an extensive fibrotic response with a mean thickness of 60 microns at 28 d. By contrast, polyethylene oxide-modified polyethylene terephthalate showed only a mild inflammatory response and no fibrotic encapsulation throughout the implantation period: at 28 d a cellular monolayer was observed. Apparently either the polyethylene oxide-modified surface was stimulating less inflammation, which was in turn stimulating less fibroblastic overgrowth, or the cellular adhesion to the polyethylene oxide-modified surface was too weak to support cellular multilayers.

  17. Properties of Polyethylene Naphthalate Track Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Akimenko, S N; Orelovich, O L; Maekawa, J; Ioshida, M; Apel, P Yu

    2002-01-01

    Basic characteristics of track membranes made of polyethylene naphthalate (which is a polyester synthesized from dimethyl naphthalate and ethylene glycol) are studied and presented. Polyethylene naphthalate possesses some properties (mechanical strength, thermal and chemical stability), which make this polymer a promising material for the production of track membranes. Water flow rate and air flow rate characteristics, burst strength, wettability, and amount of extractables are determined. Surface structure and pore structure are examined using scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pores in the membranes are cylindrical in shape. The measured water and air flow rates follow known theoretical relations for the transport in narrow capillaries. The burst strength of polyethylene naphthalate membranes is found to be similar to that of polyethylene terephthalate track membranes. Polyethylene naphthalate track membranes can be categorized as moderately hydrophilic. Being treated with boiling water, pol...

  18. MALDI-TOF MS coupled with collision-induced dissociation (CID) measurements of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgaertel, A.; Becer, C.R.; Gottschaldt, M.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was chosen for an in-detail analysis of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in order to determine the possible fragmentation mechanism with the help of collision-induced dissociation (CID). All experiments were

  19. Cellulose nanocrystals as a reinforcing material for electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fibers: formation, properties and nanomechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Dong; Kenneth E. Strawhecker; James A. Snyder; Joshua A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Uniform fibers composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) reinforced with progressively increasing contents of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), up to 41 wt% CNCs, have been successfully produced by electrospinning. The morphological, thermal and nanomechanical properties of the composite sub-micron fibers were investigated. The CNCs derived from wood pulp by sulfuric...

  20. High performance polyethylene nanocomposite fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A high density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was melt compounded with 2 vol% of dimethyldichlorosilane treated fumed silica nanoparticles. Nanocomposite fibers were prepared by melt spinning through a co-rotating twin screw extruder and drawing at 125°C in air. Thermo-mechanical and morphological properties of the resulting fibers were then investigated. The introduction of nanosilica improved the drawability of the fibers, allowing the achievement of higher draw ratios with respect to the neat matrix. The elastic modulus and creep stability of the fibers were remarkably improved upon nanofiller addition, with a retention of the pristine tensile properties at break. Transmission electronic microscope (TEM images evidenced that the original morphology of the silica aggregates was disrupted by the applied drawing.

  1. Si+ and N+ ion implantation for improving blood compatibility of medical poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.J.; Cui, F.Z; Cui, F.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Si + and N + ion implantation into medical poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were performed at an energy of 80 keV with fluences ranging from 5x10 12 to 5x10 15 ions/cm 2 at room temperature to improve blood compatibility. The results of the blood contacting measurements in vitro showed that the anticoagulability and anticalcific behaviour on the surface morphology were enhanced after ion implantation. No appreciable change in the surface morphology was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that ion implantation broke some original chemical bonds on the surface to form some new Si- and N-containing groups. These results were considered responsible for the enhancement in the blood compatibility of PMMA. (author)

  2. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface-initiated ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Xi; Yan Jinliang; Xiao Yan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Lang Meidong, E-mail: mdlang@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out from hydroxyapatite particles derivatized with ATRP initiators. The structure and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and contact angle analyses. TGA was used to estimate the grafting density of ATRP initiators (0.49 initiator/nm{sup 2}) and the amount of grafted PMMA on the HAP surface. The contact angle analyses indicated that grafting PMMA onto the HAP surface dramatically increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. Moreover, the HAP nanocomposites showed excellent dispersibility in both aqueous solution and organic solvent.

  3. Surface modification of hydroxyapatite with poly(methyl methacrylate) via surface-initiated ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Zhang Xi; Yan Jinliang; Xiao Yan; Lang Meidong

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites grafted with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was carried out from hydroxyapatite particles derivatized with ATRP initiators. The structure and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements, and contact angle analyses. TGA was used to estimate the grafting density of ATRP initiators (0.49 initiator/nm 2 ) and the amount of grafted PMMA on the HAP surface. The contact angle analyses indicated that grafting PMMA onto the HAP surface dramatically increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. Moreover, the HAP nanocomposites showed excellent dispersibility in both aqueous solution and organic solvent.

  4. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO3 Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian; Lacoul, Srijan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.

    2014-01-01

    As-received BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV. PMID:28788468

  5. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO₃ Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian; Lacoul, Srijan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M

    2014-01-16

    As-received BaTiO₃ nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO₃ powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.

  6. Rehabilitation of orbital cavity after orbital exenteration using polymethyl methacrylate orbital prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid is the second most common malignant neoplasm of the eye with the incidence of 0.09 and 2.42 cases/100 000 people. Orbital invasion is a rare complication but, if recognized early, can be treated effectively with exenteration. Although with advancements in technology such as computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, material science, and retentive methods like implants, orbital prosthesis with stock ocular prosthesis made of methyl methacrylate retained by anatomic undercuts is quiet effective and should not be overlooked and forgotten. This clinical report describes prosthetic rehabilitation of two male patients with polymethyl methacrylate resin orbital prosthesis after orbital exenteration, for squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid. The orbital prosthesis was sufficiently retained by hard and soft tissue undercuts without any complications. The patients using the prosthesis are quite satisfied with the cosmetic results and felt comfortable attending the social events.

  7. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO3 Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Requena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As-received BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.

  8. Surface modification of polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses by plasma for improvement of antithrombogenicity and transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lihua; Wu Di; Chen Yashao; Wang Xiaoli; Zhao Guowei; Wan Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Chang' an South Road 199, Xi' an 710062 (China); Huang Changzheng [Able Eye Device Co. Ltd, Zhengzhou 450008 (China)

    2009-05-15

    To improve antithrombogenicity and reduce ultraviolet transmittance, polymethyl methacrylate intraocular lenses (PMMA IOLs) were pretreated with Ar plasma and combined with heparin (Hp), with polyglycol (PEG) and with both Hp and PEG in a plasma atmosphere. The resulting modified PMMA IOLs denoted as PEG-PMMA, Hp-PMMA and Hp-PEG-PMMA were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), contact angle (CA) and platelet adhesion experiments. The results indicated that Hp and PEG had been successfully immobilized onto the surfaces of PMMA IOLs. Antithrombogenicity was improved remarkably and ultraviolet transmittance was reduced as well.

  9. Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate) thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Minggang [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Center on Experimental Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Su Zhidan; Zhang Shengli [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China)

    2012-09-15

    The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

  10. Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with Poly(methyl methacrylate thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Xia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Raman spectra of bilayer graphene covered with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA were investigated. Both the G and 2D peaks of PMMA-coated graphene were stiff and broad compared with those of uncovered graphene. This could be attributed to the residual strain induced by high-temperature baking during fabrication of the nanodevice. Furthermore, the two 2D peaks stiffened and broadened with increasing laser power, which is just the reverse to uncovered graphene. The stiffness is likely caused by graphene compression induced by the circular bubble of the thin PMMA film generated by laser irradiation. Our findings may contribute to the application of PMMA in the strain engineering of graphene nanodevices.

  11. An effective approach to synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)/silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xuefeng; Wang Zichen; Han Dongxue; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Wang Zhijuan; Niu Li

    2006-01-01

    A novel synthetic route for nearly monodispersed poly(methyl methacrylate)/SiO 2 composite particles (PMSCP) is reported. Silica nanoparticles modified with oleic acid were used as 'seeds'. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer was copolymerized with oleic acid via in situ emulsion polymerization, in the presence of an initiator; it resulted finally in the formation of composites with core-shell morphology. The composite particles were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The number of silica particles inside the composite particles increases with an increase in the silica concentration. The effect of grafted silica concentration on the morphology of PMSCP is also reported in detail. It was found by thermogravimetric analysis that PMSCP show a potential application for fire retardance

  12. Flexible poly(methyl methacrylate)-based neural probe: An affordable implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemi, Pejman; Veladi, Hadi; Shahabi, Parviz; Khalilzadeh, Emad

    2018-03-01

    This research presents a novel technique used to fabricate a deep brain stimulation probe based on a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer. This technique is developed to overcome the high cost of available probes crucial for chronic stimulation and recording in neural disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and epilepsy. The probe is made of PMMA and its mechanical properties have been customized by controlling the reaction conditions. The polymer is adjusted to be stiff enough to be easily inserted and, on the other hand, soft enough to perform required movements. As cost is one of the issues in the use of neural probes, a simple process is proposed for the production of PMMA neural probes without using expensive equipment and operations, and without compromising performance and quality. An in vivo animal test was conducted to observe the recording capability of a PMMA probe.

  13. Mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki; Oyama, Ken-ichi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    ESR and gel permeation chromatographic measurements of poly(methyl methacrylate) γ-irradiated between 77 K and 300 K have been carried out to elucidate the mechanism of radiation-induced degradation of the polymer. It is revealed that the scission of the main chain is not taken place immediately after the absorption of radiation energy but is induced by the intramolecular radical conversion of the side-chain -COOCH 2 radical to the tertiary -CH 2 -C(CH 3 )- radical followed by the main-chain β-scission of the latter radical. The degradation is not taken place below 190 K, because the side-chain radical starts to convert only above 190 K. The residual monomer in the polymer reacts with the side-chain radical below 190 K to generate the stable propagating-type radical, so that the degradation is suppressed even after warming the polymer to the ambient temperature. (author)

  14. Redox-initiated poly(methyl methcrylate) emulsion polymerizations stabilized with block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide), e-caprolactone and linoleic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, B.H.; Nabuurs, Tijs; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2009-01-01

    A redox initiating system, consisting of t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHPO), isoascorbic acid (iAA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ferric-sodium salt (FeEDTA) was employed in emulsion polymerizations of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at high solids contents of 30 wt % in water. The system was stabilized

  15. Reuse of polyethylene waste in road construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, S S S V Gopala; Murali, M; Rengaraju, V R

    2007-01-01

    The cost of construction of flexible pavements depends on thickness of the pavement layers. The thickness of pavement mainly depends on the strength of the subgrade. By suitable improvement to the strength of the subgrade, considerable saving in the scarce resources and economy can be achieved. Because of their lightweight, easy handling, non-breakable and corrosion free nature, polyethylene have surpassed all other materials in utility. But polyethylene waste has been a matter of concern to environmentalists as it is non-biodegradable. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the improvement of California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value of soils stabilized with waste polyethylene bags. This alternative material is mixed in different proportions to the gravel and clay to determine the improvement ofCBR value. Use of the waste polyethylene bags observed to have a significant impact on the strength and economy in pavement construction, when these are available locally in large quantities.

  16. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  17. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  18. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  19. Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, E; Garvey, L H

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. Although generally considered biologically inert, cases of mild to life-threatening immediate-type PEG hypersensitivity are reported with increasing frequency. Nevertheless, awareness...

  20. Osmotic effects of polyethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, L R; Emmett, M; Santa Ana, C A; Fordtran, J S

    1988-04-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used to increase the osmotic pressure of fluids used to cleanse the gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about its osmotic activity. To investigate this activity systematically, solutions of PEG of differing molecular weights were made and subjected to measurement of osmolality by both freezing point depression and vapor pressure osmometry. Measured osmolality was increasingly greater than predicted from average molecular weight as PEG concentration increased. Measurement of sodium activity in NaCl/PEG solutions by means of an ion-selective electrode suggested that the higher than expected osmolality could be due in part to interactions that, in effect, sequestered water from the solution. Osmolality was consistently greater by freezing point osmometry than by vapor pressure osmometry. To determine which osmometry method reflected biologically relevant osmolality, normal subjects underwent steady-state total gut perfusion with an electrolyte solution containing 105 g/L of PEG 3350. This produced rectal effluent that was hypertonic by freezing point osmometry but isotonic by vapor pressure osmometry. Assuming that luminal fluid reaches osmotic equilibrium with plasma during total gut perfusion, this result suggests that the vapor pressure osmometer accurately reflects the biologically relevant osmolality of intestinal contents. We conclude that PEG exerts more of an osmotic effect than would be predicted from its molecular weight. This phenomenon may reflect interactions between PEG and water molecules that alter the physical chemistry of the solution and sequester water from the solution.

  1. Radiation-induced linking reactions in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoepfl, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of measurements are reported relating to chemical reactions in polyethylene induced by ionizing radiation: 1) viscometric and low-angle laser light scattering measurements to determine the effect of a radical scavenger on the yield of links; 2) calorimetric measurements to determine the effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene; and 3) high-resolution solution carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry measurements to determine the nature of the links and the method of their formation. The NMR results present the first direct detection of radiation-induced long-chain branching (Y links) in polyethylene, and place an apparent upper limit on the yield of H-shaped crosslinks that are formed when polyethylene is irradiated to low absorbed doses. The effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that radiation-induced links do not change the heat of fusion of polythylene crystals, but decrease the melt entropy and increase the fold surface free energy per unit area of the crystals. The carbon 13 NMR results demonstrate that long-chain branches (Y links) are formed much more frequently than H-shaped crosslinks at low absorbed doses. The Y links are produced by reactions of alkyl free radicals with terminal vinyl groups in polyethylene

  2. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  3. Synthesis and Properties of High Strength Thin Film Composites of Poly(ethylene Oxide and PEO-PMMA Blend with Cetylpyridinium Chloride Modified Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion-conducting thin film composites of polymer electrolytes were prepared by mixing high MW poly(ethylene oxide (PEO, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA as a polymer matrix, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC modified MMT as filler, and different content of LiClO4 by using solution cast method. The crystallinity, ionic conductivity (σ, and mechanical properties of the composite electrolytes and blend composites were evaluated by using XRD, AC impedance, and UTM studies, respectively. The modification of clay by CPC showed enhancement in the d-spacing. The loading of clay has effect on crystallinity of PEO systems. Blend composites showed better mechanical properties. Young’s modulus and elongation at break values showed increase with salt and clay incorporation in pure PEO. The optimum composition composite of PEO with 3.5 wt% of salt and 3.3 wt% of CPMMT exhibited better performance.

  4. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-phenothiazinium dye hybrid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ru; Lu, Yue-Ting; Yan, Bao-Long; Lu, Jian-Mei; Wu, Xing-Zhi; Song, Ying-Lin; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) films doped with charge flowable 3,7-di(piperidinyl)phenothiazin-5-ium chloride, which tested by Z-scan method with nanosecond laser beam at 532 nm, are reported. Large third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (up to 10 −7 esu) and high second hyperpolarizabilities (up to 10 −27 esu) are found. The third-order nonlinear absorptions change from reverse saturated absorptions to saturated absorptions with different percentage of the phenothiazinium dye in the poly(methyl methacrylate) films, which can be explained by the accumulation phenomenon of the phenothiazinium. The results suggest that the phenothiazinium salt is a promising material for third order non-linear applications. - Highlights: • Phenothiazinium containing optical films • Strong third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) absorption • Large third-order NLO susceptibilities

  5. Bonding at Compatible and Incompatible Amorphous Interfaces of Polystyrene and Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Below the Glass Transition Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiko, Yuri M.; Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Films of high-molecular-weight amorphous polystyrene (PS, M-w = 225 kg/mol, M-w/M-n = 3, T-g-bulk = 97degreesC, where T-g-bulk is the glass transition temperature of the bulk sample) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA, M-w = 87 kg/mol, M-w/M-n = 2, Tg-bulk = 109degreesC) were brought into contact...

  6. Making continuous bubble type polyethylene foam incombustible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako; Hatada, Motoyoshi; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Komai, Kuniaki; Kohara, Choji.

    1989-01-01

    Since continuous bubble type plastic foam has excellent compression characteristics and sound absorption characteristics, it has been widely used as cushion material, sealing material, sound insulating material and so on. However, the most part of plastic foam is taken by air, therefore at the time of fires, it becomes a very dangerous material. At present, the material used mostly as the seat cushions for airliners, railroad coaches, automobiles and others is polyurethane foam, but since it contains C-N couples in its molecules, it is feared to generate cyanic gas according to the condition of combustion. As the plastic foam that does not generate harmful gas at the time of fires, there is continuous bubble type polyethylene which is excellent in its weathering property and chemical resistance. A reactive, phosphorus-containing oligomer has large molecular weight and two or more double couplings in a molecule, therefore, it does not enter the inside of polyethylene, and polymerizes and crosslinks on the surfaces of bubble walls in the foam, accordingly it is expected that the apparent graft polymerization is carried out, and it is very effective for making polyethylene foam incombustible. The method of making graft foam, the properties of graft foam and so on are reported. When the graft polymerization of this oligomer to continuous bubble type polyethylene foam was tried, highly incombustible polyethylene foam was obtained. (K.I.)

  7. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  8. Fundamental study on dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiations such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and electron beam (EB) are the most promising exposure source for next-generation lithographic technology. In the realization of high resolution lithography, it is necessary for resist materials to improve the trade-off relationship among sensitivity, resolution, and line width roughness (LWR). In order to overcome them, it is essential to understand basic chemistry of resist matrices in resist processes. In particular, the dissolution process of resist materials is a key process. Therefore, it is essential for next-generation resist design for ionizing radiation to clarify the dissolution behavior of the resist film into developer. However, the details in dissolution process of EUV and EB resist films have not been investigated thus far. In this study, main chain scission and dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as main chain scission type resist was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in order to understand the relationship between the degree of PMMA degradation and dissolution behavior. The relationship between the molecular weight after irradiation and the swelling behavior was clarified.

  9. A simplified technique for polymethyl methacrylate cranioplasty: combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Woon-Man; Lin, Muh-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the most frequently used cranioplasty materials. However, limitations exist with PMMA cranioplasty including longer operative time, greater blood loss and a higher infection rate. To reduce these disadvantages, it is proposed to introduce a new surgical method for PMMA cranioplasty. Retrospective review of nine patients who received nine PMMA implants using combined cotton stacking and finger fracture method from January 2008 to July 2011. The definitive height of skull defect was quantified by computer-based image analysis of computed tomography (CT) scans. Aesthetic outcomes as measured by post-reduction radiographs and cranial index of symmetry (CIS), cranial nerve V and VII function and complications (wound infection, hardware extrusions, meningitis, osteomyelitis and brain abscess) were evaluated. The mean operation time for implant moulding was 24.56 ± 4.6 minutes and 178.0 ± 53 minutes for skin-to-skin. Average blood loss was 169 mL. All post-operative radiographs revealed excellent reduction. The mean CIS score was 95.86 ± 1.36%, indicating excellent symmetry. These results indicate the safety, practicability, excellent cosmesis, craniofacial symmetry and stability of this new surgical technique.

  10. Polyol mediated nano size zinc oxide and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic nano ZnO particles have been synthesized in various diols (ethylene glycol – EG, 1,2 propane diol – PD, 1,4 butane diol – BD and tetra(ethylene glycol – TEG in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, p-TsOH, as an end capping agent. The addition of p-TsOH reduces the ZnO particle size and increases its crystallite size. With increasing diol main chain length the ZnO particle size increases (EG (32 nm < PD (33 nm < BD (72 nm < TEG (86 nm. Using the assynthesized and unmodified ZnO nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, matrix have been prepared by the in-situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, MMA. The addition of surface modifiers is avoided which is an advantage for the application since they can influence other properties of the material. ZnO particles, especially those with smaller particle sizes (EG – 32 nm, PD – 33 nm showed enhanced effect on the thermal stability of PMMA, ultraviolet, UV, absorption and transparency for visible light. Transparent materials with high UV absorption and with enhanced resistance to sunlight were obtained by optimizing the nanocomposite preparation procedure using ZnO particles of about 30 nm size in concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 wt%. The reported nanocomposite preparation procedure is compatible with the industrial process of PMMA sheet production.

  11. Dehydrogenation mechanism of LiBH{sub 4} by Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianmei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yan, Yurong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ouyang, Liuzhang, E-mail: meouyang@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory for Fuel Cell Technology in Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Wang, Hui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Min, E-mail: memzhu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Energy & Environmental Materials, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • LiBH{sub 4} is amorphous after modified with PMMA. • Dehydrogenation temperature of LiBH{sub 4} decreases by 120 °C after modifying with PMMA. • The LiBH{sub 4}@PMMA composite releases 10 wt.% hydrogen at 360 °C within 1 h. • C=O group of PMMA weakens the B−H bonds to lower dehydrogenation temperature. - Abstract: We investigated the dehydrogenation properties and mechanism of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) confined LiBH{sub 4}. Thermal stability of LiBH{sub 4} was reduced by PMMA, with a decrease in dehydrogenation temperature by 120 °C. At 360 °C, the composite showed fast dehydrogenation kinetics with 10 wt.% of hydrogen released within 1 h. The improved dehydrogenation performance was mainly attributed to the reaction between LiBH{sub 4} and PMMA forming Li{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as a final product. Furthermore, the presence of electrostatic interaction between B atom of LiBH{sub 4} and O atom in the carbonyl group of PMMA may weaken the B−H bonding of [BH{sub 4}]{sup −} and lower the hydrogen desorption temperature.

  12. Surface monofunctionalized polymethyl pentene hollow fiber membranes by plasma treatment and hemocompatibility modification for membrane oxygenators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, Weiping; Zheng, Zhi; Fan, Wenling; Mao, Chun; Shi, Jialiang; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of polymethyl pentene (PMP) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) was improved through surface modification for membrane oxygenator applications. The modification was performed stepwise with the following: (1) oxygen plasma treatment, (2) functionalization of monosort hydroxyl groups through NaBH4 reduction, and (3) grafting 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) or heparin. SEM, ATR-FTIR, and XPS analyses were conducted to confirm successful grafting during the modification. The hemocompatibility of PMP HFMs was analyzed and compared through protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and coagulation tests. Pure CO2 and O2 permeation rates, as well as in vitro gas exchange rates, were determined to evaluate the mass transfer properties of PMP HFMs. SEM results showed that different nanofibril topographies were introduced on the HFM surface. ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra indicated the presence of functionalization of monosort hydroxyl group and the grafting of MPC and heparin. Hemocompatibility evaluation results showed that the modified PMP HFMs presented optimal hemocompatibility compared with pristine HFMs. Gas permeation results revealed that gas permeation flux increased in the modified HFMs because of dense surface etching during the plasma treatment. The results of in vitro gas exchange rates showed that all modified PMP HFMs presented decreased gas exchange rates because of potential surface fluid wetting. The proposed strategy exhibits a potential for fabricating membrane oxygenators for biomedical applications to prevent coagulation formation and alter plasma-induced surface topology and composition.

  13. Dynamic mechanical analysis of single walled carbon nanotubes/polymethyl methacrylate nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Ali; Al Hosiny, N.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposite films with different ratios of single walled carbon nanotubes/polymethyl methacrylate (SWCNTs/PMMA) are studied. Nanocomposite films of different ratios (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 weight percent (wt%)) of SWCNTs/PMMA are fabricated by using a casting technique. The morphological and structural properties of both SWCNT powder and SWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposite films are investigated by using a high resolution transmission electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer respectively. The mechanical properties including the storage modulus, loss modulus, loss factor (tan δ) and stiffness of the nanocomposite film as a function of temperature are recorded by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer at a frequency of 1 Hz. Compared with pure PMMA film, the nanocomposite films with different ratios of SWCNTs/PMMA are observed to have enhanced storage moduli, loss moduli and high stiffness, each of which is a function of temperature. The intensity of the tan δ peak for pure PMMA film is larger than those of the nanocomposite films. The glass transition temperature (T g ) of SWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposite film shifts towards the higher temperature side with respect to pure PMMA film from 91.2 °C to 99.5 °C as the ratio of SWCNTs/PMMA increases from 0 to 2.0 wt%. (paper)

  14. Synthesis of polymer gel electrolyte with high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, Paulo; Qutubuddin, Syed; Webber, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposite gel electrolytes consisting of high molecular weight poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA-clay nanocomposite, ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) as plasticizer, and LiClO 4 electrolyte are reported. Montmorillonite clay was ion exchanged with a zwitterionic surfactant (octadecyl dimethyl betaine) and dispersed in methyl methacrylate, which was then polymerized to synthesize PMMA-clay nanocomposites. The nanocomposite was dissolved in a mixture of EC/PC with LiClO 4 , heated and pressed to obtain polymer gel electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the gels indicated intercalated clay structure with d-spacings of 2.85 and 1.40 nm. In the gel containing plasticizer, the clay galleries shrink suggesting intercalation rather than partial exfoliation observed in the PMMA-clay nanocomposite. Ionic conductivity varied slightly and exhibited a maximum value of 8 x 10 -4 S/cm at clay content of 1.5 wt.%. The activation energy was determined by modeling the conductivity with a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher expression. The clay layers are primarily trapped inside the polymer matrix. Consequently, the polymer does not interact significantly with LiClO 4 electrolyte as shown by FTIR. The presence of the clay increased the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the gel as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The PMMA nanocomposite gel electrolyte shows a stable lithium interfacial resistance over time, which is a key factor for use in electrochemical applications

  15. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); Chen Xinhua [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Kang Yingke; Yang Guangbin; Yu Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); Zhang Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO{sub 2} (coded as PMMA-SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162{sup o}, showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  16. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinyan; Chen Xinhua; Kang Yingke; Yang Guangbin; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2010-01-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO 2 (coded as PMMA-SiO 2 ) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162 o , showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  17. Effects of sterilization on the mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) based personalized medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münker, T J A G; van de Vijfeijken, S E C M; Mulder, C S; Vespasiano, V; Becking, A G; Kleverlaan, C J; Becking, A G; Dubois, L; Karssemakers, L H E; Milstein, D M J; van de Vijfeijken, S E C M; Depauw, P R A M; Hoefnagels, F W A; Vandertop, W P; Kleverlaan, C J; Münker, T J A G; Maal, T J J; Nout, E; Riool, M; Zaat, S A J

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, personalized medical devices are frequently used for patients. Due to the manufacturing procedure sterilization is required. How different sterilization methods affect the mechanical behavior of these devices is largely unknown. Three poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based materials (Vertex Self-Curing, Palacos R+G, and NextDent C&B MFH) were sterilized with different sterilization methods: ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, autoclavation, and γ-irradiation. Mechanical properties were determined by testing the flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness, and impact strength. The flexural strength of all materials was significantly higher after γ-irradiation compared to the control and other sterilization methods, as tested in a wet environment. NextDent C&B MFH showed the highest flexural and impact strength, Palacos R+G showed the highest maximum stress intensity factor and total fracture work. Autoclave sterilization is not suitable for the sterilization of PMMA-based materials. Ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, and γ-irradiation appear to be suitable techniques to sterilize PMMA-based personalized medical devices. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrical and mechanical behavior of polymethyl methacrylate/cadmium sulphide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajdeep; Samra, Kawaljeet Singh

    2018-06-01

    In the present investigation, electrical and mechanical behavior of cadmium sulphide (CdS) doped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) have been studied using different techniques. Dip casting technique was used for preparing free standing films of pristine and CdS doped PMMA at different compositions (i.e. 1 and 5 wt%). Optical absorbance as a function of wavelength was studied, by UV-visible spectroscopy, to find the impact of CdS doping on the optical band gap of synthesized PMMA/CdS composite. DC and AC conductivities were measured as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. Considerable increase in electrical conductivity was observed with the increase of CdS contents in polymer matrix. Overall electrical conduction mechanism in PMMA/CdS composites was attributed to movement of electrons through the uniformly distributed CdS aggregates within the matrix of PMMA. Mechanical properties, such as Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation and ductility, of PMMA/CdS composites were determined and relevant responsible phenomena were discussed.

  19. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  20. A novel bonding method for large scale poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanofluidic chip fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingtian; Li, Jinlai; Yin, Zhifu

    2018-04-01

    Micro- and nanofluidic chips are becoming increasing significance for biological and medical applications. Future advances in micro- and nanofluidics and its utilization in commercial applications depend on the development and fabrication of low cost and high fidelity large scale plastic micro- and nanofluidic chips. However, the majority of the present fabrication methods suffer from a low bonding rate of the chip during thermal bonding process due to air trapping between the substrate and the cover plate. In the present work, a novel bonding technique based on Ar plasma and water treatment was proposed to fully bond the large scale micro- and nanofluidic chips. The influence of Ar plasma parameters on the water contact angle and the effect of bonding conditions on the bonding rate and the bonding strength of the chip were studied. The fluorescence tests demonstrate that the 5 × 5 cm2 poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with 180 nm wide and 180 nm deep nanochannels can be fabricated without any block and leakage by our newly developed method.

  1. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Utsumi, Yuichi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the processing depth of PMMA from the total exposure energy in deep X-ray lithography. (author)

  2. Air plasma processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) micro-beads: Surface characterisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chaozong; Cui Naiyi; Osbeck, Susan; Liang He

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PMMA micro-beads were processed using a rotary air plasma reactor. ► Surface chemistry and surface texture of PMMA micro-beads were characterised. ► Surface wettability was evaluated using “floating” water contact angle method. ► Surface oxidation and texture changes induced by air plasma attributed to the improvement of surface wettability. - Abstract: This paper reports the surface processing of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) micro-beads by using a rotary air plasma reactor, and its effects on surface properties. The surface properties, including surface wettability, surface chemistry and textures of the PMMA beads, were characterised. It was observed that the air plasma processing can improve the surface wettability of the PMMA microbeads significantly. A 15 min plasma processing can reduce the surface water contact angle of PMMA beads to about 50° from its original value of 80.3°. This was accompanied by about 8% increase in surface oxygen concentration as confirmed by XPS analysis. The optical profilometry examination revealed the air plasma processing resulted in a rougher surface that has a “delicate” surface texture. It is concluded that the surface chemistry and texture, induced by air plasma processing, co-contributed to the surface wettability improvement of PMMA micro-beads.

  3. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000, Aarhus C (Denmark); Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, 06530 (Turkey)], E-mail: tamer@inano.dk, E-mail: tamer@unam.bilkent.edu.tr

    2009-03-25

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: {alpha}-CD, {beta}-CD, and {gamma}-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order {alpha}-CD<{beta}-CD<{gamma}-CD, the thermal evolution of menthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order {gamma}-CD>{beta}-CD>{alpha}-CD.

  4. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyar, Tamer; Besenbacher, Flemming; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 deg. C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CD β-CD>α-CD.

  5. Lithography exposure characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for carbon, helium and hydrogen ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaraksa, Nitipon; Norarat, Rattanaporn; Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo; Singkarat, Somsorn; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2012-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) is a common polymer used as a lithographic resist for all forms of particle (photon, ion and electron) beam writing. Faithful lithographic reproduction requires that the exposure dose, Θ, lies in the window Θ0⩽ΘChiang Mai and Jyväskylä to determine the exposure characteristics in terms of fluence for 2 MeV protons, 3 MeV 4He and 6 MeV 12C ions, respectively. After exposure the samples were developed in 7:3 by volume propan-2-ol:de-ionised water mixture. At low fluences, where the fluence is below the clearing fluence, the exposed regions were characterised by rough regions, particularly for He with holes around the ion tracks. As the fluence (dose) increases so that the dose exceeds the clearing dose, the PMMA is uniformly removed with sharp vertical walls. When Θ exceeds the cross-linking onset fluence, the bottom of the exposed regions show undissolved PMMA.

  6. Photoluminescence and reflectivity studies of high energy light ions irradiated polymethyl methacrylate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Madhu Lata; Singh, Fouran; Ramola, R. C.; Joshi, Veena

    2017-11-01

    The self-standing films of non-conducting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were irradiated in vacuum using high energy light ions (HELIs) of 50 MeV Lithium (Li+3) and 80 MeV Carbon (C+5) at various ion dose to induce the optical changes in the films. Upon HELI irradiation, films exhibit a significant enhancement in optical reflectivity at the highest dose. Interestingly, the photoluminescence (PL) emission band with green light at (514.5 nm) shows a noticeable increase in the intensity with increasing ion dose for both ions. However, the rate of increase in PL intensity is different for both HELI and can be correlated with the linear energy transfer by these ions in the films. Origin of PL is attributed to the formation of carbon cluster and hydrogenated amorphous carbon in the polymer films. HAC clusters act as PL active centres with optical reflectivity. Most of the harmful radiation like UV are absorbed by the material and is becoming opaque after irradiation and this PL active material are useful in fabrication of optoelectronic devices, UV-filter, back-lit components in liquid crystal display systems, micro-components for integrate optical circuits, diffractive elements, advanced materials and are also applicable to the post irradiation laser treatment by means of ion irradiation.

  7. A sol-gel-modified poly(methyl methacrylate) electrophoresis microchip with a hydrophilic channel wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was approximately 27.4 degrees compared with approximately 66.3 degrees for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13x10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86x10(-4) cm2 V(-1) s(-1) for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74,882.3 m(-1) compared with 14,730.5 m(-1) for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  8. Customized Polymethyl Methacrylate Implants for the Reconstruction of Craniofacial Osseous Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Fernandes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial defects represent alterations in the anatomy and morphology of the cranial vault and the facial bones that potentially affect an individual’s psychological and social well-being. Although a variety of techniques and restorative procedures have been described for the reconstruction of the affected area, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, a biocompatible and nondegradable acrylic resin-based implant, is the most widely used alloplastic material for such craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. The aim of this study was to describe a technique for aesthetic and functional preoperative customized reconstruction of craniofacial bone defects from a small series of patients offered by the Brazilian public health system. Three adult male patients attended consultation with chief complaints directly related to their individual craniofacial bone defects. With the aid of multislice computed tomography scans and subsequent fabrication of the three-dimensional craniofacial prototype, custom-made PMMA implants were fabricated preoperatively. Under general anesthesia, with access to the craniofacial defects with a coronal approach, the PMMA implants were adapted and fixated to the facial skeleton with titanium plates and screws. Postoperative evaluation demonstrated uneventful recovery and an excellent aesthetic result. Customized prefabricated PMMA implants manufactured over the rapid prototyping models proved to be effective and feasible.

  9. An angled nano-tunnel fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) by a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her, Eun Kyu; Chung, Hee-Suk; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Moon, Myoung-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Angled nano-scale tunnels with high aspect ratio were fabricated on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a focused ion beam (FIB). The fabrication parameters such as ion fluence, incidence angle, and acceleration voltage of the Ga + ion beam were first studied on the PMMA surface to explore the formation of the nano-scale configurations such as nano-holes and cones with diameter in the range of 50-150 nm at an ion beam acceleration voltage of 5-20 kV. It was also found that the PMMA surface exposed to FIB was changed into an amorphous graphitic structure. Angled nano-scale tunnels were fabricated with high aspect ratio of 700-1500 nm in depth and 60 nm in mean diameter at an ion beam acceleration voltage of 5 kV and under a specific ion beam current. The angle of the nano-tunnels was found to follow the incident angle of the ion beam tilted from 0 0 to 85 0 , which has the potential for creating a mold for anisotropic adhesives by mimicking the hairs on a gecko's feet.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Surface-Charged Poly(Methyl Methacrylate as Denture Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang E. Park

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical properties of a new surface-modified denture resin for its suitability as denture base material. This experimental resin is made by copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MA to poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA to produce a negative charge. Four experimental groups consisted of Orthodontic Dental Resin (DENTSPLY Caulk as a control and three groups of modified PMMA (mPMMA produced at differing ratios of methacrylic acid (5 : 95, 10 : 90, and 20 : 80 MA : MMA. A 3-point flexural test using the Instron Universal Testing Machine (Instron Corp. measured force-deflection curves and a complete stress versus strain history to calculate the transverse strength, transverse deflection, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Analysis of Variance and Scheffe Post-test were performed on the data. Resins with increased methacrylic acid content exhibited lower strength values for the measured physical properties. The most significant decrease occurred as the methacrylic acid content was increased to 20% mPMMA. No significant differences at P<.05 were found in all parameters tested between the Control and 5% mPMMA.

  11. Thermal stability of radiation-modified polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, T.B.; Sirota, A.G.; Bal'tenas, R.A.; Stanyavichus, V.I.; Knebel'man, A.M.; Sil'chenko, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the work reported here, the authors investigated the thermooxidative resistance, at temperatures from 373 to 473 K, of polyethylene that had been cross-linked by exposure to radiation and formulated with various heat stabilizers. Thus, these studies of the thermooxidative resistance of polyethylene-based compositions that have been cross-linked by the radiation-chemical method have shown that, in this particular series of heat-stabilizers, the greatest effect at temperatures of 373-473 K is given by the FAU-13. The DTPhDMI has the greatest heat-stabilizing effect in the temperature interval 448-473 K, whereas the heat resistance of materials containing Diaphen NN or Phenozan-23 is higher at 373-423 K. These comparative results are in agreement with data for unirradiated and chemically cross-linked polyethylene

  12. Radiation effect on polyethylene tube operational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.F.; Kantor, L.A.; Sokolov, I.A.; Pogrebetskij, G.E.; Perlova, N.A.; Chumakov, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    The operational properties (stability on prolonged usage and creeping) were determined for pressure pipes made of high-density and low-density polyethylene subjected to γ-radiation. The dependence of the period up to the breaking point on the radiation dosage was extreme in character, with a maximum being near 25 Mrad. With an increase in the irradiation dosage the character of the breaking changes from plastic (at 0-15 Mrad) to brittle (at higher dosages). The plots of creepage, indepent from the amount of radiation, can be described by logarithmic equation epsilon=epsilonsub(0)+K lgt (where, epsilon-deformation of creepage, %; epsilonsub(0)- and K - creepage constants). Therefore creepage can be considered as a criterion determining the carrying capacity of the γ-irradiated polyethylene. It was established that only radiation-grafted high-density polyethylene is suitable for hot water supply pipes

  13. Protective properties of radiation-modified polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surnina, N.N.; Saltykova, L.A.; Strochkova, E.M.; Tatarenko, O.F.

    1986-09-01

    A study was made of the mass transfer of corrosive liquids and gases through polyethylene films modified by radiation surface grafting. Studies were performed on an unstabilized type A film with graft adhesion-active layer based on polymethacrylic acid. The protective properties of the polymer coating in corrosive fluids with low vapor tension were estimated by impedance measurements. Steel specimens with a protective coating of radiation-modified polyethylene film were exposed to 10% sulfuric acid at room temperature. The results indicated that the acid did not penetrate through to the metal surface. The films retain their protective properties and protect the metal from the acid. Radiation modification significantly improves the adhesion of polyethylene to metals without reducing physical and mechanical properties of the polymers. 50 references, 1 figure.

  14. Gamma irradiation effects in low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Lilian S.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2011-01-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is obtained from ethylene gas polymerization, being one of the most commercialized polymers due to its versatility and low cost. It's a semi-crystalline polymer, usually inactive at room temperature, capable to attain temperatures within a 80 deg C - 100 deg C range, without changing its physical-chemical properties. LDPE has more resistance when compared to its equivalent High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). LDPE most common applications consist in manufacturing of laboratory materials, general containers, pipes, plastic bags, etc. Gamma radiation is used on polymers in order to modify mechanical and physical-chemical features according to utility purposes. This work aims to the study of gamma (γ) radiation interaction with low density polyethylene to evaluate changes in its physical-chemical properties. Polymer samples were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30kGy doses, at room temperature. Samples characterization employed Thermal Analysis, Melt Flow Index, Infrared Spectroscopy and Swelling tests. (author)

  15. Heating tubes of cross-linked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeppler, H.; Hoffmann, M.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen permeability of plastic tubes for floor heating systems was measured as a function of the reduced oxygen content of water in plastic tubes at a flow rate of 0.5 m/s and a temperature of 30 0 C and as a function of oxygen uptake of low-oxygen water in floor heating tubes. Pipes of VEP, periodically cross-linked polyethylene (Engels process), polypropylene copolymeride, and polybutene were compared. The permeability of periodically cross-linked polyethylene is twice as high as that of VEP. Measurements, results, and consequences for floor heating systems are discussed. (KH) [de

  16. Temperature dependence of radiation effects in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G; Katsumura, Y.; Kudoh, H.; Morita, Y.; Seguchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature dependence of crosslinking and gas evolution under γ-irradiation was studied for high-density and low-density polyethylene samples in the 30-360degC range. It was found that crosslinking was the predominant process up to 300degC and the gel point decreased with increasing temperature. At above 300degC, however, the gel fraction at a given dose decreased rapidly with temperature and the action of radiation turned to enhance polyethylene degradation. Yields of H 2 and hydrocarbon gases increased with temperature and the compositions of hydrocarbons were dose dependent. (author)

  17. Alumina-on-Polyethylene Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yup Lee; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2010-02-11

    The long-term durability of polyethylene lining total hip arthroplasty (THA) mainly depends on periprosthetic osteolysis due to wear particles, especially in young active patients. In hip simulator study, reports revealed significant wear reduction of the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene articulation of THA compared with metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. However, medium to long-term clinical studies of THA using the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene are few and the reported wear rate of this articulation is variable. We reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of ceramicon- polyethylene articulation in THA, hip simulator study and retrieval study for polyethylene wear, in vivo clinical results of THA using alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces in the literature, and new trial alumina ceramic-onhighly cross linked polyethylene bearing surfaces.

  18. Direct Synthesis of Telechelic Polyethylene by Selective Insertion Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao; Falivene, Laura; Boffa, Giusi; Sá nchez, Sheila Ortega; Caporaso, Lucia; Grassi, Alfonso; Mecking, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A single-step route to telechelic polyethylene (PE) is enabled by selective insertion polymerization. PdII-catalyzed copolymerization of ethylene and 2-vinylfuran (VF) generates α,ω-di-furan telechelic polyethylene. Orthogonally reactive exclusively

  19. Biomimetic porous high-density polyethylene/polyethylene- grafted-maleic anhydride scaffold with improved in vitro cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Bhaskar, Nitu; Bose, Surjasarathi; Basu, Bikaramjit

    2018-05-01

    A major challenge for tissue engineering is to design and to develop a porous biocompatible scaffold, which can mimic the properties of natural tissue. As a first step towards this endeavour, we here demonstrate a distinct methodology in biomimetically synthesized porous high-density polyethylene scaffolds. Co-extrusion approach was adopted, whereby high-density polyethylene was melt mixed with polyethylene oxide to form an immiscible binary blend. Selective dissolution of polyethylene oxide from the biphasic system revealed droplet-matrix-type morphology. An attempt to stabilize such morphology against thermal and shear effects was made by the addition of polyethylene- grafted-maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. A maximum ultimate tensile strength of 7 MPa and elastic modulus of 370 MPa were displayed by the high-density polyethylene/polyethylene oxide binary blend with 5% maleated polyethylene during uniaxial tensile loading. The cell culture experiments with murine myoblast C2C12 cell line indicated that compared to neat high-density polyethylene and high-density polyethylene/polyethylene oxide, the high-density polyethylene/polyethylene oxide with 5% polyethylene- grafted-maleic anhydride scaffold significantly increased muscle cell attachment and proliferation with distinct elongated threadlike appearance and highly stained nuclei, in vitro. This has been partly attributed to the change in surface wettability property with a reduced contact angle (∼72°) for 5% PE- g-MA blends. These findings suggest that the high-density polyethylene/polyethylene oxide with 5% polyethylene- grafted-maleic anhydride can be treated as a cell growth substrate in bioengineering applications.

  20. Alumina-on-Polyethylene Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yup Lee; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    The long-term durability of polyethylene lining total hip arthroplasty (THA) mainly depends on periprosthetic osteolysis due to wear particles, especially in young active patients. In hip simulator study, reports revealed significant wear reduction of the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene articulation of THA compared with metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. However, medium to long-term clinical studies of THA using the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene are few and the reported wear rate of th...

  1. Mathematical model of polyethylene pipe bending stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikov, Anatoly; Serebrennikov, Daniil

    2018-03-01

    Introduction of new machines and new technologies of polyethylene pipeline installation is usually based on the polyethylene pipe flexibility. It is necessary that existing bending stresses do not lead to an irreversible polyethylene pipe deformation and to violation of its strength characteristics. Derivation of the mathematical model which allows calculating analytically the bending stress level of polyethylene pipes with consideration of nonlinear characteristics is presented below. All analytical calculations made with the mathematical model are experimentally proved and confirmed.

  2. Monoblock versus modular polyethylene insert in uncemented total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Rathsach; Winther, Nikolaj; Lind, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Backside wear of the polyethylene insert in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can produce clinically significant levels of polyethylene debris, which can lead to loosening of the tibial component. Loosening due to polyethylene debris could theoretically be reduced in tibial...

  3. Positrons trapped in polyethylene: Electric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolaccini, M.; Bisi, A.; Gambarini, G.; Zappa, L.

    1978-01-01

    The intensity of the iot 2 -component of positrons annihilated in polyethylene is found to increase with increasing electric field, while the formation probability of the positron state responsible for this component remains independent of the field. (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  4. Sintering of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a high performance polymer having low coefficient of friction, good abrasion resistance, good chemical ... In this study, we report our results on compaction and sintering behaviour of two grades of UHMWPE with reference to the powder morphology, sintering ...

  5. Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenande, Emily; Kroigaard, Mogens; Mosbech, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We describe hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols (PEGs), with cross-reactivity to a structural analog, polysorbate 80, in a 69-year-old patient with perioperative anaphylaxis and subsequent, severe anaphylactic reactions to unrelated medical products. PEGs and PEG analogs are prevalent in the...

  6. Surface modification of polyethylene films using atmospheric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to increase the wettability of polyethylene polymer films. Reduction in contact angle from 94.32 to 58.33 degrees was measured for treatment times of 1 - 5 seconds. Contact angle reductions of PE as a function of treatment time with APPJ and PE surface at various oxygen ...

  7. Self-assembly and omniphobic property of fluorinated unit end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyan, Liang; Pingdi, Xu; Jingxian, Bao; Ling, He; Nan, Zhu

    2018-03-01

    The self-assembly behavior of fluorinated unit end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PDFHM-ef-PMMA) in solution and its influence on the surface microstructure, elemental composition and omniphobic property of cast film was investigated in this work. Specifically, three mixed solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF)/methanol (MeOH), THF/H2O and THF/H2O/MeOH in various compositions were employed separately as the selective solvents. In THF/MeOH solution, the aggregate morphologies of PDFHM-ef-PMMA changed gradually from core-shell spheres to worm, and then to elliptical vesicles as MeOH content increased. In THF/H2O solution, spherical and bowl-shaped aggregates with significantly larger sizes than those in THF/MeOH solution were favored despite lower H2O content. The further addition of MeOH to THF/H2O mixture could reduce the size of aggregate but hardly change original aggregate morphology. During the film formation process, those self-assembled aggregates in THF/MeOH solution fused with one another to form a smooth surface. When such surface was fully covered by fluorinated segments, the outstanding hexadecane and water slide-off properties and ink-resistant property required for antifouling application were demonstrated. Instead, the aggregates formed in THF/H2O/MeOH mixture were subjected to secondary aggregation of PDFHM-ef-PMMA chains during solvent evaporation, leading to the formation of a particulate film with poor adhesion towards glass plate and hexadecane-repellent property.

  8. Characterizing the magnetic susceptibility tensor of lanthanide-containing polymethylated-DOTA complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Madeleine [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (United States); Schwieters, Charles D. [National Institutes of Health, Office of Intramural Research, Center for Information Technology (United States); Göbl, Christoph [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Opina, Ana C. L. [National Institutes of Health, Imaging Probe Development Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (United States); Strub, Marie-Paule [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (United States); Swenson, Rolf E.; Vasalatiy, Olga [National Institutes of Health, Imaging Probe Development Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (United States); Tjandra, Nico, E-mail: tjandran@nhlbi.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Lanthanide complexes based on the DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) cage are commonly used as phase contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, but can also be utilized in structural NMR applications due to their ability to induce either paramagnetic relaxation enhancement or a pseudocontact shift (PCS) depending on the choice of the lanthanide. The size and sign of the PCS for any given atom is determined by its coordinates relative to the metal center, and the characteristics of the lanthanide’s magnetic susceptibility tensor. Using a polymethylated DOTA tag (Ln-M8-SPy) conjugated to ubiquitin, we calculated the position of the metal center and characterized the susceptibility tensor for a number of lanthanides (dysprosium, thulium, and ytterbium) under a range of pH and temperature conditions. We found that there was a difference in temperature sensitivity for each of the complexes studied, which depended on the size of the lanthanide ion as well as the isomeric state of the cage. Using {sup 17}O-NMR, we confirmed that the temperature sensitivity of the compounds was enhanced by the presence of an apically bound water molecule. Since amide-containing lanthanide complexes are known to be pH sensitive and can be used as probes of physiological pH, we also investigated the effect of pH on the Ln-M8-SPy susceptibility tensor, but we found that the changes in this pH range (5.0–7.4) were not significant.

  9. Characterizing the magnetic susceptibility tensor of lanthanide-containing polymethylated-DOTA complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, Madeleine; Schwieters, Charles D.; Göbl, Christoph; Opina, Ana C. L.; Strub, Marie-Paule; Swenson, Rolf E.; Vasalatiy, Olga; Tjandra, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Lanthanide complexes based on the DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) cage are commonly used as phase contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, but can also be utilized in structural NMR applications due to their ability to induce either paramagnetic relaxation enhancement or a pseudocontact shift (PCS) depending on the choice of the lanthanide. The size and sign of the PCS for any given atom is determined by its coordinates relative to the metal center, and the characteristics of the lanthanide’s magnetic susceptibility tensor. Using a polymethylated DOTA tag (Ln-M8-SPy) conjugated to ubiquitin, we calculated the position of the metal center and characterized the susceptibility tensor for a number of lanthanides (dysprosium, thulium, and ytterbium) under a range of pH and temperature conditions. We found that there was a difference in temperature sensitivity for each of the complexes studied, which depended on the size of the lanthanide ion as well as the isomeric state of the cage. Using "1"7O-NMR, we confirmed that the temperature sensitivity of the compounds was enhanced by the presence of an apically bound water molecule. Since amide-containing lanthanide complexes are known to be pH sensitive and can be used as probes of physiological pH, we also investigated the effect of pH on the Ln-M8-SPy susceptibility tensor, but we found that the changes in this pH range (5.0–7.4) were not significant.

  10. Characterization and electrolytic cleaning of poly(methyl methacrylate) residues on transferred chemical vapor deposited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianbo; Finklea, Harry O.; Liu, Yuxin

    2017-03-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) residue has long been a critical challenge for practical applications of the transferred chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. Thermal annealing is empirically used for the removal of the PMMA residue; however experiments imply that there are still small amounts of residues left after thermal annealing which are hard to remove with conventional methods. In this paper, the thermal degradation of the PMMA residue upon annealing was studied by Raman spectroscopy. The study reveals that post-annealing residues are generated by the elimination of methoxycarbonyl side chains in PMMA and are believed to be absorbed on graphene via the π-π interaction between the conjugated unsaturated carbon segments and graphene. The post-annealing residues are difficult to remove by further annealing in a non-oxidative atmosphere due to their thermal and chemical stability. An electrolytic cleaning method was shown to be effective in removing these post-annealing residues while preserving the underlying graphene lattice based on Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies. Additionally, a solution-gated field effect transistor was used to study the transport properties of the transferred CVD graphene before thermal annealing, after thermal annealing, and after electrolytic cleaning, respectively. The results show that the carrier mobility was significantly improved, and that the p-doping was reduced by removing PMMA residues and post-annealing residues. These studies provide a more in-depth understanding on the thermal annealing process for the removal of the PMMA residues from transferred CVD graphene and a new approach to remove the post-annealing residues, resulting in a residue-free graphene.

  11. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) in blends with polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    2002-04-01

    In this work the radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) was analyzed by three radioprotective agents: polystyrene (PS) and hindered amine light stabilizers (HEALS), respectively, PMMA/PS systems, so a called polymeric blends were prepared with different compositions, where the miscibility of these blends were studied using viscometric, microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The results show that PMMA/PS blends in the compositions below 10 wt% of PS are miscible, on films casting from solution of toluene and methyl-ethyl-ketone (1;1) mixture. On the other hand, in the composition above 10 wt% of PS, PMMA/PS blends show imminiscibility behavior. These polymer solutions were irradiated with gamma rays ( 60 Co) and viscometric, microscopic and spectroscopic experiments show gamma radiation-induced compatibilization on PMMA/PS blends on proportion 50/50 and 30/70 take place. Viscometric interaction parameters of miscible and compatibilized PMMA/PS bends were calculated in the range of - 50 kGy, with the goal to find out the polymeric interactions after irradiation of the films. G values of PMMA, PMMA/PS and PMMA+St systems were calculated in order to analyze the radioprotection of PS and St into PMMA matrix. The results show that (90/10) PMMA/PS and PMMA+1,5%St systems promote protection against the gamma the radiation-induced scissions, effect that leads to polymer degradation. Moreover, a small amount of crosslinking observed in irradiated blends has contributed to stabilize mechanical properties of PMMA films. PMMA+0,3% HALS system irradiated in doses above 60 kGy showed little stabilization of the mechanical properties of PMMA, since it was observed mechanical degradation this system. Based on these results, PS and St showed to be the best radioprotective agents to PMMA. (author)

  12. Fabrication of 3D Microfluidic Devices by Thermal Bonding of Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Paul

    2012-07-01

    The use of thin-film techniques for the fabrication of microfluidic devices has gained attention over the last decade, particularly for three-dimensional channel structures. The reasons for this include effective use of chip volume, mechanical flexibility, dead volume reduction, enhanced design capabilities, integration of passive elements, and scalability. Several fabrication techniques have been adapted for use on thin films: laser ablation and hot embossing are popular for channel fabrication, and lamination is widely used for channel enclosure. However, none of the previous studies have been able to achieve a strong bond that is reliable under moderate positive pressures. The present work aims to develop a thin-film process that provides design versatility, speed, channel profile homogeneity, and the reliability that others fail to achieve. The three building blocks of the proposed baseline were fifty-micron poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films as substrates, channel patterning by laser ablation, and device assembly by thermal-fusion bonding. Channel fabrication was characterized and tuned to produce the desired dimensions and surface roughness. Thermal bonding was performed using an adapted mechanical testing device and optimized to produce the maximum bonding strength without significant channel deformation. Bonding multilayered devices, incorporating conduction lines, and integrating various types of membranes as passive elements demonstrated the versatility of the process. Finally, this baseline was used to fabricate a droplet generator and a DNA detection chip based on micro-bead agglomeration. It was found that a combination of low laser power and scanning speed produced channel surfaces with better uniformity than those obtained with higher values. In addition, the implemented bonding technique provided the process with the most reliable bond strength reported, so far, for thin-film microfluidics. Overall, the present work proved to be versatile

  13. Bacterial Adhesion and Surface Roughness for Different Clinical Techniques for Acrylic Polymethyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa de Medeiros Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the effect of different surface finishing and polishing protocols on the surface roughness and bacterial adhesion (S. sanguinis to polymethyl methacrylates (PMMA. Fifty specimens were divided into 5 groups (n=10 according to their fabrication method and surface finishing protocol: LP (3 : 1 ratio and laboratory polishing, NF (Nealon technique and finishing, NP (Nealon technique and manual polishing, MF (3 : 1 ratio and manual finishing, and MP (3 : 1 ratio and manual polishing. For each group, five specimens were submitted to bacterial adhesion tests and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two additional specimens were subjected to surface topography analysis by SEM and the remaining three specimens were subjected to surface roughness measurements. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA. The mean bacterial counts were as follows: NF, 19.6±3.05; MP, 5.36±2.08; NP, 4.96±1.93; MF, 7.36±2.45; and LP, 1.56±0.62 (CFU. The mean surface roughness values were as follows: NF, 3.23±0.15; MP, 0.52±0.05; NP, 0.60±0.08; MF, 2.69±0.12; and LP, 0.07±0.02 (μm. A reduction in the surface roughness was observed to be directly related to a decrease in bacterial adhesion. It was verified that the laboratory processing of PMMA might decrease the surface roughness and consequently the adhesion of S. sanguinis to this material.

  14. Metal Adsorbent Prepared from Poly(Methyl Acrylate)-Grafted Cassava Starch via Gamma Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwanmala, P; Hemvichian, K; Srinuttrakul, W [Nuclear Research and Development Group, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    Metal adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was successfully synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto cassava starch. The optimum conditions for grafting were studied in terms of % degree of grafting (Dg). Conversion of the ester groups present in poly(methyl acrylate)-grafted-cassava starch copolymer into hydroxamic acid was carried out by treatment with hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of alkaline solution. The maximum percentage conversion of the ester groups of the grafted copolymer, %Dg = 191 (7.63 mmol/g of MA), into the hydroxamic groups was 70% (5.35 mmol/g of MA) at the optimum conditions: in a mixture solution of 20% HA (w/v) and methanol solution (methanol:H{sub 2}O = 5:1) 300 mL, pH 13, reaction time 2 h, and 20 g of grafted copolymer. The adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The presence of electron donating groups in adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups gives the ability to form polycomplexes with metal ions. The ability of the adsorbent to adsorb various metals was investigated in order to evaluate the possibility of its use in metal adsorption. The adsorbent exhibited a remarkable % adsorption for Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2} {sup 2+}, V{sup 5+} and Pb{sup 2+} at pH 3, 4, 5, 4, and 3, respectively. The adsorbent of 191%Dg had total adsorption capacities of 2.6, 1.46, 1.36, 1.15, and 1.6 mmol/g adsorbent for Cd{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, UO{sub 2} {sup 2+}, V{sup 5+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, in the batch mode adsorption. (author)

  15. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)/OMMT nanocomposites by γ-ray irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weian; Shen Xiaofeng; Li Yu; Fang Yuee

    2003-01-01

    Organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) was synthesized by cationic exchange between Na-MMT and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in an aqueous solution. Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/(OMMT) nanocomposites was prepared by γ-ray irradiation polymerization. The dispersion degree and the intercalation spacing of these nanocomposites were investigated with the X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The thermal stabilities of the samples were studied by the thermal gravimetric analysis. The nanocomposites had higher storage modulus and higher glass transition temperature (T g ) than the pure PMMA, which were measured by dynamic mechanical analysis

  16. Water-enhanced adhesion at interface in immiscible bilayer film of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M; Koga, T; Fukumori, K; Sugiyama, J; Geue, T

    2014-01-01

    From nano-scratch tests, strong interfacial adhesion has been found for polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bilayer films prepared by a water floating (WF) method, while a PS layer on a PMMA film produced by a spin coating (SC) method peels off easily at the interface. Neutron reflectivity measurements demonstrated a clear difference in the interfacial width (σ) between the two bilayers; σ = 9 nm for the film obtained by the WF method, whereas σ = 5 nm for that by the SC method. Plasticization of the films by water would be responsible for broadening of the interface to enhance adhesion strength.

  17. Performance comparison of four kinds of flat nonimaging Fresnel lenses made of polycarbonates and polymethyl methacrylate for concentrated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languy, Fabian; Habraken, Serge

    2011-07-15

    Solar concentrators made of a single refractive primary optics are limited to a concentration ratio of about 1000× [Opt. Express 19, A280 (2011)], due only to longitudinal chromatic aberration, while mirrors are limited to ∼46,000× by the angular size of the Sun. To reduce the chromatic aberration while keeping cost-effective systems for concentrated photovoltaics, a study of four different kinds of flat Fresnel doublets made of polycarbonates and polymethyl methacrylate is presented. It reveals that Fresnel doublets may have fewer optical losses than non-Fresnel doublets, with a lower lateral chromatic split allowing for even higher concentration ratio. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Quaternized poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-vinylbenzyl chloride) membrane for alkaline fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanting; Guo, Juchen; Wang, Chunsheng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Chu, Deryn [Sensors and Electron Device Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Instead of modification of pre-existing polymers, a new route of preparation of polyelectrolyte OH{sup -} conductive membranes via copolymerization of selected functional monomers was reported in this study. A random copolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate-co-vinylbenzyl chloride) was synthesized via copolymerization, which was followed by quaternization and membrane casting. The intrinsic OH{sup -} conductivity of the free-standing polyelectrolyte membranes can reach 8.2 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 80 C. The alkaline fuel cells using copolymer polyelectrolytes demonstrated the feasibility of the preparation concept of these membranes. (author)

  19. Photosensitivity mechanism of undoped poly(methyl methacrylate) under UV radiation at 325 nm and its spatial resolution limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáez-Rodríguez, D.; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    that increasing strain during photo-inscription leads to an increased photosensitivity, which is evidence of photodegradation. Likewise, refractive index change in the fiber was measured to be positive, which provides evidence for further polymerization of the material. Finally, we relate the data obtained......In this Letter, we provide evidence suggesting that the main photosensitive mechanism of an undoped poly(methyl methacrylate)-based microstructured optical fiber under UV radiation at 325 nm is a competitive process of both photodegradation and polymerization. We found experimentally...

  20. Fabrication and characterization of perovskite solar cells added with MnCl2, YCl3 or poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masaya; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Oku, Takeo

    2018-01-01

    Perovskite-type CH3NH3PbI3-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated and characterized. Effects of manganese (Mn), yttrium (Y) compounds addition into the perovskite crystal on the photovoltaic properties were investigated. Also, the effects of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) addition on perovskite layer on the photovoltaic properties were investigated. When 3 % MnCl2 was added, the short circuit current density and conversion efficiency were improved by promoting the crystal growth of perovskite phase. The photoelectric conversion efficiency for 0.9 mg mL-1 PMMA added was 7.36 %. Open circuit voltage and fill factor were improved by 5 % YCl3 addition.

  1. Posidonia oceanica as a Renewable Lignocellulosic Biomass for the Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate and Glycidyl Methacrylate Grafted Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vismara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High-grade cellulose (97% α-cellulose content of 48% crystallinity index was extracted from the renewable marine biomass waste Posidonia oceanica using H2O2 and organic peracids following an environmentally friendly and chlorine-free process. This cellulose appeared as a new high-grade cellulose of waste origin quite similar to the high-grade cellulose extracted from more noble starting materials like wood and cotton linters. The benefits of α-cellulose recovery from P. oceanica were enhanced by its transformation into cellulose acetate CA and cellulose derivative GMA-C. Fully acetylated CA was prepared by conventional acetylation method and easily transformed into a transparent film. GMA-C with a molar substitution (MS of 0.72 was produced by quenching Fenton’s reagent (H2O2/FeSO4 generated cellulose radicals with GMA. GMA grafting endowed high-grade cellulose from Posidonia with adsorption capability. GMA-C removes β-naphthol from water with an efficiency of 47%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. After hydrolysis of the glycidyl group to glycerol group, the modified GMA-C was able to remove p-nitrophenol from water with an efficiency of 92%, as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy. α-cellulose and GMA-Cs from Posidonia waste can be considered as new materials of potential industrial and environmental interest.

  2. Preparation and characterization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles via SI-ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianhui; Feng Na; Chang Suqin; Kang Hongliang

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH) 2 ] and polymer matrix, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). In this work, two approaches for the immobilization of ATRP initiator on the magnesium hydroxide particles surface were compared and selected. The density of initiator was significantly increased by the method of introducing more hydroxyl groups via ATRP of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on the surface. The percentage of bromine atom for the initiator-functionalized magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH) 2 -g-PHEMA-Br] reached to 1.75%, compared to 0.48% for Mg(OH) 2 -Br determined by XPS analysis. The surface-initiated ATRP of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can be conducted in a controlled manner, as revealed by the linear kinetic plot, linear increase of number average molecular weight (M n ) with monomer conversions, and the relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (M w /M n ∼ 1.4) of PGMA chains. The percentage of grafting PG (%) and the thickness of the grafted polymer layer increased with the increasing of polymerization time and reached to 116.6% and 197.6 nm after 300 min respectively. As for the polymerization with different initial monomer concentration, the number average molecular weights (M n ) and weight average molecular weights (M w ) of PGMA increased with the increasing of initial monomer concentration. TGA indicated that the initial decomposition temperature of Mg(OH) 2 -g-PHEMA-PGMA composite particles (253 °C) was much lower than that of unmodified magnesium hydroxide particles (337 °C).

  3. Preparation and characterization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles via SI-ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jianhui [School of Textile and Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Feng Na, E-mail: fengna12@163.com [School of Textile and Materials Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Chang Suqin [China Leather and Footwear Industry Research Institute, Beijing 100015 (China); Kang Hongliang [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Joint Laboratory of Polymer Science and Material, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2012-06-01

    In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH){sub 2}] and polymer matrix, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted from magnesium hydroxide particles were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). In this work, two approaches for the immobilization of ATRP initiator on the magnesium hydroxide particles surface were compared and selected. The density of initiator was significantly increased by the method of introducing more hydroxyl groups via ATRP of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) on the surface. The percentage of bromine atom for the initiator-functionalized magnesium hydroxide particles [Mg(OH){sub 2}-g-PHEMA-Br] reached to 1.75%, compared to 0.48% for Mg(OH){sub 2}-Br determined by XPS analysis. The surface-initiated ATRP of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) can be conducted in a controlled manner, as revealed by the linear kinetic plot, linear increase of number average molecular weight (M{sub n}) with monomer conversions, and the relatively narrow molecular weight distributions (M{sub w}/M{sub n} {approx} 1.4) of PGMA chains. The percentage of grafting PG (%) and the thickness of the grafted polymer layer increased with the increasing of polymerization time and reached to 116.6% and 197.6 nm after 300 min respectively. As for the polymerization with different initial monomer concentration, the number average molecular weights (M{sub n}) and weight average molecular weights (M{sub w}) of PGMA increased with the increasing of initial monomer concentration. TGA indicated that the initial decomposition temperature of Mg(OH){sub 2}-g-PHEMA-PGMA composite particles (253 Degree-Sign C) was much lower than that of unmodified magnesium hydroxide particles (337 Degree-Sign C).

  4. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongo, S., E-mail: sidiki@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kerasidou, A.P. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Sone, B.T.; Diallo, A. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Nkosi, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied the linear and nonlinear optical properties of hybrid Bixa Orellana dye doped PMMA thin film. • We investigated the linear optical properties by means of UV/Vis, FTIR and Fluorescence. • We used Tauc - Lorentz model to evaluate linear optical parameters (n &k) with relative maximum of 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm for n is observed while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080. • We evaluated nonlinear third order susceptibility which was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. - Abstract: Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  5. Mammography dosimetry using an in-house developed polymethyl methacrylate phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Sharma, S. D.; Mayya, Y. S.; Chourasiya, G.

    2012-01-01

    Phantom-based measurements in mammography are well-established for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) procedures involving equipment performance and comparisons of X-ray machines. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is among the best suitable materials for simulation of the breast. For carrying out QA/QC exercises in India, a mammographic PMMA phantom with engraved slots for keeping thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) has been developed. The radiation transmission property of the developed phantom was compared with the commercially available phantoms for verifying its suitability for mammography dosimetry. The breast entrance exposure (BEE), mean glandular dose (MGD), percentage depth dose (PDD), percentage surface dose distribution (PSDD), calibration testing of automatic exposure control (AEC) and density control function of a mammography machine were measured using this phantom. MGD was derived from the measured BEE following two different methodologies and the results were compared. The PDD and PSDD measurements were carried out using LiF: Mg, Cu, P chips. The in-house phantom was found comparable with the commercially available phantoms. The difference in the MGD values derived using two different methods were found in the range of 17.5-32.6 %. Measured depth ranges in the phantom lie between 0.32 and 0.40 cm for 75 % depth dose, 0.73 and 0.92 cm for 50 % depth dose, and 1.54 and 1.78 cm for 25 % depth dose. Higher PSDD value was observed towards chest wall edge side of the phantom, which is due to the orientation of cathode-anode axis along the chest wall to the nipple direction. Results obtained for AEC configuration testing shows that the observed mean optical density (O.D) of the phantom image was 1.59 and O.D difference for every successive increase in thickness of the phantom was within ±0.15 O.D. Under density control function testing, at -2 and -1 density settings, the variation in film image O.D was within ±0.15 O.D of the normal density

  6. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  7. Poly(ethylene glycol) interactions with proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 23 (2006), s. 613-618 ISSN 0044-2968. [European Powder Diffraction Conference /9./. Prague, 02.09.2004-05.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/02/0843 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly(ethylene glycol) * PEO * protein-polymer interaction Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.897, year: 2006

  8. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  9. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  10. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  11. Phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiao-Hui; Xia A-Gen; Chen Hong-Ping; Zhang Lin-Xi

    2011-01-01

    The phase behaviour of polyethylene knotted ring chains is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. In this paper, we focus on the collapse of the polyethylene knotted ring chain, and also present the results of linear and ring chains for comparison. At high temperatures, a fully extensive knot structure is observed. The mean-square radius of gyration per bond (S 2 )/(Nb 2 ) and the shape factor (δ*) depend on not only the chain length but also the knot type. With temperature decreasing, chain collapse is observed, and the collapse temperature decreases with the chain length increasing. The actual collapse transition can be determined by the specific heat capacity C v , and the knotted ring chain undergoes gas—liquid—solid-like transition directly. The phase transition of a knotted ring chain is only one-stage collapse, which is different from the polyethylene linear and ring chains. This investigation can provide some insights into the statistical properties of knotted polymer chains. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  12. Micro/nanoencapsulated n-nonadecane with poly(methyl methacrylate) shell for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Biçer, Alper; Altuntaş, Ayşe; Bilgin, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determinate of thermal energy storage properties of PMMA/C19 micro/nanocapsules as a novel encapsulated phase change material (M/N-EPCM). The chemical structure of the prepared M/N-EPCM was verified using FTIR spectroscopy method. The analysis results obtained from POM and SEM indicated that the synthesized capsules had virtually spherical-shape. The PSD analysis indicated that the M/N-EPCM capsules had mean diameter of 8.18 μm and the percentage of the capsules with nanosize was 4.90 (v/v). The DSC results showed that the synthesized M/N-PCM had a melting temperature and total latent heat value as 31.23 °C and 139.20 J/g, respectively. It can be also deduced from all results that the synthesized M/N-EPCM had promising thermal energy storage potential due to its good latent heat thermal energy storage properties, thermal durability, thermal reliability, chemical stability, thermal conductivity and phase change reversibility properties. - Highlights: • The chemical structure of the prepared M/N-EPCM was verified using FTIR spectroscopy method. • POM and SEM results indicated that the M/N-EPCM had virtually spherical shape-appearance. • The M/N-EPCM had mean diameter of 8.18 μm and the percentage of the capsules with nanosize was 4.90 (v/v). • The M/N-PCM had a melting temperature and total latent heat value as 31.23 °C and 139.20 J/g, respectively. • The M/N-EPCM had promising thermal energy storage potential. - Abstract: This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the thermal energy storage properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/n-nonadecane (C19) capsules as a novel micro/nanoencapsulated phase change material (M/N-EPCM). The M/N-EPCM was fabricated via emulsion polymerization reaction of methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer occurred around C19 used as core material. The chemical structure of the prepared M/N-EPCM was verified using Fourier transform infrared

  13. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before 60 Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following 60 Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors

  14. Patterned functional carbon fibers from polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Marcus A [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Rebecca H [ORNL; Kumbhar, Amar S [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Patterned, continuous carbon fibers with controlled surface geometry were produced from a novel melt-processible carbon precursor. This portends the use of a unique technique to produce such technologically innovative fibers in large volume for important applications. The novelties of this technique include ease of designing and fabricating fibers with customized surface contour, the ability to manipulate filament diameter from submicron scale to a couple of orders of magnitude larger scale, and the amenable porosity gradient across the carbon wall by diffusion controlled functionalization of precursor. The geometry of fiber cross-section was tailored by using bicomponent melt-spinning with shaped dies and controlling the melt-processing of the precursor polymer. Circular, trilobal, gear-shaped hollow fibers, and solid star-shaped carbon fibers of 0.5 - 20 um diameters, either in self-assembled bundle form, or non-bonded loose filament form, were produced by carbonizing functionalized-polyethylene fibers. Prior to carbonization, melt-spun fibers were converted to a char-forming mass by optimizing the sulfonation on polyethylene macromolecules. The fibers exhibited distinctly ordered carbon morphologies at the outside skin compared to the inner surface or fiber core. Such order in carbon microstructure can be further tuned by altering processing parameters. Partially sulfonated polyethylene-derived hollow carbon fibers exhibit 2-10 fold surface area (50-500 m2/g) compared to the solid fibers (10-25 m2/g) with pore sizes closer to the inside diameter of the filaments larger than the sizes on the outer layer. These specially functionalized carbon fibers hold promise for extraordinary performance improvements when used, for example, as composite reinforcements, catalyst support media, membranes for gas separation, CO2 sorbents, and active electrodes and current collectors for energy storage applications.

  15. IMPORTANT DEGRADATIONS IN POLYETHYLENE TERAPHTALATE EXTRUSION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule ALTUN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET is one of the most used thermo-plastic polymers. The total consumption of PET has been about 30 million tons in the year 2000. Polyester fibers constitute about 60 % of total synthetic fibers consumption. During extrusion, PET polymer is faced to thermal, thermo-oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, which result in severe reduction in its molecular weight, thereby adversely affecting its subsequent melt processability. Therefore, it is essential to understand degradation processes of PET during melt extrusion.

  16. Surface modification of polyethylene by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2003-01-01

    The products made of polyethylene (PE) go from construction materials, electric insulating until packing material. The films for bags and pack occupy 83.6% of the distribution of the market of PE approximately. The enormous quantity of PE that is generated by its indiscriminate use brings as consequence a deterioration to the atmosphere, due to the long life that they present as waste. This work is a study on the modification of low density polyethylene films. In this type of thin materials, the changes in the surface meet with largely on the conformation of the rest of the material. To induce changes that modify the surface of PE, plasmas were used with reactive atmospheres of air, oxygen and nitrogen. The experimentation that was carries out went to introduce the PE to a cylindrical reactor where it was generated the plasma of air, oxygen and nitrogen to different times of exposure. After having carried out the exposure to the plasma, it was found that in the polyethylene it modifies their morphology, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, composition and electric conductivity. The analytical techniques that were used to characterize later to the polyethylene of being in contact with the plasma were: X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Electric conductivity, Angle of contact and finally Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The content of this work it is presented in five chapters: In the chapter 1 there are presented some general concepts of plasma and of the one polymer in study PE. In the chapter 2 it is made a general revision on modification of surfaces, as well as the properties that were modified in polymeric materials that were exposed to plasma in previous works. In the chapter 3 the experimental part and the conditions used are described in the modification of the PE. Also in this chapter a brief description it is made of the used characterization techniques. The results and discussion are presented in the chapter 4. These results

  17. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkali, Noor L. H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E. J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G. P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes

  18. Preparation and its drug release property of radiation-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) capsule including potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1979-01-01

    Porous flat circular capsules including KCl as a drug were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate at room temperature in the presence of polyethylene glycol No. 600. The porous structure can be controlled by the methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol No. 600 composition. The amount of drug released was linearly related to the square root of time. The magnitude of drug release increased roughly in proportional to the water content of capsule, which can be related to porosity in the capsule. (author)

  19. Periodic nanostructures formed on a poly-methyl methacrylate surface with a femtosecond laser for biocompatibility improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Keisuke; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji; Ooga, Takahiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Kensuke

    2018-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used as a biomaterial. The formation of periodic nanostructures on the surface is necessary to improve the biocompatibility. A method was proposed and developed to form periodic nanostructures on a PMMA surface. A PMMA plate was placed on titanium (Ti) plate, and then the Ti plate was irradiated with a laser through the PMMA plate. We try to effectively produce periodic nanostructures on PMMA with a femtosecond laser at a fundamental wavelength by increasing the contact pressure and using titanium (Ti) plate. The contact pressure between PMMA and Ti required to form a periodic nanostructure is 300 kPa, and for a contact pressure of 2400 kPa, periodic nanostructures are formed in 62% of the laser-irradiated area on the PMMA surface. These results suggest that the formation efficiency of the periodic nanostructure depends on the laser conditions and the contact pressure.

  20. Fluorescence enhancement of samarium complex co-doped with terbium complex in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiu Hongfang; Zhang Lixin; Liu Guode; Fan Tao

    2009-01-01

    The fluorescence property of Sm(DBM) 3 phen- (DBM-dibenzoylmethide, phen-1,10-phenanthroline) and Tb(DBM) 3 phen-co-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated. The excitation, emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime of the co-doped samples were examined. In the co-doped samples, the luminescence intensities of Sm 3+ enhance with an increase of the Tb(DBM) 3 phen content and with a decrease of the Sm(DBM) 3 phen content. The reason for the fluorescence enhancement effect in the co-doped polymer is the intermolecular energy transfer. To give a vivid picture for this co-doped system, a model for the fluorescence enhancement of Sm(DBM) 3 phen- and Tb(DBM) 3 phen-co-doped PMMA is presented

  1. Effect of the different chain transfer agents on molecular weight and optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Onur; Demirci, Gökhan; Mergo, Paweł

    2017-08-01

    Investigation of molecular weight and optical properties of poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) polymerized in house with different chain transfer agents was studied. Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), n-butyl mercaptan (nBMC) and pentamethyl disilane (PMDS) were used as chain transfer agents. The molecular weight (Mw) of PMMA samples were measured by Ostwald viscometer. Mw of bulk polymer samples were decreased with increase the concentration of chain transfer agents (CTA). Since reactivity of used CTAs is not same, molecular weights of samples which were produced with different type of CTA but same concentration of CTA was varied. Higher concentration of n-BMC showed higher scattering. Transmission of samples could not be correlated with different concentration of CTA. Refractive index of samples was not affected by concentration of CTA nevertheless higher molecular weight of CTA showed higher refractive index.

  2. Biconvex intraocular lenses and Nd:YAG capsulotomy: Experimental comparison of surface damage with different poly(methyl methacrylate) formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, J.E.; Alberhasky, M.T. (Greenview Hospital, Bowling Green, KY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Biconvex posterior chamber lenses have optical advantages and decrease the risk of capsular opacification, but they are more likely to be pitted during ND:YAG capsulotomy because of apposition of the lens to the capsule. This study reports the likelihood of surface damage to different formulations of poly(methyl methacrylate) at the energy levels required to open posterior capsules. Molded lenses are more easily damaged than higher molecular weight lathe-cut materials (P less than .01), as expected. However, by keeping energy output low, even injection-molded lenses showed minimal damage, with mean pit size 39 +/- 39 microns at 1 mJ. By using a converging contact lens, low power, and keeping the focus behind the capsule, damage to all materials tested should be clinically insignificant.

  3. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  4. Preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate) microcapsules by in situ polymerization on the surface of calcium carbonate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Nakajima, Tatsuya; Anzai, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microcapsules were prepared by the in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide on the surface of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) particles, followed by the dissolution of the CaCO(3) core in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The microcapsules were characterized using fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The average sizes of the CaCO(3) particles and PMMA capsules were 3.8±0.6 and 4.0±0.6 μm, respectively. A copolymer consisting of MMA and rhodamine B-bearing MMA was also used to prepare microcapsules for fluorescent microscopy observations. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin was enclosed in the PMMA microcapsules and its release properties were studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of nanosized silica in poly(methyl methacrylate)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide based polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, S.; Lu, Soon-Chien [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2008-12-01

    The effect of nanosized silica when incorporated in polymer electrolytes is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, conductivity and thermal properties. Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes are synthesized by the dispersion of nanosized silica (SiO{sub 2}), up to 10 wt.% maximum, into a matrix formed by poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest conductivity is 2.44 x 10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature, with 4 wt.% of silica added. The FTIR spectra show evidence of complexation between PMMA, LiTFSI and SiO{sub 2}. The addition of silica to the polymer electrolytes also improves the thermal stability and the ability to retain conductivity over time. (author)

  6. Electrical bistabilities and memory stabilities of nonvolatile bistable devices fabricated utilizing C60 molecules embedded in a polymethyl methacrylate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Lee, Dong Ik; Jung, Jae Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2009-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements on Al/fullerene (C 60 ) molecules embedded in polymethyl methacrylate/Al devices at 300 K showed a current bistability due to the existence of the C 60 molecules. The on/off ratio of the current bistability for the memory devices was as large as 10 3 . The retention time of the devices was above 2.5 x 10 4 s at room temperature, and cycling endurance tests on these devices indicated that the ON and OFF currents showed no degradation until 50 000 cycles. Carrier transport mechanisms for the nonvolatile bistable devices are described on the basis of the I-V experimental and fitting results.

  7. The formation of hollow poly(methyl methacrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposite cylinders by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huan; Hu Xijun; Ka Ming Ng; Feng Jiyun

    2009-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanocomposite particles with 1, 2 and 4 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by mechanical grinding of PMMA and MWCNT powders in a mortar at room temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and Raman scattering characterizations revealed that these nanocomposite particles consist of a PMMA core and a MWCNT shell. The PMMA/MWCNT nanocomposite particles were used to fabricate the corresponding nanocomposites in the form of a hollow cylinder with various diameters and heights under 700 W microwave irradiation within 1 min. A mechanism for the fast microwave assisted forming process is proposed. These experimental results may lead to a new technology for forming hollow polymeric articles that is different from the conventional injection and blowing process.

  8. Polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene with layered double hydroxide nano composites: In situ synthesis, morphology and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botan, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Telma R.; Lona, Liliane M.F.; Wypych, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, polymer nanocomposites have attracted interest, both in industry and in academia, because they often exhibit remarkable improvement in their properties when compared with pure polymer or conventional micro and macro-composites using low levels of reinforcements. In this work polymethyl methacrylate and polystyrene reinforced with layered double hydroxide, which was intercalated with sodium dodecyl sulfate were synthesized by in situ bulk polymerization. The nanocomposites were characterized and compared by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test. The X-ray diffraction demonstrated that synthesized nanocomposites showed a high global dispersion of layered double hydroxide, suggesting exfoliated morphology. The result of thermogravimetric analysis and flammability test for synthesized polystyrene/ layered double hydroxide nanocomposite presented a significant improvement in thermal stability and flammability property when compared with pure polymer. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the quality of cyanoacrylate adhesive joints using the example of poly(methyl methacrylate and polycarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mazur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Adhesive bonding is one of the simplest and most common methods used for joining materials. It is applied in both production and repair works. The most commonly used adhesives are cyanoacrylates, due to the possibility of combining various materials and short curing time. One of the ways to assess the quality of the adhesive used is testing the shear strength of bonded joints. Three adhesives commonly available on the Polish market, from various manufacturers and with different prices per gram of product were tested. The polymer materials bonded were poly(methyl methacrylate and polycabonate, since they are broadly used in the automotive industry and household equipment. The study revealed significant differences in bonding strength, reaching as much as 38% The adhesive’s price was not commensurate with the quality of the product tested in all cases.

  10. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-01-01

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO x thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm 2 , exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively

  11. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheethasanee, Katanchalee; Wang, Shuwu; Qiu, Yongxing; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO:hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces.

  12. Modeling of steel spheres impacting polyethylene; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serduke, F; Gerassimenko, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of shrapnel on target chamber components and experiments at large lasers such as the National Ignition Facility at LLNL and the Megajoule Laser at CESTA in France is an important issue in fielding targets and exposure samples. Modeling calculations are likely to be an important component of this effort. Some work in this area has been performed by French workers, who are collaborating with the LLNL on many issues relating to target chamber, experiment-component, and diagnostics survival. Experiments have been performed at the Phebus laser in France to measure shrapnel produced by laser-driven targets; among these shots were experiments that accelerated spheres of a size characteristic of some of the more damaging shrapnel. These spheres were stopped in polyethylene witness plates. The penetration depth is characteristic of the velocity of the shrapnel. Experimental calibration of steel sphere penetration into polyethylene was performed at the CESTA facility. The penetration depth has been reported (ref. 1) and comparisons with modeling calculations have been made (ref. 2). There was interest in a comparison study of the modeling of these experiments to provide independent checks of the calculations. This work has been approved both by DOE headquarters and by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); it is task number 99-3.2 of the 1999 ICF agreement between the DOE and the CEA. Daniel Gogny of the CEA who is on a long-term assignment to LLNL catalyzed this collaboration. This report contains the initial results of our modeling effort

  13. Static viscoelasticity of biomass polyethylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyan Yang

    Full Text Available The biomass polyethylene composites filled with poplar wood flour, rice husk, cotton stalk or corn stalk were prepared by extrusion molding. The static viscoelasticity of composites was investigated by the dynamic thermal mechanical analyzer (DMA. Through the stress-strain scanning, it is found that the linear viscoelasticity interval of composites gradually decreases as the temperature rises, and the critical stress and strain values are 0.8 MPa and 0.03% respectively. The experiment shows that as the temperature rises, the creep compliance of biomass polyethylene composites is increased; under the constant temperature, the creep compliance decreases with the increase of content of biomass and calcium carbonate. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler can improve damping vibration attenuation and reduce stress deformation of composites. The stress relaxation modulus of composites is reduced and the relaxation rate increases at the higher temperature. The biomass and calcium carbonate used to prepare composites as filler not only can reduce costs, but also can increase stress relaxation modulus and improve the size thermostability of composites. The corn stalk is a good kind of biomass raw material for composites since it can improve the creep resistance property and the stress relaxation resistance property of composites more effectively than other three kinds of biomass (poplar wood flour, rice husk and cotton stalk. Keywords: Biomass, Composites, Calcium carbonate, Static viscoelasticity, Creep, Stress relaxation

  14. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Rodrigues da Luz

    Full Text Available We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus to degrade oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. GP plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days to induce the initial photodegradation of the polymers. After this period, no cracks, pits, or new functional groups in the structure of GP were observed. Fragments of these bags were used as the substrate for the growth of P. ostreatus. After 30 d of incubation, physical and chemical alterations in the structure of GP were observed. We conclude that the exposure of GP to sunlight and its subsequent incubation in the presence of P. ostreatus can decrease the half-life of GP and facilitate the mineralization of these polymers.

  15. Degradation of Green Polyethylene by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, José Maria Rodrigues; Paes, Sirlaine Albino; Ribeiro, Karla Veloso Gonçalves; Mendes, Igor Rodrigues; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi

    2015-01-01

    We studied the biodegradation of green polyethylene (GP) by Pleurotus ostreatus. The GP was developed from renewable raw materials to help to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. However, little information regarding the biodegradation of GP discarded in the environment is available. P. ostreatus is a lignocellulolytic fungus that has been used in bioremediation processes for agroindustrial residues, pollutants, and recalcitrant compounds. Recently, we showed the potential of this fungus to degrade oxo-biodegradable polyethylene. GP plastic bags were exposed to sunlight for up to 120 days to induce the initial photodegradation of the polymers. After this period, no cracks, pits, or new functional groups in the structure of GP were observed. Fragments of these bags were used as the substrate for the growth of P. ostreatus. After 30 d of incubation, physical and chemical alterations in the structure of GP were observed. We conclude that the exposure of GP to sunlight and its subsequent incubation in the presence of P. ostreatus can decrease the half-life of GP and facilitate the mineralization of these polymers.

  16. 78 FR 76567 - Tall Oil, Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Polymer With Polyethylene Glycol and Succinic Anhydride Monopolyisobutylene Derivs.; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of tall oil, polymer with polyethylene..., polymer with polyethylene glycol and succinic anhydride monopolyisobutylene derivs. on food or feed...

  17. Young Modulus of Crystalline Polyethylene from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Meier, Robert J.; Heinemann, M.; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    The Young modulus for crystalline polyethylene is calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics based on density functional theory in the local density approximation (DFT-LDA). This modulus, which can be seen as the ultimate value for the Young modulus of polyethylene fibers, is found to be 334 GPa.

  18. Irradiation of polyethylene in the presence of antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, E.; Kałuska, I.; Strzelczak-Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.

    The radiation induced reactions in LDPE in the presence of phenolic type antioxidants have been studied. It was shown that various antioxidants can influence the polyethylene network formation and the radical yield in different ways. The dependence of network structure on absorbed doses was determined by gel analysis, hot-set test and extraction of antioxidants for samples irradiated with accelerated electrons. It was found that the antioxidants eluated from polyethylene in higher percentage influence polymer crosslinking to a smaller degree. The ESR studies of γ-irradiated blends of polyethylene with antioxidant indicate the presence of alkyl and phenoxyl radicals. The role of antioxidant molecules on radiation induced reactions in polyethylene-antioxidant systems is considered. The correlation between the network structure and the type of additive in polyethylene is also discussed.

  19. Polyethylene glycol: a game-changer laxative for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Arik; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2013-08-01

    Constipation is a common problem in children worldwide. It can also be a chronic problem persisting for many months to years. Successful treatment of constipation requires long-term use of laxatives. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol. Compared with other laxatives, polyethylene glycol (with and without electrolytes) is a relatively new laxative used during the last decade. Recent studies report excellent efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of excellent patient acceptance, polyethylene glycol has become a preferred choice of laxative for many practitioners. This article reviews the recently published pediatric literature on biochemistry, efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and pharmacoeconomics of polyethylene glycol.

  20. Polyethylene/hydrophilic polymer blends for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynda, E; Houska, M; Novikova, S P; Dobrova, N B

    1987-01-01

    Polyethylene blends with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [poly(HEMA)] or poly(2,3-dihydroxypropyl methacrylate) [poly(DHPMA)] were prepared by swelling polyethylene with HEMA or 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (EPMA) and by polymerization of the respective monomers. Poly(EPMA) in blends was hydrolysed to poly(DHPMA) with acetic acid. The blends had similar surface and bulk compositions. Swelling with water and surface wettability were proportional to the content of the hydrophilic component; at the same content the polyethylene/poly(DHPMA) blends appeared more hydrophilic than those of polyethylene/poly(HEMA). Thrombus formation in contact with blood examined ex vivo and in vivo was considerably slower on the blends than on unmodified polyethylene. The tests indicated optima in composition; the best biological response was achieved with the blends containing about 14% poly(HEMA) or 16% poly(DHPMA).

  1. Release mechanisms of acetaminophen from polyethylene oxide/polyethylene glycol matrix tablets utilizing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajiri, Tomokazu; Morita, Shigeaki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Suzuki, Masazumi; Yamanashi, Shigeyuki; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Kitamura, Satoshi

    2010-08-16

    Release mechanism of acetaminophen (AAP) from extended-release tablets of hydrogel polymer matrices containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using flow-through cell with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hydrogel forming abilities are observed characteristically and the layer thickness which is corresponding to the diffusion length of AAP has a good correlation with the drug release profiles. In addition, polymeric erosion contribution to AAP releasing from hydrogel matrix tablets was directly quantified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The matrix erosion profile indicates that the PEG erosion kinetic depends primarily on the composition ratio of PEG to PEO. The present study has confirmed that the combination of in situ MRI and SEC should be well suited to investigate the drug release mechanisms of hydrogel matrix such as PEO/PEG. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Commercialization of the polyethylene macroencapsulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Hellstrom, G.W.; Vance, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    With support from the US Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology (DOE OST) and assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) is commercializing the polyethylene macroencapsulation process. Envirocare, currently the only commercially licensed mixed waste disposal facility in the US, will initially demonstrate the process by treating and disposing up to 227,000 kg (500,000 lbs) of radioactively contaminated lead. This waste, considered mixed due to both radioactive and hazardous constituents, is currently being stored at various sites throughout the DOE complex. Following this initial work for DOE, the process will be available for the treatment of other applicable wastes. Throughout commercialization of this process, BNL has provided Envirocare with technical support for engineering and permitting

  3. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B; Kliem, H

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depen...

  4. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via eb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.C.L.; Lugao, A. B.; Andrade e Silva, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to these foams, imparts optimum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine; building and insulation; packaging; domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203 degree sign C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGys/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time

  5. Studies on the memory effect in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.A.; Burillo, G.; Charlesby, A.

    1994-01-01

    Polyethylene films of LDPE, a commercial product of PEMEX Mexico, with three different thicknesses were stretched from 1 cm to various lengths, and irradiated in air and in vacuum, at doses from 0 to 730 kGy. The effect of stretching on the ''memory effect'', % of gel formed, crystallinity, radio-chemical yield of crosslinking G c and scission G d was determined. Maximum shrinking effect is obtained at temperatures above the crystalline melting point, and is almost the same at any irradiation dose, from 0 to 525 kGy; in the case of doses from 713 kGy up, the recovery decreases slightly due to higher density of crosslinking. The increase of draw ratio from 5 to 6.5 has no significant effect on recovery. Preirradiation of 40 kGy in air before stretching has no significant effect on recovery but minimizes possible creep during the stretching and irradiation process. (author)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of deuterated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianbin; Luo Xuan; Chang Guanjun; Du Kai; Zhang Lin; Xie Zhengwei; Li Xinjuan; Lu Zaijun

    2009-01-01

    Due to its remarkable isotope effects, excellent kinetic stability towards C-D bond break, high degree of deuteration, and being non-radioactive, deuterated polyethylene (d-PE) is widely used in many fields, such as in inertially confined fusion (ICF) as target material, in production of low loss plastic optical fibers, and in study of the compatibility of different polymers. For the necessary of ICF, the d-PE was synthesized by the anionic polymerization and palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation. Furthermore, by the method of FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC, the deuterated ratio and structure of d-PE have been characterized. The results show that the d-PE has the high deuterated ratio and molecular weight, narrow molecular-weight distribution, the polymer material fits the basic necessary of ICF. (authors)

  7. Role of polyethylene glycol in childhood constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma Padhye; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2014-09-01

    Constipation is a common and chronic problem in children worldwide. Long-term use of laxatives is necessary for successful treatment of chronic constipation. Commonly used laxatives in children include milk of magnesia, lactulose, mineral oil, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recent studies report the efficacy and safety of PEG for the long-term treatment of constipation in children. Because of its excellent patient acceptance, PEG is being used widely in children for constipation. In this commentary, we review the recently published pediatric literature on the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptance of PEG. We also assess the role of PEG in childhood constipation by comparing it with other laxatives in terms of efficacy, safety, patient acceptance, and cost. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Thermal conductivity of electrospun polyethylene nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Zhang, Qian; Mayo, Anthony; Ni, Zhonghua; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei; Mu, Richard; Bellan, Leon M; Li, Deyu

    2015-10-28

    We report on the structure-thermal transport property relation of individual polyethylene nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning with different deposition parameters. Measurement results show that the nanofiber thermal conductivity depends on the electric field used in the electrospinning process, with a general trend of higher thermal conductivity for fibers prepared with stronger electric field. Nanofibers produced at a 45 kV electrospinning voltage and a 150 mm needle-collector distance could have a thermal conductivity of up to 9.3 W m(-1) K(-1), over 20 times higher than the typical bulk value. Micro-Raman characterization suggests that the enhanced thermal conductivity is due to the highly oriented polymer chains and enhanced crystallinity in the electrospun nanofibers.

  9. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkali, Noor L.H.; Hoekman, Daniël R.; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E.J.; van Wijk, Michiel P.; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A.; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G.P.; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). Methods: In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of

  10. Homocomposites of chopped fluorinated polyethylene fiber with low-density polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.; Jacob, C.; Das, C.K.; Alam, S.; Singh, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional composites are generally prepared by adding reinforcing agent to a matrix and the matrix wherein the reinforcing agents are different in chemical composition with the later having superior mechanical properties. This work presents the preparation and properties of homocomposites consisting of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix and an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber reinforcing phase. Direct fluorination is an important surface modification process by which only a thin upper layer is modified, the bulk properties of the polymer remaining unchanged. In this work, surface fluorination of UHMWPE fiber was done and then fiber characterization was performed. It was observed that after fluorination the fiber surface became rough. Composites were then prepared using both fluorinated and non-fluorinated polyethylene fiber with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix to prepare single polymer composites. It was found that the thermal stability and mechanical properties were improved for fluorinated fiber composites. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the crystallinity of the composites increased and it is maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Tensile strength (TS) and modulus also increased while elongation at break (EB) decreased for fiber composites and was a maximum for fluorinated fiber composites. Scanning electron microscopic analysis indicates that that the distribution of fiber into the matrix is homogeneous. It also indicates the better adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing agent for modified fiber composites. We also did surface fluorination of the prepared composites and base polymer for knowing its application to different fields such as printability wettability, etc. To determine the various properties such as printability, wettability and adhesion properties, contact angle measurement was done. It was observed that the surface energies of surface modified composites and base polymer increases

  11. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath; Beaucage, Gregory B.; Rai, Durgesh K.; Lohse, David J.; Sun, Thomas; Tsou, Andy; Norman, Alexander Iain; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Degradation of polyethylene induced by plasma in oxidizing atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The garbage of polyethylene is not easily degradable in normal environmental conditions . The indiscriminate use of this polymer and the enormous quantity of garbage which is generated carries a damage to the environment due to its long life as waste. The objective of this work is to study the conditions in which can be carried out the degradation of polyethylene. A form of accelerating the degradation is exposing it to plasma with reactive atmospheres. In this work a study of surface modification of polyethylene by plasmas with discharges of direct current of oxygen and nitrogen is presented. (Author)

  14. Justification of indirect methods of bending stresses polyethylene pipes evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikov, A. A.; Serebrennikov, D. A.; Hakimov, Z. R.

    2017-10-01

    The world and Russian companies have a long experience of the polyethylene pipeline installation and operation. At the same time, the significant attention is paid to the improvement of the relevant machines and the production technology. The polyethylene pipeline installation experience proves that its operation properties (reliability and durability) depend on physical and mechanical characteristics of polyethylene, which should be saved during its installation. Defects can occur, including in cases when the pipe is subjected to the significant bending stresses during installation. To evaluate these stresses, including when exposed to cold weather conditions, an indirect method based on the relationship between strength characteristics and occurred deformations is proposed.

  15. Crosslinking of commercial polyethylenes by 10 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; Sze, Yu-keung

    1995-08-01

    Commercial polyethylenes were irradiated with 10 MeV electrons to induce crosslinking. The gel fraction data measured as a function of total dose suggests that crosslinking proceeds on irradiation, as expected. A number of the properties of the irradiated polyethylenes, such as the degree of oxidation, crystallinity and thermal degradation, were studied by Fourier transform infrared/photo acoustic spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and a pyrolysis technique coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results of this study suggest that commercial polyethylenes can be crosslinked to a gel fraction of ∼70%, required for wire and cable applications, by 10 MeV electrons. (author). 35 refs., 6 figs

  16. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement

    OpenAIRE

    Jammalamadaka U; Tappa K; Weisman JA; Nicholson JC; Mills DK

    2017-01-01

    Uday Jammalamadaka,1 Karthik Tappa,1 Jeffery A Weisman,1 James Connor Nicholson,2 David K Mills1,3 1Center for Biomedical Engineering and Rehabilitation Science, 2Nanosystems Engineering, 3The School of Biological Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA Abstract: Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase ...

  17. Process Development for Reactive-Ion Etching of Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) Utilizing a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) Etch Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Nichols, Matthew L Chin, Sina Najmaei, Eugene Zakar, and Madan Dubey Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Approved for public...EBL; Vistec EBPG5000+) with an exposure dose of 850 μC/cm2 and development in 25 mL of isopropyl alcohol (IPA): 10 mL methyl isobutyl ketone for...deposition EBL electron beam lithography IPA isopropyl alcohol MoS2 molybdenum disulfide O2 oxygen PMMA poly(methyl methacrylate) RIE reactive

  18. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer as a self-embrittling strippable coating for radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Renlong; Zhang Huiyan; Li Yintao; Zhou Yuanlin; Zhang Quanping; Zheng Jian; Wang Shanqiang

    2016-01-01

    The poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) diblock copolymer with different monomer compositions was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Meanwhile, a novel self-embrittling strippable coating was prepared using the diblock copolymers, which is proposed to be used as radioactive decontamination agents without manual operation. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiencies of self-embrittling strippable coatings for radioactive contamination on glass, marble, and stainless steel surfaces were studied. (author)

  19. Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... Key words: Low density polyethylene, fungi, biodegradable polymer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... particle such as CO2 or water by microorganism's activities. ... package and production of bags, composites and agricultural.

  20. Diffusivities and Viscosities of Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomers †

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Escobedo, Fernando; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusivities and viscosities of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer melts with 1 to 12 repeat units have been obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TraPPE-UA force field. The simulations generated diffusion coefficients

  1. The effectiveness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mahlos

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Key words: Acetone, tannin, polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). ... hydrolysable tannins may occur in the same plant. ..... Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 38: 421-464. Cornell. (2000). Tannins: Chemical analysis.

  2. Fluence behavior of polyethylene films irradiated with high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy Segura; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e

    1999-01-01

    Polymers are viscoelastic materials at all temperatures, so that mechanical loads induce time dependable deformations. The recovery of these deformations, on load release, take some time and it is not always recovered completely. The main objective of this work was to analyse the creep behavior of electron irradiated polyethylene films. From the experimental results, it was sated that polyethylene creeps less with an increase on irradiation dose and also that creep recovery in this material increases with doses but it is not complete. This behavior can be attributed to the crosslinking effect witch stabilize elements of the molecular structure of the polyethylene, thus reducing their mobility and so inhibiting the creep mechanism. The partial creep recovery could be also attributed to the reticulation effect and to the polyethylene plastic behavior. Additional information on the creep behavior was obtained by fitting the experimental data with exponential functions and evaluating the mathematical parameters with a modified Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. (author)

  3. Optimization of process and solution parameters in electrospinning polyethylene oxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the optimization of electrospinning process and solution parameters using factorial design approach to obtain uniform polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers. The parameters studied were distance between nozzle and collector screen...

  4. On the mechanism of charge transport in low density polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Avnish K.; Reddy, C. C.

    2017-08-01

    Polyethylene based polymeric insulators, are being increasingly used in the power industry for their inherent advantages over conventional insulation materials. Specifically, modern power cables are almost made with these materials, replacing the mass-impregnated oil-paper cable technology. However, for ultra-high dc voltage applications, the use of these polymeric cables is hindered by ununderstood charge transport and accumulation. The conventional conduction mechanisms (Pool-Frenkel, Schottky, etc.) fail to track high-field charge transport in low density polyethylene, which is semi-crystalline in nature. Until now, attention was devoted mainly to the amorphous region of the material. In this paper, authors propose a novel mechanism for conduction in low density polyethylene, which could successfully track experimental results. As an implication, a novel, substantial relationship is established for electrical conductivity that could be effectively used for understanding conduction and breakdown in polyethylene, which is vital for successful development of ultra-high voltage dc cables.

  5. Studies on the biodegradation of natural and synthetic polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    a Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 003, Orissa, India b *School of Bio Sciences ... The initial and final dry weights of plastic bags before and .... The washed polyethylene particles were air-dried and weighed.

  6. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loening-Baucke, Vera

    2002-04-01

    Children with functional constipation and encopresis benefit from behavior modification and from long-term laxative medication. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes has become the first option for many pediatric gastroenterologists. Twenty-eight children treated with polyethylene glycol without electrolytes were compared with 21 children treated with milk of magnesia to evaluate the efficiency, acceptability, side effects, and treatment dosage of polyethylene glycol in long-term treatment of functional constipation and encopresis. Children were rated as "doing well," "improved," or "not doing well," depending on resolution of constipation and encopresis. At the 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups, bowel movement frequency increased and soiling frequency decreased significantly in both groups. At the 1-month follow-up, children on polyethylene glycol were soiling more frequently (P encopresis.

  7. Tensile mechanical response of polyethylene – clay nanocomposites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report on the microstructural and the mechanical characteristics of high density polyethylene (HDPE-clay nanocomposites, with particular attention to the creep behaviour. The samples were prepared through melt compounding, using two high-density polyethylenes with different melt flow rate (MFR, two different organo-modified clays, and changing the relative amount of a polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PEgMA compatibilizer. The intercalation process is more effective as the matrix melt viscosity decreases (higher MFR, while the clay interlamellar spacing increases as the compatibilizer amount increases. The relative stiffness of the nanocomposites increases with the addition of clay, with a limited enhancement of the relative yield stress. The better intercalation obtained by the addition of the compatibilizer is not accompanied by a concurrent improvement of the tensile mechanical properties. The creep resistance is enhanced by the introduction of clay, with an appreciable dependence on both the polyethylene and the clay type.

  8. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Annuli and Cylinders with Polyethylene Reflectors and/or Internal Polyethylene Moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler Sumner; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Montierth

    2007-01-01

    A variety of critical experiments were constructed of enriched uranium metal during the 1960s and 1970s at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility in support of criticality safety operations at the Y-12 Plant. The purposes of these experiments included the evaluation of storage, casting, and handling limits for the Y-12 Plant and providing data for verification of calculation methods and cross-sections for nuclear criticality safety applications. These included solid cylinders of various diameters, annuli of various inner and outer diameters, two and three interacting cylinders of various diameters, and graphite and polyethylene reflected cylinders and annuli. Of the hundreds of delayed critical experiments, experiments of uranium metal annuli with and without polyethylene reflectors and with the central void region either empty or filled with polyethylene were evaluated under ICSBEP Identifier HEU-MET-FAST-076. The outer diameter of the uranium annuli varied from 9 to 15 inches in two-inch increments. In addition, there were uranium metal cylinders with diameters varying from 7 to 15 inches with complete reflection and reflection on one flat surface to simulate floor reflection. Most of the experiments were performed between February 1964 and April 1964. Five partially reflected (reflected on the top only) experiments were assembled in November 1967, but are judged by the evaluators not to be of benchmark quality. Twenty-four of the twenty-five experiments have been determined to have fast spectra. The only exception has a mixed spectrum. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with five different parameters associated with the uranium parts and three associated with the polyethylene parts was evaluated. Included were uranium mass, height, diameter, isotopic content, and impurity content and polyethylene mass, diameter, and impurity content. There were additional uncertainties associated with assembly alignment, support structure, and the value

  9. Radiation Chemistry of Polyethylenes for Total Joint Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muratoglu, O.K.

    2006-01-01

    Wear and fatigue damage of polyethylene could limit the longevity of total hip and knee reconstructions used to treat end-stage joint diseases. Wear debris causes peri-prosthetic osteolysis, resulting in bone loss and component loosening ultimately necessitating revision surgery. Wear rate of polyethylene can be reduced by radiation crosslinking. Irradiation not only crosslinks the amorphous phase of polyethylene but also creates residual free radicals (RFR), the precursor to long-term oxidation. We used post-irradiation melting to eliminate the RFRs and improve oxidative stability. We determined the molecular weight between crosslinks (M c ) as a function of radiation-dose level and showed the wear rate to scale linearly with M c . Irradiated and melted polyethylene, in clinical use since 1998, show a significant reduction in wear in vivo through radiographic follow-up studies and analysis of surgically explanted acetabular liners. Irradiation and melting reduces the crystallinity and mechanical properties of polyethylene therefore it cannot be used for high demand joint applications, such as posterior stabilized knees. We replaced the post-irradiation melting step with ?-tocopherol (vitamin-E) doping to stabilize the RFRs and prevent long-term stability and at the same time prevent the loss of mechanical properties. 100kGy irradiated polyethylene was soaked in 120 degree vitamin-E followed by a homogenization step at 120degree. The ?-tocopherol doped samples showed no detectable oxidation after accelerating aging at 80degree in air for 5 weeks. The wear rate was comparable to that of 100-kGy irradiated and melted polyethylene with both clean and third body added bovine serum lubrication. The fatigue strength of ?-tocopherol doped polyethylene (ΔKi=0.9MPa.m 1 /2) were higher than that of 100-kGy irradiated and melted polyethylene (ΔKi=0.5 MPa.m 1 /2). Similarly, the ultimate tensile and yield strength of α-tocopherol doped polyethylenes were significantly

  10. Studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated with gamma photons from cobalt 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Hajer

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is radiation able to deposit enough energy in the material through which they pass to create ionization. These ionizing radiations, when mastered, have many practical uses beneficial (areas of health, industry ...). Gamma rays are emitted by radioactive nuclei. The objective of our work is the study of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated by gamma photons from cobalt-60. To study the technique of radio spectroscopy (9 to 10Hz) electron paramagnetic resonance EPR is used. This technique is specific to characterize transient free radicals involved in chemical reactions such as oxidation, combustion, polymerization reactions ... We analyzed the EPR spectra three batch KS, EB, and JF our dosimeter according to the dose (high and low) and showed that the dosimetric response can be represented in exponential form (high dose) and linear form (low dose). We also studied the kinetics of decay of the EPR signal as a function of time (fading) and showed that the responses relating to stabilize after 20 min of irradiation.

  11. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (Brazil); Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Clinical Analyses (Brazil); Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin [Federal University of Paraná, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Brazil); Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia dos [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Clinical Analyses (Brazil); Sayer, Claudia; Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes de, E-mail: pedro.h.araujo@ufsc.br [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  12. A Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Acrylic Dental Resin Surface Bound with a Photoreactive Polymer Inhibits Accumulation of Bacterial Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Miya; Inoue, Yuuki; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    The aim of this study was to examine the ability of a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloyloxyethyloxy-p-azidobenzoate) (PMBPAz) coating on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin to inhibit bacterial plaque formation, as well as the polymer's durability against water soaking and chemical exposure. Successful application of PMBPAz on PMMA surfaces was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and measuring the static air contact angle in water. The anti-adhesive effects to bacterial plaque were evaluated using Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation assay. The mechanical and chemical durabilities of the PMBPAz coating on the PMMA surfaces were examined using soaking and immersion tests, respectively. XPS signals for phosphorus and nitrogen atoms and hydrophilic status on PMMA surfaces treated with PMBPAz were observed, indicating the presence of the polymer on the substrates. The treated PMMA surfaces showed significant inhibition of S mutans biofilm formation compared to untreated surfaces. The PMBPAz coating was preserved after water soaking and chemical exposure. In addition, water soaking did not decrease the ability of treated PMMA to inhibit biofilm formation compared to treated PMMA specimens not subjected to water soaking. This study suggests that PMBPAz coating may represent a useful modification to PMMA surfaces for inhibiting denture plaque accumulation.

  13. Surface modification of magnesium aluminum hydroxide nanoparticles with poly(methyl methacrylate) via one-pot in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaojun, E-mail: guoxj6906@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Zhao Leihua; Zhang Li; Li Jing [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, 967 Anning East Road, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Hydrophobic magnesium aluminum hydroxide composite particles (PMMA-MAH) were obtained by means of grafting poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) onto the surface of magnesium aluminum hydroxide(MAH) nanoparticles after a novel type of phosphate coupling agent (DN-27) modification. The introduction of functional double bonds was firstly conducted on the surface of nanoparticles by DN-27 modification, followed by one-pot in situ polymerization on the particles surface using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as monomer, azoisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as stabilizer to graft PMMA on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH particles. The obtained composite particles were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The results show that the organic macromolecule PMMA could be successfully grafted on the surface of DN-27-modified MAH nanoparticles and the thermal stability of the PMMA-MAH composite particles had been improved. Compared with unmodified blank MAH sample, the product obtained with this method possesses better hydrophobic properties such as a higher water contact angle of 108 Degree-Sign and a well dispersion.

  14. Potassium diperiodatocuprate-mediated preparation of poly(methyl methacrylate/organo-montmorillonite composites via in situ grafting copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, potassium diperiodatocuprate (Cu3+ was selected as an initiator to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate/organo-montmorillonite composites (OMMT-g-PMMA by in situ graft copolymerization. Three synthetic parameters were systematically evaluated as a function of the temperature, the concentration of initiator, pH and the ratio of MMA to OMMT. It was found that Cu3+ was a highly efficient initiator for the preparation of OMMT-g-PMMA i.e., monomer conversion and grafting efficiency were as higher as 95%. The X-ray diffraction measurement showed the intercalation of PMMA chains into OMMT layers on base of an increasing basal spacing after polymerization. FTIR analysis also suggested that the PMMA chains were effectively grafted onto OMMT substrate. The enhanced thermal stabilities of OMMT-g-PMMA composites were confirmed by the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Finally, a single-electron-transfer mechanism was proposed to illustrate the formation of radicals and the preparation process of OMMT-g-PMMA composites. Cu3+ can be used as an effective and practical initiator in preparing the organic/inorganic composite due to its high grafting efficiency and the milder reaction condition.

  15. Self-supported poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate)-based gel electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.H.; Zhou, D.Y.; Rao, M.M.; Cai, Z.P.; Liang, Y. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, W.S.; Tan, C.L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Lab of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-04-01

    Self-supported gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared based on copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-vinyl acetate) (P(MMA-AN-VAc)). The copolymer P(MMA-AN-VAc) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization and the copolymer membrane was prepared through phase inversion. The structure and the performance of the copolymer, the membrane and the GPE were characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEM, XRD, DSC/TG, LSV, CA, and EIS. It is found that the copolymer was formed through the breaking of double bond C=C in each monomer. The membrane has low crystallinity and has low glass transition temperature, 39.1 C, its thermal stability is as high as 310 C, and its mechanical strength is improved compared with P(MMA-AN). The GPE is electrochemically stable up to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}) and its conductivity is 3.48 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at ambient temperature. The lithium ion transference number in the GPE is 0.51 and the conductivity model of the GPE is found to obey the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) equation. (author)

  16. Composite poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) latex for immunoassay. The case of plasminogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksa, B; Wilczynska, M; Cierniewski, C; Basinska, T; Slomkowski, S

    1995-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate-methacrylic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) latex (ACRYLAT) was synthesized by radical precipitation polymerization. The mass median diameter (MMD) and the geometrical standard deviation (GSD) of the ACRYLAT particles were 138 nm and 1.2, respectively. The concentration of the titrable carboxylic groups in the surface layer of latex particles was equal to 8.41 x 10(-6) mol m-2. Latex was able to bind up to 2.82 x 10(-7) mol of 1-aminopyrene per 1 m2 of the surface of the latex particles due to the ionic interactions between carboxylate anions and ammonium cations of protonated 1-aminopyrene. ACRYLAT was able to immobilize covalently human serum albumin in amounts up to 0.23 mg m-2. Aggregation of ACRYLAT with immobilized HSA, induced with specific antibodies (anti-HSA), was investigated turbidimetrically. The results indicated that in the model turbidimetric immunoassay, ACRYLAT coated with HSA can be used for the detection of anti-HSA in the goat anti-HSA serum diluted from 50 to 7000-fold. Immobilization of rabbit antibodies to plasminogen (anti-Plg) to ACRYLAT via the epsilon-aminocaproic acid linkers provided particles which were used for the development of the turbidimetric immunoassay for plasminogen. In this assay plasminogen could be detected in concentration ranging from 0.75 to 75 micrograms ml-1 in the blood plasma.

  17. Influence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber on recyclability of blends prepared from poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sunil S; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    The current investigation deals with the recycling possibilities of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Recycled blends of poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(methyl methacrylate) are successfully formed from the plastic constituents, those are recovered from waste computer products. However, lower impact performance of the blend and lower stability of the poly(vinyl chloride) phase in the recycled blend restricts its further usage in industrial purposes. Therefore, effective utilisation acrylonitrile butadiene rubber in a recycled blend was considered for improving mechanical and thermal performance. Incorporation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber resulted in the improvement in impact performance as well as elongation-at-break of the recycled blend. The optimum impact performance was found in the blend with 9 wt% acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, which shows 363% of enhancement as compared with its parent blend. Moreover, incorporated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber also stabilises the poly(vinyl chloride) phase present in the recycled blend, similarly Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the interactions of various functionalities present in the recycled blend and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. In addition to this, thermogravimetric analysis indicates the improvement in the thermal stability of the recycled blend after the addition of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber into it. The existence of partial miscibility in the recycled blend was identified using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate)-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure for memory device application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Sachin M.; Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-07

    Combination of two dimensional graphene and semi-conducting molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) is of great interest for various electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a hybridized structure with the chemical vapor deposited graphene and MoS{sub 2} crystals to configure a memory device. Elongated hexagonal and rhombus shaped MoS{sub 2} crystals are synthesized by sulfurization of thermally evaporated molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) thin film. Scanning transmission electron microscope studies reveal atomic level structure of the synthesized high quality MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the prospect of a memory device fabrication, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as an insulating dielectric material as well as a supporting layer to transfer the MoS{sub 2} crystals. In the fabricated device, PMMA-MoS{sub 2} and graphene layers act as the functional and electrode materials, respectively. Distinctive bistable electrical switching and nonvolatile rewritable memory effect is observed in the fabricated PMMA-MoS{sub 2}/graphene heterostructure. The developed material system and demonstrated memory device fabrication can be significant for next generation data storage applications.

  19. Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites based on TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals: Tailoring material properties towards sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convertino, A., E-mail: annalisa.convertino@ismn.cnr.i [ISMN-CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00016 Roma (Italy); Tamborra, M., E-mail: m.tamborra@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Striccoli, M., E-mail: m.striccoli@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Leo, G., E-mail: gabriella.leo@ismn.cnr.i [ISMN-CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00016 Roma (Italy); Agostiano, A., E-mail: a.agostiano@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica., Universita di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L., E-mail: lucia.curri@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-03-31

    Nanocomposite materials have been obtained by dispersing organic capped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals (NCs) with different shape and surface chemistry in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a host medium. Films of the prepared nanocomposites based on TiO{sub 2} NCs have been fabricated by spin coating and morphologically characterized as a function of the preparative conditions. The organic vapor absorption ability of the PMMA/TiO{sub 2} NC based nanocomposites has been then investigated both for spherical and rod-like NCs, and the chemical nature of the coordinating organic molecules has been also varied. The results of the investigation have demonstrated that NC geometry and surface chemistry can modulate the specific absorption characteristics of the modified PMMA in order to absorb different solvent molecules (i.e. acetone, ethanol, propan-2-ol and water). Such features, due to specific interactions between the potential analyte vapors and the functionalized surface of NCs, can effectively be addressed in a controlled and reproducible way, thus offering original opportunities for designing innovative chemical sensors.

  20. Properties of polymethyl methacrylate-based nanocomposites: Reinforced with ultra-long chitin nanofiber extracted from crab shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuchu; Li, Dagang; Hu, Qinqin; Wang, Ru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using waste crab shells to develop high-performance composites by simple method. • Combining the anatomic analysis of crab shell with the design of composite. • Introducing a 4-step all-mechanical treatment to prepare ultra-long chitin fiber. • Incorporation of chitin nanofiber improves properties of PMMA/Chitin composite. - Abstract: Ultra-long chitin nanofibers were incorporated into polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin to prepared PMMA/Chitin nanocomposites with improved properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that through the introduced 4-step all-mechanical treatment, the average aspect ratio of the obtained chitin fiber was up to 1000 with the length at dozens of micron range. Due to the laminated structure formed by “layer-by-layer” effect, tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the prepared composite were significantly enhanced after the filling of chitin nanofibers, as compared with neat PMMA. Light transmittance test indicated that increasing the fiber content causes little light scattering because the nano-scalar network which is smaller enough than the visible wavelength could well preserve the original transparency of PMMA. Furthermore, chitin nanofiber film with extremely low thermal expansion improved the thermal stability of PMMA in a great degree. This could lead to various commercial applications including flexible electronic printing, organic thin-film photovoltaic devices, and is a significantly environmental move towards the sustainable utilization of marine-river crab shell wastes

  1. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Dinari, Mohammad; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-01

    With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  2. Mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polymethyl methacrylite (PMMA) nanocomposite prepared via the coagulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Noor Mazni; Aziz, Azizan; Jaafar, Mariatti

    2012-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is well known as one of the best candidates for reinforcing the next generation of high performance nanocomposites due to its excellent mechanical properties. In this study, MWCNTs were dispersed in polymethyl methacrylite (PMMA) matrix to enhance its mechanical strength. MWCNT/PMMA were prepared by simple coagulation method and then hot-pressed to create nanocomposite film consists of rich nanotubes. Samples were prepared in respect to various high filler loading (1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% wt.). Standard ASTM D790 flexural test was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. The morphology and surface fracture were observed via scanning electron microscope. The properties of the composites where found to be better than the neat PMMA. Flexural strength & flexural modulus of MWCNT/PMMA nanocomposite showed an improvement up to 24.1% and 107.7% compared to the neat PMMA, respectively. These studies therefore demonstrate that MWCNT/PMMA prepared by coagulation method able to successfully improve mechanical properties of PMMA.

  3. Enhanced electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) filled with graphene and in situ synthesized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fragouli, Despina

    2018-06-01

    The improvement of the electrical conductivity of polymers by incorporating graphene has been intensively studied in recent years. To further boost the electrical conductivity, blending third-party additives into the polymer/graphene systems has been demonstrated as a viable strategy. Herein, we propose a simple route to increase the electrical conductivity of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/graphene nanoplatelet (GnP) composites, by the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles directly into the solid film. In particular, PMMA, GnPs and a gold precursor are solution blended to form the composite films. The subsequent heat-induced formation of gold nanoparticles directly in the solid state film, cause the significant decrease of the percolation threshold of GnPs loading, from 3% to 1% by weight in the composite. This is attributed to the preferential formation of the gold nanoparticles onto the GnPs, with synergistic effects beneficial for the improvement of the electrical conductivity. The formation procedure of the gold nanoparticles, and their arrangement into the composite matrix are studied. We demonstrate that following this straightforward process it is possible to form nanocomposites able to conduct efficiently electric current even at low graphene loadings preserving at the same time the mechanical properties of the polymer matrix.

  4. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Vashisth Rohatgi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride (PMVE-MA. Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity, thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications.

  5. Mechanical properties and antibiotic release characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement formulated with mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchmanan, Kumaran; Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Kingshuk, Poddar; Shi, Zhilong; Wang, Wilson; Tan, Reginald B H

    2017-08-01

    The influence of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with antibiotics on the mechanical properties of functional poly(methyl methacrylate)-(PMMA) based bone cements is investigated. The incorporation of MSNs to the bone cements (8.15wt%) shows no detrimental effects on the biomechanical properties of the freshly solidified bone cements. Importantly, there are no significant changes in the compression strength and bending modulus up to 6 months of aging in PBS buffer solution. The preserved mechanical properties of MSN-functionalized bone cements is attributed to the unchanged microstructures of the cements, as more than 96% of MSNs remains in the bone cement matrix to support the cement structures after 6 months of aging. In addition, the MSN-functionalized bone cements are able to increase the drug release of gentamicin (GTMC) significantly as compared with commercially available antibiotic-loaded bone cements. It can be attributed to the loaded nano-sized MSNs with uniform pore channels which build up an effective nano-network path enable the diffusion and extended release of GTMC. The combination of excellent mechanical properties and sustainable drug delivery efficiency demonstrates the potential applicability of MSN-functionalized PMMA bone cements for orthopedic surgery to prevent post-surgery infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for volatile organic compound discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangrat, Worawut; Chodjarusawad, Thanawee; Maolanon, Rungroj; Pratontep, Sirapat; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were fabricated for use in volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. Pristine SWNTs were separately coated with PMMA (PMMA/SWNTs) and thiophene (thiophene/SWNTs) by spin-coating. Pristine SWNTs showed the highest response to methanol, while PMMA/SWNTs enabled 5.4-fold improved dichloromethane detection and thiophene/SWNTs enabled 1.4-fold improved acetone detection compared with pristine SWNTs. The sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and that of thiophene/SWNTs to acetone can be attributed to the Hildebrand solubility parameter (HSP). The more similar the HSP, the higher the sensor response. The sensor response of pristine SWNTs to methanol is related to the diffusion coefficient and molecular size. The relationships between the vapor concentration and sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and thiophene/SWNTs to acetone are based on Henry’s adsorption isotherm, while that of pristine SWNTs to methanol is based on the Henry-clustering model. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol were successfully discriminated.

  7. Reaction mechanism for radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) as studied by ESR and ESE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    1991-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for the radiation-induced degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate) has been studied based on the ESR and electron spin echo observations of the free radicals in the polymer irradiated with γ-rays. It is indicated that the side-chain radical, -CH 2 -CCH 3 (COOC-radicalH 2 )-, is the precursor for the main-chain scission. This radical transforms into the propagating-type radical, a fingerprint of the main-chain scission, without loss of the total radical concentration. UV illumination converts the side-chain radical into the acyl-type radical, -CH 2 -CCH 3 (-C-radical=O)-, which thermally transforms into the propagating-type radical. The radical of the type, -CH 2 -C-radicalCH 3 -CH 2 -, is suggested as a common, immediate precursor for the main-chain scission with and without the UV illumination, though it has not been detected because of its short life-time. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  8. Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a self-assembled gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, A.; Movva, H. C. P.; Kang, S.; McClellan, C.; Corbet, C. M.; Banerjee, S. K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    We investigate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a low thermal budget organic gate dielectric for graphene field effect-transistors (GFETs) based on a simple process flow. We show that high temperature baking steps above the glass transition temperature (∼130 °C) can leave a self-assembled, thin PMMA film on graphene, where we get a gate dielectric almost for “free” without additional atomic layer deposition type steps. Electrical characterization of GFETs with PMMA as a gate dielectric yields a dielectric constant of k = 3.0. GFETs with thinner PMMA dielectrics have a lower dielectric constant due to decreased polarization arising from neutralization of dipoles and charged carriers as baking temperatures increase. The leakage through PMMA gate dielectric increases with decreasing dielectric thickness and increasing electric field. Unlike conventional high-k gate dielectrics, such low-k organic gate dielectrics are potentially attractive for devices such as the proposed Bilayer pseudoSpin Field-Effect Transistor or flexible high speed graphene electronics.

  9. Morphology and dielectric properties of poly hydroxybutyrate(PHB)/polymethyl methacrylat(PMMA) blends with some antimicrobial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou aiad, T.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxy)butyrate (PHB) is microbial polyester presenting the advantages of biodegradability and biocompatibility but suffers from several problems as it is brittle and has low abilities for some chemical modifications. To overcome such problems a reactive blending was done with a glassy acrylic polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with different compositions. The dielectric response of poly [(7)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB)/(PMMA) was investigated as a function of frequency (100 Hz to 100 KHz) and at different temperatures from 20 to 160 degree C above the glass transition temperature of PHB. The results revealed the existence of a single relaxation process indicating that there is miscibility between amorphous fractions of PHB and PMMA. Subsequently a continuous decrease in relaxation strength occurred, indicating considerable changes in molecular mobility. The results provide further evidence that molecular mobility in the amorphous regions decreases significantly and this would be the reason for the embrittlement detected on ageing at room temperature. Also the morphological study of such blends don't show macro phase separation of PMMA on the surface scan which may be attributed to the compatibility in melt between PHB and PMMA particle in the PHB matrix. The biological activity of such investigated systems was tested against a representative number of pathogenic organisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The activity was found to increase by increasing the amount of PMMA in the blend

  10. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Dutta, Naba K.; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PMVE-MA). Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity), thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications. PMID:28347019

  11. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives for Reinforcement of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Materials: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Abdulrazzaq Naji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA is the most common material used to fabricate complete and partial dentures. Despite its desirable properties, it cannot fulfill all mechanical requirements of prosthesis. Flexural fatigue due to repeated masticatory and high-impact forces caused by dropping are the main causes of denture fractures. In the past, different reinforcing agents such as rubbers, macro fibers, and fillers have been employed to improve the mechanical properties of denture base resins. Development of Nano dentistry has introduced new approaches for reinforcement of dental materials. Interest in nanostructure materials is driven by their high surface area to volume ratio, which enhances interfacial interaction and specific new biological, physical, and chemical properties. Researchers to reinforce PMMA resins have used Nanoparticles (Nps which were comprised of silver, Titania (TiO2, zirconia (ZrO2, alumina, and ceramic. Although different reports describe the use of nanofiber and nanotubes in dental composites, few studies have evaluated the reinforcement potential of nanofiber and nanotubes in PMMA denture base resins. The current article aims to review the different attempts to enhance the mechanical properties of denture base materials. We also focus on recent advances and potential future developments for reinforcement of the PMMA acrylic resins.

  12. Sonochemical synthesis of copper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2011-01-01

    Copper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Cu S crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing CuS nanoparticles (PMMA/Cu) at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30; 0.45 and 0.60 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) was measured for PMMA systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PMMA matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 50% in PMMA matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PMMA systems. Changes in the infrared spectra of PMMA systems indicate that polymer molecules interact with CuS nanoparticles. Improvement of mechanical properties was found for PMMA/Cu films. An increase of 38% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 22% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PMMA/Cu films exposed to gamma irradiation. (author)

  13. Sonochemical synthesis of copper II sulfide nanoparticles and their use as radiolytic stabilizer in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Marilia Cordeiro C. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva; Araujo, Elmo S., E-mail: aquino@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Copper (II) sulfide (CuS) was synthesized by sonochemical method. Cu S crystals with hexagonal structure exhibit irregular particles with an average size in the range of 250-900 nm. Commercial Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing CuS nanoparticles (PMMA/Cu) at concentrations of 0.15; 0.30; 0.45 and 0.60 wt% were investigated. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere. The viscosity-average molar mass (Mv) was measured for PMMA systems without nanoparticles and with nanoparticles. Decrease in molar mass observed when the systems were gamma irradiated reflect the random scission effects that take place in the main chain. Degradation index (DI) value was also obtained by viscosity analysis. DI results showed that the addition of CuS nanoparticles at 0.3 wt% into PMMA matrix decreased the number of main chain scissions at dose of 25 kGy and was calculated a protection of 50% in PMMA matrix. CuS nanoparticles act as free radical scavenger into gamma-irradiated PMMA systems. Changes in the infrared spectra of PMMA systems indicate that polymer molecules interact with CuS nanoparticles. Improvement of mechanical properties was found for PMMA/Cu films. An increase of 38% of Young's modulus value and a decrease of 22% on the elongation at break value were recorded for PMMA/Cu films exposed to gamma irradiation. (author)

  14. Construction of wettability gradient surface on copper substrate by controlled hydrolysis of poly(methyl methacrylate–butyl acrylate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong, E-mail: Yong.Z@mail.scut.edu.cn [Guangzhou Panyu Polytechnic, Guangzhou 511483 (China); Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuo-ru [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-10-01

    We report a gradient wettability surface on copper slide prepared by a simple controlled ester group hydrolysis procedure of poly(methyl methacrylate–butyl acrylate) [P (MMA-BA)] films coated on the copper substrate. In the method, sodium hydroxide solutions are selected to prepare surface gradient wettability on P (MMA-BA) films. The P (MMA-BA) copolymers with different MMA contents are first synthesized by a conventional free atom radical solution polymerization method. The transfer of surface chemical composition from the ester group to acid salt is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The effects of different concentrations of NaOH solution and reaction times on the physicochemical properties of the resulting surfaces are studied. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the varying concentration along the substrate length is only attributed to the hydrolysis reaction of ester groups. The hydrolysis causes insignificant change on the morphology of the original film on the copper substrate. In addition, it is found that the MMA copolymer content has a significant influence on the concentration of ester groups on the outermost surface and thus important for forming the slope gradients.

  15. Adsorption Analysis of Lactoferrin to Titanium, Stainless Steel, Zirconia, and Polymethyl Methacrylate Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Yoshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that biofilm formation in the oral cavity causes some oral diseases. Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein in saliva and an important defense factor against biofilm development. We analyzed the adsorbed amount of lactoferrin and the dissociation constant (Kd of lactoferrin to the surface of different dental materials using an equilibrium analysis technique in a 27 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM measurement. Four different materials, titanium (Ti, stainless steel (SUS, zirconia (ZrO2 and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, were evaluated. These materials were coated onto QCM sensors and the surfaces characterized by atomic force microscopic observation, measurements of surface roughness, contact angles of water, and zeta potential. QCM measurements revealed that Ti and SUS showed a greater amount of lactoferrin adsorption than ZrO2 and PMMA. Surface roughness and zeta potential influenced the lactoferrin adsorption. On the contrary, the Kd value analysis indicated that the adsorbed lactoferrin bound less tightly to the Ti and SUS surfaces than to the ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. The hydrophobic interaction between lactoferrin and ZrO2 and PMMA is presumed to participate in better binding of lactoferrin to ZrO2 and PMMA surfaces. It was revealed that lactoferrin adsorption behavior was influenced by the characteristics of the material surface.

  16. Prolonged Hypocalcemic Effect by Pulmonary Delivery of Calcitonin Loaded Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether Maleic Acid Bioadhesive Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Varshosaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to design a pulmonary controlled release system of salmon calcitonin (sCT. Therefore, poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid [P(MVEMA] nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The stability of sCT in the optimized nanoparticles was studied by electrophoretic gel method. Plasma calcium levels until 48 h were determined in rats as pulmonary-free sCT solution or nanoparticles (25 μg·kg−1, iv solution of sCT (5 μg·kg−1, and pulmonary blank nanoparticles. The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. The duration of hypocalcemic effect of pulmonary sCT nanoparticles was 24 h, while it was just 1 h for the iv solution. There was not any significant difference between normalized blood calcium levels reduction in pulmonary drug solution and iv injection. Pharmacological activity of nanoparticles after pulmonary delivery was 65% of the iv route. Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly.

  17. Novel transparent ternary nanocomposite films of trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania with incorporating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuan; Zhang Dengsong; Shi Liyi; Li Li; Zhang Jianping

    2008-01-01

    Novel ternary nanocomposite trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania optical films were successfully prepared through a nonaqueous in situ sol-gel method. The acrylic monomers used were methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MSMA). PMMA/ZrO 2 -TiO 2 incorporating networks formed from alcoholysis of poly(MMA-co-MSMA), zirconium n-butoxide and titanium isoproproxide. The structure, morphology and property of the obtained nanocomposite films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, UV-vis spectrum and spectro-ellipsometer. The nanoparticle size, roughness, thermal stability, UV-shielding property, and refractive index of nanocomposite films increase with the increasing of inorganic contents. The formation mechanism and reason of such improvements were examined and interpreted in a theoretical model. The nanocomposite films possess interesting properties in thermal stability and optical response due to the uniform incorporating networks between organic polymer chains and inorganic clusters

  18. Novel transparent ternary nanocomposite films of trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania with incorporating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuan [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang Dengsong [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)], E-mail: dszhang@shu.edu.cn; Shi Liyi [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)], E-mail: sly0726@163.com; Li Li; Zhang Jianping [Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Novel ternary nanocomposite trialkoxysilane-capped poly(methyl methacrylate)/zirconia/titania optical films were successfully prepared through a nonaqueous in situ sol-gel method. The acrylic monomers used were methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MSMA). PMMA/ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} incorporating networks formed from alcoholysis of poly(MMA-co-MSMA), zirconium n-butoxide and titanium isoproproxide. The structure, morphology and property of the obtained nanocomposite films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, UV-vis spectrum and spectro-ellipsometer. The nanoparticle size, roughness, thermal stability, UV-shielding property, and refractive index of nanocomposite films increase with the increasing of inorganic contents. The formation mechanism and reason of such improvements were examined and interpreted in a theoretical model. The nanocomposite films possess interesting properties in thermal stability and optical response due to the uniform incorporating networks between organic polymer chains and inorganic clusters.

  19. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia dos; Sayer, Claudia; Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes de

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  20. Segmental dynamics in poly(methyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) sequential interpenetrating polymer networks: structural relaxation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribelles, J L Gomez; Duenas, J M Meseguer; Cabanilles, C Torregrosa; Pradas, M Monleon

    2003-01-01

    The miscibility of poly(methyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) has been studied by probing the conformational mobility of the component polymer chains. These IPNs exhibit the phenomenon of forced compatibilization. In a conventional heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, the highly cross-linked IPN shows a single glass transition which covers a temperature interval of around 100 d eg C; in contrast, loosely cross-linked IPNs show two glass transitions. The conformational mobility in these IPNs is studied by subjecting them to isothermal annealings at temperatures in the region of the glass transition and below it. The DSC scans measured after these treatments allow one to determine the temperature interval in which the sample is out of thermodynamic equilibrium but keeps enough conformational mobility to relax during the isothermal annealing in such a way that the enthalpy loss is measurable with the sensitivity of a conventional DSC. The results allow one to reach some conclusions about the compositional distribution of the IPN on the nanometre scale

  1. Radiolytic stabilization of industrial poly(methyl methacrylate); Estabilizacao radiolitica do poli(metacrilato de metila) industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2005-03-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterilisable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its physical properties. Therefore, radiolytic stabilization of PMMA is important for to become it commercially radio sterilisable. In this work we investigated the radiolytic stabilization of PMMA by using HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer) additive, commercially used for photo and thermo oxidative stabilization of polymers. The investigation of the radiation-induced main chain scissions was carried out by viscometric method. The additive added to the polymer system at 0.3 % w/w promotes a molecular radioprotection of 61%. That means a reduction of G value (scissions/100 eV) from 2.6 to 1.0. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA (no additive), significantly changed by radiation, does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. TGA analysis showed that the additive promotes thermal stability to the system, increasing decomposition temperature of PMMA. Spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and RMN ({sup 1}H), showed that the radioprotector additive added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. Analysis on mechanical (tensile strength and elongation at break) and optical (yellowness index and refractive index) properties showed a good influence of the additive on polymer system. (author)

  2. Superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid presenting cell uptake mediated by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; dos Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H. Hermes

    2016-04-01

    The encapsulation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with modified surfaces can improve targeted delivery and induce cell death by hyperthermia. The goals of this study were to synthesize and characterize surface modified superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) with folic acid (FA) prepared by miniemulsion polymerization (MNPsPMMA-FA) and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in non-tumor cells, murine fibroblast (L929) cells and tumor cells that overexpressed folate receptor (FR) β, and chronic myeloid leukemia cells in blast crisis (K562). Lastly, hemolysis assays were performed on human red blood cells. MNPsPMMA-FA presented an average mean diameter of 135 nm and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value of 37 emu/g of iron oxide, as well as superparamagnetic behavior. The MNPsPMMA-FA did not present cytotoxicity in L929 and K562 cells. Cellular uptake assays showed a higher uptake of MNPsPMMA-FA than MNPsPMMA in K562 cells when incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, MNPsPMMA-FA showed a low uptake when endocytosis mechanisms were blocked at low temperature (4 °C), suggesting that the MNPsPMMA-FA uptake was mediated by endocytosis. High concentrations of MNPsPMMA-FA showed hemocompatibility when incubated for 24 h in human red blood cells. Therefore, our results suggest that these carrier systems can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery via FR.

  3. Supercritical CO2 drying of poly(methyl methacrylate) photoresist for deep x-ray lithography: a brief note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Abhinandan, Lala; Sharma, Shivdutt

    2017-07-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is an extensively used positive photoresist for deep x-ray lithography. The post-development release of the microstructures of PMMA becomes very critical for high aspect ratio fragile and freestanding microstructures. Release of high aspect ratio comb-drive microstructure of PMMA made by one-step x-ray lithography (OXL) is studied. The effect of low-surface tension Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) over water is investigated for release of the high aspect ratio microstructures using conventional and supercritical (SC) CO2 drying. The results of conventional drying are also compared for the samples released or dried in both in-house developed and commercial SC CO2 dryer. It is found that in all cases the microstructures of PMMA are permanently deformed and damaged while using SC CO2 for drying. For free-standing high aspect ratio microstructures of PMMA made by OXL, it is advised to use low-surface tension IPA over DI water. However, this brings a limitation on the design of the microstructure.

  4. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for enhanced stability and cellular internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Almeida, Patrick V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Ferreira, Mónica P A; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-03-01

    Currently, developing a stable nanocarrier with high cellular internalization and low toxicity is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. Here, we have developed a successful method to covalently conjugate poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-functionalized thermally carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (APSTCPSi NPs), forming a surface negatively charged nanovehicle with unique properties. This polymer conjugated NPs could modify surface smoothness, charge, and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs, leading to considerable improvement in the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular internalization was increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such polymer-based PSi nanocomposite can be extensively used as a promising candidate for intracellular drug delivery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Thermomechanical behaviour of stabilized polyethylene irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Markovic, V; Gal, O; Stannett, V T

    1986-01-01

    The moduli of elasticity at 150/sup 0/C for irradiated linear low density and low density polyethylenes, pure and with 0.5% antioxidants were determined using the penetration technique. Simultaneously, on similar samples, the gel content was measured. Analysing the radiation parameters and comparing data derived from the two methods the efficiency of radiation crosslinking of different polyethylenes and the effect of antioxidants is discussed.

  6. Thermomechanical behaviour of stabilized polyethylene irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Markovic, V.; Gal, O.; Stannett, V.T.

    1986-01-01

    The moduli of elasticity at 150 C for irradiated linear low density and low density polyethylenes, pure and with 0.5% antioxidants were determined using the penetration technique. Simultaneously, on similar samples, the gel content was measured. Analysing the radiation parameters and comparing data derived from the two methods the efficiency of radiation crosslinking of different polyethylenes and the effect of antioxidants is discussed. (author)

  7. Structural changes in the polyethylene after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskova, K.; Svorcik, V.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the study of structural changes of the polyethylene after ion implantation. There were used the polyethylene film with thickness 15 μm, and Ar + ions with energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with energy 156 keV with doses 1·10 13 - 3·10 15 cm -2 for experiments. For the study of structural changes of polymer were used methods UV-VIS spectrometry, ESR, Rutherford back scattering

  8. Observations of radiation damage effects in paraffin and polyethylene crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petermann, J.; Gleiter, H.; Bochum Univ.

    1973-01-01

    A report is given on electron microscopic observations on n-paraffin and polyethylene monocrystals after irradiating with electrons. The observations show that the cross-links in n-paraffin monocrystals form agglomerates which preferably occur in the neighbourhood of lattice defects. In polyethylene monocrystals, the cross-links line up in long rows parallel to the [100] or [010] direction. (orig./LH) [de

  9. Confinement-induced vitrification in polyethylene terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta Calleja, F. J.; Flores, A.; Di Marco, G.; Pieruccini, M.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis performed on cold-drawn polyethylene terephthalate (PET), cold crystallized (annealed) in the temperature interval 100-140 deg. C, reveals the presence of marginally glassy domains above the annealing temperature T a . This suggests that the thermodynamic force driving crystallization causes the structural arrest of some noncrystalline domains. The latter thus need a temperature higher than T a to completely defreeze. Differential scanning calorimetry supports this point of view. Analogous investigations on unoriented PET, cold crystallized in the same conditions, do not show the same peculiarities; thus, chain orientation is relevant to vitrification. This phenomenology is first cast in the language of thermodynamics by introducing an excess chemical potential δμ describing the presence of structural constraints in the amorphous domains and the effect of chain orientation. For a first test of this picture, the orientation contribution to δμ is calculated by means of the Gaussian chain model (this implicitly assumes that δμ is related to the density fluctuations). The resulting expression is then used to discuss the structural differences between cold-drawn and unoriented PET samples reported in the literature

  10. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Bjoern; Wagner, Achim; Kliem, Herbert

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depends on the energy-barrier heights in the multi-well potential

  11. Polarimetric studies of polyethylene terephtalate flexible substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stchakovsky, M.; Garcia-Caurel, E.; Warenghem, M.

    2008-12-01

    Polymer sheets are currently used worldwide in a wide range of applications. The manufacturing process of these sheets involves extruding machines that stretch the material in both lateral and longitudinal directions with respect to the machine direction, thus inducing birefringence. In most cases, the film obtained is optically biaxial. Polarimetric spectroscopy (Ellipsometry and Mueller Matrix) combined with conoscopic observation are the methods of choice to study these properties. In this work we report an analysis of commercially available polyethylene terephtalate (PET) films used as substrate for food packaging as well as for embedded electronic devices such as solar cells or flexible displays. Initial observation of these films through polarizing microscope in conoscopic mode reveals first the trace of optical axis plane with respect to the film surface and second, whether the optical axis is acute or not. This preliminary study allows optimal sample positioning for further polarimetric studies. The measurements and modelling are done in both reflection and transmission mode on several spectroscopic polarimetric setups from UV to NIR. The models give as a main result, the dielectric tensor of the film as well as its orientation with respect to the laboratory reference frame.

  12. Free radicals trapped in polyethylene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, S.; Maeda, M.; Hori, Y.; Kashiwabara, H.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of alkyl radicals were found to be trapped in irradiated crystals grown from polyethylene solution. One of them corresponds to the broad sextet pattern of the e.s.r. spectrum and the other corresponds to the sharp sextet pattern. The free radicals attributed to the broad sextet began to disappear at a lower temperature than the temperature at which the free radicals attributed to the sharp sextet disappeared. When butadiene molecules were brought into contact with the specimen, the decay of the free radicals corresponding to the broad sextet was accelerated. When the specimen was subjected to fuming nitric acid treatment, no broad sextet was observed. The mat of the crystals was aligned so that the c-axes of its crystallites were perpendicular to its surface. The broad sextet showed no anisotropy when the angle between the direction of applied magnetic field and that of the c-axis of the crystallite was varied. On the other hand, the sharp component of the spectrum showed apparent anisotropy. It can be concluded that the broad component comes from the free radicals trapped in the lamellar surface and the sharp component is attributed to the free radicals trapped in the inner part of the crystallite. (author)

  13. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  14. Theory of the deformation of aligned polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, A; Swinburne, T D; Hasan, H; Del Rosso, S; Iannucci, L; Sutton, A P

    2015-08-08

    Solitons are proposed as the agents of plastic and viscoelastic deformation in aligned polyethylene. Interactions between straight, parallel molecules are mapped rigorously onto the Frenkel-Kontorova model. It is shown that these molecular interactions distribute an applied load between molecules, with a characteristic transfer length equal to the soliton width. Load transfer leads to the introduction of tensile and compressive solitons at the chain ends to mark the onset of plasticity at a well-defined yield stress, which is much less than the theoretical pull-out stress. Interaction energies between solitons and an equation of motion for solitons are derived. The equation of motion is based on Langevin dynamics and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and it leads to the rigorous definition of an effective mass for solitons. It forms the basis of a soliton dynamics in direct analogy to dislocation dynamics. Close parallels are drawn between solitons in aligned polymers and dislocations in crystals, including the configurational force on a soliton. The origins of the strain rate and temperature dependencies of the viscoelastic behaviour are discussed in terms of the formation energy of solitons. A failure mechanism is proposed involving soliton condensation under a tensile load.

  15. Electron spin resonance study of radicals in irradiated polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi

    1979-02-01

    In order to elucidate radiation effect in polyethylene, the nature and behavior of radicals produced in polyethylene and the model compound of polyethylene irradiated at 77 0 K were studied by using electron spin resonance. The structure of radical pairs, which are composed of two radicals produced very closely each other, was investigated in drawn polyethylene and the single crystal of n-eicosane. The radical pairs of intrachain type and interchain type were found in polyethylene and n-eicosane respectively. It was suggested that these two types of radical pairs are the precursors of double bonds and crosslinks respectively. The thermal decay reactions of radicals themselves produced in irradiated polyethylene were investigated. It was made clear that the short range distances between two radicals play an important role in the decay reaction of alkyl radicals at low temperatures. The trapping regions of radicals were studied and it was clarified that allyl radicals, which are produced by the reaction of alkyl radicals with double bonds, are trapped both in the crystalline and non-crystalline regions. (author)

  16. Measurement of radon permeability through polyethylene membrane using scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abou-Leila, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdalla, A.M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, Najran, P.O. Box. 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering Laboratory (AMNEL), Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE), Najran University, Najran, P.O. Box. 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-15

    The permeability of Radon 222 through polyethylene membranes has been studied using activated charcoal technique. The permeability constant of Radon 222 through low-density polyethylene, linear low-density Polyethylene and high density polyethylene samples has been measured. There is a considerable agreement between the values obtained by our method and the method suggested by W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211], and SSNTD technique suggested by A. Hafez and G. Somogyi [1986. Determination of radon and thoron permeability through some plastics by track technique. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. 12 (1-6), 697-700]. In this work Radon permeability through different polyethylene membranes has been measured using three different methods, i.e. solid state nuclear track technique, W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211]method and our proposed method. In addition to this, in this study, the diffusion coefficient of radon in charcoal as well as solubility of Radon in polyethylene membrane has been taken into consideration.

  17. Measurement of radon permeability through polyethylene membrane using scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abou-Leila, M.; Abdalla, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of Radon 222 through polyethylene membranes has been studied using activated charcoal technique. The permeability constant of Radon 222 through low-density polyethylene, linear low-density Polyethylene and high density polyethylene samples has been measured. There is a considerable agreement between the values obtained by our method and the method suggested by W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211], and SSNTD technique suggested by A. Hafez and G. Somogyi [1986. Determination of radon and thoron permeability through some plastics by track technique. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. 12 (1-6), 697-700]. In this work Radon permeability through different polyethylene membranes has been measured using three different methods, i.e. solid state nuclear track technique, W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211] method and our proposed method. In addition to this, in this study, the diffusion coefficient of radon in charcoal as well as solubility of Radon in polyethylene membrane has been taken into consideration.

  18. Response of CR-39 Detector Against Fast Neutron Using D-Polyethylene and H-Polyethylene Radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofyan, Hasnel

    1996-01-01

    The research on the response of detector CR-39 by using D-Polyethylene and H-Polyethylene radiator has been carried out. The optimum number of nuclear tracks was found with the use of 30 % NaOH at 80 + 0,5oC for 80 minutes of etching time. The comparison of CR-39 detector response caused by D-Polyethylene radiator against H-Polyethylene radiator of irradiation in air, were found to be 1.18 and 0.84 for 241Am-Be neutron source and neutron source from reactor respectively. For phantom irradiation, the results were found to be 1.75 for 241Am-Be neutron source, and 0.77 for neutron source from reactor

  19. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  20. Research of Polylactic Acid Modiifed by Polymethyl Acrylate-Methyl Methacrylate Copolymer%聚丙烯酸甲酯-甲基丙烯酸甲酯共聚物改性聚乳酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏桂仙; 李光辉; 和芹; 李德玲

    2015-01-01

    为了提高聚乳酸(PLA)的韧性,采用聚丙烯酸甲酯-甲基丙烯酸甲酯(PMA-MMA)对PLA进行共混改性。采用悬浮聚合法,以丙烯酸甲酯(MA)、甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)为共聚单体,制备珠粒状的PMA-MMA共聚物。通过熔融共混法,分别以PMA-MMA共聚物为增韧剂,聚乙二醇为增塑剂,聚乙烯蜡为润滑剂,对PLA进行改性,对改性后的PLA复合材料的热性能和力学性能进行研究。结果表明,随着PMA-MMA共聚物用量的增加,PLA复合材料的拉伸强度呈先增大后减小的趋势,而断裂伸长率和冲击强度不断增大。当PMA-MMA共聚物用量为15份时, PLA复合材料的拉伸强度达到最大值,为52.2 MPa;当PMA-MMA共聚物用量为25份时,PLA复合材料冲击强度为53.26 kJ/m2,是纯PLA的4.4倍,断裂伸长率为54.9%。PMA-MMA共聚物与PLA的相容性好,有明显的增韧作用。PMA-MMA共聚物的加入并未降低PLA复合材料的热性能。%In order to improve the toughness of poly(lactic acid)(PLA),polymethyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate(PMA-MMA) copolymer was used to mix with PLA. Methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate(MMA) were used as the monomers for the preparation of PMA-MMA copolymer by means of suspention polymerization. PLA and PMA-MMA copolymer were melt-blended with polyethylene glycol(PEG) as a plasticizer and polyethylene as a lubricant. The modified PLA composites were studied by means of heat resistance and mechanical properties. The results show that with the increase of PMA-MMA copolymer content, the elongation at break and impact strength of the composites are improved,and its tensile strength increases first and then decreases. While the content of PMA-MMA copolymer is 15 phr,the tensile strength of the composite has the best tensile strength of 52.2 MPa. While the content of PMA-MMA copolymer is 25 phr,the impact strength of the composite is 53.26 kJ/m2,which is the 4.4 times of the pure PLA

  1. Overnight efficacy of polyethylene glycol laxative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Jack A; Smith, Julie R; Cleveland, Mark vB

    2002-07-01

    Clinical studies in constipated adult patients have shown that a 17- or 34-g daily dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) is safe and effective for the treatment of constipation, with the best efficacy seen in wk 2 of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dose of PEG to provide satisfactory relief of constipation within 24 h. A total of 24 adult study subjects who met Rome II criteria for constipation were randomized in a double-blind, parallel pilot study to receive a single dose of placebo or PEG laxative at doses of 51, 68, or 85 g in 500 ml of flavored water. Over a 72-h period, subjects rated bowel movements (BM), completeness of evacuation, and satisfaction. The 68-g dose seemed to be most satisfactory. Five of six subjects had a BM within 24 h. The time to first BM was 14.8 h for 68 g versus 27.3 h for placebo (p = NS). The time to second BM was 19.2 h versus 47.2 h for 68 g and placebo, respectively (p = 0.003). Of the subjects receiving 68 g of PEG, 50% and 100% reported complete evacuation for the first and second BM, respectively. The average number of BMs in 24 h for placebo, 51 g, 68 g, and 84 g were 0.5, 2.2, 2.2, and 4.2, respectively (p = 0.004). There were no adverse reactions, and no patient reported incontinence or complained of cramps or diarrhea at any dose. There were no changes in measured electrolytes, calcium, glucose, BUN, creatinine, or serum osmolality. A 68-g dose of PEG laxative seems to provide safe and effective relief in constipated adults within a 24-h period.

  2. Carbide process picked for Chinese polyethylene plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-01

    Union Carbide (Danbury, CT) is set to sign up its eighth polyethylene (PE) license in China. The company has been selected to supply its Unipol technology to Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. (JCIC) for a 100,000-m.t./year linear low-density PE (LLDPE) plant at Jilin. The plant will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex, based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene unit awarded to a consortium made up of Samsung Engineering (Seoul) and Linde. A 10,000-m.t./year butene-1 unit will also be built. Toyo Engineering, Snamprogetti, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Linde are competing for the contract to supply the LLDPE plant. The signing is expected this spring. Two contenders are vying to supply an 80,000-m.t./year phenol plant for JCIC. They are Mitsui Engineering, offering the Mitsui Petrochemical process, and Chisso, with UOP technology. Four Unipol process PE plants are under construction in China and three are in operation. At Guangzhou, Toyo Engineering is building a 100,000-m.t./year plant, due onstream in 1995, while Snamprogetti is to finish construction of two plants in the same year at Zhonguyan (120,000 m.t./year) and at Maoming (140,000 m.t./year). The Daquing Design Institute is responsible for the engineering of a 60,000-m.t./year Unipol process PE plant, expected onstream early in 1995. Existing Unipol process PE plants are located in Qilu (60,000 m.t./year LLDPE and 120,000 m.t./year HDPE) and at Taching (60,000 m.t./year HDPE)

  3. Chlorination of irradiated polyethylene single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The chlorination of electron beam-irradiation polyethylene (PE) single crystals was studied for a range of irradiation doses, temperatures, and chlorine interaction times. The results presented show that PE chlorination was quite extensive, even in unirradiated PE single crystals at 25 0 C in the dark. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR, EPR) was used in this study in order to determine the alkyl radical concentration, decay constant, and diffusivity for (unchlorinated) specimens. An alkyl radical diffusivity D/sub a/ = 1.6 x 10 -17 cm 2 /sec at 25 0 C was estimated from ESR data and alkyl radical migration as one-dimensional unsteady-state diffusion process. In irradiated PE, chlorination occurred mainly via chain reactions which were initiated by the irradiation-produced free radicals. Chlorine content values were determined by X-ray Energy Spectroscopy (XES). It was found that the magnitude of the chlorine uptake increased with increasing dose, and decreased with decreasing temperature at constant dose. Otherwise the observed PE chlorination phenomena was quite similar for all of the doses and temperatures studied here, consisting of a two step mechanism: a fast uptake which occurred between time tCl 2 = 0 - 5 minutes and a slower, approximately first-order rate of uptake which occurred between times tCl 2 = 5 - 120 minutes. Chlorination was essentially complete by time tCl 2 = 120 minutes. The rapid uptake probably occurred in the amorphous surface zones where Cl 2 is relatively high and the second, slower step was probably attributable to Cl 2 diffusion into the crystalline regions and subsequent chlorination there. Inasmuch as the PE density decreases with increasing dose (for 1-600 Mrad), Cl 2 diffusivity was enhanced, resulting in higher chlorine uptake values at higher doses

  4. Laminin-Coated Poly(Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA Nanofiber Scaffold Facilitates the Enrichment of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Kamalia Zahari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA nanofiber (PM scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h−1 and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min, while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h−1 and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min. Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.

  5. Laminin-Coated Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) Nanofiber Scaffold Facilitates the Enrichment of Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Nor Kamalia; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy

    2017-10-30

    Myoblasts, the contractile cells of skeletal muscle, have been invaluable for fundamental studies of muscle development and clinical applications for muscle loss. A major limitation to the myoblast-based therapeutic approach is contamination with non-contractile fibroblasts, which overgrow during cell expansion. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to establish a 3D culture environment using nanofiber scaffolds to enrich the myoblast population during construct formation. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber (PM) scaffolds were fabricated using electrospinning techniques and coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen or laminin, in the presence or absence of genipin. A mixed population of myoblasts and fibroblasts was isolated from human skeletal muscle tissues and cultured on plain surfaces, as well as coated and non-coated PM scaffolds. PMMA can produce smooth fibers with an average diameter of 360 ± 50 nm. Adsorption of collagen and laminin on PM scaffolds is significantly enhanced in the presence of genipin, which introduces roughness to the nanofiber surface without affecting fiber diameter and mechanical properties. It was also demonstrated that laminin-coated PM scaffolds significantly enhance myoblast proliferation (0.0081 ± 0.0007 h -1 ) and migration (0.26 ± 0.04 μm/min), while collagen-coated PM scaffolds favors fibroblasts proliferation (0.0097 ± 0.0009 h -1 ) and migration (0.23 ± 0.03 μm/min). Consequently, the myoblast population was enriched on laminin-coated PM scaffolds throughout the culture process. Therefore, laminin coating of nanofiber scaffolds could be a potential scaffold for the development of a tissue-engineered muscle substitute.

  6. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanocomposite: low loss and high dielectric constant materials with perceptible magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Mohaseen S; Palei, Prakash K; Patil, Santosh S; Kulkarni, Milind V; Maldar, Noormahmad N; Kale, Bharat B

    2014-09-21

    Herein, poly(methyl methacrylate)-bismuth ferrite (PMMA-BFO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in situ polymerization method for the first time. Initially, the as prepared bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were dispersed in the monomer, (methyl methacrylate) by sonication. Benzoyl peroxide was used to initiate the polymerization reaction in ethyl acetate medium. The nanocomposite films were subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), (1)H NMR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), dielectric and magnetic characterizations. The dielectric measurement of the nanocomposites was investigated at a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. It was found that the nanocomposites not only showed a significantly increased value of the dielectric constant with an increase in the loading percentage of BFO as compared to pure PMMA, but also exhibited low dielectric loss values over a wide range of frequencies. The values of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the PMMA-BFO5 (5% BFO loading) sample at 1 kHz frequency was found be ~14 and 0.037. The variation of the ferromagnetic response of the nanocomposite was consistent with the varying volume percentage of the nanoparticles. The remnant magnetization (Mr) and saturation magnetization (Ms) values of the composites were found to be enhanced by increasing the loading percentage of BFO. The value of Ms for PMMA-BFO5 was found to be ~6 emu g(-1). The prima facie observations suggest that the nanocomposite is a potential candidate for application in high dielectric constant capacitors. Significantly, based on its magnetic properties the composite will also be useful for use in hard disk components.

  7. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein, E-mail: mohammadnezhad@cc.iut.ac.ir; Dinari, Mohammad, E-mail: dinari@cc.iut.ac.ir; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA.

  8. One-Pot Hybrid SnO2 /Poly(methyl methacrylate) Nanocomposite Formation through Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Gianvito; Scarpellini, Alice; Palazon, Francisco; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2017-06-20

    The localized in situ formation of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles embedded in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films is presented. This is achieved by the photoinduced conversion of the tin acetate precursor included in polymeric films, through controlled UV or visible pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm, respectively. The evolution of the formation of nanoparticles is followed by UV/Vis spectroscopy and shows that their growth is affected in different ways by the laser pulses at the two applied wavelengths. This, in combination with electron microscopy analysis, reveals that, depending on the irradiation wavelength, the size of the nanoparticles in the final nanocomposites differs. This difference is attributed to distinct mechanistic pathways that lead to the synthesis of small nanoparticles (from 1.5 to 4.5 nm) at λ=355 nm, whereas bigger ones (from 5 to 16 nm) are formed at λ=532 nm. At the same time, structural studies with both X-ray and electron diffraction measurements demonstrate the crystallinity of SnO 2 nanoparticles in both cases, whereas XPS analysis confirms the light-induced oxidation of tin acetate into SnO 2 . Taken all together, it is demonstrated that the pulsed laser irradiation at λ=355 and 532 nm leads to the formation of SnO 2 nanoparticles with defined features highly dispersed in PMMA solid matrices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thermal and mechanical properties of novel nanocomposites from modified ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 and poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Dinari, Mohammad; Soltani, Roozbeh; Bozorgmehr, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of mesoporous carbon, FDU-15, was modified by 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane. • Nanocomposites of PMMA and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization. • XRD shows that modified mesoporous FDU-15 has an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. • TEM and SEM images confirm the presence of large pores and ordered mesostructure. • Mechanical data indicated improvement in the tensile strength and modulus. - Abstract: With its well-ordered pore structure, high specific surface area and tunable pore diameters, ordered mesoporous carbons are suitable for applications in many areas of modern science and technology. In the present investigation, an ultrasonic irradiation was used for the modification of the mesoporous carbon FDU-15. Three nanocomposite films of the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and modified FDU-15 were prepared by solution polymerization technique. The surface morphology and thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid materials were evaluated by different methods. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that modified mesoporous FDU-15 had an ordered hexagonal mesostructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of large pores and a relatively ordered mesostructure for the functionalized materials. Thermogravimetric analysis data also revealed that the onset of decomposition temperature of the nanocomposites was higher than that of pristine PMMA, shifting toward higher temperatures as the amount of modified-FDU was increased. TEM images showed the well-ordered hexagonal arrays of mesopores FDU-15. Mechanical data indicated the improvement in the tensile strength and modulus with the modified FDU-15 loading. The film containing 1 wt.% of modified FDU-15 had a tensile strength of the order of 42 MPa, relative to the 28 MPa of the pristine PMMA

  10. Influence of a hindered amine stabilizer (HAS) and inorganic salt mixture on degradation of poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Williams B. da; Vasconcelos, Henrique M. de; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da S.; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is used as medical supplies, which is sterilized by gamma irradiation at 25 kGy dose. However, when the PMMA is exposed to gamma rays it undergoes main chain scissions with changes in its properties. Samples of commercial PMMA containing a Hindered Amine Stabilizer (PMMA-HAS) and samples containing a salt mixture of CuCl 2 /KI (PMMA-salt) both at 0.3wt% concentration were investigated. The PMMA samples were purified by re-precipitation in methanol. The samples were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature in air at dose range of 15-100 kGy. The viscosity- average molecular weight (M v ) was analyzed by viscosity technique. Comparison of viscosity results obtained before and after irradiation of PMMA showed a decrease in Mv values on irradiated samples with the increase in dose, reflecting the random scissions that occurred in the main chain. However the decrease on M v is less in PMMA-HAS samples than control PMMA. The G value (scissions/100 eV of energy transferred to the system) obtained by viscosity analysis were used to calculated the protection value of HAS on PMMA matrix. The HAS showed a protection of 61% on PMMA molecules exposed to gamma irradiation. No efficiency action of salt mixture was observed on radiolytic degradation of PMMA. On the other hand the CuCl 2 /KI mixture influenced the mechanical behavior of PMMA and the HAS additive increased the maximum thermal degradation temperature of PMMA matrix. (author)

  11. Heats of adsorption of Pb on pristine and electron-irradiated poly(methyl methacrylate) by microcalorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, S. F.; Zhu, J. F.; Harris, J. J. W.; Goetsch, P.; Merte, L. R.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2005-12-01

    The heat of adsorption and sticking probability were measured for Pb gas atoms adsorbing onto clean poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and electron-irradiated PMMA. The Pb atoms interact very weakly with the outgassed pristine PMMA surface, with a sticking probability of 0.02 ± 0.02. They deposit a heat into the PMMA of 12.7 ± 0.7 kJ/mol of dosed Pb, independent of Pb exposure up to 10 ML. This is slightly less than would be expected even if no Pb atoms stuck to the PMMA, but if they completely thermally accommodated to the substrate temperature during their collision with the surface. This proves that thermal accommodation is incomplete, highlighting the weakness of the Pb-PMMA interaction. Damaging the PMMA surface with electrons causes an increase in reactivity with Pb, as shown by increases in the initial heat of adsorption up to 134.0 ± 0.7 kJ/mol and the initial sticking probability up to 0.51 ± 0.01. These both increase with increasing coverage toward the values expected for Pb adsorption onto a bulk Pb surface with coverage dependences suggesting that metal islands nucleate at electron-induced defects, and grow into large 3D islands of low number density. This is the first calorimetric measurement of any metal adsorption energy onto any polymer surface wherein the sticking probability of the metal also was measured. The PMMA film was spin coated directly onto the heat detector, a pyroelectric polymer foil (polyvinylidene fluoride—PVDF) precoated on both sides with thin metal electrodes. It provides a detector sensitivity of ˜450 V/J with a pulse-to-pulse standard deviation of 1.2 kJ/mol and absolute accuracy within 2%.

  12. Development of form stable Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) coated thermal phase change material for solar water heater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munusamy, Y.; Shanmugam, S.; Shi-Ying, Kee

    2018-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used thermal energy storage material in solar water heater because it able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. However the practical application of PCM is limited by two major issues; 1) leakage which leads to material loss and corrosion of tank and 2) large volume change during phase change process which cause pressure build up in the tank. In this work, form-stable PCM was prepared by coating myristic acid with Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to prevent leakage of PCM. PMMA was mixed with different weight percentage (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 wt%) of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The purpose of adding DCP to PMMA is to crosslink the polymer and to increase the mechanical strength of PMMA to hold the myristic acid content inside the coating during the phase change process. Leakage test results showed that PMMA mixed with 0.1% DCP exhibit 0% leakage. This result is further supported by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) images and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results, where a compact and uniform coating without cracks were formed for PCM coated with PMMA with 0.1% DCP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results shows that the melting point of form-stable PCM is 55°C, freezing point is 50°C, the latent heat of melting and freezing is 67.59 J/g.

  13. A novel process for separation of polycarbonate, polyvinyl chloride and polymethyl methacrylate waste plastics by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Luo-Luo

    2017-07-01

    A novel process was proposed for separation of ternary waste plastics by froth flotation. Pretreatment of plastics with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution was conducted to aid flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plastics. The effect of pretreatment parameters including KMnO 4 concentration, treatment time, temperature and stirring rate on flotation recovery were investigated by single factor experiments. Surface treatment with KMnO 4 changes selectively the flotation behavior of PC, PVC and PMMA, enabling separation of the plastics by froth flotation. Mechanism of surface treatment was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). Effect of frother concentration and flotation time on flotation behavior of plastic mixtures was further studied for flotation separation. The optimized conditions for separation of PC are KMnO 4 concentration 2mmolL -1 , treatment time 10min, temperature 60°C, stirring rate 300rpm, flotation time 1min and frother concentration 17.5mgL -1 . Under optimum conditions, PVC and PMMA mixtures are also separated efficiently by froth flotation associated with KMnO 4 treatment. The purity of PC, PVC and PMMA is up to 100%, 98.41% and 98.68%, while the recovery reaches 96.82%, 98.71% and 98.38%, respectively. Economic analysis manifests remarkable profits of the developed process. Reusing KMnO 4 solution is feasible, enabling the process greener. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation between molecular structure and self healing in a series of anthraquinone derivatives doped in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Prabodh

    Using absorbance spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy as a probe, we studied photodegradation and recovery of a series of anthraquinone derivatives doped in (poly)methyl methacrylate (PMMA) thin films. We observed that many anthraquinone derivatives recover their optical properties after they are photodamaged. The mechanism that is responsible for their recovery is not well understood. Previous research, which uses non-linear methods such as Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), two photon absorption, and indirect linear methods such as transmittance imaging, have focussed on one of the derivatives of the anthraquinone class named dispersed orange 11 (DO11) dye doped in PMMA. Since no direct measurements have yet been reported on a variety of anthraquinone derivatives, we have extended our research on a series of anthraquinone derivatives using direct measurement techniques such as linear absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and photochroism measurements as a function of dye concentration and sample temperature. The data obtained from temperature-dependent photodecay and recovery as well as concentration-dependent photodecay are found to be in qualitative agreement with the Correlated Chromophore Domain Model (CCrDM). We also applied the depth dependent absorption model to estimate the degree of self-absorption of the fluorescence signal emitted by the sample. This analysis allows us to determine the depth dependent damage profile and time dependence of the damage profile. Our results show that damage decreases as a function of depth into the sample and increases as a function of time of exposure of the pump beam. The degree of self-absorption is found to increase with sample thickness. We also did a numerical analysis to find the intensity dependent decay rate constant alpha and the recovery rate beta for fluorescence. We then used the data to test the CCrDM to find the average number of molecules in a domain, number density of molecules and

  15. Development of new cross-linked polyethylene for atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Shun-ichi; Ohya, Shingo; Kubo, Masaji; Tsutsumi, Yukihiro; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1988-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene is the material which is used most as the insulating material for electric wires and cables, but for the cables for nuclear power stations and the wiring materials within machinery and equipment, the cross-linked polyethylene which is hard to burn by mixing burning-retarding agent is frequently used as the disaster-preventing countermeasures. As the burning-retarding agent for cross-linked polyethylene, bromine system agent that gives high burning retardation, chlorine system agent that can prevent melting and dripping at the time of burning and so on have been used so as to meet the objective. However by the addition of burning-retarding agents, the electrical and mechanical characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene lower, therefore consideration must be given to the use. In this paper, the results of the examination on the application of condensed acenaphthylene bromide as a new burning-retarding agent to cross-linked polyethylene are reported. White lead was effective for catching HBr. It was confirmed that more than 30 parts of this agent ensured burning retardation. By mixing this agent, the tensile strength increased, but the elongation lowered. It was found that the good radiation resistance was obtained by adding this agent. (K.I.)

  16. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E.; Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R.

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp 2 TiCl 2 ) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  17. Polyethylene-waste tire dust composites via in situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes A, Y. K.; Narro C, R. I.; Ramos A, M. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Blvd. Venustiano Carranza s/n, 25280 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Neira V, M. G.; Diaz E, J.; Enriquez M, F.; Valencia L, L. A.; Saade C, H.; Diaz de L, R., E-mail: ramon.diazdeleon@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo No. 40, Col. San Jose de los Cerritos, 25293 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2014-10-01

    Polyethylene/waste tire dust (WTD) composites were obtained by an in situ polymerization technique. The surface of the WTD was modified with deposition of polyethylene by using plasma polymerization. Ethylene polymerization was carried out using bis(cyclopentadienyl) titanium dichloride (Cp{sub 2}TiCl{sub 2}) as homogeneous metallocenes catalyst, while diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC), ethyl aluminum sesquichloride (EASC) and methyl alumino xane (Mao) were used as co-catalysts at two different [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio. The main characteristics of the obtained polyethylenes were determined by size exclusion chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The results showed that by using EASC and Mao the highest catalytic activities were presented at a [Al]/[Ti] molar ratio of 9.17 and 18.33 respectively. Even though it was possible to obtain polyethylene using WTD (modified or unmodified) the catalytic activity was lower than in the case in which no WTD was added in ethylene polymerization. Scanning transmission electronic microscopy images evidenced that the original morphology of the polyethylenes was not modified by the presence of WTD. (Author)

  18. Synthesis and Properties of the Metallo-Supramolecular Polymer Hydrogel Poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]∙AgNO3

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Dossary, Mona S.

    2014-05-01

    Gels are a special class of materials which are composed of 3D networks of crosslinked polymer chains that encapsulate liquid/air in the matrix. They can be classified into organogels or hydrogels (organic solvent for organogel and water for hydrogel). For hydrogels that contain metallic elements in the form of ions, the term of metallo-supramolecular polymer hydrogel (MSPHG) is often used. The aim of this project is to develop a kind of new MSPHG and investigate its properties and possible applications. The commercial polymeric anhydride poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) is converted by reaction with NaOH to give poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-monosodium maleate) (PVM/Na-MA). By addition of AgNO3-solution, the formation of the silver(I) supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]∙AgNO3 is obtained. Freeze-dried samples of the hydrogel show a mesoporous network of polycarboxylate ligands that are crosslinked by silver(I) cations. The supercritical CO2 dried silver(I) hydrogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM-EDAX, TEM, TGA and Physical adsorption (BET) measurements. The intact silver(I) hydrogel was characterized by cryo-SEM. In the intact hydrogel, ion-exchange studies are reported and it is shown that Ag+ ions can be exchanged by copper(II) cations without disintegration of the hydrogel. The silver(I) hydrogel shows effective antibacterial activity and potential application as burn wound dressing.

  19. Increased cellular uptake of lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles due to surface modification with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Arévalo, Juan Marcelo Carpio; Junior, Enio Lima; Rossi, Gustavo Rodrigues; da Silva Trindade, Edvaldo; Rocha, Maria Eliane Merlin; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Santos-Silva, Maria Claudia; Sayer, Claudia; de Araújo, Pedro H Hermes

    2016-12-01

    Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles surface modified with folic acid were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization in just one step. In vitro biocompatibility and cytotoxicity assays on L929 (murine fibroblast), human red blood, and HeLa (uterine colon cancer) cells were performed. The effect of folic acid at the nanoparticles surface was evaluated through cellular uptake assays in HeLa cells. Results showed that the presence of folic acid did not affect substantially the polymer particle size (~120 nm), the superparamagnetic behavior, the encapsulation efficiency of lauryl gallate (~87 %), the Zeta potential (~38 mV) of the polymeric nanoparticles or the release profile of lauryl gallate. The release profile of lauryl gallate from superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles presented an initial burst effect (0-1 h) followed by a slow and sustained release, indicating a biphasic release system. Lauryl gallate loaded in superparamagnetic poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles with folic acid did not present cytotoxicity effects on L929 and human red blood cells. However, free lauryl gallate presented significant cytotoxic effects on L929 and human red blood cells at all tested concentrations. The presence of folic acid increased the cytotoxicity of lauryl gallate loaded in nanoparticles on HeLa cells due to a higher cellular uptake when HeLa cells were incubated at 37 °C. On the other hand, when the nanoparticles were incubated at low temperature (4 °C) cellular uptake was not observed, suggesting that the uptake occurred by folate receptor mediated energy-dependent endocytosis. Based on presented results our work suggests that this carrier system can be an excellent alternative in targeted drug delivery by folate receptor.

  20. Controlled Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes on Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Powders by Surface-initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhaoqi; LI Wei; LIU Lanqin; HUANG Lei; ZHOU Jin; YU Haiyin

    2009-01-01

    Controlled grafting of well-defined polymer brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powders was carded out by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The ATRP initiator was anchored on the PVDF surface by alkaline treatment, followed by UV-induced bromination; then methyl methacrylate (MMA) was grafted onto the brominated PVDF by the ATRP technique. The chemical composition changes of PVDF were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FT-IR and XPS results clearly indicated the successful graft of poly(methyl methacrylate) onto the PVDF surface.

  1. Utilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) – carbon nanotube and polystyrene – carbon nanotube in situ polymerized composites as masterbatches for melt mixing

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lahelin; M. Annala; J. Seppala

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were melt mixed directly or by using an in situ polymerized masterbatch into a matrix polymer, polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The mechanical properties of the composites were mostly determined by the amount of CNTs, and not by the use of directly melt mixed CNTs or the use of the masterbatch. In contrast, the electrical resistivity of the composites was dependent on the manner in which the CNTs were added to the matrix polymer. When there was inc...

  2. Radiation effects on polyethylene foam of open cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Beilin; Kanako Kaji; Iwao Yoshizawa; Choji Kohara; Motoyoshi Hatada

    1991-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on polyethylene foam of open cell type have been studied. Experiments for determining of gel fraction and physical-mechanical properties of irradiated polyethylene foam of open cell type as a function of dose, respectively, were carried out. The dimensional stability of irradiated specimens at elevated temperatures was measured. It was found that tensile strength did not change and gel fraction increased when the specimen was irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere with increasing dose up to 300 kGy. The result shows that dimensional stability of polyethylene foam of open cell type after being kept in an oven at 70 deg C and 110 deg C for 22 h is improved by irradiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The similar results of irradiated EVA foam of open cell type irradiated foam of open cell type were obtained

  3. Elaboration of recycled polyethylene foams reticulated by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicia M, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this work some obtained results are presented to make irradiation tests on recycled polymeric material (polyethylene) as well as mixtures of this with certain additive classes (foaming and reticulating agents) which will be used for the foams elaboration, objective of this work. Two types of foaming basically exist which are elaborated with low density polyethylene base. They are: a) the extruded and, b) the reticulated through ionizing radiation and chemically. Some of the properties that the expanded or foamed polyethylene are: flexibility, resistance, thermal stability, inter medium mechanical properties between the highly flexible foams and rigid among others. All of them determined by the cell type which conform them. Also was carried out the characterization of the obtained material contributing of this manner to diminish the quantity of solid wastes generated. (Author)

  4. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, Miguel; López Higueras, Antonio; Júdez, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish), sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age) and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis). Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two), psyllium (one), tegaserod (one), prucalopride (one), paraffin oil (one), fiber combinations (one) and Descurainia sophia (one). Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose) and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long-term. They are as efficacious as enemas in fecal

  5. Use of polyethylene glycol in functional constipation and fecal impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Mínguez

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG, with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. Methodology: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely NOT colonoscopy. Critical reading of selected articles (English or Spanish, sorting their description according to group age (adult/pediatric age and within those, in accordance with study features (efficacy evaluation versus placebo, doses query, safety, comparison with other laxatives, observational studies and monographic review articles of polyethylene glycol or meta-analysis. Results: Fifty-eight publications have been chosen for descriptive analysis; of them, 41 are clinical trials, eight are observational studies and nine are systematic reviews or meta-analysis. Twelve clinical trials evaluate PEG efficacy versus placebo, eight versus lactulose, six are dose studies, five compare polyethylene glycol with and without electrolytes, two compare its efficacy with respect to milk of magnesia, and the rest of the trials evaluate polyethylene glycol with enemas (two, psyllium (one, tegaserod (one, prucalopride (one, paraffin oil (one, fiber combinations (one and Descurainia sophia (one. Conclusions: Polyethylene glycol with or without electrolytes is more efficacious than placebo for the treatment of functional constipation, either in adults or in pediatric patients, with great safety and tolerability. These preparations constitute the most efficacious osmotic laxatives (more than lactulose and are the first-line treatment for functional constipation in the short and long

  6. Synthesis and properties of the metallo-supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]·AgNO3: Ag+/Cu2+ ion exchange and effective antibacterial activity

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The commercial polymeric anhydride poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PVM/MA) is converted by reaction with NaOH to give poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate) (PVM/Na-MA). By addition of AgNO 3-solution, the formation of the silver(i) supramolecular polymer hydrogel poly[methyl vinyl ether-alt-mono-sodium maleate]·AgNO 3 is reported. Freeze-dried samples of the hydrogel show a mesoporous network of polycarboxylate ligands that are crosslinked by silver(i) cations. In the intact hydrogel, ion-exchange studies are reported and it is shown that Ag+ ions can be exchanged by copper(ii) cations without disintegration of the hydrogel. The silver(i) hydrogel shows effective antibacterial activity and potential application as burn wound dressing. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. Effect of dose on creep and recovery of polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O; Charlesby, A; Stannett, V T

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high energy radiation on polyethylene is to crosslink it, and connect it into an elastic network above the melting point. In this paper the creep and recovery properties of a stabilized polyethylene subjected to doses from 100 to 870 kGy are measured at 150/sup 0/C. Two cycles are measured - Creep I + Recovery I, and Creep II + Recovery II -mainly over periods of 20 min. The creep or recovery behaviour falls into three steps - immediate, fast and slow, and data are given for these steps together with the time parameter. The first cycle includes a non-recoverable creep which is almost absent in the second cycle.

  8. Effect of dose on creep and recovery of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, Lj.; Gal, O.; Charlesby, A.; Stannett, V.T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high energy radiation on polyethylene is to crosslink it, and connect it into an elastic network above the melting point. In this paper the creep and recovery properties of a stabilized polyethylene subjected to doses from 100 to 870 kGy are measured at 150 0 C. Two cycles are measured - Creep I + Recovery I, and Creep II + Recovery II -mainly over periods of 20 min. The creep or recovery behaviour falls into three steps - immediate, fast and slow, and data are given for these steps together with the time parameter. The first cycle includes a non-recoverable creep which is almost absent in the second cycle. (author)

  9. Direct Synthesis of Telechelic Polyethylene by Selective Insertion Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Jian, Zhongbao

    2016-10-14

    A single-step route to telechelic polyethylene (PE) is enabled by selective insertion polymerization. PdII-catalyzed copolymerization of ethylene and 2-vinylfuran (VF) generates α,ω-di-furan telechelic polyethylene. Orthogonally reactive exclusively in-chain anhydride groups are formed by terpolymerization with carbic anhydride. Combined experimental and theoretical DFT studies reveal the key for this direct approach to telechelics to be a match of the comonomers’ different electronics and bulk. Identified essential features of the comonomer are that it is an electron-rich olefin that forms an insertion product stabilized by an additional interaction, namely a π–η3 interaction for the case of VF.

  10. Antimicrobial compounds in polyethylene films - characterization and content measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Marcia; Santos, Ramon V.; Perao, Leandro; Ellwangler, Manoela W.; Nonemacher, Regina F.; Moraes, Lilian T. de; Gorski, Sandro; Staub, Simone; Petzhold, Cesar L.

    2009-01-01

    Developments have been done in the packaging market to attend the continuous changes in consumer demands and also to keep safety and shelf life of products during transportation and storage. Active packaging is the most innovative concepts in the market. It has been defined as a packaging that changes its conditions to extend shelf life. The objective of this work is the production and characterization of active polyethylene films with antimicrobial compounds. The initial results show that analytical techniques as RX fluorescence and FTIR can be used to characterize and quantify these compounds in polyethylene films. (author)

  11. Equation of State and Damage in Polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Joshua Damon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cady, Carl Mcelhinney [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlson, Carl A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clements, Bradford Edwin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fezzaa, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gustavsen, Richard L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hooks, Daniel Edwin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Iverson, Adam Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jensen, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Jennifer Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jones, David Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Junghans, Sylvia Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LeBrun, Thomas John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewis, Matthew W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maerzke, Katie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Timothy Henry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramos, Kyle James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rigg, Paulo [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Schilling, Benjamin Fritz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinclair, N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Stull, Jamie Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Watkins, Erik Benjamin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Cynthia F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Welch, Paul Michael Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The dynamic response of polymers differs significantly from those of metals, upon which many of the National Laboratories' deformation, damage, and failure models are based. Their moduli, yield strength, and damage characteristics are highly strain rate-, temperature-, and phase-dependent, requiring models that encompass a wide range of phenomena including some not in equilibrium. Recently, Los Alamos developed the Glassy Amorphous Polymer (GAP)1 model [1] to address limitations in existing models of polymer deformation. GAP captures both volumetric (equation of state) and deviatoric (shear) response, including a non-equilibrium component to the former (a feature determined to be crucial in capturing the low-pressure, viscoelastic response to impact loading). GAP has already been applied to polymers such as PMMA, PTFE, epoxy, and Kel-F 800, but with an emphasis on impact response as opposed to damage or failure. The current effort was launched to address this gap in predictive capability. For reasons that will be made clear, semi-crystalline polyethylene (PE) was chosen to serve as a model system for parameterization and validation. PE (-C2H4-)n is one of the most widely used polymers in industrial and engineering contexts, chiey due to the versatility of its mechanical response. This response can be tuned through network and chain structure, degree of crystallinity, and molecular weight. PE is found in several forms including low density (LDPE), high density (HDPE), and ultra-high molecular weight (UHMWPE). The focus here was on HDPE and UHMWPE, of pedigree described in the following section. Materials were well-characterized prior to study and are representative of semi-crystalline polymers of interest to DOE and DoD. Semi-crystalline PE undergoes a glass transition at low temperature (-35°C) and melts across a range of moderate temperatures (~80-180°C), depending on its structure. It is typically inert chemically, has low

  12. Atomistic simulation of CO 2 solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations coupled with thermodynamic integration to obtain the excess chemical potential and pressure-composition phase diagrams for CO2 in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers. Poly(ethylene oxide

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2012-01-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene

  14. Evidence on unusual way of cocaine smuggling: cocaine-polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) solid solution--study of clandestine laboratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostic, T; Klemenc, S

    2007-07-04

    An abandoned clandestine laboratory was seized in Slovenia. All confiscated exhibits were analysed in a forensic laboratory, where the following analytical methods were applied: capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined also by solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) and pyrolysis (Py) technique, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detector (SEM-EDX). The most interesting analytical findings can be summarised as follows: at the crime scene some plastic pieces, which contained cocaine dissolved (as solid solution) in polymethyl methacrylate-plexiglass (PMMA), were found. The highest cocaine concentration measured in the plastic sample was about 15% by weight. Two larger lumps of material (12 and 3 kg) were composed mainly of PMMA and CaCO3 and contained only 0.4 and 0.5% of cocaine, respectively. As for the low cocaine concentration, we assume that those two lumps of material represent discarded waste product--residue after the isolation of cocaine from plastic. Higher quantities of pure solvents (41 l) and solvent mixtures (87 l) were seized. We identified three types of pure solvents (acetone, gasoline and benzine) and two different types of solvent mixtures (benzine/acetone and gasoline/acetone). The total seized volume (87 l) of solvent mixtures holds approximately 395 g of solid residue formed mainly of PMMA and cocaine. Obviously solvent mixtures were used for isolation of cocaine from the plastic. Small quantities of relatively pure cocaine base were identified on different objects. There were two cotton sheets, most probably used for filtration. One sheet had traces of cocaine base (76% purity) on the surface, while cocaine in hydrochloride form (96%) was identified on the other sheet. GC-MS analyses of micro traces isolated from analytical balances showed the presence of cocaine and some common adulterants: phenacetine, lidocaine and procaine. A cocaine

  15. Effect of zirconium oxide nanoparticles addition on the optical and tensile properties of polymethyl methacrylate denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohammed M; Abualsaud, Reem; Rahoma, Ahmed; Al-Thobity, Ahmad M; Al-Abidi, Khalid S; Akhtar, Sultan

    2018-01-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is widely used for the fabrication of removable prostheses. Recently, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZrO 2 ) have been added to improve some properties of PMMA, but their effect on the optical properties and tensile strength are neglected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nano-ZrO 2 addition on the translucency and tensile strength of the PMMA denture base material. Eighty specimens (40 dumbbell-shaped and 40 discs) were prepared out of heat-polymerized acrylic resin and divided into four groups per test (n=10). The control group for each test included unreinforced acrylic, while the test groups were reinforced with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt% nano-ZrO 2 . Acrylic resin was mixed according to manufacturer's instructions, packed, and processed by conventional method. After polymerization, all specimens were finished, polished, and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 48±2 hours. Tensile strength (MPa) was evaluated using the universal testing machine while the specimens' translucency was examined using a spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using the paired sample t -test ( p ≤0.05). A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the morphological changes and topography of the fractured surfaces. This study showed that the mean tensile strength of the PMMA in the test groups of 2.5%NZ, 5%NZ, and 7.5%NZ was significantly higher than the control group. The tensile strength increased significantly after nano-ZrO 2 addition, and the maximum increase seen was in the 7.5%NZ group. The translucency values of the experimental groups were significantly lower than those of the control group. Within the reinforced groups, the 2.5%NZ group had significantly higher translucency values when compared to the 5%NZ and 7.5%NZ groups. The addition of nano-ZrO 2 increased the tensile strength of the denture base acrylic. The increase was directly proportional to the nano-ZrO 2 concentration. The

  16. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthethwa, T.P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); Moloto, M.J., E-mail: mmoloto@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028 (South Africa); De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P. [CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, 4 Gomery avenue, Summerstrand, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2011-04-15

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: {yields} TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. {yields} The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. {yields} The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. {yields} Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the

  17. Properties of electrospun CdS and CdSe filled poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mthethwa, T.P.; Moloto, M.J.; De Vries, A.; Matabola, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: SEM images of CdS/PMMA showing coiling as loading of CdS nanoparticles is increased. Thermal stability is increased with increase in %loading of both CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Research highlights: → TOPO-capped CdS and HDA-capped CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized and fully characterized. → The nanoparticles were mixed with the polymer, PMMA using electrospinning technique using 2, 5 and 10% weight loadings. → The mixture was spun to produce fibres with optical and thermal properties showing significant change and also the increase in loading causing bending or spiraling. → Both TEM images for nanoparticles and SEM for fibres shows the morphology and sizes of the particles. -- Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibres incorporating CdS and CdSe quantum dots (nanoparticles). Different nanoparticle loadings (2, 5 and 10 wt% with respect to PMMA) were used and the effect of the quantum dots on the properties of the fibres was studied. The optical properties of the hybrid composite fibres were investigated by photoluminescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometry were also used to investigate the morphology and structure of the fibres. The optical studies showed that the size-tunable optical properties can be achieved in the polymer fibres by addition of quantum dots. SEM images showed that the morphologies of the fibres were dependent on the added amounts of quantum dots. A spiral type of morphology was observed with an increase in the concentration of CdS and CdSe nanoparticles. Less beaded structures and bigger diameter fibres were obtained at higher quantum dot concentrations. X-ray diffractometry detected the amorphous peaks of the polymer and even after the quantum dots were added and the FTIR analysis shows that there was no considerable interaction between the quantum dots and the polymer fibres at low

  18. Influence of different factors on the destruction of films based on polylactic acid and oxidized polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorova, M. V.; Tertyshnaya, Yu. V.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Shibryaeva, L. S.; Popov, A. A.; Nikolaeva, S.

    2016-11-01

    Influence of different environmental factors on the degradation of film samples based on polylactic acid and low density polyethylene with the addition of oxidized polyethylene was studied in this work. Different methods were used to find the relationship between degradation and ultraviolet, moisture, oxygen. It was found that the addition of oxidized polyethylene, used as a model of recycled polyethylene, promotes the degradation of blends.

  19. Influence of fast neutrons on thermophysical properties of pure and borated low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, A. M.; Kassem, M.

    1990-01-01

    The impact of radiation crosslinking on the mechanical, thermomechanical and electrical conductivity properties of LDPE and borated polyethylene have been studied and evaluated. The 8% borated polyethylene samples have added a new advantage where the tensile strength has increased to the maximum and then it became constant at higher crosslink density. Moreover, the electrical conductivity of 8% borated polyethylene is much higher than pure and 4% borated polyethylene. (author). 16 refs., 8 figs

  20. Preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposites via melt intercalation: Effect of organoclay on thermal, mechanical and flammability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, Lakshmi; Mohanty, Smita [Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials (LARPM), Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Nayak, Sanjay K., E-mail: drsknayak@gmail.com [Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials (LARPM), Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Ali, Anwar [Laboratory for Advanced Research in Polymeric Materials (LARPM), Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The present work deals with preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites via melt intercalation technique. {yields} The effect of various modified nanoclays on the properties of base matrix has been investigated. {yields} It was observed that compatibilization using maleic anhydride improved the performance characteristics of PMMA/layered silicate nanocomposites. - Abstract: The PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing method. The influence of organoclay loading on extent of intercalation, thermal, mechanical and flammability properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-clay nanocomposites were studied. Three different organoclay modifiers with varying hydrophobicity (single tallow vs. ditallow) were investigated. The nanocomposites were characterized by using wide angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. The intercalation of polymer chain within the silicate galleries was confirmed by WAXD and TEM. Mechanical properties such as tensile modulus (E), tensile strength, percentage elongation at break and impact strength were determined for nanocomposites at various clay loadings. Overall thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by 16-17 deg. C. The enhancement in T{sub g} of nanocomposite is merely by 2-4 deg. C. The incorporation of maleic anhydride as compatibilizer further enhanced all the properties indicating improved interface between PMMA and clay. The flammability characteristics were studied by determining the rate of burning and LOI.

  1. Preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-clay nanocomposites via melt intercalation: Effect of organoclay on thermal, mechanical and flammability properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, Lakshmi; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K.; Ali, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The present work deals with preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites via melt intercalation technique. → The effect of various modified nanoclays on the properties of base matrix has been investigated. → It was observed that compatibilization using maleic anhydride improved the performance characteristics of PMMA/layered silicate nanocomposites. - Abstract: The PMMA nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing method. The influence of organoclay loading on extent of intercalation, thermal, mechanical and flammability properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-clay nanocomposites were studied. Three different organoclay modifiers with varying hydrophobicity (single tallow vs. ditallow) were investigated. The nanocomposites were characterized by using wide angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile tests. The intercalation of polymer chain within the silicate galleries was confirmed by WAXD and TEM. Mechanical properties such as tensile modulus (E), tensile strength, percentage elongation at break and impact strength were determined for nanocomposites at various clay loadings. Overall thermal stability of nanocomposites increased by 16-17 deg. C. The enhancement in T g of nanocomposite is merely by 2-4 deg. C. The incorporation of maleic anhydride as compatibilizer further enhanced all the properties indicating improved interface between PMMA and clay. The flammability characteristics were studied by determining the rate of burning and LOI.

  2. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible boronic acid-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles at sub-100 nm scale for glucose sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalak, Huseyin [Selcuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Turkey); Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine [Selcuk University, Advanced Technology Research and Application Center (Turkey); Camli, Sevket Tolga, E-mail: tolgacamli@gmail.com [Biyotez Machinery Chemistry R& D Co. Ltd. (Turkey); Yavuz, Mustafa Selman, E-mail: selmanyavuz@selcuk.edu.tr [Selcuk University, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles containing 4-vinylphenyl boronic acid were synthesized in one pot by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Boron content in the nanoparticles was confirmed by electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In polymerization process, several co-monomer ratios were studied in order to obtain optimum nanoparticle size. Average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index of nanoparticles versus variation of acetone percentage in the solvent mixture and total monomer concentration were investigated. The effect of boronic acid concentration in the monomer mixture on nanoparticle size and size distribution was also reported. Without further functionalization to the nanoparticles, the catechol dye, alizarin red S, was bound to boronic acid-containing nanoparticles. These nanoparticles behave as a nanosensor by which glucose or fructose can be easily detected. Dye-containing nanoparticles were undertaken displacement reaction by glucose or fructose. The glucose or fructose content was also monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of boronic acid-carrying poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out in 3T3 cells, which showed no toxicity effect on the cells.

  3. One-pot synthesis of biocompatible boronic acid-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles at sub-100 nm scale for glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakalak, Huseyin; Ulasan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Emine; Camli, Sevket Tolga; Yavuz, Mustafa Selman

    2014-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles containing 4-vinylphenyl boronic acid were synthesized in one pot by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Boron content in the nanoparticles was confirmed by electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In polymerization process, several co-monomer ratios were studied in order to obtain optimum nanoparticle size. Average hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index of nanoparticles versus variation of acetone percentage in the solvent mixture and total monomer concentration were investigated. The effect of boronic acid concentration in the monomer mixture on nanoparticle size and size distribution was also reported. Without further functionalization to the nanoparticles, the catechol dye, alizarin red S, was bound to boronic acid-containing nanoparticles. These nanoparticles behave as a nanosensor by which glucose or fructose can be easily detected. Dye-containing nanoparticles were undertaken displacement reaction by glucose or fructose. The glucose or fructose content was also monitored by UV–Visible spectrophotometer. Furthermore, cytotoxicity studies of boronic acid-carrying poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles were carried out in 3T3 cells, which showed no toxicity effect on the cells

  4. Annealing behavior of solution grown polyethylene single crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, J.; Tian, M.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology evolution of solution grown polyethylene single crystals has been studied upon annealing below their melting temperature by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM investigations have been performed ex situ, which means AFM investigations at room temperature after the annealing

  5. Colorimetry analysis of polypropylene-polyethylene base copoliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunol, J. J.; Saurina, J.; Carrasco, F.; Pages, P.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, crystallisation process study has been performed, from the molten material, in polypropylene-polyethylene (PP-PE) copolymers rich in PP (∼ 95 wgh.%), using different additives. Some samples have been artificially aged. Calorimetric analysis has been performed by different scanning calorimetry (DSC), from which crystallisation kinetics has been studied under dynamic conditions. (Author) 22 refs

  6. Oriented nanocomposites of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene and gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heffels, W.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Caseri, W.R.; Smith, P.

    2000-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites were prepd. by mixing ultrahigh-mol.-wt. polyethylene and gold colloids coated with a self-assembled monolayer of dodecanethiol. Subsequently, these materials were oriented by solid state drawing which induced the formation of uniaxially oriented arrays of gold particles. As a

  7. The improvement of polyethylene prostheses through radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Marais, F.

    1977-01-01

    During the past decade, remarkable progress has been made in the utilization of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a material for the manufacture of prostheses used in orthopaedic operations. This polymer contributes largely to the success of total hip replacement. In the case of total knee replacement it was considered imperative that a more hard-wearing polymer should be developed if at all possible, because not only are the cold-flow characteristics of ordinary high-density polyethylene at high pressures a limiting factor, but particle formation from friction can furthermore lead to physiological side-effects which adversely affect the efficacy of joints made from this material, especially so in the case of knee-joints. Bearing in mind the excellent improvements to be obtained through the radiation crosslinking of polyethylene film, the radiation crosslinking of high-density polyethylene prostheses seemed to be a logical avenue to investigate. Experimental details are presented. Gamma radiation was used. Impact strength and tensile strength measurements were made on specimens irradiated over a dose range of 0 to 80 Mrad. The results are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Tough, semiconducting polyethylene-poly(3-hexylthiophene) diblock copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, C.; Goffri, S.; Breiby, Dag Werner

    2007-01-01

    Semiconducting diblock copolymers of polyethylene (PE) and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) are demonstrated to exhibit a rich phase behaviour, judicious use of which permitted us to fabricate field-effect transistors that show saturated charge carrier mobilities, mu(FET), as high as 2 x...

  9. Ultra strong polymer fibers : Ab initio calculations on polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Groot, R.A. de; Meier, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The Car-Parrinello technique is used to study the electronic structure of orthorhombic polyethylene as well as the elastic modulus. The theoretical band structure and density of states are in very good agreement with experiments. The best experimentally realized elastic modulus is better than 86% of

  10. Morphological study of synthesized chlorinated polyethylene by inductive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.; Carapia, L.; Fernandez, G.; Morales, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a morphological study on the synthesis of Chlorinated polyethylene for plasma starting from Trichloroethylene in a polymerization process and ablation simultaneous of metals, where silver atoms and copper are inserted directly during the growth of the polymer from the gas phase to the one solid is presented. (Author)

  11. Gains or Losses of Ultratrace Elements in Polyethylene Containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1982-01-01

    The extent of elimination of losses and reduction of blank values in ultratrace elemental analysis can only be ascertained by comprehensive investigations for each element separately. Different, and partially conflicting precautions are found to be needed in the determination of manganese, copper......, selenium, and mercury by neutron-activation analysis when polyethylene irradiation containers are used....

  12. Effect of coloured polyethylene mulch and harvesting stage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coloured polyethylene significantly (P < 0.05) increased the stalk length, stalk girth, number of tillers, chewable stalk and yield of NCS 008 for the main, as well as, the ratoon crops. Harvesting stage significantly influenced the stalk length, stalk girth and yield. Plots harvested 12 months after planting performed better than ...

  13. Product analysis for polyethylene degradation by radiation and thermal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masaki; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Seguchi, Tadao

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation products in crosslinked polyethylene for cable insulation formed during thermal and radiation ageing were analyzed by FTIR-ATR. The products were composed of carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, and carboxylic anhydride for all ageing conditions. The relative yields of carboxylic ester and carboxylic anhydride increased with an increase of temperature for radiation and thermal ageing. The carboxylic acid was the primary oxidation product and the ester and anhydride were secondary products formed by the thermally induced reactions of the carboxylic acids. The carboxylic acid could be produced by chain scission at any temperature followed by the oxidation of the free radicals formed in the polyethylene. The results of the analysis led to formulation of a new oxidation mechanism which was different from the chain reactions via peroxy radicals and peroxides. - Highlights: ► Products analysis of polyethylene degradation by radiation and thermal ageing. ► Components of carbonyl compounds produced in polyethylene by thermal and radiation oxidation were determined by FTIR. ► Carbonyl compounds comprised carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, and carboxylic anhydride. ► Carboxylic acid was the primary oxidation product of chain scission at any oxidation temperature. ► Carboxylic ester and carboxylic anhydride are secondary products formed from carboxylic acid at higher temperature.

  14. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to continuation or... was given by posting copies of the notice in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  15. Quality control in manufacture of lead boron polyethylene plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ying

    2008-01-01

    For the quality assurance management in the manufacture of lead boron polyethylene plate,target shall be defined and planning shall be conducted first; personnel shall be trained to improve the execution force; institutional system shall be continuously upgraded and environment protection shall be strengthened.Quality management has achieved excellent result, with qualification rate for contracts reaches 100%, to ensure successful production. (author)

  16. Characteristics of polyethylene-moderated 252Cf neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejnikov, V.E.; Beskrovnaya, L.G.; Florko, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    Polyethylene-moderated 252 Cf neutron sources were designed to produce neutron reference fields' spectra that simulate the spectra observed in the workplaces within nuclear reactors and accelerators. The paper describes the neutron sources and fields. Neutron spectra were calculated by Monte Carlo method and compared with experimental data

  17. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol 4000 on constipation of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Lian-yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is one of themost common chronic gastrointestinal problems. The estimated incidence of constipation in the United States is3% to 19% in general population.1,2 Patientswith head injuries, spinal cord injuries, pelvic fractures, lower extremity fractures ormultiple traumas require a long-term bed rest, during which the incidence of constipation reached as high as 50%.3,4 Constipation always brings inconvenience and tremendous suffering to patientsand strongly influences the recovery from primary disease. Irritants or lubricants can relieve the symptoms, but long-term application of them may lead to side effects like melanosis coli5 and cathartic colon6. The absorption of fat soluble vitamins is also affected.7 Polyethylene glycol 4000 (trade name: Forlax®, a long chain polymer with a high molecular weight, can conjugate withwater molecule through hydrogen bond to increase the water content and volume of stools, thereby, facilitate bowelmovement and defecation.8,9 It is neither absorbed nor metabolized in the digestive tract, hence it is highly safe and well tolerable. Thus, long-term medication of polyethylene glycol 4000 is conducive to the reconstruction of normal defecation pattern. Therefore, polyethylene glycol 4000 is now being widely used as the mainstay adult chronic functional constipation management.10,11 The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 on adult functional constipation of posttraumatic bedridden patients.

  18. Laboratory tests on fungal resistance of wood filled polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2002-01-01

    A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown-and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible...

  19. Thermal Cracking of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Waste into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste low density polyethylene film (table water sachets) was converted into solid, liquid oil and gaseous products by thermal process in a self- designed stainless steel laboratory reactor. The waste polymer was completely pyrolized within the temperature range of 474 – 520°C and 2hours reaction time. The solid residue ...

  20. Evaluating the toxicity of permeability enhanchers of polyethylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of polyethylene glycol brij ethers surfactants group on red blood cells as a model for biological membranes. Also in this study, physicochemical properties including emulsification index (E24), foam producing activity (Fh) and critical micelle concentration (cmc) were studied.

  1. Extraction of CdS pigment from waste polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanrooij, P.H.P.; Agarwal, U.S.; Meuldijk, J.; Kasteren, van J.M.N.; Lemstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide has often been used as a pigment in plastics such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Removal of CdS after the useful life of plastics is desired since it poses an environmental hazard in the waste phase of these plastics. In this study, a process is investigated to convert the

  2. Enhanced Ionic Conductivity of Poly(Ethylene Imine) Phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senadeera, G.K.R.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    The conductivity of mixtures of phosphoric acid with poly(ethylene imine) has been studied, and it was found that the conductivity of such mixtures with high acid content can be enhanced by the addition of highly dispersed silica (fumed silica). At the same time, silica addition increases the sti...

  3. Surface modification of polyethylene by diffuse barrier discharge plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Števiar, M.; Popelka, A.; Chodák, I.; Mosnáček, J.; Špírková, Milena; Janigová, I.; Kleinová, A.; Sedliačik, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2013), s. 516-523 ISSN 0032-3888 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : low-density polyethylene * plasma discharge * surface modification Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2013

  4. Considering the use of polyethylene vapour barriers in temperate climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, M.D. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Brown, W.C. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Most building envelope assemblies in Canada must include a vapour barrier in order to comply with Canadian building codes. The installation of sheet polyethylene between the studs and the interior sheathing has been the most common method because it provides more diffusion resistance than necessary to control condensation within a building envelope assembly. It has been suggested that the presence of a polyethylene vapour barrier on the warm-in-winter side of the insulation may actually cause moisture problems because a very low permeance material increases average moisture levels. This paper examined the theory that a vapour barrier at this location restricts drying of moisture that enters the building from outside. Pacific coastal regions of Canada and the United States were presented as examples. Other ways that a polyethylene vapour barrier affects wall performance were also presented. The advanced hygrothermal model HygIRC, developed by Canada's National Research Council, was used to simulate the performance of a wall assembly. Results indicate that eliminating the low permeance polyethylene vapour barrier does not necessarily reduce the risk of moisture problems. Removal of the vapour barrier may have some negative effects, such as increased risk of periodic moisture accumulation and mold growth on paper-faced gypsum board. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  5. Biodegradation of low density polyethylene (LDPE) by a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    The microbial degradation of LDPE was also analyzed by the change in pH of the culture ... The generation of biodegradable polyethylene requires ...... Use of scanning electron microscope for the examination of actinomycetes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 48:171-177. Yamada-Onodera K, Mukumoto H, Katsuyaya Y, Saiganji A, Tani ...

  6. Influence of polystryrene and polyethylene packaging materials on food quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) used for packaging of food were studied on their effect on product quality. Different types of PS were tested: General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS, which contains a dispersed rubber phase) and several blends of

  7. Processing and properties of polyethylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Měřínská, D.; Kubisova, H.; Kalendová, A.; Svoboda, P.; Hromádková, Jiřina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2012), s. 115-131 ISSN 0892-7057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer nanocomposite * montmorillonite * polyethylene Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2012

  8. Comparison of Polyethylene Glycol-Electrolyte Solution vs Polyethylene Glycol-3350 for the Treatment of Fecal Impaction in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Erin E; Gaines, Cameryn L; Tillman, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution vs polyethylene glycol-3350 for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients. A retrospective, observational, institutional review board-approved study was conducted over a 1-year time period. Patients were included in the study if they were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of fecal impaction or constipation and were treated with either polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) or polyethylene glycol-3350 (PEG-3350). Patients were excluded if they were discharged prior to resolution of treatment and/or did not receive PEG-ES or PEG-3350. Fifty-one patients (ranging in age from 1 month to 15 years) were evaluated: 23 patients received PEG-ES and 28 patients received PEG-3350. Sex, race, age, and weight were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Resolution of fecal impaction was not significantly different between PEG-ES vs PEG-3350 (87% and 86%, respectively; p = 0.87). There was only 1 reported side effect with PEG-3350, vs 11 reported side effects with PEG-ES (p PEG-3350 is as effective as PEG-ES for the treatment of fecal impaction in pediatric patients and is associated with fewer side effects.

  9. Influence of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the repair strength of polymethyl methacrylate denture bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad MM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed M Gad,1 Ahmed Rahoma,2,3 Ahmad M Al-Thobity,1 Aws S ArRejaie4 1Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt; 4Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Repeated fracture of the denture base is a common problem in prosthodontics, and it represents a nuisance and a time sink for the clinician. Therefore, the possibility of increasing repair strength using new reinforcement materials is of great interest to prosthodontists.Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of incorporation of zirconia nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2 on the flexural strength and impact strength of repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA denture bases.Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated (90 for each test and divided into three main groups: one control group (intact specimens and two groups divided according to surface design (45° bevels and butt joints, in which specimens were prepared in pairs to create 2.5 mm gaps. Nano-ZrO2 was added to repair resin in 2.5 wt%, 5 wt%, and 7.5 wt% concentrations of acrylic powder. A three-point bending test was used to measure flexural strength, and a Charpy-type test was used to measure impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fracture surfaces and nano-ZrO2 distribution. The results were analyzed with a paired sample t-test and an unpaired t-test, with a P-value of ≤0.05 being significant.Results: Incorporation of nano-ZrO2 into the repair resin significantly increased flexural strength (P<0.05. The highest value was found in the bevel group reinforced with 7.5% nano-ZrO2, whereas the lowest value was found in the butt group reinforced with 2.5% nano

  10. The primary report of percutaneous polymethyl methacrylate cementoplasty in osteolytic metastases of the pelvis and peripheral bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Gang; Jin Peng; Yi Yuhai; Xie Zhiyong; Zhang Xuping; Li Guoying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To propose a technique and treatment of percutaneous polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty for painful metastatic lesions of the pelvis, humerus, and tibia. Methods: Percutaneous PMMA cementoplasty was performed in 24 cases, including the lesions of S1 in 9 cases, acetabulum in 7 cases, ischium in 5 cases, humerus in 2 cases, and tibia in 1 case. There were 26 local lesions. The puncture approach was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. The S1 vertebral body puncture was performed with lateral transsacroiliac joint approach. The needle progression was controlled in the anteroposterior projection with a needle course above the level of the S1 foramen. With the needle adjacent to the S1 vertebral body edge, the needle tip should center just in front of the spinal canal in the lateral fluoroscopic projection. The acetabular roof puncture was performed with lateral approach. The needle progression was controlled in the anteroposterior and lateral projections alternately with a needle course parallel to the body axial plane. The puncture needle arrived directly at the lesions. The puncture to the ischium was from ischium tubercle to the lesions. The puncture progression to the internal compartment of the acetabulum was with the trajectory of the needle from the ischium tubercle to the lesion. The puncture progression to the humerus should avoid conflicting with the radial nerve and upper extremity vessels. The needle course should be from the dorsal upper arm to the lesions. As for the lesions of the tibia, the needle was punctured from the front of tibia to the lesion. After the needle tip placement in the lesions, PMMA in paste condition was injected with the precession injector pressure device under continuous visual control with adequate filling and avoidance of important PMMA leakage. Results: Partial or complete pain relief was obtained in all 24 patients (CR in 10 cases, PR in 14 cases) within 7 days after the operation. Clinical improvement

  11. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  12. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental ampersand Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control

  13. Investigations of heavy ion tracks in polyethylene naphthalate films

    CERN Document Server

    Starosta, W; Sartowska, B; Buczkowski, M

    1999-01-01

    The heavy ion beam (with fluence 3x10 sup 8 ion/cm sup 2) from a cyclotron has been used for irradiation of thin polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) films. Latent tracks in these polymeric films have been sensitized by UV radiation and then chemically etched in NaOH solution. The etching process parameters have been controlled by the electroconductivity method. After etching, parameters of samples have been examined by SEM and bubble point methods (Coulter[reg] Porometer II instrument). Results have shown good quality of PEN track membranes with pore sizes in the range: 0.1 - 0.5 mu m. The described procedure is known for thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Taking into consideration that PEN films have got better mechanical, thermal, gas barrier as well as better chemical resistance properties in comparison with PET films, the possibility of application of such membranes is much wider.

  14. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, B.V.

    1981-01-01

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  15. Study of the Auger line shape of polyethylene and diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M; Pepper, S V

    1984-03-01

    The KVV Auger electron line shapes of carbon in polyethylene and diamond have been studied. The spectra were obtained in derivative form by electron beam excitation. They were treated by background subtraction, integration and deconvolution to produce the intrinsic Auger line shape. Electron energy loss spectra provided the response function in the deconvolution procedure. The line shape from polyethylene is compared with spectra from linear alkanes and with a previous spectrum of Kelber et al. Both spectra are compared with the self-convolution of their full valence band densities of states and of their p-projected densities. The experimental spectra could not be understood in terms of existing theories. This is so even when correlation effects are qualitatively taken into account according to the theories of Cini and Sawatzky and Lenselink.

  16. Catalytic thermal decomposition of polyethylene determined by thermogravimetric treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, J.; Khan, M.S.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using commercially available oxides as catalysts. TGA experiments were used to evaluate the activity of different catalysts on low density polyethylene (LDPE) degradation and to study the effect in terms of type and amount of catalyst used. All the catalysts used improved the pyrolysis of LDPE. The reaction rates were found to increase with increase in amount of catalyst. Among the catalysts used, alumina acidic active catalyst performed better at all four fractions. Moreover, alumina acidic active reduced weight loss temperature better than others tested catalysts. The effect of alumina neutral catalyst on the pyrolysis of LDPE is less pronounced due to its small surface area and pore size. The effect of these catalysts showed that surface area, number of acidic sites and pore size were found as the key factors for the energy efficient degradation of polymers. (author)

  17. Laser patterned carbon–polyethylene mesh electrodes for wound diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phair, Jolene; Joshi, Mayank; Benson, John; McDonald, Damian; Davis, James, E-mail: james.davis@ulster.ac.uk

    2014-02-14

    Carbon loaded polyethylene films were selected as the base substrate for a mechanically flexible and conductive sensing material for use wound monitoring technologies. The films were processed using laser ablation of the surface to increase the effective surface area of the electrode and then subject to an oxidative electrochemical etch to improve the electron transfer kinetics. The surface morphology of the resulting films was analysed and the electrode performance in relation to monitoring uric acid, a key wound biomarker, was optimized. A prototype smart bandage was designed, based on interfacing the mesh to a portable potentiostat, and the response to urate and potential interferences assessed. - Highlights: • Innovative use of a carbon–polyethylene mesh for wound sensing applications. • Electroanalytical characterisation of a mechanically flexible conductive film. • Design and preliminary characterisation of an integrated smart bandage.

  18. Optimization of permanganic etching of polyethylenes for scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, K.L.; Phillips, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The permanganic etching technique has been studied as a function of time, temperature, and concentration for a series of polyethylenes. Kinetic studies show that a film of reaction products builds up on the surface, impeding further etching, an effect which is greatest for the lowest-crystallinity polymers. SEM studies combined with EDS show that the film contains sulfur, potassium and some manganese. An artifact is produced by the etching process which is impossible to remove by washing procedures if certain limits of time, temperature, and concentration are exceeded. For lower-crystallinity polyethylenes multiple etching and washing steps were required for optimal resolution. Plastic deformation during specimen preparation, whether from scratches or freeze fracturing, enhances artifact formation. When appropriate procedures are used, virtually artifact-free surfaces can be produced allowing a combination of permanganic etching and scanning electron microscopy to give a rapid method for detailed morphological characterization of bulk specimens

  19. Laser patterned carbon–polyethylene mesh electrodes for wound diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phair, Jolene; Joshi, Mayank; Benson, John; McDonald, Damian; Davis, James

    2014-01-01

    Carbon loaded polyethylene films were selected as the base substrate for a mechanically flexible and conductive sensing material for use wound monitoring technologies. The films were processed using laser ablation of the surface to increase the effective surface area of the electrode and then subject to an oxidative electrochemical etch to improve the electron transfer kinetics. The surface morphology of the resulting films was analysed and the electrode performance in relation to monitoring uric acid, a key wound biomarker, was optimized. A prototype smart bandage was designed, based on interfacing the mesh to a portable potentiostat, and the response to urate and potential interferences assessed. - Highlights: • Innovative use of a carbon–polyethylene mesh for wound sensing applications. • Electroanalytical characterisation of a mechanically flexible conductive film. • Design and preliminary characterisation of an integrated smart bandage

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Control of Wastewater Dual Wall Polyethylene Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salimi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pipes are the most important components of wastewater collection systems accounting for considerable costs in constructing such systems. In view of this and regarding the growing trend in design and execution of wastewater collection and transmission lines in recent years, various types of pipes have been introduced into the market. Selection of appropriate pipes and their qualitative and quantitative control, therefore, call for due consideration given their high cost share in collection systems. In this paper, efforts are made to consider various types of pipes used in (urban and rural wastewater collection networks in an attempt to signal the significance of qualitative and quantitative control of different dual wall polyethylene pipes used as sewers. Finally, the relevant issues regarding the methods and conditions for technical control and inspection of polyethylene sewer lines during construction and operation stages are provided.

  1. Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposites preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvino, Alexandre C.; Dias, Marcos L.; Bezerra, Ana Beatriz F.

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene and polyethylene nanocomposites are well known for their improved properties when compared with the neat polymers. In this work we report the preparation, characterization and the activity studies of a fourth generation Ziegler-Natta catalyst for the preparation of polyolefin/clay nanocomposites. The catalyst was prepared treating an organo-modified silicate with magnesium and titanium compounds. The content of titanium and that of the magnesium of the catalyst were determined by UV-vis spectroscopy and atomic absorption respectively. The first results show that the catalyst is active for propylene polymerization being suitable for polypropylene/clay nanocomposite preparation. The catalyst activity for ethylene polymerization was also investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the polyethylene samples suggest the clay exfoliation occurs in the in situ polymerization, even with high clay loading (about 9 %) indicating that a nanocomposite was formed. (author)

  2. Influence of corona charging in cellular polyethylene film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega Brana, Gustavo; Magraner, Francisco; Quijano, Alfredo; Llovera Segovia, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Cellular polymers have recently attracted attention for their property of exhibiting a piezoelectric constant when they are electrically charged. The electrostatic charge generated in the voids by the internal discharges creates and internal macrodipole which is responsible for the piezoelectric effect. Charging by corona discharge is the most used method for cellular polymers. Many works has been published on polypropylene and polyethylene films mainly focused on the required expansion process or on the results obtained for raw cellular materials electrically activated. Our work is based on commercial polyethylene cellular films which have been physically characterized and electrically activated. The effect of thermal treatment, physical uniaxial or biaxial stretching and corona charging was investigated. The new method of corona charging improved the piezoelectric constant under other activation conditions.

  3. Influence of corona charging in cellular polyethylene film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Brana, Gustavo; Magraner, Francisco; Quijano, Alfredo [Instituto Tecnologico de la Energia (ITE), Av. Juan de la Cierva 24, Parque Tecnologico de Valencia, 46980 Paterna-Valencia (Spain); Llovera Segovia, Pedro, E-mail: gustavo.ortega@ite.es [Instituto de TecnologIa Electrica - Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022-Valencia (Spain)

    2011-06-23

    Cellular polymers have recently attracted attention for their property of exhibiting a piezoelectric constant when they are electrically charged. The electrostatic charge generated in the voids by the internal discharges creates and internal macrodipole which is responsible for the piezoelectric effect. Charging by corona discharge is the most used method for cellular polymers. Many works has been published on polypropylene and polyethylene films mainly focused on the required expansion process or on the results obtained for raw cellular materials electrically activated. Our work is based on commercial polyethylene cellular films which have been physically characterized and electrically activated. The effect of thermal treatment, physical uniaxial or biaxial stretching and corona charging was investigated. The new method of corona charging improved the piezoelectric constant under other activation conditions.

  4. 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl methacrylate-graft-natural rubber: Synthesis and application as compatibilizer in natural rubber/fluoroelastomer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchiranan, N., E-mail: nhn78@hotmail.com [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Wannako, P. [Program in Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Paosawatyanyong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Prasassarakich, P. [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-05-15

    The incompatibility and immiscibility of natural rubber (NR)/fluoroelastomers (FKM) blends were improved by incorporation of a graft copolymer synthesized from the free radical graft copolymerization of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEM) onto NR initiated by benzoyl peroxide via a melt-mixing process. The grafting properties were investigated as functions of the initiator and monomer concentrations, reaction temperature and time. At the optimal conditions, the obtained graft NR (GNR) purified by Soxhlet extraction contained a maximum grafting efficiency of 1.34% with 49.1% monomer conversion. The structure of the purified GNR was analyzed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR and {sup 19}F NMR). The gross GNR was then applied as the compatibilizer for NR/FKM vulcanizates (20/80 (w/w)) cured by peroxide vulcanization. The addition of GNR at 15 parts per hundred of rubber (phr) gave a vulcanizate with the highest tensile strength (9.93 MPa), some 5.31-fold higher than that of the incompatibilized one (1.87 MPa). This is likely to be due to the higher degree of homogeneity of the constituent phases in the GNR-compatibilized blends, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GNR-compatibilized NR/FKM vulcanizates were also resistant to gasohol E85 (85% (w/w) of ethanol). Highlights: ► 2,2,2-Trifluoroethyl methacrylate could be grafted on NR via melt-mixing process. ► Effect of grafting parameters on grafting efficiency and gel content was observed. ► NR/FKM containing graft NR had higher tensile strength than uncompatibilized ones. ► The compatibilized NR/FKM vulcanizates had higher gasohol-swelling resistance.

  5. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) grafted halloysite nanotubes as a molecular host matrix for luminescent ions prepared by surface-initiated RAFT polymerization and coordination chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Rafiqul; Bach, Long Giang; Lim, Kwon Taek, E-mail: ktlim@pknu.ac.kr

    2013-07-01

    A fluorescent nanohybrid complex comprising of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), and europium ions (Eu{sup 3+}) was synthesized by the combination of surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization and coordination chemistry. Initially, PHEMA was grafted from the HNTs by SI-RAFT and then reacted with succinic anhydride to provide carboxyl acid groups on the external layers of HNTs-g-PHEMA nanohybrids. The subsequent coordination of the nanohybrids with Eu{sup 3+} ions afforded photoluminescent Eu{sup 3+} tagged HNTs-g-PHEMA nanohybrid complexes (HNTs-g-PHEMA-Eu{sup 3+}). The structure, morphology, and fluorescence properties of the Eu{sup 3+} coordinated nanohybrid complexes were investigated by respective physical and spectral studies. FT-IR, XPS, and EDS analyses suggested the formation of the HNTs-g-PHEMA-Eu{sup 3+} nanohybrids. FE-SEM images indicated the immobilization of polymer layers on HNTs. TGA scans further demonstrated the grafting of PHEMA onto HNTs surface. The optical properties of HNTs-g-PHEMA-Eu{sup 3+} nanohybrid complexes were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  6. Hydroxyethyl methacrylate grafted carboxy methyl tamarind (CMT-g-HEMA) polysaccharide based matrix as a suitable scaffold for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Priyanka; Kumar, Satish; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kaur, Navneet; Sanyasi, Sridhar; Chawla, Saurabh; Goswami, Chandan; Goswami, Luna

    2018-06-01

    Patho-physiologies related to skin are diverse in nature such as burns, skin ulcers, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis etc. which impose severe bio-medical problems and thus enforce requirement of new and healthy skin prepared through tissues engineering methodologies. However, fully functional and biodegradable matrix for attachment, growth, proliferation and differentiation of the relevant cells is not available. In the present study, we introduce a set of hydrogels synthesized by incorporation of a synthetic monomer (Hydroxyethlmethacryate) with a semi-synthetic polymer backbone (carboxy methyl tamarind, CMT) in different mole ratios. We termed these materials as CMT:HEMA based hydrogels and these were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques, namely by X-Ray Diffraction, SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering. Biocompatibility studies with HaCaT, NIH-3T3 and mouse dermal fibroblasts confirm that this material is biocompatible. MTT assay further confirmed that this material does not have any cytotoxic effects. Assays for mitochondrial functionality such as ATP assay and mitochondrial reactive oxygen (ROS) generation also suggest that this material is safe and does not have any cytotoxicity. Hemolytic assay with red blood cells and acute skin irritation test on SD Rats confirmed that this material is suitable for ex-vivo application in future. We suggest that this hydrogel is suitable for in-vivo applications and may have clinical and commercial importance against skin disorders. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Modification Of Poly(glycidyl Methacrylate) Grafted Onto Crosslinked Pvc With Tertiary Amine Group And Use For Removing Acidic Dyes From Water

    OpenAIRE

    Yorgun, Gülden

    2009-01-01

    In this study, glycidylmethacrylate is grafted onto partially dehydrochlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (DHPVC) using ATRP method and polymerization kinetics of the reaction is studied. Then, the polymeric resin was interacted with excess of diethylamine, giving a tertiary amine containing sorbent. Surface initiated polymerizations have been widely used to overcome inadequate properties of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC). Epoxy group is one of the most important type to be integrated into polymers. T...

  8. Thermoluminescence glow curves of irradiated PMMA and low density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Koji; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Kumakiri, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Yoshio.

    1985-03-01

    Light emission from polymers is observed when polymers preirradiated with ionizing radiation at low temperature are heated gradually. The light emission is supposedly resulted from recombination of electrons with active centers produced in polymers or from some other processes involving charge transfer, but no definite explanation has been given at present on the thermoluminescent centers. This report describes our studies on the effects of impurities contained in polymers and pressure of ambient gases on the thermoluminescent glow curve of PMMA and low density polyethylene, which are often used for plastic film dosimeters. In the glow curve of PMMA, only one peak was observed at 110 K in an H 2 or He atmosphere at 760 Torr, but the intensity of the peak decreased with decreasing the H 2 or He gas pressure. At 10 -5 Torr H 2 or He atmosphere the peak disappered, and two sharp peaks appeared in the temperature range from 200 to 250 K. On the other hand, in the glow curve of low density polyethylene, three peaks were observed at 120 K, 180 K and 250 K in the presence of H 2 or He gas at 760 Torr. The effects of pressure of ambient gases and impurities in the polyethylene on these peaks indicate that the peak at 120 K is due to luminescent center produced on the surface or just below the surface of the matrix by collision of excited atoms or molecules of gases with polymer molecules, the peak at 120 K is originated from impurities in the matrix, and the peak at 250 0 K corresponds to luminescent center produced in polyethylene matrix. (author)

  9. A polyethylene glycol radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human immunoglobulin G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, S.J.; Taylor, R.P.; Andrews, B.S.

    1979-01-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) radioimmunoprecipitation assay for human IgG is described that is sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.5 ng of IgG. This model antibody-antigen system was also used to study the stoichiometries of PEG-precipitation complexes. The results suggest that the presence of PEG may affect the stoichiometry of the complexes which precipitate from solution. (Auth.)

  10. Constraint effect on the slow crack growth in polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Zouhar, Michal; Nezbedová, E.; Sadílek, J.; Žídek, J.; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2012), s. 118-126 ISSN 1757-9864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GA106/09/0279; GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : slow crack growth * polyethylene * constraint Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  11. A liquid nitrogen cooled polyethylene moderator for the Harwell Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, B.C.; Hey, P.D.; Houzego, P.J.; Mack, B.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Sinclair, R.N.

    1978-09-01

    A 40 mm thick polyethylene block has been maintained at a temperature close to 80 K by using a liquid nitrogen cryostat, and used to moderate neutrons from pulsed source. The assembly has been tested with a dummy heat load of 400W. The cryostat and cooling system was installed on the Harwell 45 MeV electron linac, and enabled the production of sharper pulses in the thermal neutron energy range. The design, safety considerations and performance are described. (author)

  12. Warming up human body by nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Lili; Song, Alex Y.; Wu, Peilin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Peng, Yucan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Yayuan; Yang, Ankun; Zhou, Chenxing; Zhou, Chenyu; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer wi...

  13. Radiation grafting of dimethylaminopropylacrylamide and dimethylaminopropylmethacrylamide onto polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burillo, Guillermina; Oseguera, M.A. [UNAM, Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Vazquez, Carmen; Castillo, L.P. del [UNAM, Inst. de Investigaciones en Materiales, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1997-11-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of dimethylaminopropylacrylamide and dimethylamino-propylmethacrylamide onto polyethylene films, by direct grafting of the vinyl monomers to a polymer by mutual irradiation, has been investigated. The kinetics of the reaction were studied at different irradiation temperatures, monomer concentration and dose rates of gamma rays, and the appropriate reaction conditions for graft polymerization were determined. The thermal and mechanical behavior of the grafted films by means of DMA, TMA, DSC and TGA were also investigated. (author).

  14. Multimeric, Multifunctional Derivatives of Poly(ethylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Bonora

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of multifunctional polymers founded on high-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. The design of new PEG derivatives assembled in a dendrimer-like multimeric fashion or bearing different functionalities on the same molecule is described. Their use as new drug delivery systems based on the conjugation of multiple copies or diversely active drugs on the same biocompatible support is illustrated.

  15. The polymer gel electrolyte based on poly(methyl methacrylate) and its application in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongxun; Huang Miaoliang; Wu Jihuai; Lan Zhang; Hao Sancun; Lin Jianming

    2008-01-01

    Using poly(methyl methacrylate) as polymer host, ethylene carbonate, 1,2-propanediol carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as organic mixture solvents, sodium iodide and iodine as source of I - /I 3 - , a polymer gel electrolyte PMMA-EC/PC/DMC-NaI/I 2 with ionic conductivity of 6.89 mS cm -1 was prepared. Based on the polymer gel electrolyte, a quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated. The quasi-solid-state DSSC possessed a good long-term stability and a light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 4.78% under irradiation of 100 mW cm -2 simulated sunlight, which is almost equal to that of DSSC with a liquid electrolyte

  16. Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehbe, Kerstin; Kollosche, Matthias; Lardong, Sebastian; Kelling, Alexandra; Schilde, Uwe; Taubert, Andreas

    2016-03-16

    Ionogels (IGs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II), tetrachloride cobaltate(II), and tetrachlorido manganate(II) have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic) properties of IGs.

  17. The Formation of Polycomplexes of Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-Co-Maleic Anhydride and Bovine Serum Albumin in the Presence of Copper Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karahan Mesut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The binary and ternary complex formations of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PMVEMA with copper ions and with bovine serum albumin (BSA in the presence of copper ions in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 were examined by the techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy measurements. In the formation of binary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II, the addition of copper ions to the solution of PMVEMA in phosphate buffer solution at pH = 7 forms homogeneous solutions when the molar ratio of Cu(II/MVEMA is 0.5. Then the formations of ternary complexes of PMVEMA-Cu(II-BSA were examined. Study analysis revealed that the toxicities of polymer-metal and polymer-metal-protein mixture solutions depend on the nature and ratio of components in mixtures.

  18. Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Zehbe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionogels (IGs based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II, tetrachloride cobaltate(II, and tetrachlorido manganate(II have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic properties of IGs.

  19. Effect of mixing mode and emulsifying agents on micro/nanoencapsulation of low viscosity self-healing agents in polymethyl methacrylate shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Navarchian, Amir H.; Hayaty, Mehran; Esmailpour, Karim

    2016-09-01

    In this study, epoxy prepolymer (EC 157) and pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP) as hardener were encapsulated separately in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) shells through an internal phase separation method. Chemical structures, morphologies, and thermal properties of healing agent micro/nanocapsules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) respectively. The effects of encapsulation processing conditions such as mechanical mixing rate, ultrasonication, emulsifier type, and co-emulsifier concentration on encapsulation yield, capsule mean diameter and core content were studied using the Taguchi experimental design approach. The results indicated that the main significant factors affecting the yield of encapsulation are emulsifier type and ultrasonication. The most important factors which affect the mean diameter of capsules are emulsifier type and mechanical mixing rate. The core content was influenced by ultrasonication and mechanical mixing rate. The relative optimum condition of encapsulation was also determined using overall evaluation criteria.

  20. Thermal transport in semicrystalline polyethylene by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingyu; Kim, Kyunghoon; Li, Xiaobo; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Gang; Liu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the potential to achieve high-thermal-conductivity polymers by aligning their molecular chains. Combined with other merits, such as low-cost, corrosion resistance, and light weight, such polymers are attractive for heat transfer applications. Due to their quasi-one-dimensional structural nature, the understanding on the thermal transport in those ultra-drawn semicrystalline polymer fibers or films is still lacking. In this paper, we built the ideal repeating units of semicrystalline polyethylene and studied their dependence of thermal conductivity on different crystallinity and interlamellar topology using the molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the conventional models, such as the Choy-Young's model, the series model, and Takayanagi's model, cannot accurately predict the thermal conductivity of the quasi-one-dimensional semicrystalline polyethylene. A modified Takayanagi's model was proposed to explain the dependence of thermal conductivity on the bridge number at intermediate and high crystallinity. We also analyzed the heat transfer pathways and demonstrated the substantial role of interlamellar bridges in the thermal transport in the semicrystalline polyethylene. Our work could contribute to the understanding of the structure-property relationship in semicrystalline polymers and shed some light on the development of plastic heat sinks and thermal management in flexible electronics.

  1. Characterization of ecofriendly polyethylene fiber from plastic bag waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekoco, Asril S.; Noerati, Komalasari, Maya; Kurniawan, Hananto, Agus

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of fiber morphology, fiber count and tenacity of polyethylene fiber which is made from plastic bag waste. Recycling plastic bag waste into textile fiber has not developed yet. Plastic bag waste was recycled into fiber by melt spinning using laboratory scale melt spinning equipment with single orifice nozzle and plunger system. The basic principle of melt spinning is by melting materials and then extruding it through small orifice of a spinning nozzle to form fibers. Diameter and cross section shape of Recycled polyethylene fiber were obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) instrumentation. Linear density of the recycled fiber were analyzed by calculation using denier and dTex formulation and The mechanical strength of the fibers was measured in accordance with the ASTM D 3379-75 standard. The cross section of recycled fiber is circular taking the shape of orifice. Fiber count of 303.75 denier has 1.84 g/denier tenacity and fiber count of 32.52 has 3.44 g/denier tenacity. This conditions is affected by the growth of polymer chain alignment when take-up axial velocity become faster. Recycled polyethylene fiber has a great potential application in non-apparel textile.

  2. High-density polyethylene dosimetry by transvinylene FTIR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    1999-01-01

    and electrons. The useful dose range of 0.053 cm thick high-density polyethylene film (rho = 0.961 g cm(-3); melt index = 0.8 dg min(-1)), for irradiations by (60)Co gamma radiation and 2.0 and 0.4 MeV electron beams in deaerated atmosphere (Na gas), is about 50-10(3) kGy for FTIR transvinylene......The formation of transvinylene unsaturation, -CH=CH-, due to free-radical or cationic-initiated dehydrogenation by irradiation, is a basic reaction in polyethylene and is useful for dosimetry at high absorbed doses. The radiation-enhanced infrared absorption having a maximum at nu = 965 cm......(-l) (lambda = 10.36 mu m) is stable in air and can be measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The quantitative analysis is a useful means of product end-point dosimetry for radiation processing with gamma rays and electrons, where polyethylene is a component of the processed product...

  3. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  4. Manufacture of polyethylene foam by electron beam cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Isamu

    1976-01-01

    The manufacturing process of polyethylene foam, comparison between electron beam cross-linking process and chemical cross-linking process, the electron beam irradiation technique for continuous sheets, the characteristics and uses of polyethylene foam are reviewed. The pore diameter can be controlled by selecting the dose rate, because there is strong relationship between the pore diameter and the dose rate. As the dose if higher, the foam becomes finer. The electron accelerators having large capacity show the lowest cost as the radiation source, and are applicable industrially. If the production capacity exceeds about 200 tons per month, the costs of electron beam irradiation process may be more advantageous than that of chemical process according to the circumstances. It is difficult to obtain the uniform distribution of absorption dose in the direction of thickness. General characteristics of cross-linked polyethylene foam are listed. The special feature of electron beam process is that the degree of cross-linking can be controlled arbitrarily before foaming. The products obtained by the electron beam cross-linking process have finer foams and smoother surfaces than those obtained by the chemical process, because the separation of the decomposition of foaming agents from that of cross-linking agents in the chemical cross-linking is difficult. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Warming up human body by nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lili; Song, Alex Y; Wu, Peilin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Peng, Yucan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chong; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Yayuan; Yang, Ankun; Zhou, Chenxing; Zhou, Chenyu; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2017-09-19

    Space heating accounts for the largest energy end-use of buildings that imposes significant burden on the society. The energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, we demonstrate a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared (IR) property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene. By constructing an IR-reflective layer on an IR-transparent layer with embedded nanopores, the nanoporous metallized polyethylene textile achieves a minimal IR emissivity (10.1%) on the outer surface that effectively suppresses heat radiation loss without sacrificing wearing comfort. This enables 7.1 °C decrease of the set-point compared to normal textile, greatly outperforming other radiative heating textiles by more than 3 °C. This large set-point expansion can save more than 35% of building heating energy in a cost-effective way, and ultimately contribute to the relief of global energy and climate issues.Energy wasted for heating the empty space of the entire building can be saved by passively heating the immediate environment around the human body. Here, the authors show a nanophotonic structure textile with tailored infrared property for passive personal heating using nanoporous metallized polyethylene.

  6. Ageing of cable insulators made of polyethylene in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelidj, N.

    2006-10-01

    This thesis deals with lifetime prediction for polyethylene in nuclear environment. It is mainly characterised by the search for a non empirical solution. We have tried to elaborate a model describing the polymer evolution (including the skin-core heterogeneity due to the kinetic control of oxidation by oxygen diffusion) at any temperature between ambient and the melting point of the polymer, and at any dose rate between 0 and 1 kGy.h-1, with lifetimes extending to several decades of years. The main difficulty was to take into account the dual character of initiation which results from the combination of polymer radiolysis and hydroperoxide thermal decomposition. The problem was resolved considering first the asymptotic regimes where one initiation process can be neglected relatively to the other one. The kinetic parameters specific to those regimes being identified, we have built a numerical model including all the processes. In the case of un-stabilised polyethylene, this model displays excellent predictive qualities, as well in lifetime, as in thickness distribution of oxidation products. The study of stabilised polyethylenes was then initiated with samples respectively stabilised by a hindered phenol, and a thio-diester. In the case of phenol, the study of consumption kinetics reveals the existence of complex mechanisms, especially the existence of a 'reservoir effect' linked to the presence of a separated phase of phenol in excess. A kinetic model has been proposed, but we still do not know how the results can be generalised to other phenolic stabilizers. (author)

  7. Polyethylene macroencapsulation - mixed waste focus area. OST reference No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The lead waste inventory throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex has been estimated between 17 million and 24 million kilograms. Decontamination of at least a portion of the lead is viable but at a substantial cost. Because of various problems with decontamination and its limited applicability and the lack of a treatment and disposal method, the current practice is indefinite storage, which is costly and often unacceptable to regulators. Macroencapsulation is an approved immobilization technology used to treat radioactively contaminated lead solids and mixed waste debris. (Mixed waste is waste materials containing both radioactive and hazardous components). DOE has funded development of a polyethylene extrusion macroencapsulation process at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) that produces a durable, leach-resistant waste form. This innovative macroencapsulation technology uses commercially available single-crew extruders to melt, convey, and extrude molten polyethylene into a waste container in which mixed waste lead and debris are suspended or supported. After cooling to room temperature, the polyethylene forms a low-permeability barrier between the waste and the leaching media

  8. Synthesis of block copolymers derived from N-trityl-(S)-serine and pyrene end-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) via ATRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruiana, Emil C., E-mail: emilbur@icmpp.ro [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley 700487, Iasi (Romania); Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Tinca [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley 700487, Iasi (Romania)

    2012-10-15

    A new monomer bearing N-trityl-L-serine methyl ester in structure, methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine (MTS), was prepared to be further polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with pyrene-endcapped poly(methyl methacrylate) (Py-PMMA-Br) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Py-PNIPA-Br). The resulting block copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate-block-methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine) (Py-PMMA-b-PMTS) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-block-methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy-N-trityl methyl serine (Py-PNIPA-b-PMTS) were characterized by {sup 1}H ({sup 13}C) NMR, ultraviolet, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. The chemical composition in Py-PMMA-b-PMTS was estimated from the {sup 1}H NMR analysis that indicated a ratio of the repeating units of 46:19 (MMA:MTS). For the Py-PNIPA-b-PMTS the composition rate in the copolymer was 61:25 (NIPA:MTS). Quenching of the pyrene species with N,N-diethylaniline, nitrobenzene, nitrophenol, potassium iodide, p-nitrotoluene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in DMF solution excited at 348 nm was evidenced, more efficiently being nitrophenol and TCNQ. In this case, the monomer emission at 388-409 nm underwent a significant decrease caused of an electron transfer from the electron-reach photoexcited pyrene molecule to the electron-deficient quenchers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diblock copolymers combine the fluorescence of pyrene-PMMA (PNIPA) with the characteristics of PMTS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such copolymers could be used for nitroderivatives detecting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV/vis and fluorescence measurements give a good correlation for LCST of Py-PNIPA-Br.

  9. Preparation, Characterization and Permeation Behavior of Poly(methyl acrylate-Poly(dimethyl siloxane-Poly(methyl acrylate Block Copolymer/Poly(vinyl acetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Structure of polymeric materials is of the most important factors in determination of the characteristics and properties of the membranes. Various research and developments on polymeric membranes confirm the direct correlation between structure-properties of polymeric membranes. In this research, the structural outcome of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate/poly(vinyl acetate blend membranes and its relationship with gas permeation behavior of the blends were investigated. The flexible block copolymer of poly(methyl acrylate-poly(dimethyl siloxane-poly(methyl acrylate (PMA-PDMS-PMA was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization. Morphology and chemical structure of the synthesized block copolymer was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Blend membranes of PMA-PDMS-PMA and poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc were prepared by solution casting method in different compositions. By adding poly(vinyl acetate to PMA-PDMS-PMA block copolymer, the selectivity of the membranes for carbon dioxide/methane pair gases were increased by 55%. Fractional free volume (an indication of chain packing efficiency in blend membranes and dielectric constant (an indication of the molar volume and molar polarization of the blend membranes were obtained as the factors reflected the microstructural effect of PMA-PDMS-PMA and PVAc blend membranes. The efforts were directed toward expressing more precise structure-properties relationship of PMA-PDMS-PMA/PVAc blend membranes. The experimental permeability values of the blend membranes reported in this research were compared with the modified logarithmic model. The modified logarithmic model was evaluated for other blend membranes.

  10. Synthesis of block copolymers derived from N-trityl-(S)-serine and pyrene end-labeled poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) via ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buruiana, Emil C.; Podasca, Viorica; Buruiana, Tinca

    2012-01-01

    A new monomer bearing N-trityl-L-serine methyl ester in structure, methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine (MTS), was prepared to be further polymerized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with pyrene-endcapped poly(methyl methacrylate) (Py–PMMA–Br) or poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Py–PNIPA–Br). The resulting block copolymers, poly(methyl methacrylate–block–methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine) (Py–PMMA–b–PMTS) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide–block–methacryloyloxyethyl carbamoyloxy–N-trityl methyl serine (Py–PNIPA–b–PMTS) were characterized by 1 H ( 13 C) NMR, ultraviolet, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. The chemical composition in Py–PMMA–b–PMTS was estimated from the 1 H NMR analysis that indicated a ratio of the repeating units of 46:19 (MMA:MTS). For the Py–PNIPA–b–PMTS the composition rate in the copolymer was 61:25 (NIPA:MTS). Quenching of the pyrene species with N,N-diethylaniline, nitrobenzene, nitrophenol, potassium iodide, p-nitrotoluene and tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) in DMF solution excited at 348 nm was evidenced, more efficiently being nitrophenol and TCNQ. In this case, the monomer emission at 388–409 nm underwent a significant decrease caused of an electron transfer from the electron-reach photoexcited pyrene molecule to the electron-deficient quenchers. - Highlights: ► Diblock copolymers combine the fluorescence of pyrene–PMMA (PNIPA) with the characteristics of PMTS. ► Such copolymers could be used for nitroderivatives detecting. ► UV/vis and fluorescence measurements give a good correlation for LCST of Py–PNIPA–Br.

  11. Influence of flavour absorption by food-packaging materials (low-density polyethylene, polycarbonate and polyethylene terephthalate) on taste perception of a model solution and orange juice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of flavour absorption by low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) on taste perception of a model solution containing seven flavour compounds and orange juice in glass bottles was studied with and without pieces of the respective plastic

  12. Polyethylene Glycol 3350 With Electrolytes Versus Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Constipation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkali, Noor L H; Hoekman, Daniël R; Liem, Olivia; Bongers, Marloes E J; van Wijk, Michiel P; Zegers, Bas; Pelleboer, Rolf A; Verwijs, Wim; Koot, Bart G P; Voropaiev, Maksym; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in constipated children are unknown, and a head-to-head comparison of the different PEG formulations is lacking. We aimed to investigate noninferiority of PEG3350 with electrolytes (PEG3350 + E) compared to PEG4000 without electrolytes (PEG4000). In this double-blind trial, children aged 0.5 to 16 years with constipation, defined as a defecation frequency of PEG3350 + E or PEG4000. Primary outcomes were change in total sum score (TSS) at week 52 compared to baseline, and dose range determination. TSS was the sum of the severity of 5 constipation symptoms rated on a 4-point scale (0-3). Noninferiority margin was a difference in TSS of ≤1.5 based on a 95%-confidence interval [CI]. Treatment success was defined as a defecation frequency of ≥3 per week with PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Noninferiority criteria were not met (maximum difference between groups: -1.81 to 1.68). Daily sachet use was: 0 to 2 years: 0.4 to 2.3 and 0.9 to 2.1; 2 to 4 years: 0.1 to 3.5 and 1.2 to 3.2; 4 to 8 years: 1.1 to 2.8 and 0.7 to 3.8; 8 to 16 years 0.6 to 3.7 and 1.0 to 3.7, in PEG3350 + E and PEG4000, respectively. Treatment success after 52 weeks was achieved in 50% and 45% of children, respectively (P = 0.69). Rates of adverse events were similar between groups, and no drug-related serious adverse events occurred. Noninferiority regarding long-term constipation-related symptoms of PEG3350 + E compared to PEG4000 was not demonstrated. However, analysis of secondary outcomes suggests similar efficacy and safety of these agents.

  13. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A; Pressly, Eric D; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2012-11-20

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)] was pH-sensitive, with degradation at pH 5 being significantly faster than at pH 7.4 at 37 °C in PBS buffer while long-term stability could be obtained in either the solid-state or at pH 7.4 at 6 °C.

  14. Mechanical, Rheological, and Bioactivity Properties of Ultra High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Bioactive Composites Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazatusziha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/high-density polyethylene (UHMWPE/HDPE blends prepared using polyethylene glycol PEG as the processing aid and hydroxyapatite (HA as the reinforcing filler were found to be highly processable using conventional melt blending technique. It was demonstrated that PEG reduced the melt viscosity of UHMWPE/HDPE blend significantly, thus improving the extrudability. The mechanical and bioactive properties were improved with incorporation of HA. Inclusion of HA from 10 to 50 phr resulted in a progressive increase in flexural strength and modulus of the composites. The strength increment is due to the improvement on surface contact between the irregular shape of HA and polymer matrix by formation of mechanical interlock. The HA particles were homogenously distributed even at higher percentage showed improvement in wetting ability between the polymer matrix and HA. The inclusion of HA enhanced the bioactivity properties of the composite by the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P precipitates on the composite surface as proven from SEM and XRD analysis.

  15. Study on Ballistic Absorbing Energy Character of High Performance Polyethylene Needle Felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailiang, Zhu; Jianqiao, Fu

    2017-11-01

    The ballistic performance of polyethylene needle felt is tested and the failure morphology after test is also observed. The results showed that when the non-dimensionally non-stressed fibers in polyethylene needles are subjected to high-speed projectile, secondary movement such as stretching and twisting occurs first. This secondary movement is very full, it is the main way of ballistic absorbing energy of the polyethylene needle felt which can avoid the polyethylene fiber short-term rapid heating-up and destroyed. Analysis results show that under normal temperature and humidity conditions, the V50 of 6-layer forded polyethylene needle felt sample is 250m/s. At (450 ± 50) m/s speed range of the target missile, the mean value of the penetrative specific energy absorption for 3-layer forded polyethylene needle felt anti-1.1g simulated projectiles (tapered column) reaches 24.1J·m2/kg.

  16. Development of nanocomposites employing high-density polyethylene and organo clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessa, Tathiane C. Rodrigues F.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.; Pita, Vitor J.R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare nanocomposites of high-density polyethylene and montmorillonite organoclay by polymer melt intercalation, employing different processing parameters. Effective clay incorporation into polyethylene matrix was observed. The nanocomposites were structurally characterized. Intercalated nanocomposites were obtained from different process parameters, employing polyethylene resin and montmorillonite organoclays. The XRD results and other analysis showed that the processing parameters affect the organoclay delamination. The polyethylene nanocomposite presented the better performance using twin screw extruder, at 90 rpm. The purpose of characterization of polyethylene/organoclay nanocomposite by low-field NMR showed that this technique was important to understand changes in the molecular mobility of polyethylene when organoclay was incorporated. (author)

  17. Cementitious building material incorporating end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1986-01-01

    A cementitious composition comprising a cementitious material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the compositions are useful in making pre-formed building materials such as concrete blocks, brick, dry wall and the like or in making poured structures such as walls or floor pads; the glycols can be encapsulated to reduce their tendency to retard set.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte on the basis of polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanin, G.P.; Dumler, S.A.; Sablin, A.N.; Novakov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction in the system polyethylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate was investigated by IR spectroscopy, differential thermal and X-ray structural analyses. Specific electric conductivity of the prepared composition has been measured. Solid polymer electrolytes on the basis of polyethylene carbonate have conducting properties as electrolytes on the basis of unmodified polyethylene oxide. Compositions of polyethylene carbonate : LiClO 4 =10 : 1Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 possess maximum value of electrical conductivity. Activation energies of the process is calculated for all investigated compositions, and dependence of these values from concentration of lithium perchlorate is established

  19. Polyethylene glycol enhances lipoplex-cell association and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P C; Hui, S W

    1999-10-15

    The association between liposome-DNA complexes (lipoplexes) and targeted cell membranes is a limiting step of cationic liposome-mediated transfection. A novel technique was developed where lipoplex-cell membrane association is enhanced by the addition of 2-6% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to the transfection media. Lipoplex-cell association was found to increase up to 100 times in the presence of PEG. Transfection increased correspondingly in the presence of PEG. This increase was found in several cell lines. These results show that lipoplex adsorption to cell membranes is a critical step in liposome-mediated transfection. This step can be facilitated by PEG-induced particle aggregation.

  20. PANI-nanofibers/polyethylene blends: preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.; Hubler, R.; Basso, N.R.S.; Fim, F.C.; Galland, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-nanofibers) were prepared via interfacial polymerization. The PANI-nanofibers were dispersed in polyethylene (PE) matrix by in situ polymerization of ethylene using Cp 2 ZrCl 2 [bis(cyclopentadienyl) zirconium(IV) dichloride)] and methylaluminoxane as catalytic system. The composites were characterized by infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that nanofibers with average diameters of 200 nm were synthesized and that it was obtained well dispersed PE/PANI nanocomposites. The PANI-nanofibers load did not affect the catalytic activity, but it decreased crystallinity degree of nanocomposites. (author)

  1. Titanium and aluminium ions implanted by plasma on polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, G.J.; Olayo, M.G.; Lopez, R.; Granda, E.; Munoz, A.; Valencia, R.; Morales, J.

    2007-01-01

    The ion implantation by plasma of titanium and aluminum on polyethylene thin films (PE) is presented. The results indicate that the polymers reacted firstly with the oxygen and/or nitrogen carrying gases, and later its received the metallic particles that formed thin films. The stainless steel and the titanium formed a single phase. The metallic layers grew in the interval of 1 to 2 nm/min, its are thin, but enough to change the hardness of the polymer that it is increased in more of 20 times. (Author)

  2. Investigation of effect of electron beam on various polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morshedian, J.; Pourrashidi, A.

    2003-01-01

    With regards to the expanding usage of electron beams irradiation in polymer industries such as sterilization of polymeric disposable medical products; cable manufacturing; pipes, heat shrinkable materials, etc. In this project the effect of electron beam on polyethylene used in manufacturing of pipe and heat shrinkable products was studied. Results showed that by increasing the applied dose on samples; the crosslink density would increase and polymers with tertiary carbon atoms in their backbone structure tend to crosslink more readily. The melting temperature and crystallinity percent decreased and degradation temperature increased. Density in low doses decreased and in high doses increased

  3. Investigation of effect of electron beam on various polyethylene blends

    CERN Document Server

    Morshedian, J

    2003-01-01

    With regards to the expanding usage of electron beams irradiation in polymer industries such as sterilization of polymeric disposable medical products; cable manufacturing; pipes, heat shrinkable materials, etc. In this project the effect of electron beam on polyethylene used in manufacturing of pipe and heat shrinkable products was studied. Results showed that by increasing the applied dose on samples; the crosslink density would increase and polymers with tertiary carbon atoms in their backbone structure tend to crosslink more readily. The melting temperature and crystallinity percent decreased and degradation temperature increased. Density in low doses decreased and in high doses increased.

  4. Metal-backed versus all-polyethylene unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, M. J.; Nutton, R. W.; Wade, F. A.; Evans, S. L.; Pankaj, P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Up to 40% of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) revisions are performed for unexplained pain which may be caused by elevated proximal tibial bone strain. This study investigates the effect of tibial component metal backing and polyethylene thickness on bone strain in a cemented fixed-bearing medial UKA using a finite element model (FEM) validated experimentally by digital image correlation (DIC) and acoustic emission (AE). Materials and Methods A total of ten composite tibias implanted with all-polyethylene (AP) and metal-backed (MB) tibial components were loaded to 2500 N. Cortical strain was measured using DIC and cancellous microdamage using AE. FEMs were created and validated and polyethylene thickness varied from 6 mm to 10 mm. The volume of cancellous bone exposed to 3000 µε and > 7000 µε maximum principal (tensile) microstrain was computed. Results Experimental AE data and the FEM volume of cancellous bone with compressive strain < -3000 µε correlated strongly: R = 0.947, R2 = 0.847, percentage error 12.5% (p < 0.001). DIC and FEM data correlated: R = 0.838, R2 = 0.702, percentage error 4.5% (p < 0.001). FEM strain patterns included MB lateral edge concentrations; AP concentrations at keel, peg and at the region of load application. Cancellous strains were higher in AP implants at all loads: 2.2- (10 mm) to 3.2-times (6 mm) the volume of cancellous bone compressively strained < -7000 µε. Conclusion AP tibial components display greater volumes of pathologically overstrained cancellous bone than MB implants of the same geometry. Increasing AP thickness does not overcome these pathological forces and comes at the cost of greater bone resection. Cite this article: C. E. H. Scott, M. J. Eaton, R. W. Nutton, F. A. Wade, S. L. Evans, P. Pankaj. Metal-backed versus all-polyethylene unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: Proximal tibial strain in an experimentally validated finite element model. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:22–30. DOI:10

  5. Characterization of composite high density polyethylene and layered zirconium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, Adan S.; Silva, Daniela F.; Mendes, Luis C.

    2011-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) (2 w%), synthesized by direct precipitation method, was used in the preparation of composite with high density polyethylene (HDPE), through extrusion processing in the molten state. Wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), stress-strain mechanical analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were used for ZrP, neat polymer and composite mechanical and morphologic characterization. Although there was a slight increase in the Young modulus, WAXD and SEM analysis showed that the intercalation of the HDPE matrix in the filler galleries did not occur, probably due to the insufficient lamellae spacing to intercalate the polymer chains. Then, a microcomposite was achieved. (author)

  6. Viscoelastic behaviour of stabilized polyethylenes irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, Lj; Gal, O; Stannett, V T

    1987-01-01

    Two-cycle creep recovery penetration measurements at 150/sup 0/C are used to determine the viscoelastic parameters for irradiated low density and linear low density polyethylenes, pure and with 0.5% antioxidant. The amplitudes and the time factors of each cycle are calculated using the mechanical model expression. From the differences between the creep parameters of the first and the second cycle, the contribution of the nonelastic component is considered. The efficiency of radiation crosslinking of different systems is discussed on the base of the corresponding compliances.

  7. Structural changes in the polyethylene after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskova, K.; Svorcik, V.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the study of the polyethylene (PE) after its modification by ion implantation. In this way the mechanical, optical, magnetic and electric characteristics can be changed. Experiments were processed on PE films with 15 μm thickness. For modification of the surface of PE for implantation the Ar + ions with the energy 63 keV and Xe + ions with the energy 156 keV and with doses from 1·10 13 to 3·10 15 cm +2 were used. The aim of this work was the study of structural changes of modified layer of the PE

  8. Polypropylene-polyethylene blends modified by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terence, Mauro C.; Ruiz, Francisco C.

    2009-01-01

    One way to obtain a better mechanical property of polypropylene and polyethylene is to increasing the number of polymer chains cross-linked by gamma radiation. After irradiation a network is formed as a result of various chemical reactions and the radicals formed are concentrated in the amorphous phase. With the objective to improve the mechanical properties of PP, blends with PE were prepared and irradiated in doses up to 500 kGy, in atmospheric ambient. The molecular characterization of the blends was made by infrared spectroscopy and the data showed an increase in rigidity and a unique behaviour in Izod impact resistance. (author)

  9. Thermophysical properties of polyethylene modified under γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shut, N.I.; Musaelyan, I.N.; Besklubenko, Yu.D.; Karpovich, N.B.; Kasperskij, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, specific heat) of polyethylene (PE) modified under gamma radiation were studied. Thermophysical parameter dependences on the temperature (-100-+100 deg C) and an absorbed radiation dose are given. Degree of polymere crystallinity using a structural method for determination of the crystallinity degree by density was ascertained. It is shown that the PE thermophysical characteristics correlate to a value of absorbed gamma radiation dose, therefore gamma radiation can be recommended as a modifying factor for the production of polymer materials with the given properties

  10. Well-Defined Bilayered Molecular Cobrushes with Internal Polyethylene Blocks and ω-Hydroxyl-Functionalized Polyethylene Homobrushes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Novel well-defined bilayered molecular cobrushes with internal polyethylene blocks, P(PEcore-b-PScorona) (PE: polyethylene; PS: polystyrene), and ω-hydroxyl-functionalized polyethylene homobrushes, P(PE-OH), were synthesized through the macromonomer strategy. Two main steps were involved in the synthesis of the P(PEcore-b-PScorona) bilayered cobrushes: (i) formation of norbornyl-terminated macromonomer (Nor-PE-b-PS) by esterification of PS-b-PE-OH (combination of anionic polymerization, hydroboration, and polyhomologation) with 5-norbornene-2-carboxylic acid and (ii) ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of Nor-PE-b-PS. The synthesis of P(PE-OH) was achieved by (i) hydroboration of tert-butyldimethylsilyl-protected allyl alcohol, followed by polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxoniun methylide with the formed tri[3-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxyl)propyl]borane initiator, oxidation/hydrolysis, and esterification of the TBDMS-O-PE-OH with 5-norbornene-2-carboxylic acid to afford the macromonomer TBDMS-O-PE-Nor, and (ii) ROMP of TBDMS-O-PE-Nor, followed by deprotection. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 13C NMR) and high temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC) were used to characterize all macromonomers/molecular brushes and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal properties. The molecular brush P(PE-b-PS) showed lower melting point (Tm) and better solubility in toluene than the corresponding macromonomer PS-b-PE-Nor. In the case of homobrushes, the thermal properties were strongly affected by the presence of the PE end-groups. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. Well-Defined Bilayered Molecular Cobrushes with Internal Polyethylene Blocks and ω-Hydroxyl-Functionalized Polyethylene Homobrushes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng

    2016-02-15

    Novel well-defined bilayered molecular cobrushes with internal polyethylene blocks, P(PEcore-b-PScorona) (PE: polyethylene; PS: polystyrene), and ω-hydroxyl-functionalized polyethylene homobrushes, P(PE-OH), were synthesized through the macromonomer strategy. Two main steps were involved in the synthesis of the P(PEcore-b-PScorona) bilayered cobrushes: (i) formation of norbornyl-terminated macromonomer (Nor-PE-b-PS) by esterification of PS-b-PE-OH (combination of anionic polymerization, hydroboration, and polyhomologation) with 5-norbornene-2-carboxylic acid and (ii) ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of Nor-PE-b-PS. The synthesis of P(PE-OH) was achieved by (i) hydroboration of tert-butyldimethylsilyl-protected allyl alcohol, followed by polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxoniun methylide with the formed tri[3-(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxyl)propyl]borane initiator, oxidation/hydrolysis, and esterification of the TBDMS-O-PE-OH with 5-norbornene-2-carboxylic acid to afford the macromonomer TBDMS-O-PE-Nor, and (ii) ROMP of TBDMS-O-PE-Nor, followed by deprotection. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H and 13C NMR) and high temperature gel permeation chromatography (HT-GPC) were used to characterize all macromonomers/molecular brushes and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the thermal properties. The molecular brush P(PE-b-PS) showed lower melting point (Tm) and better solubility in toluene than the corresponding macromonomer PS-b-PE-Nor. In the case of homobrushes, the thermal properties were strongly affected by the presence of the PE end-groups. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Butt-welding technology for double walled Polyethylene pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Seong; Lee, Sang-Yul; Kim, Yeong K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a butt welding apparatus for doubled walled Polyethylene pipe. ► We design the welding process by analyzing thermal behaviors of the material. ► We performed the welding and tested the welded structural performances. ► We also applied the same technology to PVC pipes. ► We verified the butt welding was successful and effective for the pipes with irregular sections. -- Abstract: In this study, mechanical analyses of a butt welding technology for joining Polyethylene pipe are presented. The pipe had unique structure with double wall, and its section topology was not flat. For an effective repair of leakage and replacements of the pipe, the butt welding technology was developed and tested. For the material characterizations, thermodynamic analyses such as thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed. Based on the test results, the process temperature and time were determined to ensure safe joining of the pipes using a hot plate apparatus. The welding process was carefully monitored by measuring the temperature. Then, the joined pipes were tested by various methods to evaluate the quality. The analyses results showed the detail process mechanism during the joining process, and the test results demonstrated the successful application of the technology to the sewage pipe repairs.

  13. The effect of natural weathering on irradiated polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoylou, F.; Hassan Pour, S.

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene is one of the extensive used plastics in outdoor uses. Outdoor durability of PE in modem agriculture is very important because of large scale food production. UV radiations contained in solar spectrum are the main cause of degradation in outdoor uses of plastics. So, light stabilization of PE has made considerable progress since the early years of its outdoor use. Radiation crosslinking of PE films for improving UV stability is one of the new research fields. In this work,the effect of UV stabilizers on the chemical and mechanical stability of PE have been compared with UV stabilizers and radiation crosslinking together. For this reason two low density polyethylene films were prepared.One film contained 3% of photostabilizers and antioxidant,and the other film was free of additives. The films were irradiated by EB at doses of 30-300 kGy, these crosslinked PE films were exposed to the outdoor condition for 2 years. Determination of the gel content shows that significant crosslinking yields are obtained at high doses. Effect of crosslinking and outdoor exposure on the degradation of stabilized and unstabilized PE films have been studied by FTIR. Data of FTIR show that outdoor degradation of unstabilized PE promote rapidly after irradiation and cause to distortion of samples after 4 months. While, stabilized PE samples show low changes during 2 years outdoor exposure. Mechanical properties of stabilized and unstabilized crosslinked PE films are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  14. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  15. On the Structure of Holographic Polymer-dispersed Polyethylene Glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnkrant, M.; McWilliams, H.; Li, C.; Natarajan, L.; Tondiglia, V.; Sutherland, R.; Lloyd, P.; Bunning, T.

    2006-01-01

    Holographic polymerization (H-P) has been used to fabricate polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and pattern inert nanoparticles. In this article, one-dimensional grating structures of Norland resin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were achieved using the H-P technique. Both reflection and transmission grating structures were fabricated. The optical properties of the reflection grating structures (also known as Bragg reflectors, BRs) are thermosensitive, which is attributed to the formation and crystallization of PEG crystals. The thermal switching temperature of the BR can be tuned by using different molecular weight PEG samples. The hierarchical structure and morphology of the BR were studied using synchrotron X-ray, polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. PEG crystals were found to be confined in ∼60 nm thick layers in the BR. Upon crystallization, the PEG lamellae were parallel to the BR surfaces and PEG chains were parallel to the BR normal, resembling the confined crystallization behavior of polyethylene oxide (PEO) in PEO-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) block copolymers. This observation suggests that the tethering effect in the block copolymer systems does not play a major role in PEG chain orientation in the confined nanoenvironment

  16. CURING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CHLOROSULPHONATED POLYETHYLENE RUBBER BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the curing and mechanical properties of two series of prepared blends, i.e., chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/isobutylene-co-isoprene (IIR rubber blends and chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM/chlorinated isobutylene-co-isoprene (CIIR rubber blends were carried out. Blends were prepared using a two-roll mill at a temperature of 40-50 °C. The curing was assessed using a Monsanto oscillating disc rheometer R-100. The process of vulcanization accelerated sulfur of pure rubbers and their blends was carried out in an electrically heated laboratory hydraulic press under a pressure of about 4 MPa and 160 °C. The stress-strain experiments were performed using a tensile tester machine (Zwick 1425. Results indicate that the scorch time, ts2, and optimum cure time, tc90, increase with increasing CSM content in both blends. The value of modulus at 100 and 300% elongation and tensile strength increases with increasing CSM content, whereas elongation at break shows a decreasing trend. The enhancement in mechanical properties was supported by data of crosslink density in these samples obtained from swelling measurement and scanning electron microscopy studies of the rubber blends fractured surfaces

  17. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavisova, Vlasta, E-mail: zavisova@saske.s [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Koneracka, Martina [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana [Hameln, rds a.s., Horna 36, Modra (Slovakia); Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Vavra, Ivo [IEE SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fabian, Martin [IGT SAS, Watsonova 45, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia); Feoktystov, Artem V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); KNU, Academician Glushkov Ave. 2/1, 03187 Kyiv (Ukraine); Garamus, Vasil M. [GKSS research center, Max-Planck-Str.1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Avdeev, Mikhail V. [FLNP JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna Moscow Reg. 141980 (Russian Federation); Kopcansky, Peter [IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, Kosice 040 01 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  18. Magnetic fluid poly(ethylene glycol) with moderate anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisova, Vlasta; Koneracka, Martina; Muckova, Marta; Lazova, Jana; Jurikova, Alena; Lancz, Gabor; Tomasovicova, Natalia; Timko, Milan; Kovac, Jozef; Vavra, Ivo; Fabian, Martin; Feoktystov, Artem V.; Garamus, Vasil M.; Avdeev, Mikhail V.; Kopcansky, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing magnetic fluids - magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) stabilized by sodium oleate - were prepared. Magnetic measurements confirmed superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. The structure of that kind of magnetic fluid was characterized using different techniques, including electron microscopy, photon cross correlation spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering, while the adsorption of PEG on magnetic particles was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. From the in vitro toxicity tests it was found that a magnetic fluid containing PEG (MFPEG) partially inhibited the growth of cancerous B16 cells at the highest tested dose (2.1 mg/ml of Fe 3 O 4 in MFPEG). - Research Highlights: → A new type of biocompatible magnetic fluid (MF) with poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared. → Structuralization effects of magnetite particles depend on PEG concentration. → Large fractals of magnetite nanoparticles in MF were observed (SANS indication). → MF partially inhibited (approximately 50%) the growth of cancerous B16 cells.

  19. Radiation effects on residual voltage of polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyokane, Jun; Park, Dae-Hee; Yoshino, Katsumi.

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that diagnosis of deterioration in insulating materials for electric cables used in nuclear power plants and outer space (communications satellite in particular) can be effectively performed based on measurements of residual voltage. In the present study, polyethylene films are irradiated with γ-rays or electron beam to examine the changes in residual voltage characteristics. Irradiation of electron beam and γ-rays are carried out to a dose of 0 - 90 Mrad and 0 - 100 Mrad, respectively. Measurements are made of the dependence of residual voltage on applied voltage, electron beam and γ-ray irradiation, annealing temperature and annealing time. Results show that carriers, which are once trapped after being released from the electrode, move within the material after the opening of the circuit to produce resiual voltage. The residual voltage increases with increasing dose of electron beam or γ-ray and levels off at high dose. Residual voltage is increased about several times by either electron beam or γ-rays, but electron beam tends to cause greater residual voltage than γ-ray. Polyethylene films irradiated with electron beam can recover upon annealing. It is concluded from observations made that residual voltage has close relations with defects in molecular structures caused by radiations, particularly the breaking of backbone chains and alteration in superstructures. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Effect of radiation on the crystals of polyethylene and paraffins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungar, G.; Grubb, D.T.; Keller, A.

    1980-01-01

    Paraffins were irradiated with electrons in the electron microscope. The electron microscopic image and the electron diffraction patterns were followed as a function of dose. The objectives were: (a) to establish a connection between the 'polyethylene-type' and 'paraffin-like' behaviour and (b) to identify the phase segregation, by visual means. Increasing chain length, increasing dose rate and decreasing temperature individually and in combination, were found to favour the 'polyethylene-type' behaviour (crystal destruction through increasing lattice defects) while the reverse trend of the above three variables favoured the 'paraffin-like' behaviour (phase-segregated damaged and undamaged species). Segregated phases could in some circumstances be identified as non-diffracting 'droplets' within a crystalline matrix, with the lattice hardly affected, in the electron microscopic image. These droplets remain constant in number but increase in size as the irradiation progresses, the number of droplets depending on the chain length of the paraffin, on the irradiation temperature and on the dose rate. This behaviour, together with some further observations, reveals that the radiation-induced active species do not form crosslinks in situ but migrate over distances which can amount to μm. In contrast to the above, in the case of the lowest paraffin investigated, (C 23 H 48 ), the lattice became uniformly distorted as judged from the diffraction pattern, but the damage was observed to 'heal-out' with time. The results are discussed. (author)

  1. 75 FR 36679 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From China, Malaysia, and Thailand; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... antidumping duty orders on polyethylene retail carrier bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand would be likely... Retail Carrier Bags from China, Malaysia, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review). By... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1043-1045 (Review)] Polyethylene Retail...

  2. 75 FR 25207 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... polyethylene retail carrier bags from Malaysia for the period August 1, 2008, through July 31, 2009. See... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-557-813 Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  3. 78 FR 88 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011... duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for... August 31, 2012, the petitioners, the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual...

  4. 76 FR 11203 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's... the PRC. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of...

  5. 76 FR 68137 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import..., the Department of Commerce (the Department) published Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand... 351.224(c) from the Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bag Committee and its individual members, Hilex Poly...

  6. 76 FR 26241 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-549-821] Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags from...

  7. 78 FR 76280 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... Bags From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary Determination of Circumvention of the... determines that imports of unfinished polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from the People's Republic of... Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, 69 FR 48201 (August 9...

  8. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil. This administrative..., 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Scott or Robert James, AD/CVD Operations, Office 7... antidumping duty order on PET film from Brazil. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From...

  9. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR... Halle, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6, Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S... Results in the Administrative Review on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan (PET...

  10. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jonathan Hill, AD/CVD Operations, Office IV, Enforcement & Compliance, International... Operations, Office IV ``Initiation of Antidumping New Shipper Review of Polyethylene Terephthalate Film...

  11. Rheological behaviour of polyethylene with peroxide crosslinking agent. Ismaeil Ghasemi, Peter Szabo and Henrik Koblitz Rasmussen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Szabo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. Cross-linking improves some properties of polyethylene such as: environmental stress cracking resistance (ECSR), chemical and abrasion resistance, service temperature etc. In this study the rheological variation...

  12. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty..., 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

  13. 75 FR 61128 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Malaysia: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ....6 cm). PRCBs are typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... of polyethylene film and (2) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer packaging with printing...

  14. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... 40 inches (101.6 cm). PRCBs are typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount... closeable with drawstrings made of polyethylene film and (2) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer...

  15. 78 FR 50376 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... cm). PRCBs are typically provided without any consumer packaging and free of charge by retail establishments, e.g., grocery, drug, convenience, department, specialty retail, discount stores, and restaurants... of polyethylene film and (2) polyethylene bags that are packed in consumer packaging with printing...

  16. Modification of low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Rosa, D. dos

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the gamma radiation (of a 60 Co source), over low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends of low density polyethylene / polypropylene were studied. The structures modifications were attended by infrared spectrometry (IV), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), strain-strain measurement, density measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM). (author)

  17. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA. The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased.

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanostructures from high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste by chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, M. N. M.; Hashim, M. S.; Hussin, R.; Aida, S.; Kamdi, Z.; Ainuddin, AR; Yunos, MZ

    2017-10-01

    In this study, carbon nanostructures were synthesized from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste by single-stage chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method. In CVD, iron was used as catalyst and pyrolitic of carbon source was conducted at temperature 700, 800 and 900°C for 30 minutes. Argon gas was used as carrier gas with flow at 90 sccm. The synthesized carbon nanostructures were characterized by FESEM, EDS and calculation of carbon yield (%). FESEM micrograph shows that the carbon nanostructures were only grown as nanofilament when synthesized from PET waste. The synthesization of carbon nanostructure at 700°C was produced smooth and the smallest diameter nanofilament compared to others. The carbon yield of synthesized carbon nanostructures from PET was lower from HDPE. Furthermore, the carbon yield is recorded to increase with increasing of reaction temperature for all samples. Elemental study by EDS analysis were carried out and the formation of carbon nanostructures was confirmed after CVD process. Utilization of polymer waste to produce carbon nanostructures is beneficial to ensure that the carbon nanotechnology will be sustained in future.

  19. Thiolated polyethylene oxide as a non-fouling element for nano-patterned bio-devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Patricia; Valsesia, Andrea; Colpo, Pascal; Gilliland, Douglas; Ceccone, Giacomo; Papadopoulou-Bouraoui, Andri; Rauscher, Hubert; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude; Rossi, Francois

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of a thiolated polyethylene oxide that self-assembles on gold to create a non-fouling surface. Thiolated polyethylene oxide was synthesised by reacting 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid with polyethylene glycol mono methyl ether. The coverage of the thiolated polyethylene oxide on gold was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the modified surfaces were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Protein resistance was assessed using quartz crystal microbalance. Results showed a non-fouling character produced by the thiolated polyethylene oxide. The synthesised product was used as the passivation layer on nano-patterned surfaces consisting of arrayed nano-spots, fabricated by plasma based colloidal lithography. The specific adsorption of anti-bovine serum albumin in the mercaptohexadecanoic acid spots was verified by atomic force microscopy

  20. An Investigation on Rheology of Peroxide Cross-linking of Low Density Polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Szabo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross-linking on th......One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross......-linking on the rheological behaviour of low density polyethylene was investigated by using a combination of creep test and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in isotherm condition. The used peroxide was di-cumyl peroxide and its concentration was 2 wt%. The experiments were carried out at 150,160, and 170 degrees C...

  1. Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with polyethylene of various densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, K. A.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Guseva, M. A.; Shklyaruk, B. F.; Gerasin, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with two grades of polyethylene: linear high-density and branched low-density polyethylenes. Raman methods, which had been suggested for the analysis of neat polyethylene and isotactic polypropylene, were modified in this study for quantitative analysis of polyethylene/polypropylene blends. We revealed the dependence of the degree of crystallinity and conformational composition of macromolecules in the blends on relative content of the blend components and preparation conditions (quenching or annealing). We suggested a simple Raman method for evaluation of the relative content of the components in polyethylene/polypropylene blends. The degree of crystallinity of our samples, evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, is in good agreement with the results of analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  2. Effect of Storage in Distilled Water for Three Months on the Antimicrobial Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate Denture Base Material Doped with Inorganic Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base materials by pathogenic microorganisms is a major problem associated with the use of prostheses, and the incorporation of antimicrobial fillers is a method of improving the antimicrobial properties of these materials. Numerous studies have demonstrated the initial in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of this type of material; however, reports demonstrating the stability of these fillers over longer periods are not available. In this study, silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate was introduced into the powder component of a PMMA denture base material at concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 8% (w/w. The survival rates of the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast-type fungus Candida albicans were established after fungal or bacterial suspensions were incubated with samples that had been previously stored in distilled water. Storage over a three-month period led to the progressive reduction of the initial antimicrobial properties. The results of this study suggest that additional microbiological tests should be conducted for materials that are treated with antimicrobial fillers and intended for long-term use. Future long-term studies of the migration of silver ions from the polymer matrix and the influence of different media on this ion emission are required.

  3. Synthesis of Isotactic-block-Syndiotactic Poly(methyl Methacrylate via Stereospecific Living Anionic Polymerizations in Combination with Metal-Halogen Exchange, Halogenation, and Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Usuki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isotactic (it- and syndiotactic (st- poly(methyl methacrylates (PMMAs form unique crystalline stereocomplexes, which are attractive from both fundamental and application viewpoints. This study is directed at the efficient synthesis of it- and st-stereoblock (it-b-st- PMMAs via stereospecific living anionic polymerizations in combination with metal-halogen exchange, halogenation, and click reactions. The azide-capped it-PMMA was prepared by living anionic polymerization of MMA, which was initiated with t-BuMgBr in toluene at –78 °C, and was followed by termination using CCl4 as the halogenating agent in the presence of a strong Lewis base and subsequent azidation with NaN3. The alkyne-capped st-PMMA was obtained by living anionic polymerization of MMA, which was initiated via an in situ metal-halogen exchange reaction between 1,1-diphenylhexyl lithium and an α-bromoester bearing a pendent silyl-protected alkyne group. Finally, copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC between these complimentary pairs of polymers resulted in a high yield of it-b-st-PMMAs, with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. The stereocomplexation was evaluated in CH3CN and was affected by the block lengths and ratios.

  4. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yongqian [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Wang, Bibo [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide.

  5. Grafting of poly[(methyl methacrylate)-block-styrene] onto cellulose via nitroxide-mediated polymerization, and its polymer/clay nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaj-Abad, Saber Ghasemi; Abbasian, Mojtaba; Jaymand, Mehdi

    2016-11-05

    For the first time, nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) was used for synthesis of graft and block copolymers using cellulose (Cell) as a backbone, and polystyrene (PSt) and poly(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) as the branches. For this purpose, Cell was acetylated by 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BrBiB), and then the bromine group was converted to 4-oxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl group by a substitution nucleophilic reaction to afford a macroinitiator (Cell-TEMPOL). The macroinitiator obtained was subsequently used in controlled graft and block copolymerizations of St and MMA monomers to yield Cell-g-PSt and Cell-g-(PMMA-b-PSt). The chemical structures of all samples as representatives were characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. In addition, Cell-g-(PMMA-b-PSt)/organophilic montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared through a solution intercalation method. TEM was used to evaluate the morphological behavior of the polymer-clay system. It was demonstrated that the addition of small percent of organophilic montmorillonite (O-MMT; 3wt.%) was enough to improve the thermal stability of the nanocomposite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of alumina nanoparticles on the microstructure, strength and wear resistance of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based nanocomposites prepared by friction stir processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani Derazkola, Hamed; Simchi, Abdolreza

    2018-03-01

    In this study, alumina-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites (PMMA/Al 2 O 3 ) containing up to 20vol% nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50nm were prepared by friction stir processing. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of PMMA were studied. It is shown that by using a frustum pin tool and employing an appropriate processing condition, i.e. a rotational speed of 1600rpm/min and transverse velocity of 120mm/min, defect free nanocomposites at microscale with fine distribution of the nanoparticles can successfully been prepared. Mechanical evaluations including tensile, flexural, hardness and impact tests indicate that the strength and toughness of the material gradually increases with the nanoparticle concentration and reach to a flexural strength of 129MPa, hardness of 101 Shore D, and impact energy 2kJ/m 2 for the nanocomposite containing 20vol% alumina. These values are about 10% and 20% better than untreated and FSP-treated PMMA (without alumina addition). Fractographic studies indicate typical brittle features with crack deflection around the nanoparticles. More interestingly, the sliding wear rate in a pin-on-disk configuration and the friction coefficient are reduced up to 50% by addition of alumina nanoparticles. The worn surfaces exhibit typical sliding and ploughing features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Poly(methyl methacrylate)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and the improvements in thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Biao; Zhou, Keqing; Jiang, Saihua; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Bibo; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method. • We prepare PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites by in situ bulk polymerization of MMA. • PMMA/LZnS nanocomposites were investigated by TGA, DSC, MCC, UV–vis and PL test. • The thermal stability, flame retardant and optical properties of PMMA are improved. - Abstract: Layered zinc sulfide (LZnS) was synthesized successfully via hydrothermal method and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites were obtained by in situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the as-synthesized layered zinc sulfide and PMMA/layered zinc sulfide nanocomposites. Microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to test the thermal properties of the composites. Ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) transmittance spectra and photoluminence (PL) spectra were obtained to investigate the optical properties of the composites. From the results, the thermal degradation temperature is increased by 20–50 °C, the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) and total heat release (THR) are both decreased by above 30%, and the photoluminence intensity is enhanced with the increasing loading of layered zinc sulfide

  8. The Effect of Polymethyl Methacrylate Augmentation on the Primary Stability of Cannulated Bone Screws in an Anterolateral Plate in Osteoporotic Vertebrae: A Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, Matthias; Sellei, Richard M; Stoffel, Marcus; von Rüden, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Cohort study. Objective Expandable anterolateral plates facilitate the reduction of posttraumatic deformities of thoracolumbar spine injuries and are commonly used in cases of unstable injuries or compromised bone quality. In this in vitro study, the craniocaudal yield load of the osseous fixation of an anterior angular stable plate fixation system and the effect of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) screw augmentation on the primary stability of the screw-bone interface during kyphosis reduction was evaluated in 12 osteoporotic human thoracolumbar vertebrae. Methods The anterolateral stabilization device used for this study is comprised of two swiveling flanges and an expandable midsection. It facilitates the controlled reduction of kyphotic deformities in situ with a geared distractor. Single flanges were attached to 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Six specimens were augmented with PMMA by means of cannulated bone screws. The constructs were subjected to static, displacement-controlled craniocaudal loading to failure in a servohydraulic testing machine. Results The uncemented screws cut out at a mean 393 ± 66 N, whereas the cemented screws showed significantly higher yield load of 966 ± 166 N (p augmentation is an effective method to increase two- to threefold the primary stability of the screw-bone interface of an anterolateral spine stabilization system in osteoporotic bone. We recommend it in cases of severely compromised bone quality to reduce the risk of screw loosening during initial kyphosis correction and to increase long-term construct stability.

  9. Effect of barium-coated halloysite nanotube addition on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and contrast properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Uday; Tappa, Karthik; Weisman, Jeffery A; Nicholson, James Connor; Mills, David K

    2017-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated as a platform for tunable nanoparticle composition and enhanced opacity in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement. Halloysite has been widely used to increase the mechanical properties of various polymer matrices, in stark contrast to other fillers such as barium sulfate that provide opacity but also decrease mechanical strength. The present work describes a dry deposition method for successively fabricating barium sulfate nanoparticles onto the exterior surface of HNTs. A sintering process was used to coat the HNTs in barium sulfate. Barium sulfate-coated HNTs were then added to PMMA bone cement and the samples were tested for mechanical strength and tailored opacity correlated with the fabrication ratio and the amount of barium sulfate-coated HNTs added. The potential cytotoxic effect of barium-coated HNTs in PMMA cement was also tested on osteosarcoma cells. Barium-coated HNTs were found to be completely cytocompatible, and cell proliferation was not inhibited after exposure to the barium-coated HNTs embedded in PMMA cement. We demonstrate a simple method for the creation of barium-coated nanoparticles that imparted improved contrast and material properties to native PMMA. An easy and efficient method for coating clay nanotubes offers the potential for enhanced imaging by radiologists or orthopedic surgeons.

  10. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and the testing of three different adhesives for bonding bovine teeth with optical poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshuhn, K; Berg, I; Tinner, D; Kunz, C; Bornstein, M M; Steineck, M; Hille, K; Goldblum, D

    2014-07-01

    Preparation of the lamina during osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) design is complex, and its longevity and watertightness important. To date, only acrylic bone cements have been used for bonding the optical cylinder to the tooth dentine. Our aim was to evaluate different dental adhesives for OOKP preparation. Specimens of bovine teeth were produced by preparing 1.5-mm thick dentine slices with holes having a diameter of 3.5 mm. Each group (n=10 per group) was luted with either classic poly-(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, universal resin cement or glass ionomer cement. All specimens underwent force measurement using a uniaxial traction machine. The highest mean force required to break the bond was measured for PMMA bone cement (128.2 N) followed by universal resin cement (127.9 N), with no statistically significant difference. Glass ionomer cement showed significantly lower force resistance (78.1 N). Excellent bonding strength combined with easy application was found for universal resin cement, and thus, it is a potential alternative to acrylic bone cement in OOKP preparation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. The antifungal effects and mechanical properties of silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite-modified Poly-methyl methacrylate-based dental resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yin-Yan; Huang, Li; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Li-Juan; Xiao, Yu-Hong

    2017-05-08

    Poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resins with strong and long-lasting antifungal properties are critical for the prevention of denture stomatitis. This study evaluated the antifungal effects on Candida albicans ATCC90028, the cytotoxicity toward human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), and the mechanical properties of a silver bromide/cationic polymer nano-composite (AgBr/NPVP)-modified PMMA-based dental resin. AgBr/NPVP was added to the PMMA resin at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt%, and PMMA resin without AgBr/NPVP served as the control. Fungal growth was inhibited on the AgBr/NPVP-modified PMMA resin compared to the control (P  0.05) between the experimental and control groups. These data indicate that the incorporation of AgBr/NPVP conferred strong and long-lasting antifungal effects against Candida albicans to the PMMA resin, and it has low toxicity toward HDPCs, and its mechanical properties were not significantly affected.

  12. Color formation on irradiated polymethyl methacrylate by electrons beam; Formacao de cor no polimetil metacrilato (PMMA) irradiado com feixes de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, Daniela T.; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: smguedes@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The color formation on national and commercial polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated by electrons beam was investigated in function of dose (0-150 kGy), post-irradiation time (0-31 days) and heating (110 deg C/1 h) by colorimetry (CIELab), electron spectroscopy resonance (RPE) and photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy (FTIRPAS). The irradiation promoted the formation of unstable color centers responsible by changing of colorimetric and optical properties. Visually or by colorimetric parameters the radiation became the PMMAS yellow and darkening which intensified by increase the dose and disappeared after the post-irradiation time. The yellow color disappeared and darkening increased when the irradiated PMMA (150 kGy) was heated. It was impossible to see the green and red colors however the colorimetric parameters showed a little decreasing of the Da value in function of the increased dose and a little increasing in function of post-irradiation time. The FTIR-PAS spectra did not show the presence of different functional groups after irradiation however the correlation among the Db values and RPE spectra suggested that the radicals could be responsible by unstable and yellow color centers. The radiosterilized PMMA (25 kGy) showed significant colorimetric changes that decreased but continued visible yet after 31 days. (author)

  13. Low-loss integrated electrical surface plasmon source with ultra-smooth metal film fabricated by polymethyl methacrylate ‘bond and peel’ method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjie; Hu, Xiaolong; Zou, Qiushun; Wu, Shaoying; Jin, Chongjun

    2018-06-01

    External light sources are mostly employed to functionalize the plasmonic components, resulting in a bulky footprint. Electrically driven integrated plasmonic devices, combining ultra-compact critical feature sizes with extremely high transmission speeds and low power consumption, can link plasmonics with the present-day electronic world. In an effort to achieve this prospect, suppressing the losses in the plasmonic devices becomes a pressing issue. In this work, we developed a novel polymethyl methacrylate ‘bond and peel’ method to fabricate metal films with sub-nanometer smooth surfaces on semiconductor wafers. Based on this method, we further fabricated a compact plasmonic source containing a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide with an ultra-smooth metal surface on a GaAs-based light-emitting diode wafer. An increase in propagation length of the SPP mode by a factor of 2.95 was achieved as compared with the conventional device containing a relatively rough metal surface. Numerical calculations further confirmed that the propagation length is comparable to the theoretical prediction on the MIM waveguide with perfectly smooth metal surfaces. This method facilitates low-loss and high-integration of electrically driven plasmonic devices, thus provides an immediate opportunity for the practical application of on-chip integrated plasmonic circuits.

  14. Radiolytic stabilization of poly(methyl methacrylate) using commercial additives; Estabilizacao radiolitica do poli(metacrilato de metila) usando aditivos comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2000-04-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, Acrigel, a Brazilian polymer, is used in the manufacture of medical supplies sterelizable by ionizing radiation. However, when PMMA is gamma-irradiated it undergoes main chain scissions, which promote molecular degradation causing reduction in its mechanical properties. Therefore, radiolytic of PMMA is important for it to become commercially radiosterizable. In this work some commercial additives, originally used in photo-and thermo-oxidate stabilization of polymers, were tested. Only two additives, type HALS (Hindered Amine Light Stabilizer), denoted Scavenger, showed a good protective quality. The investigation of radiation-induced main scissions was carried out by viscosimetric method. The most effective additive, added to the polymer system at 0.3 w/w%, promotes a great molecular radioprotection of 93%. That means a reduction of G-value (scissions/100 eV) from 0.611 to 0.053. In addition, the glassy transition temperature (T{sub g}) of PMMA (no additive) significantly changed by radiation does not change when PMMA (with additive) is irradiated. The spectroscopy analysis, FT-IR and NMR ({sup 1}H), showed that the radioprotector added to the system does not change the PMMA structure. (author)

  15. Random laser based on Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available Random laser based on Rh6G doped PMMA thin films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by a simple hydrothermal oxidation method has been demonstrated. This kind of random laser medium is based on waveguide structure consisting of ZnO nanorods, Rh6G doped PMMA film and air. By controlling the time of hydrothermal oxidation reaction, wheat-like and hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods have been successfully fabricated. The emission spectra of these gain mediums based on different ZnO nanorods are different. The one based on wheat-like ZnO nanorods mainly exhibits amplified spontaneous emission, and the other one based on hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods shows random laser emission. The threshold of the random laser medium is about 73.8 μJ/pulse, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM is around 2.1 nm. The emission spectra measured at different detecting angles reveal that the output direction is strongly confined in ±30° by the waveguide effect. Our experiments demonstrate a promising method to achieve organic random laser medium. Keywords: Random laser, ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal oxidation, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G, Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA

  16. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  17. Custom CAD-CAM healing abutment and impression coping milled from a poly(methyl methacrylate) block and bonded to a titanium insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussaefs, Periklis

    2016-11-01

    This article describes a technique in which a custom-made computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) healing abutment milled from a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block is fabricated and bonded to a titanium metal insert. An impression is made during dental implant surgery, and the CAD-CAM custom-made healing abutment is fabricated before second-stage surgery while appropriate healing time is allowed for the dental implant to osseointegrate. The contours of the healing abutment are based on the contours of a tentatively designed definitive prosthesis. The healing tissue obtains contours that will be compatible with the contours of the definitive prosthesis. After the milling process is complete, a titanium metal insert is bonded to the healing abutment. Placement of the custom-made CAD-CAM healing abutment at second-stage surgery allows the tissue to obtain contours similar to those of the definitive prosthesis. A custom-made CAD-CAM impression coping milled from a PMMA block and with a titanium insert is used for the definitive impression after the soft tissue has healed. This technique allows guided soft tissue healing by using a custom-made CAD-CAM healing abutment and impression coping. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Using mid-Infrared External Reflectance Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Different Commercially Produced Poly[Methyl MethAcrylate] (PMMA) Samples - A Null Result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario; Neel, Christopher; Lacina, David

    2017-06-01

    We report (null) results of experiments testing the hypothesis that mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish samples of poly[methyl methacrylate] (PMMA) obtained from different commercial suppliers. This work was motivated by the desire for a simple non-destructive and non-invasive test for pre-sorting PMMA samples prior to use in shock and high-strain-rate experiments, where PMMA is commonly used as a standard material. We discuss: our choice of mid-IR external reflectance spectroscopy, our approach to recording reflectance spectra at near-normal (θ = 0 + / - 5 degree) incidence and for extracting the wavelength-weighted absorption spectrum from the raw reflectance data via a Kramers-Krönig analysis. We employ extensive signal, which necessitates adopting a special experimental protocol to mitigate the effects of instrumental drift. Finally, we report spectra of three PMMA samples with different commercial pedigrees, and show that they are virtually identical (+ / - 1 % error, 95% confidence); obviating the use of mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy to tell the samples apart.

  19. Encapsulation of Piper cabralanum (Piperaceae) nonpolar extract in poly(methyl methacrylate) by miniemulsion and evaluation of increase in the effectiveness of antileukemic activity in K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Filgueiras, Lívia Alves; Siqueira, Monica Regina Pimentel; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Holandino, Carla; de Lima Moreira, Davyson; Pinto, José Carlos; Nele, Marcio

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and evaluate their ability to incorporate plant extracts with antitumor activity and low dissolution in aqueous media. The extract used was n -hexane partition of the methanol extract of Piper cabralanum (PCA-HEX). PMMA NPs were obtained using the mini-emulsion method, which was able to encapsulate almost 100% of PCA-HEX. The synthesized polymeric particles presented with a size of 200 nm and a negative charge. Cytotoxicity tests by MTT and trypan blue assays showed that NPs without PCA-HEX did not kill leukemic cells (K562 cells). NPs containing PCA-HEX were able to enhance cell death when compared to pure extract. The results showed that PMMA NPs could be useful as a drug delivery system as they can enhance the antitumor activity of the PCA-HEX extract by more than 20-fold. PMMA NPs containing plant extracts with antitumor activities may be an alternative to control the evolution of diseases such as leukemia.

  20. Tuning Surface Properties of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Film Using Poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s with Short Perfluorinated Side Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Eun-Ho; Ha, Jong-Wook; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, In Jun

    2016-09-27

    To control the surface properties of a commonly used polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(perfluoromethyl methacrylate)s (PFMMAs) with short perfluorinated side groups (i.e., -CF3, -CF2CF3, -(CF3)2, -CF2CF2CF3) were used as blend components because of their good solubility in organic solvents, low surface energies, and high optical transmittance. The surface energies of the blend films of PFMMA with the -CF3 group and PMMA increased continuously with increasing PMMA contents from 17.6 to 26.0 mN/m, whereas those of the other polymer blend films remained at very low levels (10.2-12.6 mN/m), similar to those of pure PFMMAs, even when the blends contained 90 wt %PMMA. Surface morphology and composition measurements revealed that this result originated from the different blend structures, such as lateral and vertical phase separations. We expect that these PFMMAs will be useful in widening the applicable window of PMMA.

  1. External Electric Field Effects on Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in 4'-N,N-Dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Hino, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Norifumi; Awasthi, Kamlesh; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2015-09-17

    The external electric field effects on the steady-state electronic spectra and excited-state dynamics were investigated for 4'-N,N-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone (DMHF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film. In the steady-state spectrum, dual emission was observed from the excited states of the normal (N*) and tautomer (T*) forms. Application of an external electric field of 1.0 MV·cm(-1) enhanced the N* emission and reduced the T* emission, indicating that the external electric field suppressed the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The fluorescence decay profiles were measured for the N* and T* forms. The change in the emission intensity ratio N*/T* induced by the external electric field is dominated by ESIPT from the Franck-Condon excited state of the N* form and vibrational cooling in potential wells of the N* and T* forms occurring within tens of picoseconds. Three manifolds of fluorescent states were identified for both the N* and T* forms. The excited-state dynamics of DMHF in PMMA films has been found to be very different from that in solution due to intermolecular interactions in a rigid environment.

  2. Utilization of poly(methyl methacrylate – carbon nanotube and polystyrene – carbon nanotube in situ polymerized composites as masterbatches for melt mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lahelin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs were melt mixed directly or by using an in situ polymerized masterbatch into a matrix polymer, polystyrene (PS or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. The mechanical properties of the composites were mostly determined by the amount of CNTs, and not by the use of directly melt mixed CNTs or the use of the masterbatch. In contrast, the electrical resistivity of the composites was dependent on the manner in which the CNTs were added to the matrix polymer. When there was increased interfacial adhesion between the components, as for PS and the CNTs, the use of directly melt mixed CNTs gave better resistivity results. Without strong interactions between the CNTs and the matrix, as with PMMA and CNTs, the use of a tailored masterbatch had a significant effect on properties of the final composites. The molecular weight and viscosity of masterbatches can be varied and when the PMMA-masterbatch had optimized viscosity with respect to the PMMA matrix, electrical resistivity of the final composites decreased noticeably.

  3. Cranioplasty using presurgically fabricated presterilised polymethyl methacrylate plate by a simple, cost-effective technique on patients with and without original bone flap: study on 29 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharavanan, G M; Jayabalan, Suresh; Rajasukumaran, K; Veerasekar, Ganesh; Sathya, G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of presurgically fabricated pre-sterilized polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate as a cranioplasty material. The study group consisted of 29 patients with skull defect following decompressive craniectomy. Some patients had their original bone flap preserved and some were without it. In either group pre-sterilized prefabricated PMMA plate was used. On each visit, patients were clinically assessed; CT scans were taken in immediate follow up period but if needed more films were taken in subsequent follow ups. Post-op complications that include infection, post-op hematoma, chronic pain, aesthetic, biocompatibility, post-op dimensional changes of prosthesis were evaluated. Mean follow up was 7 1/2 months. Five patients developed swelling and pain in the subsequent follow ups. One patient was treated conservatively with antibiotics. Tapping was performed in couple of patients. Surgical evacuation of hematoma was performed in one patient. Of the five infected plates, one demanded removal from the patient. One complained of chronic pain. Post-op follow up assessed clinically and by CT scan confirmed good aesthetic result, biocompatibility and dimensional stability of prosthesis. The result of this study support the view that the use of prefabricated pre-sterilized PMMA plate as cranioplasty material is a simple, reliable, convenient way that brings acceptable function and aesthetics to patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy, in an inexpensive way.

  4. Synthesis of polymer hybrid latex poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) with organo montmorillonite via miniemulsion polymerization method for barrier paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanra, J.; Budianto, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid polymer latex based on combination of organic-inorganic materials, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) (PMMBA) and organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) were synthesized via miniemulsion polymerization technique. Modification of montmorillonite (MMT) through the incorporation of myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB) into the clay’s interlayer spaces were investigated by Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Barrier property and thermal stability of polymer latex film sample were investigated through its Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The results indicated that addition of OMMT as filler in PMMBA increased the barrier property and thermal stability of the latex film. Addition of 8.0% (wt) OMMT increased the barrier property and thermal stability. Miniemusion polymerization process with higher addition (>8.0 wt%) of OMMT resulting in high latex viscosity, particle size, and high amount of coagulum. The utilization of this hybrid polymer could benefits paper and board industries to produce high quality barrier paper for food packaging.

  5. Thermal, Mechanical and UV-Shielding Properties of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate/Cerium Dioxide Hybrid Systems Obtained by Melt Compounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Reyes-Acosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thick and homogeneous hybrid film systems based on poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and CeO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using the melt compounding method to improve thermal stability, mechanical and UV-shielding properties, as well as to propose them for use in the multifunctional materials industry. The effect of the inorganic phase on these properties was assessed by using two different weight percentages of synthesized CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5 and 1.0 wt % with the sol–gel method and thermal treatment at different temperatures (120, 235, 400, 600 and 800 °C. Thereafter, the nanoceria powders were added to the polymer matrix by single screw extrusion. The absorption in the UV region was increased with the crystallite size of the CeO2 nanoparticles and the PMMA/CeO2 weight ratio. Due to the crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles, the thermal, mechanical and UV-shielding properties of the PMMA matrix were improved. The presence of CeO2 nanostructures exerts an influence on the mobility of PMMA chain segments, leading to a different glass transition temperature.

  6. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-bin Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compelling findings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1 polyethylene glycol as an adjustable biomolecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2 Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3 Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting substrates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury

  7. Polyethylene glycol as a promising synthetic material for repair of spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-bin Kong; Qiu-yan Tang; Xu-yi Chen; Yue Tu; Shi-zhong Sun; Zhong-lei Sun

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol is a synthetic, biodegradable, and water-soluble polyether. Owing to its good biological and material properties, polyethylene glycol shows promise in spinal cord tissue engineering applications. Although studies have examined repairing spinal cord injury with polyethylene glycol, these compellingfindings have not been recently reviewed or evaluated as a whole. Thus, we herein review and summarize the findings of studies conducted both within and beyond China that have examined the repair of spinal cord injury using polyethylene glycol. The following summarizes the results of studies using polyethylene glycol alone as well as coupled with polymers or hydrogels: (1) polyethylene glycol as an adjustable bio-molecule carrier resists nerve fiber degeneration, reduces the inflammatory response, inhibits vacuole and scar formation, and protects nerve membranes in the acute stage of spinal cord injury. (2) Polyethylene glycol-coupled polymers not only promote angiogenesis but also carry drugs or bioactive molecules to the injury site. Because such polymers cross both the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers, they have been widely used as drug carriers. (3) Polyethylene glycol hydrogels have been used as supporting sub-strates for the growth of stem cells after injury, inducing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Simultaneously, polyethylene glycol hydrogels isolate or reduce local glial scar invasion, promote and guide axonal regeneration, cross the transplanted area, and re-establish synaptic connections with target tissue, thereby promoting spinal cord repair. On the basis of the reviewed studies, we conclude that polyethylene glycol is a promising synthetic material for use in the repair of spinal cord injury.

  8. Cross-linked compared with historical polyethylene in THA: an 8-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Carel H; Grimm, Bernd; Vencken, Wendy; Heyligers, Ide C; Tonino, Alphons J

    2009-04-01

    Wear particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in THA. Increasing wear resistance of polyethylene (PE) occurs by increasing the cross-link density and early reports document low wear rates with such implants. To confirm longer-term reductions in wear we compared cross-linked polyethylene (irradiation in nitrogen, annealing) with historical polyethylene (irradiation in air) in a prospective, randomized clinical study involving 48 patients who underwent THAs with a minimum followup of 7 years (mean, 8 years; range, 7-9 years). The insert material was the only variable. The Harris hip score, radiographic signs of osteolysis, and polyethylene wear were recorded annually. Twenty-three historical and 17 moderately cross-linked polyethylene inserts were analyzed (five patients died, three were lost to followup). At 8 years, the wear rate was lower for cross-linked polyethylene (0.088 +/- 0.03 mm/year) than for the historical polyethylene (0.142 +/- 0.07 mm/year). This reduction (38%) did not diminish with time (33% at 5 years). Acetabular cyst formation was less frequent (39% versus 12%), affected fewer DeLee and Charnley zones (17% versus 4%), and was less severe for the cross-linked polyethylene. The only revision was for an aseptically loose cup in the historical polyethylene group. Moderately cross-linked polyethylene maintained its wear advantage with time and produced less osteolysis, showing no signs of aging at mid-term followup. Level I, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  9. Characteristics of Friction Stir Processed UHMW Polyethylene Based Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, G.; Khan, I.

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) based composites are widely used in biomedical and food industries because of their biocompatibility and enhanced properties. The aim of this study was to fabricate UHMWPE / nHA composite through heat assisted Friction Stir Processing. The rotational speed (ω), feed rate (f), volume fraction of nHA (v) and shoulder temperature (T) were selected as the process parameters. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis revealed that these parameters have significant effects on the distribution of reinforcing material, defects formation and material mixing. Defects were observed especially at low levels of (ω, T) and high levels of (f, v). Low level of v with medium levels of other parameters resulted in better mixing and minimum defects. A 10% increase in strength with only 1% reduction in Percent Elongation was observed at the above set of conditions. Moreover, the resulted hardness of the composite was higher than that of the parent material.

  10. Permeability coefficient of proton irradiated polyethylene terephatalate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassani, L.C.; Santos, W.M.S.; Marechal, B.

    1983-01-01

    The principle of operation of an apparatus developed to study gas permation through thin films is described and the measurement method is discussed. Use is made of diffusion theory to obtain a expression for the permeability coefficient as a function of the rate of increase of the pressure in the receiving volume. The Gibbs function for permeation of Helium through Polyethylene Terephtalate (P.E.T.) is determined. The permeability coefficient of Helium is found to increase significantly with the range of the implanted protons although the incident charge has been kept constant. The hypothesis of structural modifications of the proton implanted P.E.T. seems to be confirmed by small angles X-rays scattering experiments on the irradiated samples. (Author) [pt

  11. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature

  12. Flow and breakup in extension of low-density polyethylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Fasano, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The breakup during the extension of a low-density polyethylene Lupolen 1840D, as observed experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011), was investigated. This was observed during the extension of an circular cylinder with radius R0 = 4 mm and length L0 = 5mm....... The sample was attached to two flat end plates, separated exponentially in time to extend the samples. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian kinematics description in a continuum mechanical framework was used to calculate the extension of an initially cylindrically shaped sample with and without small...... the error bars as reported experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011). At low extensional rates, the measurements were considerably above the calculated ones. A very small relative suppression in the surface (0.1%) was required to achieve an agreement with all measurements...

  13. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: rabia.khelif@ifma.fr; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: alaa.chateauneuf@polytech.univ-bpclermont.fr; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: chaoui@univ-annaba.org

    2007-12-15

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  14. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  15. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  16. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiljeva, I.V.; Mjakin, S.V.; Makarov, A.V.; Krasovsky, A.N.; Varlamov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  17. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljeva, I.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: radiant@skylink.spb.ru; Mjakin, S.V. [Technology Center RADIANT, 10, Kurchatova Str., 194223 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Makarov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasovsky, A.N. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Varlamov, A.V. [St.-Petersburg State University of Cinema and Television, 13, ul. Pravdy, 191126 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy)

  18. Surface characterization of polyethylene terephthalate/silica nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvinzadeh, Mazeyar, E-mail: mparvinzadeh@gmail.com [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradian, Siamak [Department of Polymer and Color Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Abosaeed [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohamad-Esmail [Department of Textile, Islamic Azad University, Yazd Branch, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) based nanocomposites containing hydrophilic (i.e. Aerosil 200 or Aerosil TT 600) or hydrophobic (i.e. Aerosil R 972) nano-silica were prepared by melt compounding. Influence of nano-silica type on surface properties of the resultant nanocomposites was investigated by the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurement (CAM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and reflectance spectroscopy (RS). The possible interaction between nano-silica particles and PET functional groups at bulk and surface were elucidated by transmission FTIR and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. AFM studies of the resultant nanocomposites showed increased surface roughness compared to pure PET. Contact angle measurements of the resultant PET composites demonstrated that the wettability of such composites depends on surface treatment of the particular nano-silica particles used. SEM images illustrated that hydrophilic nano-silica particles tended to migrate to the surface of the PET matrix.

  19. Polyethylene liners in radioactive mixed waste packages: An engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, G.A.

    1991-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office under contract AC06-87RL10930. These facilities include solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document is 1 in a series of 25 reports or actions identified in a Solid Waste Management Event Fact Sheet and critique report (Appendix E) to address the problem of stored, leaking 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin waste drums. It specifically addresses the adequacy of polyethylene liners used as internal packaging of radioactive mixed waste. This document is to be used by solid waste generators preparing solid waste for storage at Hanford Site facilities. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved with approval and acceptance of radioactive solid waste

  20. Evaluation of the radiation resistance of high-density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Adams, J.W.; Barletta, R.R.

    1984-03-01

    Mechanical tests following gamma irradiation and creep tests during irradiation have been conducted on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) to provide data to help assess the adequacy of this material for use in high integrity containers (HICs). Two types of HDPE, a highly cross-linked rotationally molded material and a non-cross-linked blow molded material, were used in these tests. Gamma-ray irradiations were performed at several dose rates in environments of air, Barnwell and Hanford backfill soils, and ion-exchange resins. The results of tensile and bend tests on these materials following irradiation are presented along with results on creep during irradiation. 8 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  1. 3D Printable Filaments Made of Biobased Polyethylene Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Filgueira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different series of biobased polyethylene (BioPE were used for the manufacturing of biocomposites, complemented with thermomechanical pulp (TMP fibers. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of the TMP fibers was previously modified by grafting hydrophobic compounds (octyl gallate and lauryl gallate by means of an enzymatic-assisted treatment. BioPE with low melt flow index (MFI yielded filaments with low void fraction and relatively low thickness variation. The water absorption of the biocomposites was remarkably improved when the enzymatically-hydrophobized TMP fibers were used. Importantly, the 3D printing of BioPE was improved by adding 10% and 20% TMP fibers to the composition. Thus, 3D printable biocomposites with low water uptake can be manufactured by using fully biobased materials and environmentally-friendly processes.

  2. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-02

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations for Resolving Scaling Laws of Polyethylene Melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Z. Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations were performed to estimate the actual physical nature of a united-atom model of polyethylene (PE. Several scaling laws for representative polymer properties are compared to theoretical predictions. Internal structure results indicate a clear departure from theoretical predictions that assume ideal chain statics. Chain motion deviates from predictions that assume ideal motion of short chains. With regard to linear viscoelasticity, the presence or absence of entanglements strongly affects the duration of the theoretical behavior. Overall, the results indicate that Gaussian statics and dynamics are not necessarily established for real atomistic models of PE. Moreover, the actual physical nature should be carefully considered when using atomistic models for applications that expect typical polymer behaviors.

  4. Deformation of confined poly(ethylene oxide) in multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuan-Yar; Hiltner, Anne; Baer, Eric; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2012-04-01

    The effect of confinement on the deformation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied using melt processed coextruded poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) and PEO multilayer films with varying PEO layer thicknesses from 3600 to 25 nm. The deformation mechanism was found to shift as layer thickness was decreased between 510 and 125 nm, from typical axial alignment of the crystalline fraction, as seen in bulk materials, to nonuniform micronecking mechanisms found in solution-grown single crystals. This change was evaluated via tensile testing, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With the commercially relevant method of melt coextrusion, we were able to overcome the limitations to the testing of solution-grown single crystals, and the artifacts that occur from their handling, and bridged the gap in knowledge between thick bulk materials and thin single crystals.

  5. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  6. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  7. Cytocompatibility of polyethylene grafted with triethylenetetramine functionalized carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáková, Pavlína; Slepičková Kasálková, Nikola; Slepička, Petr; Kolská, Zdeňka; Karpíšková, Jana; Stibor, Ivan; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-11-01

    Various carbon nanostructures are widely researched as scaffolds for tissue engineering. We evaluated the surface properties and cell-substrate interactions of carbon nanoparticles functionalized with triethylenetetramine (CNPs) grafted polymer film. Two forms of polyethylene (HDPE, LDPE) were treated in an inert argon plasma discharge and, subsequently, grafted with CNPs. The surface properties were studied using multiple methods, including Raman spectroscopy, goniometry, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrokinetic analysis. Cell-substrate interactions were determined in vitro by studying adhesion, proliferation and viability of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the aorta of a rat. Cell-substrate interactions on pristine and modified substrates were compared to standard tissue culture polystyrene. Our results show that CNPs affect surface morphology and wettability and therefore adhesion, proliferation and viability of cultured muscle cells.

  8. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apri, M.; Silmi, M.; Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  9. Crystallinity of polyethylene in uni-axial extensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; van Drongelen, Martin; Mortensen, Kell

    Flow history of polymer melts in processing greatly influences the crystallinity and hence the solid properties of the final material. A wide range of polymer processes involve extensional flows e.g. fiber spinning, blow moulding etc. However, due to instrumental difficulties, experimental studies...... on polymer crystallization in controlled uniaxial extension are quite rare compared to studies of crystallization in shear. Inherently uniaxial extensional flows are strong and simple relative to shear flows, in the sense that chain stretch is easily obtained and that the molecules experience no tumbling...... such that crystallization from a stretched state can take place. In this work we explore this feature in the attempt to link the nonlinear extensional rheology to the final morphology. We investigate polyethylenes (PE) of various chain architectures and observe that, even for complex architectures like long chain branched...

  10. Modeling cutinase enzyme regulation in polyethylene terepthalate plastic biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apri, M., E-mail: m.apri@math.itb.ac.id; Silmi, M. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Heryanto, T. E.; Moeis, M. R. [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganeca 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-06

    PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) is a plastic material that is commonly used in our daily life. The high production of PET and others plastics that can be up to three hundred million tons per year, is not matched by its degradation rate and hence leads to environmental pollution. To overcome this problem, we develop a biodegradation system. This system utilizes LC Cutinase enzyme produced by engineered escherichia coli bacteria to degrade PET. To make the system works efficaciously, it is important to understand the mechanism underlying its enzyme regulation. Therefore, we construct a mathematical model to describe the regulation of LC Cutinase production. The stability of the model is analyzed. We show that the designated biodegradation system can give an oscillatory behavior that is very important to control the amount of inclusion body (the miss-folded proteins that reduce the efficiency of the biodegradation system).

  11. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shosuke; Hiraga, Kazumi; Takehana, Toshihiko; Taniguchi, Ikuo; Yamaji, Hironao; Maeda, Yasuhito; Toyohara, Kiyotsuna; Miyamoto, Kenji; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Oda, Kohei

    2016-03-11

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.

    2006-01-01

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK

  13. Physical properties of drawn very low density polyethylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.Y. [Korea Institute of Footwear and Leather Technology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE) films were prepared by quenching the pressed melt in ice water. The films were drawn with universal testing machine under constant temperature at four different temperatures, 30, 60, 80, and 110 {sup o} C. Thermal, mechanical properties, grossity, and gas permeability of the drawn VLDPE films as a function of draw ratio were investigated to examine their applicability to packaging. The films showed tow melting peaks, i.e., low temperature endotherm (LTE) and high temperature endotherm (HTE). The melting temperatures were increased with the draw ratio and the drawing temperature. The mechanical properties of the VLDPE film drawn at 80 {sup o} C were superior to those drawn at 110 {sup o} C. The grossity and gas permeability of the VLDPE film drawn at 110 {sup o} C were found to be best among the drawn films.

  14. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent polyethylene oxide/tragacanth hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoylou, F.; Naimian, F.

    2009-03-01

    A new superabsorbent hydrogel has been prepared from tragacanth and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by gamma radiation at room temperature. Tragacanth solutions with different concentrations (1%, 3% and 5%) have been blended with 5% aqueous solution of PEO at a ratio of 1:1 and irradiated at doses 5-20 kGy. The properties of the prepared composite hydrogels were evaluated in terms of the gel fraction and the swelling behavior. An unexpected growth of the gel fraction was observed in PEO/tragacanth hydrogels irradiated at 5 kGy. Incorporation of 5% tragacanth into the aqueous PEO increased significantly the swelling percent of the hydrogels to more than 14,000% and thus makes it a superabsorbent material.

  15. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent polyethylene oxide/tragacanth hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoylou, F. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: fkhoylou@aeoi.org.ir; Naimian, F. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Applications Research School, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    A new superabsorbent hydrogel has been prepared from tragacanth and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by gamma radiation at room temperature. Tragacanth solutions with different concentrations (1%, 3% and 5%) have been blended with 5% aqueous solution of PEO at a ratio of 1:1 and irradiated at doses 5-20 kGy. The properties of the prepared composite hydrogels were evaluated in terms of the gel fraction and the swelling behavior. An unexpected growth of the gel fraction was observed in PEO/tragacanth hydrogels irradiated at 5 kGy. Incorporation of 5% tragacanth into the aqueous PEO increased significantly the swelling percent of the hydrogels to more than 14,000% and thus makes it a superabsorbent material.

  16. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent polyethylene oxide/tragacanth hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoylou, F.; Naimian, F.

    2009-01-01

    A new superabsorbent hydrogel has been prepared from tragacanth and polyethylene oxide (PEO) by gamma radiation at room temperature. Tragacanth solutions with different concentrations (1%, 3% and 5%) have been blended with 5% aqueous solution of PEO at a ratio of 1:1 and irradiated at doses 5-20 kGy. The properties of the prepared composite hydrogels were evaluated in terms of the gel fraction and the swelling behavior. An unexpected growth of the gel fraction was observed in PEO/tragacanth hydrogels irradiated at 5 kGy. Incorporation of 5% tragacanth into the aqueous PEO increased significantly the swelling percent of the hydrogels to more than 14,000% and thus makes it a superabsorbent material

  17. Simulation of polyethylene glycol and calcium-mediated membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuzzo, Martina; De Jong, Djurre H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Raudino, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Ca 2+ by means of a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach. Our data provide a detailed view on the role of cations and polymer in modulating the interaction between negatively charged apposed membranes. The PEG chains cause a reduction of the inter-lamellar distance and cause an increase in concentration of divalent cations. When thermally driven fluctuations bring the membranes at close contact, a switch from cis to trans Ca 2+ -lipid complexes stabilizes a focal contact acting as a nucleation site for further expansion of the adhesion region. Flipping of lipid tails induces subsequent stalk formation. Together, our results provide a molecular explanation for the synergistic effect of Ca 2+ and PEG on membrane fusion

  18. Texturation and superhydrophobicity of polyethylene terephthalate thanks to plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrade, Jeanne; Darmanin, Thierry; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frédéric; Debarnot, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Anti-bioadhesive surfaces were designed from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by three steps plasma-treatment. First, the nano-pattern is created by oxygen plasma-treatment with controlled dimensions. Then, the plasma-treated polymeric surface was hydrophobized with a tetrafluorocarbon plasma, allowing to obtain a water contact angle of 145 ± 4°. However, the SEM pictures give evidence to show the degradation of the structuration caused by the CF 4 -plasma and consequently, the superhydrophobicity was not reached. Thus, a plasma-polypyrrole layer was deposited before the plasma-fluorination, which has a protective role against the degradation generated by fluorinated species, preserving the structuration and improving the fluorination rate. Therefore, the obtained surfaces are superhydrophobic with water contact angle of 157 ± 2° and a hysteresis of 65 ± 3°. The ability of these surfaces to reduce bioadhesion will be performed in further work.

  19. Production and Structural Investigation of Polyethylene Composites with Modified Kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domka, L.; Malicka, A.; Stachowiak, N.

    2008-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the filler (kaolin) modification with silane coupling agents on the properties of the polyethylene (HDPE Hostalen ACP 5831) composites. Powder mineral fillers are added to polymers to modify the properties of the latter and to reduce the cost of their production. A very important factor is the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. Kaolin modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and pure kaolin were characterised by surface area, pore size, water absorbing capacity, paraffin oil absorbing capacity, bulk density, scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their performance was characterised by determination of the mechanical resistance upon static stretching and tearing, and their structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. The results were compared to those obtained for the composites with unmodified filler and pure HDPE. (authors)

  20. Production and Structural Investigation of Polyethylene Composites with Modified Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domka, L.; Malicka, A.; Stachowiak, N.

    2008-08-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the filler (kaolin) modification with silane coupling agents on the properties of the polyethylene (HDPE Hostalen ACP 5831) composites. Powder mineral fillers are added to polymers to modify the properties of the latter and to reduce the cost of their production. A very important factor is the filler dispersion in the polymer matrix. Kaolin modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and pure kaolin were characterised by surface area, pore size, water absorbing capacity, paraffin oil absorbing capacity, bulk density, scanning electron microscopy observations and X-ray diffraction measurements. Their performance was characterised by determination of the mechanical resistance upon static stretching and tearing, and their structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images. The results were compared to those obtained for the composites with unmodified filler and pure HDPE.