WorldWideScience

Sample records for polymer cement mortar

  1. Radiation chemical treatment of cement mortar - polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the hardened cement pastes,mortars and concretes which contain polymers has progressed rapidly in years. Developmental work has identified a number of applications where the high strength and excellent durability of the composite materials will provide definite advantages over conventional mortars and concretes. The first investigations of polymer - impregnated concrete tried mainly to increase the quantity of absorbed and polymerised monomer because this gave a greater decrease in the original of concrete and a subsequent improvement in physico - mechanical properties. However, the production costs which is due mainly to the organic polymer, becomes the most important item. In this respect recent research showed the possibility of obtaining with a very compact concrete, of relative low porosity, a compound material with high performances after impregnation 26 tabs.,28 figs.,109 refs

  2. Polymer-Cement Mortar with Quarry Waste as Sand Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Gómez-Balbuena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The activities of carved Quarry extraction generate problems of landscape pollution such is the case of solid waste discharged into open land dumps in central Mexico. This article presents the technological application of this solid waste in a new polymeric material with properties similar to those of a traditional mortar. It is concluded that the polymeric material uses low amounts of cement with respect to the traditional mortar, and it is elaborated with the recycled quarry as they are presented in its granulometry. The polymer used favored a low water/cement ratio (0.3 which did not allow to decrease resistance due to the fine nature of the materials (residues and cement in addition to maintaining the workability of the material. The quarry residue was classified as silt with low plasticity and was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Fluorescence to identify 76% of SiO2, which is why it was used as a stone aggregate even though the fines content was approximately 93%. The maximum compression resistance obtained at 28 days were 8 Mpa with the polymer/solid ratios of 0.10, water/solids of 0.30, and quarry/solids of 0.67. Linear equations were analyzed for more representative values with R squared adjustment.

  3. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Polymer Modified White Sand Cement Mortar Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the substitution effect of standard sand of conventional cement mortar made from ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and standard sand (SS) OPC/SS 1:3; by different ratios of white sand (WS) powder to prepare three types of white sand cement mortar designated as 1OPC:2SS:1WS, 1OPC:1SS:2WS and 1OPC:0SS:3WS. The prepared samples were first cured under tap water for different time intervals namely 3, 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect of addition of 10% styrene-acrylic ester (SAE) as well as the effect of different doses of gamma rays (10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy) on the physicomechanical properties of polymer modified white sand cement mortar specimens also discussed. Compression strength test, total porosity and water absorption percentages were measured according to standard specifications. The obtained data indicated that, the cement mortar samples containing different ratios of white sand have lower values of compressive strength as compared to the conventional cement mortar while, the percentages of total porosity and water absorption increased. On the other hand, the polymer modified mortar specimens showed a noticeably enhancement in the physico-mechanical properties under the effect of gamma-radiation than those of untreated samples. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies

  4. Influence of polymer fibers on rheological properties of cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaszkiewicz Dorota

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcing effect of fibers in cement composites often results in the improvement of the brittle nature of cementitious materials. But the decrease in the workability of fresh concrete is often the disadvantage of fibers addition. Conventional single-point workability tests cannot characterize workability of concrete in terms of fundamental rheological parameters. To this end, this paper describes an investigation of the influence of synthetic fiber additions (fiber length in the range 12–50 mm and volume fraction in the range 0–4% on the rheological properties of fiber reinforced fresh mortar (FRFM and development of these properties over time. The rheometer Viskomat XL was used in this study. Within the limitations of the instrument and testing procedure it is shown that FRFMs conform to the Bingham model. Natural postglacial sand 0/4 mm was used as a fine aggregate and cement CEMI 42.5 R was used as a binder. Three commercial synthetic fibers were selected for these examinations. Rheological properties were expressed in terms of Bingham model parameters g (yield value and h (plastic viscosity. Based on the test results it was found out that the fiber type and volume fraction affected both the yield stress and plastic viscosity.

  5. Influence of polymer fibers on rheological properties of cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaszkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-10-01

    The reinforcing effect of fibers in cement composites often results in the improvement of the brittle nature of cementitious materials. But the decrease in the workability of fresh concrete is often the disadvantage of fibers addition. Conventional single-point workability tests cannot characterize workability of concrete in terms of fundamental rheological parameters. To this end, this paper describes an investigation of the influence of synthetic fiber additions (fiber length in the range 12-50 mm and volume fraction in the range 0-4%) on the rheological properties of fiber reinforced fresh mortar (FRFM) and development of these properties over time. The rheometer Viskomat XL was used in this study. Within the limitations of the instrument and testing procedure it is shown that FRFMs conform to the Bingham model. Natural postglacial sand 0/4 mm was used as a fine aggregate and cement CEMI 42.5 R was used as a binder. Three commercial synthetic fibers were selected for these examinations. Rheological properties were expressed in terms of Bingham model parameters g (yield value ) and h (plastic viscosity). Based on the test results it was found out that the fiber type and volume fraction affected both the yield stress and plastic viscosity.

  6. Characteristic of Polymer-Impregnated Cement Mortar: Composites: Bulk Density and Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.; Abo-El-Enein, S.A.; El-Saft, M.M.; Sadek, M.A.; Zohdy, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of radiation initiated polymerization of some monomers on the physical properties of polymer-incorporated mortar was studied. The monomers used were: castor oil (C.O.), 4, 4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Polymerization was carried out by subjecting the monomer-impregnated mortar specimens to different doses of gamma radiation. Where polyurethane (pu) and polyurethane -methyl methacrylate copolymers were formed within the pore system. The influence of polymer impregnation on the various physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting composites was studied with respect to bulk density and polymer loading. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to study the micro-structural characteristics of the neat hardened Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mortar pastes and their polymer-impregnated composites

  7. physico-chemical studies on polymer impregnated blending cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    as the increasing of the demand on a specific performance characteristics in concrete such as improved strength, low heat, sulfate resistance, improved impermeability and certain other applications. some of the industrial waste materials such as the blast-furnace slag, silica fume and fly ash were mixed with the cement clinker to produce blended cement . the use of these materials modifies the strength, pore structure and permeability of hardened cement mortar or concrete. the incorporation of blast furnace slag and silica fume in the hardened blended cement mortar or concrete is a common practice recently due to technological, economical and environmental benefits

  8. Physico-Chemical studies on irradiated polymer-reinforcement cement mortar composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The reinforced concrete suffers from corrosion by several salts, acids or alkalies and physico-mechanical properties are greatly affected. This leads to reduce the life of reinforced concrete structure. The present investigation deals with a comparison of corrosion presentation efficiency and passivity retention of reinforcement steel coated with methylethyl and propyl inhibitors which are prepared by using γ radiation and non-coated steel embedded in γ -induced polyester cement mortar composites. From the results of these studies several conclusions could be derived and these are summarized as follows: 1- The time required to reach passivation for coated steel embedded in the mortar after soaking in tap water for 28 days lies within the range 5-15 minutes; whereas, the time required to reach passivation for steel embedded in the polyester cement mortar composites is very short (1 minute). This result is related to the presence of copolymerized polyester in the pore system of the specimens. 2- The time required to reach passivation for steel coated by inhibitors in the mortar specimens after curing in tap water for 6 months is lower than that of non -coated steel embedded in the mortar specimens cured at the same conditions. 3- A relatively high degree of corrosion inhibition was obtained for the steel embedded in polyester-cement mortar composites after curing in sea water for 28 days, the time required to reach passivation is considered as moderate in the case of methyl and ethyl inhibitors the time to passivation (T.T.P.) = 9 minutes and the degree of inhibition of steel coated with the propyl inhibitor is comparatively low (T.T.P.=21 minutes)

  9. Cement-latex grouting mortar for cementing boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kateev, I S; Golyshkina, L A; Gorbunova, I V; Kurochkin, B M; Vakula, Ya V

    1980-01-01

    The need for the development of cement-latex grouting mortar for the purpose of separating strata when reinforcing boreholes at deposits in the Tatar Associated SSR is evaluated. Results of studies of the physical and mechanical properties of cement-latex grouting mortar systems (mortar plus brick) are presented. Formulas for preparing cement-latex grouting mortor are evaluated and results of industrial tests of such mortars shown.

  10. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    OpenAIRE

    R. Fujiyama; F. Darwish; M.V. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the eff...

  11. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  12. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  13. Studies on diffusion of 137Cs in cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takebe, Shinichi; Shimooka, Kenji; Wadachi, Yoshiki; Kuramoto, Yuzuru.

    1989-12-01

    Penetration experiment of 137 Cs into the impermeable cement mortar which has been treated by the impermeable reagent (XYPEX reagent) was carried out in order to advance the performance of engineered barrier for Low Level Radioactive Waste. The result showed that the radioactive concentration at deeper region in the impermeable cement mortar specimen was decreased about 1 order of magnitude below that in the untreated specimen. Diffusion coefficient calculated from the radioactive concentration of 137 Cs in the cement mortar specimen was 9.1 x 10 -5 cm 2 /day for untreated cement mortar specimen and 4.0 x 10 -5 cm 2 /day for the impermeable cement mortar specimen, respectively. Treatment of cement mortar by the impermeable reagent was found to be effective to reduce the value of appearent diffusion coefficient for 137 Cs in the cement mortar. (author)

  14. Compressive and flexural strength of cement mortar stabilized with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortar is a material with wide range of applications in the construction industry. However, plain mortar matrices are usually brittle and often cracks and fails more suddenly than reinforced mortars. In this study, the compressive and flexural strengths of cement mortar stabilized with Raffia Palm Fruit Peel (RPFP) as fibre were ...

  15. Development of polymer films by the coalescence of polymer particles in powdered and aqueous polymer-modified mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.U.K.; Ohama, Y.; Demura, K.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates and compares the coalescence of polymer particles (continuous polymer films formation) in powdered polymer-modified mortars (PPMMs) and aqueous polymer-modified mortars (APMMs). Polymer-modified mortars (PMMs) using various redispersible polymer powders (powdered cement modifiers) and polymer dispersions (aqueous cement modifiers) were prepared by varying the polymer-cement ratio (P/C) and were tested for the characterization of polymer films using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after curing for 28 days. It is concluded from the test results that mortar constituents of unmodified mortar (UMM) are loosely joined with each other due to the absence of polymer films, thus having a structure with comparatively lower mechanical and durability characteristics. By contrast, mortar constituents in PPMMs and APMMs are compactly joined with each other due to the presence of interweaving polymer films, thereby forming a monolithic structure with improved mechanical and durability characteristics. However, the results make obvious the poor coalescence of polymer particles or development of inferior quality polymers films in PPMMs as compared to that observed in APMMs. Moreover, PPMMs show less uniform distribution of polymer films as compared to that in APMMs. Different powdered cement modifiers have different film-forming capabilities. However, such difference is hardly recognized in aqueous cement modifiers. The polymer films in PPMMs and APMMs may acquire different structures. They may appear as mesh-like, thread-like, rugged, dense or fibrous with fine or rough surfaces. Development of coherent polymer films is not well pronounced at a P/C of 5% in PPMMs, whereas sometimes coherent polymer films are observed at a P/C of 5% in APMMs. At a P/C of 10% or more, fully developed, coherent polymer films are observed in both PPMMs and APMMs

  16. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes

  17. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  18. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA. Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  19. Effect of copolymer latexes on physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume fly ash as a replacement material of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  20. Effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of polymer mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marciano Laredo dos Reis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental program to investigate the effect of temperature on the performance of epoxy and unsaturated polyester polymer mortars (PM. PM is a composite material in which polymeric materials are used to bond the aggregates in a fashion similar to that used in the preparation of Portland cement concrete. For this purpose, prismatic and cylindrical specimens were prepared for flexural and compressive tests, respectively, at different temperatures. Measurements of the temperature-dependent elastic modulus and the compressive and flexural strength were conducted using a thermostatic chamber attached to a universal test machine for a range of temperatures varying from room temperature to 90 ºC. The flexural and compressive strength decreases as temperature increases, especially after matrix HDT. Epoxy polymer mortars are more sensitive to temperature variation than unsaturated polyester ones.

  1. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering. 15 C Daicoviciu Str., 400020, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Physics and Chemistry, 25 G. Baritiu Str., 400027, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  2. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumate, E.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.; Manea, D.

    2013-11-01

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T2 relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T2 distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T2 relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T2 relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  3. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-01-01

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T 2 relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T 2 distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T 2 relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T 2 relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water

  4. Use of red mud as addition for portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, D.V.; Morelli, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding red mud, an alkaline leaching waste that is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production, in the raw meal of Portland cement mortars. The red mud is classified as dangerous, according to NBR 10004/2004, and world while generation reached over 117 million tons/year. This huge production requires high consuming products to be used as incorporation matrix and we studied the influence of red mud addition on the characteristics of cement mortars and concrete. In this paper the properties of Portland cement mortars incorporating high amounts of red mud was evaluated: pH variation, fresh (setting time, workability or normal consistency and water retention), and hardened state (mechanical strength, capillary water absorption, density and apparent porosity). Results seem promising for red mud additions up to 20 wt%. (author)

  5. A Study on the Properties of Carbon Black Mortar Using Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hong-Seok; Jeon, Ui-Hyeon; So, Seung-Young

    2015-11-01

    White Portland Cement (WPC) and inorganic pigment have been used in colored concrete, but there are some physical problems such as increases in efflorescence, and poor workability and low economics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GBFS and polymer (methyl cellulose) on the physical properties of carbon black mortar. For this purpose, a flow test, compressive strength test and color evaluation and was carried out on cement mortar mixed with polymer by changing the proportion of cement and ratio of GBFS. The results show that the addition of polymer influences significantly the color value efficiency in colored mortar. This is due to the reduction of overall amount of micro pore. This polymer films prevent the transport of soluble calcium towards the surface, and decreases efflorescence. And the flow of colored mortar was increased in proportion to the addition rate of the GBFS. In addition the strength of colored mortars with GBFS at the long-term aged (after 28 days) was higher than that of the general WPC mortar, although its strength was developed slowly at the early ages.

  6. Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in blended cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfmarkova, V.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Bilek, V.; Kersner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Literature shows that the RCM test development and experience concerns only Ordinary Portland cement. Therefore, a validation of this test method is needed for other types of binders. This study analyzes the application of RCM test for mortars prepared with different binders: Ordinary Portland

  7. Thermogravimetric analyses and mineralogical study of polymer modified mortar with silica fume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Etuko Feuzicana de Souza Almeida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral and organic additions are often used in mortars to improve their properties. Microstructural investigation concerning the effects of styrene acrylic polymer and silica fume on the mineralogical composition of high-early-strength portland cement pastes after 28 days of hydration are presented in this paper. Thermogravimetry and derivative thermogravimetry were used to study the interaction between polymers and cement, as well as the extent of pozzolanic reaction of the mortars with silica fume. Differential scanning calorimetry and X ray diffraction were used to investigate the cement hydration and the effect of the additions. The results showed that the addition of silica fume and polymer reduces the portlandite formation due to delaying of Portland cement hydration and pozzolanic reaction.

  8. Adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: konstantin.volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Kuang, Wenxing; DeMaleki, Zack [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar was investigated in a range of temperatures and cesium concentrations. {yields} The pseudo-second order kinetic model produced a good fit with the experimental kinetic data. {yields} Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm adsorption model. {yields} The interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar was dominated by chemical adsorption. - Abstract: The adsorption of cesium on cement mortar from aqueous solutions was studied in series of bench-scale tests. The effects of cesium concentration, temperature and contact time on process kinetics and equilibrium were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a range of initial cesium concentrations from 0.0103 to 10.88 mg L{sup -1} and temperatures from 278 to 313 K using coupons of cement mortar immersed in the solutions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Depending on the initial cesium concentration, its equilibrium concentration in solution ranged from 0.0069 to 8.837 mg L{sup -1} while the respective surface concentration on coupons varied from 0.0395 to 22.34 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Equilibrium test results correlated well with the Freundlich isotherm model for the entire test duration. Test results revealed that an increase in temperature resulted in an increase in adsorption rate and a decrease in equilibrium cesium surface concentration. Among several kinetic models considered, the pseudo-second order reaction model was found to be the best to describe the kinetic test results in the studied range of concentrations. The adsorption activation energy determined from Arrhenius equation was found to be approximately 55.9 kJ mol{sup -1} suggesting that chemisorption was the prevalent mechanism of interaction between cesium ions and cement mortar.

  9. MODIFICATION OF FOAMED CEMENT-CLAY MORTARS BY STABILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova Marina Ivanovna

    2012-10-01

    by-product generated in the course of combustion of crossties, and reduction of the cement consumption rate. The authors have identified that ash added into the injection does not cause any deterioration of the mortar strength; rather, it assures its structural stability and prevents any leaching of heavy metals that it contains. The authors have identified that adding 20 to 26 % of flue ash into the injection reduces the mortar hardening time by 30 %, while the strength of the mortar that has 20 % of ash is almost equal to the one of the benchmark sample. However, any higher ash content causes deterioration of the hardening strength of the mortar. Therefore, the authors have discovered that 20 % of the cement may be replaced by the ash generated in the course of combustion of waste crossties. This replacement is to be performed in the course of preparation of mortars, and it is aimed at the strengthening of the soil. This operation is to be performed in the incinerator to preserve the solution properties. This technology reduces the amount of hazardous by-products through their recycling.

  10. Optimization of superplasticizer in portland pozzolana cement mortar and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyan, Dhanya; Anand, K. B.; Mini, K. M.; Aparna, S.

    2018-02-01

    Chemical Admixtures are added to concrete at the time of mixing of its constituents to impart workability. The requirement of right workability is the essence of good concrete. It has been found that the use of optimum use of admixtures is very important since low dosage may result in loss of fluidity and over dosage could lead to segregation, bleeding, excessive air entrainment etc in concrete. Hence it is essential to find optimum dosage of superplasticizer for getting good strength and workability. But large number of trial tests are required in the field to find the saturation dosage of superplasticizer in concrete which requires more materials and consume more time. The paper deals with developing a co-relation between the quantity requirements of superplasticiser in mortar to that of cement concrete to get good workability. In this work for preparing mortar and concrete 4 brands of locally available Portland pozzolana cement (PPC) and superplasticizer (SP) belonging to 4 different families namely Polycarboxylate Ether (PCE), Lignosulphate (LS), Sulfonated Naphthalene Formaldehyde (SNF) and Sulfonated Melamine Formaldehyde (SMF) are used. Two different brands of SP’s are taken from each family. Workability study on the superplasticized mortar with cement to sand ratio 1:1.5 and water cement ratio of 0.4 was performed using marsh cone and flow table test and workability study on the concrete with same cement/sand ratio and water cement ratio was done using slump cone and flow table test. Saturation dosage of superplasticizer in mortar and concrete determined experimentally was compared to study the correlation between two. Compressive strength study on concrete cubes were done on concrete mixes with a superplasticizer dosage corresponding to the saturation dosage and a comparative study were done to analyse the improvement in the compressive strength with addition of superplasticizer from different family.

  11. Compressive Strength and Physical Properties Behavior of Cement Mortars with addition of Cement Klin Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auday A Mehatlaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement Klin Dust (CKD was the waste of almost cement industry factories, so that in this paper utilization of CKD as filler in cement and/or concrete was the main objective. CKD from the Karbala cement factory had been used and analysis to know the chemical composition of the oxides was done. In this paper cement mortars with different weight percentages of CKD (0,5,10,20,30,40 had been prepared. Physical properties such as density and porosity were done in different age curing (3, 7, 28 day. In addition, mechanical properties included the coefficient of thermal conductivity and compressive strength had also observed with different age (3,7, and 28 for all prepared specimens. From the obtained the experimental results and their discussion, it was clear that the addition (20% of CKD had the good results in cement mortars.  

  12. Sulfate resistance of nanosilica contained Portland cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batilov, Iani B.

    Soils, sea water and ground water high in sulfates are commonly encountered hostile environments that can attack the structure of concrete via chemical and physical mechanisms which can lead to costly repairs or replacement. Sulfate attack is a slow acting deteriorative phenomenon that can result in cracking, spalling, expansion, increased permeability, paste-to-aggregate bond loss, paste softening, strength loss, and ultimately, progressive failure of concrete. In the presented research study, Portland cement (PC) mortars containing 1.5% to 6.0% nanosilica (nS) cement replacement by weight were tested for sulfate resistance through full submersion in sodium sulfate to simulate external sulfate attack. Mortars with comparable levels of cement replacement were also prepared with microsilica (mS). Three cement types were chosen to explore nS' effectiveness to reduce sulfate expansion, when paired with cements of varying tricalcium aluminate (C3A) content and Blaine fineness, and compare it to that of mS. Mortars were also made with combined cement replacement of equal parts nS and mS to identify if they were mutually compatible and beneficial towards sulfate resistance. Besides sulfate attack expansion of mortar bars, the testing program included investigations into transport and microstructure properties via water absorption, sulfate ion permeability, porosimetry, SEM with EDS, laser diffraction, compressive strength, and heat of hydration. Expansion measurements indicated that mS replacement mortars outperformed both powder form nS, and nS/mS combined replacement mixtures. A negative effect of the dry nS powder replacement attributed to agglomeration of its nanoparticles during mixing negated the expected superior filler, paste densification, and pozzolanic activity of the nanomaterial. Agglomerated nS was identified as the root cause behind poor performance of nS in comparison to mS for all cement types, and the control when paired with a low C3A sulfate resistant

  13. Compressive Strength and Physical Properties Behavior of Cement Mortars with addition of Cement Klin Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Auday A Mehatlaf

    2017-01-01

    Cement Klin Dust (CKD) was the waste of almost cement industry factories, so that in this paper utilization of CKD as filler in cement and/or concrete was the main objective. CKD from the Karbala cement factory had been used and analysis to know the chemical composition of the oxides was done. In this paper cement mortars with different weight percentages of CKD (0,5,10,20,30,40) had been prepared. Physical properties such as density and porosity were done in different age curing (3, 7, 28) d...

  14. Experimental study of chloride diffusivity in unsaturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Santhanam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments are carried out to investigate the chloride diffusivity in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortars with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Based on resistivity measurement and Nernst-Einstein equation, the chloride diffusivities of cement mortars at various

  15. Physico Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Waste Rubber Cement Mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a partial replacement of aggregate with two different ratios of waste rubber (5%, 10%) with the addition of a constant ratio of rice husk ash (RHA), 5% was carried out. The hardened cement mortar used the optimum water of consistency. The specimens were molded into 1 inch cubic moulds .The specimens were first cured for 24 hours, at 100% relative humidity and then cured under tap water for 3, 7 and 28 days followed by irradiation at different doses of gamma irradiation namely 5 and 10 kGy. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties such as compressive strength, total porosity and bulk density were studied for the three types of specimens. The results showed that the values of the compressive strength, bulk density and chemically combined water of the blended cement mortar paste (OPC-RHA) increase ,while blended cement mortar paste with 5% RHA and 5, 10% waste rubber decrease. The results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and thermal behavior of the specimens. Also, it was observed that the irradiated sample was thermally more stable than the unirradiated one

  16. Acidic Attack Resistance of Cement Mortar Treated with Alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Nazhat Sabeeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The negative effect of acidic attack on the properties of concrete and cement mortar is a topic of increasing significance in the recent years. Many attempts has occurred to mitigate this negative impact by improving the properties of concrete and increase resistance to acids by using additives. The present study includes treatment of sand by alkaline material and examine the effect of treatment on cement mortar resistance towards hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. Results show that sand treatment by alkaline material significantly enhance mortar ability to resist acids. In terms of loss weight, the maximum weight rate gain was 25.54% for specimens immersed in Hydrochloric acid with water cement ratio 40%. For specimens immersed in HCl, the average gain in compressive strength is (20.15-19.433% for w/c (40-45% respectively. The average gain in modulus of rupture toward the influence of H2SO4 is (18.37–17.99% for w/c (40-45%, respectively.

  17. Chemical functionalization of ceramic tile surfaces by silane coupling agents: polymer modified mortar adhesion mechanism implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ancelmo Piscitelli Mansur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion between tiles and mortars are crucial to the stability of ceramic tile systems. From the chemical point of view, weak forces such as van der Waals forces and hydrophilic interactions are expected to be developed preferably at the tiles and polymer modified Portland cement mortar interface. The main goal of this paper was to use organosilanes as primers to modify ceramic tile hydrophilic properties to improve adhesion between ceramic tiles and polymer modified mortars. Glass tile surfaces were treated with several silane derivatives bearing specific functionalities. Contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for evaluating the chemical changes on the tile surface. In addition, pull-off tests were conducted to assess the effect on adhesion properties between tile and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate, EVA, modified mortar. The bond strength results have clearly shown the improvement of adherence at the tile-polymer modified mortar interface, reflecting the overall balance of silane, cement and polymer interactions.

  18. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide Molarity on Strength Development of Non-Cement Class C Fly Ash Geopolymer Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhono, A.

    2018-01-01

    The use of fly ash as cement replacement material can overcome the environmental issues, especially the global warming problem caused by the greenhouse effect. This is attributed to the CO2 gas produced during the cement manufacturing process, which 1 ton of cement is equivalent to 1 ton CO2. However, the major problem of fly ash is the requirement of activators to activate the polymer reactions. The most common activator used in non-cement or geopolymer material is the combination of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate. This study aims to identify the effect of NaOH molarity as activator on strength development of non-cement class C fly ash geopolymer mortar. The molarity variations of NaOH were 6 Molar (M), 8M, 10M, 12M, 14M and 15M. The compressive strength test was performed at the age of 3, 7 and 28 days in accordance with ASTM standard, and the specimens were cured at room temperature. The results show that the highest compressive strength was achieved by geopolymer mortar with a molarity of 12M. It exhibits a higher strength to that normal mortar at 28 days. However, the use of NaOH molarity more than 12M tends to decrease the strength of non-cement geopolymer mortar specimens.

  19. The long term effect on cement mortar by admixture of spray drying absorption products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations have shown that the substitutions of up to 10% fly ash (FA), with spray drying absorption products (SDA), in cement mortars (cement: 80% rapid portland cement (RPC), 10-20% FA, 0-10% SDA) results in low early strength of the same magnitude as in mortar with 80% RPC + 20% FA. Use of the modified instructions for preparation of mortar prisms containing SDA resulted in satisfactory early strengths. A series of mortar prisms with increasing content of SDA (x% RPC, (100-x)% SDA in cements; 0 80% cannot be stored wet. The effects on mortars of the individual constituents of the SDA-products are studied by XRD, development in strength and density. Fragments of 2 year old SDA containing cement mortars and SDA containing concrete from a parking place have been studied

  20. Chemical composition influence of cement based mortars on algal biofouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle, Dalod; Alexandre, Govin; Philippe, Grosseau; Christine, Lors; René, Guyonnet; Denis, Damidot

    2013-04-01

    The main cause of building-facade biodegradation is the growth of microorganisms. This phenomenon depends on several parameters such as the geographical situation, the environmental conditions and the surface state of the substrate. Several researches have been devoted to the study of the effect of porosity and roughness on the biofouling of stones and mortars. However, none of them have addressed the influence of the mortar chemistry on the microorganism growth kinetic. The main objective of this study is to highlight the influence of the mortar chemistry in relationship with its physical properties on biological weathering. Earlier work showed a good resistance of Calcium Aluminate Cements to biodeterioration by acidogenic bacteria (Thiobacillus) and fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus Niger and Coniosporium uncinatum). In order to characterize the influence of the mortar chemistry on biofouling, two Portland cements and two alumina cements are used. Among micro-organisms able to grow, green algae are most involved in the aesthetic deterioration of facades. Indeed, they can colonize any type of media and can be a source of nutrients for other micro-organisms such as fungi. The green algae Klebsormidium flaccidum is chosen because of its representativeness. It is indeed the species the most frequently identified and isolated from samples taken on sites. The biofouling kinetic is followed on samples exposed outdoor and on samples tested in a laboratory bench which consists in spraying an algae culture on mortar specimens. The results obtained by in situ trials are compared with the results obtained on the laboratory bench. The microorganism growth kinetic is measured by image analysis. To improve the detection of algae on the surface of the cementitious samples, the raw image is converted in the YIQ color space. Y, I and Q correspond respectively to luminance, in-phase, and quadrature. On the Q channel, the areas covered by algae and the areas of clean mortar

  1. Comparative study on strength properties of cement mortar by partial replacement of cement with ceramic powder and silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himabindu, Ch.; Geethasri, Ch.; Hari, N.

    2018-05-01

    Cement mortar is a mixture of cement and sand. Usage of high amount of cement increases the consumption of natural resources and electric power. To overcome this problem we need to replace cement with some other material. Cement is replaced with many other materials like ceramic powder, silica fume, fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, metakaolin etc.. In this research cement is replaced with ceramic powder and silica fume. Different combinations of ceramic powder and silica fume in cement were replaced. Cement mortar cubes of 1:3 grade were prepared. These cubes were cured under normal water for 7 days, 14days and 28 days. Compressive strength test was conducted for all mixes of cement mortar cubes.

  2. The Effect of Graphene Oxide on Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaernsmo, Henrik; Kakay, Samdar; Fossa, Kjell T.; Gronli, John

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of water dispersed- and powder Graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticle on fresh cement mortar, microstructure and mechanical strength after 3,7, and 28 days of curing. These properties were studied by treating the cement mortar with 0.03 wt%, 0.05 wt%, and 0.2 wt% GO of the cement weight combined with 0.8wt % polycarboxylate superplasticizer. The results show that the workability decreases as increasing the content of water dispersed GO. The heat of hydration is increased for both types of GO systems. The percent air content in 0.03 wt% and 0.05 wt% GO is almost constant, but increased from 3.2 % to 4.9 % in 0.2 wt% water dispersed GO. The increased air content has effect on poor compaction and workability. GO has the potential of accelerating the hydration process and enhance the early mechanical strength (3 and 7 days), but the workability seems to diminish the mechanical strength after 28 days of curing, particularly for the highest content of water dispersed GO. No distinct influence of GO on the microstructure. The overall results showed that the impact of water dispersed GO was found out to be higher than the powder GO.

  3. Evaluation of electric properties of cement mortars containing pozzolans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the evolution of the microstructure of Portland cement mortar is analyzed, by using electrical impedance measurements. Cement mortars are compared without and with two pozzolanic substitutions: spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC and metakaolin (MK. The measurement method is described and the model for analyzing the electrical impedance spectra is developed. Three electrical parameters are defined: electrical resistivity, capacitance exponent, and capacitive factor. The results show a significant increase in resistivity of the mortars with pozzolans after 7 days of curing, especially in mortars with MK. This increase is correlated with lime-fixing by the pozzolans. The capacitive properties evolve differently at early age, but reach the same values after 148 days. The electrical and mineralogical data show that the evolution of the microstructure in the mortar with MK starts before it does in the mortars with FCC and that the final microstructure becomes different.

    En este trabajo se analiza la microestructura de morteros de cemento Portland, mediante medidas de impedancia eléctrica. Se comparan morteros de cemento sin y con dos sustituciones puzolánicas: residuo de catalizador de craqueo catalítico (FCC y metacaolín (MK. Se describe el método de medida y se desarrolla el modelo de análisis de los espectros de impedancia eléctrica. Se definen tres parámetros eléctricos: resistividad eléctrica, exponente capacitivo, y factor capacitivo. Se observa un aumento importante de la resistividad de los morteros con puzolana a partir de los 7 días de curado, sobre todo en morteros con MK. Este aumento está correlacionado con la fijación de cal de las puzolanas. Las propiedades capacitivas son diferentes a edad temprana, pero se igualan a los 148 días. Los resultados eléctricos y mineralógicos muestran que la evolución microestructural comienza antes en los morteros con MK que con FCC y que la microestructura

  4. Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the influence of moisture condition, including moisture content and its distribution, on the chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar. The mortar samples with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, cured for 1

  5. Natural radioactivity levels and danger ratio in cements, concretes and mortars used in construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses, J.; Pacheco, C.; Avila, J. M.; Miro, C.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the natural radiation level in three types of adhesive cements, five types of concrete and two types of mortars of different strength normally used in the construction field. Of these materials, both concrete and mortars were prepared in our laboratories, cements the contrary were of a commercial nature.

  6. Inhibition of Cracks on the Surface of Cement Mortar Using Estabragh Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Soleimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adding Estabragh fibers into the cement composites of mortar on surface cracks and mechanical properties of mortar has been studied at various fiber proportions of 0.25%, 0.5%, and 0.75%. The mortar shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of mortar specimens. Although the Estabragh fibers loss their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, the ability of Estabragh fibers to bridge on the microcracks in the mortar matrix causes a decrease in the number of cracks and in their width on the surface of the mortar samples in comparison with the plain mortar. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and compressive strength, among all fiber proportions, only the specimens with 0.25% of Estabragh fiber performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of mortar. Consequently, by adding 0.25% of Estabragh fibers to the cement mortar, a remarkable inhibition in crack generation on fiber-containing cement composite of mortar is achieved.

  7. Physico-chemical studies of gamma-irradiated polyester. Impregnated cement mortar composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.R.; Afifi, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of impregnation time on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of polyester-cement mortar composite has been investigated. The samples were soaked in unsaturated polyester resin containing 40% styrene monomer at impregnation times ranging from 1-15 hours and then exposed to 50 kGy of γ-irradiation. The effects on polymer loading, compressive strength, apparent porosity, and water absorption in addition to IR spectra and TGA of the samples were studied. It was found that, the polymer loading and compressive strength increase with the increased of soaking time up to 4 hours and there is no significant improvement of the polymer loading and strength. Whereas, the apparent porosity and water absorption behave in an opposite direction. These are attributed to the presence of polymer in the pores of the samples. IR spectra showed that, new bands appeared as result of the reaction between polyester and set cement. TGA showed that, the polyester cement composite has higher thermal stability as a compared to irradiated polyester. (author)

  8. The effects of cement-based and cement-ash-based mortar slabs on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel

    2018-01-01

    The effects of emissions from cement-based and cement-ash-based mortar slabs were studied. In the latter, 30% of the cement content had been replaced by sewage sludge ash. They were tested singly and together with either carpet or linoleum. The air exhausted from the chambers was assessed by means...... of odour intensity and chemical characterization of emissions. Odour intensity increased with the increased exposed area of the slabs. It did not differ significantly between cement-based or cement-ash-based mortar and neither did the chemical composition of the exhaust air. A significant sink effect...

  9. Physical and mechanical properties of cement mortar made with brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new building materials is a current problem where researchers are trying to find the right materials for each region and returning cheapest countries. Recycling and recovery of waste are now considered as a promising solution to meet the deficit between production and consumption and protecting the environment. This work focused on the study of the effect of brick waste in the production of cement mortar with substitution rates ranging from 5-30% by weight of cement and to compare its performance with fresh and hardened state with ordinary mortar considered as control mortar. Compressive and tensile strengths up to 28 days of age were compared with those of controlled mortar. Water absorption was also measured at 28 days of age. The test results indicate the beneficial effect of brick waste powder on performance of cement mortar with an optimum of 15% of cement weight substitution.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Multi-mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study successfully applied multi-mode laser cutting with the variation of the laser cutting speed to cement mortar for the first time. The effects of the amount of silica sand in the cement mortar on laser cutting are tested and analyzed. The kerf width and penetration depth of the specimens after laser cutting are investigated. As the laser cutting speed increases, the penetration depth decreases for both cement paste and cement mortar, whereas the kerf width becomes saturated and increases, respectively, for cement paste and cement mortar. Cross sections of the specimens are compared with illustrations. Top-view images of the cement mortar with indicators of the physical characteristics, such as re-solidification, burning, and cracks are examined, and the possible causes of these characteristics are explained. The optical absorption rates of cement-based materials are quantified at wide ranges of wavelength to compare the absorption rates in accordance with the materials compositions. The chemical composition variation before and after laser cutting is also compared by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray) analysis. In addition to these observations, material removal mechanisms for cement mortar are proposed. PMID:29439431

  11. Experimental Investigation of Multi-mode Fiber Laser Cutting of Cement Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Pyo, Sukhoon

    2018-02-10

    This study successfully applied multi-mode laser cutting with the variation of the laser cutting speed to cement mortar for the first time. The effects of the amount of silica sand in the cement mortar on laser cutting are tested and analyzed. The kerf width and penetration depth of the specimens after laser cutting are investigated. As the laser cutting speed increases, the penetration depth decreases for both cement paste and cement mortar, whereas the kerf width becomes saturated and increases, respectively, for cement paste and cement mortar. Cross sections of the specimens are compared with illustrations. Top-view images of the cement mortar with indicators of the physical characteristics, such as re-solidification, burning, and cracks are examined, and the possible causes of these characteristics are explained. The optical absorption rates of cement-based materials are quantified at wide ranges of wavelength to compare the absorption rates in accordance with the materials compositions. The chemical composition variation before and after laser cutting is also compared by EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray) analysis. In addition to these observations, material removal mechanisms for cement mortar are proposed.

  12. Effect of amorphous silica ash used as a partial replacement for cement on the compressive and flexural strengths cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Aliyu; Ibrahim, Muhammad B.; Bala, Nura

    2018-04-01

    This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the compressive and flexural strength of mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 2.5 percent, 5 percent, 7.5 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel plates) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days for the cement mortar

  13. Influence of relationship water/cement upon the processing of cements with pozzolana in standard mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Rizo, M.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The processing of standard mortar is completed following different methods in accordance with the country, but they exist two fundamental tendecies, the ISO and the ASTM. The cuban norm for mechanic-physic tests is based in ISO, and so they use a constant relationship water/cement in the processing of standard mortar a great problem concerning the cement users when they tested those mixed with puzzolanes, because they don't take care of the bigger water needs of those materials. In this work we present an study of the behaviour of Pozzolanic Portland cements (PP-250 elaborates with a fix and changeable relationship water/cement, obtained starting from the fluidity of the pure Portland cement. (P-350 The results obtained shows that the mechanical resistance decreased in cement mortars PP-250 realised with changeable relationship water/cement. So we recommend the adoption of an optional procedure to elaborate a quality mortar with pozzolana cements.

    La elaboración del mortero normalizado se realiza internacionalmente por diferentes métodos, pero existen dos tendencias fundamentales, la enunciada por ISO y por ASTM. La norma cubana de ensayos físico-mecánicos de cemento se basa en la norma ISO, por lo que para la elaboración del mortero normalizado se utiliza una relación agua/cemento constante. Esto ha provocado discrepancias con los usuarios del cemento, especialmente cuando se ensayan los cementos que contienen puzolanas, ya que se plantea que no se tiene en cuenta la mayor demanda de agua de estos materiales. En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio del comportamiento de cementos Portland Puzolánicos (PP-250 elaborados con una relación agua/ cemento fija y variable, lograda a partir de la fluidez de la pasta de cemento Portland puro (P-350. Los resultados obtenidos indican que se producen disminuciones en la resistencia mecánica en los morteros de cemento PP-250 elaborados con agua/ cemento variable y recomienda la

  14. Highly permeable, cement-bounded backfilling mortars for SMA repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, F.; Mayer, G.; Wittmann, F.H.

    1994-03-01

    In low- and intermediate-level waste repositories, gas is produced due e.g. to corrosion. This gas must be able to escape from the repository in order to prevent damage to the repository structure. A cement-based backfill should take over this function. For this purpose, the composition of cement-based materials was varied to study their influence on porosity and permeability. In parallel to this study the behaviour of fresh concrete, the liberation of the heat of hydration and the hardened concrete properties were investigated. To characterize the permeability of cement-based materials the following parameters are important: 1) composition of the material (pore fabric), 2) storage conditions (degree of saturation), 3) degree of hydration (age), 4) measuring fluid. A change in the composition of cement-based materials can vary the permeability by ten orders of magnitude. It is shown that, by using dense aggregates, the transport of the fluid takes place through the matrix and along the aggregate/matrix interface. By using porous aggregates the permeability can be increased by two orders of magnitude. In the case of a dense matrix, porous aggregates do not alter the permeability. Increasing the matrix content or interface content increases permeability. Hence light weight mortars are an obvious choice. Like-grained mixes showed higher permeabilities in combination with better mechanical properties but, in comparison to normal mixes, they showed worse flow properties. With the composition cement-: water-: aggregate content 1:0.4:5.33 the likegrained mix with aggregates ranging from 2 to 3 mm proved to be a suitable material. With a low compaction after 28 days this mix reaches a permeability of 4.10 -12 m 2 and an uniaxial cylinder compressive strength of 16 N/mm 2 . (author) 58 figs., 23 tabs., refs

  15. Effect of water curing duration on strength behaviour of portland composite cement (PCC) mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronge, M. A.; Tjaronge, M. W.; Hamada, H.; Irmawaty, R.

    2017-11-01

    Cement manufacturing of Indonesia has been introduced Portland Composite Cement (PCC) to minimize the rising production cost of cement which contains 80% clinker and 20% mineral admixture. A proper curing is very important when the cement contains mineral admixture materials. This paper reports the results of an experimental study conducted to evaluate the effect of water curing duration on strength behaviour of PCC mortar. Mortar specimens with water to cement ratio of (W/C) 0.5 were casted. Compressive strength, flexural strength and concrete resistance were tested at 7, 28 and 91 days cured water. The results indicated that water curing duration is essential to continue the pozzolanic reaction in mortar which contributes to the development of strength of mortar made with PCC.

  16. Statistical approach to predict compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, N.A.; Memon, N.A.; Sumadi, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt made to develop empirical expressions to estimate/ predict the compressive strength of high workability slag-cement mortars. Experimental data of 54 mix mortars were used. The mortars were prepared with slag as cement replacement of the order of 0, 50 and 60%. The flow (workability) was maintained at 136+-3%. The numerical and statistical analysis was performed by using database computer software Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Three empirical mathematical models were developed to estimate/predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability slag cement-mortars with 0, 50 and 60% slag which predict the values accurate between 97 and 98%. Finally a generalized empirical mathematical model was proposed which can predict 28 days compressive strength of high workability mortars up to degree of accuracy 95%. (author)

  17. The transformation of waste Bakelite to replace natural fine aggregate in cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nopagon Usahanunth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakelite material has been used to produce the various components for cars and consumer goods industry in Thailand. The growth of Bakelite consumption increases Bakelite waste. Bakelite waste is prohibited from disposing of direct landfilling and open burning because of the improper disposal and emission reasons. A large amount of this waste needs the large safe space of warehouse area for keeping which becomes a waste management problem. Size reduction by milling machine is helpful for waste handling and storing, however, the post-milling waste Bakelite plastic utilization shall be studied to maintain the waste storing capacity. There are some studies of the milling machine used for waste plastic size reduction. However, the particular study of milling machine application for waste size reduction and its milling waste utilization is still insufficient in Thailand. The purpose of this research is the use of waste Bakelite aggregate milling machine for Bakelite waste size reduction and use of the post-milling waste Bakelite as a fine aggregate to replace natural sand material in cement mortar. The waste Bakelite fine aggregate (WBFA was mixed in cement mortar mixture with the proportion 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% by volume for cement mortar sample preparation. The mortar sample was tested for compressive strength follow ASTM standard. The compressive test result of mortar samples will be compared between conventional mortar (0% WBFA and waste Bakelite mortar (WBM as well as comparing with the mortar standard. From an analysis of the sample test data found that the WBFA content in cement mortar mixture can predict the strength of WBM. The compressive strength of WBM at 28 days age with the fraction of WBFA is not exceeded 11.03%, and 23.08% respectively can be met the mortar standard according to the equation. The utilization of WBM to develop mortar non-structural mortar product can be usable from a technical point of view.

  18. Effect of cement fineness and polycarboxylate dosage on the rheological and mechanical behavior of a mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahia Didouche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of certain organic additives in the production of mortar and concrete influences the workability and the hydration kinetic of mortar. This results in a modification of some properties, namely rheological behavior and mechanical strength. The objective of this work is to evaluate the rheological and mechanical behavior of a mortar by varying the fineness of the cement and using the superplasticizer Polycarboxylate.

  19. Effect of nylon fiber on mechanical properties of cement based mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, I. M.; Syuhaili, M. R. Noor; Hasmori, M. F.; Shahmi, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    An investigation has been carried out to study the effect of nylon fiber on the mechanical properties of cement based mortar after receiving large quantities of nylon waste. Subsequently, this research was conducted to compare the compressive, tensile and flexural strength of normal cement based mortar with nylon fiber cement based mortar. All samples using constant water-cement ratio of 0.63 and three different percentages of nylon fiber were added in the mixture during the samples preparation period which consists of 0.5%, 1.5% and 2.5% by total weight of cement based mortar. The results obtained with different nylon percentage marked an increases in compressive strength (up to 17%), tensile strength (up to 21%) and flexural strength (up to 13%) when compared with control cement based mortar samples. Therefore, the results obtained from this study shows that by using nylon fiber as additive material can improve the mechanical properties of the cement based mortar and at the same time produce a good sustainable product that can protects and conserve the marine environment.

  20. Valorisation of waste plastic bags in cement-mortar composites as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... Keywords: Waste plastic bags, cement-plastic-mortar composite, aggregates coating ..... and closely attached to the aggregate by physical bonds and ... transformation steps, known as fusing material behaviour. In fact,.

  1. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceri, Abdelghani; Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  2. Use of waste brick as a partial replacement of cement in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naceri, Abdelghani; Hamina, Makhloufi Chikouche

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

  3. Mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified cement mortar with silica fume used as matrix including radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakroury, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discussed the mechanical and chemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol - modified cement mortar with silica fume to assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste. The modified cement mortars containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the presence of 10 % silica fume (SF) .The chemical reaction between polymer and cement - hydrated product were investigated by the Infrared Spectral Technology, Differential Thermal Analysis and X-ray diffraction. The leaching of 137Cs from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied .The results shown that PVA increases the strength and decreases the porosity. The increase in strength duo to the interaction of PVA with cement , may be forming some new compound that fill the pores or improve the bond between the cement . The pozzolanic reaction of the SF increases the calcium silicate hydrates in the hardening matrix composites. There is distinct change in the refinement of the pore structure in cement composites giving fewer capillary pores and more of the finer gel pores

  4. R7T7 glass alteration in the presence of mortar: effect of the cement grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, Z.; Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.

    1991-01-01

    R7T7 glass alteration was investigated in the presence of four mortars prepared from four different cement grades: 'CPA' Portland cement (mortar M1), CPA with pozzolana additive (M2), CPA with amorphous silica additive (M3) and 'CLK' blast furnace slag cement (M4). Glass specimens were also altered in Volvic mineral water and in a cement effluent. Glass corrosion in the cement media was greater than in Volvic water, but well below what could be expected from the high pH (approx 12.5). The relatively low alteration was probably related to the protective action of the calcium-enriched gel layer that formed at the glass surface. The glass corrosion rate was 2 to 3 times lower with cement containing pozzolana or silica gel additives or with CLK cement than with CPA cement alone. 8 refs., 8 figs

  5. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  6. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → A recycling/treatment process to remove lead on funnel glass surface is described. → Utilizing recycled funnel glass in mortar can reduce hazardous CRT glass wastes. → Effects of CRT glass content on the properties of cement mortar are studied. → Fly ash can effectively mitigate ASR expansion of mortar even at 100% glass content. → Alkaline medium in cement matrix successfully prevented the leaching of lead. - Abstract: Rapid advances in the electronic industry led to an excessive amount of early disposal of older electronic devices such as computer monitors and old televisions (TV) before the end of their useful life. The management of cathode ray tubes (CRT), which have been a key component in computer monitors and TV sets, has become a major environmental problem worldwide. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop sustainable alternative methods to manage hazardous CRT glass waste. This study assesses the feasibility of utilizing CRT glass as a substitute for natural aggregates in cement mortar. The CRT glass investigated was an acid-washed funnel glass of dismantled CRT from computer monitors and old TV sets. The mechanical properties of mortar mixes containing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of CRT glass were investigated. The potential of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and leachability of lead were also evaluated. The results confirmed that the properties of the mortar mixes prepared with CRT glass was similar to that of the control mortar using sand as fine aggregate, and displayed innocuous behaviour in the ASR expansion test. Incorporating CRT glass in cement mortar successfully prevented the leaching of lead. We conclude that it is feasible to utilize CRT glass in cement mortar production.

  7. The effect of modified hydrotalcites on mechanical properties and chloride penetration resistance in cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Polder, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two types of modified hydrotalcites (MHT) were incorporated into cement mortars with two dosage levels (replacing 5% and 10% cement by mass). Designated testing programme including strength test, porosity test, and rapid chloride migration and diffusion test were employed to

  8. Characteristics of shock propagation in high-strength cement mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanjiang; Li, Xiaolan; Zhang, Ruoqi

    2001-06-01

    Planar impact experiments have been performed on high-strength cement mortar to determine characteristics of shock propagation.The experiments were conducted on a light-gas gun,and permanent-magnet particle velocity gages were used to obtain the sand of 0.5 3.5mm size.A bulk density of 2.31g/cm^3,and a compressive and tensile strength of 82MPa and 7.8MPa,respectively,were determined.Three kinds of experimental techniques were used,including the reverse ballistic configuration.These techniques effectively averaged the measured dynamic compression state over a sensibly large volume of the test sample.The impact velocities were controlled over a range of approximately 80m/s to 0.83km/s.Hugoniot equation of state data were obtained for the material over a pressure range of approximately 0.2 2.0GPa,and its nonlinear constitutive relation were analyzed.The experiment results show that,in higher pressure range provided in the experiment,the shock wave in the material splits into two components of an elastic and a plastic,with the Hugoniot elastic limit 0.4 0.5GPa and the precursor velocity about 4.7km/s,and the material presents a very strong nonlinear dynamic response,and its shock amplitude will greatly decrease in propagation.

  9. Strength and Mechanical Properties of High Strength Cement Mortar with Silica Fume

    OpenAIRE

    川上, 英男; 谷, 康博

    1993-01-01

    Two series of tests were carried out to clarify the effects of silica fume on the strength and mechanical properties of cement mortar. The test specimens of cement mortar were prepared within the flow values between 180 mm and 240 mm which qualifies better workability of the concrete. The fiow values were attained by using superplasticizer. The specimens were tested at the age of 4 weeks. Main results of the experiments are as follows. 1. At a given cement water ratio,the larger volume of sil...

  10. Investigating the Influence of Waste Basalt Powder on Selected Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiszewska, Magdalena; Beycioğlu, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material in civil engineering applications. The consumption of cement and thus concrete, increases day by day along with the growth of urbanization and industrialization and due to new developments in construction technologies, population growing, increasing of living standard. Concrete production consumes much energy and large amounts of natural resources. It causes environmental, energy and economic losses. The most important material in concrete production is cement. Cement industry contributes to production of about 7% of all CO2 generated in the world. Every ton of cement production releases nearly one ton of CO2 to atmosphere. Thus the concrete and cement industry changes the environment appearance and influences it very much. Therefore, it has become very important for construction industry to focus on minimizing the environmental impact, reducing energy consumption and limiting CO2 emission. The need to meet these challenges has spurred an interest in the development of a blended Portland cement in which the amount of clinker is reduced and partially replaced with mineral additives - supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Many researchers have studied the possibility of using another mineral powder in mortar and concrete production. The addition of marble dust, basalt powder, granite or limestone powder positively affects some properties of cement mortar and concrete. This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of cement paste and mortar containing basalt powder. The basalt powder is a waste emerged from the preparation of aggregate used in asphalt mixture production. Previous studies have shown that analysed waste used as a fine aggregate replacement, has a beneficial effect on some properties of mortar and concrete, i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength and freeze resistance also. The present study shows the results of the research concerning the modification of cement

  11. Cement content influence in rebar corrosion in carbonated mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo, P. O.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The cement hydration products protect the concrete rebars of the reinforced concrete due to the production of Ca(OH2, NaOH, and KOH that, upon dissolving in the concrete s aqueous phase, generate a pH above 12.5. However, reinforced concrete structures are exposed to pollutant gases, such as, CO2 which upon penetrating the concrete, reacts with the alkaline components, consequently reducing the pH of the aqueous phase causing the loss of passivity by the rebar and as a consequence its corrosion when there is the presence of humidity and oxygen. The objective of the current paper is the analysis of the alkaline reserve influence, measured by the cement content, in the corrosion of rebars employing the polarization resistance technique for determining the corrosion intensity. Results for corrosion intensity of rebars embedded in prismatic mortar test specimens are produced with three cement content levels, with equal water/cement ratio. Cylindrical test specimens were also used for verification of the capillary absorption and the porosity by means of mercury porosymetry The results show that the initiation period is shorter and the corrosion intensity of the rebars is higher when the cement content is lower However, there is also an alteration in the microstructure upon altering the cement content, and far this reason one cannot conclude that the alkaline reserve alone is responsible for these results.

    Los productos de hidratación del cemento protegen las armaduras embebidas en el hormigón debido a la gran cantidad de Ca(OH2, NaOH y KOH disueltos en la fase acuosa del hormigón que proporcionan un pH mayor que 12,5. Sin embargo, las estructuras de hormigón armado están expuestas a los gases contaminantes como el CO2, que al penetrar en el hormigón reacciona con los compuestos alcalinos, se reduce el pH de la fase acuosa y provocan la despasivación de la armadura. Posteriormente, si hay

  12. Quantitative sensing of corroded steel rebar embedded in cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Le, Viet; Tang, Qixiang; Yu, Tzuyang

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars (rebars) is the primary cause for the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Traditional corrosion monitoring methods such as half-cell potential and linear polarization resistance can only detect the presence of corrosion but cannot quantify it. This study presents an experimental investigation of quantifying degree of corrosion of steel rebar inside cement mortar specimens using ultrasonic testing (UT). A UT device with two 54 kHz transducers was used to measure ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) of cement mortar, uncorroded and corroded reinforced cement mortar specimens, utilizing the direct transmission method. The results obtained from the study show that UPV decreases linearly with increase in degree of corrosion and corrosion-induced cracks (surface cracks). With respect to quantifying the degree of corrosion, a model was developed by simultaneously fitting UPV and surface crack width measurements to a two-parameter linear model. The proposed model can be used for predicting the degree of corrosion of steel rebar embedded in cement mortar under similar conditions used in this study up to 3.03%. Furthermore, the modeling approach can be applied to corroded reinforced concrete specimens with additional modification. The findings from this study show that UT has the potential of quantifying the degree of corrosion inside reinforced cement mortar specimens.

  13. The influence of hardening conditions on the properties of masonry cement mortar prisms made in brick moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram, G.; Lourenco, P.B.; Hasseltine, B.A.; Vasconseles, G.

    2014-01-01

    One aspect of our investigation into the spacing of movement joints involved the short and long term deformation of mortar embedded in masonry. In this research the influence of hardening conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of masonry cement mortar [M5] were studied. Mortar prisms

  14. Axial compression behavior of concrete masonry wallettes strengthened with cement mortar overlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. De Oliveira

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a series of axial compression tests on concrete block wallettes coated with cement mortar overlays. Different types of mortars and combinations with steel welded meshes and fibers were tested. The experimental results were discussed based on different theoretical approaches: analytical and Finite Element Method models. The main conclusions are: a the application of mortar overlays increases the wall strength, but not in a uniform manner; b the strengthening efficiency of wallettes loaded in axial compression is not proportional to the overlay mortar strength because it can be affected by the failure mechanisms of the wall; c steel mesh reinforced overlays in combination with high strength mortar show better efficiency, because the steel mesh mitigates the damage effects in the block wall and in the overlays themselves; d simplified theoretical methods of analysis as described in this paper can give satisfactory predictions of masonry wall behavior up to a certain level.

  15. Chloride Ion Adsorption Capacity of Anion Exchange Resin in Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsu Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of anion exchange resin (AER on the adsorption of chloride ions in cement mortar. The kinetic and equilibrium behaviors of AER were investigated in distilled water and Ca(OH2 saturated solutions, and then the adsorption of chloride ions by the AER in the mortar specimen was determined. The AER was used as a partial replacement for sand in the mortar specimen. The mortar specimen was coated with epoxy, except for an exposed surface, and then immersed in a NaCl solution for 140 days. The chloride content in the mortar specimen was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron probe microanalysis. The results showed that the AER could adsorb the chloride ions from the solution rapidly but had a relatively low performance when the pH of its surrounding environment increased. When the AER was mixed in the cement mortar, its chloride content was higher than that of the cement matrix around it, which confirms the chloride ion adsorption capacity of the AER.

  16. Influence of citric acid as setting retarder in CPV portland cement pastes and mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, B.C.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Alvarenga, R.C.S.S.; Fassoni, D.P.; Pedroti, L.G.; Azevedo, A.R.G. de

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to study the availability of using and the influence of citric acid in the properties of pastes and mortars made with Portland cement CPV ARI both in fresh and hardened form. The citric acid dosages were 0, 0.4%, and 0.8% relative to the cement mass. The produced cement pastes were tested to determine normal consistency water and initial and final setting times. Mortars were tested to determine the consistency index, specific gravity, air entrained content in the fresh stage, hardened bulk density, compressive strength at ages 7, 14, and 28 days, and analysis by XRD technique. The results show that citric acid, besides improve the mortar workability, contribute to an increase in mechanical strength in older than 14 days. (author)

  17. Effect of brief heat-curing on microstructure and mechanical properties in fresh cement based mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, P.; Hidalgo, A.; Marmol, I.; Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature on fresh mortar and cement paste was evaluated by simulating the curing conditions of external buildings plastering applied under extremely hot weather. The specimens were heated at controlled temperatures in the 40-80 o C range by exposure to IR radiation over short periods. The effect of soaking for a short time was also examined. The results of compressive strength tests, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and mercury porosimetry helped to characterize the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the studied sample. Early age behaviour (28 days) in neat cement was barely affected by the temperature. By contrast, exposure to high temperatures caused significant microstructural changes in the mortar. However, successive soaking over short periods was found to reactivate the mechanism of curing and restore the expected mechanical properties. Based on the results, application of cement based mortar at high temperatures is effective when followed by a short, specific soaking process.

  18. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  19. NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE (NFC AS A POTENTIAL REINFORCEMENT FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE CEMENT MORTAR COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Ardanuy,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has been evaluated as a potential reinforcement for cement mortar composites. Two types of vegetable fibres with different composition and properties (cellulose content and microfibrillar angle, sisal, and cotton linters pulps, were initially characterised in order to assess their reinforcing capability. Sisal pulp was found to be most suitable as reinforcement for the brittle cementitious matrix. Nanofibrillated cellulose was produced by the application of a high intensity refining process of the sisal pulp. It was found that 6 hours of refining time was required to obtain the desired nanofibrillation of the fibers. Cement mortar composites reinforced with both the sisal fibres and the nanofibrillated cellulose were prepared, and the mechanical properties were determined under flexural tests. The cement mortar composites reinforced with the nanofibrillated cellulose exhibited enhanced flexural properties, but lower values of fracture energy, than the ones reinforced with the conventional sisal fibres.

  20. Cement Pastes and Mortars Containing Nitrogen-Doped and Oxygen-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Martínez-Alanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement pastes and mortars based on ordinary Portland cement containing nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Nx or oxygen-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Ox are investigated. To incorporate MWCNTs into the cementitious matrix, the as-produced carpets are dispersed over periods of 1 and 2 hours in distilled water at pH levels of 1 and 7. The cement pastes are prepared by adding 0.1 wt% of MWCNTs to cement powder, followed by characterization with SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD at an early age (first hours of hydration. The mortars are mechanically characterized during the hydration process for a period of 28 days. SEM characterization of cement pastes revealed that the carbon nanotubes are well incorporated in the cementitious matrix, with the hydrated cement grains interconnected by long carbon nanotubes. XRD characterizations demonstrated that, during the hydration of cement pastes, different peaks emerged that were associated with ettringite, hydrated calcium silicate, and calcium hydroxide, among other structures. Results of the compressive strength measurements for mortars simultaneously mixed with MWCNT-Nx and MWCNT-Ox reached an increment of approximately 30% in compressive strength. In addition, density functional theory calculations were performed in nitrogen-doped and oxygen-functionalized carbon nanotubes interacting with a cement grain.

  1. Influence of fly ash fineness on water requirement and shrinkage of blended cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissorn Vimonsatit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of fly ash fineness on water requirement and shrinkage of blended cement mortar was studied. The results indicate that the water requirement and shrinkage characteristic of the blended cement mortar are dependent on fly ash fineness and replacement level. The use of coarse fly ash slightly reduces the water requirement but greatly reduced the drying and the autogenous shrinkage of the blended cement mortars and the reduction is more with an increase in the fly ash replacement level. The finer fly ashes further reduce the water requirement, but increase the drying and the autogenous shrinkages as compared with coarser fly ash. The incorporation of superplasticizer drastically reduces the water requirement, but the effect on the drying and autogenous shrinkages of the normal Portland cement mortar is small. However, for the fly ash mortar, the use of superplasticizer results in a decrease in drying shrinkage and in a substantial increase in the autogenous shrinkage particularly for the fine fly ash at a high replacement level.

  2. Evaluation of sulfate resistance of cement mortars containing black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, black rice husk ashes (BRHAs), which are agrowastes from an electricity generating power plant and a rice mill, were ground and used as a partial cement replacement. The durability of mortars under sulfate attack including expansion and compressive strength loss were investigated. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55 and 0.65. For the durability of mortar exposed to sulfate attack, 5% sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solutions were used. As a result, when increasing the percentage replacement of BRHA, the expansion and compressive strength loss of mortar decreased. At the replacement levels of 30% and 50% of BRHA, the expansion of the mortars was less than those mixed with sulfate-resistant cement. However, the expansion of the mortars exposed to Na2SO4 was more than those exposed to MgSO4. Increasing the replacement level of BRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength loss of mortars exposed to Na2SO4 attack. In contrary, under MgSO4 attack, when increasing the replacement level of BRHA, the compressive strength loss increases from 0% to 50% in comparison to Portland cement mortar. Results show that ground BRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to concrete and also improve resistance to sodium sulfate attack, but it can impair resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  3. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sikora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100% to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  4. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed. PMID:28773823

  5. compressive and flexural strength of cement mortar stabilized with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    concrete. However, plain mortar materials are usually brittle and often crack more easily and fail more suddenly than ... impact strength, higher elastic modulus, better sound proofness ..... in Concrete. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department.

  6. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Godoy Jurumenha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET as matrix and polyester textile fibres from garment industry, producing an unique composite material fully from recycled components with low cost. The substitution of fresh by used foundry sand and the insertions of textile fibres contribute to a less brittle behaviour of polymer mortar.

  7. Fracture mechanics of polymer mortar made with recycled raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jurumenha,Marco Antonio Godoy; Reis,João Marciano Laredo dos

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show that industrial residues could be used in construction applications so that production costs as well as environmental protection can be improved. The fracture properties of polymer mortar manufactured with recycled materials are investigated to evaluate the materials behaviour to crack propagation. The residues used in this work were spent sand from foundry industry as aggregate, unsaturated polyester resin from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as matrix and po...

  8. PERFORMANCE OF CEMENT MORTARS REPLACED BY GROUND WASTE BRICK IN DIFFERENT AGGRESSIVE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILHAMI DEMIR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the sulphate resistance of cement mortars when subjected to different exposure conditions. Cement mortars were prepared using ground waste brick (GWB as a pozzolanic partial replacement for cement at replacement levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5, 10%, 12.5 and 15%. Mortar specimens were stored under three different conditions: continuous curing in lime-saturated tab water (TW, continuous exposure to 5% sodium sulphate solution (SS, and continuous exposure to 5% ammonium nitrate solution (AN, at a temperature of 20 ± 3 ºC, for 7, 28, 90, and 180 days. Prisms with dimensions of 25×25×285 mm, to determine the expansions of the mortar samples; and another set of prisms with dimensions of 40×40×160 mm, were prepared to calculate the compressive strength of the samples. It was determined that the GWB replacement ratios between 2.5% and 10% decreased the 180 days expansion values. The highest compressive strength values were found for the samples with 10% replacement ratio in the TW, SS, and AN conditions for 180 days. The microstructure of the mortars were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX.

  9. Effect of Gum Arabic Karroo as a water-reducing admixture in cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mbugua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop Gum Acacia Karroo (GAK as set retarding-water reducing admixture in cement mortars. Retarding admixtures are used to counter effect the accelerated hydration of cement at elevated temperatures by slowing down the retarding process especially during the day when concreting work is done. However most retarding admixtures available in the market are expensive, thereby making them out of reach for small consumers of concrete in Africa are expensive and not readily available. GAK, which contains soluble sugars, was investigated as a set-retarding water reducing-admixture. Setting time was measured in cement pastes with different dosages of GAK and a commercial retarding agent (Tard CE. Compressive strength, bleeding and flow test were investigated on cement mortars with the control being cement mortar without admixture. GAK was found to increase final setting time by 6 h above control. Compressive strength increased when water cement ratio was reduced from 0.5 to 0.4. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed increased dosage of GAK reduced hydration rate.

  10. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and/or elect......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and....../or electrodialytic remediation, were used in Portland cement mortar. Mortar bars with 15 % weight replacement of cement by APC residues showed compressive strengths up to 40 MPa after 28/32 days. Heavy metal and salt leaching from both crushed and monolithic mortars with APC residues was generally similar...

  11. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  12. Wood ash used as partly sand and/or cement replacement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    , and the present work reports a characterization of three different WAs. Properties of mortar samples with the WAs used as partly cement and/or sand replacement are reported. Compressive strength development and porosity are the mortar properties in focus. The overall aim of the work is to evaluate the influence...... of the ashes were dry and sampled just after the incineration, whereas one ash had a water content of 15%, because the ash was sprayed with water to avoid dust during ash handling at the incineration plant. Regardless of replacing cement or sand with WAs, the compressive strength decreased compared...... to a reference without ash, however, the decrease was small for two of the ashes. Using the ash with the high LoI resulted in significantly lower compressive strength compared to the other two ashes. The mortar samples with two of the ashes (with low LoI) had qualities, which were very encouraging in order...

  13. The application of modified hydrotalcites as chloride scavengers and inhibitor release agents in cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Polder, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the unique molecular structure and high ion exchange capacity, hydrotalcites are believed to have a potential to be modified and tailor-made as an active component of concrete. In this paper, two types of modified hydrotalcites (MHT-pAB and MHT-NO2) were incorporated into cement mortars

  14. Determination of isothermal unsaturated capillary flow in high performance cement mortars by NMR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazrati, K.; Pel, L.; Marchand, J.; Kopinga, K.; Pigeon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The time-dependent liquid water distribution in cement mortar mixtures during water absorption was determined using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) technique. The variation of the material water diffusion coefficient with the water content was established on the basis of these

  15. INFLUENCE OF SILICEOUS AND CALCAREOUS FLY-ASHES ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monika Rutkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. Construction and building industries have the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of cement mortars – tests of compressive and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing – for normative mortars and mortars containing fly ashes – calcareous and siliceous ash – in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 32,5 R, 42,5R and natural aggregate with graining of 0–2 mm were used. Concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in six lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 2%, 5%, 10% of the cement mass or the 2%, 5%, 10% of cement was replaced by ashes. After the tests, it was stated that the siliceous fly-ash admixture increases the compressive and bending strength in comparison to the mortars with the calcareous ash admixtures.

  16. Determination of Chlorinated Solvent Sorption by Porous Material-Application to Trichloroethene Vapor on Cement Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Marion; Brusseau, Mark L; Marcoux, Manuel; Morrison, Candice; Quintard, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the sorption of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor by concrete material or, more specifically, the cement mortar component. Gas-flow experiments were conducted using columns packed with small pieces of cement mortar obtained from the grinding of typical concrete material. Transport and retardation of TCE at high vapor concentrations (500 mg L -1 ) was compared to that of a non-reactive gas tracer (Sulfur Hexafluoride, SF6). The results show a large magnitude of retardation (retardation factor = 23) and sorption (sorption coefficient = 10.6 cm 3 g -1 ) for TCE, compared to negligible sorption for SF6. This magnitude of sorption obtained with pollutant vapor is much bigger than the one obtained for aqueous-flow experiments conducted for water-saturated systems. The considerable sorption exhibited for TCE under vapor-flow conditions is attributed to some combination of accumulation at the air-water interface and vapor-phase adsorption, both of which are anticipated to be significant for this system given the large surface area associated with the cement mortar. Transport of both SF6 and TCE was simulated successfully with a two-region physical non-equilibrium model, consistent with the dual-medium structure of the crushed cement mortar. This work emphasizes the importance of taking into account sorption phenomena when modeling transport of volatile organic compounds through concrete material, especially in regard to assessing vapor intrusion.

  17. ALKALI-ACTIVATED CEMENT MORTARS CONTAINING RECYCLED CLAY-BASED CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Puertas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of clay-based waste as an aggregate for concrete production is an amply studied procedure. Nonetheless, research on the use of this recycled aggregate to prepare alkaline cement mortars and concretes has yet to be forthcoming. The present study aimed to determine: the behaviour of this waste as a pozzolan in OPC systems, the mechanical strength in OPC, alkali-activated slag (AAS and fly ash (AAFA mortars and the effect of partial replacement of the slag and ash themselves with ground fractions of the waste. The pozzolanic behaviour of clay-based waste was confirmed. Replacing up to 20 % of siliceous aggregate with waste aggregate in OPC mortars induced a decline in 7 day strength (around 23 wt. %. The behaviour of waste aggregate in AAMs mortars, in turn, was observed to depend on the nature of the aluminosilicate and the replacement ratio used. When 20 % of siliceous aggregate was replaced by waste aggregate in AAS mortars, the 7 day strength values remained the same (40 MPa. In AAFA mortars, waste was found to effectively replace both the fly ash and the aggregate. The highest strength for AAFA mortars was observed when they were prepared with both a 50 % replacement ratio for the ash and a 20 % ratio for the aggregate.

  18. FRP confined smart concrete/mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhu, P. S.; Choi, K. G.; Wu, Y. T.; Huang, Z. Y.; Shan, B.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined smart concrete/mortar sensors were invented and validated for significantly improved measurement range. Several trial mixes were made using cement mortar and micron-phase graphite powders at different mix proportions. Compressive loading tests were conducted on smart mortar cylinder specimens with or without FRP confinement. Two-probe method was used to detect the electrical resistance of the smart cement mortar specimens. Strong correlation was recognized between the stress and electric resistance of the smart mortar. The test results indicated that the FRP wrapping could significantly enlarge the range of such self-sensing property as a consequence of confinement.

  19. Effects of Blended-Cement Paste Chemical Composition Changes on Some Strength Gains of Blended-Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Mehmet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC) on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG) were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC) were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP) or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP) for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min). Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC) and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS) and flexural strengths (FS) of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O), and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2) at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM) in comparison with reference mortars (RM) at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement. PMID:24587737

  20. Effects of Blended-Cement Paste Chemical Composition Changes on Some Strength Gains of Blended-Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serkan Kirgiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical compositions changes of blended-cement pastes (BCPCCC on some strength gains of blended cement mortars (BCMSG were monitored in order to gain a better understanding for developments of hydration and strength of blended cements. Blended cements (BC were prepared by blending of 5% gypsum and 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% marble powder (MP or 6%, 20%, 21%, and 35% brick powder (BP for CEMI42.5N cement clinker and grinding these portions in ball mill at 30 (min. Pastes and mortars, containing the MP-BC and the BP-BC and the reference cement (RC and tap water and standard mortar sand, were also mixed and they were cured within water until testing. Experiments included chemical compositions of pastes and compressive strengths (CS and flexural strengths (FS of mortars were determined at 7th-day, 28th-day, and 90th-day according to TS EN 196-2 and TS EN 196-1 present standards. Experimental results indicated that ups and downs of silica oxide (SiO2, sodium oxide (Na2O, and alkali at MP-BCPCC and continuously rising movement of silica oxide (SiO2 at BP-BCPCC positively influenced CS and FS of blended cement mortars (BCM in comparison with reference mortars (RM at whole cure days as MP up to 6% or BP up to 35% was blended for cement.

  1. Fine natural aggregate replacement for sandy residue from itabirite exploitation in Portland cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, V.A.R.; Freire, C.B.; Pereira Junior, S.S.; Lameiras, F.S.; Tello, C.C.O.

    2011-01-01

    The fine natural aggregates are a material largely used by the civil construction for mortar and concrete production. Due to tightening legal restrictions imposed on their extraction, alternative materials are being considered. The use of sandy residue from BIF (banded iron formations) exploitation was investigated. It requires their grinding and flotation to concentrate iron oxides. Large amounts of sandy residue composed of quartz and iron oxides are generated in this process. The sandy residue was characterized relative to mineralogical composition, particle size distribution, presence of organic impurities, and particle shape. Mortar formulations were prepared by varying the type of cement, the cement to aggregate proportion and the water/cement ratio (a/c). The results of viscosity and density of fresh mortar, setting time, and compressive strength are presented. Compressive strength up to 19.5 MPa at 28 days were achieved with the use of cement CPV, a/c ratio of 0.80 and cement:aggregate proportion of 1:2. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of using sandy residue as fine aggregate. (author)

  2. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette; Krøyer, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Pozzolanic submicron-sized silica fume and the non-pozzolanic micron- and nano-sized layer silicates (clay minerals) kaolinite, smectite and palygorskite have been used as additives in Portland cement pastes and mortars. These layer silicates have different particle shape (needles and plates......), surface charge, and size (micron and nano). The structure of the resulting cement pastes and mortars has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), helium porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption (specific surface area and porosity), low-temperature calorimetry (LTC) and thermal analysis. The main result...... is that the cement paste structure and porosity can be engineered by addition of selected layer silicates having specific particle shapes and surface properties (e.g., charge and specific surface area). This seems to be due to the growth of calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) on the clay particle surfaces...

  3. Effect of Polysiloxanes on Roughness and Durability of Basalt Fibres–Reinforced Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Barnat-Hunek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of roughness and the way it affects the adhesion properties and surface free energy (SFE of polysiloxanes hydrophobised basalt fibres–reinforced cement mortars were determined in this article. The physical properties of mortars were investigated in the experimental part, which also explored the impact of hydrophobisation and basalt fibres (BF addition on SFE, frost resistance, contact angle (CA, and roughness. A device capable of calculating all parameters was used to indicate the surface roughness and 3D topography. Prior to and after conducting surface and weight hydrophobisation, the contact angle of mortars was specified. Subsequently, it was used for carrying out SFE calculation by means of Neumann’s method, enabling us to characterize the adhesion properties and wettability of mortars. The research indicated that the surface roughness was substantially decreased, in turn raising the frost resistance. The corrosion resistance drops when the surface roughness, water absorption, and number of fibres in the mortar increase. The SEM images presenting the structure of polysiloxane coating and mortars were provided.

  4. The shrinkage of hardening cement paste and mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de G.D.; Kreijger, P.C.; Niël, E.M.M.G.; Slagter, J.C.; Stein, H.N.; Theissing, E.M.; Wallendael, van M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is an abstract from the report of the commission B10: "The influence of the shrinkage of cement on the shrink-age of concrete", of the Netherlands Committee for Concrete Research. Measurements of pulse velocity, volume shrinkage and heat of hydration on hardening portland cement support

  5. Elementary characterization of samples of Portland cement, natural gypsum and phosphogypsum mortars from Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Torres, Catarina Alzira Peddis; Mazer, Wellington; Macioski, Gustavo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Lara, Alessandro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Casali, Juliana Machado, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: alellara@hotmail.com, E-mail: jucasali@gmail.com [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Portland cement, the basic ingredient of concrete and is manufactured by crushing, milling and proportioning limestone, sand, clay, iron ore and secondary materials such as shells, chalk or marl combined with shale slate or blast furnace slag, fly ash, gypsum, phosphogypsum, and some others. Evaluating the physical and mineralogical characteristics of the cement and its chemical composition is essential to establish the quality of the product. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the most common chemical elements in the samples of Brazilian Portland cement, natural gypsum, and phosphogypsum mortars by means of X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDXRF), as well as to evaluate the strength of these mortars. For analysis of the compressive strength, initially prepared samples were submitted to a destructive mechanical test. Subsequently samples were milled and compacted to form thin tablets, which were submitted to the EDXRF analysis. The qualitative and quantitative analyzes showed that for phosphogypsum mortar the largest mass fractions were found of 49.8±2.5% (Si), 24.66±0.96% (S) and 22.10±0.42% (Ca). For gypsum mortar those values were found of 43.41±0.45% (Ca), 33.8 ± 0.8% (S) and 18.9±1.2% (Si), respectively; and for Portland cement mortar, the predominant elements in those samples have the mass fractions of 64.20±0.52% (Ca) and 27.3±1.5% (Si). The results showed that obtained values of mass fraction of the elements Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe are in rather good agreement with quantities indicated for manufacture. Besides, gypsum and phosphogypsum presented almost the same composition and compressive strength. (author)

  6. Elementary characterization of samples of Portland cement, natural gypsum and phosphogypsum mortars from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Corrêa, Janine Nicolosi; Torres, Catarina Alzira Peddis; Mazer, Wellington; Macioski, Gustavo; Lara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Portland cement, the basic ingredient of concrete and is manufactured by crushing, milling and proportioning limestone, sand, clay, iron ore and secondary materials such as shells, chalk or marl combined with shale slate or blast furnace slag, fly ash, gypsum, phosphogypsum, and some others. Evaluating the physical and mineralogical characteristics of the cement and its chemical composition is essential to establish the quality of the product. Therefore, the objective of this work was to characterize and quantify the most common chemical elements in the samples of Brazilian Portland cement, natural gypsum, and phosphogypsum mortars by means of X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDXRF), as well as to evaluate the strength of these mortars. For analysis of the compressive strength, initially prepared samples were submitted to a destructive mechanical test. Subsequently samples were milled and compacted to form thin tablets, which were submitted to the EDXRF analysis. The qualitative and quantitative analyzes showed that for phosphogypsum mortar the largest mass fractions were found of 49.8±2.5% (Si), 24.66±0.96% (S) and 22.10±0.42% (Ca). For gypsum mortar those values were found of 43.41±0.45% (Ca), 33.8 ± 0.8% (S) and 18.9±1.2% (Si), respectively; and for Portland cement mortar, the predominant elements in those samples have the mass fractions of 64.20±0.52% (Ca) and 27.3±1.5% (Si). The results showed that obtained values of mass fraction of the elements Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Fe are in rather good agreement with quantities indicated for manufacture. Besides, gypsum and phosphogypsum presented almost the same composition and compressive strength. (author)

  7. The comparison of properties and cost of material use of natural rubber and sand in manufacturing cement mortar for construction sub-base layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, R.; Nemmang, M. S.; Hazurina, Nor; Shahidan, S.; Khairul Tajuddin Jemain, Raden; Abdullah, M. E.; Hassan, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    The main issue related to this research was to examine the feasibility of natural rubber SMR 20 in the manufacturing of cement mortar for sub-base layer construction. Subbase layers have certain functions that need to be fulfilled in order to assure strong and adequate permeability of pavement performance. In a pavement structure, sub-base is below the base and serves as the foundation for the overall pavement structure, transmitting traffic loads to the sub-grade and providing drainage. Based on this research, the natural rubber, SMR 20 was with the percentages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% to mix with sand in the manufacture of the cement mortar. This research describes some of the properties and cost of the materials for the natural rubber and sand in cement mortar manufacturing by laboratory testing. Effects of the natural rubber replacement on mechanical properties of mortar were investigated by laboratory testing such as compressive strength test and density. This study obtained the 5% of natural rubber replaced in sand can achieved the strength of normal mortar after 7 days and 28 days. The strength of cement mortar depends on the density of cement mortar. According to the cost of both materials, sand shows the lower cost in material for the cement mortar manufacturing than the uses of natural rubber. Thus, the convectional cement mortar which used sand need lower cost than the modified rubber cement mortar and the most economical to apply in industrial. As conclusion, the percentage of 5% natural rubber in the cement mortar would have the same with normal cement mortar in terms of the strength. However, in terms of the cost of the construction, it will increase higher than cost of normal cement mortar production. So that, this modified cement mortar is not economical for the road sub-base construction.

  8. The effect of two types of modified Mg-Al hydrotalcites on reinforcement corrosion in cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Polder, R.; Mol, J.M.C.; Andrade, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two modified Mg-Al hydrotalcites (MHTs), (MHT-pAB and MHT-NO2) were incorporated into mortar (with different w/c ratios) in two different ways: (1) as one of the mixing components in bulk mortar; (2) as part of cement paste coating of the reinforcing steel. Accelerated chloride migration, cyclic

  9. Polymer-cement interactions towards improved wellbore cement fracture sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, B. S.; Iloejesi, C.; Minkler, M. J.; Schindler, A. K.; Beckingham, L. E.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) in deep geologic formations is a promising means of reducing point source emissions of CO2. In these systems, CO2 is captured at the source and then injected to be utilized (eg. in enhanced oil recovery or as a working fluid in enhanced geothermal energy plants) or stored in geologic formations such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs or saline aquifers. While CCUS in subsurface systems could aid in reducing atmospheric CO2 emissions, the potential for CO2 leakage from these systems to overlying formations remains a major limitation and poses a significant risk to the security of injected CO2. Thus, improved materials for both initial wellbore isolation and repairing leakage pathways that develop over time are sought. One approach for the repair of cement fractures in wellbore (and other) systems is the injection of polymer materials into the fracture with a subsequent environmentally dependent (temperature, pressure, pH, etc.) densification or solidification. Here, we aim to investigate novel polymer materials for use to repair leaking wellbores in the context of CCUS. We synthesize and fully characterize a series of novel polymer materials and utilize a suite of analysis techniques to examine polymer-cement interactions at a range of conditions (namely temperature, pressure and pH). Initial findings will be leveraged to design novel polymer materials for further evaluation in polymer-cement composite cores, cement fracture healing, and the aging behavior of healed cements.

  10. Basic study of water-cement ratio evaluation for fresh mortar using an ultrasonic measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza Haffies Ismail; Murata, Yorinobu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is for the basic study of ultrasonic evaluation method for the determination of the water-cement-ratio (W/C) in fresh concrete at the early age of hardening. Water-cement ratio is a important parameter to evaluate the strength of concrete for concrete construction. Using an ultrasonic pulse measurement technique, wave velocity and frequency variations depend on the age of concrete during hardening process could be evaluated. As a sample test, fresh mortar of water-cement ratio of 40 %, 50% and 60 % was poured into cylindrical plastic mould form (φ100 mm x 50 mm). For an ultrasonic pulse wave transmission technique, two wide band ultrasonic transducers were set on the top and bottom surface of mortar, and start measuring from 10 minutes after pouring water until 60 minutes of 5 minutes of intervals. As a result, it was confirmed that wave velocity and center frequency were changed with the age of mortar depends on the water-cement ratio. (author)

  11. Protection of Steel Rebar in Salt-Contaminated Cement Mortar Using Epoxy Nanocomposite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Huu Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy reinforced with two kinds of nanoparticles dealing with nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 was coated on steel rebar embedded in a chloride contaminated cement mortar. NaCl was added to the fresh Portland cement paste (at 0.3% and 0.5% by weight of cement to simulate the chloride contamination at the critical level. The effect of incorporating nanoparticles on the corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated steel rebar was investigated by linear potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. For the 0.3 wt.% chloride mortars, the electrochemical monitoring of the coated steel rebars during immersion for 56 days in 0.1 M NaOH solutions suggested the beneficial role of nano-Fe2O3 particles in significantly improving the corrosion resistance of the epoxy-coated rebar. After 56 days of immersion, the nano-Fe2O3 reduced the corrosion current of epoxy-coated rebar by a factor of 7.9. When the chloride concentration in the cement mortar was 0.5 wt.%, the incorporation of nanoparticles into the epoxy matrix did not enhance the corrosion resistance of epoxy coating for the rebar. At this critical level, chloride ions initiated rebar corrosion through nanoparticles at the epoxy/rebar interface.

  12. Fresh and Hardened State of Polymer Modified Concrete and Mortars – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukimat Nurul Nadrah Aqilah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modified concrete or mortar is an alternative to the advancement of long serving civil engineering material - mortar and concrete. The excellence and promising benefits of modified composites have led to numerous progressive studies of its application. This paper presented a critical review from previous research on the polymer modified concrete and mortar. Both fresh and hardened state behaviours were reviewed as they are important for the development of excellent engineering material. Most of the applications of polymer modified concrete and mortar can be seen in diverse types of polymer such as latex, epoxy and emulsion. The utilization of each type of polymers resulted in different characteristics of composite concrete or mortar. Such applications have contributed to the improvement in terms of workability and mechanical strength, especially at higher grade of composite strength of concrete material.

  13. Effect of Chlorides on Conductivity and Dielectric Constant in Hardened Cement Mortar: NDT for Durability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric constant and conductivity, the so-called EM properties (electromagnetic, are widely adopted for NDT (Nondestructive Technique in order to detect damage or evaluate performance of concrete without damage to existing RC (reinforced concrete. Among deteriorating agents, chloride ion is considered as one of the most critical threats due to rapid penetration and direct effect on steel corrosion. In the work, cement mortar samples with 3 w/c (water-to-cement ratios and 4 levels of chloride addition are considered. Conductivity and dielectric constant are measured in the normal frequency range. They increase with strength of mortar and more chloride ions due to denser pore formation. Furthermore, the behaviors of measured EM property are investigated with carbonation velocity and strength, which shows an attempt of application to durability evaluation through EM measurement.

  14. Effect of Modified Rubber Particles Mixing Amount on Properties of Cement Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crumb rubber cement mortar is prepared by the crumb rubber aggregates in 60 mesh which are modified by 1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA solution. Some mechanical properties of cement mortar with different crumb rubber aggregate amounts are researched including compressive strength, flexural strength, the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength, impact resistance, and dry contraction percentage. In our tests, we consider six kinds of the rubber contents, 0%, 7.5%, 15%, 19%, 22.5%, and 30%, respectively. The optimal mixing amount of crumb rubber is determined by measuring three indices, the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength, impact resistance, and dry contraction percentage. It is shown by test that the ratio of compressive strength to flexural strength is the smallest when the mixing amount of rubber is 19%; meanwhile high impact resistance and rational drying shrinkage are observed. The optimal mixing amount of the rubber particles is 19% determined by this test.

  15. Characterization and modeling of major constituent equilibrium chemistry of a blended cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.; Kosson, D. S.; Brown, K. G.; Garrabrants, A. C.; Meeussen, J. C. L.; Van Der Sloot, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cementitious materials containing ground granulated iron blast furnace slag and coal combustion fly ash as admixtures are being used extensively for nuclear waste containment applications. Whereas the solid phases of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) have been studied in great detail, the chemistry of cement, fly ash and slag blends has received relatively less study. Given that OPC is generally more reactive than slag and fly ash, the mineralogy of OPC provides a logical starting point for describing the major constituent chemistry of blended cement mortars. To this end, a blended cement mortar containing Portland cement, granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and quartz sand was modeled using a set of solid phases known to form in hydrated OPC with the geochemical speciation solver LeachXS/ORCHESTRA. Comparison of modeling results to the experimentally determined pH-dependent batch leaching concentrations (USEPA Method 1313) indicates that major constituent concentrations are described reasonably well with the Portland cement mineral set; however, modeled and measured aluminum concentrations differ greatly. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the mortar reveals the presence of Al-rich phyllosilicate minerals heretofore unreported in similar cementitious blends: kaolinite and potassic phyllosilicates similar in composition to illite and muscovite. Whereas the potassic phyllosilicates are present in the quartz sand aggregate, the formation of kaolinite appears to be authigenic. The inclusion of kaolinite in speciation modeling provides a substantially improved description of the release of Al and therefore, suggests that the behavior of phyllosilicate phases may be important for predicting long-term physico-chemical behavior of such systems. (authors)

  16. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as a potential reinforcement for high performance cement mortar composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanuy Raso, Mònica; Claramunt Blanes, Josep; Arévalo Peces, Raquel; Parés Sabatés, Ferran; Aracri, Elisabetta; Vidal Lluciá, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In this work, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has been evaluated as a potential reinforcement for cement mortar composites. Two types of vegetable fibres with different composition and properties (cellulose content and microfibrillar angle), sisal, and cotton linters pulps, were initially characterized in order to assess their reinforcement capability. Sisal pulp was found to be most suitable as reinforcement for their brittle cementitious matrix. Nanofibrillated cellulose was produced by th...

  17. Industrial Wastes as Alternative Mineral Addition in Portland Cement and as Aggregate in Coating Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Kamilla Almeida; Nazário, Bruna Inácio; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Hotza, Dachamir; Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation study of wastes from pulp and paper as well as construction and demolition industries for application in cement-based materials. The alternative raw materials were used as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and as pozzolanic material (water-reactive SiO2) in partial replacement of Portland cement. In addition to the hydraulic binder, coating mortars were composed by combining the pulp and paper fluidized bed sand residue with construction and demolition wa...

  18. Effect of colloidal nano-silica on the mechanical and physical behaviour of waste-glass cement mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.; Hashmi, M.S.J.; Olabi, A.G.; Messeiry, M.; Abadir, E.F.; Hussain, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Glass powder (GP) and nano-silica (CS) were used as a partial cement replacement in cement mortar (CM). → No damaging effect can be detected due to the reaction between GP and CM with particle size up to 75 μm. → Hybrid combination of GP/CS greatly improved mechanical properties and microstructure of CM. -- Abstract: This paper presents a laboratory study of the properties of colloidal nano-silica (CS)/waste glass cement composites. The microstructure, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and the mechanical properties of cement mortars containing waste glass powder (WG) as a cement replacement with and without CS are investigated and compared with plain mortar. In addition, the hydration of cement compounds was followed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that incorporation of WG has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of cement mortars especially when CS is presented. In addition, the DTA/TGA results and XRD analysis show a reduction in the calcium hydroxide (CH) content in mortars with both WG and a hybrid combination of WG and CS. This confirms the improvement of mechanical properties and the occurrence of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days of hydration.

  19. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  20. Changes in water absorptivity of slag based cement mortars exposed to sulphur-oxidising A. thiooxidans bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estokova, A.; Smolakova, M.; Luptakova, A.; Strigac, J.

    2017-10-01

    Water absorptivity is heavily influenced by the volume and connectivity of pores in the pore network of cement composites and has been used as an important parameter for quantifying their durability. To improve the durability and permeability of mortars, various mineral admixtures such as furnace slag, silica fume or fly ash are added into the mortar and concrete mixtures. These admixtures provide numerous important advantages such as corrosion control, improvement of mechanical and physical properties and better workability. This study investigated the changes in absorptivity of cement mortars with different amounts of mineral admixture, represented by granulated blast furnace slag, under aggressive bacterial influence. The water absorptivity of mortars specimens exposed to sulphur-oxidising bacteria A. thiooxidans for the period of 3 and 6 months has changed due to bio-corrosion-based degradation process. The differences in water absorptivity in dependence on the mortars composition have been observed.

  1. Determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in blended cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfmarkova, V.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid chloride migration test (RCM) is a commonly used accelerated test for the determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient in concrete. Nevertheless, the initial development and further experience with the RCM test concern mainly the ordinary Portland cement system. Therefore, the

  2. Studies on potential of Portland cement mortar for binding of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paramalinggam Thanalechumi

    10%, and basic (pH [ 7) curing solution was found to be better than water for curing purposes. It is concluded ... regulations on waste management by the Department of. Environment [8]. .... cement, sand and sediment [16, 17]. The major ...

  3. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating 'smart' electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported

  5. Rheology of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Cement-Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfill, Phillip F. G.; Starrs, Gerry; McCarter, W. John

    2008-07-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced cement based materials (CFRCs) offer the possibility of fabricating "smart" electrically conductive materials. Rheology of the fresh mix is crucial to satisfactory moulding and fresh CFRC conforms to the Bingham model with slight structural breakdown. Both yield stress and plastic viscosity increase with increasing fibre length and volume concentration. Using a modified Viskomat NT, the concentration dependence of CFRC rheology up to 1.5% fibre volume is reported.

  6. Rheological study of self-compacting mortars based on ternary cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadja Dada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is able to provide the ability to be easily implemented without vibration and to achieve spectacular structures, by its high fluidity and its rheological stability. By against its formulation requires a large volume of cement, which is necessary to allow its flow. The current environmental considerations lead to reduce the production of clinker however, it is essential to use cementitious additions to replace cement, because of their high availability and their moderate price. Furthermore, their use contributes in a simple and economical way to solve the problems related to the environment. The objective of our work is to study the effects of the incorporation of mineral additions such as: blast furnace slag of El-Hadjar (BFS, and marble powder (MP on the rheological parameters of selfcompacting mortars developed in different combinations in ternary system with a substitution rate ranging from 20% to 60%. According to this study, it been found that the substitution of cement by blast furnace slag and marble powder has negatively affected the rheological behavior of the mixtures. In addition, a considerable decrease in the rheological parameters has been achieved with a substitution rate of 20% of slag and 30% of marble powder. As well as an improvement of workability has been proven to self-compacting mortars and this is due to the increase of ternary cement replacement rate by marble powder from 20% to 30%.

  7. Resistance to acid attack of portland cement mortars produced with red mud as a pozzolanic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbino, Thiago Gabriel Ferreira; Fortes, Gustavo Mattos; Lourenco, Rafaela Roberta; Rodrigues, Jose de Anchieta

    2011-01-01

    Portland cement structures are usually exposed to aggressive environments, which requires the knowledge of the performance of these materials under deleterious conditions. In this study, it was evaluated the resistance to acid attack of mortars that contain ordinary (CPI) and compost (CPII-Z) Portland cements, adding to the first red mud (RB) as a pozzolanic additive in different conditions: without calcination, calcined at 400 ° C and at 600 ° C. The specimens were subjected to HCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions, both with concentration of 1.0 Mol L -1 for 28 days, monitoring the weight loss and leached material nature by atomic emission inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The hydration products were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the hydrated cement pastes. It was observed a reduction of portlandite amount in the RB containing cement pastes, indicating a possible pozzolanic activity of the red mud. The mortars prepared with RB were more resistant to HCl, while that ones with calcined RB present a better performance in H 2 SO 4 attack. (author)

  8. The effect of different surfactants/plastisizers on the electrical behavior of CNT nano-modified cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, P. T.; Alafogianni, P.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Exarchos, D. A.; Dassios, K.; Barkoula, N.-M.; Matikas, T. E.

    2015-03-01

    Cement-based materials have in general low electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity is the measure of the ability of the material to resist the passage of electrical current. The addition of a conductive admixture such as Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a cement-based material increases the conductivity of the structure. This research aims to characterize nano-modified cement mortars with MWCNT reinforcements. Such nano-composites would possess smartness and multi-functionality. Multifunctional properties include electrical, thermal and piezo-electric characteristics. One of these properties, the electrical conductivity, was measured using a custom made apparatus that allows application of known D.C. voltage on the nano-composite. In this study, the influence of different surfactants/plasticizers on CNT nano-modified cement mortar specimens with various concentrations of CNTs (0.2% wt. cement CNTs - 0.8% wt. cement CNTs) on the electrical conductivity is assessed.

  9. Study of Experiment on Rock-like Material Consist of fly-ash, Cement and Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qin; Hongwei, Wang; Yongyan, Wang

    2018-03-01

    Study the uniaxial compression test of rock-like material consist of coal ash, cement and mortar by changing the sand cement ratio, replace of fine coal, grain diameter, water-binder ratio and height-diameter ratio. We get the law of four factors above to rock-like material’s uniaxial compression characteristics and the quantitative relation. The effect law can be sum up as below: sample’s uniaxial compressive strength and elasticity modulus tend to decrease with the increase of sand cement ratio, replace of fine coal and water-binder ratio, and it satisfies with power function relation. With high ratio increases gradually, the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus is lower, and presents the inverse function curve; Specimen tensile strength decreases gradually with the increase of fly ash. By contrast, uniaxial compression failure phenomenon is consistent with the real rock common failure pattern.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF JOINT GRINDING OF CEMENT AND COOPER SLAG ON MORTAR PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravtsov Aleksey Vladimirovich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of applying copper manufacturing waste locating in the Chelyabinsk region as a component of mixed is considered in this article. Application of mixed binder with superplasticizers, based on esters with carboxyl groups, have not sufficiently been studied by the present time due to the diversity of species and complexity of the chemical structure. This trend is current for today’s science because of the growing rates and scales of building production, in particular, of concrete works. Copper slag dumps located in the Ural Federal district haven’t been widely used in building production or in other industrial production by the present time. Efficient utilization of copper production waste materials will help to solve ecological problems in many regions of Russia. Structure formation period of cement stone based on mixed binder made of Portland cement and granulated cooper slag with application of superplasticizer is studied in the article. The authors present a thermal variation diagram of mortar based on mixed binder made of Portland cement and granulated cooper slag in the process of 21 hours of hardening under normal conditions and the results of ultrasound investigation of concrete structure formation period during 5 hours of hardening. The strength development process diagram of mortar based on mixed binder made of Portland cement and granulated cooper slag for 28 days of hardening under normal conditions and the research results of the compressive strength of concrete samples are shown in this article. The obtained characteristics don’t confirm the prospects of applying joint grinding for mortar with the observed kind of non-ferrous metallurgy waste. Also, the obtained results allow us to make a conclusion about little advantages of using this method of binder production. Copper slag can be more effectively used as a component of complex organic and mineral admixture for building production with different purposes and fields

  11. Microstructural characterization of phases and interfaces of Portland cement mortar using high resolution microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G.

    2014-01-01

    In Portland cement mortars it is of paramount importance to investigate the bond strength between mortar and masonry by means of the study of interfaces and surfaces that make up the system mortar/ceramic block. In this work the aim was to characterize the chemical compositions, microstructures, surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied on ceramic blocks. Therefore, two important characterization tools were used: field-effect gun (FEG) scanning electron microscope (SEM) - FEI Quanta 200 with energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer (EDS) and SEM system with EGF Nanofabrication FIB - FEI Quanta 3D FEG also with an EDS coupled. To date the results obtained from the research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with high resolution SEM is an important tool in the detection and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), ettringite and calcium carbonate by means of morphological, topographical and chemical data, thus providing extremely reliable as well as qualitative data from the structure of cementitious materials. (author)

  12. Microstructural characterization of phases and interfaces of Portland cement mortar using high resolution microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G., E-mail: matheusfob@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pbrandao@demin.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In Portland cement mortars it is of paramount importance to investigate the bond strength between mortar and masonry by means of the study of interfaces and surfaces that make up the system mortar/ceramic block. In this work the aim was to characterize the chemical compositions, microstructures, surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied on ceramic blocks. Therefore, two important characterization tools were used: field-effect gun (FEG) scanning electron microscope (SEM) - FEI Quanta 200 with energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer (EDS) and SEM system with EGF Nanofabrication FIB - FEI Quanta 3D FEG also with an EDS coupled. To date the results obtained from the research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with high resolution SEM is an important tool in the detection and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), ettringite and calcium carbonate by means of morphological, topographical and chemical data, thus providing extremely reliable as well as qualitative data from the structure of cementitious materials. (author)

  13. The Use of Fly Ash and Lime Sludge as Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand of drinking water and power has led huge generation of water treatment plant residue i.e. sludge and the thermal power plant by-product such as fly ash. Large quantities of sludge and fly ash are produced in India and disposed off by landfilling or dumping in and around sites. In this study fly ash and water softening sludge (lime sludge has been utilized in mortar. Two types of mortar (type I and II with four binder combinations have been tried. Binder I consists of 70% fly ash (FA and 30% lime sludge (LS , 0 % gypsum (G, binder II is 70% FA, 30% LS and 1% G, binder III is 50% FA, 30% LS and 20% cement and the binder IV is 40% FA, 40% LS with 20% cement. The effect of various combinations on strength has been discussed here. This paper outlines the composition of the composite material, method of preparation of mortar specimen, testing procedure and salient results thereof.

  14. Cement-base bearing pads mortar for connections in the precast concrete: study of surface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. El Debs

    Full Text Available Bearing pads are used in precast concrete connections to avoid concentrated stresses in the contact area between the precast elements. In the present research, the bearing pads are Portland cement mortar with styrene-butadiene latex (SB, lightweight aggregate (expanded vermiculite-term and short fibers (polypropylene, glass and PVA, in order to obtain a material with low modulus of elasticity and high tenacity, compared with normal Portland cement mortar. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of surface roughness on the pads and test other types of polypropylene fibers. Tests were carried out to characterize the composite and test on bearing pads. Characterization tests show compressive strength of 41MPa and modulus of elasticity of 12.8GPa. The bearing pads tests present 30% reduction of stiffness in relation to a reference mortar. The bearing pads with roughness on both sides present a reduction up to 30% in stiffness and an increase in accumulated deformation of more than 120%, regarding bearing pads with both sides smooth.

  15. Effect of high temperature and type of cooling on some mechanical properties of cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussei Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortar of cement as construction materials subjected sometimes to high temperature. Some of properties of this mortar being studied after this effect. The effect of high temperature 100, 200, 400 and 700°C (exposed for two hrs. on some mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength of two groups of cement mortar samples (with and without the addition of crushed bricks and superplasticizer as modifying materials has been studied. Two methods of cooling samples by air and by water for 1/2 hr. was used, then tested after 3, 7 and 28 days. The results showed that the compressive and flexural strength for reference mix exposed to 700°C and water cooling decreased by 65.3 % and 64.7%, respectively, compared with their reference mix tested at 20°C in 28 days. While mixes containing 100% of crushed brick as an additive and air cooling decreases by 12.3% and 9% of their compressive and flexural strength, respectively compared with the mixes tested at 20°C in 28 days. Also showed that the decreases in flexural strength for no sand mixes containing 100% of crushed brick and 4% of superplasticizer exposed to 700°C and then water cooling was 28.2% compared to those for reference mixes tested at 20°C.

  16. Properties and durability of metakaolin blended cements: mortar and concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas, Rafik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the effect of metakaolin, a pozzolan, on concrete performance. Compressive and splitting tensile strength were found for specimens cured for up to 360 and 90 days, respectively. Changes were recorded in the compressive strength of specimens exposed to salt (chloride and sulfatechloride solutions, and chloride penetration and binding capacity were measured. The findings were compared to the results for concrete prepared with ordinary Portland (OPC and moderate heat of hydration (Type II cement. MK was found to have a very positive effect on 28-day concrete strength, due to microstructure improvement of the hydrated cement. Replacing cement with metakaolin effectively raised concrete resistance to chloride attack. Concrete containing metakaolin proved to be substantially more durable in sulfate-chloride environment.

    En este trabajo se estudia el efecto del metacaolín sobre las prestaciones del hormigón. Las probetas curadas a 360 y 90 días se sometieron a ensayos de resistencia a compresión y de tracción indirecta respectivamente. Se hizo un seguimiento de la resistencia a la compresión de los materiales ante el ataque de sales (soluciones de cloruro y de sulfato-cloruro y, se midió la penetración de cloruros y la capacidad de los hormigones de inmovilizar estos iones. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos con hormigones elaborados con cemento pórtland ordinario (OPC y, con cemento de calor de hidratación moderado (tipo II. El MK resultó influir muy positivamente en la resistencia del hormigón a 28 días debido a la mejora de la microestructura del cemento hidratado. La sustitución de cemento por metacaolín aumentó la resistencia del hormigón al ataque de cloruros. El hormigón con metacaolín demostró ser más duradero en entornos de sulfato-cloruro que los hormigones elaborados con OPC o con cemento de tipo II. Los perfiles de concentración de cloruros a distintas profundidades y la

  17. Micro and nanostructural characterization of surfaces and interfaces of Portland cement mortars using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of Portland cement mortars is very important in the study the interfaces and surfaces that make up the system grout/ceramic block. In this sense, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer are important tools in investigating the morphology and chemical aspects. However, more detailed topographic information can be necessary in the characterization process. In this work, the aim was to characterize topographically surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied onto ceramic blocks. This has been accomplished by using the atomic force microscope (AFM) - MFP-3D-SA Asylum Research. To date, the results obtained from this research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with the help of AFM has an important contribution in the investigation and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, ettringite and calcium carbonate by providing morphological and micro topographical data, which are extremely important and reliable for the understanding of cementitious materials. (author)

  18. Effect of W/C Ratio on Durability and Porosity in Cement Mortar with Constant Cement Amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is often added to concrete placing for easy workability and finishability in construction site. The additional mixing water can help easy mixing and workability but causes increased porosity, which yields degradation of durability and structural performances. In this paper, cement mortar samples with 0.45 of W/C (water to cement ratio are prepared for control case and durability performances are evaluated with additional water from 0.45 to 0.60 of W/C. Several durability tests including strength, chloride diffusion, air permeability, saturation, and moisture diffusion are performed, and they are analyzed with changed porosity. The changing ratios and patterns of durability performance are evaluated considering pore size distribution, total porosity, and additional water content.

  19. Improved cement mortars by addition of carbonated fly ash from solid waste incinerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Zaldívar, O.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research developing high performance cement mortars with the addition of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA stabilized as insoluble carbonates. The encapsulation of hazardous wastes in mortar matrixes has also been achieved. The ashes present high concentrations of chlorides, Zn and Pb. A stabilization process with NaHCO3 has been developed reducing 99% the content of chlorides. Developed mortars replace 10% per weight of the aggregates by treated MSWIFA. Physical/mechanical properties of these mortars have been studied. Presence of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd has been also analyzed confirming that leaching of these heavy metal ions is mitigated. Conclusions prove better behavior of CAC and CSA mortars than those of CEM-I and CEM-II cement. Results are remarkable for the CAC mortars, improving reference strengths in more than 25%, which make them a fast-curing product suitable for the repair of structures or industrial pavements.Este artículo presenta los resultados del desarrollo de morteros mejorados con la incorporación de cenizas volantes de residuos sólidos urbanos inertizadas en forma de carbonatos. Además se consigue la encapsulación de un residuo peligroso. Las cenizas presentan una alta concentración de cloruros, Zn y Pb. Se ha desarrollado un proceso de estabilización con NaHCO3 reduciendo en un 99% el contenido de cloruros. Los morteros reemplazan un 10% en peso del árido por cenizas tratadas. Se han analizado sus propiedades físico/mecánicas y la presencia de Zn, Pb, Cu y Cd. Se demuestra un mejor comportamiento de los morteros de CAC y CSA que los de CEM-I y CEM-II y se mitiga el lixiviado de metales pesados. Los resultados son significativos en los morteros CAC al mejorar las resistencias de los de referencia en un 25%. Los morteros desarrollados son de curado rápido adecuados para la reparación de estructuras o soleras industriales.

  20. Recycled Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Incorporated in Mortar for Improved Mechanical Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) recycled from retired wind turbines was implemented in mortar as a volumetric replacement of sand during the two phases of this study. In Phase I, the mechanically refined GFRP particle sizes were sieved for four...

  1. Effect of Addition of A Marble Dust on Drying Shrinkage Cracks of Cement Mortar Reinforced with Various Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Thabit Al-Khafaji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is conducted to study the effect of addition of marble powder (marble dust and different fibers on drying shrinkage cracks and some properties of fibers reinforcment cement mortar. Steel molds having a trapezoidal section, and the end restrained at square shape with( 2.7 meter at length are used to study restrained drying shrinkage of cement mortar. Specimens of ( compressive .flextural. splitting strength were cast. The admixture (marble dust was used to replacie weight of cement with three levels of (4%, 8% and 16% and the fiber hemp and sisal fiber were added for all mixes with proportion by volum of cement . All specimens were cured for (14 days. Average of three results was taken for any test of compressive, tensil and flextural strength. The experimental results showed that the adding of this admixture(marble dust cause adelay in a formation of cracks predicted from a drying shrinkage ,decreases of its width , and hence increases of (compressive, splitting tensil and flextural strength at levels of (4%, and 8%. Thus there is a the positive effect when fiberes added for all mixes of cement mortar with addition of (marble dust. All The admixtures (marble dust and fibers have the obvious visible effect in the delay of the information of shrinkage cracks and the decrease of its width as Compared to the cement mortar mixes when marble dust added a alone.

  2. Effect of Nanosilica Particle Size on the Water Permeability, Abrasion Resistance, Drying Shrinkage, and Repair Work Properties of Cement Mortar Containing Nano-SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattawat Haruehansapong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effect of nanosilica particle sizes on durability properties and repair work properties of cement mortar containing nanosilica (NS. Three different NS particle sizes of 12, 20, and 40 nm were used and compared with those of cement mortar without NS and cement mortar with silica fume (SF. Interesting results were obtained in which the particle size of NS affected directly the abrasion resistance and water permeability. NS with particle size of 40 nm is the optimum size and gave the highest abrasion resistance and water permeability. For repair work properties, cement mortars containing NS (12 and 20 nm and SF experienced higher drying shrinkage than that of cement mortar without NS and then presented cracking behavior and debonding between the cement mortars and concrete substrate. Cement mortar containing 40 nm of NS gave the lowest drying shrinkage, the lowest crack number, and the highest adhesive strength. These results indicate that the particle size of NS affected not only the durability properties but also the repair work properties of cement mortar.

  3. Tensile strength of structural concrete repaired with hi-bond polymer modified mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    Repair of cracks in concrete is often required to save the concrete structures. Appearance of crack in concrete is bound with the tensile strength of concrete. Recently a cement factory in Sindh has launched a HBPMM (Hi-Bond Polymer Modified Mortar) that can be used as a concrete repairing material instead of normal OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). It is needed to investigate its performance compared to that of OPC. In total 144 concrete cylinders (150x300mm) having strength of 3000 and 5000 psi were manufactured. These cylinders were then splitted by using a UTM (Universal Testing Machine) and their actual tensile strength was obtained. The concrete cylinders were then repaired with different applications of HBPMM and arc. The repaired samples were again splitted at different curing ages (3, 7 and 28 days) and their tensile strength after repair was obtained. The results show that the concrete cylinders repaired with HBPMM could give better tensile strength than that repaired with arc, the tensile strength of concrete cylinders after repair could increase with increase in the application of repairing material i.e. HBPMM or OPC and with curing time, and HBPMM could remain more effective in case of rich mix concrete than that of normal mix concrete. (author)

  4. Effect of nano clay particles on mechanical, thermal and physical behaviours of waste-glass cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.; Hashmi, M.S.J.; Olabi, A.G.; Messeiry, M.; Hussain, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Glass powder (GP) and nano clay (NC) were used as a partial cement replacement in cement mortar (CM). → No damaging effect can be detected due to the reaction between GP and CM with particle size up to 75 μm. → Hybrid combination of GP/NC greatly improved mechanical properties and microstructure of CM. - Abstract: Worldwide, around 2.6 billion tons of cement is produced annually. This huge size of production consumes large amounts of energy and is one of the largest contributors to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) release. Accordingly, there is a pressing demand to minimise the quantity of cement used in the concrete industry. The main challenge to this is to get durable concrete with less cement and within reasonable cost. The economic, environmental and engineering benefits of reusing ground waste-glass powder (WGP) as a partial cement replacement has been established, but low glass reactivity and the possible alkali-silica reaction (ASR) are a drawback. Recent advances in nano-technology have revealed that nano-sized particles such as nano clay (NC) have a high surface area to volume ratio that provides the potential for tremendous chemical reactivity, accelerating pozzolanic activity and hindering ASR. This paper presents a laboratory study of the properties of NC/WGP cement composites. The microstructure, ASR, fracture energy, compressive and flexural properties of cement mortars containing WGP as a cement replacement with and without NC are investigated and compared with plain matrix. In addition, the hydration of cement compounds was followed by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and also X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that incorporation of glass powder has a positive effect on the mechanical properties of cement mortars after 28 days of hydration. Also, the results revealed that the mechanical properties of the cement mortars with a hybrid combination of glass powder and NC were all higher than

  5. Enhancement of thermal neutron shielding of cement mortar by using borosilicate glass powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-Kil; Lee, Jun-Cheol; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2017-05-01

    Concrete has been used as a traditional biological shielding material. High hydrogen content in concrete also effectively attenuates high-energy fast neutrons. However, concrete does not have strong protection against thermal neutrons because of the lack of boron compound. In this research, boron was added in the form of borosilicate glass powder to increase the neutron shielding property of cement mortar. Borosilicate glass powder was chosen in order to have beneficial pozzolanic activity and to avoid deleterious expansion caused by an alkali-silica reaction. According to the experimental results, borosilicate glass powder with an average particle size of 13µm showed pozzolanic activity. The replacement of borosilicate glass powder with cement caused a slight increase in the 28-day compressive strength. However, the incorporation of borosilicate glass powder resulted in higher thermal neutron shielding capability. Thus, borosilicate glass powder can be used as a good mineral additive for various radiation shielding purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on the Sulfate Attack upon Ordinary Portland Cement and Slag-Blended Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta-ur-Rehman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles on the sulfate attack resistance of ordinary Portland cement (OPC and slag-blended mortars were investigated. OPC and slag-blended mortars (OPC:Slag = 50:50 were made with water to binder ratio of 0.4 and a binder to sand ratio of 1:3. TiO2 was added as an admixture as 0%, 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of the binder weight. Mortar specimens were exposed to an accelerated sulfate attack environment. Expansion, changes in mass and surface microhardness were measured. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC tests were conducted. The formation of ettringite and gypsum crystals after the sulfate attack were detected. Both these products had caused crystallization pressure in the microstructure of mortars and deteriorated the mortars. Our results show that the addition of nano-TiO2 accelerated expansion, variation in mass, loss of surface microhardness and widened cracks in OPC and slag-blended mortars. Nano-TiO2 containing slag-blended mortars were more resistant to sulfate attack than nano-TiO2 containing OPC mortars. Because nano-TiO2 reduced the size of coarse pores, so it increased crystallization pressure due to the formation of ettringite and gypsum thus led to more damage under sulfate attack.

  7. Application of microbial biocementation to improve the physico-mechanical properties of cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Abo-El-Enein

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcite is one of the most common and wide spread mineral on Earth constituting 4 wt% of the Earth’s crust. It is naturally found in extensive sedimentary rock masses, as lime stone marble and calcareous sandstone in marine, fresh water and terrestrial environments. Calcium carbonate is one of the most well known mineral that bacteria deposit by the phenomenon called biocementation or microbiologically induced calcite precipitation (MICP. Such deposits have recently emerged as promising binders for protecting and consolidating various building materials. Microbially enhanced calcite precipitation on concrete or mortar has become an important area of research regarding construction materials. This study describes a method of strength and water absorption improvement of cement–sand mortar by the microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation. A moderately alkalophilic aerobic Sporosarcina pasteurii was incorporated at different cell concentrations with the mixing water. The study showed that a 33% increase in 28 days compressive strength of cement mortar was achieved with the addition of about one optical density (1 OD of bacterial cells with mixing water. The strength and water absorption improvement are due to the growth of calcite crystals within the pores of the cement–sand matrix as indicated from the microstructure obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM examination.

  8. Lime mud from cellulose industry as raw material in cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modolo, R. C.E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of lime mud (LM in cement-based-mortars. Lime mud is a waste generated in the production of cellulose by the kraft mill process. It is mainly composed of CaCO3, a small amount of magnesium carbonate and other trace minerals. Mortars were prepared by adding different amounts of LM (10, 20 and 30% by weight of cement in dry weight. The mortar compositions were evaluated through rheology and flow table measurements, assuring that all the samples exhibited adequate conditions for testing in both equipments. The hardened state properties were also evaluated through mechanical strengths at 7, 28 and 90 days of curing. Following a waste management solution perspective, this work intend to provide a general evaluation of LM application in cement based mortars, looking at both fresh and hardened properties in order to guarantee that the final application requirements are not hindered.Este estudio revela el uso de lodo de carbonato (LM en morteros de cemento. El LM es un residuo compuesto principalmente por CaCO3 generado en la producción de pasta de papel por el método Kraft. Los morteros se prepararon a partir de la adición de diferentes niveles de LM (10, 20 y 30% en peso de cemento en peso seco. Las composiciones de los morteros fueron caracterizadas através de mediciones de reología de mesa y de flujo, asegurando que las muestras exhibían condiciones adecuadas para su caracterización en ambos equipamientos. Las propiedades en estado endurecido también se evaluaron através de resistencias mecánicas a los 7, 28 y 90 días de cura. Con objeto de gestión de residuos, este trabajo tiene la intención de proporcionar una visión general de la aplicación de LM en los morteros, haciendo hincapié en las propiedades con el fin de garantizar que los requisitos para su aplicación final no se vean obstaculizados.

  9. Influence of Waste Glass Powder Addition on the Pore Structure and Service Properties of Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, reusing waste constitutes an important challenge in order to reach a more sustainable environment. The cement industry is an important pollutant industrial sector. Therefore, the reduction of its CO2 emissions is now a popular topic of study. One way to lessen those emissions is partially replacing clinker with other materials. In this regard, the reuse of waste glass powder as a clinker replacement could be possible. This is a non-biodegradable residue that permanently occupies a large amount of space in dumping sites. The aim of this work is to study the long-term effects (400 days of the addition of waste glass powder on the microstructure and service properties of mortars that incorporate up to 20% of this addition as clinker replacement. The microstructure has been characterised using the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, differential thermal analysis was also performed. Compressive strength and both steady-state and non-steady-state chloride diffusion coefficients have also been determined. Considering the obtained results, mortars with 10% and 20% waste glass powder showed good service properties until 400 days, similar to or even better than those made with ordinary Portland cement without additions, with the added value of contributing to sustainability.

  10. Study on cement mortar and concrete made with sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C; Lin, J D; Tsai, C C; Wang, K S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of reusing wastewater sludge ash in construction materials to replace partial materials. Wastewater sludge sampled from thermal power plant was burned into sludge ash at 800°C in the laboratory. The sludge incineration ash has low heavy metal including Pb, Cd, Cr and Cu, so it belongs to general enterprise waste. The chemical composition of sludge incineration ash was summed up in SiO₂, CaO, Fe₂O₃ and MgO. Then the wastewater sludge ash is also found to be a porous material with irregular surface. When the sludge ash was used to replace mortar or concrete cement, its water-adsorption capability will result in the reduction of mortar workability and compressive strength. Cement is being substituted for sludge ash, and 10 percent of sludge ash is more appropriate. Sludge ash is reused to take the place of construction materials and satisfies the requests of standard specification except for higher water absorption.

  11. Influence of Portland Cement Class on the Corrosion Rate of Steel Reinforcement in Cement Mortar Caused by Penetrating Chloride and Sulfate from the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić, F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of portland cement class on the corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in cement mortar caused by penetrating chloride or sulfate from the environment in already hardened cement mortar is investigated in this paper. Three classes of portland cement have been used for the tests, PC 35, PC 45 and PC 55. Cylindrical samples of cement mortar with steel reinfor- cement in the middle were treated 6 months at room temperature in the following solutions: w(SO42- = 2.1 % and w(Cl- = 5 %. Two techniques have been used for testing corrosion rate of steel reinforcement in cement mortar: Tafel extrapolation technique and potentiodynamic polarization technique. Investigations were conducted by potentiostat/galvanostat Princeton Applied Research 263A-2 with the software PowerCORR®. The results of both techniques indi-cate the most active corrosion of steel reinforcement in the samples prepared from cement PC 35 in both treated solutions, while the lowest corrosion of the steel reinforcement was observed in cement samples prepared from cement PC 55. This conclusion was drawn by analyzing the results shown in Figs. 1–4. Comparing corrosion current density of samples, working electrodes, Figs. 1 and 2, Table 2, the results show the most stable corrosion of steel reinforcement in samples prepared from cement PC 55, and the most active corrosion in samples prepared from ce- ment PC 35. The most active corrosion in samples prepared from cement PC 35 is evident from the positions of the open circuit potentials whose values are less for samples prepared from cement PC 35 in both the treated solution, Figs. 1 and 2, Table 2. Comparison of the anodic polarization curves of the working electrodes in both the treated solutions, Figs. 3 and 4, also shows that the intensity of corrosion is the largest for the working electrodes prepared from cement PC 35 and the smallest for the working electrodes prepared from cement PC 55. Investigation results should be

  12. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-15

    Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm(3) can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement-sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential Use Of Carbide Lime Waste As An Alternative Material To Conventional Hydrated Lime Of Cement-Lime Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khaja, Waheeb A.

    1992-01-01

    The present study aimed at the possibility of using the carbide lime waste as an alternative material to the conventional lime used for cement-lime mortar. The waste is a by-product obtained in the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide. Physical and chemical properties of the wastes were studied. Two cement-lime-sand mix proportions containing carbide lime waste were compared with the same mix proportions containing conventional lime along with a control mix without lime. Specimens wer...

  14. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is feasible to use recycled CRT glass in mortar as shield against X-ray radiation. ► Shielding properties of CRT mortar is strongly depended on CRT content. ► Linear attenuation coefficient was reduced by 142% upon 100% CRT glass in mortar. ► Effect of mortar thickness and irradiation energies on shielding was investigated. - Abstract: Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm 3 can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement–sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy.

  15. Reuse of By-Products from Ready-Mixed Concrete Plants for the Production of Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zervaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by the necessity to recycle sludge water resulting from washing out concrete mixing trucks - a problem of both environmental and economic importance for the ready-mixed concrete industry. Sludge water from ready-mixed concrete plants as well as dry sludge, which is derived from the settling of the water, are hazardous for disposal due to their high pH value (pH>11.5. In this work, cement mortars were composed using either sludge water after various treatment, or dry sludge in several ratios. The cement mortars were tested for their workability and strength development. The purpose of this experimental design was to prove that sludge water, as well as sludge in a wet or dry form, can be used in the production of mortars without degrading any of their properties.

  16. Mechanical characterization of Portland cement mortars containing petroleum or coal tar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, P.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses experimental data on the flexural and compressive strength of Portland cement mortars containing additions or cement replacements consisting in petroleum or coal tar, by-products of the oil and coal industries. The materials studied were two coal (BACA and BACB and two petroleum (BPP and BPT tars. The results show that it is feasible to use such materials as a partial replacement for cement in mortar manufacture. This should lead to the design of a new sustainable product that will contribute to lowering the environmental impact of construction materials while at the same time opening up an avenue for the re-use of this type of industrial by-products.En este artículo se presentan datos experimentales de resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros de cemento Portland con adición y sustitución de breas de petróleo y de alquitrán de carbón, que son subproductos de la industria del carbón o del petróleo. Los materiales estudiados son breas de alquitrán de carbón A (BACA y B (BACB, y dos breas de petróleo (BPP y (BPT. Los datos demuestran la viabilidad del uso de estas breas en la fabricación de morteros con menores contenidos de cemento, permitiendo diseñar un nuevo material sostenible con el medio ambiente y que contribuya a reducir el impacto ambiental de los materiales de construcción, hecho que permite abrir una nueva vía de valorización de estos subproductos.

  17. Photoactive glazed polymer-cement composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, Liana; Patachia, Silvia; Tierean, Mircea; Ekincioglu, Ozgur; Ozkul, Hulusi M.

    2018-04-01

    Macro defect free cements (MDF), a kind of polymer-cement composites, are characterized by remarkably high mechanical properties. Their flexural strengths are 20-30 times higher than those of conventional cement pastes, nearly equal to that of an ordinary steel. The main drawback of MDF cements is their sensitivity to water. This paper presents a method to both diminish the negative impact of water on MDF cements mechanical properties and to enlarge their application by conferring photoactivity. These tasks were solved by glazing MDF cement with an ecological glaze containing nano-particles of TiO2. Efficiency of photocatalytic activity of this material was tested against methylene blue aqueous solution (4.4 mg/L). Influence of the photocatalyst concentration in the glaze paste and of the contact time on the photocatalysis process (efficiency and kinetic) was studied. The best obtained photocatalysis yield was of 97.35%, after 8 h of exposure to 254 nm UV radiation when used an MDF glazed with 10% TiO2 in the enamel paste. Surface of glazed material was characterized by optic microscopy, scratch test, SEM, XRD, and EDS. All these properties were correlated with the aesthetic aspect of the glazed surface aiming to propose using of this material for sustainable construction development.

  18. Study of the adherence between polymer-modified mortars and porcelain stoneware tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Etuko Feuzicana de Souza Almeida

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the excellent characteristics of porcelain tiles, their application on building facades requires special attention, since this material differs from conventional ceramics and because facades are exposed to weathering that can damage ceramic revetments. The combination of polymer and silica fume to produce mortars results in excellent properties, which are ideal for repairs and revetments requiring high performance. Such improvements justify its study for the installation of porcelain tiles. This article presents bond strength results for mortars containing different amounts of polymer and silica indicating the applicability of these mortars as a construction material. To complement this study, the interface between the porcelain and the mortars was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  19. Dry and wet "deposition" studies of the degradation of cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of portland cement mortars with SO2 gaseous pollutant and artificial 'acid rain' solution has been examined using laboratory exposure chambers, with realistic presentation rates of pollutants. The mortar were previously carbonated to produce superficial carbonation. Two mortars with different w/c ratio and hence specific surface were prepared and exposed into the chambers. For dry deposition of SO2 pollutant gas, the important roles of water and water plus oxidant in increasing chemical reaction are readily revealed. Further, accessible porosity also increases reaction through increased times of reaction of pollutant with the mortars. Interestingly, in the absence of deliberate surface wetting, the presence of oxidant, ozone, leads to a reduction in the already limited extent of reaction. Wet deposition studies using artificial 'acid rain' solution result in gypsum formation, which is more extensive for mortars of increased w/c ratios.

    Se han realizado ensayos de laboratorio de simulación de los procesos ambientales de "deposición" seca y húmeda sobre morteros de cemento portland, estudiándose las reacciones que se producen con el contaminante SO2 ("deposición" seca y la disolución de 'lluvia acida' ("deposición" húmeda. Los morteros de cemento se carbonataron para favorecer la carbonatación superficial de los mismos. Se prepararon morteros con dos relaciones a/c con el fin de estudiar la influencia que la variable superficie específica tenía en el proceso de deterioro de dichos materiales. En los estudios de deposición seca con SO2 como gas agresivo se ha visto la importancia que el agua y el agua junto a un oxidante tienen en la reacción del contaminante con los componentes del mortero. La superficie específica Juega un papel importante, ya que al aumentar, aumenta la reacción con el contaminante. La reacción en presencia de oxidante, (SO2+O3

  20. Studies on physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the irradiated latex modified mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassene, A.A.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains three chapter; chapter(I): Introduction and literature review on:- Introduction to polymer. - Mechanism of polymer-cement co-matrix formation.-Sulphate attack. - Solidification /stabilization of heavy metal in cement mortar. chapter(II): Materials and experimental techniques that include: 1- Preparation of latex polymer films from different polymer latices of styrene butadine rubber latex (SBR), poly (styrene-acrylic ester) latex (SAE) and vinylacetate /versatic -ester copolymer latex (C2A). The effect of γ-irradiation dose on the physico - chemical and mechanical properties of different latex polymer films was studied.2- Preparation of latex polymer-modified cement mortar with different ratios of cement: latex polymer and different curing method.3- Solidification /stabilization (S/S) of electroplating heavy metal precipitate in latex polymer- modified mortar with different cement /electroplating heavy metal sludge ratio. chapter(III) results and discussion

  1. Evaluation Some Properties of NanoMetakaolin or Rice Husk Ash Cement Mortar and its Resistance to Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassim Atiya Alwan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find the optimum value of some properties like compressive, flexural strength of blended cement mortar by nanometakaolin ( NMK or rice husk ash (RHA and to evaluate the effect of high temperature on these properties. The ordinary Portland cement(OPC of mortar was partially substituted by NMK or RHA of 5,10,15 and 20% by weight of cement. (108 control and blended specimens were casted and tested at ambient temperature (33 ºC for compressive and flexural strength for 28 and 90 days. Another (270 of the control and blended specimens were casted and cured for 90 days and exposed to elevated temperature of a gradual increase in temperature up to 200 ºC,300 ºC, 400 ºC,600 ºC and 800 ºC for two hours in an electrical furnace and they were under the same previous tests. The test results at ambient temperature indicate that the optimum compressive and flexural strength was with ratio of 15% NMK cement replacement in mortar for 28 and 90 days but for RHA was ratio of 10% for 28 days and 15% of cement weight in mortar for 90 days compared to control specimens. The results of exposing control and blended specimens of (90 days to elevated temperature showed that the optimum strength for control and the best MK replacement ratio were found at 200 ºC, and the best RHA replacement ratio specimens was found at 300 ºC. It is also found that exposing the mortar to more than these temperatures destroyed its strength and it was detrimental to its properties.

  2. Assessment of Pb-slag, MSWI bottom ash and boiler and fly ash for using as a fine aggregate in cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Nabajyoti; Cornelis, Geert; Mertens, Gilles; Elsen, Jan; Van Balen, Koenraad; Van Gerven, Tom; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2008-06-15

    Three types of wastes, metallurgical slag from Pb production (SLG), the sand-sized (0.1-2 mm) fraction of MSWI bottom ash from a grate furnace (SF), and boiler and fly ash from a fluidised bed incinerator (BFA), were characterized and used to replace the fine aggregate during preparation of cement mortar. The chemical and mineralogical behaviour of these wastes along with the reactivities of the wastes with lime and the hydration behaviour of ordinary Portland cement paste with and without these wastes added were evaluated by various chemical and instrumental techniques. The compressive strengths of the cement mortars containing waste as a partial substitution of fine aggregates were also assessed. Finally, leaching studies of the wastes and waste containing cement mortars were conducted. SLG addition does not show any adverse affect during the hydration of cement, or on the compressive strengths behaviours of mortars. Formation of expansive products like ettringite, aluminium hydroxide and H2 gas due to the reaction of some constituents of BFA and SF with alkali creates some cracks in the paste as well as in the cement mortars, which lower the compressive strength of the cement mortars. However, utilization of all materials in cement-based application significantly improves the leaching behaviour of the majority of the toxic elements compared to the waste as such.

  3. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  4. Radiation use in measurement and control of cement and fine aggregate segregation in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veado, Maria Adelaide Rabelo Vasconcelos.

    1991-09-01

    Segregation of solid particles in a mortar for structural purposes was measured by a nuclear method in which the grains were marked by neutron activation. The influence of vibration time on segregation was studied, and the method was capable of detecting a segregation trend, that is a higher concentration of cement and finer aggregate particles in the upper longer of the specimens. Results were more significant when the finer grains were marked rather than. The coarser ones, due to statistical constraints imposed by the smaller quantities of the latter. The Segregation increased with increasing vibration times. The validity of the proposed nuclear method for segregation measurements has been confirmed. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Moisture migration and drying properties of hardened cement paste and mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numao, T.; Fukuzawa, K.; Mihashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    Moisture content and movement have a significant influence on mechanical properties of concrete. Therefore, many studies have been done on the migration or loss of water in concrete mostly without any external loads. Concrete in actual structures, however, is usually under stresses. As the microstructure of concrete is changed by the load, the observed moisture movement phenomena may be changed. Hence it is necessary to study the moisture migration in concrete under compressive stress in order to estimate rationally the mechanical behavior such as creep and shrinkage in actual concrete structures. In this paper, the influence of compressive stress on moisture migration and water loss of hardened cement paste were studied experimentally and analytically. Furthermore, comparing them with the results of mortar specimens, the influence of containing aggregates was also discussed

  6. Synthesis of dextrin-stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles and their application as modifiers of cement mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konował, Emilia; Sybis, Marta; Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Anna; Milczarek, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Various commercial dextrins were used as reducing and stabilizing agents for a novel one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles from ammonia complexes of silver ions. As a result, stable colloids of silver were formed during the reaction with the particle size being the function of the dextrin type. The obtained colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, size distribution (using Non-Invasive Backscatter optics) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The achieved results clearly indicate the possibility of low-cost production of large quantities of colloidal silver nanoparticles using materials derived from renewable sources. The resulting silver colloids can be used for different purposes, e.g. as bactericidal agents. Combination of the aforementioned properties of nanosilver particles with plasticizing properties of dextrin enables to obtain cement mortars with increased workability and enhanced compressive strength. Moreover, the obtained material is also characterized by increased immunity to adverse impact of microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simple method of dynamic Young’s modulus determination in lime and cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosell, J. R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work explains a simple method to determine the dynamic Young module (MOE by inducing a set of small mechanical perturbation to samples of lime and cement mortars and correlating the results obtained with results determined using other techniques and methods. The procedure described herein follows the instructions stated in the UNE-EN ISO 12680-1 standard for refractory products although in this study the instructions are applied to standardized RILEM 4x4x16 cm test samples made of lime and cement mortars. In addition, MOE determinations are obtained by using ultrasonic impulse velocity while static Young's modulus determinations are obtained by performing conventional bending tests. The ability of this procedure to correlate with results from other techniques, along with its simplicity, suggests that it can be widely adapted to determine the deformability of mortars under load using standardized samples.

    El presente trabajo muestra un método simple para determinar el módulo de Young dinámico (MOE a partir de pequeñas perturbaciones mecánicas producidas a probetas de mortero de cal y de cemento, correlacionando los resultados obtenidos con las correspondientes mediciones realizadas con otras técnicas. El procedimiento sigue básicamente las instrucciones fijadas en la norma UNE-EN ISO 12680-1 de productos refractarios, pero aplicándolo a probetas normalizadas RILEM 4x4x16 de morteros confeccionados con cal y cemento. Paralelamente se realizan determinaciones del MOE a partir de la velocidad de paso de impulsos ultrasónicos y determinaciones del módulo de Young estático a partir de ensayos de flexión convencionales. La simplicidad del método aplicado y la correlación de los resultados obtenidos con las variables medidas permiten concluir que esta metodología es de aplicación directa para determinar la deformabilidad bajo carga de los morteros a partir de probetas normalizadas.

  8. Encapsulation, solid-phases identification and leaching of toxic metals in cement systems modified by natural biodegradable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheras-Zubiate, M.; Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M.; Álvarez, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Speciation of Zn, Pb and Cr has been studied in chitosan-modified cement mortars. ► Metal retention mechanisms have been clarified by newly identified crystalline forms. ► Native chitosan induced and stabilized newly characterized Pb (IV) species. ► Dietrichite is responsible for the Zn immobilization in the polymer-modified mortar. ► Leaching of Zn decreased by 24% in the presence of low molecular weight chitosan. - Abstract: Cement mortars loaded with Cr, Pb and Zn were modified by polymeric admixtures [chitosans with low (LMWCH), medium (MMWCH) and high (HMWCH) molecular weight and hydroxypropylchitosan (HPCH)]. The influence of the simultaneous presence of the heavy metal and the polymeric additive on the fresh properties (consistency, water retention and setting time) and on the compressive strength of the mortars was assessed. Leaching patterns as well as properties of the cement mortars were related to the heavy metals-bearing solid phases. Chitosan admixtures lessened the effect of the addition of Cr and Pb on the setting time. In all instances, chitosans improved the compressive strength of the Zn-bearing mortars yielding values as high as 15 N mm −2 . A newly reported Zn phase, dietrichite (ZnAl 2 (SO 4 ) 4 ·22H 2 O) was identified under the presence of LMWCH: it was responsible for an improvement by 24% in Zn retention. Lead-bearing silicates, such as plumalsite (Pb 4 Al 2 (SiO 3 ) 7 ), were also identified by XRD confirming that Pb was mainly retained as a part of the silicate network after Ca ion exchange. Also, the presence of polymer induced the appearance and stabilization of some Pb(IV) species. Finally, diverse chromate species were identified and related to the larger leaching values of Cr(VI).

  9. Altered cement hydration and subsequently modified porosity, permeability and compressive strength of mortar specimens due to the influence of electrical current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of stray current flow on microstructural prop-erties, i.e. pore connectivity and permeability of mortar specimens, and link these to the observed alterations in mechanical properties and cement hydration. Mortar specimens were partly submerged in water and calcium

  10. Impedance Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Microstructure Development of Sustainable Fly Ash Cement Mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, José Marcos; Sánchez, Isidro; Climent, Miguel Ángel

    2017-09-25

    Today, the characterisation of the microstructure of cement-based materials using non-destructive techniques has become an important topic of study, and among them, the impedance spectroscopy has recently experienced great progress. In this research, mortars with two different contents of fly ash were exposed to four different constant temperature and relative humidity environments during a 180-day period. The evolution of their microstructure was studied using impedance spectroscopy, whose results were contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry. The hardening environment has an influence on the microstructure of fly ash cement mortars. On one hand, the impedance resistances R₁ and R₂ are more influenced by the drying of the materials than by microstructure development, so they are not suitable for following the evolution of the porous network under non-optimum conditions. On the other hand, the impedance spectroscopy capacitances C₁ and C₂ allow studying the microstructure development of fly ash cement mortars exposed to those conditions, and their results are in accordance with mercury intrusion porosimetry ones. Finally, it has been observed that the combined analysis of the abovementioned capacitances could be very useful for studying shrinkage processes in cement-based materials kept in low relative humidity environments.

  11. Experimental studies on effect of Date Seed Ash (DSA) on strength properties of cement sand mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarani, G. I.; Chakkravarthy, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The need for alternative material for the cement is arising and being compromised by many engineering researchers. However, the growing demand and surging prices of raw materials challenges the constructional field. India, being one of the largest agricultural economy, produces a quantitative volume of agro-waste that is being dumped. In the conventional concrete production, coarse aggregate (CA) plays an important filler material. The initial study on date seed as a replacement for CA was not successful. This study primarily focuses on Date seed ash as a replacement material for ordinary Portland cement. OPC was replaced by Date Palm Seed Ash (DPSA) in the ratio up to 10% in terms of 2% interval. The main objective of this paper was to study the variation of strength properties of mortar by DPSA in specified ratio along with curing period of 3,7,14 and 28 days. The stress strain behavior has indicated a significant improvement. The overall results indicated the increase in replacing ratio, decreases the strength properties. However the physical, chemical and mechanical properties increased gradually in strength in minimal ratio.

  12. Coupling between mechanical behaviour and drying of cementing materials: experimental study on mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtdas, I.

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the desiccation effects on the mechanical behaviour of cement materials. Two mortars of ratio E/C=0.5 and 0.8 have been tested. All the tests have been implemented after a six months maturing in water. The experimental study has been carried out as follows: 1)tests characterizing the differed behaviour and the transport properties have been carried out 2)tests characterizing the short term multiaxial mechanical behaviour have been carried out. The desiccation shrinkage in terms of the weight loss presents three characteristic phases. The permeability measurement on the mortar 05 shows that the permeability of the specimens dried and crept is greater than those of the specimens dried before being crept, and the permeability of the specimens submitted to a desiccation creep and then dried is sensibly the same as the last one in spite of a very important differed deformation. The influence of the desiccation on the uniaxial and deviatoric compressions resistance depends of the binding agent: for a cement paste of good quality (E/C=0.5), the resistances increase with the desiccation because of the capillary depression and of the hydric gradients. For a cement paste of low quality (E/C=0.8), there is a competitive effect between the increase of the microcracks induced and the specimen rigidification; the microcracking becomes then the parameter controlling the rupture process. The elasto-plastic behaviour becomes a damageable elasto-plastic behaviour during desiccation which induces, as the decrease of the E/C ratio, a translation of the elastic limit surfaces and ruptures towards higher stresses. In parallel, the elastic properties and the incompressibility modulus are damaged and the volume deformations increase after the drying. At last, the decrease of the Young modulus and the passage to the third shrinkage phase in terms of the weight loss coincide. This can be attributed to the induced microcracking: this decrease of the

  13. Numerical simulation of heat and mass transport during hydration of Portland cement mortar in semi-adiabatic and steam curing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Bautista, E.; Bentz, D. P.; Sandoval-Torres, S.; de Cano-Barrita, P. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    A model that describes hydration and heat-mass transport in Portland cement mortar during steam curing was developed. The hydration reactions are described by a maturity function that uses the equivalent age concept, coupled to a heat and mass balance. The thermal conductivity and specific heat of mortar with water-to-cement mass ratio of 0.30 was measured during hydration, using the Transient Plane Source method. The parameters for the maturity equation and the activation energy were obtaine...

  14. Stainless and Galvanized Steel, Hydrophobic Admixture and Flexible Polymer-Cement Coating Compared in Increasing Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Giosuè, Chiara; Mobili, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    The use of stainless or galvanized steel reinforcements, a hydrophobic admixture or a flexible polymer-cement coating were compared as methods to improve the corrosion resistance of sound or cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride rich solutions. The results show that in full immersion condition, negligible corrosion rates were detected in all cracked specimens, except those treated with the flexible polymer-cement mortar as preventive method against corrosion and the hydrophobic concrete specimens. High corrosion rates were measured in all cracked specimens exposed to wet-dry cycles, except for those reinforced with stainless steel, those treated with the flexible polymer-cement coating as restorative method against reinforcement corrosion and for hydrophobic concrete specimens reinforced with galvanized steel reinforcements.

  15. Ternary Blends of High Aluminate Cement, Fly ash and Blast-furnace slag for Sewerage Lining Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, L. C.; Kuo, C. P.

    2018-01-01

    High aluminate cement (HAC), fly ash (FA) and blast-furnace slag (BFS) have been treated sustainable materials for the use of cement products for wastewater infrastructure due to their capabilities of corrosion resistance. The purpose of this study is to optimize a ternary blend of above mentioned materials for a special type of mortar for sewerage lining. By the using of Taguchi method, four control parameters including water/cementitious material ratio, mix water content, fly ash content and blast-furnace slag content were considered in nine trial mix designs in this study. By evaluating target properties including (1) maximization of compressive strength, (2) maximization of electricity resistance and (3) minimization of water absorption rate, the best possible levels for each control parameter were determined and the optimal mix proportions were verified. Through the implementation of the study, a practical and completed idea for designing corrosion resistive mortar comprising HAC, FA and BSF is provided.

  16. The applicability of alkaline-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar of road pavement: Corrosion mechanism and performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xiaochun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main technical requirements of road pavement concrete are high flexural strength and fatigue durability. Adding glass fiber into concrete could greatly increase flexural strength and wearing resistance of concrete. However, glass fiber has the great potential of corrosion during the cement hydration, which will directly affect the long-term performance and strength stability. In this paper, accelerated corrosion experiments have been done to find out the corrosion mechanism and property of alkali-resistant glass fiber in cement mortar. The applicability and practicability of alkaline-resistant glass fiber in road concrete have been illustrated in the analysis of flexural strength changing trend of cement mortar mixed with different proportions of activated additives to protect the corrosion of glass fiber by cement mortar. The results have shown that a 30% addition of fly ash or 10% addition of silica fume to cement matrix could effectively improve the corrosion resistance of alkali-resistant glass fiber. The optimal mixing amount of alkali-resistant glass fiber should be about 1.0 kg/m3 in consideration of ensuring the compressive strength of reinforced concrete in road pavement. The closest-packing method has been adopted in the mixture ratio design of alkali-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete, not only to reduce the alkalinity of the cement matrix through large amount addition of activated additives but also to greatly enhance the flexural performance of concrete with the split pressure ratio improvement of 12.5–16.7%. The results suggested a prosperous application prospect for alkaline-resistant glass fiber reinforced concrete in road pavement.

  17. Cement mortar-degraded spinney waste composite as a matrix for immobilizing some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Consistency under frost attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spinney fiber is one of the wastes generated from spinning of cotton raw materials. ► Cement mortar composite was hydrated by using the degraded slurry of spinney wastes. ► Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar-degraded spinney waste composite specimens. ► SEM image, FT-IR and XRD patterns were performed for samples subjected to frost attack. - Abstract: The increasing amounts of spinning waste fibers generated from cotton fabrication are problematic subject. Simultaneous shortage in the landfill disposal space is also the most problem associated with dumping of these wastes. Cement mortar composite was developed by hydrating mortar components using the waste slurry obtained from wet oxidative degradation of these spinney wastes. The consistency of obtained composite was determined under freeze–thaw events. Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar composite specimens by evaluating its compressive strength, apparent porosity and mass loss at the end of each period of freeze–thaw up to 45 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed for samples subjected to frost attack aiming at evaluating the cement mortar in the presence of degraded spinney waste. The cement mortar composite exhibits acceptable resistance and durability against the freeze–thaw treatment that could be chosen in radioactive waste management as immobilizing agent for some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  18. Composite cement mortars based on marine sediments and oyster shell powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ez-zaki, H.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Additions of dredged marine sediments and oyster shell powder (OS as cement substitute materials in mortars are examined by several techniques. The sediments have high water and chloride contents and calcite, quartz, illite and kaolinite as principal minerals. The OS powders are entirely composed of calcium carbonate and traces of other impurities. Four mixtures of treated sediments and OS powders at 650 °C and 850 °C are added to Portland cement at 8%, 16% and 33% by weight. The hydration of composite pastes is followed by calorimetric tests, the porosity accessible to water, the bulk density, the permeability to gas, the compressive strength and the accelerated carbonation resistance are measured. In general, the increase of addition amounts reduced the performance of mortars. However, a reduction of gas permeability was observed when the addition was up to 33%. Around 16% of addition, the compressive strength and carbonation resistance were improved.En este trabajo se ha valorado la sustitución de cemento en morteros por sedimentos marinos dragados y polvo de concha de ostra (OS. Los sedimentos tienen altos contenidos de agua, cloruros, calcita, cuarzo, illita y caolinita como minerales principales. Los polvos OS están compuestos de carbonato cálcico y trazas de otras impurezas. Se añadieron a un cemento Portland, cuatro mezclas de los sedimentos y polvos de OS tratados a 650 °C y 850 °C en proporciones del 8%, 16% y 33% en peso. La hidratación de pastas se estudió a través de calorimetría. Se estudió además la porosidad accesible al agua, densidad aparente, permeabilidad al gas, resistencia a compresión y carbonatación acelerada. En general, un aumento en la adición produjo una reducción del rendimiento de los morteros. Se observó, sin embargo, una reducción de la permeabilidad a los gases con porcentajes de adición de hasta el 33%. Con valores del 16% de sustitución, mejoraron las resistencias mecánicas y la

  19. Irreversible dilation of NaCl contaminated lime-cement mortar due to crystallization cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Huinink, H.P.; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of damage occurring in NaCl contaminated materials has not been clarified yet. Apart from crystallization pressure, other hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of decay. Irreversible dilation has been observed in a few cases but has never been studied in a more systematic way. The aim of the research is to contribute to the modeling of this phenomenon. In the present paper the effect of NaCl on the hydric and hygric behavior of a lime-cement mortar is extensively studied. The results indicate that NaCl influences the hydric and hygric dilation behavior of the material. The material contaminated with NaCl shrinks during dissolution and dilates during crystallization of the salt. This dilation is irreversible and sufficient to damage the material after few dissolution/crystallization cycles. This behavior is not restricted to NaCl, but is observed in the presence of other salts as well (NaNO 3 and KCl). Outcomes of electron microscopy studies suggest that salts causing irreversible dilation tend to crystallize as layers on the pore wall

  20. The refilling of pores in cement mortars treated by chemicals and desiccation at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menéndez Pazos, Ignacio

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Bases under the law of solubility product, the pores of the cement mortar are refilled by impregnation with two salts that form another insoluble salt. The number of treatments to be underdone and the drying temperatures more suitable in each case. The calcium salts like impregnants and urea sodium oxalate and sugar like precipitates are employed, obtained in each case the corresponding pores are occupied, which depends generally on the number of treatments and in particular the drier temperature.

    Basados en los principios del producto de solubilidad, se rellenan los poros de las probetas de mortero de cemento por impregnación con dos sales que forman otra insoluble. Se determina el número de tratamientos a realizar y las temperaturas de secado más idóneas en cada caso. Se emplean sales cálcicas como impregnantes, y urea, oxalato sódico y azúcar como precipitantes, obteniéndose en cada caso las correspondientes ocupaciones de poros que dependen, por lo general, del número de tratamientos y, en particular, de la temperatura de secado.

  1. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  2. Green and early age compressive strength of extruded cement mortar monitored with compression tests and ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Thomas; Malonn, Tim; Shah, Surendra P.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge about the early age compressive strength development of cementitious materials is an important factor for the progress and safety of many construction projects. This paper uses cylindrical mortar specimens produced with a ram extruder to investigate the transition of the mortar from plastic and deformable to hardened state. In addition, wave transmission and reflection measurements with P- and S-waves were conducted to obtain further information about the microstructural changes during the setting and hardening process. The experiments have shown that uniaxial compression tests conducted on extruded mortar cylinders are a useful tool to evaluate the green strength as well as the initiation and further development of the compressive strength of the tested material. The propagation of P-waves was found to be indicative of the internal structure of the tested mortars as influenced, for example, by the addition of fine clay particles. S-waves used in transmission and reflection mode proved to be sensitive to the inter-particle bonding caused by the cement hydration and expressed by an increase in compressive strength

  3. Changes in Properties of Cement and Lime Mortars When Incorporating Fibers from End-of-Life Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Gil

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the addition of fibers from end-of-life tires to commercial mortar mixtures. Two different types of mortar, one lime-plastic and other cement-fluid, are mixed with different percentage of fibers ranging from 0% to 1%. The changes in bulk density, consistency, compressive and flexural strength, dynamic Young modulus and water absorption are studied. According to the results, consistency is the property that shows more relevant changes for an addition of 0.25% fibers. Consistency is related to workability and affects the water absorption and the Young modulus values. On the contrary, bulk density and mechanical properties did not change with the addition of fibers. The results prove that this fiber, considered a waste from recycling of end-of-life tires, can be used in commercial mixtures without losing strength. On the other hand, mortar workability limits the amount of fibers that can be included in the mixture and this parameter determines the performance of the mortar.

  4. Self-healing polymer cement composites for geothermal wellbore applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rod, K. A.; Fernandez, C.; Childers, I.; Koech, P.; Um, W.; Roosendaal, T.; Nguyen, M.; Huerta, N. J.; Chun, J.; Glezakou, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cement is vital for controlling leaks from wellbores employed in oil, gas, and geothermal operations by sealing the annulus between the wellbore casing and geologic formation. Wellbore cement failure due to physical and chemical stresses is common and can result in significant environmental consequences and ultimately significant financial costs due to remediation efforts. To date numerous alternative cement blends have been proposed for the oil and gas industry. Most of these possess poor mechanical properties, or are not designed to work in high temperature environments. This research investigates novel polymer-cement composites which could function at most geothermal temperatures. Thermal stability and mechanical strength of the polymer is attributed to the formation of a number of chemical interactions between the polymer and cement matrix including covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. It has been demonstrated that the bonding between cement and casing is more predictable when polymer is added to cement and can even improve healing of adhesion break when subjected to stresses such as thermal shock. Fractures have also been healed, effectively reducing permeability with fractures up to 0.3-0.5mm apertures, which is two orders of magnitude larger than typical wellbore fractures. Additionally, tomography analysis was used to determine internal structure of the cement polymer composite and imaging reveals that polymers fill fractures in the cement and between the cement and casing. By plugging fractures that occur in wellbore cement, reducing permeability of fractures, both environmental safety and economics of subsurface operations will be improved for geothermal energy and oil and gas production.

  5. Low porosity portland cement pastes based on furan polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darweesh, H.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of three different types of Furan polymers on the porosity, mechanical properties, mechanism of hydration and microstructure of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes was investigated. The results showed that mixing the OPC with Furan polymers, the standard water of consistency of the different cement pastes decreases and therefore the setting times (initial and final) are shortened. The total porosity of the hardened cement pastes decreased, while the mechanical properties improved and enhanced at all curing ages of hydration compared with those of the pure OPC pastes. The hydration process with Furan polymers proceeded according to the following decreasing order: F.ac. > F.ph. > F.alc. > OPC

  6. Influence of clinker grinding-aids on the intrinsic characteristics of cements and on the behaviour of mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Luco, L.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production of portland cement, grinding aids are used to improve the grinding stage and reduce the energy required to achieve the required fineness. These additives remain in the final product and they might influence the characteristics and properties of the cement, and thus, mortar and concrete. This paper presents an evaluation of two grinding-aid additives used in the production of portland cement ground in a ball mill at a laboratory stage, with suitable proportions of portland cement clinker and gypsum. A control cement mix was also produced without using any admixture and the results are shown on a comparative basis. Conclusions indicate that grinding-aids additives have some influence on the characteristics of portland cement produced, increasing their specific surface and modifying microstructure and its packing ability. Mortars and concretes made with cements ground with the addition of gringing-aids exhibit higher strength at any age and a reduced water demand. Special attention should be taken to consider any interaction with water-reducing admixture in concretes and mortars.

    En la fabricación de cemento portland es una práctica creciente la utilización de aditivos para optimizar el proceso de molienda; éstos quedan incorporados en el producto final y pueden influir sobre las características y propiedades del cemento, morteros y hormigones. En este trabajo se presenta la evaluación de dos aditivos comerciales en la molienda conjunta de clínker de cemento portland y yeso comercial, tratados en un molino a bolas a escala de laboratorio, en forma comparativa con un cemento sin aditivo producido en forma equivalente. Las conclusiones indican que los aditivos de molienda tienen influencia en las características del cemento resultante, incrementando su superficie y modificando su microestructura y estado de agregación; los morteros mejoran sus prestaciones mecánicas a todas las edades y se reduce la demanda de agua

  7. Engineering properties of cement mortar with pond ash in South Korea as construction materials: from waste to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang Hwa; Kwon, Seung-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Among the wastes from coal combustion product, only fly ash is widely used for mineral mixture in concrete for its various advantages. However the other wastes including bottom ash, so called PA (pond ash) are limitedly reused for reclamation. In this paper, the engineering properties of domestic pond ash which has been used for reclamation are experimentally studied. For this, two reclamation sites (DH and TA) in South Korea are selected, and two domestic PAs are obtained. Cement mortar with two different w/c (water to cement) ratios and 3 different replacement ratios (0%, 30%, and 60%) of sand are prepared for the tests. For workability and physical properties of PA cement mortar, several tests like flow, setting time, and compressive strength are evaluated. Several durability tests including porosity measuring, freezing and thawing, chloride migration, and accelerated carbonation are also performed. Through the tests, PA (especially from DH area) in surface saturated condition is evaluated to have internal curing action which leads to reasonable strength development and durability performances. The results show a potential applicability of PA to concrete aggregate, which can reduce consuming natural resources and lead to active reutilization of coal product waste.

  8. Influence of supplementary cementitious materials on water transport kinetics and mechanical properties of hydrated lime and cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince, C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is an investigation of the possible role of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs on water transport kinetics and mechanical properties of hydrated lime (CL90 and Portland cement (PC mortars. The properties of hydrated lime are significantly different from those of cement and therefore modifying fresh and hardened properties of these mortars are vital for mortar/substrate optimisation in masonry construction. The parameters investigated in this paper often are the main barriers to the use of hydrated lime in construction practice. The results show that transfer sorptivity and time to dewater freshly-mixed hydrated lime mortars can be modified when binder is partially replaced with SCMs. Compressive strength of CL90 mortars is increased systematically with the increased replacement levels of SCMs and the results are supported with the microstructural images. The ability to modify the water transport kinetics and mechanical properties allows compatibility between the mortar and the substrate unit in masonry construction.El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el papel de los materiales cementantes suplementarios (SCMs en la cinética de transporte del agua y en las propiedades mecánicas de los morteros de cal hidratada (CL90 y cemento Portland. Las propiedades de la cal hidratada son significativamente diferentes a las del cemento y por lo tanto el control de las propiedades de los morteros frescos y endurecidos es fundamental en la optimización mortero/substrato en albañilería. Los parámetros estudiados en este trabajo son a menudo las principales barreras para el uso de la cal hidratada en la práctica de la construcción. Los resultados indican que la absortividad y el tiempo necesario para deshidratar morteros de cal hidratada recién mezclados pueden ser controlados cuando el conglomerante es parcialmente remplazado por SCMs. La resistencia a compresión de los morteros CL90 aumenta sistem

  9. Predicting the drying shrinkage behavior of high strength portland cement mortar under the combined influence of fine aggregate and steel micro fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhengqi

    2017-01-01

    The workability, 28-day compressive strength and free drying shrinkage of a very high strength (121-142 MPa) steel micro fiber reinforced portland cement mortar were studied under a combined influence of fine aggregate content and fiber content. The test results showed that an increase in the fine aggregate content resulted in decreases in the workability, 28-day compressive strength and drying shrinkage of mortar at a fixed fiber content. An increase in the fiber content resulted in decreases in the workability and drying shrinkage of mortar, but an increase in the 28-day compressive strength of mortar at a fixed fine aggregate content. The modified Gardner model most accurately predicted the drying shrinkage development of the high strength mortars, followed by the Ross model and the ACI 209R-92 model. The Gardner model gave the least accurate prediction for it was developed based on a database of normal strength concrete. [es

  10. Predicting the drying shrinkage behavior of high strength portland cement mortar under the combined influence of fine aggregate and steel micro fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The workability, 28-day compressive strength and free drying shrinkage of a very high strength (121-142 MPa steel micro fiber reinforced portland cement mortar were studied under a combined influence of fine aggregate content and fiber content. The test results showed that an increase in the fine aggregate content resulted in decreases in the workability, 28-day compressive strength and drying shrinkage of mortar at a fixed fiber content. An increase in the fiber content resulted in decreases in the workability and drying shrinkage of mortar, but an increase in the 28-day compressive strength of mortar at a fixed fine aggregate content. The modified Gardner model most accurately predicted the drying shrinkage development of the high strength mortars, followed by the Ross model and the ACI 209R-92 model. The Gardner model gave the least accurate prediction for it was developed based on a database of normal strength concrete.

  11. Further investigations of the properties of polymer modified cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.

    1988-05-01

    This report concludes the work done on behalf of the Department of the Environment on polymer modified cement composites. Topics covered include: the influence of cure schedule on flexural properties, observation of the onset and cracking during flexural testing, measurement of water permeability and caesium diffusion rates, and the use of Back Scattered Electron Imaging to identify the polymer phase. The properties of epoxide resin modified cements in the previous report were disappointing. Air entrainment of the mixing stage was a likely cause of the poor performance of these products and procedures to overcome this problem were devised. The range of polymer additives investigated was broadened by the inclusion of modified acrylic latexes and a polymensable acrylate resin additive. Properties for OPC and 9 BFS: 1 OPC cements are compared and the modification of properties achieved by polymer additions to both cement systems is discussed. (author)

  12. THE USE OF NATURAL TRASS FROM SAYUTAN MAGETAN AND LIME FROM NGAMPEL BLORA AS THE MATERIAL OF CEMENT SUBSTITUTION FOR MORTAR MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurzain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Construction works in the Regency of Magetan, as well as in the mountain area far from capital cities and remote from transportation facilities, require large amount of material. In order to cope with the need of sand, people uses natural trass which are plenty to be found in the area. Test and research on its characteristic and strength with its potentials to be used as cement substitution have never been carried out. Lime was taken from Ngampel village, Blora as it is commonly sold in the area. The planned mixture of lime-trass paste was in the effort to obtain the best composition. The weight ratios used were 100%:0%, 80%:20%, 60%:40%, 40%:60%, 20%:80 and 0%:100%. The mortar mixture with cement substitution was 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0%.The compressive strength of the lime-trash mixture was between 0.000 MPa and 2.545 MPa. The mortar compressive strength achieved was 0.373 MPa - 26.585 MPa. The test results of mortar compressive strength showed that the more cement substitution amount used, the less the compressive strength would be. The mortar compressive strength increased in line to the age of the mortar. The mortar tensile strength obtained was 0.000 MPa - 2.169 MPa. The block compressive strength obtained was 3.336 MPa - 3.403 MPa. Water absorbency of the block was 15.831% -16.056%.

  13. Natural radioactivity levels and danger ratio in cements, concretes and mortars used in construction; Determinacion de niveles radiactivos naturales e indices de peligrosidad en cementos, hormigones y morteros utilizados en construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, J.; Pacheco, C.; Avila, J. M.; Miro, C.

    2010-07-01

    We have determined the natural radiation level in three types of adhesive cements, five types of concrete and two types of mortars of different strength normally used in the construction field. Of these materials, both concrete and mortars were prepared in our laboratories, cements the contrary were of a commercial nature.

  14. Evaluation of compatible mortars to repair 19th century natural cement cast stone from the French Rhône-Alpes region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Bouichou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In France, natural cements were extensively produced in the middle of the 19th century. In the French Alps, due to their ochre color, these cements were massively used, notably to produce cast stone, to simulate natural freestone. A preliminary survey revealed an overall good state of preservation of the buildings of this period. Two kinds of decays mechanisms were however identified : erosion affecting the surface of the majority of the buildings, inducing a gradual disappearance of the initial "fake-stone aspect", and a spalling phenomenon often combined with salts crystallization, observed only on a few buildings. Today, due to a lack of appropriate repair materials, the rehabilitation of these buildings mainly consists in the use of gray Portland-cement-based-mortars combined with a painting finishing, which is not satisfactory considering the conservation deontology, as the original appearance is lost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to develop and to test compatible repair materials to restore the culture heritage of this region. Based on the preliminary characterization of a set of representative ancient buildings, combined to a literature review, specifications concerning the composition and the main properties of repair materials, which could assure a compatibility with the ancient concrete of the region were established. Then, three Prompt-cement and one Portland-cement based mortars were selected, two of them being specifically formulated. Firstly, the appearance, the workability and the mechanical and physical properties of those mortars were characterized. Secondly, to evaluate the compatibility of the selected mortars with ancient concrete, Prompt-cement-based slabs were cast using a 19th century concrete formula, and were artificially eroded. After applying the 4 mortars on the slabs, visual observations and pull-out tests will be carried out before and after artificial aging. Finally, the repair mortar presenting the best

  15. Incorporation mode effect of Nano-silica on the rheological and mechanical properties of cementitious pastes and cement mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, B.; Aknouche, H.; Mechakra, H.; Aboutaleb, D.; Bouali, K.

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that the inclusion of nanosilica (NS) modifies the properties of the fresh and hardened state, compared to the traditional mineral additions. NS decreases the setting times of the cement mortar compared to silica fume (SF) and reduce of required water while improving the cohesion of the mixtures in the fresh state. Some authors estimate that the appropriate percentage of Nano-silica should be small (1 to 5% by weight) because of difficulties caused by agglomeration to particles during mixing, while others indicate that 10% by weight, if adjustments are made to the formulation to avoid an excess of self-drying and micro cracks that could impede strength. For this purpose, the present work aim to see the effect of the introduction mode of the nanosilica on the rheological and physic mechanical properties of cement mortars. In this study, NS was used either powdered with cement or in solution with the superplasticizer (Superplasticizer doped in nanosilica). Results show that the use of nanosilica powder (replacing cement on the one hand) has a negative influence on the rheological parameters and the rheological behavior of cementitious pastes. However, the introduction of nanosilica in solution in the superplasticizer (SP) was significantly improved the rheological parameters and the rheological behavior of cementitious pastes. Indeed, more the dosage of NS-doped SP increases more the shear stress and viscosities of the cementitious pastes become more fluid and manageable. A significant reduction of shear stress and plastic viscosity were observed that due to the increase in superplasticizer. A dosage of 1.5% NS-doped SP gave adequate fluidity and the shear rate was lower.

  16. Microstructure and properties of styrene acrylate polymer cement concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Undetermined, U.

    1995-01-01

    The paper systematically describes the evolution of the microstructure of a styrene acrylate polymer cement concrete in relation to its mechanical properties and durability. The results presented and discussed at the present paper involve the interaction of the polymer dispersion with portland

  17. Cementation of the solid radioactive waste with polymer-cement solutions using the method of impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of solid radioactive waste (SRW), i.e. inclusion of solid radioactive waste into cement matrix without cavities - is one of the main technological processes used for conditioning low and intermediate level radioactive waste. At FSUE 'Radon' the industrialized method of impregnation has been developed and since 2003 has been using for cementation of solid radioactive waste. The technology is that the polymer-cement solution, having high penetrating properties, is supplied under pressure through a tube to the bottom of the container in which solid radioactive waste has preliminarily been placed. The polymer-cement solution is evenly moving upwards through the channels between the particles of solid radioactive waste, fills the voids in the bulk volume of the waste and hardens, forming a cement compound, the amount of which is equal to the original volume. The aim of the investigation was a selection of a cement solution suitable for SRW impregnation (including fine particles) without solution depletion and bottom layers stuffing. It has been chosen a polymer: PHMG (polyhexamethylene-guanidine), which is a stabilizing and water-retaining component of the cement solution. The experiments confirm that the polymer increases the permeability of the cement solution by a 2-2.5 factor, the viscosity by a 1.2 factor, the stability of the consistency by a 1.5-1.7 factor, and extends the operating range of the W/C ratio to 0.5-1.1. So it is possible to penetrate a volume of SRW bigger by a 1.5-2.0 factor. It has been proved, that PHMG polymer increases strength and frost-resistance of the final compounds by a 1.8-2.7 factor, and contributes to fast strength development at the beginning of hardening and it decreases Cs-137 leashing rate by a 1.5-2 factor

  18. Durability of Gamma Irradiated Polymer Impregnated Blended Cement Pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, M.M.; Abdel-Rahman, H.A.; Younes, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is focusing on durability and performance of the neat blended cement paste as well as those of the polymer-impregnated paste towards seawater and various concentrations of magnesium sulfate solutions up to 6 months of curing. The neat blended cement paste is prepared by a partial substitution of ordinary Portland cement with 5% of active rice husk ash (RHA). These samples were cured under tap water for 7 days. Similar samples were impregnated with unsaturated polyester resin (UPE) and subjected to various doses of gamma rays ranging from 10 to 50 kGy. The results showed that the irradiated impregnated specimens gave higher values of compressive strength than the neat blended cement paste specimens. On immersing the neat blended cement specimens and polymer impregnated specimens especially that irradiated at 30 kGy in seawater and different concentrations of magnesium sulfate solutions up to 6 months of curing, the results showed that the polymer impregnated blended cement (OPC-RHA-UPE) paste have a good resistance towards aggressive media as compared to the neat blended cement (OPC-RHA) paste. The results also indicated that the sea water has a greater corrosive effect than the magnesium sulfate solutions. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP)

  19. Prepackaged polymer - modified mortar proves effective construction material - field and laboratory observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, M.U.K.; Khan, A.A.; Rizwan, S.A.; Khaskhali, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hi-Bond - prepackaged polymer - modified mortar described in this paper is a revolutionary, multifunctional, high-tech, high performance, sustainable, durability improving group of construction materials with a high cost - benefit ratio. Hi-Bond has been developed by Dadabhoy Construction Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., (DCTL), Karachi, after extensive studies and research both locally and abroad. It can be used in floorings and pavings, integral waterproofing, adhesive applications, protective and decorative coatings, repairs, renovation, rehabilitation, anti corrosive linings, deck coverings, durability and efficiency improvement of canal linings and other hydraulic structures. Hi-Bond has been applied in various projects of national importance with great success for their repairs, renovation and rehabilitation and has also been tested and evaluated at various laboratories with highly encouraging results. Some examples include: (i) earthquake damaged bridge at Lora Nallah on Brewery Road, Quetta, (ii) fire damaged building of the daily Business Recorder House, Karachi, (iii) 200 - year old main dome of the tomb of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhitshah, Hyderabad, (iv) RCC shell roofs of Mehtab Biscuit and Wafers Factory, Sahiwal, (v) repair of newly built concrete floor on structural slab in a factory building at Karachi, (vi) Mohatta Palace, Clifton, Karachi, (vii) swimming pool at Okara Cantt, and (viii) numerous leaking basements, underground and overhead water reservoirs at and around Karachi including those of new vegetable market on super highway. Building Research Station, Government of the Punjab, Lahore also recommended the use of Hi-Bond in the applications mentioned above after testing and evaluation. The product was found easy in application and offered numerous technical and economical advantages, over conventional products, in variety of applications. It is important to note that shortly after the repairs and renovation of the building of the daily

  20. Cement-Polymer Composite Containers for Radioactive Wastes Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.; Bayoumi, T.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Improving cement-composite containers using polymer as organic additives was studied extensively. Both unsaturated styrenated polyester (SPE) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used to fill the pores in cement containers that used for disposal of radioactive wastes. Two different techniques were adopted for the addition of organic polymers based on their viscosity. The low density PMMA was added using impregnation technique. On the other hand high density SPE was mixed with cement paste as a premix process. Predetermined weight of dried borate radioactive powder waste simulate was introduced into the Cement-polymer composite (CPC) container and then closed before subjecting it to leaching characterization. The effect of the organic polymers on the hydration of cement matrix and on the properties of the obtained CPC container has been studied using X-ray diffraction, IR-analysis, thermal effects and weight loss. Porosity, pore parameters and rate of release were also determined. The results obtained showed that for the candidate CPC container positive effect of polymer dominates and an improvement in the retardation rate of PMMA release radionuclides was observed

  1. [Microbial settlement of paint- and building-materials in the sphere of drinking water. 9. Communication: experimental examination of cement mortar for the lining with tiles (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenen, D; Thofern, E

    1981-12-01

    The observation of a microbial growth in form of macrocolonies upon the joints of a tiled drinking water reservoir caused the microbiological testing of different pure mineral and some plastic containing cement mortar. Besides the conditions allowing the growth of macrocolonies on tiled plates with a construction like in a reservoir were examined.

  2. Corrosion rate of steel embedded in blended Portland and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payá, J.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the corrosion levels in steel bars embedded in mortars made with a blend of Portland cement and (0-20% spent fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FC3R, with a variable (0.3-0.7 water/binder (w/b ratio. The specimens were stored in the following conditions: relative humidity of 40, 80 or 100% and CO2 concentrations of 5 and 100%. The steel corrosion rate was measured with polarization resistance techniques. In the absence of aggressive agents, the steel was found to remain duly passivated in mortars with an FC3R content of up to 15% under all the conditions of relative humidity tested. The reinforcement corrosion level in mortars with a w/b ratio of 0.3 and 15% FC3R subjected to accelerated carbonation was similar to the level observed in the unblended Portland cement control mortar.En este trabajo se ha estudiado el nivel de corrosión de barras de acero embebidas en morteros de cemento Portland con relación agua/material cementante (a/mc variable (0,3-0,7, en los que parte del cemento (0-20% se sustituyó por catalizador de craqueo usado (FC3R. Las condiciones de conservación de las probetas elaboradas fueron las siguientes: distintas humedades relativas (40, 80 y 100% y dos concentraciones de CO2 (5 y 100%. La velocidad de corrosión de los aceros se midió mediante la técnica de resistencia de polarización. Se ha podido determinar que, bajo las distintas condiciones de humedad relativa y ausencia de agresivo, los aceros se mantuvieron correctamente pasivados en los morteros con contenidos de FC3R de hasta el 15%. El nivel de corrosión que presenta el refuerzo embebidos en morteros con sustitución de un 15% de cemento por FC3R y relación a/mc 0,3, al ser sometidos a un proceso de carbonatación acelerada, era muy similar al mostrado por el mortero patrón, sin FC3R.

  3. Thermal analysis of cement pastes with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Lukosiute, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Thermal analysis of cement systems is very helpful in the understanding of many different properties of cementitious compounds, both for the original reacting compounds, and also for the resulting hydration products. Superabsorbent polymers can be added to cement systems with many different reasons......, so it is relevant that fundamental knowledge of this new compound on the development of hydration is well understood [1-3]. This paper reports research on thermal analysis of cement pastes with superabsorbent polymers. We have studied several parameters: the concentration of SAP in the system......, the effect of particle size distribution, and their influence on the hydration process with focus on cement-silica systems. This is done at different thermodynamic conditions, so the energy of activation in the different systems can be accessed. This paper provides information relevant to hydration modelling...

  4. Effect of sewage sludge ash (SSA on the mechanical performance and corrosion levels of reinforced Portland cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andión, L. G.ª

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a study conducted to determinecorrosion in reinforcement embedded in Portland cement(PC mortars with different percentages of sewage sludgeash (SSA admixtures. The polarization resistancetechnique was used to determine the steel corrosion rate(Icorr in the test specimens. The samples were subjectedto different environmental conditions and aggressiveagents: 100% relative humidity (RH, accelerated carbonationat 70% RH and seawater immersion. Portlandcement was partially substituted for SSA in the mixes atrates of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60% (by mass to make thedifferent mortars. The results show that where cementwas replaced by SSA at rates of up to 10% by mass,mortar corrosion performance was comparable to thebehaviour observed in SSA-free mortars (control mortar:0% SSA. Data for higher rates are also shown. From themechanical standpoint, SSA exhibited moderate pozzolanicactivity and the best performance when SSA wasadded at a rate of 10% to mixes with a water/(binder:PC + SSA (w/b ratio of 0.5.Se ha estudiado el nivel de corrosion que presentan lasarmaduras embebidas en morteros fabricados con cementoPortland (CP con diferentes porcentajes de sustitucion deceniza de lodo de depuradora (CLD. Se ha utilizado la tecnicade la Resistencia a la Polarizacion para determinar lavelocidad de corrosion del acero embebido en las muestrasestudiadas. Las muestras se han sometido a diferentes condicionesambientales y agentes agresivos: 100% de humedadrelativa (HR, carbonatacion acelerada al 70% HR einmersion en agua de mar. Para la fabricacion de los distintosmorteros, el cemento Portland ha sido parcialmente sustituidopor CLD en los siguientes porcentajes en masa: 0,10, 20, 30 y 60%. Los resultados muestran que sustitucionesde cemento por CLD de hasta el 10% en masa no alteranel comportamiento frente a la corrosion de los morterosal compararlos con los morteros libres de CLD (morteroscontrol: 0% de sustitucion de cemento por CLD. Se

  5. Cementation of nuclear graphite using geo-polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girke, N.A.; Steinmetz, H.J.; Bukaemsky, A.; Bosbach, D.; Hermann, E.; Griebel, I.

    2012-01-01

    Geo-polymers are solid aluminosilicate materials usually formed by alkali hydroxide or alkali silicate activation of solid precursors such as coal fly ash, calcined clay and/or metallurgical slag. Today the primary application of geo-polymer technology is in the development of alternatives to Portland-based cements. Variations in the ratio of aluminium to silicon, and alkali to silicon or addition of structure support, produce geo-polymers with different physical and mechanical properties. These materials have an amorphous three-dimensional structure that gives geo-polymers certain properties, such as fire and acid resistance, low leach rate, which make them an ideal substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in a wide range of applications especially in conditioning and storage of radioactive waste. Therefore investigations have been initiated about how and to which amount graphite as a hydrophobic material can be mixed with cement or concrete to form stable waste products and which concretes fulfill the specifications at best. As result geo-polymers have been identified as a promising matrix for graphite containing nuclear wastes. With geo-polymers both favorable properties in the cementation process and a high long time structural stability of the products can be achieved. (authors)

  6. Manufacturing of mortars and concretes non-traditionals, by Portland cement, metakaoline and gypsum (15.05%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talero, R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In a thorough previous research (1, it appeared that creation, evolution and development of the values of compressive mechanical strength (CS and flexural strength (FS, measured in specimens 1x1x6cm of mortar type ASTM C 452-68 (2, manufactured by ordinary Portland cement P-1 (14.11% C3A or PY-6 (0.00% C3A, metakaolin and gypsum (CaSO4∙2H2O -or ternary cements, CT-, were similar to the ones commonly developed in mortars and concretes of OPC. This paper sets up the experimental results obtained from non-traditional mortars and concretes prepared with such ternary cements -TC-, being the portland cement/metakaolin mass ratio, as follows: 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. Finally, the behaviour of these cements against gypsum attack, has been also determined, using the following parameters: increase in length (ΔL%, compressive, CS, and flexural, FS, strengths, and ultrasound energy, UE. Experimental results obtained from these non-traditional mortars and concretes, show an increase in length (ΔL, in CS and FS, and in UE values, when there is addition of metakaolin.

    En una exhaustiva investigación anterior (1, se pudo comprobar que la creación, evolución y desarrollo de los valores de resistencias mecánicas a compresión, RMC, y flexotracción, RMF, proporcionados por probetas de 1x1x6 cm, de mortero 1:2,75, selenitoso tipo ASTM C 452-68 (2 -que habían sido preparadas con arena de Ottawa, cemento portland, P-1 (14,11% C3A o PY- 6 (0,00% C3A, metacaolín y yeso (CaSO4∙2H2O-, fue semejante a la que, comúnmente, desarrollan los morteros y hormigones tradicionales de cemento portland. En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados experimentales obtenidos de morteros y hormigones no tradicionales, preparados con dichos cementos ternarios, CT, siendo las proporciones porcentuales en masa ensayadas, cemento portland/metacaolín, las siguientes: 80/20, 70

  7. ThE EFFECT OF METAKOLIN, MICROSILICA AND NANOSILICA ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF CEMENT MORTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Sobhani Kavkani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Different mineral admixtures of Indian metakaolin, Iranian silica fume and nanosilica were used to produce high performance mortars. Two different sands types with grain size of 0.015-4mm were mixed with type II Portland cement, polycarboxylate superplasticizer,mineral admixture with 650kg/m3 cement content and water/cement ratio of 0.35. Different amount of cement was replaced by metakaolin or silica fume (5-15wt% or nanosilica (0.8-5wt%. After mixing, moulding and curing, compressive strength, electrical resistivity and abrasion resistance were studied. The maximum compressive strength of 28 days samples were 76MPa, 79MPa and 75MPa for 15wt% substitution of cement with metakaolin, silica fume and 5wt% with nanosilica. The compressive strength of these samples showed 28%, 33% and 26% increment in comparison with reference sample, respectively. X-ray patterns showed that replacing silica fume leads to reduction of Portlandite (Ca(OH2 phase. This can be attributed to the pozzolanic reaction and formation of new hydrated calcium silicate phase (CSH that caused improvement of strength of admixtures containing samples. The microstructure of silica fume containing sample also showed better bond between sand and matrix. The electrical resistivity of samples with 15wt% metakaolin or silica fume and 5wt% nanosilica reach to 21kΩ.cm, 15 kΩ.cm and 10kΩ.cm, respectively. These samples showed high durability and corrosion resistance relative to reference samples (3.4 kΩ.cm. The abrasion resistance of different admixtures, specially silica fume containing samples were improved.

  8. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  9. Effect of a biodegradable natural polymer on the properties of hardened lime-based mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaguirre, A.; Lanas, J.; Alvarez, J. I.

    2011-01-01

    As an environmentally friendly and energy-saving alternative to cement-based materials and to some chemically obtained water-reducers, a commercialized starch was incorporated into aerial lime-based matrix. Different dosages were tested in order to study the influence that the amount of additive exerted on the properties of the material. Density, shrinkage, water absorption through capillarity, water vapour permeability, mechanical strengths, porosity, pore size distribution, and durability in the face of freezing-thawing cycles were studied in the mortars. The tested starch acted as a thickener for dosages up to 0.30%, and changed its behaviour for the largest dosage (0.50%): in that case it behaved as a plasticizer, dispersing the lime through the fresh mass and generating a more workable material. As a result, the matrix of the hardened mortar presented great coherence, owing to its large density and low porosity, characteristics which led to lower capillarity and permeability, better mechanical properties and durability. (Author) 46 refs.

  10. Study of the effect of Kaolin in the mortar of cement matrices by confinement of ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labied S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive waste arising as a result of nuclear activities should be safely managed from its generation to final disposal in an appropriate conditioned form to reduce the risk of radiation exposure of technical personnel and of the public and to limit contamination of the environment. The immobilization of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in cementitious matrices is the most commonly used technique to produce inexpensive waste matrix that complies with regulatory requirements in order to protect humans and the environment against nuisance caused by ionizing radiation. Cement based materials are used in radioactive waste management to produce stable waste forms. This matrix constitutes the first build engineering barrier in disposal facilities. In this work, the kaolin is used to enhance the mechanical performance of the matrix of confinement of ion exchange resins by gradually replacing the sand in mortar with kaolin clay. The Kaolin clay sample was a special pure product, sourced from a foreign country. The maximum quantity of resins that can be incorporated into the mortar formulation without the packages losing their strength is 13.915% which results in a better mechanical strength at 6.7686 MPA compression with kaolin.

  11. Microstructural Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar Modified by Low Cost Nanoplatelets Sourced from Natural Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piao Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have been widely used in cement-based materials. Graphene has excellent properties for improving the durability of cement-based materials. Given its high production budget, it has limited its wide potential for application in the field of engineering. Hence, it is very meaningful to obtain low cost nanoplatelets from natural materials that can replace graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs The purpose of this paper is to improve the resistance to chloride ion penetration by optimizing the pore structure of cement-based materials, and another point is to reduce investment costs. The results illustrated that low cost CaCO3 nanoplatelets (CCNPs were successfully obtained under alkali treatment of seashell powder, and the chloride ion permeability of cement-based materials significantly decreased by 15.7% compared to that of the control samples when CCNPs were incorporated. Furthermore, the compressive strength of cement pastes at the age of 28 days increased by 37.9% than that of the plain sample. Improvement of performance of cement-based materials can be partly attributed to the refinement of the pore structure. In addition, AFM was employed to characterize the nanoplatelet thickness of CCNPs and the pore structures of the cement-based composites were analyzed by MIP, respectively. CCNPs composite cement best performance could lay the foundation for further study of the durability of cement-based materials and the application of decontaminated seashells.

  12. Effect of natural fibers on mechanical properties of green cement mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Zubaidi, Aseel B.

    2018-05-01

    Natural fibers of banana, reed, palm and coconut were used to reinforce cement composite. Optical microscopy showed that the prepared fibers are different in size and morphology. Nearly equiaxed, ribbon-like and nearly cylindrical morphologies were observed. Each of the utilized natural fibers was incorporated in the cement matrix at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt% and cured for 28 days. The scanning electron micrographs for the 1.0 wt% -reinforced composite showed differences in porosity, grain size and shape. Each of the utilized fibers has different effect on the microstructure of the cement composite that depends on the fiber size and morphology. Water absorption, thermal conductivity, bending strength, hardness and compression strengths were measured for the reinforced cement composite. It is found that the final physical and mechanical properties of the set cement composite depend on the fiber content and fiber type through the differences in their sizes and morphologies.

  13. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; de Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  14. 21 CFR 888.3410 - Hip joint metal/polymer or ceramic/polymer semiconstrained resurfacing cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer or ceramic/polymer... Devices § 888.3410 Hip joint metal/polymer or ceramic/polymer semiconstrained resurfacing cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer or ceramic/polymer semi-constrained resurfacing...

  15. Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 on compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity in cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuán, M.A.; Argiz, C.; Gálvez, J.C.; Reyes, E.

    2018-01-01

    The compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity properties of cement mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 are studied. Amorphous silica is the main component of pozzolanic materials due to its reaction with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate (C3S and C2S) hydration. The pozzolanic reaction rate is not only proportional to the amount of amorphous silica but also to the surface area available for reaction. Subsequently, fine nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles in mortars are expected to improve mortar performance. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength of mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles were lower than those obtained with the reference mortar at seven and 28 days. It was shown that the nano-particles were not able to enhance mechanical strength on every occasion. The continuous microstructural progress monitored by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurements, pore-size distribution (PSD), total porosity and critical pore diameter also confirmed such results. [es

  16. Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 on compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity in cement mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sanjuán

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity properties of cement mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 are studied. Amorphous silica is the main component of pozzolanic materials due to its reaction with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate (C3S and C2S hydration. The pozzolanic reaction rate is not only proportional to the amount of amorphous silica but also to the surface area available for reaction. Subsequently, fine nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles in mortars are expected to improve mortar performance. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength of mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles were lower than those obtained with the reference mortar at seven and 28 days. It was shown that the nano-particles were not able to enhance mechanical strength on every occasion. The continuous microstructural progress monitored by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP measurements, pore-size distribution (PSD, total porosity and critical pore diameter also confirmed such results.

  17. Characterization of polymer-modified cement as a solidification agent for the radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Hong, Dae-Seok; Ryu, Woo-Seog

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer-modified cement (PMC) by modification with water-based resins. ► Determination of the optimized polymer content. ► Evaluation of the improved chemical resistance of the PMC. ► Decrease of the amount of ions released into the demineralized water. ► Highly improved property for the nuclide diffusivity at the Co-60. - Abstract: Polymer-modified cement can be produced by partially replacing cement hydrate binders in ordinary Portland cement with polymeric compounds. It is known that the addition of the polymer to the cement paste leads to improved quality, which would be expected to have a high chemical resistance. In order to investigate the application as a solidification agent for the radwaste, polymer-modified cement specimens, by modification with water-based resins, were prepared according to the polymer content from 0% to 30%. The optimized polymer content in the cement pastes was then determined through the compressive strength and the porosity test. Finally, the improved chemical resistance of the polymer-modified cement with the optimized polymer content was evaluated by the thermal cycling, the immersion, and the leaching tests. From the test results, the amount of ions released into the water showed lower values of about 20% at the polymer-modified cement. Especially, a highly improved nuclide diffusivity of Co-60 was observed in the polymer-modified cement.

  18. Influence of microstructure on the diffusive transport in pastes, mortars and concretes made with cement Portland and silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajja, Zineb

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to its high mechanical strength and its potential containment capacity conferred by a compact microstructure, concrete is considered as the most suitable material to compose the engineered barrier of some radioactive waste storage structure. Knowledge of diffusion properties and microstructure of these cementitious materials is then essential to study their long-term durability. In a more specific context of low and intermediate waste management, the use of formulations containing silica fume (SF) appears of great importance. The experimental approach consists in selecting many formulations of pastes and mortars to test by the HTO through-out diffusion test. Their initial compositions (water to binder ratio, SF content, sand content and particle size) were varied in order to browse different microstructures and diffusion properties, and to see the influence of each parameter (water, SF, content and grain size of sand) on the evolution of diffusivity within these materials. The microstructure was investigated to interpret the obtained values of diffusion coefficients. Different complementary techniques have been used to characterize the porous structure (water and mercury intrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption), to verify SF reactivity (TGA, SEM associated to EDS) or to determine the profile porosity at ITZ (SEM combined with image analysis).The relationship between microstructure and diffusion coefficients (DeHTO) was then discussed. The ultimate goal was to find a link between microstructure properties and transport parameters to estimate from a simple characterization, the DeHTO of concrete, difficult to get from HTO diffusion cells test. Other attempts have also been made to try to assess the concrete diffusion coefficient, such as the multi-scale modeling approach (the scale of hydrates 3D model), or the diffusion of other elements ( like oxygen or nitrogen). This study shows that silica fume agglomerates (slurry) observed in cement paste and mortar

  19. The effect of pozzolan additions on the shrinkage of cement pastes and mortars during their first hours of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa, M. Mauricio

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional favour enjoyed by cement including additions and by their diverse uses in Chile calls for an extense investigation of their behaviour in order that the results may justify their utilization in specific projects. This works studies volume changes occurring in cement pastes and mortars containing pozzolan additions during their first hours of age. This investigation used cements made in the laboratory from raw materials supplied by chilean manufacturers. Two types of clinkers were used, namely; a gypsum type and a natural pozzolan type, added in proportions ranging from 0 to 30%.Tests were conducted to ascertain the shrinkage of cement pastes and mortars since the first moments following their mixing operation, employing there for moulds fitted with a special device designed and implemented at the laboratory of the IDIEM Department of Agglomerants. The results thus gathered corroborated the fact that independently of cement characteristics, in general the deformation of pastes and mortars exhibits successive periods of first shrinkage swelling, and second shrinkage. The first shrinkage is affected by the ambient conditions of humidity, temperature, and wind (evaporation, but also in a preponderant way by cement specific surface, which allows higher velocity in the chemical reactions occurring during that period. Moreover the compactation degree is also affecting shrinkage, here. On the other hand, it was confirmed that with cements of like fineness, those having higher C3A contents exhibit an overall shrinkage larger than that of cements having low contents. At last it was possible to ascertain that an increase in pozzolan contents does not affect shrinkage directly, but that its presence may eventually modify the gypsum/clinker ratio and thus give rise to changes, specially in the two States of swelling and second shrinkage.

    La tradicional aceptación en Chile de los cementos con adición y su diversidad

  20. Nondestructive exploratory tests of corrosion of steels embedded in cement-paste and mortar by the use of γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Isao; Yuasa, Makoto; Hotta, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    Nondestructive exploratory test of corrosion of steels embedded in cement paste and mortar was carried out by the method based on γ-ray back-scattering. The possibility of such test was investigated with the theoretical calculation. From these results of the test, the difference (ΔD) of back-scattering dose rate of corroded and uncorroded specimens of bare-steels or cement paste- and mortar-embedded-steels was found and increased with angle (ω) of Compton scattering. A relationship between ΔD and ω was observed. The relation of ΔD with ω by the test corresponded to that by the theoretical calculation. For the steels embedded in cement paste and mortar, the value of ΔD decreased and became irregular depending upon i) the thickness and component of cover and ii) the shape of steel. The subject in future will be the investigation for a method of the exploratory test by γ-ray back-scattering by consideration of above environmental conditions. (author)

  1. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette Rica; Krøyer, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    , in comparison to the pure cement pasta and the paste containing kaolinite, a more open pore structure consisting of fine pores. Silica fume paste contains a significant amount of closed pores. As a secondary result, it is demonstrated that both the degree and duration of sample drying strongly modifies...

  2. Polymer-Cement Composites Containing Waste Perlite Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Łukowski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-cement composites (PCCs are materials in which the polymer and mineral binder create an interpenetrating network and co-operate, significantly improving the performance of the material. On the other hand, the need for the utilization of waste materials is a demand of sustainable construction. Various mineral powders, such as fly ash or blast-furnace slag, are successfully used for the production of cement and concrete. This paper deals with the use of perlite powder, which is a burdensome waste from the process of thermal expansion of the raw perlite, as a component of PCCs. The results of the testing of the mechanical properties of the composite and some microscopic observations are presented, indicating that there is a possibility to rationally and efficiently utilize waste perlite powder as a component of the PCC. This would lead to creating a new type of building material that successfully meets the requirements of sustainable construction.

  3. Polymer-cement geothermal-well-completion materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldin, A.N.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1980-07-01

    A program to develop high-temperature polymer cements was performed. Several formulations based on organic and semi-inorganic binders were evaluated on the basis of mechanical and thermal stability, and thickening time. Two optimized systems exhibited properties exceeding those required for use in geothermal wells. Both systems were selected for continued evaluation at the National Bureau of Standards and contingent upon the results, for field testing in geothermal wells.

  4. 21 CFR 888.3560 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal... Devices § 888.3560 Knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/polymer semi-constrained...

  5. Shrinkage-reducing admixtures and early-age desiccation in cement pastes and mortars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, D. P.; Geiker, Mette Rica; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental studies of the early-age desiccation of cement-based materials with and without a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) have been performed. Studies have been conducted under both sealed and drying conditions. Physical measurements include mass loss, surface tension, X-ray absorption to ...... to low w/c ratio concretes undergoing self-desiccation, in addition to their normal usage to reduce drying shrinkage.......Fundamental studies of the early-age desiccation of cement-based materials with and without a shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) have been performed. Studies have been conducted under both sealed and drying conditions. Physical measurements include mass loss, surface tension, X-ray absorption...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3350 - Hip joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3350 Hip joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint metal/polymer semi...

  7. 21 CFR 888.3530 - Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer semi... § 888.3530 Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended...

  8. 21 CFR 888.3540 - Knee joint patellofemoral polymer/metal semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemoral polymer/metal semi... § 888.3540 Knee joint patellofemoral polymer/metal semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemoral polymer/metal semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a two-part...

  9. 21 CFR 888.3520 - Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer non-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer non... § 888.3520 Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer non-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer non-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3550 - Knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/metal... § 888.3550 Knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint patellofemorotibial polymer/metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 888.3110 - Ankle joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ankle joint metal/polymer semi-constrained... Ankle joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ankle joint metal/polymer semi-constrained cemented prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted to replace an ankle...

  12. 21 CFR 888.3120 - Ankle joint metal/polymer non-constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ankle joint metal/polymer non-constrained cemented... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3120 Ankle joint metal/polymer non-constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. An ankle joint metal/polymer non...

  13. Determination of unfixed ammonium in cement and cement mortar used for lining drinking water pipes. Zur Bestimmung des nicht fixierten Ammoniums in Zement und Zementmoertel fuer die Innenauskleidung von Trinkwasserrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruins, J; Maurer, W [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1989-09-01

    The reinfection of cement-lined drinking water pipes after heavy chlorine treatment may be caused by the ammonium content of the cement mortar used; the ammonia reduces the amount of chlorine available for disinfection. The chlorine depletion should therefore be reduced by using a mortar which is low in, or free from, ammonia. This article investigates the trace analysis required for determining the ammonium content. The samples were prepared by separating the ammonia from the complex matrix by an excess of alkali combined with distillation. The ammonium content was determined by ion chromatography followed by conductivity detection, or by a post-column reaction with Nesslers reagent followed by photometric detection at=425 nm. Both methods show good reproducibility (S{sub rel} approx. 2%) and recovery (approx. 96%). The results agree well with the other methods which were used in an interlaboratory test. (orig.).

  14. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELsourougy, M R; Zaki, A A; Aly, H F [Atomic energy authority, hot laboratory center, Cairo, (Egypt); Khalil, M Y [Nuclear engineering department, Alexandria university. Alexandria, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELsourougy, M.R.; Zaki, A.A.; Aly, H.F.; Khalil, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Effect of a biodegradable natural polymer on the properties of hardened lime-based mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaguirre, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available As an environmentally friendly and energy-saving alternative to cement-based materials and to some chemically obtained water-reducers, a commercialized starch was incorporated into aerial lime-based matrix. Different dosages were tested in order to study the influence that the amount of additive exerted on the properties of the material. Density, shrinkage, water absorption through capillarity, water vapour permeability, mechanical strengths, porosity, pore size distribution, and durability in the face of freezing-thawing cycles were studied in the mortars. The tested starch acted as a thickener for dosages up to 0.30%, and changed its behaviour for the largest dosage (0.50%: in that case it behaved as a plasticizer, dispersing the lime through the fresh mass and generating a more workable material. As a result, the matrix of the hardened mortar presented great coherence, owing to its large density and low porosity, characteristics which led to lower capillarity and permeability, better mechanical properties and durability.

    Como alternativa a los materiales con base cemento y a plastificantes obtenidos por vía química, se estudió el efecto de un almidón comercial incorporado a morteros de cal aérea. Se ensayaron dosificaciones diferentes para analizar su influencia sobre las propiedades del material. En los morteros se determinaron densidad, retracción, absorción de agua por capilaridad, permeabilidad, resistencias mecánicas, porosidad, distribución de tamaños de poro y durabilidad frente a ciclos de hielo-deshielo. El almidón actuó como espesante hasta la dosis de 0,30%, pero cambió al añadirlo en la dosis más alta (0,50%: en este caso, se comportó como un plastificante, dispersando la cal a través de la mezcla en fresco, dando lugar a un material más trabajable. Como resultado, en la dosis 0,50%, la matriz del mortero endurecido presentó gran coherencia, por su mayor densidad y menor porosidad, lo que implicó una

  17. Method of producing grouting mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelomov, I K; Alchina, S I; Dizer, E I; Gruzdeva, G A; Nikitinskii, V I; Sabirzyanov, A K

    1980-10-07

    A method of producing grouting mortar by mixing the cement with an aqueous salt solution is proposed. So as to increase the quality of the mortar through an acceleration of the time for hardening, the mixture is prepared in two stages, in the first of which 20-30% of the entire cement batch hardens, and in the second of which the remainder of the cement hardens; 1-3-% of an aqueous salt solution is used in quantities of 0.5/1 wt.-% of weight of the cement. The use of this method of producing grouting mortar helps to increase the flexural strength of the cement brick up to 50% after two days ageing by comparison with the strength of cement brick produced from grouting mortar by ordinary methods utilizing identical quantities of the initial components (cement, water, chloride).

  18. Qualitative risk assessment during polymer mortar test specimens preparation - methods comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Sousa, S. P. B.; Arezes, P.; Swuste, P.; Ribeiro, M. C. S.; Baptista, J. S.

    2015-05-01

    Polymer binder modification with inorganic nanomaterials (NM) could be a potential and efficient solution to control matrix flammability of polymer concrete (PC) materials without sacrificing other important properties. Occupational exposures can occur all along the life cycle of a NM and “nanoproducts” from research through scale-up, product development, manufacturing, and end of life. The main objective of the present study is to analyse and compare different qualitative risk assessment methods during the production of polymer mortars (PM) with NM. The laboratory scale production process was divided in 3 main phases (pre-production, production and post-production), which allow testing the assessment methods in different situations. The risk assessment involved in the manufacturing process of PM was made by using the qualitative analyses based on: French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety method (ANSES); Control Banding Nanotool (CB Nanotool); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne method (EPFL); Guidance working safely with nanomaterials and nanoproducts (GWSNN); Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Italy method (ISPESL); Precautionary Matrix for Synthetic Nanomaterials (PMSN); and Stoffenmanager Nano. It was verified that the different methods applied also produce different final results. In phases 1 and 3 the risk assessment tends to be classified as medium-high risk, while for phase 2 the more common result is medium level. It is necessary to improve the use of qualitative methods by defining narrow criteria for the methods selection for each assessed situation, bearing in mind that the uncertainties are also a relevant factor when dealing with the risk related to nanotechnologies field.

  19. Qualitative risk assessment during polymer mortar test specimens preparation - methods comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F; Sousa, S P B; Ribeiro, M C S; Arezes, P; Swuste, P; Baptista, J S

    2015-01-01

    Polymer binder modification with inorganic nanomaterials (NM) could be a potential and efficient solution to control matrix flammability of polymer concrete (PC) materials without sacrificing other important properties. Occupational exposures can occur all along the life cycle of a NM and “nanoproducts” from research through scale-up, product development, manufacturing, and end of life. The main objective of the present study is to analyse and compare different qualitative risk assessment methods during the production of polymer mortars (PM) with NM. The laboratory scale production process was divided in 3 main phases (pre-production, production and post-production), which allow testing the assessment methods in different situations. The risk assessment involved in the manufacturing process of PM was made by using the qualitative analyses based on: French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety method (ANSES); Control Banding Nanotool (CB Nanotool); Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne method (EPFL); Guidance working safely with nanomaterials and nanoproducts (GWSNN); Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro, Italy method (ISPESL); Precautionary Matrix for Synthetic Nanomaterials (PMSN); and Stoffenmanager Nano. It was verified that the different methods applied also produce different final results. In phases 1 and 3 the risk assessment tends to be classified as medium-high risk, while for phase 2 the more common result is medium level. It is necessary to improve the use of qualitative methods by defining narrow criteria for the methods selection for each assessed situation, bearing in mind that the uncertainties are also a relevant factor when dealing with the risk related to nanotechnologies field. (paper)

  20. The Assessment of Cement Mortars after Thermal Degradation by Acoustic Non-destructive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolář, L.; Štefková, D.; Hoduláková, M.

    2017-10-01

    Thanks, the terrorist attacks on the worldwide interest in the design of structures for fire greatly increased. One of the advantages of concrete over other building materials is its inherent fire-resistive properties. The concrete structural components still must be able to withstand dead and live loads without collapse even though the rise in temperature causes a decrease in the strength and modulus of elasticity for concrete and steel reinforcement. In addition, fully developed fires cause expansion of structural components and the resulting stresses and strains must be resisted. This paper reports the results of measurements by Impact-echo method and measurement by ultrasound. Both methods are based on the acoustic properties of the material which are dependent on its condition. These acoustic methods allow identifying defects and are thus suitable for monitoring the building structure condition. The results are obtained in the laboratory during the degradation of composite materials based on cement by high-temperature.

  1. Evaluation of structural behaviour and corrosion resistant of austenitic AISI 304 and duplex AISI 2304 stainless steel reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.; Cobo, A.; Bastidas, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical and structural behaviour of two stainless steels reinforcements, with grades austenitic EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and duplex EN 1.4362 (AISI 2304) have been studied, and compared with the conventional carbon steel B500SD rebar. The study was conducted at three levels: at rebar level, at section level and at structural element level. The different mechanical properties of stainless steel directly influence the behaviour at section level and structural element level. The study of the corrosion behaviour of the two stainless steels has been performed by electrochemical measurements, monitoring the corrosion potential and the lineal polarization resistance (LPR), of reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortar specimens contaminated with different amount of chloride over one year time exposure. Both stainless steels specimens embedded in OPC mortar remain in the passive state for all the chloride concentration range studied after one year exposure. (Author) 26 refs.

  2. Damage evolution analysis in mortar, during compressive loading using acoustic emission and X-ray tomography: Effects of the sand/cement ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaqra, H.; Godin, N.; Peix, G.; R'Mili, M.; Fantozzi, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the use of acoustic emission (AE) and X-ray tomography to identify the mechanisms of damage and the fracture process during compressive loading on concrete specimens. Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomography image analysis was used to observe defects of virgin mortar specimen under different compressive loads. Cumulative AE events were used to evaluate damage process in real time according to the sand/cement ratio. This work shows that AE and X-ray tomography are complementary nondestructive methods to measure, characterise and locate damage sites in mortar. The effect of the sand proportion on damage and fracture behaviour is studied, in relation with the microstructure of the material

  3. An innovative approach to achieve re-centering and ductility of cement mortar beams through randomly distributed pseudo-elastic shape memory alloy fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajil, N.; Srinivasan, S. M.; Santhanam, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fibers can play a major role in post cracking behavior of concrete members, because of their ability to bridge cracks and distribute the stress across the crack. Addition of steel fibers in mortar and concrete can improve toughness of the structural member and impart significant energy dissipation through slow pull out. However, steel fibers undergo plastic deformation at low strain levels, and cannot regain their shape upon unloading. This is a major disadvantage in strong cyclic loading conditions, such as those caused by earthquakes, where self-centering ability of the fibers is a desired characteristic in addition to ductility of the reinforced cement concrete. Fibers made from an alternative material such as shape memory alloy (SMA) could offer a scope for re-centering, thus improving performance especially after a severe loading has occurred. In this study, the load-deformation characteristics of SMA fiber reinforced cement mortar beams under cyclic loading conditions were investigated to assess the re-centering performance. This study involved experiments on prismatic members, and related analysis for the assessment and prediction of re-centering. The performances of NiTi fiber reinforced mortars are compared with mortars with same volume fraction of steel fibers. Since re-entrant corners and beam columns joints are prone to failure during a strong ground motion, a study was conducted to determine the behavior of these reinforced with NiTi fiber. Comparison is made with the results of steel fiber reinforced cases. NiTi fibers showed significantly improved re-centering and energy dissipation characteristics compared to the steel fibers.

  4. Dosification of a cement-talc-chamotte refractory mortar subjected to thermal shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittl, P.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A cement-talc-chamotte refractory mixture was dosified by subjecting the same to thermal shock. To this end, specimens compacted to 350 Kg/cm2 through compression as well as specimens compacted manually were prepared. All the specimens were submitted to an initial working temperature of 1000ºC and then left to cool down to room temperature. The thermal shock was originated by heating the specimens in an oven till reaching a certain temperature T¡ and then quenching the same through immersion in water at 20ºC; temperature T¡ was varied between 170ºC and 970ºC by means of 100ºC increments. The optimum dosification amounting to 90 % cement-talc and 10 % chamotte was obtained by studying mean stress at compression fracture of five cement-talc-chamote mixtures as a function of thermal shock. In addition, thermal fatigue exhibited by the optimum dosification was studied through the determination of mean loss in compressive strength, which amounted to 52% after 7 cycles with ΔT = 500ºC.

    Se dosificó una mezcla refractaria cemento-talco-chamota sometiéndola a un choque térmico. Con este objeto se fabricaron probetas compactadas a 350 kg/cm2 mediante compresión y probetas compactadas manualmente. Se aplicó a todas ellas una temperatura inicial de trabajo a 1.000 ºC, luego se las dejó enfriar hasta que alcanzaran la temperatura de sala del laboratorio. El choque térmico se originó calentando las probetas en un horno hasta una temperatura T¡ y luego se las enfrió súbitamente sumergiéndolas en agua a 20 ºC; la temperatura T¡ varió entre 170 ºC y 970 ºC con incrementos de 100 ºC. La dosificación óptima, 90% cemento-talco y 10% chamota, se obtuvo estudiando la tensión media de fractura a la compresión de cinco mezclas de cemento-talco-chamota en función del choque térmico. Se estudió además la fatiga térmica de la dosificación óptima determinando la

  5. Collaboration of polymer composite reinforcement and cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozin, V. G.; Gizdatullin, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The results of experimental study of bond strength of cement concrete of different types with fiber reinforcing polymer (FRP) bars are reported. The reinforcing bars were manufactured of glass fibers and had a rebar with different types of the surface relief formed by winding a thin strip impregnated with a binder or by “sanding”. The pullout tests were carried out simultaneously for the steel reinforcing ribbed bars A400. The impact of friction, adhesion and mechanical bond on the strength of bonds between FRP and concrete was studied. The influence of the concrete strength and different operation factors on the bond strength of concrete was evaluated.

  6. Sulfur polymer cement for macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    In FY 1997, the US DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) sponsored a demonstration of the macroencapsulation of mixed waste debris using sulfur polymer cement (SPC). Two mixed wastes were tested--a D006 waste comprised of sheets of cadmium and a D008/D009 waste comprised of lead pipes and joints contaminated with mercury. The demonstration was successful in rendering these wastes compliant with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thereby eliminating one Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) waste stream from the national inventory

  7. Effects of radiation induced polymerisation on the mechanical properties of polymer impregnated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgishi, S.; Ono, H.; Kasahara, Y.

    1980-01-01

    In this programme, effects of electron irradiation energy on mechanical properties of polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) were examined with regard to the density of the base cement mortar, the total exposure dose, the radiation source and other factors. (author)

  8. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity; Substituicao parcial do cimento Portland por residuo de ceramica vermelha em argamassas: estudo da atividade pozolonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l., E-mail: kleber.cabral@ufersa.edu.br [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  9. Influence of citric acid as setting retarder in CPV portland cement pastes and mortars; Influencia do acido citrico como retardador de pega em pastas e argamassas de cimento portland CPV ARI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, B.C.; Lopes, M.M.S.; Alvarenga, R.C.S.S.; Fassoni, D.P.; Pedroti, L.G. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil); Azevedo, A.R.G. de, E-mail: afonso.garcez91@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work aims to study the availability of using and the influence of citric acid in the properties of pastes and mortars made with Portland cement CPV ARI both in fresh and hardened form. The citric acid dosages were 0, 0.4%, and 0.8% relative to the cement mass. The produced cement pastes were tested to determine normal consistency water and initial and final setting times. Mortars were tested to determine the consistency index, specific gravity, air entrained content in the fresh stage, hardened bulk density, compressive strength at ages 7, 14, and 28 days, and analysis by XRD technique. The results show that citric acid, besides improve the mortar workability, contribute to an increase in mechanical strength in older than 14 days. (author)

  10. Acoustic emissions and electric signal recordings, when cement mortar beams are subjected to three-point bending under various loading protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kyriazopoulos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental techniques are used study the response of cement mortar beams subjected to three-point bending under various load¬ing protocols. The techniques used are the detection of weak electric current emissions known as Pressure Stimulated Currents and the Acoustic Emissions (in particular, the cumulative AE energy and the b-value analysis. Patterns are detected that can be used to predict upcoming fracture, regard¬less of the adopted loading protocol in each experiment. The expe¬rimental results of the AE and PSC techniques lead to the conclusion that when the calculated Ib values decrease, the PSC starts increasing strongly.

  11. Efeito do tempo de cura na rigidez de argamassas produzidas com cimento Portland Effect of the curing time on the stiffness of mortars produced with Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. R. Garcia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O concreto de cimento Portland é um dos materiais mais usados no mundo inteiro, entretanto, devido a sua estrutura ser muito complexa, torna-se imprescindível estudar suas propriedades com bastante profundidade. O concreto é produzido a partir de uma argamassa, de areia e cimento, com adição de agregados graúdos, sendo que suas propriedades estão basicamente suportadas nessa argamassa de constituição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a variação da rigidez de duas argamassas de composições com razão cimento:areia de 1:2 e 1:3 em função do tempo de cura, tendo como parâmetro a variação do módulo de Young. Os resultados mostraram que o módulo de Young cresce até atingir o valor máximo no oitavo dia, sendo que nos três primeiros dias esse crescimento é mais acentuado. A análise dos resultados indica que grande parte do processo de hidratação do cimento, com formação das ligações químicas responsáveis pela rigidez da argamassa, acontece nos primeiros dias de cura.Concrete produced with Portland cement is one of building materials most widely used worldwide. However, due to its highly complex structure, its properties require in-depth studies. Concrete is a mortar consisting of a mixture of cement, sand and coarse aggregates, and its properties are represented basically by the mortar base. The aim of this work was to study the change in stiffness of two mortar compositions cured at 25 ºC with a cement-to-sand ratio of 1:2 and 1:3, as a function of curing time using the variation of Young modulus as the measuring parameter. The results showed that Young modulus increases up to a maximum value on the 8th day, and that this increase is more pronounced during the first three days. An analysis of the results indicates that a large part of the cement hydration process, involving the formation of chemical bonds that are responsible for the mortar stiffness, takes place in the early days of curing.

  12. The immobilization of anion exchange resins in polymer modified cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; Morgan, P.D.

    1991-09-01

    Organic anion exchange resins, loaded with 99-Tc as the pertechnate ion, were incorporated into polymer modified cements (Flexocrete Ltd, Preston). BFS/OPC (9:1 mix) also was modified by three polymers from the same source (styrene acrylic (2) styrene butadiene) and loaded with anion exchanger containing the pertechnate. Composites were tested for initial compressive strengths, under water and radiation stability and leach rate. IAEA standard leach testing was with simulated sea and ground waters. Ground water leaching also was carried out on composites subjected to 1.10 9 rads (γ). Leach testing correlated well with compressive strength. Modified composites performed better than the BFS/OPC mix under all conditions studied and were able to encapsulate higher resin loadings. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 888.3310 - Hip joint metal/polymer constrained cemented or uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint metal/polymer constrained cemented or... Hip joint metal/polymer constrained cemented or uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint... replace a hip joint. The device prevents dislocation in more than one anatomic plane and has components...

  14. Hydration rate and strength development of low-heat type portland cement mortar mixed with pozzolanic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Jun

    1998-01-01

    Recently, low-heat type Portland cement was specified in Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). Its hydration proceeds slowly. The results of the research so far obtained indicate that slow hydration of cement and mixing of pozzolanic materials with cement make micro-structure of harded cement paste dense and durable. In this study, a blended cement using low-heat type Portland cement and some of pozzolanic materials has been newly developed and its strength property and hydration ratio were checked. The followings are conclusion. (1) Hydration rate of cement paste varies with the replacement ratio of pozzolanic materials. (2) A good liner relationship between strength and total hydration rate of cement paste was observed. (3) A proper replacement ratio of both base-cement and pozzolanic material for manufacturing a blended cement is 50%. (author)

  15. Behaviour of corroded steel in a Ca(OH2-saturated solution and in cement mortar. Possibility of rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, L. S.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the response of rust-free and corroded steel electrodes in Ca(OH2-saturated solutions and in cement mortar, essentially defined in terms of polarization resistance as measured with gravimetric, metallographic and electrochemical methods. Answers were sought for the following questions, which persist despite the use of reinforced concrete (RC in building for over a century: At what corrosion rate is RC durability seriously compromised? Does restoration of the initial conditions in properly manufactured concrete guarantee repassivation of corroded steel? Does the use of inhibitors enhance repassivation? Does the nature of the corrosion products have any significant effect on the response of corroded steel reinforcement? The results obtained in indicated that the effectiveness of preventive methods is much more closely related to the degree of existing corrosion than to the nature of the corrosion products.En el presente trabajo se analizan las respuestas de electrodos de acero, limpios y precorroídos, en soluciones saturadas de Ca(OH2 y en mortero de cemento, recurriendo para ello a técnicas gravimétricas, metalográficas y electroquímicas, esencialmente a medidas de resistencia de polarización. Se intenta encontrar respuesta a las siguientes dudas persistentes después de más de un siglo de utilización de las estructuras de hormigón armado (EHA: ¿qué velocidades de corrosión comprometen seriamente la durabilidad de las EHA? ¿La restauración de las condiciones iniciales de un hormigón correctamente fabricado garantiza la recuperación del estado pasivo en los refuerzos ya corroídos? ¿La utilización de inhibidores facilita la repasivación de los refuerzos? ¿Cambia la naturaleza de los productos de corrosión sustancialmente la respuesta de las armaduras ya corroídas? Los resultados obtenidos indican que la eficacia de las medidas preventivas resulta mucho más condicionada por el grado de

  16. Using Mortar Mixing Pump for Magnesia Mortars Preparing and Transporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyanets, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of preparation and transportation of magnesia mortars with the help of screw mortar mixing pumps. The urgency of the wide use of mortars on magnesia binders (Sorel’s cement) in construction is substantiated due to their high characteristics: strength, hardening speed, wear resistance, possibility of using organic and mineral aggregates, ecological purity and economic efficiency. The necessity for the development of a technique for calculating the main parameters of a mortar mixing pump for its application in the technology of preparation and transportation of magnesia mortars is demonstrated. The analysis of various types of modern mortar mixing pumps is given. The conclusions are drawn about the advantages and disadvantages of standard schemes. The description of the experiment for determination of the productivity of a mortar mixing pump is described depending on the plasticity (mobility) of the used magnesia mortar. The graph and description of the mathematical dependency of the productivity of the mortar mixing pump on the magnesia mortar plasticity are given. On the basis of the obtained dependency, as well as the already known formulas given in the article, a new method is proposed for calculating the main parameters of the screw mortar mixing pump in preparation and transportation of magnesia mortar: productivity, feed range, supply pressure, drive power.

  17. A comparative evaluation of compressive strength of Portland cement with zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-reinforced cement: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakasam, S; Bharadwaj, Prakasam; Loganathan, S C; Prasanth, B Krishna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ultimate compressive strength of 50% and 25% Portland cement mixed with Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide eugenol cement after 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days. One hundred and eighty samples were selected. The samples were made cylindrical of size 6 × 8 mm and were divided into six groups as follows with each group consisting of 10 samples. Group 1: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with 50% Portland cement (PMZNPC 50%) Group 2: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with 25% Portland cement (PMZNPC 25%) Group 3: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with 0% Portland cement (PMZNPC 0%) Group 4: Zinc oxide eugenol with 50% Portland cement (ZNPC 50%) Group 5: Zinc oxide eugenol with 25% Portland cement (ZNPC 25%) Group 6: Zinc oxide eugenol with 0% Portland cement (ZNPC 0%) These samples were further subdivided based on time interval and were tested at 1 hour, 24 hours and at 7 th day. After each period of time all the specimens were tested by vertical CVR loaded frame with capacity of 5 tones/0473-10kan National Physical laboratory, New Delhi and the results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe test. Polymer-reinforced cement with 50% Portland cement, Zinc oxide with 50% Portland cement, Polymer-reinforced cement with 25% Portland cement and Zinc oxide with 25% Portland cement exhibited higher compressive strength when compared to Zinc oxide with 0% Portland cement and Polymer-reinforced cement with 0% Portland cement, at different periods of time. The difference between these two groups were statistically significant (P Portland cement in Zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-modified zinc oxide cement can be used as core build up material and permanent filling material. It is concluded that 50% and 25% Portland cement in zinc oxide eugenol and polymer-modified zinc oxide eugenol results in higher compressive strength and hence can be used as permanent filling material and core built

  18. Numerical modelling of porous cement-based materials by superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viejo, Ismael; Esteves, Luis Pedro; Laspalas, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The development of new cementitious materials raises new challenges with regard to structural design. One of the potential applications of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) is to deliver well-defined porosity to cement systems. This is particularly interesting for the development of porous cement...

  19. Polymer-Cement Composites with Self-Healing Ability for Geothermal and Fossil Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, M. Ian; Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Rod, Kenton A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Um, Wooyong; Chun, Jaehun; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Linn, Diana; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Huerta, Nicolas John; Kutchko, Barbara G.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-05-18

    Sealing of wellbores in geothermal and tight oil/gas reservoirs by filling the annulus with cement is a well-established practice. Failure of the cement as a result of physical and/or chemical stress is a common problem with serious environmental and financial consequences. Numerous alternative cement blends have been proposed for the oil and gas industry. Most of these possess poor mechanical properties, or are not designed to work in high temperature environments. This work reports on a novel polymer-cement composite with remarkable self-healing ability that maintains the required properties of typical wellbore cements and may be stable at most geothermal temperatures. We combine for the first time experimental analysis of physical and chemical properties with density functional theory simulations to evaluate cement performance. The thermal stability and mechanical strength are attributed to the formation of a number of chemical interactions between the polymer and cement matrix including covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. Self-healing was demonstrated by sealing fractures with 0.3–0.5 mm apertures, 2 orders of magnitude larger than typical wellbore fractures. This polymer-cement composite represents a major advance in wellbore cementing that could improve the environmental safety and economics of enhanced geothermal energy and tight oil/gas production.

  20. Laboratory investigation of the influence of two types of modified hydrotalcites on chloride ingress into cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Polder, R.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the unique molecular structure and high ion exchange capacity, hydrotalcites are believed to have a potential to be modified and tailor-made as an active component of mortar and/or concrete. In this paper, two types of modified hydrotalcites (MHT-pAB and MHT-NO2) were incorporated into

  1. Friedel's salt profiles from thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic modelling of Portland cement-based mortars exposed to sodium chloride solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...

  2. Incorporation of tritium contaminated oil in cement using an absorbent polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Marcos Maciel de; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Isiki, Vera Lucia Keiko

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a study carried out to determine whether a absorbent polymer can be used to pretreat tritiated vacuum pump oils, before solidification in cement matrix. The experiments were conducted with samples prepared with simulated waste, absorbent polymer, portland cement and silica fume, in some cases, and evaluating the performance according to compressive strength, workability and bleeding. Despite the low quantity of oil incorporated, this study showed that it can be a feasible method, since it provided a stable product. (author)

  3. Preliminary investigation of the effect of air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration on the properties of cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Galluci, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    For preliminary assessment of the engineering properties of concrete with air-pollution-control residue from waste incineration (APC) the possible reactivity of APC and the effect of APC on cement hydration were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, chemical shrinkage (pychnometry), thermal...... analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, compressive strength development was measured and impregnated plane sections were prepared. The APC was from a Danish wet process plant. Although the APC contained high amounts of chloride (approx. 10%) and heavy......% and 20% APC showed a major retarding effect of APC on the development of hydration. The APC was found to be pozzolanic. Chemical shrinkage measurements indicated early expansive reactions of pastes with the APC including evolution of air. Crack formation was observed in mortars with APC, and strength...

  4. 21 CFR 888.3390 - Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer... § 888.3390 Hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A hip joint femoral (hemi-hip) metal/polymer cemented or uncemented prosthesis is a two-part...

  5. Sulfur polymer cement stabilization of elemental mercury mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, D.; Fuhrmann, M.; Kalb, P.; Patel, B.

    1998-04-01

    Elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, is a problem throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report describes the development and testing of a process to immobilize elemental mercury, contaminated with radionuclides, in a form that is non-dispersible, will meet EPA leaching criteria, and has low mercury vapor pressure. In this stabilization and solidification process (patent pending) elemental mercury is mixed with an excess of powdered sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and additives in a vessel and heated to ∼35 C, for several hours, until all of the mercury is converted into mercuric sulfide (HgS). Additional SPC is then added and the mixture raised to 135 C, resulting in a homogeneous molten liquid which is poured into a suitable mold where is cools and solidifies. The final stabilized and solidified waste forms were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, as well as tested for leaching behavior and mercury vapor pressure. During this study the authors have processed the entire inventory of mixed mercury waste stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

  6. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Hydraulic cements have been the primary radioactive waste stabilization agents in the United States for 50 years. Twelve years ago, Brookhaven National Laboratory was funded by the Department of Energy's Defense Low-Level Waste Management Program to test and develop sulfur polymer cement (SPC). It has stabilized routine wastes as well as some troublesome wastes with high waste-to-agent ratios. The Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program joined the effort by providing funding for testing and developing sulfur polymer cement as a hazardous-waste stabilization agent. Sulfur polymer cement has passed all the laboratory scale tests required by the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two decades of tests by the US Bureau of Mines and private concrete contractors indicate this agent is likely to exceed other agents in longevity. This bulletin provides technical data from pertinent tests conducted by these various entities

  7. Characterization and recovery proposal of polymer mortar coating plates of the parish of San Pablo in Seville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Flores-Alés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the facade elements of the parish of San Pablo in Seville (1961. They are made with polymer mortar. A characterization of the coating plates was carried out and possible solutions for recovering the altered material were analyzed in order to facilitate a future intervention. The resins used as a binder were identified as aliphatic polyester. The resin study was carried out to assure the compatibility of restoration products. Materials characterization provides information about the structural capacity of the plates and the properties achieved. The plates’ colorimetric control is an inexcusable necessity, since any action on the surface of the pieces leads to a color change. All the analyses and testing carried out have led to the creation of an appropriate treatment system for recovery of the plates that provides sufficient information to the intervention project managers to justify decision-making.

  8. 21 CFR 888.3510 - Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer constrained... Knee joint femorotibial metal/polymer constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint... of a knee joint. The device limits translation or rotation in one or more planes and has components...

  9. Coupling between mechanical behaviour and drying of cementing materials: experimental study on mortars; Couplage comportement mecanique et dessiccation des materiaux a matrice cimentaire: etude experimentale sur mortiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurtdas, I

    2003-10-15

    The aim of this work is to understand the desiccation effects on the mechanical behaviour of cement materials. Two mortars of ratio E/C=0.5 and 0.8 have been tested. All the tests have been implemented after a six months maturing in water. The experimental study has been carried out as follows: 1)tests characterizing the differed behaviour and the transport properties have been carried out 2)tests characterizing the short term multiaxial mechanical behaviour have been carried out. The desiccation shrinkage in terms of the weight loss presents three characteristic phases. The permeability measurement on the mortar 05 shows that the permeability of the specimens dried and crept is greater than those of the specimens dried before being crept, and the permeability of the specimens submitted to a desiccation creep and then dried is sensibly the same as the last one in spite of a very important differed deformation. The influence of the desiccation on the uniaxial and deviatoric compressions resistance depends of the binding agent: for a cement paste of good quality (E/C=0.5), the resistances increase with the desiccation because of the capillary depression and of the hydric gradients. For a cement paste of low quality (E/C=0.8), there is a competitive effect between the increase of the microcracks induced and the specimen rigidification; the microcracking becomes then the parameter controlling the rupture process. The elasto-plastic behaviour becomes a damageable elasto-plastic behaviour during desiccation which induces, as the decrease of the E/C ratio, a translation of the elastic limit surfaces and ruptures towards higher stresses. In parallel, the elastic properties and the incompressibility modulus are damaged and the volume deformations increase after the drying. At last, the decrease of the Young modulus and the passage to the third shrinkage phase in terms of the weight loss coincide. This can be attributed to the induced microcracking: this decrease of the

  10. The effect of bond characteristics between steel slag fine aggregate and cement paste on mechanical properties of concrete and mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuji, W.

    1988-01-01

    The ordinary fine aggregate in concrete has been replaced by ground and sieved steel slag fine aggregate, treated and exposed to air for three months. Compared with concrete made from natural sand, properties such as compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modules, permeability and abrasion resistance are considerably improved. The improvement increases with a decrease in w/c ratio, an increase in curing time and an increase in the replacement weight of sand. These results are due to the fact that the steel slag contains some active minerals such as C/sub 3/S, C/sub 2/S, C/sub 4/AF, etc., and shows favorable surface physical characteristics that improve the bond between steel slag particles and cement paste. The results of XRD, SEM and EPM microhardness showed that there are heavier concentration of ions, with finer crystals and a lower degree of CH orientation at the interfacial zone between steel slag particles and cement paste. The study also found small cementitious and fibrous C-S-H crystals growing from the fine aggregate, which are linked with hydrated products form cement paste making the bond and structural characteristic more favorable with cement. The steel slag fine aggregate is an active mineral similar to cement. The bond between the aggregate and cement paste is strengthened both physically and chemically

  11. Plaster mortars with polymer fibers and additives investigated by 1H NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustea, Andrei; Manea, Daniela L.; Jumate, Elena; Orbán, Yvette A.; Fechete, Radu

    2017-12-01

    Plaster mortars with polypropylene (pp) fibers and/or additives were investigated by 1H NMR relaxometry. Two recipes are proposed and are based on a commercially available mortar or are self-prepared and have different content of polypropylene fibers, which play the role of reinforcement agent, and/or Sika additive which is a waterproofing agent. The distributions of transverse relaxation times, T2 were obtained at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. For the majority of T2-distributions four peaks are observed and, are associated with the hydration water (to the mineralogical components) and water in small, medium and large pores. The evolution in time, from 1 to 28 days, of the T2-distributions indicates the effects of pp fibers and Sika additive in the formation of pore microstructure. The degree of homogeneity of prepared receipts was evaluated from the relative peak-width and compared with mechanical measurements. Finally, we shown that the inverse of the transverse relaxation time values, T2-1, characteristic to the hydration water depends linearly on the resistance at compression measured for the 1÷28 days period, proving the important role of hydrations to the mechanical properties of the final product.

  12. Crack-closing of cement mortar beams using NiTi cold-drawn SMA short fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Kim, Dong Joo; Chung, Young-Soo; Kim, Hee Sun; Jung, Chungsung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crack-closing tests of mortar beams reinforced by shape memory alloy (SMA) short fibers were performed. For this purpose, NiTi SMA fibers with a diameter of 0.965 mm and a length of 30 mm were made from SMA wires of 1.0 mm diameter by cold drawing. Four types of SMA fibers were prepared, namely, straight and dog-bone-shaped fiber and the two types of fibers with paper wrapping in the middle of the fibers. The paper provides an unbonded length of 15 mm. For bending tests, six types of mortar beams with the dimensions of 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm (B×H×L) were prepared. The SMA fibers were placed at the bottom center of the beams along with an artificial crack of 10 mm depth and 1 mm thickness. This study investigated the influence of SMA fibers on the flexural strength of the beams from the measured force- deflection curves. After cracking, the beams were heated at the bottom by fire to activate the SMA fibers. Then, the beams recovered the deflection, and the cracks were closed. This study evaluated crack-closing capacity using the degree of crack recovery and deflection-recovery factor. The first factor is estimated from the crack-width before and after crack-closing, and the second one is obtained from the downward deflection due to loading and the upward deflection due to the closing force of the SMA fibers.

  13. Farklı Puzolanik Katkıların Çimento Harçlarının Mekanik Özelikleri Üzerine Etkisi = The Effect of Different Puzzolanic Additives on Mechanical Properties of Cement Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aygül YEPREM

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cement mortar samples containing fly ash obtained from Soma Power Plant, two different types of natural pozzolan supplied from Yenişehir and Bilecik and silica fume from Antalya Ferrocrom Industry partial replacement of cement clinker. The strength of the mortars prepared by these mixtures were investigated. The mixtures were prepared by using 10% fly ash and 5% silica fume and the trass contents varied as 30%, 35%, and 40%. Chemical analyses of these mixtures were carried out and Blaine specific surface area values were measured. In performed tests, the highest strength values were noticed in mortars containing natural puzzolan from Bilecik which has high fineness.

  14. Full factorial design analysis of carbon nanotube polymer-cement composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Paiva Cota

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The work described in this paper is related to the effect of adding carbon nanotubes (CNT on the mechanical properties of polymer-cement composites. A full factorial design has been performed on 160 samples to identify the contribution provided by the following factors: polymeric phase addition, CNT weight addition and water/cement ratio. The response parameters of the full factorial design were the bulk density, apparent porosity, compressive strength and elastic modulus of the polymer-cement-based nanocomposites. All the factors considered in this analysis affected significantly the bulk density and apparent porosity of the composites. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were affected primarily by the cross-interactions between polymeric phase and CNT additions, and the water/cement ratio with polymeric phase factors.

  15. Evaluation of red mud as pozzolanic material in replacement of cement for production of mortars; Avaliacao da lama vermelha como material pozolanico em substituicao ao cimento para producao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfroi, E.P.; Cheriaf, M.; Rocha, J.C., E-mail: elizmanfroi@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: malik@valores.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    2010-07-01

    Red mud is a by-product of the alkaline extraction of aluminum from the bauxite and represents a renewed environmental problem due the significant annual throughput by the plants. In the present work, the pozzolanic properties of Brazilian red mud fired at 600, 700, 800 and 900 deg C were investigated by monitoring lime consumption using DTA analysis and Brazilian standard methodology NBR 5772 (1992). Products and kinetics of hydration were determined in cement pastes produced with 5 and 15% red mud using x-ray diffraction and DTA analysis. Compressive strength and capillary absorption tests were realized on mortars constituted by 5, 10 and 15% red mud in replacement of cement. When calcined at 600 deg C, the red mud develops good pozzolanic properties, and the compressive strength of mortars produced with this waste meet values in accordance with regulatory standard. These results shown than red mud can be used, in partial replacement of cement, as new construction material to produce sustainable mortars with low environmental impact. (author)

  16. Solid state NMR and LVSEM studies on the hardening of latex modified tile mortar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottstegge, J.; Arnold, M.; Herschke, L.; Glasser, G.; Wilhelm, M.; Spiess, H.W.; Hergeth, W.D.

    2005-01-01

    Construction mortars contain a broad variety of both inorganic and organic additives beside the cement powder. Here we present a study of tile mortar systems based on portland cement, quartz, methyl cellulose and different latex additives. As known, the methyl cellulose stabilizes the freshly prepared cement paste, the latex additive enhances final hydrophobicity, flexibility and adhesion. Measurements were performed by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) to probe the influence of the latex additives on the hydration, hardening and the final tile mortar properties. While solid state NMR enables monitoring of the bulk composition, scanning electron microscopy affords visualization of particles and textures with respect to their shape and the distribution of the different phases. Within the alkaline cement paste, the poly(vinyl acetate) (VAc)-based latex dispersions stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were found to be relatively stable against hydrolysis. The influence of the combined organic additives methyl cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol) and latexes stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol) on the final silicate structure of the cement hydration products is small. But even small amounts of additives result in an increased ratio of ettringite to monosulfate within the final hydrated tile mortar as monitored by 27 Al NMR. The latex was found to be adsorbed to the inorganic surfaces, acting as glue to the inorganic components. For similar latex water interfaces built up by poly(vinyl alcohol), a variation in the latex polymer composition results in modified organic textures. In addition to the networks of the inorganic cement and of the latex, there is a weak network build up by thin polymer fibers, most probably originating from poly(vinyl alcohol). Besides the weak network, polymer fibers form well-ordered textures covering inorganic crystals such as portlandite

  17. Polymer nanocomposites for sealing microannulus cracks in wellbores cement-steel interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genedy, M.; Fernandez, S. G.; Stormont, J.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Reda Taha, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seal integrity of production and storage wellbores has become a critical challenge with the increasing oil and gas leakage incidents. The general consensus is that one of the potential leakage pathways is micro-annuli at the cement-steel interface. In this paper, we examine the efficiency of proposed polymer nanocomposite to seal microannulus cracks at the cement-steel interface. The repair material efficiency is defined as the ability of the repair material to reduce or eliminate the gas permeability of the cement-steel interface. The flow rate of an inert gas (Nitrogen) at the cement-steel interface was investigated for three cases: 1) repaired test samples with traditional repair material (microfine cement), 2) polymer nanocomposites, and 3) unrepaired test samples. Flow rates were measured and compared for all three cases. The experimental results show up to 99.5% seal efficiency achieved by using polymer nanocomposites compared to 20% efficiency achieved in the case of microfine cement. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525. SAND2017-8094 A.

  18. Formulation study on immobilization of spent ion exchange resins in polymer cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lili; Lin Meiqiong; Bao Liangjin; Fan Xianhua

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a formulation of cement-solidified spent radioactive ion exchange resin form. The solidified form consists of a sort of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion, and spent ion exchange resins. The composite cement is made up of quick-setting sulphoaluminate cement, silica powder, zeolite, and fly ash in the proportion 1:0.05:0.10:0.05. Sixteen combinations of composite cement, epoxide resin emulsion and mixed anion-cation exchange resins are selected according to a three-factors-four-levels normal design table with the compression strength as the evaluation criterion. The resulted formulation is as follows: the mass ratio of polymer emulsion to composite cement is 0.55:1, the loading of mixed anion-cation exchange resins is 0.3, and the anionic-to-cationic exchange resins ratio is 2:1. The polymer cement solidified forms were tested after 28 d curing for Cs + and Sr 2+ leaching rates, pH and conductivity of the leaching water, and radiation-resistant property in addition to their compressive strength. The measurement results indicate that the performance of thus prepared solidified forms can meet the requirements of the National Standard GB14569.1-93 for near earth's surface disposal of low radioactive waste. (authors)

  19. Strengthening Masonry Arches with Lime-Based Mortar Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Alecci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, many strengthening interventions on masonry elements were performed by using fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs. These advanced materials proved to be effective to increase the load-carrying capacity of masonry elements and to improve their structural behavior, avoiding the most critical failure modes. Despite the advantages of this technique compared to more traditional methods, FRP systems have disadvantages related to their low resistance to high temperatures, impossibility of application on wet surfaces, low permeability, and poor compatibility with masonry supports. Therefore, composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in an inorganic matrix were recently proposed as alternatives to FRPs for strengthening historic masonry constructions. These composite materials are easier to install, have higher resistance to high temperatures, and permit higher vapor permeability than FRPs. The inorganic matrix is frequently a cement-based mortar, and the composite materials made of a fiber textile embedded in a cement-based mortar are usually identified as FRCM (fabric reinforced cementitious matrix composites. More recently, the use of natural lime mortar as an inorganic matrix has been proposed as an alternative to cement-based mortars when historic compatibility with the substrate is strictly required, as in case of restoration of historic buildings. In this paper, the effectiveness of a fabric made of basalt fibers embedded in lime mortar matrix (Basalt-FRLM for the strengthening of masonry arches is investigated. An experimental investigation was performed on 1:2 scaled brick masonry arches strengthened at the extrados with a layer of Basalt-FRLM and tested under vertical load. The results obtained are compared with previous results obtained by the authors by testing masonry arches strengthened at their extrados with FRCM and FRP composites. This investigation highlights the effectiveness of Basalt-FRLM in increasing load

  20. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm W; Despland, Laure M; Lake, Neal J; Yee, Lachlan H; Anstoetz, Manuela; Arif, Elisabeth; Parr, Jeffery F; Doumit, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia) where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α -quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product.

  1. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm W. Clark

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α −quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product. Keywords: Materials Science, Civil Engineering

  2. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) (EVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancher, Luiza R; Nunes, Maria Fernanda de O; Grisa, Ana Maria C; Pagnussat, Daniel T; Zeni, Mára

    2016-01-15

    This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate) (EVA) to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm) with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  3. Acoustic Behavior of Subfloor Lightweight Mortars Containing Micronized Poly (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza R. Brancher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to acoustical comfort in buildings by presenting a study about the polymer waste micronized poly (ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA to be used in mortars for impact sound insulation in subfloor systems. The evaluation method included physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the mortar developed with three distinct thicknesses designs (3, 5, and 7 cm with replacement percentage of the natural aggregate by 10%, 25%, and 50% EVA. Microscopy analysis showed the surface deposition of cement on EVA, with preservation of polymer porosity. The compressive creep test estimated long-term deformation, where the 10% EVA sample with a 7 cm thick mortar showed the lowest percentage deformation of its height. The impact noise test was performed with 50% EVA samples, reaching an impact sound insulation of 23 dB when the uncovered slab was compared with the 7 cm thick subfloor mortar. Polymer waste addition decreased the mortar compressive strength, and EVA displayed characteristics of an influential material to intensify other features of the composite.

  4. Hydration process for calcium-aluminate cement within EVA emulsion by SPring-8 synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotera, Masaru; Matsuda, Ikuyo; Miyashita, Keiko; Adachi, Nobuyuki; Tamura, Hisayuki

    2005-01-01

    Polymer-modified mortars which consist of a polymer emulsion and cement materials have been widely developed in the construction materials fields. Forming process of the polymer-modified cement membrane simultaneously involves evaporation of water within the polymer emulsion and hydration of cement. It is important for the polymer-modified cement paste that the hydrate crystal of cement is generating by the hydration during the setting process under existence of the polymer emulsion. In this study, hydration process for calcium-aluminate cement under existence of poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA) emulsion (polymer-cement ratio=100%) was investigated by X-ray diffraction method using synchrotron radiation (SPring-8). The diffraction peaks of calcium aluminate (CA) disappeared after the hardening, on the other hand, the peaks of hydrate crystals of calcium-aluminate cement (C 2 AH 8 and C 3 AH 6 ) could be observed. This polymer-modified cement paste hydrated using the water within the polymer emulsion. The hydration of C 2 AH 8 from CA started at around 300 min, and then C 3 AH 6 hydrate crystal increased after 700 min at ambient temperature. This implies that the conversion from C 2 AH 8 to C 3 AH 6 occurred to be more stable phase. The setting temperature affected the reaction rate. In case of hydration at 35degC, the start time of the hydration for calcium-aluminate cement was quicker than that in the ambient temperature four or more times. (author)

  5. Preparation and Characterization of New Geopolymer-Epoxy Resin Hybrid Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymer mortars containing an organic epoxy resin are presented here for the first time. The specimens have been prepared by means of an innovative in situ co-reticulation process, in mild conditions, of commercial epoxy based organic resins and geopolymeric slurry. In this way, geopolymer based hybrid mortars characterized by a different content of normalized sand (up to 66% in weight and by a homogeneous dispersion of the organic resin have been obtained. Once hardened, these new materials show improved compressive strength and toughness in respect to both the neat geopolymer and the hybrid pastes since the organic polymer provides a more cohesive microstructure, with a reduced amount of microcracks. The microstructural characterization allows to point out the presence of an Interfacial Transition Zone similar to that observed in cement based mortars and concretes. A correlation between microstructural features and mechanical properties has been studied too.

  6. "Brick-and-Mortar" Nanostructured Interphase for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Francois; Sernicola, Giorgio; Shaffer, Milo S P; Bismarck, Alexander

    2018-02-28

    The fiber-matrix interface plays a critical role in determining composite mechanical properties. While a strong interface tends to provide high strength, a weak interface enables extensive debonding, leading to a high degree of energy absorption. Balancing these conflicting requirements by engineering composite interfaces to improve strength and toughness simultaneously still remains a great challenge. Here, a nanostructured fiber coating was realized to manifest the critical characteristics of natural nacre, at a reduced length scale, consistent with the surface curvature of fibers. The new interphase contains a high proportion (∼90 wt %) of well-aligned inorganic platelets embedded in a polymer; the window of suitable platelet dimensions is very narrow, with an optimized platelet width and thickness of about 130 and 13 nm, respectively. An anisotropic, nanostructured coating was uniformly and conformally deposited onto a large number of 9 μm diameter glass fibers, simultaneously, using self-limiting layer-by-layer assembly (LbL); this parallel approach demonstrates a promising strategy to exploit LbL methods at scale. The resulting nanocomposite interphase, primarily loaded in shear, provides new mechanisms for stress dissipation and plastic deformation. The energy released by fiber breakage in tension appear to spread and dissipate within the nanostructured interphase, accompanied by stable fiber slippage, while the interfacial strength was improved up to 30%.

  7. A comparative evaluation of compressive strength of Portland cement with zinc oxide eugenol and Polymer-reinforced cement: An in vitro analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S Prakasam; Prakasam Bharadwaj; S C Loganathan; B Krishna Prasanth

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ultimate compressive strength of 50% and 25% Portland cement mixed with Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide eugenol cement after 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty samples were selected. The samples were made cylindrical of size 6 × 8 mm and were divided into six groups as follows with each group consisting of 10 samples. Group 1: Polymer-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol with...

  8. Development of a cement-polymer close-coupled subsurface barrier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heiser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stewart, W.; Phillips, S. [Applied Geotechnical Engineering and Construction, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale ``cold site`` demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL.

  9. Development of a cement-polymer close-coupled subsurface barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.; Phillips, S.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale ''cold site'' demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL

  10. The C-S-H gel of Portland cement mortars: Part I. The interpretation of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses from scanning electron microscopy, with some observations on C-S-H, AFm and AFt phase compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Famy, C.; Brough, A.R.; Taylor, H.F.W.

    2003-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microanalyses of the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel in Portland cement pastes rarely represent single phases. Essential experimental requirements are summarised and new procedures for interpreting the data are described. These include, notably, plots of Si/Ca against other atom ratios, 3D plots to allow three such ratios to be correlated and solution of linear simultaneous equations to test and quantify hypotheses regarding the phases contributing to individual microanalyses. Application of these methods to the C-S-H gel of a 1-day-old mortar identified a phase with Al/Ca=0.67 and S/Ca=0.33, which we consider to be a highly substituted ettringite of probable composition C 6 A 2 S-bar 2 H 34 or {Ca 6 [Al(OH) 6 ] 2 ·24H 2 O}(SO 4 ) 2 [Al(OH) 4 ] 2 . If this is true for Portland cements in general, it might explain observed discrepancies between observed and calculated aluminate concentrations in the pore solution. The C-S-H gel of a similar mortar aged 600 days contained unsubstituted ettringite and an AFm phase with S/Ca=0.125

  11. Observation of the failure mechanism of brick masonry doublets with cement and lime mortars by microfocus X-ray computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, Roel; Bruyninckx, Katrien; Schueremans, Luc; Kerckhofs, Greet; Verstrynge, Els; Wevers, Martine; Van Balen, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the failure mechanism of masonry under compression depends on the properties of the brick and mortar. It is well-known that the ratio of stiffness of both materials has an important effect. Furthermore the pattern of crack development and propagation and the occurrence of local compaction of soft mortars have been the subject of some study, but remained difficult to observe. This study aims at the visualisation of these phenomena by using a hydraulic press inside a microfocus X-...

  12. Calcium phosphate cements properties with polymers addition; Propriedades do cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Trajano, W.T.; Escobar, C.F.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: julianafernandes2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have attracted great interest to use in orthopedics and dentistry as replacements for damaged parts of the skeletal system, showing good biocompatibility and osseointegration, allowing its use as bone graft. Several studies have shown that the addition of polymer additives have a strong influence on the cement properties. The low mechanical strength is the main obstacle to greater use of CPC as an implant material. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of a cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), added polymers. PVA (10%, 8%, 6%), sodium alginate (2%) and polyacrylate ammonia (3%), all in weight, were added to the synthesized α-TCP powder. The samples were molded and evaluated for density, porosity in vitro test (Simulated Body Fluid), crystalline phases and mechanical strength. The results show increased the mechanical properties of the cement when added these polymers.

  13. Potencialidades de um caulim calcinado como material de substituição parcial do cimento portland em argamassas Potentialities of a calcined kaolin as material of partial replacement of portland cement in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia P. de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de argilas calcinadas na forma de metacaulinita, como material pozolânico para argamassas e concretos, tem recebido atenção considerável nos últimos anos. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho mecânico de argamassas, nas quais foi utilizado um caulim calcinado proveniente do Estado da Paraíba, como material de substituição parcial do cimento Portland. Utilizaram-se duas finuras do caulim: passando nas peneiras ABNT 200 (0,074 mm e 325 (0,044 mm e calcinados nas temperaturas de 700, 800 e 900 ºC pelo tempo de 2 h. As amostras foram caracterizadas através de análise química, análise térmica diferencial, difração de raios-X e área específica. Obteve-se o índice de atividade pozolânica com a cal e o cimento Portland. O percentual de substituição adotado foi de 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%. A relação aglomerante: areia foi de 1:1,5 e a relação água/aglomerante fixada igual 0,4. O efeito da substituição parcial do cimento na argamassa foi avaliado através da resistência à compressão simples, nas idades de 7, 28 e 90 dias. As argamassas estudadas apresentaram resistência superior em relação à da referência, até o nível de 30% de substituição.The use of burnt clays, in the metakaolin form, as pozzolanic material for mortars and concretes has received a remarkable attention in the last years. This paper aimed to evaluate the mechanical property of mortars, in which a calcined kaolin originating from the State of Paraiba, was used as partial cement replacement material. Two finess of the kaolin were used: ABNT 200 (0.074 mm and 325 (0.044 mm and burnt at temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 ºC for a period of 2 h. Both materials were characterized by chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, specific area tests. The pozolanic activity index was obtanied using lime and cement Portland. The amounts of replacement were 10, 20, 30 and 40%, besides the reference mortar. The binder

  14. Properties of Foamed Mortar Prepared with Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiao; Lim, Siong-Kang; Tan, Cher-Siang; Li, Bo; Ling, Tung-Chai; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingyuan

    2015-01-01

    Foamed mortar with a density of 1300 kg/m3 was prepared. In the initial laboratory trials, water-to-cement (w/c) ratios ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 were tested to determine the optimal value for foamed mortar corresponding to the highest compressive strength without compromising its fresh state properties. With the obtained optimal w/c ratio of 0.56, two types of foamed mortar were prepared, namely cement-foamed mortar (CFM) and slag-foamed mortar (SFM, 50% cement was replaced by slag weight). ...

  15. Sulfur polymer cement, a new stabilization agent for mixed and low- level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Solidification and stabilization agents for radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes are failing to pass governmental tests at alarming rates. The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program funded testing of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) by Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980s. Those tests and tests by the US Bureau of Mines (the original developer of SPC), universities, states, and the concrete industry have shown SPC to be superior to hydraulic cements in most cases. Superior in what wastes can be successfully combined and in the quantity of waste that can be combined and still pass the tests established by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  16. The Effect of Polymer-Cement Stabilization on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Liquefiable Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ateş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization has been widely used as an alternative to substitute the lack of suitable material on site. The use of nontraditional chemical stabilizers in soil improvement is growing daily. In this study a laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of waterborne polymer on unconfined compression strength and to study the effect of cement grout on pre-venting of liquefiable sandy soils. The laboratory tests were performed including grain size of sandy soil, unit weight, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and unconfined compressive strength test. The sand and various amounts of polymer (1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% and cement (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were mixed with all of them into dough using mechanical kneader in laboratory conditions. Grouting experiment is performed with a cylindrical mould of  mm. The samples were subjected to unconfined compression tests to determine their strength after 7 and 14 days of curing. The results of the tests indicated that the waterborne polymer significantly improved the unconfined compression strength of sandy soils which have susceptibility of liquefaction.

  17. Microwave detection of delaminations between fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite and hardened cement paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D.; Kazemi, M.; Marler, K.; Zoughi, R.; Myers, J.; Nanni, A.

    2002-05-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being used for the rehabilitation of concrete structures. Detection and characterization of delaminations between an FRP composite and a concrete surface are of paramount importance. Consequently, the development of a one sided, non-contact, real time and rapid nondestructive testing (NDT) technique for this purpose is of great interest. Near-field microwave NDT techniques, using open-ended rectangular waveguide probes, have shown great potential for detecting delaminations in layered composite structures such as these. The results of some theoretical and experimental investigations on a specially prepared cement paste specimen are presented here.

  18. Parameters of Alumina Cement and Portland Cement with Addition of Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Aluminous cement is a quick binder with special properties. It is used primarily to make non-standard monolithic components exposed to high temperatures, + 1300°C. It is also a component of adhesives and mortars. It has a very short setting time. It is characterized by rapid increase in mechanical strength and resistance to aggressive sulphates. It can be used in reinforced concrete structures. Laying of concrete, construction mortar made of alumina cement can be carried out even at temperatures of -10°C. This article discusses a comparison of the parameters of hardened mortar made of alumina cement GÓRKAL 40 and Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The mortars contain an addition of chalcedonite meal with pozzolanic properties, with particle size of less than 0.063μm. The meal was added in amounts of 5% and 20% of cement weight. Chalcedonite meal used in the laboratory research is waste material, resulting from chalcedonite aggregate mining. It has the same properties as the rock from which it originates. We have compared the parameters of hardened mortar i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. The addition of 20% chalcedonite meal to mortars made from aluminous cement will decrease durability by 6.1% relative to aluminous cement mortar without addition of meal. Considering the results obtained during the absorbency tests, it can be stated that the addition of chalcedonite meal reduces weight gains in mortars made with cement CEM I 42.5 R and alumina cement. Use of alumina cement without addition of meal in mortars causes an increase of mass by 248% compared to Portland cement mortars without additions, in the absorption tests. The addition of chalcedonite meal did not cause increased weight gain in the capillary action tests. For the alumina cement mortars, a lesser weight gains of 24.7% was reported, compared to the Portland cement mortar after 28 days of maturing.

  19. A preliminary assessment of polymer-modified cements for use in immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Dyson, J.R.

    1982-11-01

    A range of polymer-modified cements has been examined as candidate materials for the immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste. The waste streams studied were inactive simulates of real wastes and included ion-exchange resins, Magnox debris and dilute sludges. Preliminary experiments on the compatibility of the polymer-cement-waste combinations have been carried out and measurements of flexural strength before and after #betta#-irradiation to 10 9 rad and water immersion have been made. Soxhlet leach tests have been used to compare the leach rates of the different materials. From the results of these preliminary experiments, a limited number of polymer-modified cements have been suggested as suitable for more detailed study. (author)

  20. Swine deep bedding ashes as a mineral additive for cement based mortar Cinzas de cama sobreposta de suínos como adição mineral em argamassas de cimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Selaysim Di Campos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of intensive swine production demands alternative destinations for the generated residues. Ashes from swine rice husk-based deep bedding were tested as a mineral addition for cement mortars. The ashes were obtained at 400 to 600ºC, ground and sieved through a 325 mesh sieve (# 0.045 mm. The characterization of the ashes included the determination of the index of pozzolanic activity with lime. The ashes were also tested as partial substitutes of Portland cement. The mortars were prepared using a cement:sand proportion of 1:1.5, and with water/cement ratio of 0.4. Three percentages of mass substitution of the cement were tested: 10, 20 and 30%. Mortar performances were assessed at 7 and 28 days determining their compressive strength. The chosen condition for calcinations at the laboratory scale was related to the maximum temperature of 600ºC since the resulting ashes contained vitreous materials and presented satisfactory values for the pozzolanic index under analysis. The pozzolanic activity indicated promising results for ashes produced at 600ºC as a replacement of up to 30% in cement masses.A sustentabilidade das regiões de produção intensiva de suínos requer destinos alternativos para os resíduos gerados. Cinzas de cama sobreposta de suínos à base casca de arroz, foram testadas como adição mineral em substituição ao cimento. As cinzas foram obtidas nas temperaturas de 400 a 600ºC, moídas e passadas por peneira ABNT 325 (# 0,045 mm. A caracterização de cinzas incluiu a determinação do índice de atividade pozolânica com a cal. As cinzas também foram testadas como substitutos parciais de cimento Portland. As argamassas foram preparadas na proporção cimento:areia de 1:1,5 e com fator água-cimento de 0,4. Três porcentagens de substituição do cimento comercial foram usadas: 10, 20 e 30% em massa. O desempenho das argamassas foi avaliado aos 7 e aos 28 dias com a determinação da resistência

  1. Strength and Drying Shrinkage of Alkali-Activated Slag Paste and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-chieh Chi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the strengths and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag paste and mortar. Compressive strength, tensile strength, and drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag paste and mortar were measured with various liquid/slag ratios, sand/slag ratios, curing ages, and curing temperatures. Experimental results show that the higher compressive strength and tensile strength have been observed in the higher curing temperature. At the age of 56 days, AAS mortars show higher compressive strength than Portland cement mortars and AAS mortars with liquid/slag ratio of 0.54 have the highest tensile strength in all AAS mortars. In addition, AAS pastes of the drying shrinkage are higher than AAS mortars. Meanwhile, higher drying shrinkage was observed in AAS mortars than that observed comparable Portland cement mortars.

  2. Analysis of Bending Strength of Resin Mortars That Are at Risk of Long-Term Exposure to Environmental Corrosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Bernardeta; Licholai, Lech

    2017-12-01

    The results of the article are part of an extensive research on new building materials including cement-free polymer composites where the binder is epoxy resin modified with glycolyzates obtained from poly (ethylene terephthalate) waste (PET). The investigation conducted con-firmed that there is a possibility of using waste materials in the production of mortar. Since they have always been an environmental problem, their utilization will help to apply the principles of sustainable development in the processes of obtaining new materials. The article discusses the results of a study of flexural strength of polymer mortars. Mortar specimens modified with propylene glycol and PET waste based glycolyzate were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and their strength parameters were then examined after one month, six months and twelve months of immersion in this aggressive medium. The same characteristics were also determined for specimens that were not exposed to the NaCl solution. The results were presented as the trend function. The sections of the curve corresponding to the particular periods of exposure in aggressive medium vary in shape. Due to this, an attempt was made to adjust the spline function to the experimental data. The composites obtained show a deterioration in their strength properties which grows with the extension of their exposure to a corrosive medium. However, the chemical corrosion resistance of the mortars under investigation can be considered very good as it is still much higher than that of conventional cement mortars. Even after a year exposure to a corrosive substance, the mortars obtained still show high mean flexural strength values which equal about 30 MPa.

  3. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    OpenAIRE

    MOTTA,L. A. C.; VIEIRA,J. G.; OMENA,T. H.; FARIA,F. A. C.; RODRIGUES FILHO,G.; ASSUNÇÃO,R. M. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase...

  4. The polymer cement of sulfur as an alternative for the recycling of phosphogypsum. Corrosion testing of cements enriched with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Lopez, F. A.; Navarro, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sanz, B.; Ballesteros, O.; Higueras, E.; Roman, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of the use of cement for the recycling of materials is seen today as sustainable solution of the fertilizer industry for production of matches (NORM). In this paper presents some results of corrosion tests performed on these cements modified using buffer solutions of different pH. The analytical determinations in these matrices are new challenges. (Author)

  5. A Study of Array Direction HDPE Fiber Reinforced Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamsuwan, Trithos

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the effect of array direction HDPE fiber using as the reinforced material in cement mortar. The experimental data were created reference to the efficiency of using HDPE fiber reinforced on the tensile properties of cement mortar with different high drawn ratio of HDPE fibers. The fiber with the different drawn ratio 25x (d25 with E xx), and 35x (d35 with E xx) fiber volume fraction (0%, 1.0%, 1.5%) and fiber length 20 mm. were used to compare between random direction and array direction of HDPE fibers and the stress - strain displacement relationship behavior of HDPE short fiber reinforced cement mortar were investigated. It was found that the array direction with HDPE fibers show more improved in tensile strength and toughness when reinforced in cement mortar.

  6. Mortar modified with sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. C. MOTTA

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we studied the addition of sulfonated polystyrene produced from waste plastic cups as an admixture for mortars. Mortars were analyzed with polystyrene content of 0.0; 0.2; 0.6; 1.0 and 1.4% in relation to the cement mass. The influence of polystyrene on the mortars' properties was evaluated by the consistency index, water retention, water absorption, porosity, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, flexural strength, bond tensile strength and microscopy. The increase in the sulfonated polystyrene content decreased the elasticity modulus of the mortar and, despite higher porosity, there was a reduction of water absorption by capillarity. In relation to mortar without admixture, the modified mortar showed an increase in water retention and consistency index, and a large increase in flexural strength and bond tensile strength. The significant increase of bond tensile strength (214% with admixture 1% highlights the potential of the produced material as an adhesive mortar.

  7. Self healing phenomena in concretes and masonry mortars: A microscopic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Lubelli, B.A.; Rooij, M.R. de

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic survey of over 1000 of samples of concrete and masonry mortars from structures in the Netherlands shows that, in practice, self healing occurs in historic lime and lime – puzzolana mortars, in contrast to modern cement bound concretes and mortars. Self healing may be effected by the

  8. Water extraction out of mortar during brick laying. An NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The water extraction out of mortar during brick laying was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. The water extraction is an important parameter that determines, e.g., the stiffness of the mortar due to compaction of the cement particles and the bond strength of the cured-mortar interfaces but allo

  9. The Long-Term Study of Some mechanical and Chemical Properties of Polymer Modified Cement Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatta, H.A.; Eskander, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is a new experimental trend to study the long-term durability of polymer/cement/borate waste forms in storage and disposal sites during the long period of time. The data obtained indicate that all the samples of polymer modified cement waste forms immersed in both distilled and ground water (for more than 2700 days) show a slight increase in the compressive strength values. The chemical stability of the immobilized borate waste forms in distilled and ground water was studied. The cumulative leach fraction in percentage, of Cs-137 isotope from the final solidified waste forms in case of using ground water was lower than that in distilled water for all samples used and the presence of polymer lowered the percent release of radioactive Cs-137 isotope in all samples studied . The leach coefficients (Lc) and the leach indices (Li) of radioactive cesium-137 isotope for cement borate and polymer modified cement waste forms were also calculated. It was found that the leach indices values greater than 6

  10. Environmental Factors Affecting the Strength Characteristics of Modified Resin Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debska, Bernardeta; Licholai, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Resin concretes are composites in which a cement binder has been completely replaced by a synthetic resin. These materials are a good choice for the construction industry, especially in solutions requiring high strength, fast curing and durability. Polymer mortars are mainly used for the manufacture of industrial floors and prefabricated products such as tanks for aggressive chemicals, sewage pipes, or road and bridge drainage systems, as well as for the repair of damaged concrete structures. In all these applications, the strength and high chemical resistance of the applied material solutions are of key importance. It is particularly crucial to obtain information on how resin composites behave when exposed to aggressive agents over extended periods of time. It is also very important to use waste materials in order to obtain resin composites, as these activities are very well inscribed in the idea of environmental protection and meet the criteria of sustainable construction. The mortars described in this article meet the above principles. The article presents how the compressive strength of glycolyzate-modified epoxy mortars, obtained with the use of poly(ethylene terephthalate), changes after they are immersed in 10% sodium chloride solution. Sodium chloride solution was chosen due to the prospective applicability of the tested composites as repair materials used for e.g. bridges or overpasses that are exposed to this salt solution in wintertime. Changes in the properties of the composite samples were monitored over the period of one year. Statistical analysis of the test results was carried out with the use of Statistica programme. The module available in the mentioned program called Nonparametric Statistics - Comparing multiple independent samples made it possible to check the monitoring times during which the compressive strength values differed significantly. The obtained results allowed for determining the equation of the function approximating the course of

  11. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  12. Sulfur polymer cement, a solidification and stabilization agent for radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is made by reacting 95% sulfur with 2.5 % dicyclopentadiene and 2.5% cyclopentadiene oligomers, to produce a product that is much better than unmodified sulfur. SPC is being tested as a solidifying and stabilizing agent for low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes. Heavy loadings (5 wt%) of eight toxic metals were combined individually with SPC and 7 wt% sodium sulfide nonahydrate. The leach rates for mercury, lead, chromium and silver oxides were reduced by six orders of magnitude, while those of arsenic and barium were reduced by four. SPC is good for stabilizing incinerator ash. Ion-exchange resins can be stabilized with SPC after heat treatment with asbestos or diatomite at 220-250 deg C. 19 refs

  13. PULLOUT BEHAVIOR OF OXYGEN PLASMA TREATED POLYMER FIBERS FROM CEMENT MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Trejbal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe bonding properties between surface treated polymer fibers and a cement matrix. In order to increase an interaction between the matrix and fiber surfaces, two fiber types having approx. 0.5 mm in diameter were modified by mean of oxygen plasma treatment. Surface physical changes of treated fibers were examined using SEM morphology observation and interfacial adhesion mechanical tests. The principle of mechanical tests rested on a single fiber pulling out from the matrix (cement paste, CEM I 42.5 R, w/c 0.4. The embedded length was equal to 50 % of original fiber length (50 mm, where the fiber free-end displacement and force resisting to the displacement were monitored. It was pointed out that interfacial shear stress needed to break the bond between the modified fibers and the matrix increased almost by 15–65 % if compared to reference fibers. When the fiber free-end displacement reached to 3.5 mm, the shear strength increased almost twice.

  14. Performance of aged cement - polymer composite immobilizing borate waste simulates during flooding scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Bayoumi, T.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced composite of cement and water extended polyester based on the recycled Poly(ethylene terephthalate) waste was developed to incorporate the borate waste. Previous studies have reported the characterizations of the waste composite (cement-polymer composite immobilizing borate waste simulates) after 28 days of curing time. The current work studied the performance of waste composite aged for seven years and subjected to flooding scenario during 260 days using three types of water. The state of waste composite was assessed at the end of each definite interval of the water infiltration through visual examination and mechanical measurement. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses were used to investigate the changes that may occur in the microstructure of the waste composite under aging and flooding effects. The actual experimental results indicated reasonable evidence for the waste composite. Acceptable consistency was confirmed for the waste composite even after aging seven years and exposure to flooding scenario for 260 days.

  15. Valorisation of waste ilmenite mud in the manufacture of sulphur polymer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Manuel; Gázquez, Manuel Jesús; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J; López, Félix A; Bolívar, Juan Pedro

    2013-10-15

    This paper reports the preparation of sulphur polymer cements (SPCs) incorporating waste ilmenite mud for use in concrete construction works. The ilmenite mud raw material and the mud-containing SPCs (IMC-SPCs) were characterised physico-chemically and radiologically. The optimal IMC-SPC mixture had a sulphur/mud ratio (w/w) of 1.05 (mud dose 20 wt%); this cement showed the greatest compressive strength (64 MPa) and the lowest water absorption coefficient (0.4 g cm(-2) at 28 days). Since ilmenite mud is enriched in natural radionuclides, such as radium isotopes (2.0·10(3) Bq kg(-1)(228)Ra and 5.0·10(2) Bq kg(-1)(226)Ra), the IMC-SPCs were subjected to leaching experiments, which showed their environmental impact to be negligible. The activity concentration indices for the different radionuclides in the IMC-SPCs containing 10% and 20% ilmenite mud met the demands of international standards for materials used in the construction of non-residential buildings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An examination of sulfur polymer cement as a waste encapsulation agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNew, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a unique material having potential applications for hazardous and radioactive waste encapsulation. This material was originally developed by the US Bureau of Mines as an acid and chemical resistant construction cement and has since been applied in tie waste encapsulation field. The material is easily prepared from elemental sulfur and organic dienes. It is an easy to use low-viscosity thermoplastic, and has many favorable properties such as low porosity, high compressive strength, and resistance to chemical attack. The results of several invetigations on this material will be discussed, and include: (1) the chemical form and physical structure of the material, (2) the compressive strength of cylindrical test samples after gamma radiation testing, (3) the aqueous leaching behavior of lead, cerium, cesium, cobalt, and strontium from SPC-ash mixtures at room and elevated temperatures, (4) the casting compatibility of mixtures of SPC with different waste materials, (5) the ability of SPC to encapsulate elemental mercury contaminated soils, (6) laboratory and field studies of SPC biocorrosion by Thiobacillus bacteria, (7) small scale (10 kg) SPC-ash monolith casting studies, and (8) methods for the formulation of a grade of SPC more applicable to the encapsulation of aggregate waste materials

  17. Mortar fights acid corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-14

    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  18. Steel corrosion resistance in model solutions and reinforced mortar containing wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the corrosion resistance of steel in alkaline model solutions and in cement-based materials (mortar). The model solutions and the mortar specimens were Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) based. Further, hereby discussed is the implementation of an eco-friendly approach of waste

  19. The Impact of Additive on the Properties of Fresh and Hardened Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Šeputytė

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of additives on the properties of mortar. For investigation purposes, two types of Portland cement (CEM II/A-LL 42.5 N and CEM I N (MA, fine aggregate sand, lime, water and air-entraining and stabilizing additives were used. To determine the effects of additives on the mortar mix, the analysis of cone penetration into the mix, mortar mobility, water extraction out of mortar, density and flexural and compressive testing were conducted. When put into mortar, air-entraining and stabilizing additives changed structure. In this case, density and flexural and compressive strength of mortar are reduced.

  20. The Aesthetical quality of SSA-containing mortar and concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    that gives a characteristic red colour. The process of grinding SSA has shown to improve the compressive strength of SSA- containing mortar (Donatello et al. 2010). Thus, in this study SSA was grinded in 6 different intervals ranging from 0 – 10 min, and then added to the mortar mix replacing 20% of cement....... The experiment revealed that the colour of the SSA-containing mortar intensified as the time interval of the grinding process increased. Each of the 6 steps within the time interval provided an additional colour tone and generated a colour scale consisting of mortar samples ranging from greyish to a more...

  1. The influence of superabsorbent polymers on the autogenous shrinkage properties of cement pastes with supplementary cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoeck, D.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; De Belie, N.

    2015-01-01

    Fly ash and blast-furnace slag containing binders are frequently used in the construction industry and it is important to know the extent of autogenous shrinkage and its (ideal) mitigation by superabsorbent polymers in these systems as a function of their age. In this paper, the autogenous...... shrinkage was determined by manual and automated shrinkage measurements. Autogenous shrinkage was reduced in cement pastes with the supplementary cementitious materials versus Portland cement pastes. At later ages, the rate of autogenous shrinkage is higher due to the pozzolanic activity. Internal curing...

  2. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  3. Drilling mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorescu, V; Ditulescu, E

    1979-01-30

    A method is proposed for producing stable drilling mortar from drilled rock which makes it possible to stabilize the walls of the borehole and to maintain producing horizons of oil and gas wells in an undisturbed state. The proposed drilling mortar includes 5-12 wt.-% dry modified calcium lignosulfonate in the form of a solution containing about 30% dry matter with the addition of 0.1 wt.-% anti-foaming agent consisting of C/sub 19/-C/sub 20/ alcohol dissolved in a light petroleum product; cream of milk with about 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a quantity sufficient for reducing the pH value of the ions down to 10.5; sodium chloride in amounts from 5 mg to 100 ml (aqueous phase); ordinarily used agents for ensuring the necessary density, viscosity, and filterability. For example, the preparation of the drilling fluid begins with the processing under laboratory conditions of lignosulfonic pulp obtained in the production of yeast fodder with the following characteristics: specific density, 1.15 kgf/dm/sup 3/; water content, 67% (according to the Dean and Stark method); pH 4.0. In the vessel is placed 1000 cm/sup 3/ lignosulfonic pulp containing 33% dry matter, and the pulp is heated to 90-95/sup 0/C by means of a water bath. To the heated pulp 33 cm/sup 3/ formic acid at a 40-% concentration is added by mixing. The specific temperature of the pulp is maintained in the constant mixing process for two hours. Then the cream of milk containing 10 wt.-% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ is added to raise the pH to 10.5. The cooled product is calcium lignosulfonate. To produce a stable form of the drilling mortar, 750 g clay and 10 g trass gel are added to a vessel containing 1500 cm/sup 3/ fresh water by means of mixing. The resulting dispersed mass remains at rest for 12 hours for purposes of hydration. Then 2 g of an anti-foaming agent dissolved in 6 cm/sup 3/ benzene is introduced to 1000 cm/sup 3/ modified calcium lignosulfonate produced by the above method.

  4. Nanostructural Characteristics and Interfacial Properties of Polymer Fibers in Cement Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalchy, Faezeh; Rahbar, Nima

    2015-08-12

    Concrete is the most used material in the world. It is also one of the most versatile yet complex materials that humans have used for construction. However, an important weakness of concrete (cement-based composites) is its low tensile properties. Therefore, over the past 30 years many studies were focused on improving its tensile properties using a variety of physical and chemical methods. One of the most successful attempts is to use polymer fibers in the structure of concrete to obtain a composite with high tensile strength and ductility. The advantages of polymer fiber as reinforcing material in concrete, both with regard to reducing environmental pollution and the positive effects on a country's economy, are beyond dispute. However, a thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced concrete requires a knowledge of fiber/matrix interfaces at the nanoscale. In this study, a combination of atomistic simulations and experimental techniques has been used to study the nanostructure of fiber/matrix interfaces. A new model for calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H)/fiber interfaces is also proposed on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. Finally, the adhesion energy between the C-S-H gel and three different polymeric fibers (poly(vinyl alcohol), nylon-6, and polypropylene) were numerically studied at the atomistic level because adhesion plays a key role in the design of ductile fiber-reinforced composites. The mechanisms of adhesion as a function of the nanostructure of fiber/matrix interfaces are further studied and discussed. It is observed that the functional group in the structure of polymer macromolecule affects the adhesion energy primarily by changing the C/S ratio of the C-S-H at the interface and by absorbing additional positive ions in the C-S-H structure.

  5. Evaluation of sulfur polymer cement as a waste form for the immobilization of low-level radioactive or mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1994-03-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC), also called modified sulphur cements, is a relatively new material in the waste immobilization field, although it was developed in the late seventies by the Bureau of Mines. The physical and chemical properties of SPC are interesting (e.g., development of high mechanical strength in a short time and high resistance to many corrosive environments). Because of its very low permeability and porosity, SPC is especially impervious to water, which, in turn, has led to its consideration for immobilization of hazardous or radioactive waste. Because it is a thermosetting process, the waste is encapsulated by the sulfur matrix; therefore, very little interaction occurs between the waste species and the sulfur (as there can be when waste prevents the set of portland cement-based waste forms)

  6. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  7. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  8. Development of low weight self-levelling mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, A; Panama, I; Toledo, A; Flores, A

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the development of self levelling mortars, using micro bubbles based on aluminium silicate with a density of 0.25 g/cm 3 . Mortars formulations are composed by 8 different components in order to achieve properties balance between fresh and solid state. The mean objective is development light weight mortars with high fluidity and compression strength using micro bubbles and some additives. Formulations were designed employing Taguchi DOE of 8 variables and 3 states. Result analysis according to Taguchi method lets indentify the preponderant effect of each variable on the cited properties. Several formulations reached fluidity higher than 250%, with compression strength around 100 kg/cm 2 and a low volumetric weigh. Obtained volumetric weights are 20% less than commercial self levelling mortars weight. Finally some relations are presented such: as relation water/cement with fluidity, and micro bubble content versus mortars volumetric weight, and finally compression strength versus the volumetric weight of mortars

  9. Multiscale characterization of chemical–mechanical interactions between polymer fibers and cementitious matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Hargis, Craig W.; Bae, Sungchul; Itty, Pierre A.; Meral, Cagla; Dominowski, Jolee; Radler, Michael J.; Kilcoyne, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    Together with a series of mechanical tests, the interactions and potential bonding between polymeric fibers and cementitious materials were studied using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and microtomography (lCT). Experimental results showed that these techniques have great potential to characterize the polymer fiber-hydrated cement-paste matrix interface, as well as differentiating the chemistry of the two components of a bi-polymer (hybrid) fiber the polypropylene core and the ethylene acrylic acid copolymer sheath. Similarly, chemical interactions between the hybrid fiber and the cement hydration products were observed, indicating the chemical bonding between the sheath and the hardened cement paste matrix. Microtomography allowed visualization of the performance of the samples, and the distribution and orientation of the two types of fiber in mortar. Beam flexure tests confirmed improved tensile strength of mixes containing hybrid fibers, and expansion bar tests showed similar reductions in expansion for the polypropylene and hybrid fiber mortar bars.

  10. Quantitative study on the effect of high-temperature curing at an early age on strength development of concrete. Experiment with mortar using moderate-heat portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hisashi; Chino, Shigeo

    1999-01-01

    The effect of high-temperature curing at an early age on the strength development of concrete using moderate-heat portland cement was quantitatively studied. High-temperature curing conditions were set so as to give systematic variations in the temperature-time factors. As a result, the integrated value of curing temperature during the period having a significant effect on the strength development was proposed as a parameter that expressed the degree of high-temperature curing. The effect of high-temperature curing on the strength development of concrete using moderate-heat portland cement could be exactly predicted with the integrated value of curing temperature during the period from 0 to 3 days. (author)

  11. Properties of backfilling material for solidifying miscellaneous waste using recycled cement from waste concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Konishi, Masao; Iwamoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikane, Toru; Koie, Toshio; Nakashima, Yoshio.

    1997-01-01

    A large reduction of total radioactive waste is expected, if recycled cement from the waste concrete of decommissioned nuclear power plants would be able to be used the material for backfilling mortar among the miscellaneous waste. In this paper, we discuss the hydration, strength and consistency of recycled cement compared with normal portland cement. The strength of recycled cement mortar is lower than that of normal portland cement mortar on the same water to cement ratio. It is possible to obtain the required strength to reduce the water to cement ratio by using of high range water-reducing AE agent. According to reducing of water to cement ratio, the P-type funnel time of mortar increase with the increase of its viscosity. However, in new method of self-compactability for backfilling mortar, it became evident that there was no difference between the recycled cement and normal portland cement on the self-compactability. (author)

  12. Sorption kinetics of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in fresh Portland cement-based pastes visualized and quantified by neutron radiography and correlated to the progress of cement hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroefl, Christof, E-mail: christof.schroefl@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Institut für Baustoffe, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany); Mechtcherine, Viktor [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Bauingenieurwesen, Institut für Baustoffe, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany); Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard [Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, CH-5232 Villigen/AG (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    Water sorption of two superabsorbent polymers in cement-based pastes has been characterized by neutron radiography. Cement pastes with W/C of 0.25 and 0.50 and one additionally containing silica fume (W/C = 0.42) were investigated. The SAPs differed in their inherent sorption kinetics in extracted cement pore solution (SAP 1: self-releasing; SAP 2: retentive). Desorption from SAP 1 started very early after paste preparation. Hence, its individual non-retentiveness governs its behavior only. SAP 2 released water into all matrices, but its kinetics were different. In the paste with the highest W/C, some moderate water release was recorded from the beginning. In the other two pastes, SAP 2 retained its stored liquid during the dormant period, i.e., up to the percolation threshold. Intense desorption then set in and continued throughout the acceleration period. These findings explain the pronouncedly higher efficiency of SAP 2 as internal curing admixture as compared to SAP 1.

  13. Sorption kinetics of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in fresh Portland cement-based pastes visualized and quantified by neutron radiography and correlated to the progress of cement hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroefl, Christof; Mechtcherine, Viktor; Vontobel, Peter; Hovind, Jan; Lehmann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Water sorption of two superabsorbent polymers in cement-based pastes has been characterized by neutron radiography. Cement pastes with W/C of 0.25 and 0.50 and one additionally containing silica fume (W/C = 0.42) were investigated. The SAPs differed in their inherent sorption kinetics in extracted cement pore solution (SAP 1: self-releasing; SAP 2: retentive). Desorption from SAP 1 started very early after paste preparation. Hence, its individual non-retentiveness governs its behavior only. SAP 2 released water into all matrices, but its kinetics were different. In the paste with the highest W/C, some moderate water release was recorded from the beginning. In the other two pastes, SAP 2 retained its stored liquid during the dormant period, i.e., up to the percolation threshold. Intense desorption then set in and continued throughout the acceleration period. These findings explain the pronouncedly higher efficiency of SAP 2 as internal curing admixture as compared to SAP 1

  14. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Fischer, H.B

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  15. Use of Fiber-Reinforced Cements in Masonry Construction and Structural Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Erdogmus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforcement in traditional concrete mixes has been extensively studied and has been slowly finding its regular use in practice. In contrast, opportunities for the use of fibers in masonry applications and structural rehabilitation projects (masonry and concrete structures have not been as deeply investigated, where the base matrix may be a weaker cementitious mixture. This paper will summarize the findings of the author’s research over the past 10 years in these particular applications of fiber reinforced cements (FRC. For masonry, considering both mortar and mortar-unit bond characteristics, a 0.5% volume fraction of micro fibers in type N Portland cement lime mortar appear to be a viable recipe for most masonry joint applications both for clay and concrete units. In general, clay units perform better with high water content fiber reinforced mortar (FRM while concrete masonry units (CMUs perform better with drier mixtures, so 130% and 110% flow rates should be targeted, respectively. For earth block masonry applications, fibers’ benefits are observed in improving local damage and water pressure resistance. The FRC retrofit technique proposed for the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete two-way slabs has exceeded expectations in terms of capacity increase for a relatively low cost in comparison to the common but expensive fiber reinforced polymer applications. For all of these applications of fiber-reinforced cements, further research with larger data pools would lead to further optimization of fiber type, size, and amount.

  16. Using bio-based polymers for curing cement-based materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Picken, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from the surface of cement based materials. It is the final stage in the production of cement-based materials and it is the essential part for achieving continuous hydration of cement, while avoiding cracking due to drying

  17. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered

  18. Ultrafine portland cement performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Argiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By mixing several binder materials and additions with different degrees of fineness, the packing density of the final product may be improved. In this work, ultrafine cement and silica fume mixes were studied to optimize the properties of cement-based materials. This research was performed in mortars made of two types of cement (ultrafine Portland cement and common Portland cement and two types of silica fume with different particle-size distributions. Two Portland cement replacement ratios of 4% and 10% of silica fume were selected and added by means of a mechanical blending method. The results revealed that the effect of the finer silica fume mixed with the coarse cement enhances the mechanical properties and pore structure refinement at a later age. This improvement is somewhat lower in the case of ultrafine cement with silica fume.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  20. Sulfur polymer cement encapsulation of RCRA toxic metals and metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, C.L. Jr.; Nulf, L.E.; Gorin, A.H.

    1995-06-01

    A study was conducted to determine the suitability of Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) encapsulation technology for the stabilization of RCRA toxic metal and metal oxide wastes. In a series of bench-scale experiments, the effects of sodium sulfide additions to the waste mixture, residence time, and temperature profile were evaluated. In addition, an effort was made to ascertain the degree to which SPC affords chemical stabilization as opposed to physical encapsulation. Experimental results have demonstrated that at the 25 wt % loading level, SPC can effectively immobilize Cr, Cr 2 O 3 , Hg, Pb, and Se to levels below regulatory limits. SPC encapsulation also has been shown to significantly reduce the leachability of other toxic compounds including PbO, PbO 2 , As 2 O 3 , BaO, and CdO. In addition, data has confirmed sulfide conversion of Hg, Pb, PbO, PbO 2 , and BaO as the product of their reaction with SPC

  1. Sulfur polymer cement encapsulation of oily matrix mixed low-level sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calhoun, C.L. Jr.; Nulf, L.E.; Fedorov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a variety of stabilization technologies for the treatment of mixed low-level debris and sludges. Sulfur Polymer Cement (SPC) is being considered as one possible alternative final waste form for that segment of these wastes that does not readily lend itself to vitrification and/or grout stabilization. Earlier work demonstrated that SPC effectively immobilizes some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) toxic metal and metal salt species. However, the use of SPC as an encapsulant is relatively new, and the scope of tested waste streams has been limited. Accordingly, the authors' intent was to identify and ascertain the effects of process variables on final waste form properties for encapsulated mixed low-level sludge. The authors conducted an optimal design factorial experiment to study the effects of eight variables in twelve trials with replication. Factors for consideration included waste spike level, waste loading, additive type, additive loading, mixing method, hold time, hold temperature, and cooling rate. Toxic metal leachability was assessed for samples and was the basis for factor comparison. Trials were typically conducted with 150-g of total material per batch. Experimental results demonstrated that a number of process variables -- process hold time, cooling rate, waste loading, spike level, process temperature, additive type, and additive loading -- can influence toxic metal leachability. Also, the effects of different factors may weigh more heavily on different individual species; accordingly, optimum process conditions may vary considerably based on waste composition

  2. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  4. The increase of compressive strength of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilorini, Rr. M. I. Retno; Santosa, Budi; Rejeki, V. G. Sri; Riangsari, M. F. Devita; Hananta, Yan's. Dianaga

    2017-03-01

    Polymer modified concrete is one of some concrete technology innovations to meet the need of strong and durable concrete. Previous research found that Moringa oleifera can be applied as natural polymer modifiers into mortars. Natural polymer modified mortar using Moringa oleifera is proven to increase their compressive strength significantly. In this resesearch, Moringa oleifera seeds have been grinded and added into concrete mix for natural polymer modified concrete, based on the optimum composition of previous research. The research investigated the increase of compressive strength of polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera as natural polymer modifiers. There were 3 compositions of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera referred to previous research optimum compositions. Several cylinder of 10 cm x 20 cm specimens were produced and tested for compressive strength at age 7, 14, and, 28 days. The research meets conclusions: (1) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera, with and without skin, has higher compressive strength compared to natural polymer modified mortar with Moringa oleifera and also control specimens; (2) Natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is achieved by specimens contains Moringa oleifera that is 0.2% of cement weight; and (3) The compressive strength increase of natural polymer modified concrete with Moringa oleifera without skin is about 168.11-221.29% compared to control specimens

  5. Evaluation of structural behaviour and corrosion resistant of austenitic AISI 304 and duplex AISI 2304 stainless steel reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement mortars; Evaluacion del comportamiento estructural y de resistencia a la corrosion de armaduras de acero inoxidable austenitico AISI 304 y duplex AISI 2304 embebidas en morteros de cemento Portland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, E.; Cobo, A.; Bastidas, D. M.

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical and structural behaviour of two stainless steels reinforcements, with grades austenitic EN 1.4301 (AISI 304) and duplex EN 1.4362 (AISI 2304) have been studied, and compared with the conventional carbon steel B500SD rebar. The study was conducted at three levels: at rebar level, at section level and at structural element level. The different mechanical properties of stainless steel directly influence the behaviour at section level and structural element level. The study of the corrosion behaviour of the two stainless steels has been performed by electrochemical measurements, monitoring the corrosion potential and the lineal polarization resistance (LPR), of reinforcements embedded in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortar specimens contaminated with different amount of chloride over one year time exposure. Both stainless steels specimens embedded in OPC mortar remain in the passive state for all the chloride concentration range studied after one year exposure. (Author) 26 refs.

  6. Micro-shear bond strength of different resin cements to ceramic/glass-polymer CAD-CAM block materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Ergun, Gulfem; Egilmez, Ferhan; Vallittu, Pekka Kalevi; Lassila, Lippo Veli Juhana

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric acid treatment on bond strength of resin cements to three different types of ceramic/glass containing CAD-CAM block composite materials. CAD-CAM block materials of polymer infiltrated (Vita Enamic), resin nanoceramic (Lava Ultimate) and nanoceramic (Cerasmart) with a thickness of 1.5mm were randomly divided into two groups according to the surface treatment performed. In Group 1, specimens were wet-ground with silicon carbide abrasive papers up to no. 1000. In Group 2, 9.6% hydrofluoric acid gel was applied to ceramics. Three different resin cements (RelyX, Variolink Esthetic and G-CEM LinkAce) were applied to the tubes in 1.2-mm thick increments and light-cured for 40s using LED light curing unit. Half of the specimens (n=10) were submitted to thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55°C). The strength measurements were accomplished with a universal testing machine (Lloyd Instruments) at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min until the failure occurs. Failure modes were examined using a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests (α=0.05). There were significant differences between ceramics and resin cements (pceramics (pceramic/glass-polymer materials might promote the bonding capacity of these systems. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical strengths of modified PET mortar composites in aggressive MgSO4 medium: ACI & B.S predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tani N; Benosman A.S.; Senhadji Y.; Taïbi H.; Mouli M.

    2018-01-01

    Composites mortars based on plastic aggregates are often considered as an innovative materials of the future because of their potential and the advantages they present. In this paper, a comparative study was carried out on the effect of magnesium sulfate MgSO4 (5%) attack on the durability of composite mortars modified by recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Laboratory tests were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced b...

  8. Neutron radiography of heated high-performance mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber B.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutron radiography was applied to investigate the water distribution in mortar samples heated from one side to 600 °C. In mortar, aggregates and anhydrous cement are almost transparent to neutrons, while hydration products and water-filled capillary pores bear the largest attenuation. The evolution of the moisture profile shows a sharp dehydration front and accumulation of water due to condensation of water vapor behind this front.

  9. Effect of a biodegradable natural polymer on the properties of hardened lime-based mortars; Efecto de un polimero natural biodegradable en las propiedades de morteros de cal en estado endurecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaguirre, A.; Lanas, J.; Alvarez, J. I.

    2011-07-01

    As an environmentally friendly and energy-saving alternative to cement-based materials and to some chemically obtained water-reducers, a commercialized starch was incorporated into aerial lime-based matrix. Different dosages were tested in order to study the influence that the amount of additive exerted on the properties of the material. Density, shrinkage, water absorption through capillarity, water vapour permeability, mechanical strengths, porosity, pore size distribution, and durability in the face of freezing-thawing cycles were studied in the mortars. The tested starch acted as a thickener for dosages up to 0.30%, and changed its behaviour for the largest dosage (0.50%): in that case it behaved as a plasticizer, dispersing the lime through the fresh mass and generating a more workable material. As a result, the matrix of the hardened mortar presented great coherence, owing to its large density and low porosity, characteristics which led to lower capillarity and permeability, better mechanical properties and durability. (Author) 46 refs.

  10. Low Carbon Footprint mortar from Pozzolanic Waste Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmannavaz, Taha; Mehman navaz, Hossein Ali; Moayed Zefreh, Fereshteh; Aboata, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, Portland cement clinker leads to emission of CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore causes greenhouse effect. Incorporating of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) and Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) as partial cement replacement materials into mix of low carbon mortar decreases the amount of cement use and reduces high dependence on cements compared to ordinary mortar. The result of this research supported use of the new concept in preparing low carbon mortar for industrial constructions. Strength of low carbon mortar with POFA and PFA replacement in cement was affected and changed by replacing percent finesse, physical and chemical properties and pozzolanic activity of these wastes. Waste material replacement instead of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used in this study. This in turn was useful for promoting better quality of construction and innovative systems in construction industry, especially in Malaysia. This study was surely a step forward to achieving quality products which were affordable, durable and environmentally friendly. Disposing ash contributes to shortage of landfill space in Malaysia. Besides, hazard of ash might be another serious issue for human health. The ash disposal area also might create a new problem, which is the area's sedimentation and erosion.

  11. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.A. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)]. E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Wenk, H.R. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 497 McCone 94720-4767, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Monteiro, P.J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 725 Davis Hall 94720-1710, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages.

  12. Comparative investigation of mortars from Roman Colosseum and cistern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.A.; Wenk, H.R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mortar from the Roman Colosseum and a Roman cistern from Albano Laziale were characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The different techniques provided consistent results that the mortar of the Colosseum is mainly calcareous lime, while the mortar of the cistern is pozzolanic siliceous material. The study highlights the capabilities of the different methods for the analysis of cement. For routine analysis XRD is adequate but for characterization of poorly crystalline phases FT-IR and TGA have definite advantages

  13. Gas generation from the irradiation of mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.A.; Warren, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A mortar formulation capable of immobilizing chloride salts with high levels of radioactivity is being developed. As part of the developmental effort, radiation effects are being investigated. The radiolytic generation of gas(es) from irradiated mortar formulations was determined for several formulations with variable salt loadings at several test temperatures. The irradiation of a mortar formulation consisting of cement, slag, fly ash, water and 0 to 10 wt % salt led to the generation of hydrogen. The rate of generation was approximately constant, steady state pressures were not attained and final pressures were comparatively high. Higher salt concentrations were correlated with higher hydrogen generation rates for experiments at ambient temperature while lower rates were observed at 120/degree/C. The irradiation of a mortar consisting of cement, fly ash, water and salt led to the radiolytic generation of both oxygen and hydrogen. The addition of 2 wt % FeS or CaS inhibited oxygen generation and changed the hydrogen production rate. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O.

    2013-01-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository

  15. Reuse of ash coal in the formulation of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, J.S.; Souza, C.A.G.; Souza, J.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to study the ash incorporation from the combustion of coal in fluidized bed boilers, in production of mortar, replacing part of cement. Specimens were prepared using Portland cement to the specifications CPII-E-32 of normal characteristics and classification of sand below 100 mesh. Blends in the 4:1 ratio, that is, 4 parts of aggregate to 1 part of cement, with insertion of ashes in the proportions 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The mortar was developed in mixing and casting was made in a mold of 5 cm x 10 cm. The behavior of compressive strength was evaluated after 28 days; the strength decreases with increasing percentage of ash. Additional analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction, and it was found that the substitution of this waste can be successfully used in mortars with blends of up to 30%. (author)

  16. Characterization of Incorporation the Glass Waste in Adhesive Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D. P.; Azevedo, A. R. G.; Hespanhol, R. L.; Alexandre, J.

    Ehe search for reuse generated waste in urban centers, intending to preserve natural resources, has remained fairly constant, both in context of preventing exploitation of resources as the emplacement of waste on the environment. Glass waste glass created a serious environmental problem, mainly because of inconsistency of its flows. Ehe use of this product as a mineral additive, finely ground, cement replacement and aggregate is a promising direction for recycling. This work aims to study the influence of glass waste from cutting process in adhesive mortar, replacing part of cement. Ehe glass powder is used replacing Portland cement at 10, 15 and 20% by mass. Ehe produced mortars will be evaluated its performance in fresh and hardened states through tests performed in laboratory. Ehe selected feature is indicated by producers of additive and researchers to present good results when used as adhesive mortar.

  17. Wastes as Aggregates, Binders or Additions in Mortars: Selecting Their Role Based on Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinha, Catarina Brazão; de Brito, Jorge; Veiga, Rosário; Fernández, J M; Jiménez, J R; Esquinas, A R

    2018-03-20

    The production of waste has increased over the years and, lacking a recycle or recovery solution, it is forwarded to landfill. The incorporation of wastes in cement-based materials is a solution to reduce waste deposition. In this regard, some researchers have been studying the incorporation of wastes with different functions: aggregate, binder and addition. The incorporation of wastes should take advantage of their characteristics. It requires a judicious analysis of their particles. This research involves the analysis of seven industrial wastes: biomass ashes, glass fibre, reinforced polymer dust, sanitary ware, fluid catalytic cracking, acrylic fibre, textile fibre and glass fibre. The main characteristics and advantages of each waste are enunciated and the best type of introduction in mortars is discussed. The characterization of the wastes as particles is necessary to identify the most suitable incorporation in mortars. In this research, some wastes are studied with a view to their re-use or recycling in mortars. Thus, this research focuses on the chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of industrial wastes and identification of the potentially most advantageous type of incorporation.

  18. Wastes as Aggregates, Binders or Additions in Mortars: Selecting Their Role Based on Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Brazão Farinha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste has increased over the years and, lacking a recycle or recovery solution, it is forwarded to landfill. The incorporation of wastes in cement-based materials is a solution to reduce waste deposition. In this regard, some researchers have been studying the incorporation of wastes with different functions: aggregate, binder and addition. The incorporation of wastes should take advantage of their characteristics. It requires a judicious analysis of their particles. This research involves the analysis of seven industrial wastes: biomass ashes, glass fibre, reinforced polymer dust, sanitary ware, fluid catalytic cracking, acrylic fibre, textile fibre and glass fibre. The main characteristics and advantages of each waste are enunciated and the best type of introduction in mortars is discussed. The characterization of the wastes as particles is necessary to identify the most suitable incorporation in mortars. In this research, some wastes are studied with a view to their re-use or recycling in mortars. Thus, this research focuses on the chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of industrial wastes and identification of the potentially most advantageous type of incorporation.

  19. Wastes as Aggregates, Binders or Additions in Mortars: Selecting Their Role Based on Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Jorge; Veiga, Rosário

    2018-01-01

    The production of waste has increased over the years and, lacking a recycle or recovery solution, it is forwarded to landfill. The incorporation of wastes in cement-based materials is a solution to reduce waste deposition. In this regard, some researchers have been studying the incorporation of wastes with different functions: aggregate, binder and addition. The incorporation of wastes should take advantage of their characteristics. It requires a judicious analysis of their particles. This research involves the analysis of seven industrial wastes: biomass ashes, glass fibre, reinforced polymer dust, sanitary ware, fluid catalytic cracking, acrylic fibre, textile fibre and glass fibre. The main characteristics and advantages of each waste are enunciated and the best type of introduction in mortars is discussed. The characterization of the wastes as particles is necessary to identify the most suitable incorporation in mortars. In this research, some wastes are studied with a view to their re-use or recycling in mortars. Thus, this research focuses on the chemical, physical and mechanical characterization of industrial wastes and identification of the potentially most advantageous type of incorporation. PMID:29558418

  20. Alkali activated slag mortars provide high resistance to chloride-induced corrosion of steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Maria; Provis, John L.

    2018-06-01

    The pore solutions of alkali-activated slag cements and Portland-based cements are very different in terms of their chemical and redox characteristics, particularly due to the high alkalinity and high sulfide content of alkali-activated slag cement. Therefore, differences in corrosion mechanisms of steel elements embedded in these cements could be expected, with important implications for the durability of reinforced concrete elements. This study assesses the corrosion behaviour of steel embedded in alkali-activated blast furnace slag (BFS) mortars exposed to alkaline solution, alkaline chloride-rich solution, water, and standard laboratory conditions, using electrochemical techniques. White Portland cement (WPC) mortars and blended cement mortars (white Portland cement and blast furnace slag) were also tested for comparative purposes. The steel elements embedded in immersed alkali-activated slag mortars presented very negative redox potentials and high apparent corrosion current values; the presence of sulfide reduced the redox potential, and the oxidation of the reduced sulfur-containing species within the cement itself gave an electrochemical signal that classical electrochemical tests for reinforced concrete durability would interpret as being due to steel corrosion processes. However, the actual observed resistance to chloride-induced corrosion was very high, as measured by extraction and characterisation of the steel at the end of a 9-month exposure period, whereas the steel embedded in white Portland cement mortars was significantly damaged under the same conditions.

  1. Immobilization of radioactive and hazardous wastes in a newly developed sulfur polymer cement (Spc) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Raouf, M.W.; Husain, A.I.; El-Gammal, B.

    2005-01-01

    Low and Intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILW) and hazardous wastes, presents a waste disposal problem. In this respect, a process to immobilize different radioactive and hazardous wastes, including metals contaminated with radionuclides in a form that is non-dispersible and meet the Environmental Protection Agency (USA, EPA) leaching criteria is a must. In this stabilization and solidification process (S/S), simulated radioactive wastes of Cs, Sr, Ce, Cr, and Pb were immobilized in the stable form of sulfur polymer cement (SPC). In the present work, the mixture of the contaminant(s) and the sulfur mixture which is composed from 95% S and 5% aromatic/or aliphatic hydrocarbons used as polymerizing agents for sulfur (by weight), were added in a stainless steel vessel and primarily heated to 40 degree C for four hours, this time was sufficient for homogeneous mixing of the metals with sulfur and Na 2 S (to convert the metals to their corresponding sulfides). Additional SPC was then added and the temperature of the mixture was raised to 135 ±1 degree C, resulting in a molten form that was poured into a stainless steel mold where it cooled and solidified. Durability of the fabricated SPC matrices was assessed in terms of water of immersion, porosity, and compressive strength. The water absorption and open porosity were very low and didn't exceed 2.5 % for all matrices, whereas the compressive strength ranged between 7 and 14 KN/m 2 depending on the matrix composition. The immobilized waste forms of SPC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique that showed that the different contaminants were stabilized during the solidification process to form stable sulfides. Leachability of the waste matrices was assessed by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the EPA, optimized and compared with the new EPA Universal Treatment Standards.The TCLP results showed that the concentration of the most contaminants released were under detection limit

  2. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  3. Study on basalt fiber parameters affecting fiber-reinforced mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, A. A.; Chernykh, T. N.; Sashina, A. V.; Bogusevich, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the effect of different dosages and diameters of basalt fibers on tensile strength increase during bending of fiberboard-reinforced mortar samples. The optimal dosages of fiber, providing maximum strength in bending are revealed. The durability of basalt fiber in an environment of cement, by means of microscopic analysis of samples of fibers and fiberboard-reinforced mortar long-term tests is examined. The article also compares the behavior of basalt fiber in the cement stone environment to a glass one and reveals that the basalt fiber is not subject to destruction.

  4. Recycling the construction and demolition waste to produce polymer concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mohammad T.; Hameed, Awham M., Dr.

    2018-05-01

    The sustainable management for solid wastes of the construction and demolition waste stimulates searching for safety applications for these wastes. The aim of this research is recycling of construction and demolition waste with some different types of polymeric resins to be used in manufacturing process of polymer mortar or polymer concrete, and studying their mechanical and physical properties, and also Specify how the values of compressive strength and the density are affected via the different parameters. In this research two types of construction and demolition waste were used as aggregates replacement (i.e. waste cement/concrete debris, and the waste blocks) while the two types of polymer resins (i.e. Unsaturated polyester and Epoxy) as cement replacements. The used weight percentages of the resins were changed within (1°, 20, 25 and 30) % to manufacture this polymer concrete.

  5. Fabrication characteristics and strength of polymer-impregnated concrete polymerized by accelerated electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgishi, Sakichi; Matsunaga, Katsumi; Ono, Hironobu; Iwamoto, Takeo.

    1977-01-01

    Since the accelerated electron has by far a higher dose rate than gamma-rays, the electron polymerizing method is more suitable for the efficient fabrication of polymer-impregnated concrete (PIC) with a thin cross section. However, there are few published papers on the manufacturing process of PIC polymerized by electron beam. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of density of cement mortar, dose rate of electron beam (4 MeV), total exposure dose and other factors which have influences upon the strength of MMA-PIC. The density of mortar, size of cross section of mortar specimens, dose rate of electron, total exposure dose and irradiating time interval were varied respectively as follow; rho=1.55 -- 3.13 g/cm 3 (the kinds of aggregates in cement mortar used are perlite, artificial light weight aggregate, normal river sand and iron sand), t=3.5 -- 40 mm in thickness, 0.55 or 1.10 Mrads/sec, 12.5 -- 100 Mrads per face, and 15 -- 60 sec/cycle. The test results of mechanical strength of PIC show that the optimum total exposure dose is about 40 Mrads at 0.55 Mrads/sec rate and 50 Mrads at 1.1 Mrads/sec in the ordinary mortar. It is also shown that the impregnation depth from the surface of specimen has a linear relation with the density of cement mortar, and that its depth is about 1 cm in conventional mortar. (auth.)

  6. Properties of Foamed Mortar Prepared with Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed mortar with a density of 1300 kg/m3 was prepared. In the initial laboratory trials, water-to-cement (w/c ratios ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 were tested to determine the optimal value for foamed mortar corresponding to the highest compressive strength without compromising its fresh state properties. With the obtained optimal w/c ratio of 0.56, two types of foamed mortar were prepared, namely cement-foamed mortar (CFM and slag-foamed mortar (SFM, 50% cement was replaced by slag weight. Four different curing conditions were adopted for both types of foamed mortar to assess their compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV and thermal insulation performance. The test results indicated that utilizing 50% of slag as cement replacement in the production of foamed mortar improved the compressive strength, UPV and thermal insulation properties. Additionally, the initial water curing of seven days gained higher compressive strength and increased UPV values as compared to the air cured and natural weather curing samples. However, this positive effect was more pronounced in the case of compressive strength than in the UPV and thermal conductivity of foamed mortar.

  7. Properties of Foamed Mortar Prepared with Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Lim, Siong-Kang; Tan, Cher-Siang; Li, Bo; Ling, Tung-Chai; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingyuan

    2015-01-30

    Foamed mortar with a density of 1300 kg/m³ was prepared. In the initial laboratory trials, water-to-cement (w/c) ratios ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 were tested to determine the optimal value for foamed mortar corresponding to the highest compressive strength without compromising its fresh state properties. With the obtained optimal w/c ratio of 0.56, two types of foamed mortar were prepared, namely cement-foamed mortar (CFM) and slag-foamed mortar (SFM, 50% cement was replaced by slag weight). Four different curing conditions were adopted for both types of foamed mortar to assess their compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and thermal insulation performance. The test results indicated that utilizing 50% of slag as cement replacement in the production of foamed mortar improved the compressive strength, UPV and thermal insulation properties. Additionally, the initial water curing of seven days gained higher compressive strength and increased UPV values as compared to the air cured and natural weather curing samples. However, this positive effect was more pronounced in the case of compressive strength than in the UPV and thermal conductivity of foamed mortar.

  8. Stiffness plasticity degradation of masonry mortar under compression: preliminary results : Perda de rigidez da argamassa de assentamento da alvenaria comprimida: resultados preliminares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, G.; Fonseca, F.S.; Vermeltfoort, A.T.; Lubeck, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to determine the mechanical properties of bedding mortar by assessing the mortar damage onset, the stiff ness plasticity degradation and the apparent Poisson´s ratio under compression. Two mortar types, 1:0.5:4 and 1:1:6 (cement:lime:sand ratio), were used and

  9. The effect of fly ash on the quality of mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovy, M F [Blue Circle Cement (Pty) Ltd., Industria West (South Africa)

    1994-12-31

    A comparative study of the commercially available blends of the fly cement was made. The focus of the research was to determine the suitability of fly ash blends in mortars. A comparative evaluation was made to establish the differences between laboratory analysis and on site practice. These comparisons were made using 4 different building sands. The laboratory evaluations were confined to specified test methods to determine the suitability of the mortar. However, the in-situ tests required an innovative approach such as: conducting tests on mortar joints to determine the in-situ compressive strengths. (A new technique was developed, which involves shooting nails into the mortar joint, determining the penetration depth and its pull out strength. This is then calibrated against cube strengths); and conducting tests using the SABS approach to determine the resistance to water penetration through a brick wall. The trends in the laboratory evaluations were as expected in terms of improved water demands, water retention and reduced compressive strengths. The in-situ mortar compressive strengths were marginally lower when using fly ash blends compared to ordinary portland cement. The use of fly ash blends improved the resistance of water penetration through a brick wall. In-situ tests are probably the only meaningful way to determine the effectiveness of a mortar in fulfilling its functions in a wall as laid down by SABS 0164:1990. With this in mind, the same quality or an improved quality mortar will be obtained using fly ash blended cements rather than ordinary portland cement. 10 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Analysis of Chemical Composition of Portland Cement in Ghana: A Key to Understand the Behavior of Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Bediako, Mark; Amankwah, Eric Opoku

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Portland cement in concrete or mortar formation is very well influenced by chemical compositions among other factors. Many engineers usually have little information on the chemical compositions of cement in making decisions for the choice of commercially available Portland cement in Ghana. This work analyzed five different brands of Portland cement in Ghana, namely, Ghacem ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and Portland limestone cement (PLC), CSIR-BRRI Pozzomix, Dangote OPC, a...

  11. Durability of Mortar Made with Fine Glass Powdered Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Bom Conselho Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different studies investigate the use of waste glass in Portland cement compounds, either as aggregates or as supplementary cementitious materials. Nevertheless, it seems that there is no consensus about the influence of particle color and size on the behavior of the compounds. This study addresses the influence of cement replacement by 10 and 20% of the colorless and amber soda-lime glass particles sized around 9.5 μm on the performance of Portland cement mortars. Results revealed that the partial replacement of cement could contribute to the production of durable mortars in relation to the inhibition of the alkali-aggregate reaction. This effect was more marked with 20% replacement using amber glass. Samples containing glass microparticles were more resistant to corrosion, in particular those made of colorless glass. The use of colorless and amber glass microparticles promoted a reduction in wear resistance.

  12. Development of a low-cost cement free polymer concrete using industrial by-products and dune sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Najif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkali-activated polymer concrete (APC can potentially reduce CO2 emissions associated to concrete production by 84%. The binder in APC herein was synthesized using a combined sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution (i.e., alkali activator, alumino-silicate rich precursor (fly ash and slag. Light weight expanded clay and desert dune sand were used as aggregates. An overview of an experimental program was presented, which involved evaluation of fresh and mechanical properties of the produced APC and counterpart mortar (APM. Variables investigated were the fly ash to slag ratio and curing conditions. The curing regimes adopted herein included 24 hours of curing at ambient conditions, 30°C, and 60°C. The experimental program was undertaken in two stages, of these the first stage involved physical and chemical testing of constituent materials and the second stage involved testing or produced APM/APC. Reported were the setting times, workability, compression strength, strength development, flexural strength, tensile splitting strength, and plastic shrinkage strains. Relationship between strength results were investigated and effectiveness of codified predictive equations was evaluated.

  13. Reuse of ground waste glass as aggregate for mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, V; Gnappi, G; Moriconi, G; Montenero, A

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed at studying the possibility of reusing waste glass from crushed containers and building demolition as aggregate for preparing mortars and concrete. At present, this kind of reuse is still not common due to the risk of alkali-silica reaction between the alkalis of cement and silica of the waste glass. This expansive reaction can cause great problems of cracking and, consequently, it can be extremely deleterious for the durability of mortar and concrete. However, data reported in the literature show that if the waste glass is finely ground, under 75mum, this effect does not occur and mortar durability is guaranteed. Therefore, in this work the possible reactivity of waste glass with the cement paste in mortars was verified, by varying the particle size of the finely ground waste glass. No reaction has been detected with particle size up to 100mum thus indicating the feasibility of the waste glass reuse as fine aggregate in mortars and concrete. In addition, waste glass seems to positively contribute to the mortar micro-structural properties resulting in an evident improvement of its mechanical performance.

  14. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  15. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer

  16. Predicting the drying shrinkage behavior of high strength portland cement mortar under the combined influence of fine aggregate and steel micro fiber; Predicción del comportamiento de retracción por secado de morteros de cemento Pórtland de alta resistencia bajo la influencia combinada de árido fino y micro fibra de acero.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengqi

    2017-07-01

    The workability, 28-day compressive strength and free drying shrinkage of a very high strength (121-142 MPa) steel micro fiber reinforced portland cement mortar were studied under a combined influence of fine aggregate content and fiber content. The test results showed that an increase in the fine aggregate content resulted in decreases in the workability, 28-day compressive strength and drying shrinkage of mortar at a fixed fiber content. An increase in the fiber content resulted in decreases in the workability and drying shrinkage of mortar, but an increase in the 28-day compressive strength of mortar at a fixed fine aggregate content. The modified Gardner model most accurately predicted the drying shrinkage development of the high strength mortars, followed by the Ross model and the ACI 209R-92 model. The Gardner model gave the least accurate prediction for it was developed based on a database of normal strength concrete. [Spanish] Se ha estudiado la trabajabilidad, resistencia a la compresión (28 días) y la retracción al secado de morteros de cemento Pórtland de muy alta resistencia (121-142 MPa) reforzados con micro fibra de acero, con la influencia combinada de contenido de árido fino y de micro fibra de acero. El aumento en el contenido de árido fino resultó en la disminución de la trabajabilidad, resistencia a la compresión y la retracción por secado de los morteros con un contenido de fibra específico. El aumento en el contenido de fibra dio lugar a la disminución de la trabajabilidad y la retracción por secado, y a un aumento en la resistencia a la compresión a 28 días en morteros con un contenido específico de á rido fino. El modelo modificado de Gardner predijo con más precisión la retracción por secado de mortero de alta resistencia, seguido por el modelo de Ross y el modelo ACI 209R-92. El modelo de Gardner dio la predicción menos exacta debido al hecho de que se desarrolló sobre bases de datos de hormigones de resistencia normal.

  17. Properties of microcement mortar with nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimeneti, Narasimha Reddy

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and Carbon nanofibers (CNF) are one of the toughest and stiffest materials in the world presently with extreme properties yet to be discovered in terms of elastic modulus and tensile strength. Due to the advanced properties of these materials they are being used in almost all fields of science at nanolevel and are being used in construction industry recently for improvement of material properties. Microcement is fine ground cement which as half the particle size of ordinary Portland cement. In this research the behavior of cement mortar of micro cement with the addition of nanoparticles is studied. Due to high aspect ratio and strong van der Waal forces between the particles of CNT and CNF, they agglomerate and form bundles when mixed with water, sonication method is used to mix nanoparticles with few drops of surfactant and super plasticizer. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and flexural strength with CNT and CNF composites are examined and compared with control samples. 0.1% and 0.05 % of nanoparticles (both CNT and CNF) by the weight of cement are used in this research and 0.8% of super plasticizer by weight of cement was also used along with 0.4, 0.45 and 0.50 water cement ratios for making specimens for compression test. The compressive strength results are not satisfactory as there was no constant increase in strength with all the composites, however strength of few nanocomposites increased by a good percentage. 0.5 water cement ratio cement mortar had compressive strength of 7.15 ksi (49.3 MPa), whereas sample with 0.1% CNT showed 8.38 ksi (57.8 MPa) with 17% increase in strength after 28 days. Same trend was followed by 0.4 water cement ratio as the compressive strength of control sample was 8.89 ksi (61.3 MPa), with 0.05% of CNT strength increased to 10.90 ksi (75.2 MPa) with 23% increase in strength. 0.4 water cement ratio was used for flexural tests including 0.1%, 0.05% of CNT and 0.1%, 0.05% of CNF with 0

  18. Interfacial (Fiber-matrix) Properties of High-strength Mortar (150 MPa) from Fiber Pullout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shannag, M.J.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Will

    1996-01-01

     The steel fiber-matrix properties of high-strength mortar (150 MPa), such as DSP (densified small particle), are obtained and compared to an ordinary strength mortar (40 MPa) using a specially designed fiber pullout apparatus. A new method for estimating the debonding energy of the interfacial z......-strength DSP mortar has significantly improved interfacial properties compared to ordinary strength mortar. These results are important in the understanding of the role of steel fibers in improving the tensile properties of high-strength, brittle, cement-matrix composites....... The steel fiber-matrix properties of high-strength mortar (150 MPa), such as DSP (densified small particle), are obtained and compared to an ordinary strength mortar (40 MPa) using a specially designed fiber pullout apparatus. A new method for estimating the debonding energy of the interfacial...

  19. Plastic shrinkage of mortars with shrinkage reducing admixture and lightweight aggregates studied by neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrzykowski, Mateusz, E-mail: mateusz.wyrzykowski@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lodz University of Technology, Department of Building Physics and Building Materials, Lodz (Poland); Trtik, Pavel [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Münch, Beat [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Weiss, Jason [Purdue University, School of Civil Engineering, West Lafayette (United States); Vontobel, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland); Lura, Pietro [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Concrete and Construction Chemistry Laboratory, Dübendorf (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Institute for Building Materials (IfB), Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Water transport in fresh, highly permeable concrete and rapid water evaporation from the concrete surface during the first few hours after placement are the key parameters influencing plastic shrinkage cracking. In this work, neutron tomography was used to determine both the water loss from the concrete surface due to evaporation and the redistribution of fluid that occurs in fresh mortars exposed to external drying. In addition to the reference mortar with a water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.30, a mortar with the addition of pre-wetted lightweight aggregates (LWA) and a mortar with a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) were tested. The addition of SRA reduced the evaporation rate from the mortar at the initial stages of drying and reduced the total water loss. The pre-wetted LWA released a large part of the absorbed water as a consequence of capillary pressure developing in the fresh mortar due to evaporation.

  20. Plastic shrinkage of mortars with shrinkage reducing admixture and lightweight aggregates studied by neutron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrzykowski, Mateusz; Trtik, Pavel; Münch, Beat; Weiss, Jason; Vontobel, Peter; Lura, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Water transport in fresh, highly permeable concrete and rapid water evaporation from the concrete surface during the first few hours after placement are the key parameters influencing plastic shrinkage cracking. In this work, neutron tomography was used to determine both the water loss from the concrete surface due to evaporation and the redistribution of fluid that occurs in fresh mortars exposed to external drying. In addition to the reference mortar with a water to cement ratio (w/c) of 0.30, a mortar with the addition of pre-wetted lightweight aggregates (LWA) and a mortar with a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) were tested. The addition of SRA reduced the evaporation rate from the mortar at the initial stages of drying and reduced the total water loss. The pre-wetted LWA released a large part of the absorbed water as a consequence of capillary pressure developing in the fresh mortar due to evaporation

  1. Radioactive Wastes Cementation during Decommissioning Of Salaspils Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkova, G.; Klavins, M.; Abramenkovs, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with information on the radioactive wastes cementation technology for decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). Dismantled radioactive materials were cemented in concrete containers using tritiated water-cement mortar. The laboratory tests system was developed to meet the waste acceptance criteria for disposal of containers with cemented radioactive wastes in near-surface repository 'Radons'. The viscosity of water-cement mortar, mechanical tests of solidified mortar's samples, change of temperature of the samples during solidification time and leakage of Cs-137 and T-3 radionuclides was studied for different water-cement compositions with different additives. The pH and electro conductivity of the solutions during leakage tests were controlled. It was shown, that water/cement ratio significantly influences on water-cement mortar's viscosity and solidified samples mechanical stability. Increasing of water ratio from 0.45 up to 0.62 decreases water-cement mortar's viscosity from 1100 mPas up to 90 mPas and decreases mechanical stability of water-cement samples from 23 N/mm 2 to the 12 N/mm 2 . The role of additives - fly ash and Penetron admix in reduction of solidification temperature is discussed. It was found, that addition of fly ash to the cement-water mortar can reduce the solidification temperature from 81 deg. C up to 62 deg. C. The optimal interval of water ratio in cement mortar is discussed. Tritium and Cs-137 leakage tests show, that radionuclides release curves has a complicate structure. The possible radionuclides release mechanisms are discussed. Experimental results indicated that addition of fly ash result in facilitation of tritium and cesium leakage in water phase. Further directions of investigations are drafted. (authors)

  2. Study on an Improved Phosphate Cement Binder for the Development of Fiber-Reinforced Inorganic Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ding

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium phosphate cement (MPC has been proven to be a very good repair material for deteriorated concrete structures. It has excellent adhesion performance, leading to high bonding strength with old concrete substrates. This paper presents an experimental study into the properties of MPC binder as the matrix of carbon fiber sheets to form fiber-reinforced inorganic polymer (FRIP composites. The physical and mechanical performance of the fresh mixed and the hardened MPC paste, the bond strength of carbon fiber sheets in the MPC matrix, the tensile strength of the carbon FRIP composites and the microstructure of the MPC matrix and fiber-reinforced MPC composites were investigated. The test results showed that the improved MPC binder is well suited for developing FRIP composites, which can be a promising alternative to externally-bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for the strengthening of concrete structures. Through the present study, an in-depth understanding of the behavior of fiber-reinforced inorganic MPC composites has been achieved.

  3. Mixed waste solidification testing on polymer and cement-based waste forms in support of Hanford's WRAP 2A facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A. Jr.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Company to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based, thermosetting polymer, and thermoplastic polymer solidification media to substantiate the technology approach for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate materials representing each of the eight waste types were prepared in the laboratory. These surrogates were then solidified with the selected immobilization media and subjected to a battery of standard performance tests. Detailed discussion of the laboratory work and results are contained in this report

  4. Compressive strength of concrete and mortar containing fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention includes a method for predicting the compressive strength of such a hardenable mixture, which is very important for planning a project. The invention also relates to hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash which can achieve greater compressive strength than hardenable mixtures containing only concrete over the time period relevant for construction. In a specific embodiment, a formula is provided that accurately predicts compressive strength of concrete containing fly ash out to 180 days. In other specific examples, concrete and mortar containing about 15% to 25% fly ash as a replacement for cement, which are capable of meeting design specifications required for building and highway construction, are provided. Such materials can thus significantly reduce construction costs.

  5. Recommended method for measurement of absorbency of superabsorbent polymers in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro

    2015-01-01

    —laser diffraction particle size analysis, and it allows an easy and reliable measurement of the absorbency of superabsorbent polymers. It is shown in detail how both the definition of the exposure liquid and the definition of the system of SAP particles can be selected so that absorbency can be experimentally...... so that the properties of concrete with superabsorbent polymers can be better controlled in practice. In this paper, a technique that can be potentially used as a standard method is developed. The method is based on a measurement technique validated through an international standard procedure...

  6. Use of limestone obtained from waste of the mussel cannery industry for the production of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, Paloma; Marmol, Isabel; Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Various types of cement-SiO 2 -CaCO 3 mortar were prepared by replacing quarry limestone aggregate with limestone obtained as a by-product from waste of the mussel cannery industry. The CaCO 3 aggregate consists mainly of elongated prismatic particles less than 4 μm long rather than of the rounded particles of smaller size (2-6 μm) obtained with quarry limestone. The mechanical and structural properties of the mortars were found to be influenced by aggregate morphology. Setting of the different types of mortar after variable curing times was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) techniques. Mortars with a high content in mussel shell limestone exhibited a more packed microstructure, which facilitates setting of cement and results in improved mortar strength. The enhanced mechanical properties of the new mortars allow the cement content in the final mortar composition to be decreased and production costs to be reduced as a result

  7. Study on properties of mortar using silica fume and ground blast furnace slag. Silica fume oyobi koro slag funmatsu wo mochiita mortar no tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiiba, H; Honda, S; Araki, A [Fukuoka University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1992-09-01

    The effect of silica fume and ground blast furnace slag in concrete on the content of superplasticizer, and dynamic properties of hardened mortar with such admixtures were studied experimentally. Although the dependence of a flow value on the superplasticizer was dominated by kinds of superplasticizers, blast furnace slag enhanced the flow value resulting in a high fluidity. Adsorption of superplasticizers onto admixtures was dependent on kinds of superplasticizers, and adsorption onto blast furnace slag was 1.3-2 times that onto normal Portland cement (NPC). The compressive strength of mortar increased by mixing admixtures, while the bending strength was enhanced only by mixing silica fume. Mixing mortar was lower in dynamic elastic modulus than NPC mortar at the same compressive strength, and the velocity of supersonic wave in mortar was scarcely affected by mixing. 11 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Study on compressive strength of self compacting mortar cubes under normal & electric oven curing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna Venkatesh, G. J.; Vivek, S. S.; Dhinakaran, G.

    2017-07-01

    In the majority of civil engineering applications, the basic building blocks were the masonry units. Those masonry units were developed as a monolithic structure by plastering process with the help of binding agents namely mud, lime, cement and their combinations. In recent advancements, the mortar study plays an important role in crack repairs, structural rehabilitation, retrofitting, pointing and plastering operations. The rheology of mortar includes flowable, passing and filling properties which were analogous with the behaviour of self compacting concrete. In self compacting (SC) mortar cubes, the cement was replaced by mineral admixtures namely silica fume (SF) from 5% to 20% (with an increment of 5%), metakaolin (MK) from 10% to 30% (with an increment of 10%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) from 25% to 75% (with an increment of 25%). The ratio between cement and fine aggregate was kept constant as 1: 2 for all normal and self compacting mortar mixes. The accelerated curing namely electric oven curing with the differential temperature of 128°C for the period of 4 hours was adopted. It was found that the compressive strength obtained from the normal and electric oven method of curing was higher for self compacting mortar cubes than normal mortar cube. The cement replacement by 15% SF, 20% MK and 25%GGBS obtained higher strength under both curing conditions.

  9. Repair Mortars and New Concretes with Coal Bottom and Biomass Ashes Using Rheological Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, A.; Faustino, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to analyse the potential of using non-classical additions in concrete and mortar compositions such as coal bottom ash and biomass ash (Bio), as partial replacing binder of ordinary Portland cement. It is intended to deal with production of these type of wastes and its accumulation and contribute to the minimisation of carbon and embodied energy in construction materials. The aim is to identify the concrete and mortars formulation types where it is possible to get more benefit by incorporating bottom ash and Bio. Based on the optimisation of the rheological properties of cement-based materials, mortars with repair function and concrete compositions were developed including 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% of bottom ash and Bio as cement replacement. An assessment of the evolution of relative concrete compressive strength was calculated as a function of the relative solid volume fraction of several concretes. bottom ash compositions present low resistance to high flow rates, increasing the ease of placement and vibration. bottom ash seems to present more filler and pozzolanic effect when compared with Bio. bottom ash mortars fulfil the compressive strength and stiffness requirements to be used as repair mortars, allowing the replacement of 15% or 20% of cement by an industrial waste. This by-product is able to work in the development of the mortar and concrete microstructure strength adopting a much more sustainable solution for the environment.

  10. Effect of molarity in geo polymer earth brick reinforced with fibrous coir wastes using sandy soil and quarry dust as fine aggregate. (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palanisamy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The studies are mainly carried out on strength development for various grades of geo-polymer mortar with varying molarity (M for producing geo-polymer earth brick (GPEB. The studies are focused on use of more sandy soil sieved from the raw earth available at site and quarry dust on replaced with river sand for making the un-burnt brick. The brick is reinforced with fibrous coir waste to increase shear strength and further pressed by hand compaction. Geo-polymer mortar is based on an inorganic alumina silicate binder system and it has more advantages of quick strength gain, negligence of water curing, best mechanical properties, eco-friendly, sustainable and alternate to ordinary Portland cement (OPC based mortar. Fly Ash (FA, Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS, sandy soil sieved from earth and Quarry Dust (QD are mixed with alkaline solution in different molarities 6 M, 8 M and 10 M to prepare specimens. Specimens are tested against workability, compressive strength, and water absorption test, rate of water absorption, abraded test and also fiber content of the brick. The research found that the brick is made by FA & GGBS as binders and soil & quarry dust as fine aggregate in ratio of 0.5:0.5:1.75:0.25 with fibrous coir waste 1% and alkaline solution 10 M for preparing mortar to produce, excellent compressive strength, low water absorption, low rate of absorption, good abrasive resistance etc., The new brick is placed an alternate to compressed stabilized earth block, cement block and traditional burnt brick. Keywords: Fiber reinforced geo-polymer earth brick, Geo-polymer mortar using sandy soil and quarry dust as fine-aggregate, Nature fibrous coir wastes, Un-burnt brick, Alternate to compressed stabilized earth block

  11. COMPORTAMIENTO MECÁNICO Y DE FRAGUADO DE MORTEROS DE CEMENTO PÓRTLAND GRIS TIPO III CON ADITIVOS COMPORTAMENTO MECÂNICO E DE PEGA DE MORTEIROS DE CIMENTO PORTLAND CINZENTO TIPO III COM ADITIVOS MECHANICAL AND SETTING BEHAVIOR OF MORTARS FROM GRAY PORTLAND CEMENT TYPE III WITH ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIRSON MONTOYA

    2009-07-01

    . Utilizando o aditivo em dose até de 0,6 % em peso do cimento, aumentou o tempo de atraso a valores entre 550 e 600 min com o aumento do conteúdo de aditivo. De forma similar, com o aumento no conteúdo do aditivo retardante balxou a resistência inicial e aumentou a resistência final do morteiro. Com dose crescentes de aditivo acelerante diminuiu o tempo de pega das misturas estudadas.In the present work the variability in the performance of mortars by using different batches of two types of additives, one retardant and one accelerant of setting was studied, for this purpose, their behavior was compared with a mortar without additive. The physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of the gray Portland cement type III from Cementos Rioclaro, the initial and final setting times using different doses of additive were measured; besides, compression strength tests of mortars with retardant additive were made. Between the additives batches studied a small variability was found; the retardant additive used with a content of 0,6 wt % of cement showed that as the higher initial setting time, final setting time is higher. Using the additive in doses up 0,6 % wt of cement and increase of the retard time around 550 y 600 min with the increase in the additive content. Similarly, with the increase of the retardant additive diminishes the initial strength and increases the final strength of the mortar. With growing doses of accelerant content additive diminished the setting time of the mixes studied.

  12. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes from the fuel cycle of an integral fast reactor (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal fuel. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500 degrees C. This cell has a cadmium anode and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a low-melting mixture of alkaline and alkaline earth chlorides. This paper discusses one method being considered for immobilizing this treated salt, to disperse it in a portland cement-base motar, which would then be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canisters where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material

  13. Improving the performance of cement-based composites containing superabsorbent polymers by utilization of nano-SiO2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourjavadi, Ali; Fakoorpoor, Seyed Mahmoud; Khaloo, Alireza; Hosseini, Payam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano-SiO 2 fully compensates compressive but not flexural strength. ► Nano-SiO 2 has the major contribution both to yield stress and viscosity. ► Lower dosages of SAP could reduce viscosity and yield stress of pastes. -- Abstract: The application of superabsorbent polymer (SAP) as an internal curing agent for cement based composites results in benefits such as reduced autogenous shrinkage and cracking. However, a reduction in compressive and flexural strength usually occurs due to the empty voids remained in the matrix after deswelling of SAP particles. Nanoparticles are good candidates for improving the mechanical performance of cementitious materials, due to their multiple mechanisms of action, not the least their high pozzolanic activity. In the present work, the capability of amorphous nano-SiO 2 (NS) as the most widely used nanoparticle in cementitious materials, for retrieving mechanical properties of SAP-containing pastes was evaluated, and its impact on setting time and rheological properties was measured. It was found that small dosages of NS could offset the negative effect of SAP on compressive strength but flexural strength was not fully compensated. Optimization of the dosages of NS and SAP could reduce the negative influences on the yield stress and viscosity whilst improving mechanical performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to monitor the changes in microstructure and composition.

  14. Comparison of Cement-Based and Polymer-Based Concrete Pipes for Analysis of Cost Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Bozkurt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the variety of materials utilized in construction industry has expanded, new techniques have been used in order to optimize the quality and efficiency of output. Therefore, recent innovations taking place in the construction industry led researchers to increase the mechanical efficiency of the output more than the cost effectiveness of it. However, especially professionals experiencing in the industry look into the cost effectiveness of the work. In other words, they also want researchers to justify the innovative techniques economically. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of the cost efficiency of polymer concrete used to manufacture durable and long-lasting reinforced concrete structures.

  15. HEC influence on cement hydration measured by conductometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pourchez , Jérémie; Grosseau , Philippe; Guyonnet , René; Ruot , Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Cellulose ethers are of universal use in factory-made mortars, though their influences on mortar properties at a molecular scale are poorly understood. Recent studies dealt with the influence of hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) molecular parameters on cement hydration. It was concluded that the degree of substitution is the most relevant factor on cement hydration kinetics, contrary to the molecular weight. Nevertheless, the ...

  16. Comparison of setting time and temperature hydration in mortar with substituent ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Alves, L.S.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The workability of mortar is determined mainly by the kinetics of hydration of the hydraulic binder, the process of gelation / hydration of this material in aqueous solutions is significantly influenced by the presence of additives. As a result, this work aims at studying changes in setting time and temperature of hydration of mortars with 10, 15 and 30% of Portland cement replaced by residues of porcelain and ceramic bricks. The influence of these residues in the cement hydration process was studied by testing takes time, temperature, hydration and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the mortar setting time not changed significantly since the temperature of hydration has a minor variation on what is preferred because it reduces the microcracks created in mortar during drying.(author)

  17. Deterioration of limestone aggregate mortars by liquid sodium in fast breeder reactor environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed Haneefa, K., E-mail: mhkolakkadan@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F.C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Limestone mortars were exposed to liquid sodium exposure at 550 °C. • Micro-analytical techniques were used to characterize the exposed specimens. • The performance of limestone mortar was greatly influenced by w/c. • The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars were identified. - Abstract: Hot liquid sodium at 550 °C can interact with concrete in the scenario of an accidental spillage of sodium in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. To protect the structural concrete from thermo-chemical degradation, a sacrificial layer of limestone aggregate concrete is provided over it. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms of thermo-chemical interaction between the hot liquid sodium and limestone mortars at 550 °C for a duration of 30 min in open air. The investigation involves four different types of cement with variation of water-to-cement ratios (w/c) from 0.4 to 0.6. Comprehensive analysis of experimental results reveals that the degree of damage experienced by limestone mortars displayed an upward trend with increase in w/c ratios for a given type of cement. Performance of fly ash based Portland pozzolana cement was superior to other types of cements for a w/c of 0.55. The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars during hot liquid sodium interactions include alterations in cement paste phase, formation of sodium compounds from the interaction between solid phases of cement paste and aggregate, modifications of interfacial transition zone (ITZ), decomposition of CaCO{sub 3}, widening and etching of rhombohedral cleavages, and subsequent breaking through the weakest rhombohedral cleavage planes of calcite, staining, ferric oxidation in grain boundaries and disintegration of impurity minerals in limestone.

  18. Deterioration of limestone aggregate mortars by liquid sodium in fast breeder reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Haneefa, K.; Santhanam, Manu; Parida, F.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Limestone mortars were exposed to liquid sodium exposure at 550 °C. • Micro-analytical techniques were used to characterize the exposed specimens. • The performance of limestone mortar was greatly influenced by w/c. • The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars were identified. - Abstract: Hot liquid sodium at 550 °C can interact with concrete in the scenario of an accidental spillage of sodium in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors. To protect the structural concrete from thermo-chemical degradation, a sacrificial layer of limestone aggregate concrete is provided over it. This study investigates the fundamental mechanisms of thermo-chemical interaction between the hot liquid sodium and limestone mortars at 550 °C for a duration of 30 min in open air. The investigation involves four different types of cement with variation of water-to-cement ratios (w/c) from 0.4 to 0.6. Comprehensive analysis of experimental results reveals that the degree of damage experienced by limestone mortars displayed an upward trend with increase in w/c ratios for a given type of cement. Performance of fly ash based Portland pozzolana cement was superior to other types of cements for a w/c of 0.55. The fundamental degradation mechanisms of limestone mortars during hot liquid sodium interactions include alterations in cement paste phase, formation of sodium compounds from the interaction between solid phases of cement paste and aggregate, modifications of interfacial transition zone (ITZ), decomposition of CaCO 3 , widening and etching of rhombohedral cleavages, and subsequent breaking through the weakest rhombohedral cleavage planes of calcite, staining, ferric oxidation in grain boundaries and disintegration of impurity minerals in limestone

  19. The physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of masonry mortars from Alhambra Palace (Spain in reference to their earthquake resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi Binici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-Andalus mortar is an ancient binding material (lime mortar that was used for centuries in numerous historical buildings in Al-Andalus, Granada (Spain. The physico-chemical and microscopic properties of Al-Andalus mortars in Granada were studied as part of an investigation into the mineral raw materials present in the territory of Spain. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of eight main types of mortars were performed to show the presence of calcite, gypsum, quartz, and muscovite minerals with organic fibers. Chemical analyses of the specimens showed that high SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 contents yielded high values of hydraulicity and cementation indices. A significant result of this study was that mortars with high hydraulicity and cementation indices have high mechanical strengths. This characteristic may be the main reason for the earthquake resistance of the historical Alhambra Palace.

  20. Improved mortar setup technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available bearing sensor. This concept focuses directly on one of the most cumbersome aspects of a mortar set-up, namely the use of aiming posts. The prismatic mirror and bearing dials is described as well as the required setup procedures. The measurement...

  1. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time. The cement phase is replaced by different percentages of dry or wet hemp fibres ranging from 1.1. wt% up to 3.1. wt% whereas carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the aqueous solution. Our experimental results show that compressive and flexural strengths of wet fibres modified mortar are higher than those for dry hemp-mortar material. The achieved optimal percentage of wet hemp fibres is 2.1. wt% allowing a flexural strength higher than that of reference mortar. The addition of an optimal CNT concentration (0.01. wt%) combined with wet hemp has a reinforcing effect which turns to be related to an improvement of compressive and flexural strengths by 10% and 24%, respectively, in comparison with reference condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The influence of alkalinity of portland cement on the absorption characteristics of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) for use in internally cured concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabares Tamayo, Juan D.

    The concrete industry increasingly emphasizes advances in novel materials that promote construction of more resilient infrastructure. Due to its potential to improve concrete durability, internal curing (IC) of concrete by means of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) has been identified as one of the most promising technologies of the 21st century. The addition of superabsorbent polymers into a cementitious system promotes further hydration of cement by providing internal moisture during the hardening and strength development periods, and thus limits self-desiccation, shrinkage, and cracking. This thesis presents the work performed on the series of cement pastes with varying alkalinity of their pore solutions to provide a better understanding of: (1) the influence of the chemistry of the pore solution (i.e. its level of alkalinity and the type of ionic species present) on the absorption capacity of SAP, and (2) the effectiveness of SAP with different absorption capacities as an internal curing agent. This research work was divided into three stages: (a) materials characterization, (b) measurement of absorption capacity of SAP in synthetic pore solutions, and (c) evaluation of the internal curing effectiveness of SAP. During the first stage (Materials Characterization), pore solutions were extracted from the fresh (5 minutes old) cement pastes prepared using cements with three different levels of alkalinity. The pH values of the extracted solutions were determined (using the pH meter) and their chemical analysis was performed by means of titration (concentration of hydroxyl), ion chromatography (sulfates and chlorides), atomic absorption (AA) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP) (sodium, potassium and calcium). The commercial SAP adopted for this study was used with "as-supplied" gradation and with the finer gradation obtained by grinding the original polymer in the 6850 Cryomilling Freezer/Mill. The physical properties of these SAP's, such

  3. Calcium Sulfoaluminate, Geopolymeric, and Cementitious Mortars for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mobili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA and geopolymeric (GEO binders as alternatives to ordinary Portland cement (OPC for the production of more environmentally-friendly construction materials. For this reason, three types of mortar with the same mechanical strength class (R3 ≥ 25 MPa, according to EN 1504-3 were tested and compared; they were based on CSA cement, an alkaline activated coal fly ash, and OPC. Firstly, binder pastes were prepared and their hydration was studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal-thermogravimetric (DT-TG analyses. Afterwards, mortars were compared in terms of workability, dynamic modulus of elasticity, adhesion to red clay bricks, free and restrained drying shrinkage, water vapor permeability, capillary water absorption, and resistance to sulfate attack. DT-TG and XRD analyses evidenced the main reactive phases of the investigated binders involved in the hydration reactions. Moreover, the sulfoaluminate mortar showed the smallest free shrinkage and the highest restrained shrinkage, mainly due to its high dynamic modulus of elasticity. The pore size distribution of geopolymeric mortar was responsible for the lowest capillary water absorption at short times and for the highest permeability to water vapor and the greatest resistance to sulfate attack.

  4. Use of rubble from building demolition in mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, V; Giuggiolini, M; Moriconi, G

    2002-01-01

    Because of increasing waste production and public concerns about the environment, it is desirable to recycle materials from building demolition. If suitably selected, ground, cleaned and sieved in appropriate industrial crushing plants, these materials can be profitably used in concrete. Nevertheless, the presence of masonry instead of concrete rubble is particularly detrimental to the mechanical performance and durability of recycled-aggregate concrete and the same negative effect is detectable when natural sand is replaced by fine recycled aggregate fraction. An alternative use of both masonry rubble and fine recycled material fraction could be in mortars. These could contain either recycled instead of natural sand or powder obtained by bricks crushing as partial cement substitution. In particular, attention is focused on the modification that takes place when either polypropylene or stainless steel fibers are added to these mortars. Polypropylene fibers are added in order to reduce shrinkage of mortars, stainless steel fibers for improving their flexural strength. The combined use of polypropylene fibers and fine recycled material from building demolition could allow the preparation of mortars showing good performance, in particular when coupled with bricks. Furthermore, the combined use of stainless steel fibers and mortars containing brick powder seems to be an effective way to guarantee a high flexural strength.

  5. High-volume use of self-cementing spray dry absorber material for structural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Charles E.

    Spray dry absorber (SDA) material, or spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of energy generation by coal combustion and sulfur emissions controls. Like any resource, it ought to be used to its fullest potential offsetting as many of the negative environmental impacts of coal combustion as possible throughout its lifecycle. Its cementitious and pozzolanic properties suggest it be used to augment or replace another energy and emissions intensive product: Portland cement. There is excellent potential for spray dryer ash to be used beneficially in structural applications, which will offset CO2 emissions due to Portland cement production, divert landfill waste by further utilizing a plentiful coal combustion by-product, and create more durable and sustainable structures. The research into beneficial use applications for SDA material is relatively undeveloped and the material is highly underutilized. This dissertation explored a specific self-cementing spray dryer ash for use as a binder in structural materials. Strength and stiffness properties of hydrated spray dryer ash mortars were improved by chemical activation with Portland cement and reinforcement with polymer fibers from automobile tire recycling. Portland cement at additions of five percent of the cementitious material was found to function effectively as an activating agent for spray dryer ash and had a significant impact on the hardened properties. The recycled polymer fibers improved the ductility and toughness of the material in all cases and increased the compressive strength of weak matrix materials like the pure hydrated ash. The resulting hardened materials exhibited useful properties that were sufficient to suggest that they be used in structural applications such as concrete, masonry block, or as a hydraulic cement binder. While the long-term performance characteristics remain to be investigated, from an embodied-energy and carbon emissions standpoint the material investigated here is far superior to

  6. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  7. Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Incorporating High Volume Oil Palm Biomass Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul; Samadi, Mostafa; Rahman Mohd. Sam, Abdul; Khalid, Nur Hafizah Abd; Nabilah Sarbini, Noor; Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Warid Hussin, Mohd; Ismail, Mohammed A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the drying shrinkage of mortar incorporating oil palm biomass waste including Palm Oil Fuel Ash, Oil Palm Kernel Shell and Oil Palm Fibre. Nano size of palm oil fuel ash was used up to 80 % as cement replacement by weight. The ash has been treated to improve the physical and chemical properties of mortar. The mass ratio of sand to blended ashes was 3:1. The test was carried out using 25 × 25 × 160 mm prism for drying shrinkage tests and 70 × 70 ×70 mm for compressive strength test. The results show that the shrinkage value of biomass mortar is reduced by 31% compared with OPC mortar thus, showing better performance in restraining deformation of the mortar while the compressive strength increased by 24% compared with OPC mortar at later age. The study gives a better understanding of how the biomass waste affect on mortar compressive strength and drying shrinkage behaviour. Overall, the oil palm biomass waste can be used to produce a better performance mortar at later age in terms of compressive strength and drying shrinkage.

  8. Use of a multi-species reactive transport model to simulate chloride ingress in mortar exposed to NaCl solution or sea-water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Mønster; De Weerdt, K.; Johannesson, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of ion ingress in Portland cement mortar using a multi-species reactive mass transport model are compared with experimental test results. The model is an extended version of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations, accounting for chemical equilibrium. Saturated mortar samples were exposed...

  9. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  10. Flexural strength of structural concrete repaired with HBPMM cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, G.H.; Khaskheli, G.B.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    To repair damaged concrete structures, Dadabhoy Cement Factory in Sindh has launched a product known as HBPMM (Hi-Bond Polymer Modified Mortar) cement. HBPMM is used to repair various concrete structures in Pakistan but the experimental back up regarding the real performance of the product, as far as flexural strength of concrete is concerned, is not well known yet. This study is thus aimed to investigate the flexural strength of structural concrete repaired with HBPMM compared to that repaired with OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). In total 32 concrete beams (6x6x18) having compressive strength of 3000 and 5000 psi were manufactured. To obtain flexural strength of the beams, these were splitted by using a UTM (Universal Testing Machine). Beams were then repaired with different applications of HBPMM and OPC. After 28 days of curing, the repaired beams were re-splitted to determine the flexural strength of repaired beams. Results show that both HBPMM and OPC are not very effective. However, the performance of HBPMM remained slightly better than that of OPC. Both OPC and HBPMM remained more efficient in case of 5000 psi concrete than that of 3000 psi concrete. Flexural strength of repaired beams could be increased by increasing application of the repairing material. (author)

  11. The adherence in the union stone-mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez García, María Reyes

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Stones placates present a wide of problems that result in the fall of plates. One of the causes is the lack of adherence stone-mortar. We considered a study to determine the adherence between several cement mortars (1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and a especial mortar prepared with latex and stones (white granite, pink granites, black granites, white marble and cream limestones. The results obtained suggest that only adequate adherence rates (higher than 3 kgf/cm2 achieved with cement mortar 1:3 and especial mortar. Besides it is observed that in the stones studied there is no relation between adherence and the absorption values.

    Los aplacados de piedra presentan una extensa patología que se traduce en la caída de las placas colocadas. Una de las causas es la falta de adherencia mortero-piedra. El estudio se realiza para determinar la tensión de adherencia entre diversos morteros de cemento (1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 y otro compuesto por mortero y látex y piedras (granito blanco, granitos rosa, granitos negros, mármol blanco y calizas crema. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que los únicos morteros que permiten valores de adherencia aceptables (superiores a 3 kp/cm2 son el mortero de cemento 1:3 y el especial. Igualmente se comprueba que, en las piedras estudiadas, no existe relación alguna entre la adherencia y la absorción de agua.

  12. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: A NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adant, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick laying, curing conditions of mortar in mortar joint differ from curing conditions of separately cured mortar. Consequently, the moisture transport properties of mortar joint differ. In addition to the ...

  13. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: a NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick laying, curing conditions of mortar in mortar joint differ from curing conditions of separately cured mortar. Consequently, the moisture transport properties of mortar joint differ. In addition to the ...

  14. WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

  15. Mechanical Properties and Durability of CNT Cement Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Camacho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, changes in mechanical properties of Portland cement-based mortars due to the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT and corrosion of embedded steel rebars in CNT cement pastes are reported. Bending strength, compression strength, porosity and density of mortars were determined and related to the CNT dosages. CNT cement paste specimens were exposed to carbonation and chloride attacks, and results on steel corrosion rate tests were related to CNT dosages. The increase in CNT content implies no significant variations of mechanical properties but higher steel corrosion intensities were observed.

  16. Experimental study and modeling of gas diffusion through partially water saturated porous media. Application to Vycor glasses, geo-polymers and CEM V cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work documents the relationship that exists between the transfer properties of a material (pore size distribution, total porosity accessible to water, water saturation degree), and its diffusion coefficient. For this sake, materials having a quasi mono modal porosity are used: Vycor glasses and geo-polymers. We also use materials having a complex porosity: CEM V cement pastes. The use of Vycor glasses and geo-polymers allows quantifying the gas diffusion coefficient through materials having known pores size, as a function of their water saturation degree. The use of cement pastes allows checking if it is possible to decompose the diffusion coefficient of a complex porosity material, in an assembling of diffusion coefficients of quasi mono modal porosity materials. For this sake, the impact of pore network arrangement on the diffusion coefficient is studied in great details. This study is divided into three parts:1)Measurement of the geometric characteristics of materials porous network by means of the mercury intrusion porosimetry, water porosimetry, isotherms of nitrogen sorption / desorption, and water desorption tests. 2) Measurement of the materials diffusion coefficient, as a function of their relative humidity storage, and their water saturation degree. 3) Modeling the diffusion coefficient of the materials, and study the impact of the pore network (tortuosity, pores connection). (author) [fr

  17. Combined effect of nano-SiO2 and nano-Fe2O3 on compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity in cement mortars; Influencia de la combinación de nano-SiO2 y nano-Fe2O3 en la resistencia a compresión, resistencia a tracción, porosidad y resistividad eléctrica de morteros de cemento.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuán, M.A.; Argiz, C.; Gálvez, J.C.; Reyes, E.

    2018-04-01

    The compressive strength, flexural strength, porosity and electrical resistivity properties of cement mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 are studied. Amorphous silica is the main component of pozzolanic materials due to its reaction with calcium hydroxide formed from calcium silicate (C3S and C2S) hydration. The pozzolanic reaction rate is not only proportional to the amount of amorphous silica but also to the surface area available for reaction. Subsequently, fine nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles in mortars are expected to improve mortar performance. The experimental results showed that the compressive strength of mortars with nano-Fe2O3 and nano-SiO2 particles were lower than those obtained with the reference mortar at seven and 28 days. It was shown that the nano-particles were not able to enhance mechanical strength on every occasion. The continuous microstructural progress monitored by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) measurements, pore-size distribution (PSD), total porosity and critical pore diameter also confirmed such results. [Spanish] Se estudia la resistencia a compresión y flexión, porosidad y resistividad eléctrica de morteros de cemento con nano-Fe2O3 y nano-SiO2. La sílice amorfa reacciona con el hidróxido de calcio formado en la hidratación del C3S y C2S. La tasa de reacción puzolánica es proporcional a la cantidad de sílice amorfa y la superficie disponible para la reacción, esperando que las partículas finas de nano-Fe2O3 y nano-SiO2 mejoren las propiedades de los morteros. Los resultados experimentales han mostrado que la resistencia a compresión a siete y 28 días de morteros con partículas de nano-Fe2O3 y nano-SiO2 era, en ocasiones, inferior a la obtenida con el mortero de referencia. Se muestra que las nano-partículas no siempre son capaces de mejorar la resistencia de los morteros. Las medidas mediante porosimetría de intrusión de mercurio (PIM) de la distribución de tamaño de poro (DTP), porosidad total y di

  18. The durability of mortar: consideration of interfacial transition zones to characterize and to model the physicals and chemicals mechanisms involved in mortar corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdette, B.

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of a study program aiming at anticipating the lifetime of concrete containers used for radioactive waste surface storage, the aim of this work is to model the physical and chemical processes of leaching of the mortars (cement paste + sand) by low ionized water at pH=8.5. This step is indispensable before the predicting of concrete durability (cement paste + sand + gravels) in which it can exist an initial microcrack. The mortar can be described as a three-phase system: the aggregates, the transition aureoles (aggregates-cement paste interfaces) and the cement matrix. The evolution of the very particular characteristics of the transition aureoles in terms of the degradation have been studied. The study has shown that the thickness of the degraded zone in the transition aureole is identical to those of the cement matrix. It has been shown too that the diffusion coefficient in the degraded transition aureole is similar to the diffusion coefficient in the degraded cement matrix. These observations can eventually be explained by a recombination of the texture and of the structure of the transition aureole during the degradation. This reorganization could lead to a decrease of the textural and structural differences which exist between the transition aureole and the cement matrix. As it has been supposed that the characteristics of the degraded zone govern the degradation kinetics, the thickness degraded in the transition aureole is then similar to those of the cement matrix. Mortar can then be considered as a two-phase system towards the degradation: the cement paste is assimilated to a pure paste but with different characteristics due to the presence of transition aureoles. In order to model the degradation of the mortar, the model used has been developed and validated by Adenot for pure cement pastes. At 300 years, the model anticipates that the thickness of the degraded zone in the mortar is of 2.9 cm, which is lightly higher than for the pure paste

  19. Tamping Mortars with Stabilizing and Plasticizing Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlyha, Volodymir; Sobol, Khrystyna

    2012-06-01

    Boreholes cementing operations at the depth of several kilometers requires the best technology as well as the best materials. To produce the materials satisfying all the requirements concerning the tamping works is possible using the technology of dry building mixes (DBM) prepared at the factories by thorough mixing of accurately dosed components. Using of chemical admixtures allows improving some properties of these mixes. In this work the influence of mineral fillers and chemical admixtures on the properties of the fresh mixture and hardened tamping mortar was investigated. It is established that introduction of the admixture with complex action on the basis of stabilizer Walocel 15-01 and plasticizer Melflux 2651 allows obtaining the fresh mixture with high spreadability. At the same time the value of dehydration approaches to zero which favorably effects on stabilization of fresh mixture and not allows the sedimentation processes to take place. By the X-ray analysis, the positive influence of modification admixtures on the hydration processes in the tamping mortars by activating them was identified. In the result of this, the formation of hydrate phases is accelerated; these phases tightly mud the pore area of tamping stone increasing by this its strength.

  20. Calcium Extraction from Blast-Furnace-Slag-Based Mortars in Sulphate Bacterial Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Estokova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater structures, such as treatment plants or sewers can be easily affected by bio-corrosion influenced by microorganisms living in waste water. The activity of these microbes results in deterioration and can cause the reduction in structural performance of such structures. In order to improve the durability of mortar and concrete, different admixtures are being used and the best impact is observed in cement based materials combined with blast furnace slag. In this study, mortar samples with blast furnace slag were exposed to bacterial sulphate attack for 90 and 180 days. The leaching of calcium ions from the cement matrix and equivalent damaged depths of studied mortar samples were evaluated. The results showed more significant leaching of samples placed in bacterial environment, compared to the samples placed in non-bacterial environment. Similarly, the equivalent damaged depths of mortars were much higher for the bacteria-influenced samples. The slag-based cement mortars did not clearly show improved resistance in bacterial medium in terms of calcium leaching.

  1. Influence of parameters of mixing of the mortar mixtures on the performance of ornamental composites for facade coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the main physical-mechanical properties of decorative coatings based on colloidal cement systems greatly depend on the homogeneity of the structure of hardened stone, therefore, in the preparation of mortar mixtures were set the task of achieving this target. It is shown that vibrational mix of materials helps to ensure the preparation of mortar mixes with cement-based colloidal systems with a more homogeneous distribution of the components. The efficiency of vibrational mixing was determined by comparing the strength of the mortar mixes based on colloidal cement glue, cooked in vibromaster when the vibration acceleration with the strength of samples prepared in a standard mortar mixer of forced action without vibration. The results of the research confirmed some influence of the mineralogical composition of clinker the cement component of the colloidal material on the effect of vibration treatment solutions. Parameters preparation of the mortar mixtures based on cement colloidal material in a vibratory mixer. Optimum resonant operating frequency of the vibrations, at which is achieved the positive effect of mixing of the mixture is ensured with amplitude 5mm while accelerating 214,8 m/S2 and duration of mixing 60-90s. It is established that vibropressure contributes to the intensification hydration processes to temperature is minus 5 0С

  2. Debonding damage analysis in composite-masonry strengthening systems with polymer- and mortar-based matrix by means of the acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstrynge, E; Wevers, M; Ghiassi, B; Lourenço, P B

    2016-01-01

    Different types of strengthening systems, based on fiber reinforced materials, are under investigation for external strengthening of historic masonry structures. A full characterization of the bond behavior and of the short- and long-term failure mechanisms is crucial to ensure effective design, compatibility with the historic substrate and durability of the strengthening solution. Therein, non-destructive techniques are essential for bond characterization, durability assessment and on-site condition monitoring. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE) technique is evaluated for debonding characterization and localization on fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) and steel reinforced grout-strengthened clay bricks. Both types of strengthening systems are subjected to accelerated ageing tests under thermal cycles and to single-lap shear bond tests. During the reported experimental campaign, AE data from the accelerated ageing tests demonstrated the thermal incompatibility between brick and epoxy-bonded FRP composites, and debonding damage was successfully detected, characterized and located. In addition, a qualitative comparison is made with digital image correlation and infrared thermography, in view of efficient on-site debonding detection. (paper)

  3. Prediction models of mechanical properties for pet-mortar composite in sodium sulphateaggressive mediums

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Tani Nabil; Benosman A.S.; Senhadji Y.; Taïbi H.; Mouli M.; Belbachir M.

    2018-01-01

    In this research, an investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulphate attack on the durability of composites produced with waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced by various volume fractions of waste PET particles (6%, 12% and 17%). The test solutions used to supply the sulphate ions and cations were 5%sodium sulphate solution. Compressive strengths measure...

  4. A new system for crack closure of cementitious materials using shrinkable polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, Anthony; Joseph, Christopher; Lark, Robert; Isaacs, Ben; Dunn, Simon; Weager, Brendon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents details of an original crack-closure system for cementitious materials using shrinkable polymer tendons. The system involves the incorporation of unbonded pre-oriented polymer tendons in cementitious beams. Crack closure is achieved by thermally activating the shrinkage mechanism of the restrained polymer tendons after the cement-based material has undergone initial curing. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated in a series of small scale experiments on pre-cracked prismatic mortar specimens. The results from these tests show that, upon activation, the polymer tendon completely closes the preformed macro-cracks and imparts a significant stress across the crack faces. The potential of the system to enhance the natural autogenous crack healing process and generally improve the durability of concrete structures is addressed.

  5. Synthesis of Expansive Mortar Developed in Laboratory for Dismounting of Ornamental Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena D V; Campos D B C; Lira H L; Neves G A

    2011-01-01

    The expansive mortar is constituted by a mixture of watery phase with an agent expander, when hydrated, presents volume increase and the generation of fictions in the rock due to generated pressure. The objective of this work is to synthecize expansive mortar that they present enough expansive pressure for the dismounting of granite and marble. They had been used as raw materials: carbonate of calcium, Portland cement and additives for control of the expansion. The formularizations had been synthecized on the basis of the chemical analysis of a mortar commercial and characterized by XRD, laser particle size measurements and evaluation of expansive pressure. All the developed formularizations had presented similar characteristics to the ones of the commercial mortar.

  6. Cost Optimization of Mortars Containing Different Pigments and Their Freeze-Thaw Resistance Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Alper Yıldızel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is common to use colored concrete or mortar in prefabricated concrete and reinforced concrete construction elements. Within the scope of this study, colored mortars were obtained with the addition of brown, yellow, black, and red pigments into the white cement. Those mixtures are examined for their compressive strength, unit weight, water absorption, and freeze-thaw resistance. Subsequent to comparison of these properties, a cost optimization has been conducted in order to compare pigment costs. The outcomes showed that the pore structure in architectural mortar applications plays an important role in terms of durability. And cost optimization results show that light colored minerals can be used instead of white cements.

  7. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO_2) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  8. Effect of the microstructure of mortars with low hydraulicity slag on their behavior in aggressive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hadj sadok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Slag is one of the most used cement additives. Due to its latent hydraulic nature, attached to its hydraulicity, it can contribute to a microstructural modification and an improvement of the durability of the concrete face of aggressive environments. In this study, a low active slag is used in the manufacture of mortars as a substitute for cement, at a maximum rate of 50%. Firstly, a study of the microstructure with mercury porosimetry was used for determination of microstructural parameters (porosity, diameters and volume distribution. The behavior of mortars in aggressive environments (sodium and magnesium sulphate and seawater was studied later. Despite the low reactivity of studied slag, its presence especially at 50% rate, in the long term, has led to a refinement of the microstructure. This effect, among others, led to better resistivity of the mortars in the sulphate environnements.

  9. Colour, compressive strength and workability of mortars with an iron rich sewage sludge ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the colour, compressive strength and workability of mortar when cement is partly replaced by sewage sludge ash (SSA). In the study, an iron rich SSA was dry milled into six different fractions. The results showed that the colour, compressive strength and workability...

  10. Development of lightweight mortars targeted on the high strength, low density and low permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, P.R.; Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Uzoegbo, H.C.; Schmidt, W.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mix design methodology for the development of cement-based lightweight mortars. Expanded-glass lightweight aggregates were used in this study as the lightweight material. The mix design was developed applying the packing theory using the modified Andreasen and Andersen model

  11. Mechanical, electrical and microstructural properties of cement-based materials in conditions of stray current flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Van Beek, C.; Van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation presents a comparative study on mechanical properties, electrical resistivity and microstructure of mortar under DC current, compared to mortar in rest (no current) conditions. Monitoring was performed from 24h after casting until 84 days of cement hydration. A current density

  12. Field and laboratory determination of a poly(vinyl/vinylidene chloride) additive in brick mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, S L; Newman, J H; Ptak, F L

    1990-02-01

    A polymerized vinyl/vinylidene chloride additive, used in brick mortar during the 60s and 70s, is detected at the building site by the field method, which employs a commercially available chloride test strip. The field test results can then be verified by the laboratory methods. In one method, total chlorine in the mortar is determined by an oxygen-bomb method and the additive chloride is determined by difference after water-soluble chlorides have been determined on a separate sample. In the second method, the polymerized additive is extracted directly from the mortar with tetrahydrofuran (THF). The difference in weight before and after extraction of the additive gives the weight of additive in the mortar. Evaporation of the THF from the extract leaves a thin film of the polymer, which gives an infrared "fingerprint" spectrum characteristic of the additive polymer.

  13. Durability of air lime mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This contribution deals with the physical and chemical reasons why pure air lime mortars used in masonry of burned bricks exposed to outdoor climate have shown to be durable from the Middle Ages to our days. This sounds strange in modern times where pure air lime mortars are regarded as weak...... materials, which are omitted from standards for new masonry buildings, where use of hydraulic binders is prescribed. The reasons for the durability seam to be two: 1. The old mortars have high lime contents. 2. The carbonation process creates a pore structure with a fine pored outer layer and coarser pores...

  14. 21 CFR 888.3353 - Hip joint metal/ceramic/polymer semi-constrained cemented or nonporous uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... linkage across-the-joint. The two-part femoral component consists of a femoral stem made of alloys to be... ceramic (aluminium oxide, A1203) head of the femoral component. The acetabular component is made of ultra... nonporous metal alloys, and used with or without bone cement. (b) Classification. Class II. [54 FR 48239...

  15. Propiedades mecánicas de morteros de cemento con adiciones de fibras de carbono, nanotubos de carbono y grafeno = Mechanical properties of cement mortars with additions of carbon fibres, carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ursúa Goicoechea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El carbono es uno de los elementos más abundantes de la naturaleza. Su particular estructura hace que pueda tener hasta cinco tipos distintos de alótropos. Durante los últimos años se han producido grandes avances en el estudio de estos materiales de carbono. Las fibras de carbono (CF, los nanotubos de carbono (CNTs y el grafeno y óxido de grafeno (GO, en función de su estructura y su escala, presentan unas propiedades notablemente diferenciadas. Este estudio pretende comparar y determinar los efectos de estas características en matrices de cemento. Las características de estos materiales son difíciles de transmitir de forma exacta a los compuestos de cemento y hormigones, principalmente por las dificultades que presentan los nanomateriales en su dispersión. Por ello, los datos obtenidos en distintos estudios muestran resultados muy variables. Sin embargo, se ha demostrado que, para mejoras medias, los nanomateriales resultan ser más eficientes. Abstract Carbon is one of the most abundant elements of nature. Its particular structure has to have up to five different types of allotropes. During the last years there have been great advances in the study of these carbon materials. Carbon fibers (CF, carbon nanotubes (CNT and graphene and graphene oxide (GO, depending on their structure and scale, have remarkably different properties. This study aims to compare and determine the effects of these characteristics on cement matrices. The characteristics of these materials are difficult to transmit accurately to concrete and cement compounds, mainly due to the difficulties presented by nanomaterials in their dispersion. Therefore, the data obtained in different studies, results, very variable. However, it has been shown that, for average improvements, nanomaterials are more efficient.

  16. Reuse of ash coal in the formulation of mortars; Reaproveitamento de cinzas de carvao mineral na formulacao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, J.S.; Souza, C.A.G.; Souza, J.A.S., E-mail: jacilene_s@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: celioag@ufpa.br, E-mail: jass@ufpa.br [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Para, UFPA/PPEQ, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This paper aims to study the ash incorporation from the combustion of coal in fluidized bed boilers, in production of mortar, replacing part of cement. Specimens were prepared using Portland cement to the specifications CPII-E-32 of normal characteristics and classification of sand below 100 mesh. Blends in the 4:1 ratio, that is, 4 parts of aggregate to 1 part of cement, with insertion of ashes in the proportions 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The mortar was developed in mixing and casting was made in a mold of 5 cm x 10 cm. The behavior of compressive strength was evaluated after 28 days; the strength decreases with increasing percentage of ash. Additional analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction, and it was found that the substitution of this waste can be successfully used in mortars with blends of up to 30%. (author)

  17. Influence of cellulose ether particle size on water retention of freshly-mixed mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Patural , Laetitia; Govin , Alexandre; Grosseau , Philippe; Ruot , Bertrand; Deves , Olivier

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Cellulose ethers are polymers frequently introduced into mortar formulations in order to improve water retention capacity and workability of the freshly-mixed materials. Physico-chemical parameters of these admixtures (molecular weight, granulometry, substitution degrees, etc) seem to have a strong influence on mortar water retention capacity. In this paper, the influence of cellulose ether particle size was studied. Two behaviors were highlighted regarding the particl...

  18. Characterization of civil construction waste and its incorporation to mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    As the preservation of the environment is a big concern nowadays, plenty of studies have arisen in order to decrease the production or reuse the waste from human activities. In this context, the civil construction industry comes up, as it is able to incorporate waste to mortar, being a great alternative for the reuse of solid waste. The scope of this work has been the characterization of Construction and Demolishment Waste (RCD) and its incorporation to the mortar aiming at the development of alternative construction materials in the future for the economical reutilization of waste discharged in embankments and landfills so far preserving the environment so far. The experimental studies taken with sample bodies, such as water absorption, resistance to compression, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electronic microscopy, elicits the viability of the partial substitution of cement by RCD mixed waste, taking its different applications into consideration. (author)

  19. Development of superhigh-strength mortars with compressive strength of 3000kgf/cm sup 2 or higher. 3000kgf/cm sup 2 ijo no asshuku kyodo wo motsu mortar no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohama, Y; Izumura, K [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). Collete of Engineering; Hayashi, S [Onoda Cement Co. Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1991-08-01

    This paper discusses the preparation factors and curing conditions of superhigh-strength mortar, and explains a method of manufacturing superhigh-strength mortar having still higher strength and its superhigh strength generating mechanism. A recommended cement material for the superhigh-strength mortar is a Portland cement mixed with a high-purity silica at 20% and silica fume at 20%. This was made to a water-cement material ratio of 15% and fine aggregate cement material ratio of 1.06, cured in an autoclave, and further heat-cured at 200{degree}C for one day to obtain a superhigh-strength mortar. The compression and bending strengths reach 2,200 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 180 kgf/cm{sup 2} respectively when used with silica sand, and 3000 kgf/cm{sup 2} and 220 kgf/cm{sup 2} or more when used with stainless steel grits. The heat curing at 200{degree}C for a day increases remarkably the compression strength of the superhigh-strength mortar regardless of the curing conditions before the heat curing. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Propriedades microestruturais de argamassas de cimento Portland com adições minerais e poliméricas utilizadas na fixação de porcelanato Study of the influence of additions on the adherence between polymer-modified mortars and porcelain stoneware tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. F. S. Almeida

    2006-09-01

    characteristics of porcelain tiles, its application on building façades requires special attention, since this material differs from conventional ceramics and because façades are exposed to weathering that can damage ceramic revetments. Literature presents lots of researches about adhesive mortars properties employing ceramic tiles with higher water absorption (more than 3%. In a different way, we find about porcelain stoneware tiles with almost 0% water absorption, that is the most important cause of detachments between the back side of porcelain tiles and the mortar, for the reason that there is no mechanical adherence how occurs for porous ceramic tiles. The present study shows some properties of mortars with polymer and silica fume additions to fix porcelain tile, intending to solve the problems about the lack of adherence. The combination of polymer and silica fume to mortars results in excellent properties, which are ideal for repairs and revestments requiring high performance, thus justifying its study for the fixing of porcelain tiles. Procedures were carried out following the specifications of the NBR 14082 standard. This article presents adherence values for mortars containing different amounts of added polymer and silica, indicating the applicability of these mortars as construction material. Microstructural properties were based on mercury intrusion porosimetry tests and scanning electron microscopy of fractured samples.

  1. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  2. Mechanical and radiation shielding properties of mortars with additive fine aggregate mine waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallala, Wissem; Hayouni, Yousra; Gaied, Mohamed Essghaier; Fusco, Michael; Alsaied, Jasmin; Bailey, Kathryn; Bourham, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effectiveness of mine waste as additive fine aggregate has been investigated. • Experimental results are verified by computationally from composition of synthesized samples. • Work focuses on shielding materials for nuclear systems including spent fuel storage and drycasks. - Abstract: Incorporation of barite-fluorspar mine waste (BFMW) as a fine aggregate additive has been investigated for its effect on the mechanical and shielding properties of cement mortar. Several mortar mixtures were prepared with different proportions of BFMW ranging from 0% to 30% as fine aggregate replacement. Cement mortar mixtures were evaluated for density, compressive and tensile strengths, and gamma ray radiation shielding. The results revealed that the mortar mixes containing 25% BFMW reaches the highest compressive strength values, which exceeded 50 MPa. Evaluation of gamma-ray attenuation was both measured by experimental tests and computationally calculated using MicroShield software package, and results have shown that using BFMW aggregates increases attenuation coefficient by about 20%. These findings have demonstrated that the mine waste can be suitably used as partial replacement aggregate to improve radiation shielding as well as to reduce the mortar and concrete costs.

  3. Coupled Effect of Elevated Temperature and Cooling Conditions on the Properties of Ground Clay Brick Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Abd El Aziz, Magdy; Abdelaleem, Salh; Heikal, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    When a concrete structure is exposed to fire and cooling, some deterioration in its chemical resistivity and mechanical properties takes place. This deterioration can reach a level at which the structure may have to be thoroughly renovated or completely replaced. In this investigation, four types of cement mortars, ground clay bricks (GCB)/sand namely 0/3, 1/2, 2/1 and 3/0, were used. Three different cement contents were used: 350, 400 and 450 kg/m3. All the mortars were prepared and cured in tap water for 3 months and then kept in laboratory atmospheric conditions up to 6 months. The specimens were subjected to elevated temperatures up to 700°C for 3h and then cooled by three different conditions: water, furnace, and air cooling. The results show that all the mortars subjected to fire, irrespective of cooling mode, suffered a significant reduction in compressive strength. However, the mortars cooled in air exhibited a relativity higher reduction in compressive strength rather than those water or furnace cooled. The mortars containing GCB/sand (3/0) and GCB/sand (1/2) exhibited a relatively higher thermal stability than the others.

  4. Improved mortar set-up technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -up Technique Presented at the Mortar Systems Conference By D de Villiers May 2009 Mobile Mortars Slide 2 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mobile Mortars Slide 3 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mobile Mortars Slide 4... © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mortar Tests Slide 5 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Mortar Tests Slide 6 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Electronic Sensors Slide 7 © CSIR 2008...

  5. The Market Gate of Miletus: damages, material characteristics and the development of a compatible mortar for restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, Siegfried; Middendorf, Bernhard

    2008-12-01

    The indoor exhibit of the Market Gate of Miletus is unique for an archaeological monument. The reconstruction of the gate was done in such a way that most marble fragments were removed leaving cored marble columns 3-4 cm in thickness. These cored columns were mounted on a steel construction and filled with different mortars or filled with specially shaped blocks of brick combined with mortar. All the missing marble elements were replaced by copies made of a Portland cement based concrete, which is compositionally similar to the original building materials. During the Second World War the monument was heavily damaged by aerial bombardment. For 2 years the Market Gate of Miletus was exposed to weathering, because a brick wall protecting the gate was also destroyed. The deterioration phenomena observed are microcracks, macroscopic fractures, flaking, sugaring, greying, salt efflorescence, calcitic-sinter layers and iron oxide formation etc. The rapid deterioration seems to be due to indoor atmospheric effects, and also by a combination of incompatible materials (e.g. marble, steel, mortar, concrete, bricks etc.). Compatible building materials like mortars or stone replacing materials have to be developed for the planned restoration. The requirements for restoration mortars are chemical-mineralogical and physical-mechanical compatibilities with the existing building materials. In detail this means that the mortar should ensure good bonding properties, adapted strength development and not stain the marble when in direct contact. The favoured mortar was developed with a hydraulic binder based on iron-free white cement and pozzolana based on activated clay. A special limestone and quartz sand mixture was used as an aggregate. The cement was adjusted using chemical additives. Specially designed tests were applied extensively to prove whether the developed mortar is suitable for the restoration of this precious monument.

  6. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo, E-mail: augustobezerra@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de, E-mail: laurenn@cemig.com [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Gomes, Romero Cesar, E-mail: romero@nugeo.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino, E-mail: teresa@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  7. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo; Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de; Gomes, Romero Cesar; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  8. Durability of the earth mortar: Physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization for the reduction of the capillary rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammari A.

    2018-01-01

    the standards in force, allows strong results of strength and durability. The chemical and mineralogical elements play an important role, in the presence of an 'optimum' cement dosage, to strengthen the ties between the clays and the grains of the earth.. This approach targets the search for better performances in the use of natural materials resource in an eco-responsible habitat. This study presents the experimental results of the four techniques of mineralogical and chemical analysis on mortar specimens obtained from earth of the city of Fez. The results of the uni-axial compressive tests of the cylindrical specimens for this earth, associated by various percentages 0%, 4%, 7% and 10% by weight of cement, make it possible to analyze the effect of the mineralogical and chemical elements on the mechanical properties, namely Young's modulus, compressive strength and limiting deformation. However, we determine the water absorption coefficient of the mortar for different cement dosages in order to optimize the durability of the mortar against bad weather, rain and / or very wet climates. In the earth mortar of Fez, the strong presence of calcite (CaCO3, quartz SiO2 and dolomite CaMg (CO32 amplifies the improvement of the behavior of the material by the addition of cement. In fact, this strong presence of calcite stabilized the clay by cementing quartz and the cement matrix to strengthen the ties between the grains of the earth. In addition, with respect to the capillary rise, the water absorption decreases with the addition of cement. We also note that the evolution of the mechanical properties is of no importance except in the interval [4 to 7%] which represents the zone of effect for cement stabilization and which houses the optimum technicoeconomic cement dosing.

  9. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo) Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni; Wibowo, Gunadi M.; Christianto, Danny

    2012-01-01

    LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI), the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  10. Compressive strength of different brands of cement (OPC) in province of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, G.B.; Kumar, A.; Sheikh, A.

    2009-01-01

    OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) is the most common type of cement used in construction industry. Three major brands of OPC are normal OPC, SRC (Sulphate Resisting Cement) and SC (Slag Cement). It is seen that the variation in constituents of cement may cause serious effects on the quality of cement. Thus the motivation of this research is to study the basic properties (consistency, setting time, and fineness), compressive strength (cement mortar and concrete cubes) and modulus of elasticity of all the OPC brands (OPC, SRC and SC) manufactured in Sindh. In total 10 cement factories, altogether 21 different brands of cement, were studied in the light of BS and ASTM Code specifications. In total 126 mortar cubes (1:3), 252 concrete cubes (126 for 3000 psi mix design and remaining for 5000 psi) and 126 concrete cylinders (6 for the each brand of cement pertaining to 3000 psi and 5000 psi mix design) were manufactured and tested. Experimental results demonstrated that all the cement brands fulfilled the BS and ASTM Code requirements for (i) basic properties (ii) compressive strength of mortar cubes at 3 and 28 days curing age (iii) compressive strength of concrete cubes at 28 days curing age, and (iv) modulus of elasticity. Some of the cements did not fulfill the BS and ASTM Code requirements for compressive strength of concrete cubes at 7 days curing age. (author)

  11. Mixed waste solidification testing on thermosetting polymer and cement based waste forms in support of Hanford's WRAP Module 2A Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.; Weingardt, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    A testing program has been conducted by the Westinghouse Hanford Co. to confirm the baseline waste form selection for use in Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A. WRAP Module 2A will provide treatment required to properly dispose of containerized contact-handled, mixed low-level waste at the US DOE Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Solidification/stabilization has been chosen as the appropriate treatment for this waste. This work is intended to test cement-based and thermosetting polymer solidification media to confirm the baseline technologies selected for WRAP Module 2A. Screening tests were performed using the major chemical constituent of each waste type to measure the gross compatibility with the immobilization media and to determine formulations for more detailed testing. Surrogate wastes representing each of the eight waste types were prepared for testing. Surrogates for polymer testing were sent to a vendor commissioned for that portion of the test work. Surrogates for the grout testing were used in the Westinghouse Hanford Co. laboratory responsible for the grout performance testing. Detailed discussion of the lab. work and results are contained in this report

  12. The influence of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado-García, M.A.; Hernández-Toledo, U.I.; Montes-García, P.; Valdez-Tamez, P.L.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash (UtSCBA) on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars. The SCBA was sieved for only five minutes through a No. 200 ASTM mesh, and fully characterized by chemical composition analysis, laser ray diffraction, the physical absorption of gas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Mortar mixtures with 0, 10 and 20% UtSCBA as cement replacement and a constant 0.63 water/cementitious material ratio were prepared. Fresh properties of the mortars were obtained. The microstructural characteristics of the mortars at 1, 7, 28, 90 and 600 days were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The compressive strengths of the mortars at the same ages were then obtained. The results show that the addition of 10 and 20% UtSCBA caused a slight decrease in workability of the mortars but improved their microstructure, increasing the long-term compressive strength. [es

  13. Energy absorption at high strain rate of glass fiber reinforced mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenu Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behaviour of cement mortars reinforced with glass fibers was studied. The influence of the addition of glass fibers on energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate was investigated. Static tests in compression, in tension and in bending were first performed. Dynamic tests by means of a Modified Hopkinson Bar were then carried out in order to investigate how glass fibers affected energy absorption and tensile strength at high strain-rate of the fiber reinforced mortar. The Dynamic Increase Factor (DIF was finally evaluated.

  14. Effect of a micro-copolymer addition on the thermal conductivity of fly ash mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Dur?n-Herrera, A.; Campos-Dimas, J. K.; Valdez-Tamez, P.L.; Bentz, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a copolymer composed of hollow spherical particles with an average particle size of 90 ?m was evaluated as a lightweight aggregate in Portland cement-fly ash mortars to improve the thermal conductivity (k) of the composite. Mortars were produced for three different water/binder ratios by mass (w/b), 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Optimized proportions were obtained for a minimum target compressive strength of 35 kgf/cm2 (3.4 MPa) according to the requirements of Mexican standards for non-st...

  15. Alkali-Activated Mortars for Sustainable Building Solutions: Effect of Binder Composition on Technical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Attanasio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the construction sector in the use of sustainable binders as an alternative to ordinary Portland cement, the production of which is highly impacting on the environment, due to high carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption. Alkali-activated binders, especially those resulting from low-cost industrial by-products, such as coal fly ash or metallurgical slag, represent a sustainable option for cement replacement, though their use is more challenging, due to some technological issues related to workability or curing conditions. This paper presents sustainable alkali-activated mortars cured in room conditions and based on metakaolin, fly ash, and furnace slag (both by-products resulting from local sources and relevant blends, aiming at their real scale application in the building sector. The effect of binder composition—gradually adjusted taking into consideration technical and environmental aspects (use of industrial by-products in place of natural materials in the view of resources saving—on the performance (workability, compressive strength of different mortar formulations, is discussed in detail. Some guidelines for the design of cement-free binders are given, taking into consideration the effect of each investigated alumino-silicate component. The technical feasibility to produce the mortars with standard procedures and equipment, the curing in room conditions, the promising results achieved in terms of workability and mechanical performance (from 20.0 MPa up to 52.0 MPa, confirm the potential of such materials for practical applications (masonry mortars of class M20 and Md. The cement-free binders resulting from this study can be used as reference for the development of mortars and concrete formulations for sustainable building materials production.

  16. Prediction models of mechanical properties for pet-mortar composite in sodium sulphateaggressive mediums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tani Nabil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an investigation was carried out on the effect of sodium sulphate attack on the durability of composites produced with waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Experiments were accomplished on limestone sand and cement mortars where the blended Portland cement was partially replaced by various volume fractions of waste PET particles (6%, 12% and 17%. The test solutions used to supply the sulphate ions and cations were 5%sodium sulphate solution. Compressive strengths measured on specimens were used to assess the changes in the mechanical properties of PET-mortars exposed to sulphate attack at different ages, mainly the Young modulus of elasticity. Based on experimental compressive tests on PETMortar composite specimens and there densities, the evolution of Young modulus of elasticity has been analyzed in accordance with normative models given by (ACI-318 and (BS-8110 codes of practice. In addition, a comparative study has been carried out for corrosion resistance coefficients K of unmodified mortar to those modified with waste PET particles. It can be noticed that, for the composite immersed in a corrosive Na2SO4 solution, the corrosion resistance coefficients decrease with the increase of the immersion period. The corrosion sulphate resistance K based on Young modulus before and after immersion of PET-mortar composites is better than that of the control mortar. Therefore, for safety considerations of PET-mortar composites use, ACI 318 is recommended code for design and investigation works. Also, it can be concluded that adding waste PET by volume fractions (6%, 12% and 17% to blend Portland cement renders this cement more resistant to the sodium sulphate aggressive medium. Therefore, composites materials based waste PET aare often presented as the materials of the future because of their potential for innovation and the advantages they offer. In fact, using waste PET as cement substitutes reduces the energy consumption. These

  17. Cermet cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, J W

    1990-01-01

    Cermet ionomer cements are sintered metal/glass powders, which can be made to react with poly(acids). These new cements are significantly more resistant to abrasion than regular glass ionomer cements and are widely accepted as core build-up materials and lining cements. They can strengthen teeth and provide the clinician with an opportunity to treat early dental caries.

  18. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shiyun; Ni Kun; Li Jinmei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum has suitable workability. ► The strength of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is higher than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ► The dry shrinkage of mortar with uncalcined FGD gypsum is lower than that of mortar without uncalcined FGD gypsum. ► The leaching of sulfate ion of mortar is studied. - Abstract: A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C–S–H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563–938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO 4 2- from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO 4 2- releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO 4 2- from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m −2 , which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum.

  19. On the Utilization of Pozzolanic Wastes as an Alternative Resource of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as a supplement of cement, the utilization of pozzolanic materials in cement and concrete manufacturing has increased significantly. This study investigates the scope to use pozzolanic wastes (slag, palm oil fuel ash and rice husk ash as an alkali activated binder (AAB that can be used as an alternative to cement. To activate these materials, sodium hydroxide solution was used at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 molar concentration added into the mortar, separately. The required solution was used to maintain the flow of mortar at 110% ± 5%. The consistency and setting time of the AAB-paste were determined. Mortar was tested for its flow, compressive strength, porosity, water absorption and thermal resistance (heating at 700 °C and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that AAB-mortar exhibits less flow than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Surprisingly, AAB-mortars (with 2.5 molar solution achieved a compressive strength of 34.3 MPa at 28 days, while OPC shows that of 43.9 MPa under the same conditions. Although water absorption and porosity of the AAB-mortar are slightly high, it shows excellent thermal resistance compared to OPC. Therefore, based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the presence of a chemical activator, the aforementioned pozzolans can be used as an alternative material for cement.

  20. Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Mortars Incorporating Nano-Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ghazy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Repair and rehabilitation of deteriorating concrete elements are of significant concern in many infrastructural facilities and remain a challenging task. Concerted research efforts are needed to develop repair materials that are sustainable, durable, and cost-effective. Research data show that fiber-reinforced mortars/concretes have superior performance in terms of volume stability and toughness. In addition, it has been recently reported that nano-silica particles can generally improve the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based systems. Thus, there has been a growing interest in the use of nano-modified fiber-reinforced cementitious composites/mortars (NFRM in repair and rehabilitation applications of concrete structures. The current study investigates various mechanical and durability properties of nano-modified mortar containing different types of fibers (steel, basalt, and hybrid (basalt and polypropylene, in terms of compressive and flexural strengths, toughness, drying shrinkage, penetrability, and resistance to salt-frost scaling. The results highlight the overall effectiveness of the NFRM owing to the synergistic effects of nano-silica and fibers.

  1. Influence of Cements Containing Calcareous Fly Ash as a Main Component Properties of Fresh Cement Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaszewski, Jacek; Kostrzanowska-Siedlarz, Aleksandra; Ponikiewski, Tomasz; Miera, Patrycja

    2017-10-01

    The main goal of presented research was to examine usability of cements containing calcareous fly ash (W) from technological point of view. In the paper the results of tests concerning the influence of CEM II and CEM IV cements containing fly ash (W) on rheological properties, air content, setting times and plastic shrinkage of mortars are presented and discussed. Moreover, compatibility of plasticizers with cements containing fly ash (W) was also studied. Additionally, setting time and hydration heat of cements containing calcareous fly ash (W) were determined. In a broader aspect, the research contributes to promulgation of the possibility of using calcareous fly ash (W) in cement and concrete technology, what greatly benefits the environment protection (utilization of waste fly ash). Calcareous fly ash can be used successfully as the main component of cement. Cements produced by blending with processed fly ash or cements produced by interginding are characterized by acceptable technological properties. In respect to CEM I cements, cements containing calcareous fly ash worsen workability, decrease air content, delay setting time of mixtures. Cements with calcareous fly ash show good compatibility with plasticizers.

  2. Influence of particle packing density on the rheology of low cement content concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis-Huijben, S.A.A.M.; Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing concrete mixtures with regard to cement content is one of the most important solutions in sustainable concrete design. Workability o f these low cement content or ecological mixtures is very important. Eleven mortar mixtures are presented, which show how a higher packing density can be

  3. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  4. Dry ripened mortar with quarry waste and rubber powder from unserviceable tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone-quarry fines have been evaluated in mortar and concrete, but have presented drying shrinkage and consequently higher incidence of cracks than those with natural sand. This study compared the dry ripened mortar in two types of aggregates added of 8% rubber powder. It was used quicklime, artificial and natural sand in volumetric proportions of 1:6. Mixtures were oven-dried, received the cement, establishing the volumetric proportion of 1: 1.5:9. Inplastic state, we evaluated aspects such as consistence, air content, water retention and bleeding; whereas compressive strength, static deformation modulus and water absorption by capillarity was determined in hardened state. Cracking aspects were evaluated in substrate. As a result, the mortar with artificial sand showed higher increases in compressive strength, capillarity rate and cracking, and greater reductions in air content and bleeding. As for the rubber powder, exhibited a greater reduction in the cracking rate and capillarity was found.

  5. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunther, W.; Lothenbach, B.; Scrivener, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  6. Evaluation of neutron shielding made of cement type material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshimo, Takuya; Nagai, Takayuki; Onose, Atsushi; Takuma, Yasuhisa; Tanuma, Hiroyuki; Otagawa, Masaaki

    1998-01-01

    We prepared boron-containing cement and evaluated the characteristics of this new cement. This is the material of neutron shielding which is lighter than existing one. The quality we aimed is: H ≥ 0.025 g/cm 3 , B ≥ 0.065 g/cm 3 , density ≤ 1.70 g/cm 3 . We made test pieces changing water powder ratio (W/P), adding amount of air entraining agent, adding amount of water reducing agent, and time of vibration, and then, evaluated the characteristics. The measured parameters are the air content, mortar flow and homogeneity for cement mortar, homogeneity and compressive strength for hardened one. From the results of these tests, we confirmed the possibility of making neutron shielding that can satisfy the aimed quality using this boron-containing cement. After all, we established the method of making the neutron shielding, and this method was used in the construction of RETF. (author)

  7. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry. The best performance was recorded for the samples containing 20% of the material treated at 800 ºC.En el presente trabajo se incluyen los resultados de la resistencia a la penetración de cloruros de morteros de Cemento Portland Ordinario (OPC adicionados con un caolín colombiano sometido a tratamiento térmico en un rango de temperaturas entre 600 y 800 °C. Los productos del tratamiento térmico, metacaolín (MK, son incorporados en mezclas de morteros de OPC en proporciones del 10 y 20% en relación al peso del cemento. Se comparan sus características físico-químicas, entre las cuales se incluye la microestructura de poros evaluada por la técnica de porosimetría de mercurio, con la absorción capilar y la permeabilidad a cloruros. Se concluye que las muestras adicionadas con un 20% del material tratado térmicamente a 800 °C presentan el mejor desempeño en sus propiedades finales.

  8. Mechanical resilience and cementitious processes in Imperial Roman architectural mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Eric N.; Brune, Philip F.; Vitti, Massimo; Chen, Heng; Li, Qinfei; Kunz, Martin; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ingraffea, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The pyroclastic aggregate concrete of Trajan’s Markets (110 CE), now Museo Fori Imperiali in Rome, has absorbed energy from seismic ground shaking and long-term foundation settlement for nearly two millenia while remaining largely intact at the structural scale. The scientific basis of this exceptional service record is explored through computed tomography of fracture surfaces and synchroton X-ray microdiffraction analyses of a reproduction of the standardized hydrated lime–volcanic ash mortar that binds decimeter-sized tuff and brick aggregate in the conglomeratic concrete. The mortar reproduction gains fracture toughness over 180 d through progressive coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate (C-A-S-H) cementing binder with Ca/(Si+Al) ≈ 0.8–0.9 and crystallization of strätlingite and siliceous hydrogarnet (katoite) at ≥90 d, after pozzolanic consumption of hydrated lime was complete. Platey strätlingite crystals toughen interfacial zones along scoria perimeters and impede macroscale propagation of crack segments. In the 1,900-y-old mortar, C-A-S-H has low Ca/(Si+Al) ≈ 0.45–0.75. Dense clusters of 2- to 30-µm strätlingite plates further reinforce interfacial zones, the weakest link of modern cement-based concrete, and the cementitious matrix. These crystals formed during long-term autogeneous reaction of dissolved calcite from lime and the alkali-rich scoriae groundmass, clay mineral (halloysite), and zeolite (phillipsite and chabazite) surface textures from the Pozzolane Rosse pyroclastic flow, erupted from the nearby Alban Hills volcano. The clast-supported conglomeratic fabric of the concrete presents further resistance to fracture propagation at the structural scale. PMID:25512521

  9. Mechanical resilience and cementitious processes in Imperial Roman architectural mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Marie D; Landis, Eric N; Brune, Philip F; Vitti, Massimo; Chen, Heng; Li, Qinfei; Kunz, Martin; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J M; Ingraffea, Anthony R

    2014-12-30

    The pyroclastic aggregate concrete of Trajan's Markets (110 CE), now Museo Fori Imperiali in Rome, has absorbed energy from seismic ground shaking and long-term foundation settlement for nearly two millenia while remaining largely intact at the structural scale. The scientific basis of this exceptional service record is explored through computed tomography of fracture surfaces and synchroton X-ray microdiffraction analyses of a reproduction of the standardized hydrated lime-volcanic ash mortar that binds decimeter-sized tuff and brick aggregate in the conglomeratic concrete. The mortar reproduction gains fracture toughness over 180 d through progressive coalescence of calcium-aluminum-silicate-hydrate (C-A-S-H) cementing binder with Ca/(Si+Al) ≈ 0.8-0.9 and crystallization of strätlingite and siliceous hydrogarnet (katoite) at ≥ 90 d, after pozzolanic consumption of hydrated lime was complete. Platey strätlingite crystals toughen interfacial zones along scoria perimeters and impede macroscale propagation of crack segments. In the 1,900-y-old mortar, C-A-S-H has low Ca/(Si+Al) ≈ 0.45-0.75. Dense clusters of 2- to 30-µm strätlingite plates further reinforce interfacial zones, the weakest link of modern cement-based concrete, and the cementitious matrix. These crystals formed during long-term autogeneous reaction of dissolved calcite from lime and the alkali-rich scoriae groundmass, clay mineral (halloysite), and zeolite (phillipsite and chabazite) surface textures from the Pozzolane Rosse pyroclastic flow, erupted from the nearby Alban Hills volcano. The clast-supported conglomeratic fabric of the concrete presents further resistance to fracture propagation at the structural scale.

  10. Cross-contamination in Porcelain Mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Brandl, A; Falck, A; Ingebrigtsen, L; Nilson, C

    2001-01-01

    Porcelain mortars and pestles are frequently used to comminute drug substances on a small scale and (in some cases) in the production of liquid and semisolid suspensions. Although it is generally accepted that removal of a drug substance from a rough surface by rinsing may be difficult and may lead to cross-contamination, no hard data support that theory. In this study, the amount of salicylic acid remaining on a porcelain mortar after different washing procedures was quantified and compared with the amount remaining on a plastic mortar. Drug residues in the "mg" range on the porcelain mortars made common rinsing procedures appear inappropriate, but no traces of drug were detected on plastic mortars. In addition, the quality of suspension ointments with respect to particle size and homogeneity produced by the two types of mortars was compared. Porcelain and plastic mortars appeared equally suitable for use in the production of semisolid suspensions.

  11. The effect of temperature rise on microstructural properties of cement-based materials : Correlation of experimental data and a simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, A.; Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on the influence of stray current flow on temperature rise in hardening cement-based materials and consequently altered cement hydration. To simulate stray current, different levels of electrical current were applied to cement paste and mortar specimens immediately after casting.

  12. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  13. Effects of Environment in the Microstructure and Properties of Sustainable Mortars with Fly Ash and Slag after a 5-Year Exposure Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, getting a more environmentally sustainable cement production is one of the main goals of the cement industry. In this regard, the use of active additions, like fly ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag, has become very popular. The behaviour, in the short-term, of cement-based materials with those additions is well-known when their hardening is produced under optimum conditions. However, real structures are exposed to different environments during long periods, which could affect the development of microstructures and the service properties of cementitious materials. The objective of this work is to analyse the effects in the long-term (up to 5 years approximately produced by the exposure to different non-optimum laboratory conditions in the microstructure, mechanical and durability properties of mortars made with slag and fly ash commercial cements. Their performance was compared to that observed for ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortars. The microstructure has been analysed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effective porosity, the capillary suction coefficient, the chloride migration coefficient and mechanical strengths were analysed too. According to the results, mortars prepared using slag and fly ash sustainable commercial cements, exposed to non-optimum conditions, show a good performance after 5-years hardening period, similar or even better than OPC mortars.

  14. The polymer cement of sulfur as an alternative for the recycling of phosphogypsum. Corrosion testing of cements enriched with phosphogypsum; El cemento polimerico de azufre como alternative para el reciclado de fosfoyesos. Pruebas de corrosion de cementos enriquecidos con fosfoyesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Lopez, F. A.; Navarro, N.; Sanchez, M.; Sanz, B.; Ballesteros, O.; Higueras, E.; Roman, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of the use of cement for the recycling of materials is seen today as sustainable solution of the fertilizer industry for production of matches (NORM). In this paper presents some results of corrosion tests performed on these cements modified using buffer solutions of different pH. The analytical determinations in these matrices are new challenges. (Author)

  15. Physicochemical study of parameters for the production of mortar using industrial waste and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, K.C.; Goncalves, S.G. e; Souza, J. A. da S.; Felipe, A.M.P.F.

    2014-01-01

    The mortars can be considered as a mixture of the binders and aggregates with water, having capacity of the induration and adherence. Instead, it is suggested the production of mortars using civil construction waste, with plenty silicoaluminate, obtained in demolitions and reforms of build, and fly ash as material pozzolana, obtained of the combustion of mineral coal in fluidized bed boilers, in partial replacement of Portland cement. The civil construction wastes were benefited and characterized by X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The fly ash was characterized by granulometric analyze and X-ray spectrometry. The mortars of the were prepared using the following compositions of RCC, 95, 90, 85, 80, 75 and 70%; CV of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% e 5% of Portland CP II Z 32 cement. In all the compositions were put 0,8% of water and the rheological testing was used the same proportions residue (RCC e CV) with 35% water. The specimens were cured for 28 days and after were submitted physical trials of absorption, porosity and bulk density; mechanical trials of resistance to compression and analysis of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained show that the recycling of civil construction waste and the use of fly ash and RCC is a promising technique in production of mortars. (author)

  16. Formulation and characterization of date palm fibers mortar by addition of silica fume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, A.; Kriker, A.; Ouaggad, H.; Merad, N.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the formulated and characterization of date palm fibers mortar by addition of silica fume. The use of addition mineral is widely used in the production of cements through the world. The objective of this work is to bring our contribution to the recovery of local resources in the occurrence vegetable fibers of date palm to weak cost and from renewable source and integrate it in the filled of building. Date palm fiber are from Ouargla town in south of Algeria. Different mortar mixtures were prepared in which the cement was substitute by 10% of silica fume. The mechanical characteristics (compressive and flexural strength) of date palm fibers mortar by treatment of the matrix by the adding of silica fume were examined. The results obtained have shown that the mortar workability as well as the compressive and flexural strength decreases with increasing the silica fume replacement. The results showed that the use of silica fume enabled to evaluate the flexural strength. However, another treatment of fibers and matrix will be recommended for Improved the characteristics.

  17. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail: msg@cdtn.br, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  18. Effect of a micro-copolymer addition on the thermal conductivity of fly ash mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Herrera, A; Campos-Dimas, J K; Valdez-Tamez, P L; Bentz, D P

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a copolymer composed of hollow spherical particles with an average particle size of 90 µm was evaluated as a lightweight aggregate in Portland cement-fly ash mortars to improve the thermal conductivity ( k ) of the composite. Mortars were produced for three different water/binder ratios by mass ( w/b ), 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Optimized proportions were obtained for a minimum target compressive strength of 35 kg f /cm 2 (3.4 MPa) according to the requirements of Mexican standards for non-structural masonry units. Thermal conductivity was determined for dry and saturated samples through the transient plane technique with average results of 0.16 W/(m·K) and 0.31 W/(m·K), respectively. These values represent an increment of 23 % and a reduction of 33 %, respectively, in comparison to an efficient Portland cement-based commercially available thermal insulator.

  19. Chloride Ingress in Chemically Activated Calcined Clay-Based Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwiti Marangu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride-laden environments pose serious durability concerns in cement based materials. This paper presents the findings of chloride ingress in chemically activated calcined Clay-Ordinary Portland Cement blended mortars. Results are also presented for compressive strength development and porosity tests. Sampled clays were incinerated at a temperature of 800°C for 4 hours. The resultant calcined clay was blended with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC at replacement level of 35% by mass of OPC to make test cement labeled PCC35. Mortar prisms measuring 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm were cast using PCC35 with 0.5 M Na2SO4 solution as a chemical activator instead of water. Compressive strength was determined at 28th day of curing. As a control, OPC, Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC, and PCC35 were similarly investigated without use of activator. After the 28th day of curing, mortar specimens were subjected to accelerated chloride ingress, porosity, compressive strength tests, and chloride profiling. Subsequently, apparent diffusion coefficients (Dapp were estimated from solutions to Fick’s second law of diffusion. Compressive strength increased after exposure to the chloride rich media in all cement categories. Chemically activated PCC35 exhibited higher compressive strength compared to nonactivated PCC35. However, chemically activated PCC35 had the least gain in compressive strength, lower porosity, and lower chloride ingress in terms of Dapp, compared to OPC, PPC, and nonactivated PCC35.

  20. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  1. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  2. Investigations of salt mortar containing saliferous clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.

    1992-01-01

    Saliferous clay mortar might be considered for combining individual salt bricks into a dense and tight long-term seal. A specific laboratory program was started to test mortars consisting of halite powder and grey saliferous clay of the Stassfurt from the Bleicherode salt mine. Clay fractions between 0 and 45% were used. The interest focused upon obtaining good workabilities of the mixtures as well as upon the permeability and compression strength of the dried mortar samples. Test results: 1) Without loss of quality the mortar can be mixed using fresh water. Apprx. 18 to 20 weight-% of the solids must be added as mixing water. 2) The porosity and the permeability of the mortar samples increases distinctly when equally coarse-grained salt power is used for mixing. 3) The mean grain size and the grain size distribution of the saliferous clay and the salt powder should be very similar to form a useful mortar. 4) The permeability of the mortar samples decreases with increasing clay fraction from 2 10 -12 m 2 to 2 10 -14 m 2 . The investigated samples, however, were large and dried at 100degC. 5) The uniaxial compressive strength of the clay mortar equals, at an average, only 4 MPa and decreases clearly with increasing clay fraction. Moist mortar samples did not show any measurable compressive strength. 6) Moistened saliferous clay mortar may show little temporary swelling. (orig./HP)

  3. The effect of chemical admixtures and mineral additives on the properties of self-compacting mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Heru Ari Christianto; Ismail Ozgur Yaman [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Mortar serves as the basis for the workability properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and these properties could be assessed by self-compacting mortars (SCM). In fact, assessing the properties of SCM is an integral part of SCC design. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various mineral additives and chemical admixtures in producing SCMs. For this purpose, four mineral additives (fly ash, brick powder, limestone powder, and kaolinite), three superplasticizers (SP), and two viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA) were used. Within the scope of the experimental program, 43 mixtures of SCM were prepared keeping the amount of mixing water and total powder content (Portland cement and mineral additives) constant. Workability of the fresh mortar was determined using mini V-funnel and mini slump flow tests. The setting time of the mortars, were also determined. The hardened properties that were determined included ultrasonic pulse velocity and strength determined at 28 and 56 days. It was concluded that among the mineral additives used, fly ash and limestone powder significantly increased the workability of SCMs. On the other hand, especially fly ash significantly increased the setting time of the mortars, which can, however, be eliminated through the use of ternary mixtures, such as mixing fly ash with limestone powder. The two polycarboxyl based SPs yield approximately the same workability and the melamine formaldehyde based SP was not as effective as the other two.

  4. Mechanical strength development of mortars containing volcanic scoria-based binders with different fineness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref M. al-Swaidani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of using natural pozzolan as cement replacement are often associated with shortcomings such as the need to moist-curing for longer time and a reduction of strength at early ages. The objective of the study is to investigate the influence of binder fineness on the mechanical strength development of scoria-based binder mortars. In the study, mortar specimens have been produced with four types of binder: one plain Portland cement (control and three scoria-based binders with three replacement levels: 25%, 30% and 35%, respectively. All scoria-based binders have been inter-ground into four different Blaine fineness: 2400, 3200, 4200 and 5100 cm2/g. The development of the compressive and flexural tensile strength of all mortar specimens with curing time has been investigated. The effects of the Blaine fineness of the scoria-based blended cement on the compressive and flexural strengths of mortar have been evaluated at curing ages of 2, 7, 28 and 90 days, respectively. Particle size distribution measured by a laser diffractometer has been considered in the study. Test results revealed that there is a decrease in strength with increasing amounts of scoria. In addition, there was found an increase in strength with increasing the Blaine fineness values. No direct relationship between Blaine and particle size distribution was observed. Effects of Blaine fineness on some physical properties of blended cements such as water demand, setting times and soundness have also been investigated. Further, an estimation equation for strength development incorporating the effects of fineness measured either by Blaine or by particle size distribution has been derived by the authors.

  5. 3D Simulation of micromechanical behavior of cement paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Z.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical modeling of fracture processes of brittle materials, such as cement paste, mortar, concrete and rocks, started in the late 1960s when the discrete and smeared cracking models were introduced. In the 1990s, Schlangen and van Mier proposed another numerical model to compensate the drawbacks

  6. Properties of mortars made by uncalcined FGD gypsum-fly ash-ground granulated blast furnace slag composite binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyun; Ni, Kun; Li, Jinmei

    2012-07-01

    A series of novel mortars were developed from composite binder of uncalcined FGD gypsum, fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) for the good utilization of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum. At a fixed ratio (20%) of GGBFS to the composite binder, keeping consistency of the mortar between 9.5 and 10.0 cm, the properties of the composite mortar were studied. The results show that higher water/binder (W/B) is required to keep the consistency when increasing the percentage of FGD gypsum. No obvious influences of the W/B and content of FGD gypsum on the bleeding of paste were observed which keeps lower than 2% under all experimental conditions tried. The highest compressive and flexural strengths (ratio is 20% FGD gypsum, 20% GGBFS and 60% FA) are 22.6 and 4.3 MPa at 28 days, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that massive ettringite crystals and C-S-H gels exist in the hydration products. At 90 days the mortars with FGD gypsum is dramatically smaller drying shrinkage (563-938 micro strain) than that without FGD gypsum (about 2250 micro strain). The release of the SO(4)(2-) from the mortar was analyzed, indicating that the dissolution of sulfate increases with FGD gypsum. The concentration of SO(4)(2-) releasing from the mortar with 10% FGD gypsum is almost equal to that obtained from the mortar without FGD gypsum. The release of SO(4)(2-) from the mortar with 20% FGD gypsum is 9200 mg·m(-2), which is lower than that from the mortar with 95% cement clinker and 5% FGD gypsum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on Performance and Microstructure of Sewage Pipe Mortar Strengthened with Different Anti-Corrosion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Song; Zhou, Huaxin; Shi, Liang; Liu, Jianzhong; Cai, Jingshun; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Mostly urban underground sewage is the acidic corrosion environment with a high concentration of aggressive ions and microbe, which resulted in performance deterioration and service-life decrease of sewage concrete pipe. In order to effectively protect durability of the concrete pipe, the present paper briefly analysed the main degradation mechanism of concrete pipe attacked by urban underground sewage, and proposed that using penetrating and strengthening surface sealer based on inorganic chemistry. In addition, using index of compressive strength, weight loss and appearance level to investigate the influence of the sealer on corrosion resistance of mortar samples after different dry-wet cycles. Besides, comparative research on effect of the sealer, aluminate cement and admixture of corrosion resistance was also addressed. At last, the SEM technology was used to reveal the improvement mechanism of different technologies of corrosion resistance. The results indicated that the sealer and aluminate cement can significantly improve corrosion resistance of mortar. Besides, the improvement effect can be described as the descending order: the penetrating and strengthening surface sealer > aluminate cement > admixture of corrosion resistance. The mortar sample treated with the sealer displayed the condensed and sound microstructure which proved that the sealer can improve the corrosion resistance to urban underground sewage.

  8. Studies on potential of Portland cement mortar for binding of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paramalinggam Thanalechumi

    management of WWS has become an environmental issue due to the enormous quantities .... over 2h from 2 to 6 °C at step width of 0.04 and step time of 0.5 s. Figure 1. ..... tional Conference on Industry Best Practice, 19–21 May. 2009.

  9. Cement mortar resistance to corrosion caused by magnesium salt solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García de Paredes y Gaibrois, Pablo

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEntre los agentes químicos que destruyen a los morteros y hormigones elaborados con conglomerantes hidráulicos, silícicos o aluminosos, inspira mucho temor el catión magnesio, principalmente si en las disoluciones acuosas le acompañan los aniones sulfato y/o cloruro. Por esta razón el trabajo del Sr. Riedel adquiere especial interés, tanto más cuánto no es numerosa ni resolutiva la experiencia expuesta en la literatura.

  10. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  11. Formulation of portland composite cement using waste glass as a supplementary cementitious material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manullang, Ria Julyana; Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Purbasari, Aprilina

    2017-09-01

    Utilization of waste glass in cement is an attractive options because of its pozzolanic behaviour and the market of glass-composite cement is potentially available. The objective of this research is to evaluate the formulation of waste glass as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) by an extreme vertices mixture experiment, in which clinker, waste glass and gypsum proportions are chosen as experimental variables. The composite cements were synthesized by mixing all of powder materials in jar mill. The compressive strength of the composite cement mortars after being cured for 28 days ranges between 229 to 268 kg/cm2. Composite cement mortars exhibit lower compressive strength than ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortars but is still capable of meeting the SNI 15-7064-2004 standards. The highest compressive strength is obtained by shifting the cement blend composition to the direction of increasing clinker and gypsum proportions as well as reducing glass proportion. The lower compressive strength of composite cement is caused by expansion due to ettringite and ASR gel. Based on the experimental result, the composite cement containing 80% clinker, 15% glass and 5% gypsum has the highest compressive strength. As such, the preliminary technical feasibility of reuse of waste glass as SCM has been confirmed.

  12. SELECTED PROPERTIES OF EPOXY MORTARS WITH PERLITE AGGREGATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Dębska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarily designed, new polymer concrete-like composites are increasingly often used in construction, particularly where high chemical resistance of the material is important. However, their widespread use is limited, mainly due to the cost of resin binders used. This is a significant problem, especially in a situation where it is necessary to obtain elements of a substantial volume. One solution to this inconvenience is to develop lighter concrete. The article presents a lightweight resin mortar obtained by substitution of sand with expanded perlite. Thanks to its properties, this aggregate allows for the production of a material with a more porous structure, which is highlighted by the received SEM photos. The binder in the mortars was epoxy resin, hardened with triethylenetetramine. The results of the tests carried out allow us to conclude that despite the significant reduction of strength parameters of mortar, we can obtain a material with lower weight, good chemical resistance and low water absorption, and characterized by significant thermal insulation. This type of composites can be used, among others, as cores in sandwich panels.

  13. Corrosion resistance of cement brick on an organo-mineral base in a hydrogen sulfide medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapov, A G; Belousov, G A; Pustovalov, V I; Skorikov, B M

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of strength tests of cement brick made of different types of cement as a function of the composition of the mixing liquid and storage conditions. It is established that cement brick made of cement on a cinder base mixed in hydrogen sulfide water possesses the highest corrosive resistance to hydrogen sulfide attack. A marked increase in corrosion resistance is observed in cement brick on an organo-mineral base. Results of industrial tests of organo-mineral grouting mortar in a hydrogen sulfide medium are demonstrated.

  14. Formulating a low-alkalinity cement for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumes, C. Cau Dit; Courtois, S.; Leclercq, S.; Bourbon, X.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-annual research program has been launched in January 2003 by CEA, EDF and ANDRA in order to formulate and characterize low-alkalinity and low-heat cements which would be compatible with an underground waste repository environment. Four types of bindings have been investigated: binary blends of Portland cement and silica fume or metakaolin, as well as ternary blends of Portland cement, fly ash and silica fume or metakaolin. Promising results have been obtained with a mixture comprising 37.5% Portland cement, 32.5% silica fume, and 30% fly ash: pH of water in equilibrium with fully hydrated cement is below 11. Moreover, silica fume compensates for the low reactivity of fly ash, while fly ash allows to reduce water demand, heat release, and dimensional variations of cement pastes and mortars. (authors)

  15. Formulating a low-alkalinity cement for radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumes, C. Cau Dit; Courtois, S.; Leclercq, S.; Bourbon, X

    2004-07-01

    A multi-annual research program has been launched in January 2003 by CEA, EDF and ANDRA in order to formulate and characterize low-alkalinity and low-heat cements which would be compatible with an underground waste repository environment. Four types of bindings have been investigated: binary blends of Portland cement and silica fume or metakaolin, as well as ternary blends of Portland cement, fly ash and silica fume or metakaolin. Promising results have been obtained with a mixture comprising 37.5% Portland cement, 32.5% silica fume, and 30% fly ash: pH of water in equilibrium with fully hydrated cement is below 11. Moreover, silica fume compensates for the low reactivity of fly ash, while fly ash allows to reduce water demand, heat release, and dimensional variations of cement pastes and mortars. (authors)

  16. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: A NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adant, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick

  17. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: a NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Adan, O.C.G.; Pel, L.

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick

  18. Aging and Curing Temperature Effects on Compressive Strength of Mortar Containing Lime Stone Quarry Dust and Industrial Granite Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD and granite sludge (GS, respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD, fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing. Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM and mortar containing fly ash (FA. The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured, the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more incorporating local environmental conditions.

  19. A study on the effect of nano silica on compressive strength of high volume fly ash mortars and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.U.A.; Supit, S.W.M.; Sarker, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of NS compensates low early age compressive strength of HVFA system. • NS also contributes to later age compressive strength gain of HVFA system. • The XRD results confirm the reduction of CH in HVFA paste due to addition of NS. - Abstract: This paper presents the effect of nano silica (NS) on the compressive strength of mortars and concretes containing different high volume fly ash (HVFA) contents ranging from 40% to 70% (by weight) as partial replacement of cement. The compressive strength of mortars is measured at 7 and 28 days and that for concretes is measured at 3, 7, 28, 56 and 90 days. The effects of NS in microstructure development and pozzolanic reaction of pastes containing above HVFA contents are also studied through backscattered electron (BSE) image and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Results show that among different NS contents ranging from 1% to 6%, cement mortar containing 2% NS exhibited highest 7 and 28 days compressive strength. This NS content (2%) is then added to the HVFA mortars and concretes and the results show that the addition of 2% NS improved the early age (7 days) compressive strength of mortars containing 40% and 50% fly ash by 5% and 7%, respectively. However, this improvement is not observed at high fly ash contents beyond 50%. On the other hand, all HVFA mortars exhibited improvement in 28 days compressive strength due to addition of 2% NS and the most significant improvement is noticed in mortars containing more than 50% fly ash. In HVFA concretes, the improvement of early age (3 days) compressive strength is also noticed due to addition of 2% NS. The BSE and XRD analysis results also support the above findings

  20. Pullout behavior of steel fibers from cement-based composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shannag, M. Jamal; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Will

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental program on pullout tests of steel fibers from cement based matrices is described. A specially designed single fiber pullout apparatus was used to provide a quantitative determination of interfacial properties that are relevant to toughening brittle materials through...... fiber reinforcement. The parameters investigated included a specially designed high strength cement based matrix called Densified Small Particles system (DSP), a conventional mortar matrix, fiber embeddment length, and the fiber volume fraction. The mediums from which the fiber was pulled included...... fraction in the cement matrix increase the peak pullout load and the pullout work. (3) The major bond mechanism in both systems is frictional sliding. ...