WorldWideScience

Sample records for polycrystalline 3c-sic thin

  1. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  2. Hydrogenation of polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Knížek, Karel; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 501, - (2006), s. 144-148 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 537; GA MŽP(CZ) SM/300/1/03; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0789 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon * atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition * hydrogen passivation * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 bonding * hydrogen molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  3. Progress and issues in polycrystalline thin-film PV technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.; Roedern, B. von [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Substantial progress has occurred in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic technologies in the past 18 months. However, the transition to first-time manufacturing is still under way, and technical problems continue. This paper focuses on the promise and the problems of the copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride technologies, with an emphasis on continued R&D needs for the near-term transition to manufacturing and for next-generation improvements. In addition, it highlights the joint R&D efforts being performed in the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program.

  4. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d' Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  5. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  6. Resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a unipolar, nonvolatile resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and sandwiched between Au top and Ti/Pt bottom electrodes. The ratio of the resistance in the OFF and ON state is larger than 103. The observed phenomena can be attributed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments within the multiferroic YMnO3 film. The generation of conductive paths under applied electric field is discussed in terms of the presence of grain boundaries and charged domain walls inherently formed in hexagonal YMnO3. Our findings suggest that engineering of the ferroelectric domains might be a promising route for designing and fabrication of novel resistive switching devices.

  7. Characterisation of electrodeposited polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films on nickel foil for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamska, A.M.; Bright, E. Lawrence; Sutcliffe, J.; Liu, W.; Payton, O.D.; Picco, L.; Scott, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Polycrystalline uranium dioxide thin films were grown on nickel substrates via aqueous electrodeposition of a precursor uranyl salt. The arising semiconducting uranium dioxide thin films exhibited a tower-like morphology, which may be suitable for future application in 3D solar cell applications. The thickness of the homogenous, tower-like films reached 350 nm. Longer deposition times led to the formation of thicker (up to 1.5 μm) and highly porous films. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of polycrystalline UO_2 thin films • Tower-like morphology for 3D solar cell applications • Novel technique for separation of heavy elements from radioactive waste streams

  8. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V OC of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V brk of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V brk . Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V OC corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V OC was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range (≤400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V OC to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V OC , which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T dep =200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V OC measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration of 2.5.10 16 cm -3 after passivation was

  9. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V{sub OC} of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V{sub brk} of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V{sub brk}. Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V{sub OC} corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V{sub OC} was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range ({<=}400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V{sub OC} to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V{sub OC}, which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T{sub dep}=200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V{sub OC} measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration

  10. Effect of hydrogen passivation on polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Oswald, Jiří; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 487, - (2005), s. 152-156 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010316; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrogen passivation * polycrystalline silicon * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 * hydrogen molecules Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.569, year: 2005

  11. Influence of lattice distortion on phase transition properties of polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tiegui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Langping, E-mail: aplpwang@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yufen [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu, Yonghao, E-mail: yhyu@hit.edu.cn [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films were fabricated by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The reported lowest phase transition temperature for undoped polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin film was reduced to 32 °C by this research. • XRD patterns at varied temperatures revealed that the main structual change was a gradual shift in interplanar spacing with temperature. - Abstract: In this work, high power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to control the lattice distortion in polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin film. SEM images revealed that all the VO{sub 2} thin films had crystallite sizes of below 20 nm, and similar configurations. UV–vis-near IR transmittance spectra measured at different temperatures showed that most of the as-deposited films had a typical metal–insulator transition. Four-point probe resistivity results showed that the transition temperature of the films varied from 54.5 to 32 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the as-deposited films revealed that most were polycrystalline monoclinic VO{sub 2}. The XRD results also confirmed that the lattice distortions in the as-deposited films were different, and the transition temperature decreased with the difference between the interplanar spacing of the as-deposited thin film and standard rutile VO{sub 2}. Furthermore, a room temperature rutile VO{sub 2} thin film was successfully synthesized when this difference was small enough. Additionally, XRD patterns measured at varied temperatures revealed that the phase transition process of the polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin film was a coordinative deformation between grains with different orientations. The main structural change during the phase transition was a gradual shift in interplanar spacing with temperature.

  12. Carrier transport in polycrystalline silicon thin films solar cells grown on a highly textured structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Takakura, H.; Hamakawa, Y.; Muhida, R.; Kawamura, T.; Harano, T.; Toyama, T.; Okamoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, 9A (2004), s. 5955-5959 ISSN 0021-4922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : polycrystalline silicon thin film * solar cells * substrate texture Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2004

  13. Low resistance polycrystalline diamond thin films deposited by hot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    silicon wafers using a hydrocarbon gas (CH4) highly diluted with H2 at low pressure in a hot filament chemi- cal vapour ... the laser spot was focused on the sample surface using a ... tative spectra of diamond thin films with a typical dia-.

  14. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.

  15. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  16. Passivation of defects in polycrystalline Cu2O thin films by hydrogen or cyanide treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, S.; Kato, S.; Okamoto, Y.; Sakurai, T.; Akimoto, K.; Fujiwara, N.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the passivation of defects in polycrystalline nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) thin films with hydrogen or cyanide treatment were studied. In the photoluminescence (PL) measurements, although the emission was not observed before treatment, luminescence of Cu 2 O at around 680 nm was observed after each treatment. This improvement in the luminescence property may be due to the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers by H or CN. The hole carrier concentration increased from the order of 10 16 to 10 17 cm -3 with hydrogen or cyanide treatment. From these results, both the hydrogen and cyanide treatments were found to be very effective to passivate defects and improve the optical and electrical properties of polycrystalline Cu 2 O thin films. The thermal stability of the passivation effects by the cyanide treatment is, however, superior to that by the hydrogen treatment

  17. Annealing of polycrystalline thin film silicon solar cells in water vapour at sub-atmospheric pressures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Píč, Vlastimil; Benda, V.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2014), s. 341-347 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101216 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation * water vapour * thin film solar cell * polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) * multicrys- talline silicon (m-Si) * Suns-VOC Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  18. Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gall, S.; Becker, C.; Conrad, E.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Gorka, B.; Lee, K.Y.; Rau, B.; Ruske, F.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH (formerly Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH), Department Silicon Photovoltaics (SE1), Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Poly-Si thin-film solar cells on glass feature the potential to reach single-junction efficiencies of 15% or even higher at low costs. In this paper innovative approaches are discussed, which could lead to substantial efficiency improvements and significant cost reductions: (i) preparation of large-grained poly-Si films using the 'seed layer concept' targeting at high material quality, (ii) utilization of ZnO:Al-coated glass enabling simple contacting and light-trapping schemes, (iii) utilization of high-rate electron-beam evaporation for the absorber deposition offering a high potential for cost reduction. (author)

  19. Polycrystalline Mg2Si thin films: A theoretical investigation of their electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balout, H.; Boulet, P.; Record, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structures and thermoelectric properties of a polycrystalline Mg 2 Si thin film have been investigated by first-principle density-functional theory (DFT) and Boltzmann transport theory calculations within the constant-relaxation time approximation. The polycrystalline thin film has been simulated by assembling three types of slabs each having the orientation (001), (110) or (111) with a thickness of about 18 Å. The effect of applying the relaxation procedure to the thin film induces disorder in the structure that has been ascertained by calculating radial distribution functions. For the calculations of the thermoelectric properties, the energy gap has been fixed at the experimental value of 0.74 eV. The thermoelectric properties, namely the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity and the power factor, have been determined at three temperatures of 350 K, 600 K and 900 K with respect to both the energy levels and the p-type and n-type doping levels. The best Seebeck coefficient is obtained at 350 K: the S yy component of the tensor amounts to about ±1000 μV K −1 , depending on the type of charge carriers. However, the electrical conductivity is much too small which results in low values of the figure of merit ZT. Structure–property relationship correlations based on directional radial distribution functions allow us to tentatively draw some explanations regarding the anisotropy of the electrical conductivity. Finally, the low ZT values obtained for the polycrystalline Mg 2 Si thin film are paralleled with those recently reported in the literature for bulk chalcogenide glasses. - Graphical abstract: Structure of the polycrystalline thin film of Mg 2 Si. - Author-Highlights: • Polycrystalline Mg 2 Si film has been modelled by DFT approach. • Thermoelectric properties have been evaluated by semi-classical Boltzmann theory. • The structure was found to be slightly disordered after relaxation. • The highest value of Seebeck

  20. Tailoring of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline cobalt thin films by external stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dileep, E-mail: dkumar@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Sadhana [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Vishawakarma, Pramod [School of Nanotechnology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India); Dev, Arun Singh; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Polycrystalline Co films of nominal thickness ~180 Å were deposited on intentionally curved Si substrates. Tensile and compressive stresses of 100 MPa and 150 MPa were induced in the films by relieving the curvature. It has been found that, within the elastic limit, presence of stress leads to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the film and its strength increases with increasing stress. Easy axis of magnetization in the films is found to be parallel/ transverse to the compressive /tensile stresses respectively. The origin of magnetic anisotropy in the stressed films is understood in terms of magneto- elastic coupling, where the stress try to align the magnetic moments in order to minimize the magneto-elastic as well as anisotropy energy. Tensile stress is also found to be responsible for the surface smoothening of the films, which is attributed to the movement of the atoms associated with the applied stress. The present work provides a possible way to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and its direction in polycrystalline and amorphous films using external stress. - Highlights: • Tensile and compressive stresses were induced in Co films by removing the bending force from the substrates after film deposition. • Controlled external mechanical stress is found to be responsible for magnetic anisotropies in amorphous and polycrystalline thin films, where crystalline anisotropy is absent. • Tensile stress leads to surface smoothening of the polycrystalline Co films.

  1. Low temperature magnetron sputter deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films using high flux ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, Jennifer E.; Abelson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the microstructure of polycrystalline silicon thin films depends strongly on the flux of low energy ions that bombard the growth surface during magnetron sputter deposition. The deposition system is equipped with external electromagnetic coils which, through the unbalanced magnetron effect, provide direct control of the ion flux independent of the ion energy. We report the influence of low energy ( + on the low temperature ( + ions to silicon neutrals (J + /J 0 ) during growth by an order of magnitude (from 3 to 30) enables the direct nucleation of polycrystalline Si on glass and SiO 2 coated Si at temperatures below 400 degree sign C. We discuss possible mechanisms for this enhancement of crystalline microstructure, including the roles of enhanced adatom mobility and the formation of shallow, mobile defects

  2. Optical and electrical properties of polycrystalline and amorphous Al-Ti thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Borca, C. N.; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The structural, optical, and transport properties of sputter-deposited Al-Ti thin films have been investigated as a function of Ti alloying with a concentration ranging from 2% to 46%. The optical reflectivity of Al-Ti films at visible and near-infrared wavelengths decreases with increasing Ti...... content. Xray absorption fine structure measurements reveal that the atomic ordering around Ti atoms increases with increasing Ti content up to 20% and then decreases as a result of a transition from a polycrystalline to amorphous structure. The transport properties of the Al-Ti films are influenced...... by electron scattering at the grain boundaries in the case of polycrystalline films and static defects, such as antisite effects and vacancies in the case of the amorphous alloys. The combination of Ti having a real refractive index (n) comparable with the extinction coefficient (k) and Al with n much smaller...

  3. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  4. Characteristics of Al/p-AgGaTe2 polycrystalline thin film Schottky barrier diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.S.; Patel, B.H.; Patel, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    An Al/p-AgGaTe 2 polycrystalline thin film schottky barrier diode have been prepared by flash-evaporation of p-AgGaTe 2 onto a pre-deposited film of aluminium. The current-voltage, capacitance-voltage and photoresponse of the diode have been investigated. The important physical parameter such as barrier height of the fabricated diode was derived from these measurements. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Two-dimensional discrete dislocation models of deformation in polycrystalline thin metal films on substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmaier, Alexander; Buehler, Markus J.; Gao, Huajian

    2005-01-01

    The time-dependent irreversible deformation of polycrystalline thin metal films on substrates is investigated using two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics models incorporating essential parameters determined from atomistic studies. The work is focused on the mechanical properties of uncapped films, where diffusive processes play an important role. The simulations incorporate dislocation climb along the grain boundary as well as conservative glide. Despite of severe limitations of the two-dimensional dislocation models, the simulation results are found to largely corroborate experimental findings on different dominant deformation mechanisms at different film thicknesses

  6. Effect of Grain Boundaries on the Performance of Thin-Film-Based Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: A Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Nikita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-01-01

    Solar cells/photovoltaic, a renewable energy source, is appraised to be the most effective alternative to the conventional electrical energy generator. A cost-effective alternative of crystalline wafer-based solar cell is thin-film polycrystalline-based solar cell. This paper reports the numerical analysis of dependency of the solar cell parameters (i.e., efficiency, fill factor, open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current density) on grain size for thin-film-based polycrystalline silicon (Si) solar cells. A minority carrier lifetime model is proposed to do a correlation between the grains, grain boundaries and lifetime for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells in MATLAB environment. As observed, the increment in the grain size diameter results in increase in minority carrier lifetime in polycrystalline Si thin film. A non-equivalent series resistance double-diode model is used to find the dark as well as light (AM1.5) current-voltage (I-V) characteristics for thin-film-based polycrystalline Si solar cells. To optimize the effectiveness of the proposed model, a successive approximation method is used and the corresponding fitting parameters are obtained. The model is validated with the experimentally obtained results reported elsewhere. The experimentally reported solar cell parameters can be found using the proposed model described here.

  7. Magnetoelectric coupling effect in transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivas Puli, Venkata, E-mail: pvsri123@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Kumar Pradhan, Dhiren [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4401 (United States); Coondoo, Indrani [Department of Materials and Ceramic and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Panwar, Neeraj [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, Bandar Sindri, Kishangarh 305801, Rajasthan (India); Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Katiyar, Ram S. [Department of Physics and Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Rare-earth (Sm) and transition metal (Co) modified polycrystalline BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate successfully through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Piezoelectric, leakage current and temperature dependent dielectric and magnetic behaviour were investigated for the films. Typical “butterfly-shaped” loop were observed in BSFCO films with an effective piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) ∼94 pm/V at 0.6 MV/cm. High dielectric constant ∼900 and low dielectric loss ∼0.25 were observed at room temperature. M–H loops have shown relatively high saturation magnetization ∼35 emu/cm{sup 3} at a maximum field of H ∼20 kOe. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling response is observed under applied magnetic field. The multiferroic, piezoelectric, leakage current behaviours were explored. Such studies should be helpful in designing multiferroic materials based on BSFCO films. - Highlights: • Transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO{sub 3} thin films prepared using PLD. • High ME-coupling response was observed in co-substituted BiFeO{sub 3} thin films. • High magnetization ∼35 emu/cm{sup 3} at a maximum field of H ∼20 kOe. • Low leakage current might be due to co-substitution in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films. • A notable piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} ∼94 pm/V was found in BiFeO{sub 3} thin films.

  8. Magnetoelectric coupling effect in transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas Puli, Venkata; Kumar Pradhan, Dhiren; Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu; Coondoo, Indrani; Panwar, Neeraj; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2014-01-01

    Rare-earth (Sm) and transition metal (Co) modified polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si substrate successfully through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Piezoelectric, leakage current and temperature dependent dielectric and magnetic behaviour were investigated for the films. Typical “butterfly-shaped” loop were observed in BSFCO films with an effective piezoelectric constant (d 33 ) ∼94 pm/V at 0.6 MV/cm. High dielectric constant ∼900 and low dielectric loss ∼0.25 were observed at room temperature. M–H loops have shown relatively high saturation magnetization ∼35 emu/cm 3 at a maximum field of H ∼20 kOe. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling response is observed under applied magnetic field. The multiferroic, piezoelectric, leakage current behaviours were explored. Such studies should be helpful in designing multiferroic materials based on BSFCO films. - Highlights: • Transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO 3 thin films prepared using PLD. • High ME-coupling response was observed in co-substituted BiFeO 3 thin films. • High magnetization ∼35 emu/cm 3 at a maximum field of H ∼20 kOe. • Low leakage current might be due to co-substitution in BiFeO 3 thin films. • A notable piezoelectric constant d 33 ∼94 pm/V was found in BiFeO 3 thin films

  9. Photovoltaic effect in transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Chrisey, Douglas B; Pradhan, Dhiren Kumar; Katiyar, Rajesh Kumar; Misra, Pankaj; Scott, J F; Katiyar, Ram S; Coondoo, Indrani; Panwar, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    We report photovoltaic (PV) effect in multiferroic Bi 0.9 Sm 0.1 Fe 0.95 Co 0.05 O 3 (BSFCO) thin films. Transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO 3 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si substrate successfully through pulsed laser deposition (PLD). PV response is observed under illumination both in sandwich and lateral electrode configurations. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ) and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) of the films in sandwich electrode configuration under illumination are measured to be 0.9 V and −0.051 µA cm −2 . Additionally, we report piezoresponse for BSFCO films, which confirms ferroelectric piezoelectric behaviour. (paper)

  10. Using Mosaicity to Tune Thermal Transport in Polycrystalline AlN Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Shivkant

    2018-05-17

    The effect of controlling the c-axis alignment (mosaicity) to the cross-plane thermal transport in textured polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films is experimentally and theoretically investigated. We show that by controlling the sputtering conditions we are able to deposit AlN thin films with varying c-axis grain tilt (mosaicity) from 10° to 0°. Microstructural characterization shows that the films are nearly identical in thickness and grain size, and the difference in mosaicity alters the grain interface quality. This has a significant effect to thermal transport where a thermal conductivity of 4.22 W/mK vs. 8.09 W/mK are measured for samples with tilt angles of 10° vs. 0° respectively. The modified Callaway model was used to fit the theoretical curves to the experimental results using various phonon scattering mechanisms at the grain interface. It was found that using a non-gray model gives an overview of the phonon scattering at the grain boundaries, whereas treating the grain boundary as an array of dislocation lines with varying angle relative to the heat flow, best describes the mechanism of the thermal transport. Lastly, our results show that controlling the quality of the grain interface provides a tuning knob to control thermal transport in polycrystalline materials.

  11. Using Mosaicity to Tune Thermal Transport in Polycrystalline AlN Thin Films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Shivkant; Shervin, Shahab; Sun, Haiding; Yarali, Milad; Chen, Jie; Lin, Ronghui; Li, Kuang-Hui; Li, Xiaohang; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2018-01-01

    The effect of controlling the c-axis alignment (mosaicity) to the cross-plane thermal transport in textured polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films is experimentally and theoretically investigated. We show that by controlling the sputtering conditions we are able to deposit AlN thin films with varying c-axis grain tilt (mosaicity) from 10° to 0°. Microstructural characterization shows that the films are nearly identical in thickness and grain size, and the difference in mosaicity alters the grain interface quality. This has a significant effect to thermal transport where a thermal conductivity of 4.22 W/mK vs. 8.09 W/mK are measured for samples with tilt angles of 10° vs. 0° respectively. The modified Callaway model was used to fit the theoretical curves to the experimental results using various phonon scattering mechanisms at the grain interface. It was found that using a non-gray model gives an overview of the phonon scattering at the grain boundaries, whereas treating the grain boundary as an array of dislocation lines with varying angle relative to the heat flow, best describes the mechanism of the thermal transport. Lastly, our results show that controlling the quality of the grain interface provides a tuning knob to control thermal transport in polycrystalline materials.

  12. Compressive intrinsic stress originates in the grain boundaries of dense refractory polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnfält, D., E-mail: danma@ifm.liu.se; Sarakinos, K. [Nanoscale Engineering Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Fillon, A.; Abadias, G. [Institut P' , Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, SP2MI, Téléport 2, Bd M. et P. Curie, F-86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France); Boyd, R. D.; Helmersson, U. [Plasma and Coatings Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2016-02-07

    Intrinsic stresses in vapor deposited thin films have been a topic of considerable scientific and technological interest owing to their importance for functionality and performance of thin film devices. The origin of compressive stresses typically observed during deposition of polycrystalline metal films at conditions that result in high atomic mobility has been under debate in the literature in the course of the past decades. In this study, we contribute towards resolving this debate by investigating the grain size dependence of compressive stress magnitude in dense polycrystalline Mo films grown by magnetron sputtering. Although Mo is a refractory metal and hence exhibits an intrinsically low mobility, low energy ion bombardment is used during growth to enhance atomic mobility and densify the grain boundaries. Concurrently, the lateral grain size is controlled by using appropriate seed layers on which Mo films are grown epitaxially. The combination of in situ stress monitoring with ex situ microstructural characterization reveals a strong, seemingly linear, increase of the compressive stress magnitude on the inverse grain size and thus provides evidence that compressive stress is generated in the grain boundaries of the film. These results are consistent with models suggesting that compressive stresses in metallic films deposited at high homologous temperatures are generated by atom incorporation into and densification of grain boundaries. However, the underlying mechanisms for grain boundary densification might be different from those in the present study where atomic mobility is intrinsically low.

  13. Appropriate materials and preparation techniques for polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells have excellent potential for reducing the cost of TPV generators so as to address the hitherto inaccessible and highly competitive markets such as self-powered gas-fired residential warm air furnaces and energy-efficient electric cars, etc. Recent progress in polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells have made it possible to satisfy the diffusion length and intrinsic junction rectification criteria for TPV cells operating at high fluences. Continuous ranges of direct bandgaps of the ternary and pseudoternary compounds such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Pb1-xCdxTe, Hg1-xZnxTe, and Pb1-xZnxS cover the region of interest of 0.50-0.75 eV for efficient TPV conversion. Other ternary and pseudoternary compounds which show direct bandgaps in most of or all of the 0.50-0.75 eV range are Pb1-xZnxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, Pb1-xCdxSe, Pb1-xZnxSe, and Pb1-xCdxS. Hg1-xCdxTe (with x~0.21) has been studied extensively for infrared detectors. PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe have also been studied for infrared detectors. Not much work has been carried out on Hg1-xZnxTe thin films. Hg1-xCdxTe and Pb1-xCdxTe alloys cover a wide range of cut-off wavelengths from the far infrared to the near visible. Acceptors and donors are introduced in these materials by excess non-metal (Te) and excess metal (Hg and Pb) respectively. Extrinsic acceptor impurities are Cu, Au, and As while and In and Al are donor impurities. Hg1-xCdxTe thin films have been deposited by isothermal vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), electrodeposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), laser-assisted evaporation, and vacuum evaporation with or without hot-wall enclosure. The challenge in the preparation of Hg1-xCdxTe is to provide excess mercury incidence rate, to optimize the deposition parameters for enhanced mercury incorporation, and to achieve the requisite stoichiometry, grain size, and doping. MBE and MOCVD

  14. Magnetostriction Increase of Polycrystalline Fe-Al-B Thin Sheets after Thermomechanical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M. B. S.; Fulop, G. O.; Baldan, C. A.; Bormio-Nunes, C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetostrictive materials are applied in several types of sensors, actuators, and energy harvesting. In particular, for AC devices, thin materials are desired to reduce eddy current losses. It is well known that the magnetostriction of single crystals and textured materials is higher than in polycrystalline ones, however, the cost and manufacture speed are crucial to be used as parts of commercial devices. Therefore, polycrystalline samples are strong candidates for common applications. In this work, (Fe x Al100- x )98.4B1.6 ( x = 86.6, 82 and 79.4) alloys were rolled down to 0.7 mm of thickness and annealed at 1473 K (1200 °C) for 2 hours aiming to reduce the thickness of the samples without deteriorating the magnetic properties. The alloys, even with higher contents of Al, were easily deformed to the thickness of 0.7 mm and this ability is attributed to the presence of the Fe2B phase. After the thermomechanical process, new isotropic recrystallized grains emerged and the longitudinal magnetostriction increased to 75.8, 16.9, and 3.2 pct, achieving 28.3, 28.4, and 28.8 ppm, respectively, for x = 86.6, 82, and 79.4. The piezomagnetic coefficient obtained of 4 nm/A is a suitable actuating sensitivity.

  15. High-temperature laser annealing for thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cell on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A.; Schneider, J.; Dore, J.; Mermet, F.; Slaoui, A.

    2012-06-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon films grown on glass substrate were irradiated with an infrared continuous wave laser for defects annealing and/or dopants activation. The samples were uniformly scanned using an attachment with the laser system. Substrate temperature, scan speed and laser power were varied to find suitable laser annealing conditions. The Raman spectroscopy and Suns- V oc analysis were carried out to qualify the films quality after laser annealing. A maximum enhancement of the open circuit voltage V oc of about 100 mV is obtained after laser annealing of as-grown polysilicon structures. A strong correlation was found between the full width half maximum of the Si crystalline peak and V oc. It is interpreted as due to defects annealing as well as to dopants activation in the absorbing silicon layer. The maximum V oc reached is 485 mV after laser treatment and plasma hydrogenation, thanks to defects passivation.

  16. Influence of metal induced crystallization parameters on the performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, metal induced crystallization using nickel was employed to obtain polycrystalline silicon by crystallization of amorphous films for thin film transistor applications. The devices were produced through only one lithographic process with a bottom gate configuration using a new gate dielectric consisting of a multi-layer of aluminum oxide/titanium oxide produced by atomic layer deposition. The best results were obtained for TFTs with the active layer of poly-Si crystallized for 20 h at 500 deg. C using a nickel layer of 0.5 nm where the effective mobility is 45.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The threshold voltage, the on/off current ratio and the sub-threshold voltage are, respectively, 11.9 V, 5.55x10 4 and 2.49 V/dec

  17. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Extreme Energy-Density Research Inst., Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  18. Substrate bias effect on crystallinity of polycrystalline silicon thin films prepared by pulsed ion-beam evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fazlat; Gunji, Michiharu; Yang, Sung-Chae; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline silicon thin films has been tried by a pulsed ion-beam evaporation method, where high crystallinity and deposition rate have been achieved without heating the substrate. The crystallinity and the deposition rate were improved by applying bias voltage to the substrate, where instantaneous substrate heating might have occurred by ion-bombardment. (author)

  19. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  20. Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

    2011-09-01

    The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

  1. A multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework to modeling stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidian, M., E-mail: jamshidian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, Marienstrasse 15, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Thamburaja, P., E-mail: prakash.thamburaja@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Rabczuk, T., E-mail: timon.rabczuk@tdt.edu.vn [Division of Computational Mechanics, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Civil Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    A previously-developed finite-deformation- and crystal-elasticity-based constitutive theory for stressed grain growth in cubic polycrystalline bodies has been augmented to include a description of excess surface energy and grain-growth stagnation mechanisms through the use of surface effect state variables in a thermodynamically-consistent manner. The constitutive theory was also implemented into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field computational framework. With the material parameters in the constitutive theory suitably calibrated, our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the constitutive model is able to accurately predict the experimentally-determined evolution of crystallographic texture and grain size statistics in polycrystalline copper thin films deposited on polyimide substrate and annealed at high-homologous temperatures. In particular, our numerical analyses show that the broad texture transition observed in the annealing experiments of polycrystalline thin films is caused by grain growth stagnation mechanisms. - Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Developing a theory for stressed grain growth in polycrystalline thin films. • Implementation into a multiscale coupled finite-element and phase-field framework. • Quantitative reproduction of the experimental grain growth data by simulations. • Revealing the cause of texture transition to be due to the stagnation mechanisms.

  2. Efficiency limitations of polycrystalline thin film solar cells: case of Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Juergen H.; Mattheis, Julian; Rau, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Small-area Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin film solar cells have reached more than 19% efficiencies. Compared to other polycrystalline materials this efficiency value is remarkable. Nevertheless, the 19% for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 range more than 6% (absolute) below the world's best single-crystalline Si cells and almost 14% below the upper theoretical limit of 33% for an ideal black body cell with infinitely large mobility and radiative recombination only. About 4% out of the 14% are of optical nature, additional 3% stem from the limited mobility/diffusion length and from band gap fluctuations with a standard deviation no. sigmano. g no. approxno. 50 meV due to spatial variations of composition and stoichiometry of the quaternary compound Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 . Thus, about 26% efficiency would be possible if there were only these band gap fluctuations. Additional, voltage-dependent electrostatic potential fluctuations push down the efficiency further to 19%: The polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 which is unavoidably structurally inhomogeneous due to dislocations, grain boundaries, point defects, etc. is also electrostatically inhomogeneous because of charged defects. Electrostatic potential fluctuations at the valence and conduction band edge may be not only responsible for a high saturation current density but also for the ideality factor in the current/voltage curve. The band gap and electrostatic potential fluctuations make the effective band gap which controls the intrinsic carrier density smaller than the average optical gap. The (zero bias) electrostatic potential fluctuations are here derived from the ideality factors of the current/voltage curve. The ideality factor reflects the voltage-induced electrostatic homogenization of the sample. For the world's best Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 cells with an ideality factor of n id =1.5, we estimate zero bias electrostatic potential fluctuations with a standard deviation no. sigmano. elec no. approxno. 140 meV

  3. Nanosecond Time-Resolved Microscopic Gate-Modulation Imaging of Polycrystalline Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Kamata, Toshihide; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-02-01

    We develop a time-resolved microscopic gate-modulation (μ GM ) imaging technique to investigate the temporal evolution of the channel current and accumulated charges in polycrystalline pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). A time resolution of as high as 50 ns is achieved by using a fast image-intensifier system that could amplify a series of instantaneous optical microscopic images acquired at various time intervals after the stepped gate bias is switched on. The differential images obtained by subtracting the gate-off image allows us to acquire a series of temporal μ GM images that clearly show the gradual propagation of both channel charges and leaked gate fields within the polycrystalline channel layers. The frontal positions for the propagations of both channel charges and leaked gate fields coincide at all the time intervals, demonstrating that the layered gate dielectric capacitors are successively transversely charged up along the direction of current propagation. The initial μ GM images also indicate that the electric field effect is originally concentrated around a limited area with a width of a few micrometers bordering the channel-electrode interface, and that the field intensity reaches a maximum after 200 ns and then decays. The time required for charge propagation over the whole channel region with a length of 100 μ m is estimated at about 900 ns, which is consistent with the measured field-effect mobility and the temporal-response model for organic TFTs. The effect of grain boundaries can be also visualized by comparison of the μ GM images for the transient and the steady states, which confirms that the potential barriers at the grain boundaries cause the transient shift in the accumulated charges or the transient accumulation of additional charges around the grain boundaries.

  4. Photoluminescence of epitactical and polycrystalline CuInS2 layers for thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present thesis deals with one- and polycrystalline CuInS 2 absorber layers for thin-film solar cells and especially with their optical and structural characterization. By means of detailed temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements in epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers different radiative transitions could be analyzed and identified. The spectra were dominated by broad luminescence bands of deep perturbing levels. The implantation of hydrogen at low energies led to a passivation of these perturbing levels. On the base of the optical studies on epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers a new improved defect model for CuInS 2 could be developed. The model contains two donor and two acceptor levels with following ionization energies: D-1=46 meV, D-2=87 meV, A-1=70 meV, and A-2=119 meV

  5. Recovery Act : Near-Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Thin Films on Polycrystalline, Flexible Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Selvamanickam; Alex Freundlich

    2010-11-29

    III-V photovoltaics have exhibited efficiencies above 40%, but have found only a limited use because of the high cost of single crystal substrates. At the other end of the spectrum, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film solar cells offer the advantage of low-cost fabrication, but have not yielded high efficiencies. Our program is based on single-crystalline-like thin film photovoltaics on polycrystalline substrates using biaxially-textured templates made by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD). MgO templates made by IBAD on flexible metal substrate have been successfully used for epitaxial growth of germanium films. In spite of a 4.5% lattice mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Ge was achieved on CeO2 that was grown on IBAD MgO template. Room temperature optical bandgap of the Ge films was identified at 0.67 eV indicating minimal residual strain. Refraction index and extinction coefficient values of the Ge films were found to match well with that measured from a reference Ge single crystal. GaAs has been successfully grown epitaxially on Ge on metal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. RHEED patterns indicate self annihilation of antiphase boundaries and the growth of a single domain GaAs. The GaAs is found to exhibit strong photoluminescence signal and, an existence of a relatively narrow (FWHM~20 meV) band-edge excitons measured in this film indicates a good optoelectronic quality of deposited GaAs. While excellent epitaxial growth has been achieved in GaAs on flexible metal substrates, the defect density of the films as measured by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and etch pit experiments showed a high value of 5 * 10^8 per cm^2. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy of the multilayer architecture showed concentration of threading dislocations near the germanium-ceria interface. The defect density was found decrease as the Ge films were made thicker. The defects appear to originate from the MgO layer presumably because of large lattice mismatches

  6. Aggregate linear properties of ferroelectric ceramics and polycrystalline thin films: Calculation by the method of effective piezoelectric medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsev, N. A.; Zembilgotov, A. G.; Waser, R.

    1998-08-01

    The effective dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants of polycrystalline ferroelectric materials are calculated from single-crystal data by an advanced method of effective medium, which takes into account the piezoelectric interactions between grains in full measure. For bulk BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polarized ceramics, the dependences of material constants on the remanent polarization are reported. Dielectric and elastic constants are computed also for unpolarized c- and a-textured ferroelectric thin films deposited on cubic or amorphous substrates. It is found that the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polycrystalline thin films strongly depend on the type of crystal texture. The influence of two-dimensional clamping by the substrate on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of polarized films is described quantitatively and shown to be especially important for the piezoelectric charge coefficient of BaTiO3 films.

  7. Fatigue characteristics of polycrystalline silicon thin-film membrane and its dependence on humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanemura, Tomoki; Yamashita, Shuichi; Wado, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Yukihiro; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes fatigue characteristics of a polycrystalline silicon thin-film membrane under different humidity evaluated by out-of-plane resonant vibration. The membrane, without the surface of sidewalls by patterning of photolithography and etching process, was applied to evaluate fatigue characteristics precisely against the changes in the surrounding humidity owing to narrower deviation in the fatigue lifetime. The membrane has 16 mm square-shaped multilayered films consisting of a 250 or 500 nm thick polysilicon film on silicon dioxide and silicon nitride underlying layers. A circular weight of 12 mm in diameter was placed at the center of the membrane to control the resonant frequency. Stress on the polysilicon film was generated by deforming the membrane oscillating the weight in the out-of-plane direction. The polysilicon film was fractured by fatigue damage accumulation under cyclic stress. The lifetime of the polysilicon membrane extended with lower relative humidity, especially at 5%RH. The results of the fatigue tests were well formulated with Weibull's statistics and Paris’ law. The dependence of fatigue characteristics on humidity has been quantitatively revealed for the first time. The crack growth rate indicated by the fatigue index decreased with the reduction in humidity, whereas the deviation of strength represented by the Weibull modulus was nearly constant against humidity. (paper)

  8. Solid phase crystallized polycrystalline thin-films on glass from evaporated silicon for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Dengyuan; Inns, Daniel; Straub, Axel; Terry, Mason L.; Campbell, Patrick; Aberle, Armin G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-films are made on planar and textured glass substrates by solid phase crystallization (SPC) of in situ doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) deposited by electron-beam evaporation. These materials are referred to by us as EVA materials (SPC of evaporated a-Si). The properties of EVA poly-Si films are characterised by Raman microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. A narrow and symmetrical Raman peak at a wave number of about 520 cm -1 is observed for all samples, showing that the films are fully crystallized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that the films are preferentially (111)-oriented. Furthermore, the full width at half maximum of the dominant (111) XRD peaks indicates that the structural quality of the films is affected by the a-Si deposition temperature and the surface morphology of the glass substrates. A-Si deposition at 200 instead of 400 deg. C leads to an enhanced poly-Si grain size. On textured glass, the addition of a SiN barrier layer between the glass and the Si improves the poly-Si material quality. No such effect occurs on planar glass. Mesa-type solar cells are made from these EVA films on planar and textured glass. A strong correlation between the cells' current-voltage characteristics and their crystalline material quality is observed

  9. On the effects of hydrogenation of thin film polycrystalline silicon: A key factor to improve heterojunction solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qiu, Y.; Kunz, O.; Fejfar, Antonín; Ledinský, Martin; Teik Chan, B.; Gordon, I.; Van Gestel, D.; Venkatachalm, S.; Egan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, MAR (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E10061; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 240826 - PolySiMode Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon * thin films * polycrystalline * hydrogenation * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.337, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927024813006016

  10. Thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells studied in transient regime by optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Skoromets, Volodymyr; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín; Kužel, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 23 (2015), "233901-1"-"233901-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101216 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thin film polycrystalline silicon * terahertz spectroscopy * passivation * Suns-Voc method * defects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  11. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O [Aix-Marseille University, IM2NP, FST avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, F-13397 Marseille Cedex (France); Proudhon, H; Forest, S [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J [Erich Schmid Institute for Material Science, Austrian Academy of Science and Institute of Metal Physics, University of Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Jacques, V; Ravy, S [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: nicolas.vaxelaire@univ-cezanne.fr

    2010-03-15

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  12. Methodology for studying strain inhomogeneities in polycrystalline thin films during in situ thermal loading using coherent x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaxelaire, N; Labat, S; Thomas, O; Proudhon, H; Forest, S; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Jacques, V; Ravy, S

    2010-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the mechanical properties of a single grain within a polycrystalline thin film in situ during a thermal cycle. Both the experimental approach and finite element simulation are described. Coherent diffraction from a single grain has been monitored in situ at different temperatures. This experiment offers unique perspectives for the study of the mechanical properties of nano-objects.

  13. Properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline SiGe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, Moshe

    2008-06-06

    In this thesis, structural, electrical, and optical properties of laser-crystallized polycrystalline Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with 0thin films with 0.3thin films with 0thin films exhibited mostly a broad atypical electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) signal that was accompanied by a nearly temperature-independent electrical conductivity in the range 20-100 K. - Most likely, the origin of the grain boundary conductance is due to dangling-bond defects and not impurities. Metallic-like conductance occurs when the dangling-bond defect density is above a critical value of about N{sub C} {approx} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. - Laser crystallized poly-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} thin films with x{>=}0.5 exhibit optical absorption behavior that is characteristic for disordered SiGe, implying that the absorption occurs primarily at the grain boundaries. A sub-band-gap absorption peak was found for

  14. Effect of Gallium Doping on the Characteristic Properties of Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, A. A.; Dharmadasa, I. M.

    2017-08-01

    Ga-doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films were successfully electrodeposited on glass/fluorine doped tin oxide substrates from aqueous electrolytes containing cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2·4H2O) and tellurium oxide (TeO2). The effects of different Ga-doping concentrations on the CdTe:Ga coupled with different post-growth treatments were studied by analysing the structural, optical, morphological and electronic properties of the deposited layers using x-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical cell measurement and direct-current conductivity test respectively. XRD results show diminishing (111)C CdTe peak above 20 ppm Ga-doping and the appearance of (301)M GaTe diffraction above 50 ppm Ga-doping indicating the formation of two phases; CdTe and GaTe. Although, reductions in the absorption edge slopes were observed above 20 ppm Ga-doping for the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layer, no obvious influence on the energy gap of CdTe films with Ga-doping were detected. Morphologically, reductions in grain size were observed at 50 ppm Ga-doping and above with high pinhole density within the layer. For the as-deposited CdTe:Ga layers, conduction type change from n- to p- were observed at 50 ppm, while the n-type conductivity were retained after post-growth treatment. Highest conductivity was observed at 20 ppm Ga-doping of CdTe. These results are systematically reported in this paper.

  15. Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry for analysis and control of thin film polycrystalline semiconductor deposition in photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Prakash; Attygalle, Dinesh; Aryal, Puruswottam; Pradhan, Puja; Chen, Jie [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Marsillac, Sylvain [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Ferlauto, Andre S.; Podraza, Nikolas J.; Collins, Robert W. [Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2014-11-28

    Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) from the near-infrared to ultraviolet has been applied for analysis of the deposition of polycrystalline thin films that form the basis of two key photovoltaic heterojunction configurations, superstrate SnO{sub 2}/CdS/CdTe and substrate Mo/Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}/CdS. The focus of this work is to develop capabilities for monitoring and controlling the key steps in the fabrication of these device structures. Analysis of RTSE data collected during sputter deposition of CdS on a rough SnO{sub 2} transparent top contact provides the time evolution of the CdS effective thickness, or film volume per unit substrate area. This thickness includes interface, bulk, and surface roughness layer components and affects the CdS/CdTe heterojunction performance and the quantum efficiency of the solar cell in the blue region of the solar spectrum. Similarly, analysis of RTSE data collected during co-evaporation of Cu(In{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} (CIGS; x ∼ 0.3) on a rough Mo back contact provides the evolution of a second phase of Cu{sub 2−x}Se within the CIGS layer. During the last stage of CIGS deposition, the In, Ga, and Se co-evaporants convert this Cu{sub 2−x}Se phase to CIGS, and RTSE identifies the endpoint, specifically the time at which complete conversion occurs and single-phase, large-grain CIGS is obtained in this key stage. - Highlights: • Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) study of CdS and CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) films. • RTSE during CdS deposition provides the evolution of the CdS effective thickness. • RTSE for CIGS film enables to measure and control the composition and thickness. • The work leads to the development of optical models for processing steps.

  16. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: from technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ashcheulov, Petr; Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J.; Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Fendrych, František; Vega, R.; Shao, L.; Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S.; Cháb, Vladimír; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, Kateřina; Klimša, Ladislav; Kopeček, Jaromír; Sajdl, P.; Macák, J.; Johnson, S.; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 359, Dec (2015), s. 621-628 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05095S; GA TA ČR TA04020156; GA MŠk LO1409; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metal coatings * thin polycrystalline diamond film * impedance spectroscopy * Raman spectroscopy * XPS Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.150, year: 2015

  17. Carrier Transport, Recombination, and the Effects of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride Thin Films for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Mohit

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), a chalcogenide semiconductor, is currently used as the absorber layer in one of the highest efficiency thin film solar cell technologies. Current efficiency records are over 22%. In 2011, CdTe solar cells accounted for 8% of all solar cells installed. This is because, in part, CdTe has a low degradation rate, high optical absorption coefficient, and high tolerance to intrinsic defects. Solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe exhibit a higher short-circuit current, fill factor, and power conversion efficiency than their single crystal counterparts. This is despite the fact that polycrystalline CdTe devices exhibit lower open-circuit voltages. This is contrary to the observation for silicon and III-V semiconductors, where material defects cause a dramatic drop in device performance. For example, grain boundaries in covalently-bonded semiconductors (a) act as carrier recombination centers, and (b) lead to localized energy states, causing carrier trapping. Despite significant research to date, the mechanism responsible for the superior current collection properties of polycrystalline CdTe solar cells has not been conclusively answered. This dissertation focuses on the macro-scale electronic band structure, and micro scale electronic properties of grains and grain boundaries in device-grade CdTe thin films to answer this open question. My research utilized a variety of experimental techniques. Samples were obtained from leading groups fabricating the material and devices. A CdCl 2 anneal is commonly performed as part of this fabrication and its effects were also investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was employed to study the band structure and defect states in CdTe polycrystals. Cadmium vacancy- and chlorine-related states lead to carrier recombination, as in CdTe films grown by other methods. Comparing polycrystalline and single crystal CdTe, showed that the key to explaining the improved performance of polycrystalline CdTe does

  18. Analytical approximate equations for the resistivity and its temperature coefficient in thin polycrystalline metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, C.R.; Tosser, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    In the usual thickness range of sputtered metallic films, analytical linearized approximate expressions of polycrystalline film resistivity and its t.c.r. are deduced from the Mayadas-Shatzkes theoretical equations. A good experimental fit is observed for Al rf sputtered metal films. (orig.) [de

  19. Non-classical polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistor with embedded block-oxide for suppressing the short channel effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Huang, Kuo-Dong; Hu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) thin-film transistor with a block oxide enclosing body, BTFT, is fabricated and investigated. By utilizing the block-oxide structure of thin-film transistors, the BTFT is shown to suppress the short channel effect. This proposed structure is formed by burying self-aligned oxide spacers along the sidewalls of the source and drain junctions, which reduces the P–N junction area, thereby reducing the junction capacitance and leakage current. Measurements demonstrate that the BTFT eliminates the punch-through effect even down to gate lengths of 1.5 µm, whereas the conventional TFT suffers serious short channel effects at this gate length

  20. Structural and optical analysis of 60Co gamma-irradiated thin films of polycrystalline Ga10Se85Sn5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shabir; Asokan, K.; Shahid Khan, Mohd.; Zulfequar, M.

    2015-12-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of gamma irradiation on structural and optical properties of polycrystalline Ga10Se85Sn5 thin films with a thickness of ∼300 nm deposited by the thermal evaporation technique on cleaned glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns of the investigated thin films show that crystallite growth occurs in the orthorhombic phase structure. The surface study carried out by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirms that the grain size increases with gamma irradiation. The optical parameters were estimated from optical transmission spectra data measured from a UV-vis-spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 200-1100 nm. The refractive index dispersion data of the investigated thin films follow the single oscillator model. The estimated values of static refractive index n0, oscillator strength Ed, zero frequency dielectric constant ε0, optical conductivity σoptical and the dissipation factor increases after irradiation, while the single oscillator energy Eo decreases after irradiation. It was found that the value of the optical band gap of the investigated thin films decreases and the corresponding absorption coefficient increases continuously with an increase in the dose of gamma irradiation. This post irradiation changes in the values of optical band gap and absorption coefficient were interpreted in terms of the bond distribution model.

  1. Multi-material gate poly-crystalline thin film transistors: Modeling and simulation for an improved gate transport efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Amit; Mangla, Tina; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional potential distribution formulation is presented for multi-material gate poly-crystalline silicon thin film transistors. The developed formulation incorporates the effects due to traps and grain-boundaries. In short-channel devices, short-channel effects and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) effect exists, and are accounted for in the analysis. The work aims at the reduction of DIBL effect and grain-boundary effects i.e. to reduce the potential barriers generated in the channel by employing gate-engineered structures. A study of work-functions and electrode lengths of multi-material gate electrode is done to suppress the potential barriers, hot electron effect and to improve the carrier transport efficiency. Green's function approach is adopted for the two-dimensional potential solution. The results obtained show a good agreement with simulated results, thus, demonstrating the validity of our model

  2. Semiconductor interfaces of polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells. Characterization and modification of electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsche, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis for the first time the electronic properties of the semiconductor interfaces in polycrystalline CdTe thin-film solar cells, as well as the morphological and electronic properties of the single semiconductor surfaces were systematically characterized by surface-sensitive measuring methods. The morphological surface properties were analyzed by scanning force microscopy. As substrate materials with SnO 2 /ITO covered glass was applied, where the CdS and CdTe layers were deposited. Furthermore the electronic and morphological material properties of differently treated SnO 2 surfaces were characterized. Beside the studies with scanning force microscopy sputtering depth profiles and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were measured

  3. Effect of substrate temperature on ac conduction properties of amorphous and polycrystalline GaSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamilselvan, M.; PremNazeer, K.; Mangalaraj, D.; Narayandass, Sa.K.; Yi, Junsin

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analysis of GaSe thin films used in the present investigation showed that the as-deposited and the one deposited at higher substrate temperature are in amorphous and polycrystalline state, respectively. The alternating current (ac) conduction properties of thermally evaporated films of GaSe were studied ex situ employing symmetric aluminium ohmic electrodes in the frequency range of 120-10 5 Hz at various temperature regimes. For the film deposited at elevated substrate temperature (573 K) the ac conductivity was found to increase with improvement of its crystalline structure. The ac conductivity (σ ac ) is found to be proportional to (ω s ) where s m calculated from ac conductivity measurements are compared with optical studies of our previous reported work for a-GaSe and poly-GaSe thin films. The distance between the localized centres (R), activation energy (ΔE σ ) and the number of sites per unit energy per unit volume N(E F ) at the Fermi level were evaluated for both a-GaSe and poly-GaSe thin films. Goswami and Goswami model has been invoked to explain the dependence of capacitance on frequency and temperature

  4. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  5. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ∼-350 mV and ∼+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ∼3.1 x 10 11 cm -2 and ∼2.1 x 10 12 cm -2 were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the first time on CIGSe thin

  6. Electronic grain boundary properties in polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} semiconductors for thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, Robert

    2012-06-25

    Solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin film absorbers reach the highest energy conversion efficiency among all thin film solar cells. The record efficiency is at least partly attributed to benign electronic properties of grain boundaries (GBs) in the CIGSe layers. However, despite a high amount of research on this phenomenon the underlying physics is not sufficiently understood. This thesis presents an elaborate study on the electronic properties of GBs in CIGSe thin films. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was employed to investigate the electronic properties of GBs in dependence of the Ga-content. Five CIGSe thin lms with various Ga-contents were grown by means of similar three stage co-evaporation processes. Both as grown as well as chemically treated (KCN etched) thin films were analyzed. The chemical treatment was employed to remove surface oxides. No difference in electronic GB properties was found with or without the chemical treatment. Therefore, we conclude that a moderate surface oxidation does not alter the electronic properties of GBs. In general, one can observe significant variations of electronic potential barriers at GBs. Under consideration of the averaging effect of the work function signal of nanoscale potential distributions in KPFM measurements which was quantified in the course of this thesis both positive and negative potential barriers in a range between ∼-350 mV and ∼+450 mV were detected. Additionally, variations in the defect densities at GBs between ∼3.1 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and ∼2.1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} were found. However, no correlation between the electronic properties of GBs and the Ga-content of CIGSe thin films was discovered. Consequently, one cannot explain the drop in device efficiency observed for CIGSe thin film solar cells with a high Ga-content by a change of the electronic properties of GBs. Combined KPFM and electron backscatter diffraction measurements were employed for the

  7. Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Emi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2012-12-17

    We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

  8. In-situ Indentation and Correlated Precession Electron Diffraction Analysis of a Polycrystalline Cu Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianying; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2018-04-01

    In-situ TEM nanoindentation of a polycrystalline Cu film was cross-correlated with precession electron diffraction (PED) to quantify the microstructural evolution. The use of PED is shown to clearly reveal features, such as grain size, that are easily masked by diffraction contrast created by the deformation. Using PED, the accompanying grain refinement and change in texture as well as the preservation of specific grain boundary structures, including a ∑3 boundary, under the indent impression were quantified. The nucleation of dislocations, evident in low-angle grain boundary formations, was also observed under the indent. PED quantification of texture gradients created by the indentation process linked well to bend contours observed in the bright-field images. Finally, PED enabled generating a local orientation spread map that gave an approximate estimation of the spatial distribution of strain created by the indentation impression.

  9. Thermal characterization of polycrystalline diamond thin film heat spreaders grown on GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ramaneti, Rajesh; Anaya, Julian; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Derluyn, Joff; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James; Verbeeck, Johan; Haenen, Ken; Kuball, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was grown onto high-k dielectric passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with film thicknesses ranging from 155 to 1000 nm. Transient thermoreflectance results were combined with device thermal simulations to investigate the heat spreading benefit of the diamond layer. The observed thermal conductivity (κDia) of PCD films is one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk PCD and exhibits a strong layer thickness dependence, which is attributed to the grain size evolution. The films exhibit a weak temperature dependence of κDia in the measured 25-225 °C range. Device simulation using the experimental κDia and thermal boundary resistance values predicts at best a 15% reduction in peak temperature when the source-drain opening of a passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT is overgrown with PCD.

  10. Front buried metallic contacts and thin porous silicon combination for efficient polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabha, M.; Boujmil, M.F.; Meddeb, N.; Saadoun, M.; Bessais, B.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of achieving buried grid metallic contacts (BGMC), with and without application of a front porous silicon (PS) layer, on the photovoltaic properties of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells. A grooving method based on Chemical Vapor Etching (CVE) was used to perform buried grid contacts on the emitter of pc-Si solar cells. After realizing the n + /p junction using a phosphorus diffusion source, BGMCs were realized using the screen printing technique. We found that the buried metallic contacts improve the short circuit current from 16 mA/cm 2 (for reference cell without buried contacts) to about 19 mA/cm 2 . After application of a front PS layer on the n + emitter, we observe an enhancement of the short circuit current from 19 to 24 mA/cm 2 with a decrease of the reflectivity by about 40% of its initial value. The dark I-V characteristics of the pc-Si cells with PS-based emitter show an important reduction of the reverse current together with an improvement of the rectifying behaviour. Spectral response measurements performed at a wavelength range of 400-1100 nm showed a significant increase in the quantum efficiency, particularly at shorter wavelength (400-650 nm). These results indicate that the BGMCs improve the carrier collection and that the PS layer acts as an antireflective coating that reduces reflection losses and passivates the front surface. This low cost and simple technology based on the CVE technique could enable preparing efficient polycrystalline silicon solar cells

  11. Complex boron redistribution kinetics in strongly doped polycrystalline-silicon/nitrogen-doped-silicon thin bi-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadli, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University Aout 1955, Skikda, 21000 (Algeria); LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Mansour, F. [LEMEAMED, Department of Electronics, University Mentouri, Constantine, 25000 (Algeria); Pereira, E. Bedel [CNRS-LAAS, 7 avenue du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2012-10-15

    We have investigated the complex behaviour of boron (B) redistribution process via silicon thin bi-layers interface. It concerns the instantaneous kinetics of B transfer, trapping, clustering and segregation during the thermal B activation annealing. The used silicon bi-layers have been obtained by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method at 480 C, by using in-situ nitrogen-doped-silicon (NiDoS) layer and strongly B doped polycrystalline-silicon (P{sup +}) layer. To avoid long-range B redistributions, thermal annealing was carried out at relatively low-temperatures (600 C and 700 C) for various times ranging between 30 min and 2 h. To investigate the experimental secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) doping profiles, a redistribution model well adapted to the particular structure of two thin layers and to the effects of strong-concentrations has been established. The good adjustment of the simulated profiles with the experimental SIMS profiles allowed a fundamental understanding about the instantaneous physical phenomena giving and disturbing the complex B redistribution profiles-shoulders. The increasing kinetics of the B peak concentration near the bi-layers interface is well reproduced by the established model. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Development of a rapid thermal annealing process for polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, B. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: bjoern.rau@helmholtz-berlin.de; Weber, T.; Gorka, B.; Dogan, P.; Fenske, F.; Lee, K.Y.; Gall, S.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Kekulestr. 5, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    In this report, we discuss the influence of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the performance of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin-film solar cells on glass where the poly-Si layers are differently prepared. The first part presents a comprehensive study of RTA treatments on poly-Si thin-films made by solid phase crystallization (SPC) (standard material of CSG Solar AG, Thalheim). By varying both plateau temperature (up to 1050 deg. C) and duration (up to 1000 s) of the annealing profile, we determined the parameters for a maximum open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}). In addition, we applied our standard plasma hydrogenation treatment in order to passivate the remaining intra-grain defects and grain boundaries by atomic hydrogen resulting in a further increase of V{sub OC}. We found, that the preceding RTA treatment increases the effect of hydrogenation already at comparable low RTA temperatures. The effect on hydrogenation increases significantly with RTA temperature. In a second step we investigated the effect of the RTA and hydrogenation on large-grained poly-Si films based on the epitaxial thickening of poly-Si seed layers.

  13. Optical properties of n-CdSe sub 1-x Te sub x polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M T [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energias Renovables

    1991-01-01

    Absorption coefficient, {alpha}({lambda}), and energy gap, E{sub g}, of CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} thin films were determined from the measured transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range 450-2500 nm. The thin film were electrochemically prepared on glass plates coated with conducting thin films of SnO{sub 2}. A combined method from Goodman and Lubberts was used to determine the absorption coefficient and its dependence on the wavelength. The evolution of the optical gap versus the composition of Te in CdSe{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} was made and a value of 1.4 eV of the optical gap was obtained for the composition of CdSe{sub 0.65}Te{sub 0.35}. (orig.).

  14. Ion beam analysis of the dry thermal oxidation of thin polycrystalline SiGe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, A.; Soares, J.C.; Prieto, A.C.; Jimenez, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Sangrador, J.; Rodriguez, T.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Ge embedded in a formed dielectric matrix appear as very promising systems for electronic and photonic applications. We present here an exhaustive characterization of the oxidation process of polycrystalline SiGe layers from the starting of its oxidation process to the total oxidation of it. We have characterized the process by RBS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, showing the necessity to use different techniques in order to get a full view of the process. First the Si-Si and Si-Ge bonds are oxidized growing SiO 2 , and Ge segregates from the SiO 2 . As soon as all Si is oxidized GeO 2 is growing gradually. RBS has demonstrated to be very useful to characterize the SiO 2 and the remaining non-oxidized poly-SiGe layer thickness, as well as for the determination of the Ge fraction, where the high sensitivity of this technique allows to explore its whole range. On the other hand, for the reliable determination of the GeO 2 thickness, information on the amount of Ge-O bonding had to be obtained from FTIR spectra. Raman spectroscopy yields detailed information about the oxidation processes for different bonds (Si-Si, Si-Ge, Ge-Ge)

  15. Progress in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cu(In,GaSe2 Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udai P. Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For some time, the chalcopyrite semiconductor CuInSe2 and its alloy with Ga and/or S [Cu(InGaSe2 or Cu(InGa(Se,S2], commonly referred as CIGS, have been leading thin-film material candidates for incorporation in high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. CuInSe2-based solar cells have shown long-term stability and the highest conversion efficiencies among all thin-film solar cells, reaching 20%. A variety of methods have been reported to prepare CIGS thin film. Efficiency of solar cells depends upon the various deposition methods as they control optoelectronic properties of the layers and interfaces. CIGS thin film grown on glass or flexible (metal foil, polyimide substrates require p-type absorber layers of optimum optoelectronic properties and n-type wideband gap partner layers to form the p-n junction. Transparent conducting oxide and specific metal layers are used for front and back contacts. Progress made in the field of CIGS solar cell in recent years has been reviewed.

  16. Nanomechanical study of amorphous and polycrystalline ALD HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Tapily; J.E. Jakes; D. Gu; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide (HfO2) were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural properties of the deposited films were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We investigated the effect of phase transformations induced by thermal treatments on the mechanical properties of ALD HfO

  17. Stoichiometry-, phase- and orientation-controlled growth of polycrystalline pyrite (FeS 2) thin films by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höpfner, C.; Ellmer, K.; Ennaoui, A.; Pettenkofer, C.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H.

    1995-06-01

    The growth process of polycrystalline pyrite thin films employing low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) in a vertical cold wall reactor has been investigated. Iron pentacarbonyl (IPC) and t-butyldisulfide (TBDS) were utilized as precursors. Study of the growth rate as a function of temperature reveals a kinetically controlled growth process with an activation energy of 73 kJ / mol over the temperature range from 250 to 400°C. From 500 to 630°C, the growth rate is mainly mass transport limited. Decomposition of the films into pyrrhotite (Fe 1 - xS) occurs at higher growth temperatures. The {S}/{Fe} ratio in the films has been controlled from 1.23 up to 2.03 by changing the TBDS partial pressure. With increasing deposition temperature, the crystallites in the films show the tendency to grow [100]-oriented on amorphous substrates at a growth rate of 2.5 Å / s. The grains show a preferential orientation in the [111] direction upon lowering the growth rate down to 0.3 Å / s. Temperatures above 550°C are beneficial in enhancing the grain size in the columnar structured films up to 1.0 μm.

  18. Stoichiometry-, phase- and orientation-controlled growth of polycrystalline pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) thin films by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, C.; Ellmer, K.; Ennaoui, A.; Pettenkofer, C.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung Solare Energetik, Berlin (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    The growth process of polycrystalline pyrite thin films employing low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) in a vertical cold wall reactor has been investigated. Iron pentacarbonyl (IPC) and t-butyldisulfide (TBDS) were utilized as precursors. Study of the growth rate as a function of temperature reveals a kinetically controlled growth process with an activation energy of 73 kJ/mol over the temperature range from 250 to 400C. From 500 to 630C, the growth rate is mainly mass transport limited. Decomposition of the films into pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S) occurs at higher growth temperatures. The S/Fe ratio in the films has been controlled from 1.23 up to 2.03 by changing the TBDS partial pressure. With increasing deposition temperature, the crystallites in the films show the tendency to grow [100]-oriented on amorphous substrates at a growth rate of 2.5 A/s. The grains show a preferential orientation in the [111] direction upon lowering the growth rate down to 0.3 A/s. Temperatures above 550C are beneficial in enhancing the grain size in the columnar structured films up to 1.0 {mu}m

  19. Study of Nitrogen Effect on the Boron Diffusion during Heat Treatment in Polycrystalline Silicon/Nitrogen-Doped Silicon Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saci, Lynda; Mahamdi, Ramdane; Mansour, Farida; Boucher, Jonathan; Collet, Maéva; Bedel Pereira, Eléna; Temple-Boyer, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The present paper studies the boron (B) diffusion in nitrogen (N) doped amorphous silicon (a-Si) layer in original bi-layer B-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)/in-situ N-doped Si layers (NIDOS) thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique. The B diffusion in the NIDOS layer was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. A new extended diffusion model is proposed to fit the SIMS profile of the bi-layer films. This model introduces new terms which take into account the effect of N concentration on the complex diffusion phenomena of B atoms in bi-layer films. SIMS results show that B diffusion does not exceed one third of NIDOS layer thickness after annealing. The reduction of the B diffusion in the NIDOS layer is due to the formation of complex B-N as shown by infrared absorption measurements. Electrical measurements using four-probe and Hall effect techniques show the good conductivity of the B-doped poly-Si layer after annealing treatment.

  20. Rapid Thermal Annealing and Hydrogen Passivation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Low-Temperature Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason L. Terry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc, short-circuit current density (Jsc, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE of aLuminum induced crystallization, ion-assisted deposition (ALICIA polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on low-temperature glass substrates due to rapid thermal anneal (RTA treatment and subsequent remote microwave hydrogen plasma passivation (hydrogenation are examined. Voc improvements from 130 mV to 430 mV, Jsc improvements from 1.2 mA/cm2 to 11.3 mA/cm2, and peak IQE improvements from 16% to > 70% are achieved. A 1-second RTA plateau at 1000°C followed by hydrogenation increases the Jsc by a factor of 5.5. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the concentration profiles of dopants, impurities, and hydrogen. Computer modeling based on simulations of the measured IQE data reveals that the minority carrier lifetime in the absorber region increases by 3 orders of magnitude to about 1 nanosecond (corresponding to a diffusion length of at least 1 μm due to RTA and subsequent hydrogenation. The evaluation of the changes in the quantum efficiency and Voc due to RTA and hydrogenation with computer modeling significantly improves the understanding of the limiting factors to cell performance.

  1. Characteristics of Schottky-barrier source/drain metal-oxide-polycrystalline thin-film transistors on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung-Min; Cho, Won-Ju; Jung, Jong-Wan

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) Schottky-barrier thin-film transistors (SB-TFTs) with Pt-silicided source /drain junctions were fabricated on glass substrates, and the electrical characteristics were examined. The amorphous silicon films on glass substrates were converted into high-quality poly-Si by using excimer laser annealing (ELA) and solid phase crystallization (SPC) methods. The crystallinity of poly-Si was analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The silicidation process was optimized by measuring the electrical characteristics of the Pt-silicided Schottky diodes. The performances of Pt-silicided SB-TFTs using poly-Si films on glass substrates and crystallized by using ELA and SPC were demonstrated. The SB-TFTs using the ELA poly-Si film demonstrated better electrical performances such as higher mobility (22.4 cm 2 /Vs) and on/off current ratio (3 x 10 6 ) and lower subthreshold swing value (120 mV/dec) than the SPC poly-Si films.

  2. Passivation effect of water vapour on thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Müller, Martin; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1969-1975 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-27 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation, * plasma hydrogenation * silicon * solar cells * thin films * water vapour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  3. Formation of a Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film by Using Blue Laser Diode Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Hwan; Ryu, Han-Youl

    2018-04-01

    We report the crystallization of an amorphous silicon thin film deposited on a SiO2/Si wafer using an annealing process with a high-power blue laser diode (LD). The laser annealing process was performed using a continuous-wave blue LD of 450 nm in wavelength with varying laser output power in a nitrogen atmosphere. The crystallinity of the annealed poly-silicon films was investigated using ellipsometry, electron microscope observation, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Polysilicon grains with > 100-nm diameter were observed to be formed after the blue LD annealing. The crystal quality was found to be improved as the laser power was increased up to 4 W. The demonstrated blue LD annealing is expected to provide a low-cost and versatile solution for lowtemperature poly-silicon processes.

  4. Polycrystalline ZnO: B grown by LPCVD as TCO for thin film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Sylvie; Steinhauser, Jerome; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) technique possesses a rough surface that induces an efficient light scattering in thin film silicon (TF Si) solar cells, which makes this TCO an ideal candidate for contacting such devices. IMT-EPFL has developed an in-house LPCVD process for the deposition of nanotextured boron doped ZnO films used as rough TCO for TF Si solar cells. This paper is a general review and synthesis of the study of the electrical, optical and structural properties of the ZnO:B that has been performed at IMT-EPFL. The influence of the free carrier absorption and the grain size on the electrical and optical properties of LPCVD ZnO:B is discussed. Transport mechanisms at grain boundaries are studied. It is seen that high doping of the ZnO grains facilitates the tunnelling of the electrons through potential barriers that are located at the grain boundaries. Therefore, even if these potential barriers increase after an exposition of the film to a humid atmosphere, the heavily doped LPCVD ZnO:B layers show a remarkable stable conductivity. However, the introduction of diborane in the CVD reaction induces also a degradation of the intra-grain mobility and increases over-proportionally the optical absorption of the ZnO:B films. Hence, the necessity to finely tune the doping level of LPCVD ZnO:B films is highlighted. Finally, the next challenges to push further the optimization of LPCVD ZnO:B films for thin film silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as some remarkable record cell results achieved with LPCVD ZnO:B as front electrode.

  5. Influence of the microstructure on the resulting 18R martensitic transformation of polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films obtained by sputtering and reactive annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenichini, P.; Condó, A.M.; Soldera, F.; Sirena, M.; Haberkorn, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the influence of the microstructure on the martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu−Zn−Al thin films with 18R structure. The films are grown in two steps. First, Cu−Al thin films are obtained by DC sputtering. Second, the Zn is introduced in the Cu−Al thin films by the annealing them together with a bulk Cu−Zn−Al reference. The crystalline structure of the films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The martensitic transformation temperature was measured by electrical transport using conventional four probe geometry. It was observed that temperatures above 973 K are necessary for zincification of the samples to occur. The resulting martensitic transformation and its hysteresis (barrier for the transformation) depend on the grain size, topology and films thickness. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films with nanometric grain size are sintered. • Influence of thermal annealing process on the microstructure is analyzed. • Martensitic transformation of Cu−Al−Zn thin films is strongly affected by the microstructure.

  6. Influence of the microstructure on the resulting 18R martensitic transformation of polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films obtained by sputtering and reactive annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenichini, P. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Condó, A.M. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Soldera, F. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sirena, M. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Haberkorn, N., E-mail: nhaberk@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We report the influence of the microstructure on the martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu−Zn−Al thin films with 18R structure. The films are grown in two steps. First, Cu−Al thin films are obtained by DC sputtering. Second, the Zn is introduced in the Cu−Al thin films by the annealing them together with a bulk Cu−Zn−Al reference. The crystalline structure of the films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The martensitic transformation temperature was measured by electrical transport using conventional four probe geometry. It was observed that temperatures above 973 K are necessary for zincification of the samples to occur. The resulting martensitic transformation and its hysteresis (barrier for the transformation) depend on the grain size, topology and films thickness. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films with nanometric grain size are sintered. • Influence of thermal annealing process on the microstructure is analyzed. • Martensitic transformation of Cu−Al−Zn thin films is strongly affected by the microstructure.

  7. Optimizing the throughput capacity of torpedo ladles with Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}-C-Sic refractories in Brazil; Aumento da disponibilidade e capacidade de carros torpedo revestidos com refratarios de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C-SiC no Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Alvaro Bravo; Braha, Joao; Frasson, Silvio Cassavia [Carborundum do Brasil Ltda. (Brazil); Marques, Oscar Rosa; Delgado, Paulo Roberto Senna [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the excellent results of the development program made between Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (C.S.N.) and Carborundum do Brasil Ltda, to improve the throughput capacity of torpedo car ladle by using Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}-C-Sic refractories in Brazil. The development and application of these products are described and presented compared to conventional material currently in use. (author) 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Epitaxially grown polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on solid-phase crystallised seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili.unsw@gmail.com; Varlamov, Sergey; Xue, Chaowei

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Crystallisation kinetic is used to analyse seed layer surface cleanliness. • Simplified RCA cleaning for the seed layer can shorten the epitaxy annealing duration. • RTA for the seed layer can improve the quality for both seed layer and epi-layer. • Epitaxial poly-Si solar cell performance is improved by RTA treated seed layer. - Abstract: This paper presents the fabrication of poly-Si thin film solar cells on glass substrates using seed layer approach. The solid-phase crystallised P-doped seed layer is not only used as the crystalline template for the epitaxial growth but also as the emitter for the solar cell structure. This paper investigates two important factors, surface cleaning and intragrain defects elimination for the seed layer, which can greatly influence the epitaxial grown solar cell performance. Shorter incubation and crystallisation time is observed using a simplified RCA cleaning than the other two wet chemical cleaning methods, indicating a cleaner seed layer surface is achieved. Cross sectional transmission microscope images confirm a crystallographic transferal of information from the simplified RCA cleaned seed layer into the epi-layer. RTA for the SPC seed layer can effectively eliminate the intragrain defects in the seed layer and improve structural quality of both of the seed layer and the epi-layer. Consequently, epitaxial grown poly-Si solar cell on the RTA treated seed layer shows better solar cell efficiency, V{sub oc} and J{sub sc} than the one on the seed layer without RTA treatment.

  9. Thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth (GREG) technique using photoacoustic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albor-Aguilera, M.L.; Gonzalez-Trujillo, M.A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Tufino-Velazquez, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work we report the study of the thermal and optical properties of polycrystalline CdS thin films deposited by the gradient recrystallization and growth technique. CdS films were grown on pyrex glass substrates. These studies were carried out using an open photoacoustic cell made out of an electret microphone. From X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope and photoluminescence measurements we observed polycrystalline CdS films with good morphology and crystalline quality. We obtained a thermal diffusivity coefficient of our samples with values ranging from 3.15 to 3.89 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s. For comparison, we measured a value of 1.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s for the thermal diffusivity coefficient of a CdS single crystal. We measured an energy gap value of 2.42 eV for our samples by using a photoacoustic spectroscopy system

  10. Optoelectronic study and annealing stability of room temperature pulsed laser ablated ZnSe polycrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad, E-mail: tajakashne@gmail.com; Zakria, M.; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Shakoor, Rana I.

    2014-03-15

    In principal, we described stability of the room temperature ZnSe thin films with thermal annealing deposited onto glass by pulsed laser deposition technique using third harmonic 355 nm of Nd: YAG laser beam. Optoelectronic analysis and stability with thermal annealing was described in terms of structural and optical properties. These properties were investigated via X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, Raman, Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopies. From the strong reflection corresponding to the (1 1 1) plane (2θ=27.48°) and the longitudinal optical “LO” phonon modes at 250 cm{sup −1} and 500 cm{sup −1} in the X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra, a polycrystalline zincblende structure of the film was established. At 300 and 350 °C annealing temperatures, the film crystallites were preferentially oriented with the (1 1 1) plane parallel to the substrate and became amorphous at 400 °C. Atomic force microscopic images showed that the morphologies of ZnSe films became smooth with root mean squared roughness 9.86 nm after annealing at 300 and 350 °C while a rougher surface was observed for the amorphous film at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared study illustrated the chemical nature and Zn–Se bonding in the deposited films. For the as-deposited and annealed samples at 300 and 350 °C, scanning electron micrographs revealed mono-dispersed indistinguishable ZnSe grains and smooth morphological structure which changed to a cracking and bumpy surface after annealing at 400 °C. The physical phenomenon of annealing induced morphological changes could be explained in terms of “structure zone model”. Excitonic emission at 456 nm was observed for both as-deposited and annealed film at 350 °C. The transmission spectrum shows oscillatory behavior because of the thin film interference and exhibited a high degree of transparency down to a wavelength ∼500 nm in the IR region. Energy band-gap was

  11. Low-temperature growth of polycrystalline Ge thin film on glass by in situ deposition and ex situ solid-phase crystallization for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, Chao-Yang; Weber, Juergen W.; Campbell, Patrick; Widenborg, Per I.; Song, Dengyuan; Green, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Poly-crystalline germanium (poly-Ge) thin films have potential for lowering the manufacturing cost of photovoltaic devices especially in tandem solar cells, but high crystalline quality would be required. This work investigates the crystallinity of sputtered Ge thin films on glass prepared by in situ growth and ex situ solid-phase crystallization (SPC). Structural properties of the films were characterized by Raman, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible reflectance measurements. The results show the transition temperature from amorphous to polycrystalline is between 255 deg. C and 280 deg. C for in situ grown poly-Ge films, whereas the transition temperature is between 400 deg. C and 500 deg. C for films produced by SPC for a 20 h annealing time. The in situ growth in situ crystallized poly-Ge films at 450 deg. C exhibit significantly better crystalline quality than those formed by solid-phase crystallization at 600 deg. C. High crystalline quality at low substrate temperature obtained in this work suggests the poly-Ge films could be promising for use in thin film solar cells on glass.

  12. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H 2 -annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers. (paper)

  13. Analysis of mechanical properties of N2in situ doped polycrystalline 3C-SiC thin films by chemical vapor deposition using single-precursor hexamethyildisilane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang-San; Han, Ki-Bong; Chung, Gwiy-Sang

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical properties of poly (polycrystalline) 3C-SiC thin films with N 2 in situ doping. In this work, in situ doped poly 3C-SiC film was deposited by using the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method at 1200 deg. C using single-precursor hexamethyildisilane: Si 2 (CH 3 ) 6 (HMDS) as Si and C precursors, and 0∼100 sccm N 2 as the dopant source gas. The mechanical properties of doped poly 3C-SiC thin films were measured by nano-indentation. Young's modulus and hardness were measured to be 285 and 35 GPa at 0 sccm N 2 , respectively. Young's modulus and hardness decreased with increasing N 2 flow rate. Surface morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) according to N 2 flow rate.

  14. Atomic-resolution characterization of the effects of CdCl2 treatment on poly-crystalline CdTe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, T.; Buurma, C.; Colegrove, E.; Guo, Z.; Sivananthan, S.; Chan, M. K. Y.; Klie, R. F.

    2014-08-01

    Poly-crystalline CdTe thin films on glass are used in commercial solar-cell superstrate devices. It is well known that post-deposition annealing of the CdTe thin films in a CdCl2 environment significantly increases the device performance, but a fundamental understanding of the effects of such annealing has not been achieved. In this Letter, we report a change in the stoichiometry across twin boundaries in CdTe and propose that native point defects alone cannot account for this variation. Upon annealing in CdCl2, we find that the stoichiometry is restored. Our experimental measurements using atomic-resolution high-angle annular dark field imaging, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope are supported by first-principles density functional theory calculations.

  15. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  16. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Annual Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--30 September 2003 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Shea, S. P.

    2004-04-01

    The goal of BP Solar's Crystalline PVMaT program is to improve the present polycrystalline silicon manufacturing facility to reduce cost, improve efficiency, and increase production capacity. Key components of the program are: increasing ingot size; improving ingot material quality; improving material handling; developing wire saws to slice 100 ..mu..m thick silicon wafers on 200 ..mu..m centers; developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers; developing cell processes using 100 ..mu..m thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%; expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control; establishing a 50 MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology; and facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock.

  17. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Annual Subcontract Report, 1 October 2003--30 September 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2005-03-01

    The major objectives of this program are to continue the advancement of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The program includes work in the following areas: Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations; developing wire saws to slice 100- m-thick silicon wafers on 290- m centers; developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers; developing cell processes using 100- m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%; expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control; establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology; facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock.

  18. Low-field tunnel-type magnetoresistance properties of polycrystalline and epitaxial La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Shim, I B; Choi, S Y

    2000-01-01

    The low-field tunnel-type magnetoresistance (TMB) properties of sol-gel derived polycrystalline and epitaxial La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Sr sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3 (LSMO) thin films were investigated. The polycrystalline thin films were fabricated on Si (100) with a thermally oxidized SiO sub 2 layer while the epitaxial thin films were grown on LaAlO sub 3 (001) single-crystal substrates. The epitaxial thin films displayed both typical intrinsic colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) and abnormal extrinsic tunnel-type magnetoresistance behaviors. Tunnel-type MR ratio as high as 0.4% were observed in the polycrystalline thin films at a field of 120 Oe at room temperature (300 K) whereas the ratios were less than 0.1% for the epitaxial films in the same field range. The low-field tunnel-type MR of polycrystalline LSMO/SiO sub 2 ?Si (100) thin films originated from the behaviors of the grain-boundary properties.

  19. A MONTÉ CARLO MODEL FOR SIMULATING THE NITROGEN DIFFUSION EFFECT INTO B-LPCVD-NIDOS POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILMS

    OpenAIRE

    S ALLAG; S MERABET; M BOUKEZZATA

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of our current work, is to study the influence of different treatment from surface which makes it possible to improve the properties of materials by technique of beam of ions (diffusion – implantation), on the distribution of the particles in a semiconductor the prone polycrystalline Silicon of our study, largely used in micro-electronics.  The interest of this study is related to the ceaseless requirements in industry for increasingly reduced, powerful materials and w...

  20. Comparison of efficiency degradation in polycrystalline-Si and CdTe thin-film PV modules via accelerated lifecycle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, T.; Potter, B. G.; Simmons-Potter, K.

    2017-08-01

    Thin-film solar cells normally have the shortest energy payback time due to their simpler mass-production process compared to polycrystalline-Si photovoltaic (PV) modules, despite the fact that crystalline-Si-based technology typically has a longer total lifetime and a higher initial power conversion efficiency. For both types of modules, significant aging occurs during the first two years of usage with slower long-term aging over the module lifetime. The PV lifetime and the return-on-investment for local PV system installations rely on long-term device performance. Understanding the efficiency degradation behavior under a given set of environmental conditions is, therefore, a primary goal for experimental research and economic analysis. In the present work, in-situ measurements of key electrical characteristics (J, V, Pmax, etc.) in polycrystalline-Si and CdTe thin-film PV modules have been analyzed. The modules were subjected to identical environmental conditions, representative of southern Arizona, in a full-scale, industrial-standard, environmental degradation chamber, equipped with a single-sun irradiance source, temperature, and humidity controls, and operating an accelerated lifecycle test (ALT) sequence. Initial results highlight differences in module performance with environmental conditions, including temperature de-rating effects, for the two technologies. Notably, the thin-film CdTe PV module was shown to be approximately 15% less sensitive to ambient temperature variation. After exposure to a seven-month equivalent compressed night-day weather cycling regimen the efficiency degradation rates of both PV technology types were obtained and will be discussed.

  1. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Research on low temperature deposition of polycrystalline thin films; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Teion seimaku gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on a technology of low temperature deposition of polycrystalline thin films for solar cells. This research used ITO coated glass substrates, on which CdS was accumulated to a thickness of about 100 nm by using the CBD process, and over this deposition a CuInSe2 film was formed at 300{degree}C by using the ion cluster beam (ICB) process. The manufactured solar cells with a glass/ITO/CdS/CuInSe2/Au structure had an efficiency of 2%. In manufacturing a CuGaSe2 thin film by using the ICB process, effects of acceleration voltage relative to cluster beams and ionization current were investigated. It was found that the film morphology, the result of analysis by using X-ray diffraction, and the electric conductivity are sensitive to the ionization current. From these findings, an optimum film forming condition was derived. A CuGaSe2 thin film was manufactured by using the ICB process over a Cds thin film deposited by using the CDB process. Both of the surface morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the film did not show a large change, indicating a possibility of manufacturing cells with a reverse structure. Effects of heat treatment on CuInSe2 monocrystals were evaluated by using ESR and FTIR. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO_2 thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Kamisaka, Hideyuki; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO_2 thin films on glass substrates. The NbO_2 films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P_O_2). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P_O_2, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P_O_2. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO_2 films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO_2 films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10"2 Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10"4 Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO_2 crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO_2 films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO_2 film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films grown on glass substrates by solid phase crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shoichiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Kamisaka, Hideyuki [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki (Japan); Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We investigated the structural, electrical, and optical properties of polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates. The NbO{sub 2} films were crystallized from amorphous precursor films grown by pulsed laser deposition at various oxygen partial pressures (P{sub O2}). The electrical and optical properties of the precursor films systematically changed with P{sub O2}, demonstrating that the oxygen content of the precursor films can be finely controlled with P{sub O2}. The precursors were crystallized into polycrystalline NbO{sub 2} films by annealing under vacuum at 600 C. The NbO{sub 2} films possessed extremely flat surfaces with branching patterns. Even optimized films showed a low resistivity (ρ) of 2 x 10{sup 2} Ω cm, which is much lower than the bulk value of 1 x 10{sup 4} Ω cm, probably because of the inferior crystallinity of the films compared with that of a bulk NbO{sub 2} crystal. Both oxygen-rich and -poor NbO{sub 2} films showed lower ρ than that of the stoichiometric film. The NbO{sub 2} film with the highest ρ showed an indirect bandgap of 0.7 eV. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Thin polycrystalline diamond films protecting zirconium alloys surfaces: From technology to layer analysis and application in nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcheulov, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Škoda, R.; Škarohlíd, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technická 4, Prague 6, CZ-160 07 (Czech Republic); Taylor, A.; Fekete, L.; Fendrych, F. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vega, R.; Shao, L. [Texas A& M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering TAMU-3133, College Station, TX TX 77843 (United States); Kalvoda, L.; Vratislav, S. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Cháb, V.; Horáková, K.; Kůsová, K.; Klimša, L.; Kopeček, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P.; Macák, J. [University of Chemistry and Technology, Power Engineering Department, Technická 3, Prague 6, CZ-166 28 (Czech Republic); Johnson, S. [Nuclear Fuel Division, Westinghouse Electric Company, 5801 Bluff Road, Hopkins, SC 29209 (United States); Kratochvílová, I., E-mail: krat@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences Czech Republic v.v.i, Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, CZ-115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work we showed that films prepared by MW-LA-PECVD technology can be used as anticorrosion protective layer for Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings at elevated temperatures (950 °C) when α phase of zirconium changes to β phase (more opened for oxygen/hydrogen diffusion). Quality of PCD films was examined by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM, AFM and SIMS analysis. • The polycrystalline diamond films were of high quality - without defects and contaminations. After hot steam oxidation (950 °C) a high level of structural integrity of PCD layer was observed. Both sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} C phases were present in the protective PCD layer. Higher resistance and a lower degree of impedance dispersion was found in the hot steam oxidized PCD coated Zircaloy2 samples, which may suggest better protection of the Zircaloy2 surface. The PCD layer blocks the hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface thus protecting the material from degradation. • Hot steam oxidation tests confirmed that PCD coated Zircaloy2 surfaces were effectively protected against corrosion. Presented results demonstrate that the PCD anticorrosion protection can significantly prolong service life of Zircaloy2 nuclear fuel claddings in nuclear reactors even at elevated temperatures. - Abstract: Zirconium alloys can be effectively protected against corrosion by polycrystalline diamond (PCD) layers grown in microwave plasma enhanced linear antenna chemical vapor deposition apparatus. Standard and hot steam oxidized PCD layers grown on Zircaloy2 surfaces were examined and the specific impact of polycrystalline Zr substrate surface on PCD layer properties was investigated. It was found that the presence of the PCD coating blocks hydrogen diffusion into the Zircaloy2 surface and protects Zircaloy2 material from degradation. PCD anticorrosion protection of Zircaloy2 can significantly prolong life of Zircaloy2 material in nuclear reactors even at temperatures above Zr

  5. Structural and electrical properties of polycrystalline CdSe thin films, before and after irradiation with 6 MeV accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, L.; Antohe, V.A.; Tazlaoanu, C.; Antohe, S.; Scarlat, F.

    2004-01-01

    Structural and electrical properties of polycrystalline CdSe thin films irradiated with high-energy electrons are analyzed. The samples were prepared by vacuum deposition of CdSe powder onto optical glass substrate. Their structure and the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance were determined, both before and after irradiation with 6 MeV electrons at fluencies up to 10 16 electrons/cm 2 . There were no measurable changes in the crystalline structure of the films after irradiation. Electrical properties are controlled by the defect level of donor type, possibly a selenium vacancy, with two ionizing states having ionization energies of about 0.40 eV and 0.22 eV, respectively. The major effect of the irradiation is to increase significantly the concentration of these defects. (authors)

  6. Leakage current suppression with a combination of planarized gate and overlap/off-set structure in metal-induced laterally crystallized polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hee Jae; Seok, Ki Hwan; Lee, Sol Kyu; Joo, Seung Ki

    2018-04-01

    A novel inverted staggered metal-induced laterally crystallized (MILC) polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a combination of a planarized gate and an overlap/off-set at the source-gate/drain-gate structure were fabricated and characterized. While the MILC process is advantageous for fabricating inverted staggered poly-Si TFTs, MILC TFTs reveal higher leakage current than TFTs crystallized by other processes due to their high trap density of Ni contamination. Due to this drawback, the planarized gate and overlap/off-set structure were applied to inverted staggered MILC TFTs. The proposed device shows drastic suppression of leakage current and pinning phenomenon by reducing the lateral electric field and the space-charge limited current from the gate to the drain.

  7. Photocatalytic Activity and Stability of Porous Polycrystalline ZnO Thin-Films Grown via a Two-Step Thermal Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Moore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic activity and stability of thin, polycrystalline ZnO films was studied. The oxidative degradation of organic compounds at the ZnO surface results from the ultraviolet (UV photo-induced creation of highly oxidizing holes and reducing electrons, which combine with surface water to form hydroxyl radicals and reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the efficiency of the electron-hole pair formation is of critical importance for self-cleaning and antimicrobial applications with these metal-oxide catalyst systems. In this study, ZnO thin films were fabricated on sapphire substrates via direct current sputter deposition of Zn-metal films followed by thermal oxidation at several annealing temperatures (300–1200 °C. Due to the ease with which they can be recovered, stabilized films are preferable to nanoparticles or colloidal suspensions for some applications. Characterization of the resulting ZnO thin films through atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence indicated that decreasing annealing temperature leads to smaller crystal grain size and increased UV excitonic emission. The photocatalytic activities were characterized by UV-visible absorption measurements of Rhodamine B dye concentrations. The films oxidized at lower annealing temperatures exhibited higher photocatalytic activity, which is attributed to the increased optical quality. Photocatalytic activity was also found to depend on film thickness, with lower activity observed for thinner films. Decreasing activity with use was found to be the result of decreasing film thickness due to surface etching.

  8. Influence of Nb content on the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} polycrystalline thin film by e-beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A., E-mail: attaullah77@yahoo.com; Mahmood, Arshad; Aziz, Uzma; Rashid, Rashad; Raza, Qaiser; Ali, Zahid

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we report the structural and optical properties of Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited by e-beam evaporation technique. After post annealing in air at 500 °C for 1 h, the samples were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectrophotometry and spectroscopic Ellipsometer. Both XRD and Raman analyses indicate that the films were crystallized into the polycrystalline anatase TiO{sub 2} structure. However it was observed that the crystallinity of the films decreases with the addition of Nb atoms and tends to become amorphous at 20% Nb content in TiO{sub 2} film. Moreover, no new phases such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, NbO{sub 2} or Nb metal were observed. The band gap energy was found to decrease with the increasing of Nb concentration which was verified by ellipsometric study. Ellipsomtric measurements also indicate that refractive index (n) of the films decreases while extinction coefficient (k) increases with the increasing of Nb content. All these analyses elucidate that the incorporation of Nb atom into TiO{sub 2} may tune the structural and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films. - Highlights: • The addition of Nb into TiO{sub 2} film has strongly influenced its physical properties. • Anatase polycrystalline Nb:TiO{sub 2} films were grown up to 15% Nb content. • The film becomes an amorphous at 20% Nb doping. • Band gap energy of TiO{sub 2} film was decreased with increasing of Nb content in the film. • The Optical constants (n, k) of Nb:TiO{sub 2} film were varied as a function of Nb content.

  9. Near single-crystalline, high-carrier-mobility silicon thin film on a polycrystalline/amorphous substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Alp T [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos, NM; Matias, Vladimir [Santa Fe, NM; Choi, Woong [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-10-27

    A template article including a base substrate including: (i) a base material selected from the group consisting of polycrystalline substrates and amorphous substrates, and (ii) at least one layer of a differing material upon the surface of the base material; and, a buffer material layer upon the base substrate, the buffer material layer characterized by: (a) low chemical reactivity with the base substrate, (b) stability at temperatures up to at least about 800.degree. C. under low vacuum conditions, and (c) a lattice crystal structure adapted for subsequent deposition of a semiconductor material; is provided, together with a semiconductor article including a base substrate including: (i) a base material selected from the group consisting of polycrystalline substrates and amorphous substrates, and (ii) at least one layer of a differing material upon the surface of the base material; and, a buffer material layer upon the base substrate, the buffer material layer characterized by: (a) low chemical reactivity with the base substrate, (b) stability at temperatures up to at least about 800.degree. C. under low vacuum conditions, and (c) a lattice crystal structure adapted for subsequent deposition of a semiconductor material, and, a top-layer of semiconductor material upon the buffer material layer.

  10. A MONTÉ CARLO MODEL FOR SIMULATING THE NITROGEN DIFFUSION EFFECT INTO B-LPCVD-NIDOS POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ALLAG

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of our current work, is to study the influence of different treatment from surface which makes it possible to improve the properties of materials by technique of beam of ions (diffusion – implantation, on the distribution of the particles in a semiconductor the prone polycrystalline Silicon of our study, largely used in micro-electronics.  The interest of this study is related to the ceaseless requirements in industry for increasingly reduced, powerful materials and with the weakest possible cost price.       We thus have, makes a nitriding in gas phase during the phase of deposit LPCVD of polycrystalline Silicon, then one made an ionic implantation with the Bore ions.  The results obtained, starting from a simulation based on the Monte Carlo method, although they are carried out with amounts much lower than the really introduced amounts, being given the limitation of the machine used, satisfied the predictions established at the beginning and encourage us to continue this study from the point of view of the use of this material in particular in varied fields.

  11. Si/Fe flux ratio influence on growth and physical properties of polycrystalline β-FeSi2 thin films on Si(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, I. A.; Visotin, M. A.; Aleksandrovsky, A. S.; Kosyrev, N. N.; Yakovlev, I. A.; Molokeev, M. S.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Krylov, A. S.; Fedorov, A. S.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the Si/Fe flux ratio (2 and 0.34) influence on the growth of β-FeSi2 polycrystalline thin films on Si(100) substrate at 630 °C. Lattice deformations for the films obtained are confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The volume unit cell deviation from that of β-FeSi2 single crystal are 1.99% and 1.1% for Si/Fe =2 and Si/Fe =0.34, respectively. Absorption measurements show that the indirect transition ( 0.704 eV) of the Si/Fe =0.34 sample changes to the direct transition with a bandgap value of 0.816 eV for the sample prepared at Si/Fe =2. The absorption spectrum of the Si/Fe =0.34 sample exhibits an additional peak located below the bandgap energy value with the absorption maximum of 0.36 eV. Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) measurements detect the ferromagnetic behavior of the β-FeSi2 polycrystalline films grown at Si/Fe =0.34 at T=10 K, but no ferromagnetism was observed in the samples grown at Si/Fe =2. Theoretical calculations refute that the cell deformation can cause the emergence of magnetization and argue that the origin of the ferromagnetism, as well as the lower absorption peak, is β-FeSi2 stoichiometry deviations. Raman spectroscopy measurements evidence that the film obtained at Si/Fe flux ratio equal to 0.34 has the better crystallinity than the Si/Fe =2 sample.

  12. Photoluminescence of epitactical and polycrystalline CuInS{sub 2} layers for thin-film solar cells; Photolumineszenz epitaktischer und polykristalliner CuInS{sub 2}-Schichten fuer Duennschichtsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.

    2007-12-18

    The present thesis deals with one- and polycrystalline CuInS{sub 2} absorber layers for thin-film solar cells and especially with their optical and structural characterization. By means of detailed temperature- and power-dependent photoluminescence measurements in epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers different radiative transitions could be analyzed and identified. The spectra were dominated by broad luminescence bands of deep perturbing levels. The implantation of hydrogen at low energies led to a passivation of these perturbing levels. On the base of the optical studies on epitactical and polycrystalline absorber layers a new improved defect model for CuInS{sub 2} could be developed. The model contains two donor and two acceptor levels with following ionization energies: D-1=46 meV, D-2=87 meV, A-1=70 meV, and A-2=119 meV.

  13. High-performance flexible thin-film transistors fabricated using print-transferrable polycrystalline silicon membranes on a plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Guoxuan; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yang, Hongjun; Zhou, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with large grain size is highly desirable for flexible electronics applications. However, it is very challenging to directly deposit high-quality poly-Si on plastic substrates due to processing constrictions, such as temperature tolerance and residual stress. In this paper, we present our study on poly-Si membranes that are stress free and most importantly, are transferrable to any substrate including a low-temperature polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. We formed poly-Si-on-insulator by first depositing small-grain size poly-Si on an oxidized Si wafer. We then performed high-temperature annealing for recrystallization to obtain larger grain size. After selective doping on the poly-Si-on-insulator, buried oxide was etched away. By properly patterning the poly-Si layer, residual stress in the released poly-Si membranes was completely relaxed. The flat membrane topology allows the membranes to be print transferred to any substrates. High-performance TFTs were demonstrated on the transferred poly-Si membranes on a PET substrate

  14. Effect of Si ion irradiation on polycrystalline CdS thin film grown from novel photochemical deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundeswaran, S.; Senthil Kumar, O.; Ramasamy, P.; Kabi Raj, D.; Avasthi, D.K.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2005-01-01

    CdS thin films have been deposited from aqueous solution by photochemical reactions. The solution contains Cd(CH 3 COO) 2 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 , and pH is controlled in an acidic region by adding H 2 SO 4 . The solution is illuminated with light from a high-pressure mercury-arc lamp. CdS thin films are formed on a glass substrate by the heterogeneous nucleation and the deposited thin films have been subjected to high-energy Si ion irradiations. Si ion irradiation has been performed with an energy of 80 MeV at fluences of 1x10 11 , 1x10 12 , 1x10 13 and 1x10 14 ions/cm 2 using tandem pelletron accelerator. The irradiation-induced changes in CdS thin films are studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Broadening of the PL emission peak were observed with increasing irradiation fluence, which could be attributed to the band tailing effect of the Si ion irradiation. The lattice disorder takes place at high Si ion fluences

  15. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m respectively, according to four point probe. Keywords: TiO2, Diode laser, XRD, SEM

  16. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Ali, Asghar

    TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW) diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe.

  17. Structural and electrical properties of c-axis epitaxial and polycrystalline Sr sub 3 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 6 O sub 2 sub 1 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S T; Sun, H P; Pan Xiao Qing; Tan, W S; Liu, Z G; Ming, N B

    2003-01-01

    c-axis epitaxial and polycrystalline Sr sub 3 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 6 O sub 2 sub 1 (SBTi) thin films were fabricated on (001)SrTiO sub 3 (STO) single-crystal substrates and Pt/Ti sub 2 /SiO sub 2 /Si substrates respectively, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structures of the films were systematically characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), including theta-2 theta-scans, rocking curve scans and phi-scans, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The epitaxial orientation relation of the SBTi films on STO is established by selected-area electron diffraction and XRD phi-scans to be (001)SBTi || (001)STO, [11-bar 0]SBTi || [010]STO. Cross-sectional high-resolution TEM studies on the epitaxial SBTi film revealed that SBTi is a single-phase material. A special kind of irrational atomic shift along the [001] direction was observed and is discussed in detail. By using an evanescent microwave probe (EMP), the room-temperature dielectric constant of the epitaxial SBTi film was measured to be 21...

  18. Quantitative evaluation of sputtering induced surface roughness and its influence on AES depth profiles of polycrystalline Ni/Cu multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X.L.; Coetsee, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Wang, J.Y., E-mail: wangjy@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shantou University, 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, 515063, Guangdong (China); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swartHC@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa); Terblans, J.J., E-mail: terblansjj@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P O Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Linear Least Square (LLS) method used to separate Ni and Cu Auger spectra. • The depth-dependent ion sputtering induced roughness was quantitatively evaluated. • The depth resolution better when profiling with dual-ion beam vs. a single-ion beam. • AES depth profiling with a lower ion energy results in a better depth resolution. - Abstract: The polycrystalline Ni/Cu multilayer thin films consisting of 8 alternating layers of Ni and Cu were deposited on a SiO{sub 2} substrate by means of electron beam evaporation in a high vacuum. Concentration-depth profiles of the as-deposited multilayered Ni/Cu thin films were determined with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in combination with Ar{sup +} ion sputtering, under various bombardment conditions with the samples been stationary as well as rotating in some cases. The Mixing-Roughness-Information depth (MRI) model used for the fittings of the concentration-depth profiles accounts for the interface broadening of the experimental depth profiling. The interface broadening incorporates the effects of atomic mixing, surface roughness and information depth of the Auger electrons. The roughness values extracted from the MRI model fitting of the depth profiling data agrees well with those measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ion sputtering induced surface roughness during the depth profiling was accordingly quantitatively evaluated from the fitted MRI parameters with sample rotation and stationary conditions. The depth resolutions of the AES depth profiles were derived directly from the values determined by the fitting parameters in the MRI model.

  19. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Ihlefeld, J. [Electronic, Optical, and Nanomaterials Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  20. In-situ investigation of thermal instabilities and solid state dewetting in polycrystalline platinum thin films via confocal laser microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, S.; Cheng, Xuan; Huang, H. H.; Nagarajan, V.; Ihlefeld, J.

    2014-01-01

    Solid state dewetting and the subsequent morphological changes for platinum thin films grown on zinc oxide (ZnO) buffered (001) silicon substrates (Pt/ZnO/SiO 2 /(001)Si system) is investigated under vacuum conditions via a custom-designed confocal laser microscope coupled with a laser heating system. Live imaging of thin film dewetting under a range of heating and quenching vacuum ambients reveals events including hillock formation, hole formation, and hole growth that lead to formation of a network of Pt ligaments, break up of Pt ligaments to individual islands and subsequent Pt islands shape reformation, in chronological fashion. These findings are corroborated by ex-situ materials characterization and quantitative electron microscopy analysis. A secondary hole formation via blistering before film rupture is revealed to be the critical stage, after which a rapid dewetting catastrophe occurs. This process is instantaneous and cannot be captured by ex-situ methods. Finally, an intermetallic phase forms at 900 °C and alters the morphology of Pt islands, suggesting a practical limit to the thermal environments that may be used for these platinized silicon wafers in vacuum conditions.

  1. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au; Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Suntech R and D Australia, Botany, New South Wales 2019 (Australia)

    2014-06-16

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-μm thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550 °C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450 °C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550 °C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450 °C, which limits the solar cell performance by n = 2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  2. Oriented thin films of Na {sub 0.6}CoO {sub 2} and Ca {sub 3}Co {sub 4}O {sub 9} deposited by spin-coating method on polycrystalline substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buršík, J., E-mail: bursik@iic.cas.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry ASCR, 250 68 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Soroka, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry ASCR, 250 68 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Knížek, K.; Hirschner, J.; Levinský, P.; Hejtmánek, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-31

    Thin film of two thermoelectric materials, Na {sub x}CoO {sub 2} (x ~ 0.6) and Ca {sub 3}Co {sub 4}O {sub 9}, was deposited using the sol–gel spin-coating method on a polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. Despite the polycrystalline character of the substrate, the c-axis preferred orientation was obtained, suggesting self-assembly growth mechanism. The deposition procedure used offers several benefits, namely simplicity, high deposition rate, low fabrication cost as well as low price of the substrate, and low thermal conductivity of the substrate suitable for characterization of thermoelectric properties and for applications. The thermoelectric properties of the thin films are comparable with bulk materials. The samples exhibit power factor 0.23 - 0.26 × 10{sup -3} W ⋅ m {sup -1} ⋅ K {sup -2} at 750 K. - Highlights: • Thin film of thermoelectric cobaltates was deposited using the spincoating method. • The c-axis preferred orientation was obtained on polycrystalline YSZ substrate. • Benefits of the chosen procedure are simplicity, low cost, and low thermal conductivity of the substrate.

  3. A Monte Carlo simulation study of boron profiles as-implanted into LPCVD NiDoS polycrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukezzata, M.; Ait-Kaki, A.; Temple-Boyer, P.; Scheid, E.

    2003-03-01

    This work presents a Monte Carlo simulation study of boron profiles obtained from as-implanted ions into thin films nitrogen doped silicon (NiDoS) thin films. These films are performed by LPCVD technique from Si2H6 and NH3 gas sources, four values deliberately chosen, of the ratio NH3/Si2H6 to obtain samples, differently in situ nitrogen-doped. Taking into account the effect of the codoping case, and the structure specificity of these films, an accurate Monte Carlo model based on binary collisions in a multi-atomic target was performed. Nitrogen atoms present in the target is shown to affect the boron profiles and confirms clearly a reduction penetration effect which becomes more significant at high nitrogen concentrations. Whereas, the fine-grained polysilicon structure, and thus the presence of grains (G) and grain boundaries (GB), is known to enhance the opposite phenomenon by assuming an effective role played by GB's in the scattering calculation process of the incident ions. This role is represented by the change in direction of the incident ion after interaction with GB without corresponding loss in its energy. The results obtained show an enhancement of the stopping parameter when nitrogen concentration increases, while the GB interaction remains very important. This behavior is due to a great number of GB's interactions with boron atoms which gave low deflection angles. So that, the average positions described by the sequences of trajectories took place farther than what expected with channeling effect in crystal silicon materials.

  4. Improved growth of solution-deposited thin films on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Wolfram; Hariskos, Dimitrios [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), 70565, Stuttgart (Germany); Abou-Ras, Daniel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, 14109, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    CdS and Zn(O,S) grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) are well established buffer materials for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. As recently reported, a non-contiguous coverage of CBD buffers on CIGS grains with {112} surfaces can be detected, which was explained in terms of low surface energies of the {112} facets, leading to deteriorated wetting of the chemical solution on the CIGS surface. In the present contribution, we report on the effect of air annealing of CIGS thin films prior to the CBD of CdS and Zn(O,S) layers. In contrast to the growth on the as-grown CIGS layers, these buffer lay- ers grow densely on the annealed CIGS layer, even on grains with {112} surfaces. We explain the different growth behavior by increased surface energies of CIGS grains due to the annealing step, i.e., due to oxidation of the CIGS surface. Reference solar cells were processed and completed by i-ZnO/ZnO:Al layers for CdS and by (Zn,Mg)O/ZnO:Al for Zn(O,S) buffers. For solar cells with both, CdS and Zn(O,S) buffers, air-annealed CIGS films with improved buffer coverage resulted in higher power-conversion efficiencies, as compared with the devices containing as-grown CIGS layers. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Field-tuned superconductor-insulator transitions and Hall resistance in thin polycrystalline MoN films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makise, Kazumasa; Ichikawa, Fusao; Asano, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju

    2018-02-01

    We report on the superconductor-insulator transitions (SITs) of disordered molybdenum nitride (MoN) thin films on (1 0 0) MgO substrates as a function of the film thickness and magnetic fields. The T c of the superconducting MoN films, which exhibit a sharp superconducting transition, monotonically decreases as the normal state R sq increases with a decreasing film thickness. For several films with different thicknesses, we estimate the critical field H c and the product zν  ≃  0.6 of the dynamical exponent z and the correlation length exponent ν using a finite scaling analysis. The value of this product can be explained by the (2  +  1) XY model. We found that the Hall resistance ΔR xy (H) is maximized when the magnetic field satisfies H HP(T) \\propto |1  -  T/T C0| in the superconducting state and also in the normal states owning to the superconducting fluctuation corresponding to the ghost critical magnetic field. We measured the Hall conductivity δσ xy (H)  =  σ xy (H)  -  σ xyn and fit the Gaussian approximation theory for δσ xy (H) to the experimental data. Agreement between the data and the theory beyond H c suggests the survival of the Cooper pair in the insulating region of the SIT.

  6. Combinatorial investigation of the effects of sodium on Cu 2ZnSnSe4 polycrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Alex Hilton

    Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) possess highly suitable optical and electronic properties for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. CZTSe also has potential to achieve terawatt level solar energy production due to its inexpensive and abundant material constituents. Currently, fabricating CZTSe devices with the expected theoretical performance has not been achieved, making the growth and formation of CZTSe an interesting topic of research. In this work, a two-step vacuum fabrication process consisting of RF co-sputtering followed by reactive annealing was explored as a viable technique for synthesizing CZTSe thin films. Furthermore, the enhancement of the fabrication process by the incorporation of sodium during annealing was studied using a combinatorial approach. Film composition was analyzed using electron dispersive spectroscopy. Structure, phase morphology, and formation were determined using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and raman spectroscopy. Optical and electronic properties were characterized using UV-Vis and Voc were measurements under a one sun solar simulator. RF co-sputtering CuSe, ZnSe, and SnSe precursors produced films with good thickness uniformity, adhesion and stoichiometry control over 3 x 3 in 2 substrates. Composition measurements showed that the precursor films maintained stability during an annealing process of 580° C for 20 minutes producing near stoichiometric CZTSe. However, grain size was small with an average diameter of 350 nm. The CZTSe film produced by this process exhibited a suitable absorption coefficient of > 104 cm-1 and aband gap near 1.0 eV. The film also produced an XRD pattern consistent with tetragonal CZTSe with no secondary phase formation with the exception of approximately 12.5 nm of interfacial MoSe2 formation at the back contact. The combinatorial investigation of the influence of sodium on CZTSe growth and morphology was achieved using a custom built constant withdraw

  7. Self-consistent modelling of X-ray photoelectron spectra from air-exposed polycrystalline TiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greczynski, G., E-mail: grzgr@ifm.liu.se; Hultman, L.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We present first self-consistent model of TiN core level spectra with a cross-peak qualitative and quantitative agreement. • Model is tested for a series of TiN thin films oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature. • Conventional deconvolution process relies on reference binding energies that typically show large spread introducing ambiguity. • By imposing requirement of quantitative cross-peak self-consistency reliability of extracted chemical information is enhanced. • We propose that the cross-peak self-consistency should be a prerequisite for reliable XPS peak modelling. - Abstract: We present first self-consistent modelling of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Ti 2p, N 1s, O 1s, and C 1s core level spectra with a cross-peak quantitative agreement for a series of TiN thin films grown by dc magnetron sputtering and oxidized to different extent by varying the venting temperature T{sub v} of the vacuum chamber before removing the deposited samples. So-obtained film series constitute a model case for XPS application studies, where certain degree of atmosphere exposure during sample transfer to the XPS instrument is unavoidable. The challenge is to extract information about surface chemistry without invoking destructive pre-cleaning with noble gas ions. All TiN surfaces are thus analyzed in the as-received state by XPS using monochromatic Al Kα radiation (hν = 1486.6 eV). Details of line shapes and relative peak areas obtained from deconvolution of the reference Ti 2p and N 1 s spectra representative of a native TiN surface serve as an input to model complex core level signals from air-exposed surfaces, where contributions from oxides and oxynitrides make the task very challenging considering the influence of the whole deposition process at hand. The essential part of the presented approach is that the deconvolution process is not only guided by the comparison to the reference binding energy values that often show

  8. Photoluminescence of polycrystalline CuIn 0.5 Ga 0.5 Te 2 thin films grown by flash evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Yandjah, L.; Bechiri, L.; Benabdeslem, M.; Benslim, N.; Amara, A.; Portier, X.; Bououdina, M.; Ziani, Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Polycrystalline CuIn0.5Ga0.5Te2 films were deposited by flash evaporation from ingot prepared by reacting, in stoichiometric proportions, high purity Cu, In, Ga and Te elements in vacuum sealed quartz . The as-obtained films were characterized by X

  9. Uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin films and air-stable n-type transistors based on donor-acceptor semiconductor (diC8BTBT)(FnTCNQ) [n = 0, 2, 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yosei; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Matsuoka, Satoshi; Matsubara, Koji; Yoshida, Yuji; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2015-04-01

    We report the fabrication of high quality thin films for semiconducting organic donor-acceptor charge-transfer (CT) compounds, (diC8BTBT)(FnTCNQ) (diC8BTBT = 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and FnTCNQ [n = 0,2,4] = fluorinated derivatives of 7,7,8,8,-tetracyanoquinodimethane), which have a high degree of layered crystallinity. Single-phase and uniaxially oriented polycrystalline thin films of the compounds were obtained by co-evaporation of the component donor and acceptor molecules. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) fabricated with the compound films exhibited n-type field-effect characteristics, showing a mobility of 6.9 × 10-2 cm2/V s, an on/off ratio of 106, a sub-threshold swing of 0.8 V/dec, and an excellent stability in air. We discuss the suitability of strong intermolecular donor-acceptor interaction and the narrow CT gap nature in compounds for stable n-type OTFT operation.

  10. Photoluminescence of polycrystalline CuIn 0.5 Ga 0.5 Te 2 thin films grown by flash evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Yandjah, L.

    2018-04-03

    Polycrystalline CuIn0.5Ga0.5Te2 films were deposited by flash evaporation from ingot prepared by reacting, in stoichiometric proportions, high purity Cu, In, Ga and Te elements in vacuum sealed quartz . The as-obtained films were characterized by X – ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and TEM results showed that the layer has a chalcopyrite-type structure, predominantly oriented along (112) planes, with lattice parameters a = 0.61 nm and c = 1.22 nm. The optical properties in the near - infrared and visible range 600 - 2400 nm have been studied. The analysis of absorption coefficient yielded an energy gap value of 1.27 eV. Photoluminescence analysis of as-grown sample shows two main emission peaks located at 0.87 and 1.19 eV at 4 K.

  11. Crystallographic structure and grain size of polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and thin films studied with XRD and SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutz, Folker; Chory, Christine; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [Thin Film Photovoltaics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) is a compound semiconductor with an absorption coefficient of >10{sup 4} cm{sup -1} and energy gap of about 1.5 eV. Because CZTS is comprised of abundant and non-toxic precursor elements the semiconductor represents an attractive material for low-cost thin film solar cells. CZTS nanoparticles (NP) were prepared in a low-temperature colloidal synthesis yielding high amounts per synthesis cycle. For thin film deposition the NPs were converted to an ink which can be processed to thin films via printing techniques. Finally, the thin films were annealed in argon atmosphere at different temperatures in order to control the growth of microcrystallites. The photoelectrical quality of the semiconductor sensitively depends on the relative concentrations of the precursor elements (band gap, crystallographic phases) and the average grain size (charge transport). We report on structural investigations (X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy) of CZTS dried powders and thin films processed from inks with varying chemical compositions. Further, the evolution of the grain size was studied as function of the annealing temperature.

  12. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of n-CdSe sub 0. 65 Te sub 0. 35 polycrystalline thin films: Influence of annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, M T; Ortega, J [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energias Renovables

    1989-12-01

    CdSe{sub 0.65}Te{sub 0.35} thin films have been prepared by electrodeposition. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and photoelectrochemical methods. The influence of annealing treatments on the physical parameters (grain size, d, donor concentration, N{sub D}, and hole diffusion length, L{sub P}) determining the photoelectrochemical behaviour of electrodeposited CdSe{sub 0.65}Te{sub 0.35} thin films in contact with sulfide/polysulfide electrolytes have been systematically studied. (orig.).

  13. Effects of deposition temperatures and annealing conditions on the microstructural, electrical and optical properties of polycrystalline Al-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joon-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Kook [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Gyeonggi 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon, E-mail: tyseong@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO, ZnO:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 98:2 wt%) films are deposited on different substrates by an RF magnetron sputtering and subsequently annealed at three different conditions to investigate the microstructural, electrical, and optical properties. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope results show that all the samples are polycrystalline and the samples rapid-thermal-annealed at 900 deg. C in an N{sub 2} ambient contain larger grains compared to the furnace-annealed samples. It is shown that the sample deposited at room temperature on the sapphire gives a resistivity of 5.57 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm when furnace-annealed at 500 deg. C in a mixture of N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} (9:1). It is also shown that the Hall mobility vs. carrier concentration ({mu}-n) relation is divided into two groups, depending on the annealing conditions, namely, either rapid-thermal annealing or furnace annealing. The relations are described in terms of either grain boundary scattering or ionized impurity scattering mechanism. In addition, the samples produce fairly high transmittance of 91-96.99% across the wavelength region of 400-1100 nm. The optical bandgaps of the samples increase with increasing carrier concentration.

  14. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and development of technologies to manufacture amorphous silicon/thin film poly-crystalline silicon hybrid thin film solar cells); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (amorphous silicon / usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Developmental research has been performed on large-area low-cost manufacturing technologies on hybrid thin film solar cells of amorphous silicon and poly-crystalline silicon. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a texture construction formed naturally on silicon surface, and thin film poly-crystalline silicon cells with STAR structure having a rear side reflection layer to increase light absorption. The research achievements during the current fiscal year may be summarized as follows: the laser scribing technology for thin film poly-crystalline silicon was established, which is important for modularization, making fabrication of low-cost and large-area modules possible; a stabilization efficiency of 11.3% was achieved in a hybrid mini module comprising of ten-stage series integrated amorphous silicon and thin film poly-crystalline silicon; structures different hybrid modules were discussed, whereas an initial efficiency of 10.3% (38.78W) was achieved in a sub-module having a substrate size of 910 mm times 455 mm; and feasibility of forming large-area hybrid modules was demonstrated. (NEDO)

  15. Elaboration and characterisation of thin polycrystalline films deposited by LPCVD for solar cells application; Elaboration et caracterisation de couches minces de silicium polycristallin deposees par LPCVD pour application photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laghla, Y.

    1998-07-16

    This work is separated in 3 parts: a first part told horizontal research, concerning physical studies of the material such as optical characteristics. We have studied the main methods of evaluating optical constants, such as thickness, refractive index and optical coefficient of absorption. The second part is dedicated to calculation of optical properties of thin layers of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon obtained by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD). The optical studies of the different materials have allowed us to the final choice of material and to optimise thickness in order to make photovoltaic diodes. Therefore we have, studied the deposit kinetics, optical, electrical, and structural (AFM, SEM) properties of the different layers contributing to the diodes manufacturing. So as to better understand the quality of these layers, we have tried to make a bond between the different observed variation of electrical, and optical parameters, and their structural variation according to their thickness. The lest part, told vertical research, consists in the technological realisation of these diodes with minimum technological steps (only three masc. levels), so as to reply to the demands of the industrial market. In this subject, we have realised diodes with a significant reduction in reverse leakage current, and a very good aware appearance to reverse polarisation up to -100 V without observing the break down voltage. (author) 186 refs.

  16. Oriented thin films of Na0.6CoO2 and Ca3Co4O9 deposited by spin-coating method on polycrystalline substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Soroka, Miroslav; Knížek, Karel; Hirschner, Jan; Levinský, Petr; Hejtmánek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 603, MAR (2016), s. 400-403 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18392S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-03708S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Cobaltates * Thermoelectrics * NaxCoO2 * Ca3Co4O9 * Thin film s * ZrO2 Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  17. How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS/CdS thin-film solar cells have reached, at laboratory scale, an efficiency higher than 22.3%, which is one of the highest efficiencies ever obtained for thin-film solar cells. The research focus has now shifted onto fabrication processes, which have to be easily scalable at an industrial level. For this reason, a process is highlighted here which uses only the sputtering technique for both the absorber preparation and the deposition of all the other materials that make up the cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison between different precursors obtained with either In2Se3 and Ga2Se3 or InSe and GaSe as starting materials. In both cases, the precursor does not require any heat treatment, and it is immediately ready to be selenized. The selenization is performed in a pure-selenium atmosphere and only lasts a few minutes at a temperature of about 803 K. Energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 15%–16% are reproducibly obtained on soda-lime glass (SLG substrates. Similar results are achieved if commercial ceramic tiles are used as a substrate instead of glass. This result is especially useful for the so-called building integrated photovoltaic. Cu(In,GaSe2-based solar cells grown directly on ceramic tiles are ideal for the fabrication of ventilated façades in low impact buildings.

  18. Growth of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films using a radio frequency-cracked Se-radical beam source and application for photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Shibata, Hajime; Yamada, Akimasa; Fons, Paul; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Matsubara, Koji; Niki, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films were grown using a rf-cracked Se-radical beam source. A unique combination of film properties, a highly dense and smooth surface with large grain size, is shown. These features seem to have no significant influence on the photovoltaic performance. Defect control in bulk CIGS leading to corresponding variations in the electrical and photoluminescence properties was found to be possible by regulating the Se-radical source parameters. A competitive energy conversion efficiency of 17.5%, comparable to that of a Se-evaporative source grown CIGS device, has been demonstrated from a solar cell fabricated using a Se-radical source grown CIGS absorber

  19. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer studies of structural changes and L10 ordering kinetics during annealing of polycrystalline Fe51Pt49 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spada, F.E.; Parker, F.T.; Platt, C.L.; Howard, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Room-temperature x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer effect techniques have been used to characterize the structural features and local atomic environments of sputtered Fe 51 Pt 49 thin films following various isothermal treatments. Both techniques show that no significant changes occur in the chemically ordered L1 0 tetragonal phase after it has formed. In contrast, changes in the disordered face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase are observed prior to the transformation into the ordered tetragonal phase. Moessbauer measurements indicate the development of increasing short-range order in the disordered fcc phase with increasing annealing temperature. Asymmetries in the fcc x-ray diffraction profiles also suggest the presence of lattice distortions caused by atomic size differences commonly found in the quenched disordered fcc phase of materials that form ordered structures. Quasi-real-time kinetic measurements of the disorder→order transformation in sputtered Fe 51 Pt 49 thin films within the temperature range 300 deg. C≤T≤400 deg. C have also been conducted using high-temperature x-ray diffraction techniques. Significant differences are observed between the kinetic parameters determined in this study and those of previous reports. It is proposed that these differences arise from the lower temperature range investigated in the present work, where the gradual changes occurring in the fcc phase can influence the rate of the ordering transformation. Furthermore, because the initial state of disorder in Fe ∼50 Pt ∼50 films can be influenced by the deposition conditions, variability in the low-temperature ordering kinetics should be expected among Fe ∼50 Pt ∼50 films prepared under different conditions

  20. Research on polycrystalline thin-film submodules based on CuInSe{sub 2} materials. Final subcontract report, 11 November 1990--30 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, R; Fogleboch, J; Kessler, J; Russell, L; Skibo, S; Wiedeman, S [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes work performed in development of CIS-based photovoltaic (PV) products. The activity began with developing manufacturable deposition methods for all required thin-film layers and developing and understanding processes using those methods. It included demonstrating the potential for high conversion efficiency and followed with developing viable methods for module segment formation and interconnection. These process steps were integrated to fabricate monolithic CIS-based submodules. An important result of this program is the basis of understanding established in developing this material for PV applications, which is necessary to address issues of manufacturability and cost-which were recognized early in the program as being determined by successful solutions to issues of yield, reproducibility, and control as much as by material and energy costs, conversion efficiency, and process speed. Solarex identified at least one absorber formation process that is very robust to shunt formation from pinholes or point defects, tolerant of variation in processing temperature and elemental composition, and is capable of producing high conversion efficiency. This program also allowed development and scale-up of processes for the deposition of all other substrate, heterojunction buffer, and window layers and associated scribing/module formation operations to 1000-CM{sup 2} size. At the completion of this program, Solarex has in place most of the necessary elements to begin the transition to pilot operation of CIS manufacturing activities.

  1. Research on fabrication technology for thin film solar cells for practical use. Technological development for qualitative improvement (development of fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cell); Usumaku taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Kohinshitsuka gijutsu (usumaku takessho silicon kei taiyo denchi seizo no gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on the fabrication technology of thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells in fiscal 1994. (1) On the fabrication technology of high-quality Si thin films, the new equipment was studied which allows uniform stable melting recrystallization over a large area. The new equipment adopted a heating method based on RTP system, and is now under adjustment. (2) On the fabrication technology of light/carrier confinement structure, degradation of hydrogen-treated thin film Si solar cells by light irradiation was examined. As a result, since any characteristic degradation was not found even by long time light irradiation, the high quality of the cells was confirmed regardless of hydrogen-treatment. Fabrication of stable reproducible fine texture structure became possible by using fabrication technology of light confinement structure by texture treatment of cell surfaces. (3) On low-cost process technology, design by VEST process, estimation of cell characteristics by simulation, and characteristics of prototype cells were reported. 33 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on development of technologies for practical photovoltaic system under New Sunshine Program. Manufacture of thin-film solar cell / low-cost and large-area module / next-generation thin-film solar cell (Manufacture of thin-film polycrystalline solar module); 1997 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu, jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fiscal 1997 is the first year of another 4-year-long research and development phase. In addition to researches for improving on thin-film polycrystalline Si cell efficiency that have been under way, new efforts are started, which include the development of practicality-conscious thin film producing technologies aiming at higher throughput and yield and the development of modularization process technologies which are necessary for putting thin-film cells to practical use. Concerning the formation of a power generation layer on a polycrystalline Si thin film formed by the ZMR (zone-melting recrystallization) process, studies are conducted for improvement on its throughput and yield using a new CVD (chemical vapor deposition) unit. A method of modularization is evaluated, which involves a laminate of a thin-film cell attached to a resin-coated, reinforced glass substrate and an EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) back film. A remarkable achievement is earned toward the practicalization of technologies of thin film formation enhanced in quality and throughput and technologies of thin film modularization. (NEDO)

  3. Effective polycrystalline sensor of ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Pavelets

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of special thin layers with high and low resistance in space charge region of surface barrier photoconverters based on the p-Cu1.8S/n-CdS structure leads to a sufficient increase in photosensitivity and decrease in dark tunneling-recombination current. Highly efficient and stable polycrystalline photoconverters of ultraviolet radiation based on polycrystalline CdS have been obtained. Electrical and photoelectric properties have been investigated, and the main operational parameters of ultraviolet sensors have been adduced. The reasons for high stability of the parameters inherent to the p-Cu1.8S/n-CdS sensors are as follows: the absence of impurity components additionally doped to the barrier structure and stability of the photocurrent photoemission component.

  4. Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funghnan, B. W.; Blanc, J.; Phillips, W.; Redfield, D.

    1980-08-01

    Thirty-four new solar cells were fabricated on Wacker Sislo substrates and the AM-1 parameters were measured. A detailed comparison was made between the measurement of minority carrier diffusion length by the OE method and the penetrating light laser scan grain boundary photoresponse linewidth method. The laser scan method has more experimental uncertainty and agrees within 10 to 50% with the QE method. It allows determination of L over a large area. Atomic hydrogen passivation studies continued on Wacker material by three techniques. A method of determining surface recombination velocity, s, from laser scan data was developed. No change in s in completed solar cells after H-plasma treatment was observed within experimental error. H-passivation of bare silicon cars as measured by the new laser scan photoconductivity technique showed very large effects.

  5. Anelasticity of polycrystalline indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapozhnikov, K., E-mail: k.sapozhnikov@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Golyandin, S. [A.F.Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kustov, S. [Dept. de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa km 7.5, E 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Mechanisms of anelasticity of polycrystalline indium have been studied over wide ranges of temperature (7-320 K) and strain amplitude (2 x 10{sup -7}-3.5 x 10{sup -4}). Measurements of the internal friction and Young's modulus have been performed by means of the piezoelectric resonant composite oscillator technique using longitudinal oscillations at frequencies of about 100 kHz. The stages of the strain amplitude dependence of the internal friction and Young's modulus defect, which can be attributed to dislocation - point defect and dislocation - dislocation interactions, have been revealed. It has been shown that thermal cycling gives rise to microplastic straining of polycrystalline indium due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion and to appearance of a 'recrystallization' internal friction maximum in the temperature spectra of amplitude-dependent anelasticity. The temperature range characterized by formation of Cottrell's atmospheres of point defects around dislocations has been determined from the acoustic data.

  6. Application of polycrystalline diffusion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsymbal, V.A.; Kolupaev, I.N.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of contacts of the electronic equipment at the raised temperatures is connected with active diffusion redistribution of components contact - metalized systems (CMS) and phase production on interphase borders. One of systems diffusion barriers (DB) are polycrystalline silicide a film, in particular silicides of the titan. Reception disilicide the titan (TiSi 2 ) which on the parameters is demanded for conditions of microelectronics from known silicides of system Ti-Si, is possible as a result of direct reaction of a film of the titan and a substrate of silicon, and at sedimentation of layer Ti-Si demanded stoichiometric structure. Simultaneously there is specific problem polycrystalline diffusion a barrier (PDB): the polycrystalline provides structural balance and metastability film disilicide, but leaves in it borders of grains - easy local ways of diffusion. In clause the analysis diffusion permeability polycrystalline and polyphase DB is made and recommendations for practical methods of increase of blocking properties PDB are made.

  7. Gelcasting polycrystalline alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This work is being done as part of a CRADA with Osram-Sylvania, Inc. (OSI) OSI is a major U.S. manufacturer of high-intensity lighting. Among its products is the Lumalux{reg_sign} line of high-pressure sodium vapor arc lamps, which are used for industrial, highway, and street lighting. The key to the performance of these lamps is the polycrystalline alumina (PCA) tube that is used to contain the plasma that is formed in the electric arc. That plasma consists of ionized sodium, mercury, and xenon vapors. The key attributes of the PCA tubes are their transparency (95% total transmittance in the visible region), their refractoriness (inner wall temperature can reach 1400{degrees}C), and their chemical resistance (sodium and mercury vapor are extremely corrosive). The current efficiency of the lamps is very high, on the order of several hundred lumens / watt. (Compare - incandescent lamps -13 lumens/watt fluorescent lamps -30 lumens/watt.) Osram-Sylvania would like to explore using gelcasting to form PCA tubes for Lumalux{reg_sign} lamps, and eventually for metal halide lamps (known as quartz-halogen lamps). Osram-Sylvania, Inc. currently manufactures PCA tubes by isostatic pressing. This process works well for the shapes that they presently use. However, there are several types of tubes that are either difficult or impossible to make by isostatic pressing. It is the desire to make these new shapes and sizes of tubes that has prompted Osram-Sylvania`s interest in gelcasting. The purpose of the CRADA is to determine the feasibility of making PCA items having sufficient optical quality that they are useful in lighting applications using gelcasting.

  8. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of next-generation thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of thin-film polycrystalline solar cell module manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The aim is to realize the practical application of the above-named solar module expected to exhibit higher efficiency and reliability and achieve cost reduction through consumption of less materials. In fiscal 1998, 1) technologies were developed to reduce substrate warpage during recrystallization for the higher-throughput fabrication of high-quality thin films and 2) technologies were also developed for the realization of higher-throughput fabrication of thin films and for efficiency improvement for thin-film modules. Under item 1), experiments were conducted by simulation for reducing warpage to occur in thin-film polycrystalline Si substrates during fabrication by melting and recrystallization. Under item 2), for the development of thin-film cell high-throughput technologies, studies were started on a more practical hydrogen plasma process to challenge the conventional process of crystal defect inactivation by hydrogen ion injection with which achievement of high throughputs is difficult. For the development of technologies for the enhancement of thin-film module efficiency, efforts were exerted to realize a 10cm times 10cm square shape for the enhancement of efficiency in the process of filling modules with cells. These efforts achieved a great step toward future practical application. (NEDO)

  9. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Takessho cell module tei cost ka yoso gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on development of elementary technologies for low-cost polycrystalline cell modules in fiscal 1994. (1) On development of elementary technologies for mass production, fast surface machining, fast electrode forming and fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were studied. Surface machining by rotating grindstone was studied as fast cutting of fine grooves on Si substrates, resulting in possible fast machining superior in shape accuracy. Electrode properties equivalent or superior to previous ones were obtained by fast electrode forming using a fast printing/sintering equipment even at transfer speed 7.5 times as high as that of conventional methods. Simultaneous fast forming of junctions and antireflection films were achieved by heat treatment after deposition on Si substrate surfaces while heat-decomposing Ti and P compound gas. (2) On development of module structure, an optimum cell group angle, low reflection rate at glass surface, and fast wiring were studied. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technology - Development of application type novel-structure thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology - Development of amorphous silicon/thin-film polycrystalline silicon hybrid thin-film solar cell manufacturing technology); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (oyogata shinkozo usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / amorphous silicon/usumaku takessho silicon hybrid usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The project aims to manufacture the above for the development of low-cost high-efficiency practical cells. Technologies were developed to homogeneously fabricate films with an average efficiency of 10% or more in a 100mm times 85mm area in a STAR (naturally surface texture and enhanced absorption with a back reflector) structure thin-film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) solar cell. The texture shape was improved for a higher light trapping effect and a STAR structure cell highly sensitive to long wavelengths and fit for use for a hybrid cell bottom layer was obtained. Various cells were examined for temperature characteristics, and it was found that thin-film poly-Si cells present a temperature coefficient equal to or less than that of bulk single-crystal silicon systems, and hybrid cells a temperature coefficient similar to that of a-Si systems. The technology was applied to a hybrid solar cell in which an a-Si cell was placed on STAR structure thin film poly-Si cells, and a resultant 3-layer a-Si/poly-Si/poly-Si cell exhibited a stabilization factor of 12.0% after 550 hours of optical irradiation. (NEDO)

  11. Physics of grain boundaries in polycrystalline photovoltaic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yanfa, E-mail: yanfa.yan@utoledo.edu; Yin, Wan-Jian; Wu, Yelong; Shi, Tingting; Paudel, Naba R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Li, Chen [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Poplawsky, Jonathan [The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Wang, Zhiwei [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Moseley, John; Guthrey, Harvey; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Thin-film solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) and CdTe photovoltaic semiconductors have reached remarkable laboratory efficiencies. It is surprising that these thin-film polycrystalline solar cells can reach such high efficiencies despite containing a high density of grain boundaries (GBs), which would seem likely to be nonradiative recombination centers for photo-generated carriers. In this paper, we review our atomistic theoretical understanding of the physics of grain boundaries in CIGS and CdTe absorbers. We show that intrinsic GBs with dislocation cores exhibit deep gap states in both CIGS and CdTe. However, in each solar cell device, the GBs can be chemically modified to improve their photovoltaic properties. In CIGS cells, GBs are found to be Cu-rich and contain O impurities. Density-functional theory calculations reveal that such chemical changes within GBs can remove most of the unwanted gap states. In CdTe cells, GBs are found to contain a high concentration of Cl atoms. Cl atoms donate electrons, creating n-type GBs between p-type CdTe grains, forming local p-n-p junctions along GBs. This leads to enhanced current collections. Therefore, chemical modification of GBs allows for high efficiency polycrystalline CIGS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  12. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  13. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, next generation thin film solar cell module manufacturing technologies, development of thin film poly-crystalline solar cell module manufacturing technologies); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jisedai usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (usumaku takessho taiyo denchi module no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a high throughput forming technology and a modularization technology for thin film poly-crystalline solar cell modules. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing the high throughput forming technology for a high-quality thin film, research has been made on a low-cost VEST process to re-utilize substrates by separating the thin film from the substrate. In the melting re-crystallization process, it was discovered that plasticity deformation of the substrate can be reduced greatly by raising the substrate heating temperatures. It was also found out that substrate warping amount can be reduced to about one-fifth of the conventional amount by making the thickness greater than 1.5 mm and raising the heating temperatures higher than 1300 degree C. In developing the thin film modularization technology, it was indicated that the property improving effect remains the same even if the hydrogen passivation method is changed from the hydrogen ion injection to the hydrogen plasma processing. In the trial fabrication of the thin film modules, a conversion efficiency of 13.1% was achieved in nine-cell structured modules. (NEDO)

  14. Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films on r-plane sapphire: Effect of film thickness on strain and dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, E. A.; Holland, A. S.; Ghorbani, K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Simon, W. K.; Safari, A.; Wang, J. Y.

    2006-10-01

    Polycrystalline Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) films grown on r-plane sapphire exhibit strong variation of in-plane strain over the thickness range of 25-400nm. At a critical thickness of ˜200nm, the films are strain relieved; in thinner films, the strain is tensile, while compressive strain was observed in the 400nm film. Microwave properties of the films were measured from 1to20GHz by the interdigital capacitor method. A capacitance tunability of 64% was observed in the 200nm film, while thinner films showed improved Q factor. These results demonstrate the possibility of incorporating frequency agile BST-based devices into the silicon on sapphire process.

  15. Effect of thermal strain on the ferroelectric phase transition in polycrystalline Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films studied by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenne, D.A.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, X.X.; Taylor, T.R.; Hansen, P.J.; Speck, J.S.; York, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We have applied Raman spectroscopy to study the influence of thermal strain on the vibrational properties of polycrystalline Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 TiO 3 films. The films were grown by rf magnetron sputtering on Pt/SiO 2 surface using different host substrates: strontium titanate, sapphire, silicon, and vycor glass. These substrates provide a systematic change in the thermal strain while maintaining the same film microstructure. From the temperature dependence of the ferroelectric A 1 soft phonon intensity, the ferroelectric phase transition temperature, T C , was determined. We found that T C decreases with increasing tensile stress in the films. This dependence is different from the theoretical predictions for epitaxial ferroelectric films. The reduction of the ferroelectric transition temperature with increasing biaxial tensile strain is attributed to the suppression of in-plane polarization due to the small lateral grain size in the films

  16. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin-film solar cells; Rastertunnelspektroskopie an polykristallinen Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2}-Duennschichtsolarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herber, U.

    2006-12-21

    In case of the investigated multinary Cu(In;Ga)Se{sub 2} system with its polycrystalline structure, the question for the lateral homogeneity of its electronic properties arises. By means of the here presented method, a photo-assisted tunneling spectroscopy, such lateral inhomogeneities of the Surface Photo Voltage (SPV) and the Photo-Induced Tunneling Current (PITC) are to be detected. Modulations of the bias voltage and/or the illumination intensity have been applied to a greater number of materials in tunneling spectroscopy. Within these field, disturbing current contributions, coupled via the tip-sample-capacitance, is a known problem. Electronic compensation by using an appropriate compensating circuit is a possible solution. As will be shown in this work, such procedure is very adequate to compensate stray signals generated by bias modulation. After the introduction and careful analysis of our technique in the first part the second part of the thesis deals with its application to a series of different CIGS samples. What becomes apparent is the aforementioned inhomogeneities in PITC signal to be an immanent property of these polycrystalline semiconductor systems. Besides lateral variations in the photocurrent amplitude, also inhomogeneities within its complex phase can be demonstrated. As becomes clear, it is impossible to draw conclusions about the participating capacity of the depletion region because of the dominating admittance of the tunneling junction. However, it is possible to gain a statistical distribution of the PITC by investigating a large number of positions on the sample. For small numbers of weak diodes, the distribution exhibits a distinct maximum at higher photocurrents. Metastable effects are observed by tracking PITC values over a longer period of time. (orig.)

  17. Magnetostrictive properties of polycrystalline iron cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, M.D.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis is concerned with the magnetic properties of magnetostrictive FeCo polycrystalline alloy films produced by RF magnetron sputter deposition. The bulk material is known to have highly magnetostrictive properties, coupled with the possibility of a low anisotropy with the correct thermal treatment to allow ordering. Significant reduction in the anisotropy was found by using post depostional thermal treatment in Ar/H. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to produce FeCo films with magnetostrictive properties similar to those found in the bulk. Detailed examination showed an increased peak in the magnetostriction with composition which had not been previously viewed in the bulk materials. Initial development was also made of a novel co-depositional technique to allow magnetostrictive determination as a function of composition in a single deposition. Development was made of a technique using the Daresbury Synchrotron research facility and the XRD equipment to allow determination of the magnetostriction coefficients of polycrystalline films. This is the first time this has been achieved for thin film materials and provides exciting new possibilities for the future. A critique was made of the optical cantilever technique for determining magnetostriction. Clear consideration has to be made of rotational and frequency effects. A new analytical theory was devised which allowing determination of the cantilever deflection for similar substrate and film thickness. This is essential for development of current trends in nanotechnology. The results were then optimised for use in sensor and actuator devices providing novel results. Finally investigation was made of the possible effects of surfaces on the magnetic properties. The magnetostriction of FeCo/Ag multilayers and Ag embedded in an FeCo matrix are compared. These clearly show the influence of surface and illustrate the importance of considering the technique used to determine the magnetostriction. (author)

  18. Diffraction by disordered polycrystalline fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, W.J.; Millane, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from some polycrystalline fibers show that the constituent microcrystallites are disordered. The relationship between the crystal structure and the diffracted intensities is then quite complicated and depends on the precise kind and degree of disorder present. The effects of disorder on diffracted intensities must be included in structure determinations using diffraction data from such specimens. Theory and algorithms are developed here that allow the full diffraction pattern to be calculated for a disordered polycrystalline fiber made up of helical molecules. The model accommodates various kinds of disorder and includes the effects of finite crystallite size and cylindrical averaging of the diffracted intensities from a fiber. Simulations using these methods show how different kinds, or components, of disorder produce particular diffraction effects. General properties of disordered arrays of helical molecules and their effects on diffraction patterns are described. Implications for structure determination are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Survey on analysis for practical use; Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the survey results on the manufacturing technology trend of thin substrate solar cells for practical use in fiscal 1994. In production of Si raw material, as electron beam melting and ingot production are combined, C, P, Ca and Al are removed by evaporation, while Fe and Ti by solidifying segregation. As the basic technology of continuous casting for substrate production, a drop coagulation method for Si melt is under investigation which is more advantageous in unidirectional solidification and cell conversion efficiency than conventional methods. The cost and future of single crystal Si and polycrystal Si were compared on the basis of document survey. Every institute commonly uses FZ substrates to produce single crystal Si cells, and SiO2 for surface passivation. New cell structure, hetero-structure, thin cell, crystalline defect and lifetime are under investigation for ultrahigh-efficiency solar cells. The technology trend was also surveyed through academic societies and conferences. 5 tabs.

  20. High energy argon ion irradiations of polycrystalline iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, A.; Lesueur, D.; Lorenzelli, N.; Boulanger, L.

    1986-09-01

    We present here the results of our recent irradiations of polycrystalline iron targets with very energetic (1.76 GeV) Ar ions. The targets consist of piles of thin iron samples, the total thickness of each target being somewhat greater than the theoretical range (450 μm) of the ions. We can thus separate the phenomena which occur at different average energies of the ions and study during the slowing-down process: the different types of induced nuclear reactions. They allow us to determine the experimental range of the ions, the defect profiles in the targets, the structure of the displacement cascades (electron microscopy) and their stability

  1. Polycrystalline silicon availability for photovoltaic and semiconductor industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Pellin, R.

    1982-01-01

    Markets, applications, and production techniques for Siemens process-produced polycrystalline silicon are surveyed. It is noted that as of 1982 a total of six Si materials suppliers were servicing a worldwide total of over 1000 manufacturers of Si-based devices. Besides solar cells, the Si wafers are employed for thyristors, rectifiers, bipolar power transistors, and discrete components for control systems. An estimated 3890 metric tons of semiconductor-grade polycrystalline Si will be used in 1982, and 6200 metric tons by 1985. Although the amount is expected to nearly triple between 1982-89, research is being carried out on the formation of thin films and ribbons for solar cells, thereby eliminating the waste produced in slicing Czolchralski-grown crystals. The free-world Si production in 1982 is estimated to be 3050 metric tons. Various new technologies for the formation of polycrystalline Si at lower costs and with less waste are considered. New entries into the industrial Si formation field are projected to produce a 2000 metric ton excess by 1988.

  2. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  3. Multiwavelength excitation Raman scattering of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1−x)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) polycrystalline thin films: Vibrational properties of sulfoselenide solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Xie, Haibing; Fairbrother, Andrew; Fontané, Xavier; Saucedo, Edgardo; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor; Gurieva, Galina; 2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 2pl., 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); IN2UB, Departament d'Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain))" >Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Schorr, Susan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were applied together to evaluate the crystal structure and the phonon modes of photovoltaic grade Cu 2 ZnSn(S x Se 1−x ) 4 thin films, leading to a complete characterization of their structural and vibrational properties. Vibrational characterization has been based on Raman scattering measurements performed with different excitation wavelengths and polarization configurations. Analysis of the experimental spectra has permitted identification of 19 peaks, which positions are in good accord with theoretical predictions. Besides, the observation of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 -like A symmetry peaks related to S vibrations and Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 -like A symmetry peaks related to Se vibrations, additional Raman peaks, characteristic of the solid solution and previously not reported, are observed, and are attributed to vibrations involving both S and Se anions.

  4. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  5. Visible and ultraviolet emission from pulse irradiated amorphous and polycrystalline H2O ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.G.; Quickenden, T.I.; Litjens, R.A.J.; Sangster, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Luminescence peaking at 405 nm was observed when thin films of amorphous or polycrystalline ice at 97 K were irradiated with a pulsed beam of 0.53 MeV electrons. These emissions differed from the luminescence emitted by crystalline ice in that memory effects were not observed; the peak wavelengths were red shifted by approx.20 nm; and the half-lives were 6--9 ns instead of approx.400 ns. The emission spectra of polycrystalline ice samples produced by rapid deposition or by annealing amorphous ice were similar, but both had substantially lower intensities than amorphous ice spectra

  6. Polycrystalline Silicon: a Biocompatibility Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecheva, E.; Fingarova, D.; Pramatarova, L.; Hikov, T.; Laquerriere, P.; Bouthors, Sylvie; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Montgomery, P.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) layers were functionalized through the growth of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) on their surface. HA is the mineral component of bones and teeth and thus possesses excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured on both HA-coated and un-coated poly-Si surfaces for 1, 3, 5 and 7 days and toxicity, proliferation and cell morphology were investigated. The results revealed that the poly-Si layers were bioactive and compatible with the osteoblast-like cells. Nevertheless, the HA coating improved the cell interactions with the poly-Si surfaces based on the cell affinity to the specific chemical composition of the bone-like HA and/or to the higher HA roughness.

  7. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  8. Defects generation by hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline silicon thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honda, Shinya; Mates, Tomáš; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan; Yamazaki, T.; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.; Boldyryeva, Hanna; Macková, Anna; Peřina, Vratislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, - (2006), s. 653-657 ISSN 0038-092X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/300/1/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SN/3/172/05; GA AV ČR IAA1010413; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA AV ČR IAA1010316 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : hydrogen passivation * ERDA * photoluminescence * Raman spectroscopy * Si-H 2 bonding * H 2 molecules * grain size. Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2006

  9. X-ray stress analysis in textured polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi; Harada, Jimpei

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between stress and strain in polycrystalline materials with fibre texture is examined on the basis of the strain analysis in the constituent crystallites within the Reuss approximation. By introducing the symmetry of reciprocal lattices for the constituent crystallites, the physical meaning of taking an average of the strains observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) is made clear. By using formulae obtained by the present treatment for the stress-strain relation in cubic specimens with fibre texture in the Laue classes m3-bar m hkl Bragg reflections with h≠k≠l split into doublets owing to the existence of crystallites with two different orientations under the stress field. This technique was confirmed by the profile analysis in XRD data observed for reflections of 222 and 420 in a cubic TiN thin film sputtered on a polyimide film. The technique of the stress analysis and its confirmation are introduced. (author)

  10. Polycrystalline CdTe solar cells on elastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibinski, M.; Lisik, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The presented article is a report on progress in photovoltaic devices and material processing. A cadmium telluride solar cell as one of the most attractive option for thin-film polycrystalline cell constructions is presented. All typical manufacturing steps of this device, including recrystallisation and junction activation are explained. A new potential field of application for this kind of device - the BIPV (Building Integrated Photovoltaic) is named and discussed. All possible configuration options for this application, according to material properties and exploitation demands are considered. The experimental part of the presented paper is focused on practical implementation of the high - temperature polymer foil as the substrate of the newly designed device by the help of ICSVT (Isothermal Close Space Vapour Transport) technique. The evaluation of the polyester and polyamide foils according to the ICSVT/CSS manufacturing process parameters is described and discussed. A final conclusion on practical verification of these materials is also given. (authors)

  11. Physically-based modelling of polycrystalline semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2000-01-01

    Thin-film technology using polycrystalline semiconductors has been widely applied to active-matrix-addressed liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) where thin-film transistors act as digital pixel switches. Research and development is in progress to integrate the driver circuits around the peripheral of the display, resulting in significant cost reduction of connections between rows and columns and the peripheral circuitry. For this latter application, where for instance it is important to control the greyscale voltage level delivered to the pixel, an understanding of device behaviour is required so that models can be developed for analogue circuit simulation. For this purpose, various analytical models have been developed based on that of Seto who considered the effect of monoenergetic trap states and grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials but not the contribution of the grains to the electrical properties. The principal aim of this thesis is to describe the use of a numerical device simulator (ATLAS) as a tool to investigate the physics of the trapping process involved in the device operation, which additionally takes into account the effect of multienergetic trapping levels and the contribution of the grain into the modelling. A study of the conventional analytical models is presented, and an alternative approach is introduced which takes into account the grain regions to enhance the accuracy of the analytical modelling. A physically-based discrete-grain-boundary model and characterisation method are introduced to study the effects of the multienergetic trap states on the electrical characteristics of poly-TFTs using CdSe devices as the experimental example, and the electrical parameters such as the density distribution of the trapping states are extracted. The results show excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental data. The limitations of this proposed physical model are also studied and discussed. (author)

  12. Intrinsic Compressive Stress in Polycrystalline Films is Localized at Edges of the Grain Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco, Enrique; Polop, Celia

    2017-12-01

    The intrinsic compression that arises in polycrystalline thin films under high atomic mobility conditions has been attributed to the insertion or trapping of adatoms inside grain boundaries. This compression is a consequence of the stress field resulting from imperfections in the solid and causes the thermomechanical fatigue that is estimated to be responsible for 90% of mechanical failures in current devices. We directly measure the local distribution of residual intrinsic stress in polycrystalline thin films on nanometer scales, using a pioneering method based on atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that, at odds with expectations, compression is not generated inside grain boundaries but at the edges of gaps where the boundaries intercept the surface. We describe a model wherein this compressive stress is caused by Mullins-type surface diffusion towards the boundaries, generating a kinetic surface profile different from the mechanical equilibrium profile by the Laplace-Young equation. Where the curvatures of both profiles differ, an intrinsic stress is generated in the form of Laplace pressure. The Srolovitz-type surface diffusion that results from the stress counters the Mullins-type diffusion and stabilizes the kinetic surface profile, giving rise to a steady compression regime. The proposed mechanism of competition between surface diffusions would explain the flux and time dependency of compressive stress in polycrystalline thin films.

  13. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained from a single anisotropic material are considered in the framework of linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of the polycrystal are made. We subject the material to independent external strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...

  14. Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Franklin N.; Neugroschel, Arnost

    1984-02-14

    A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

  15. Compound polycrystalline solar cells. Recent progress and Y2K perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W. [Institute of Energy Conversion, University of Delaware, DE 19716 Newark (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A historical perspective on the development of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells based on CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} is presented, and recent progress of these thin-film technologies is discussed. Impressive improvements in the efficiency of laboratory scale devices has not been easy to translate to the manufacturing environment, principally due to our lack of understanding of the basic science and engineering of these materials and devices. 'Next-generation' high-performance thin-film solar cells utilizing multijunction device configurations should achieve efficiencies of more than 25% within ten years. However, our cost-effective manufacturing of these more complex devices will be problematic unless the science and engineering issues associated with processing of thin-film PV devices are addressed.

  16. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  17. Phase-Field Modeling of Polycrystalline Solidification: From Needle Crystals to Spherulites—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gránásy, László; Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Korbuly, Bálint; Tóth, Gyula I.; Környei, László; Pusztai, Tamás

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the orientation-field-based phase-field (PF) models made in the past are reviewed. The models applied incorporate homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of growth centers and several mechanisms to form new grains at the perimeter of growing crystals, a phenomenon termed growth front nucleation. Examples for PF modeling of such complex polycrystalline structures are shown as impinging symmetric dendrites, polycrystalline growth forms (ranging from disordered dendrites to spherulitic patterns), and various eutectic structures, including spiraling two-phase dendrites. Simulations exploring possible control of solidification patterns in thin films via external fields, confined geometry, particle additives, scratching/piercing the films, etc. are also displayed. Advantages, problems, and possible solutions associated with quantitative PF simulations are discussed briefly.

  18. Equilibrium shapes of polycrystalline silicon nanodots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, M. D., E-mail: korzec@math.tu-berlin.de; Wagner, B., E-mail: bwagner@math.tu-berlin.de [Department of Mathematics, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 136, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Roczen, M., E-mail: maurizio.roczen@physik.hu-berlin.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schade, M., E-mail: martin.schade@physik.uni-halle.de [Zentrum für Innovationskompetenz SiLi-nano, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Karl-Freiherr-von-Fritsch-Straße 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Rech, B., E-mail: bernd.rech@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-02-21

    This study is concerned with the topography of nanostructures consisting of arrays of polycrystalline nanodots. Guided by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of crystalline Si (c-Si) nanodots that evolved from a “dewetting” process of an amorphous Si (a-Si) layer from a SiO{sub 2} coated substrate, we investigate appropriate formulations for the surface energy density and transitions of energy density states at grain boundaries. We introduce a new numerical minimization formulation that allows to account for adhesion energy from an underlying substrate. We demonstrate our approach first for the free standing case, where the solutions can be compared to well-known Wulff constructions, before we treat the general case for interfacial energy settings that support “partial wetting” and grain boundaries for the polycrystalline case. We then use our method to predict the morphologies of silicon nanodots.

  19. Obtaining of polycrystalline silicon for semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, F.; Nauryzbaev, M.; Kolesnikov, B.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to create pilot equipment and optimize the process of obtaining polycrystalline silicon on semi-industrial level. In the past several decades, the historical experience in the developing countries has shown that one of the most promising ways to improve the economy,of a country is to establish semiconductor industry. First of all, the results can help increase defense, national security and create industrial production. The silane method, which has been traditionally' used for obtaining technical and polycrystalline silicon, is to obtain and then to pyrolyzed mono-and poly silanes. Although the traditional methods of obtaining silicon hydrides have specific advantages, such as utilizing by-products, they also have clear shortcomings, i.e. either low output of the ultimate product ( through hydrolysis of Mg 2 Si) or high contents of by-products in it or high contents of dissolving vapors (through decomposing Mg 2 Si in non-water solutions)

  20. Method for producing polycrystalline boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeevskii, V.P.; Bochko, A.V.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Karpinos, D.M.; Karyuk, G.G.; Kolomiets, I.P.; Kurdyumov, A.V.; Pivovarov, M.S.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Yarosh, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    A mixture containing less than 50 percent of graphite-like boron nitride treated by a shock wave and highly defective wurtzite-like boron nitride obtained by a shock-wave method is compressed and heated at pressure and temperature values corresponding to the region of the phase diagram for boron nitride defined by the graphite-like compact modifications of boron nitride equilibrium line and the cubic wurtzite-like boron nitride equilibrium line. The resulting crystals of boron nitride exhibit a structure of wurtzite-like boron nitride or of both wurtzite-like and cubic boron nitride. The resulting material exhibits higher plasticity as compared with polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. Tools made of this compact polycrystalline material have a longer service life under impact loads in machining hardened steel and chilled iron. (U.S.)

  1. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...... values.We show that the extremal overall elastic response is alwaysachieved by a configuration consisting of a single properlyoriented crystal. This result is compared to results for isotropicpolycrystals....

  2. Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline - and nonocrystalline niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.T.; Silva, J.R.G. da

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen solubility in polycrystalline and monocrystalline niobium was measured in the range 400 0 C to 1000 0 C at one atmosphere hydrogen partial pressure. The experimental technique consists of saturation of the solvent metal with hydrogen, followed by quenching and analysis of the solid solution. It is presented solubility curves versus reciprocal of the absolute doping temperature, associated with their thermodynamical equation. (Author) [pt

  3. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  4. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Leonard C. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States); Ishida, Takanobu [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between -0.24 and +1.25 VSCE while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-ρ-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  5. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  6. Discrete Tomography and Imaging of Polycrystalline Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, Andreas

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy is commonly considered as the standard application for discrete tomography. While this has yet to be technically realized, new applications with a similar flavor have emerged in materials science. In our group at Ris� DTU (Denmark's National...... Laboratory for Sustainable Energy), for instance, we study polycrystalline materials via synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Several reconstruction problems arise, most of them exhibit inherently discrete aspects. In this talk I want to give a concise mathematical introduction to some of these reconstruction...... problems. Special focus is on their relationship to classical discrete tomography. Several open mathematical questions will be mentioned along the way....

  7. Field performance of a polycrystalline silicon module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegboyega, G.A.; Kuku, T.A.; Salau, A.A.M.

    1985-12-01

    The field performance of a polycrystalline silicon module is reported. The recorded data include the ambient temperature, solar insolation and the module output power. The module has given efficiencies in the range of 2-4% and has demonstrated good stability over a ten month period. From the field data, equations that could be used to predict performance for various seasons of the year for this location have been developed and the fit between predicted and actual performance has been found to be quite good. (author)

  8. Numerical simulation of large deformation polycrystalline plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, K.; Neale, K.W.; Wu, P.D.; MacEwen, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A finite element model based on crystal plasticity has been developed to simulate the stress-strain response of sheet metal specimens in uniaxial tension. Each material point in the sheet is considered to be a polycrystalline aggregate of FCC grains. The Taylor theory of crystal plasticity is assumed. The numerical analysis incorporates parallel computing features enabling simulations of realistic models with large number of grains. Simulations have been carried out for the AA3004-H19 aluminium alloy and the results are compared with experimental data. (author)

  9. Creep cavitation effects in polycrystalline alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.R.; Blumenthal, W.; Evans, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Fine grained polycrystalline alumina has been deformed in creep at high temperatures, to examine the evolution of cavities at grain boundaries. Cavities with equilibrium and crack-like morphologies have been observed, distributed nonuniformly throughout the material. The role of these cavities during creep has been described. A transition from equilibrium to crack-like morphology has been observed and correlated with a model based on the influence of the surface to boundary diffusivity ratio and the local tensile stress. The contribution of cavitation to the creep rate and total creep strain has been analyzed and excluded as the principal cause of the observed non-linear creep rate

  10. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polycrystalline intrinsic zinc oxide to be used in transparent electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, A.; Fortunato, E.; Goncalves, A.; Marques, A.; Aguas, H.; Pereira, L.; Ferreira, I.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present results of intrinsic/non-doped zinc oxide deposited at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering able to be used as a semiconductor material on electronic devices, like for example ozone gas sensors, ultra-violet detectors and thin film transistors. These films present a resistivity as high as 2.5x10 8 Ω cm with an optical transmittance of 90%. Concerning the structural properties, these films are polycrystalline presenting a uniform and very smooth surface

  12. Highly -oriented growth of polycrystalline silicon films on glass by pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinig, P.; Selle, B.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Alex, V.; Birkholz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Nominally undoped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films were deposited on glass at 450 deg. C at high deposition rate (>100 nm/min) by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The pulse frequency was found to have a significant influence on the preferred grain orientation. The x-ray diffraction pattern exhibits a strong enhancement of the (400) reflex with increasing pulse frequency. The quantitative evaluation reveals that over 90% of the grains are oriented. The observed change in preferred grain orientation in poly-Si films at low temperatures is associated with concurrent ion bombardment of the growing film

  13. Transmission electron-microscopic studies of structural changes in polycrystalline graphite after high temperature irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, P.A.; Gurovich, B.A.; Shtrombakh, Ya.I.; Karpukhin, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Transmission electron-microscopic investigation of polycrystalline graphite before and after irradiation is carried out. The direct use of graphite samples after ion thinning, as an inquiry subject is the basic peculiarity of the work. Main structural components of MPG-6 graphite before and after irradiation are revealed, the structural mechanism of the reactor graphite destruction under irradiation is demonstrated. The mean values of L αm and L cm crystallite dimensions are determined. Radiation defects, occuring in some crystallites after irradiation are revealed by the dark-field electron microscopy method

  14. Monokinetic electron backsttering from amorphous or polycrystalline specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.E.D.H.

    1983-06-01

    We have considered the interaction of electrons with thin amorphous specimens: one part of these electrons is transmitted through the substance, the other being backscattered. This last phenomena, which is not perfectly understood, has been studied in the energy range from 0.3 to 3 MeV. First this work deals with the realization of a fully automatic apparatus which has been adapted to the column of the 3 MeV electron microscope of the HVFM laboratory in Toulouse. The variation of the transmission and backscattering coefficients, for amorphous and polycrystalline specimens, is determined. From this coefficient the electron range in this substance can be deduced. In addition the experimental results can be used to understand the image contrast in scanning electron microscopy. A short presentation of the cross-section, introduces the theoretical study of Monte-Carlo calculation. The Monte-Carlo calculation is used to take into account all elementary processus, which take place during electron scattering [fr

  15. Preparation and characterization of polycrystalline n-CdSe photoelectrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Thin layers of polycrystalline p-CdSe were prepared by the simultaneous eletrodeposition of cadmium and selenium from cadmium sulfate and selenious acid in a sulfuric acid solution at pH 0-1 on a titanium substrate. The adherence of the layers to the substrate, stoichiometric ratio of Cd:Se and photovoltaic property of the film depend upon the molar ratio of CdSO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ and current density as well as on the pH and temperature of the electrolysis bath. On increasing the current density or the ratio of CdSO/sub 4/:H/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ in the electrolysis bath, the Cd:Se of the electrodeposit increased. The semiconductor films so prepared were annealed at 550/sup 0/C in a nitrogen atmosphere, followed by etching in an acid solution and then used to construct the photo-electrochemical cell, Ti/CdSe/Na/sub 2/S-Na/sub 2/S/sub x/(aq.)/Pt, and the current-voltage curves have been studied. 11 references.

  16. Studies on the polycrystalline silicon/SiO2 stack as front surface field for IBC solar cells by two-dimensional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shuai; Jia Rui; Tao Ke; Hou Caixia; Sun Hengchao; Li Yongtao; Yu Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells can achieve a very high efficiency due to its less optical losses. But IBC solar cells demand for high quality passivation of the front surface. In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon/SiO 2 stack structure as front surface field to passivate the front surface of IBC solar cells is proposed. The passivation quality of this structure is investigated by two dimensional simulations. Polycrystalline silicon layer and SiO 2 layer are optimized to get the best passivation quality of the IBC solar cell. Simulation results indicate that the doping level of polycrystalline silicon should be high enough to allow a very thin polycrystalline silicon layer to ensure an effective passivation and small optical losses at the same time. The thickness of SiO 2 should be neither too thin nor too thick, and the optimal thickness is 1.2 nm. Furthermore, the lateral transport properties of electrons are investigated, and the simulation results indicate that a high doping level and conductivity of polycrystalline silicon can improve the lateral transportation of electrons and then the cell performance. (paper)

  17. Microscopic gate-modulation imaging of charge and field distribution in polycrystalline organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Kamata, Toshihide; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a high-resolution microscopic gate-modulation imaging (μ-GMI) technique is successfully developed to visualize inhomogeneous charge and electric field distributions in operating organic thin-film transistors (TFTs). We conduct highly sensitive and diffraction-limit gate-modulation sensing for acquiring difference images of semiconducting channels between at gate-on and gate-off states that are biased at an alternate frequency of 15 Hz. As a result, we observe unexpectedly inhomogeneous distribution of positive and negative local gate-modulation (GM) signals at a probe photon energy of 1.85 eV in polycrystalline pentacene TFTs. Spectroscopic analyses based on a series of μ-GMI at various photon energies reveal that two distinct effects appear, simultaneously, within the polycrystalline pentacene channel layers: Negative GM signals at 1.85 eV originate from the second-derivative-like GM spectrum which is caused by the effect of charge accumulation, whereas positive GM signals originate from the first-derivative-like GM spectrum caused by the effect of leaked gate fields. Comparisons with polycrystalline morphologies indicate that grain centers are predominated by areas with high leaked gate fields due to the low charge density, whereas grain edges are predominantly high-charge-density areas with a certain spatial extension as associated with the concentrated carrier traps. Consequently, it is reasonably understood that larger grains lead to higher device mobility, but with greater inhomogeneity in charge distribution. These findings provide a clue to understand and improve device characteristics of polycrystalline TFTs.

  18. Singlet exciton fission in polycrystalline pentacene: from photophysics toward devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in conjugated organic molecules bywhich a photogenerated singlet exciton couples to a nearby chromophore in the ground state, creating a pair of triplet excitons. Researchers first reported this phenomenon in the 1960s, an event that sparked further studies in the following decade. These investigations used fluorescence spectroscopy to establish that exciton fission occurred in single crystals of several acenes. However, research interest has been recently rekindled by the possibility that singlet fission could be used as a carrier multiplication technique to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The most successful architecture to-date involves sensitizing a red-absorbing photoactive layer with a blue-absorbing material that undergoes fission, thereby generating additional photocurrent from higher-energy photons. The quest for improved solar cells has spurred a drive to better understand the fission process, which has received timely aid from modern techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, and small-molecule device fabrication. However, the consensus interpretation of the initial studies using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was that exciton fission was suppressed in polycrystalline thin films of pentacene, a material that would be otherwise expected to be an ideal model system, as well as a viable candidate for fission-sensitized photovoltaic devices. In this Account, we review the results of our recent transient absorption and device-based studies of polycrystalline pentacene. We address the controversy surrounding the assignment of spectroscopic features in transient absorption data, and illustrate how a consistent interpretation is possible. This work underpins our conclusion that singlet fission in pentacene is extraordinarily rapid (∼80 fs) and is thus the dominant decay channel for the photoexcited singlet exciton. Further, we discuss our demonstration that triplet excitons

  19. Giant 1/f noise in two-dimensional polycrystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarskii, A.; Bezsudnov, I.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of excess (1/f noise) in two-dimensional polycrystalline media is investigated. On the base of current trap model, it is shown that there exists a certain anisotropy value of conductivity tensor for polycrystalline media when the amplitude of 1/f noise becomes giant

  20. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  1. Considerations for improved polycrystalline cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.L.; Shaw, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline cuprate superconductors exhibit two-stage superconducting transitions, that are characteristic of granular systems. This behaviour suggests approaches involving improvements in intra and inter-grain properties in order to improve the technologically important superconducting properties such as the magnetic remanent moment and transport critical current density. This paper reports results of our studies on oxygenation, twin density control through grain size and changes in flux pinning within the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ matrix with Ag substitution under the heading of intra-grain properties and the detrimental effect of grain boundary phases and the effect of Ag substitution on grain boundary pinning under the heading of inter-grain properties

  2. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was begun into the usefulness of molecular hydrogen annealing on polycrystalline solar cells. No improvement was realized even after twenty hours of hydrogenation. Thus, samples were chosen on the basis of: (1) low open circuit voltage; (2) low shunt conductance; and (3) high light generated current. These cells were hydrogenated in molecular hydrogen at 300 C. The differences between the before and after hydrogenation values are so slight as to be negligible. These cells have light generated current densities that indicate long minority carrier diffusion lengths. The open circuit voltage appears to be degraded, and quasi-neutral recombination current enhanced. Therefore, molecular hydrogen is not usful for passivating electrically active defects.

  3. Mechanical properties of porous PNZT polycrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, D.R.; Fulrath, R.M.

    1977-08-01

    Niobium-doped lead zirconate-titanate (PNZT) was used to investigate the effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of a polycrystalline ceramic. Spherical pores (110 to 150 μm diameter) were introduced by using organic materials in the initial specimen fabrication. The matrix grain size (2 to 5 μm) was kept constant. Small pores (2 to 3 μm diameter) of the order of the grain size were formed by varying the sintering conditions. The effect of porosity on strength was predicted quite well by Weibull's probabilistic approach. The Young's modulus showed a linear relationship with increase in porosity. A decrease in fracture toughness with increase in porosity was also observed. It was found that at equivalent porosities, small pore specimens gave higher strength, Young's modulus and fracture toughness compared to specimens containing large pores. Fracture surface analysis, by scanning electron microscopy, showed fracture originated either at the tensile surface or at the edge of the specimen

  4. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  5. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma Ribera, R., E-mail: r.colomaribera@utwente.nl; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  6. Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and diffusion to silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Akasaka, Y.; Horie, K.

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and drive-in diffusion to silicon substrate have been investigated by MeV He + backscattering analysis and also by electrical measurements. The range distributions of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon are well fitted to Gaussian distributions over the energy range 60--350 keV. The measured values of R/sub P/ and ΔR/sub P/ are about 10 and 20% larger than the theoretical predictions, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon is expressed as D=0.63 exp[(-3.22 eV/kT)] and is independent of the arsenic concentration. The drive-in diffusion of arsenic from the implanted polycrystalline silicon layer into the silicon substrate is significantly affected by the diffusion atmosphere. In the N 2 atmosphere, a considerable amount of arsenic atoms diffuses outward to the ambient. The outdiffusion can be suppressed by encapsulation with Si 3 N 4 . In the oxidizing atmosphere, arsenic atoms are driven inward by growing SiO 2 due to the segregation between SiO 2 and polycrystalline silicon, and consequently the drive-in diffusion of arsenic is enhanced. At the interface between the polycrystalline silicon layer and the silicon substrate, arsenic atoms are likely to segregate at the polycrystalline silicon side

  7. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (compound semiconductors and their fabrication technologies); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (kagobutsu taiyo denchi zairyo oyobi seisaku gijutsu no kaiseki hyoka)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyagi, H; Okada, Y; Yamaguchi, H; Shiota, T; Kuroda, S; Igarashi, O; Tanino, H; Makita, Y; Yamada, A; Kimura, S; Ohara, A; Niki, S; Shibata, H; Fons, P [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin-film compound semiconductor solar cells. The study on epitaxial growth and optical properties of the thin films of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 evaluates the thin epitaxial films grown under various conditions, showing morphology of the defects at the interface of heteroepitaxial growth. These results are used to set the growth conditions under which a thin film of high luminescence by exciter recombination is produced. The study also gives information of luminescence transition in the vicinity of the band ends and of energy level between the bands. The study on structural analysis of the epitaxially grown thin films of CuInSe2 investigates dependence of lattice constants of the MBE-grown CIS layer on film thickness by the X-ray diffractometry based on the bond method. The study on epitaxial growth by the Se(CH3)2-halogen transfer method tests epitaxial growth of the single-crystalline Mo on a substrate of single-crystalline sapphire. 5 figs.

  8. Transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti0.94Nb0.06O2 polycrystalline films on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitosugi, T.; Ueda, A.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Furubayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Konuma, S.; Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report on transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti 0.94 Nb 0.06 O 2 (TNO) polycrystalline films on glass substrate, and discuss the role of grain crystallinity and grain boundary on resistivity. Thin films of TNO were deposited using pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 350 deg. C, with subsequent H 2 -annealing at 500 deg. C. Polycrystalline TNO films showed resistivity of 4.5 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 1.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm for films prepared at substrate temperature of room temperature and 250 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that grain crystallinity and grain boundary play key roles in conductive films

  9. Study on the Cross Plane Thermal Transport of Polycrystalline Molybdenum Nanofilms by Applying Picosecond Laser Transient Thermoreflectance Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal films are widely used as interconnecting wires and coatings in electronic devices and optical components. Reliable thermophysical properties of the films are required from the viewpoint of thermal management. The cross plane thermal transport of four polycrystalline molybdenum nanofilms with different thickness deposited on glass substrates has been studied by applying the picosecond laser transient thermoreflectance technique. The measurement is performed by applying both front pump-front probe and rear pump-front probe configurations with high quality signal. The determined cross plane thermal diffusivity of the Mo films greatly decreases compared to the corresponding bulk value and tends to increase as films become thicker, exhibiting significant size effect. The main mechanism responsible for the thermal diffusivity decrease of the present polycrystalline Mo nanofilms is the grain boundary scattering on the free electrons. Comparing the cross plane thermal diffusivity and inplane electrical conductivity indicates the anisotropy of the transport properties of the Mo films.

  10. Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John W.; Westbrook, Russell D.; Wood, Richard F.; Young, Rosa T.

    1978-01-01

    A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

  11. Loss of shear strength in polycrystalline tungsten under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandekar, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    A reexamination of existing data on shock compression of polycrystalline tungsten at room temperature indicates that tungsten may be an exception to the common belief that metals do not behave like elastic-isotropic solids under shock compression

  12. Deuterium transport and trapping in polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Holland, D.F.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Trybus, C.L.; Sellers, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that deuterium permeation studies for polycrystalline tungsten foil have been conducted to provide data for estimating tritium transport and trapping in tungsten-clad divertors proposed for advanced fusion-reactor concepts. Based on a detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructural characterization of the specimen material and on analyses of permeation data measured at temperatures ranging form 610 to 823 K for unannealed and annealed tungsten foil (25 μm thick), the authors note the following key results: deuterium transport in tungsten foil is dominated by extensive trapping that varies inversely with prior anneal temperatures of the foil material, the reduction in the trapped fraction correlates with a corresponding elimination of a high density of dislocations in cell-wall structures introduced during the foil fabrication process, trapping behavior in these foils can be modelled using trap energies between 1.3 eV and 1.5 eV and trap densities ranging from 1 x 10 -5 atom fraction

  13. Thermomechanical characterization of pure polycrystalline tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittel, D.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Poon, B.; Zhao, J.; Ravichandran, G.

    2007-01-01

    The thermomechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline tantalum has been characterized over a wide range of strain rates, using the recently developed shear compression specimen [D. Rittel, S. Lee, G. Ravichandran, Experimental Mechanics 42 (2002) 58-64]. Dynamic experiments were carried out using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, and the specimen's temperature was monitored throughout the tests using an infrared radiometer. The results of the mechanical tests confirm previous results on pure Ta. Specifically, in addition to its significant strain rate sensitivity, it was observed that pure Ta exhibits very little strain hardening at high strain rates. The measured temperature rise in the specimen's gauge was compared to theoretical predictions which assume a total conversion of the mechanical energy into heat (β = 1) [G.I. Taylor, H. Quinney, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, vol. A, 1934, pp. 307-326], and an excellent agreement was obtained. This result confirms the previous result of Kapoor and Nemat-Nasser [R. Kapoor, S. Nemat-Nasser, Mech. Mater. 27 (1998) 1-12], while a different experimental approach was adopted here. The assumption that β = 1 is found to be justified in this specific case by the lack of dynamic strain hardening of pure Ta. However, this assumption should be limited to non-hardening materials, to reflect the fact that strain hardening implies that part of the mechanical energy is stored into the material's microstructure

  14. Tritium diffusion in polycrystalline lithium tungstate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutyakov, A.N.; Shadrin, A.A.; Saunin, E.I.; Gromov, V.V.; Shafiev, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Using radiometric method the investigation of tritium separation from neutron irradiated (neutron flux density 1.2x10 13 n/cm 2 xs) polycrystalline Li 2 WO 4 in the temperature range 200-680 deg C has been carried out. It is established that the use of helium as gas-carrier of flow-type gas-discharge counter permits to conduct continuous stable measurements of concentrations of tritium extracted depending on its chemical state. It is shown that volume diffusion is the process, limiting tritiated particle separation rate from Li 2 WO 4 . It is found that the process of tritium volume diffusion in Li 2 WO 4 corresponds to two different mechanisms respectively in low- (200-300 deg C) and high-temperature (350-680 deg C) ranges. A supposition is made that in the low-temperature range the process of diffusion is conditioned by the dissociation of the radiation defect-tritiated particle complex, which is confirmed by the data on radiation defect annealing in Li 2 WO 4 . The value of activation energy of tritium separation process in the range 350-680 deg C, proved to be equal to 13.3 kJ/mol. Possible role of crystal structure peculiarities of Li 2 WO 4 for diffusion process is pointed out

  15. Deformation localization and cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, O.T.; Rakshin, A.F.; Fenyuk, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    Conditions of deformation localization and its interrelation with cyclic strength in polycrystalline molybdenum were investigated. A fatigue failure of polycrystalline molybdenum after rolling and in an embrittled state reached by recrystallization annealing under cyclic bending at room temperature takes place under nonuniform distribution of microplastic strain resulting in a temperature rise in separate sections of more than 314 K. More intensive structural changes take place in molybdenum after rolling than in recrystallized state.

  16. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... of the device. At the same time, metal films of different thicknesses are needed for different applications and, since these films are polycrystalline, their internal properties and surface roughness can greatly vary from one thickness to another. In this work, we study, using atomic force microscopy...

  17. Exciton Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide : Nanocrystals versus Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Protesescu, Loredana; Balazs, Daniel M.; Adjokatse, Sampson; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The optical properties of the newly developed near-infrared emitting formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI(3)) nanocrystals (NCs) and their polycrystalline thin film counterpart are comparatively investigated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. The excitonic emission is

  18. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Karim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs. We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE. Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the

  19. Investigation of the chlorine A-Center in polycrystalline CdTe layers by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Christian; Metzner, Heiner; Haedrich, Mathias [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Schley, Pascal [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Goldhahn, Ruediger [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Magdeburg, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Polycrystalline CdTe is a well known absorber material for thin film solar cells. However, the improvement of CdTe-based solar cells for industrial application is mainly based on empirical enhancements of certain process steps which are not concerning the absorber itself. Hence, the defect structure of CdTe is still not understood in detail. One of the most discussed defects in CdTe is the so called chlorine A-center. In general, the A-Center describes a defect complex of the intrinsic cadmium vacancy defect and an extrinsic impurity. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy at temperatures of 5 K we investigated the behavior of the chlorine A-center under different CdTe activation techniques. Therefore, we were able to determine the electronic level of that defect and to analyze its influence on the crystal quality and the functionality of solar cells that were prepared of the corresponding samples.

  20. Polycrystalline AlN films with preferential orientation by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, G.; Wu, A.; Tristant, P.; Tixier, C.; Soulestin, B.; Desmaison, J.; Bologna Alles, A.

    2008-01-01

    AlN thin films for acoustic wave devices were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition under different process conditions, employing Si (100) and Pt (111)/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared transmission spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The values of the distance between the plasma and the tri-methyl-aluminum precursor injector, the radiofrequency bias potential, and the substrate temperature were central in the development of polycrystalline films. The choice of the chamber total pressure during deposition allowed for the development of two different crystallographic orientations, i.e., or . The film microstructures exhibited in general a column-like growth with rounded tops, an average grain size of about 40 nm, and a surface roughness lower than 20 nm under the best conditions

  1. Aluminum-doped Zn O polycrystalline films prepared by co-sputtering of a Zn O-Al target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerril, M.; Silva L, H.; Guillen C, A.; Zelaya A, O. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-doped Zinc oxide polycrystalline thin films (Azo) were grown on 7059 Corning glass substrates at room temperature by co-sputtering from a Zn O-Al target. The target was designed as follows, high purity elemental Aluminum was evaporated onto a Zn O target covering small areas. The structural, optical and electrical properties were analyzed as a function of Al content. The Al doped Zn O polycrystalline films showed an n-type conductivity. It was found that the electrical resistivity drops and the carrier concentration increases as a consequence of Al incorporation within the Zn O lattice. In both cases, the changes are of several orders of magnitude. From the results, we conclude that, using these Zn O-Al targets, n-type Al doped Zn O polycrystalline films with high transmittance and low resistivity can be obtained. The crystalline structure of the films was determined by X-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy images were obtained with an Auto probe C P (Veeco Metrology Group) Microscope. (Author)

  2. Atomistic modeling of mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2014-01-01

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene. By constructing molecular models of ultra-fine-grained graphene structures, we studied the effect of different grain sizes of 1–10 nm on the mechanical response of graphene. We found that the elastic modulus and tensile strength of polycrystalline graphene decrease with decreasing grain size. The calculated mechanical proprieties for pristine and polycrystalline graphene sheets are found to be in agreement with experimental results in the literature. Our MD results suggest that the ultra-fine-grained graphene structures can show ultrahigh tensile strength and elastic modulus values that are very close to those of pristine graphene sheets. (papers)

  3. Polycrystalline Materials as a Cold Neutron and Gamma Radiation Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.

    2009-01-01

    The total neutron cross-section of polycrystalline beryllium, graphite and iron has been calculated beyond their cut-off wavelength using a general formula. The computer Cold Filter code was developed in order to provide the required calculations. The code also permits the calculation of attenuation of reactor gamma radiation, The calculated neutron transmissions through polycrystalline Be graphite and iron at different temperatures were compared with the experimental data measured at the ETRR-1 reactor using two TOF spectrometers. An overall agreement is obtained between the formula fits and experimental data at different temperatures. A feasibility study is carried on using polycrystalline Be, graphite and iron an efficient filter for cold neutrons and gamma radiation.

  4. Atomistic modeling of mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2014-05-30

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene. By constructing molecular models of ultra-fine-grained graphene structures, we studied the effect of different grain sizes of 1-10 nm on the mechanical response of graphene. We found that the elastic modulus and tensile strength of polycrystalline graphene decrease with decreasing grain size. The calculated mechanical proprieties for pristine and polycrystalline graphene sheets are found to be in agreement with experimental results in the literature. Our MD results suggest that the ultra-fine-grained graphene structures can show ultrahigh tensile strength and elastic modulus values that are very close to those of pristine graphene sheets.

  5. Formation of polycrystalline MgB2 synthesized by powder in sealed tube method with different initial boron phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanto, Sigit Dwi; Imaduddin, Agung; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2 is a new high critical temperature superconductor that discovered in the beginning of the 21st century. The MgB2 has a simple crystal structure and a high critical temperature, which can be manufactured in several forms like thin films, tapes, wires including bulk in the large scale. For that reason, the MgB2 has good prospects for various applications in the field of electronic devices. In the current work, we have explored the synthesis of MgB2 polycrystalline using powder in a sealed tube method. Different initial boron phase for the synthesized of MgB2 polycrystalline were used. These were, in addition to magnesium powders, crystalline boron, amorphous boron and combination both of them were respectively fitted in the synthesis. The raw materials were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of Mg: B=1:2, ground using agate mortar, packed into stainless steel SS304. The pack was then sintered at temperature of 800°C for 2 hours in air atmosphere. Phase formation of MgB2 polycrystalline in difference of initial boron phase was characterized using XRD and SEM. Referring to the diffraction pattern and microstructure observation, MgB2 polycrystalline was formed, and the formation was effective when using the crystalline Mg and fully amorphous B as the raw materials. The critical temperature of the specimen was evaluated by the cryogenic magnet. The transition temperature of the MgB2 specimen synthesized using crystalline magnesium and full amorphous boron is 42.678 K (ΔTc = 0.877 K).

  6. Multiwavelength excitation Raman scattering of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) polycrystalline thin films: Vibrational properties of sulfoselenide solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrievska, Mirjana; Xie, Haibing; Fairbrother, Andrew; Fontané, Xavier; Saucedo, Edgardo; Izquierdo-Roca, Victor, E-mail: vizquierdo@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 2pl., 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Gurieva, Galina [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Department Crystallography, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Pérez-Rodríguez, Alejandro [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1 2pl., 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); IN" 2UB, Departament d' Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Schorr, Susan [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy, Department Crystallography, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Geological Sciences, Freie Universität Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-21

    In this work, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were applied together to evaluate the crystal structure and the phonon modes of photovoltaic grade Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}){sub 4} thin films, leading to a complete characterization of their structural and vibrational properties. Vibrational characterization has been based on Raman scattering measurements performed with different excitation wavelengths and polarization configurations. Analysis of the experimental spectra has permitted identification of 19 peaks, which positions are in good accord with theoretical predictions. Besides, the observation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}-like A symmetry peaks related to S vibrations and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}-like A symmetry peaks related to Se vibrations, additional Raman peaks, characteristic of the solid solution and previously not reported, are observed, and are attributed to vibrations involving both S and Se anions.

  7. Nucleation and growth of polycrystalline SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, M.; Schimmel, S.; Jokubavicius, V.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation and bulk growth of polycrystalline SiC in a 2 inch PVT setup using isostatic and pyrolytic graphite as substrates was studied. Textured nucleation occurs under near-thermal equilibrium conditions at the initial growth stage with hexagonal platelet shaped crystallites of 4H, 6H and 15......R polytypes. It is found that pyrolytic graphite results in enhanced texturing of the nucleating gas species. Reducing the pressure leads to growth of the crystallites until a closed polycrystalline SiC layer containing voids with a rough surface is developed. Bulk growth was conducted at 35 mbar Ar...

  8. Hall measurements and grain-size effects in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rose, A.; Maruska, H.P.; Eustace, D.J.; Feng, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of grain size on Hall measurements in polycrystalline silicon are analyzed and interpreted, with some modifications, using the model proposed by Bube. This modified model predicts that the measured effective Hall voltage is composed of components originating from the bulk and space-charge regions. For materials with large grain sizes, the carrier concentration is independent of the intergrain boundary barrier, whereas the mobility is dependent on it. However, for small grains, both the carrier density and mobility depend on the barrier. These predictions are consistent with experimental results of mm-size Wacker and μm-size neutron-transmutation-doped polycrystalline silicon

  9. Spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1994-10-01

    A theoretical study of the spectral response of a polycrystalline silicon n-p junction solar cell is presented. The case of a fibrously oriented grain structure, involving grain boundary recombination velocity and grain size effects is discussed. The contribution of the base region on the internal quantum efficiency Q int is computed for different grain sizes and grain boundary recombination velocities in order to examine their influence. Suggestions are also made for the determination of base diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells using the spectral response method. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  10. Software optimization for electrical conductivity imaging in polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, G.; Ludwig, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 100 Institute Rd, Worcester, MA 01609 (United States); Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K. [US Synthetic, 1260 South 1600 West, Orem, UT 84058 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    We previously reported on an electrical conductivity imaging instrument developed for measurements on polycrystalline diamond cutters. These cylindrical cutters for oil and gas drilling feature a thick polycrystalline diamond layer on a tungsten carbide substrate. The instrument uses electrical impedance tomography to profile the conductivity in the diamond table. Conductivity images must be acquired quickly, on the order of 5 sec per cutter, to be useful in the manufacturing process. This paper reports on successful efforts to optimize the conductivity reconstruction routine, porting major portions of it to NVIDIA GPUs, including a custom CUDA kernel for Jacobian computation.

  11. Development of surface relief on polycrystalline metals due to sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voitsenya, V.S. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Bardamid, A.F. [Taras Shevchenko National University, 01033 Kiev (Ukraine); Bondarenko, V.N. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Davis, J.W., E-mail: jwdavis@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, 4925 Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, Canada M3H5T6 (Canada); Konovalov, V.G.; Ryzhkov, I.V.; Skoryk, O.O.; Solodovchenko, S.I. [IPP NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhang-jian, Zhou [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100 083 (China)

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics of surface microrelief that appear in sputtering experiments with polycrystalline metals of various grain sizes have been studied. Specimens with grain sizes varying from 30–70 nm in the case of crystallized amorphous alloys, to 1–3 μm for technical tungsten grade and 10–100 μm for recrystallized tungsten were investigated. A model is proposed for the development of roughness on polycrystalline metals which is based on the dependence of sputtering rate on crystal orientation. The results of the modeling are in good agreement with experiments showing that the length scale of roughness is much larger than the grain size.

  12. Laser induced single-crystal transition in polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitali, G.; Bertolotti, M.; Foti, G.; Rimini, E.

    1978-01-01

    Transition to single crystal of polycrystalline Si material underlying a Si crystal substrate of 100 orientation was obtained via laser irradiation. The changes in the structure were analyzed by reflection high energy electron diffraction and by channeling effect technique using 2.0 MeV He Rutherford scattering. The power density required to induce the transition in a 4500 A thick polycrystalline layer is about 70 MW/cm 2 (50ns). The corresponding amorphous to single transition has a threshold of about 45 MW/cm 2 . (orig.) 891 HPOE [de

  13. Improved ITO thin films for photovoltaic applications with a thin ZnO layer by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, J.; Guillen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers is pursued to achieve a higher efficiency in its application as frontal electrical contacts in thin film photovoltaic devices. In order to take advantage of the polycrystalline structure of ZnO films as growth support, the properties of ITO layers prepared at room temperature by sputtering onto bare and ZnO-coated substrates have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. It has been found that by inserting a thin ZnO layer, the ITO film resistivity can be reduced as compared to that of a single ITO film with similar optical transmittance. The electrical quality improvement is related to ITO grain growth enhancement onto the polycrystalline ZnO underlayer

  14. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (diff...

  15. Electrical Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-14

    Lou, Sina Najmaei, Matin Amani, Matthew L. Chin, Zheng Se. TASK NUMBER Liu Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8...Transport Properties of Polycrystalline Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Sina Najmaei,t.§ Matin Ama ni,M Matthew L. Chin,* Zhe ng liu/ ·"·v: A. Gle n

  16. Electroreduction of CO on Polycrystalline Copper at Low Overpotentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Vagn Hogg, Thomas; Abghoui, Younes

    2018-01-01

    C uis the only monometallic electrocatalyst to produce highly reduced products from CO2 selectively because of its intermediate binding of CO. We investigate the performance of polycrystalline Cu for the electroreduction of CO in alkaline media (0.1 M KOH) at low overpotentials (−0.4 to −0.6 V vs...

  17. A study of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation on polycrystalline Ni ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion of Fe3O4 particles at 800°C. Industrial grade particles of Ni and Zn oxides were ..... domain wall movements, which leads to electronic migrations: this can ... properties of polycrystalline Mn–Zn Ferrites, Ph.D. Thesis,. Osmania University ...

  18. Influence of hydrogen on high cycle fatigue of polycrystalline vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.W.; Lee, K.S.; Stoloff, N.S.

    1977-02-01

    The room temperature fatigue behavior of several polycrystalline V-H 2 alloys is described. Hydrogen extends the life of unnotched vanadium but has a deleterious effect in notched materials. Crack propagation data are correlated with tensile yield stress and cyclic strain hardening data

  19. Comparison of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 device efficiency with junction depth and interfacial structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Gabor, A.M.; Contreras, M.A.; Tuttle, J.R.; Noufi, R.; Sobol, P.E.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been used to characterize the surface versus bulk composition, electronic, and physical structure of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin-film interfaces. Angle-resolved high-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence-band electronic structure and Cu 2p, In 3d, Ga 2p, and Se 3d core lines were used to evaluate the surface and near surface chemistry of CuInSe 2 and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 device grade thin films. XPS compositional depth profiles were also acquired from the near surface region. PAS was used as a nondestructive, depth-sensitive probe for open-volume-type defects. Results of these measurements are related to device efficiencies to show the effects of compositional variations and defect concentrations in the near surface region on device performance. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future

  1. Thin film characterisation by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuccio, G.; Terranova, M.L.

    1996-09-01

    The Fifth School on X-ray diffraction from polycrystalline materials was devoted to thin film characterization by advanced X-ray diffraction techniques. Twenty contributions are contained in this volume; all twenty are recorded in the INIS Database. X-ray diffraction is known to be a powerful analytical tool for characterizing materials and understanding their structural features. The aim of these articles is to illustrate the fundamental contribution of modern diffraction techniques (grazing incidence, surface analysis, standing waves, etc.) to the characterization of thin and ultra-thin films, which have become important in many advanced technologies

  2. Effect of crystallinity on the magnetoresistance in perovskite manganese oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekala, R.; Rajeswari, M.; Ghosh, K.; Goyal, A.; Gu, J.Y.; Kwon, C.; Trajanovic, Z.; Boettcher, T.; Greene, R.L.; Ramesh, R.; Venkatesan, T.

    1997-01-01

    We report our study of the effect of crystallinity on the magnetoresistance in epitaxial and polycrystalline La 2/3 Ba 1/3 MnO 3 and La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 thin films. Magnetoresistance in epitaxial films exhibits field dependence and temperature dependence similar to bulk single crystals and sintered bulk ceramics. The polycrystalline films exhibit a markedly different behavior. The magnetoresistance in this case shows either a monotonic increase or saturation with decreasing temperature in contrast to that of epitaxial films in which the magnetoresistance peaks close to the ferromagnetic transition temperature. The field dependence in the polycrystalline films is also remarkably different. At low fields, we observe a sharp drop in resistance followed by a more gradual decrease at higher fields. Our data suggest that in addition to the intrinsic magnetoresistance, grain-boundary transport contributes significantly to the magnetoresistance in polycrystalline films. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  4. Transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti{sub 0.94}Nb{sub 0.06}O{sub 2} polycrystalline films on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitosugi, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: hitosugi@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ueda, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S.; Yamada, N.; Furubayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Konuma, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    We report on transparent conducting properties of anatase Ti{sub 0.94}Nb{sub 0.06}O{sub 2} (TNO) polycrystalline films on glass substrate, and discuss the role of grain crystallinity and grain boundary on resistivity. Thin films of TNO were deposited using pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 350 deg. C, with subsequent H{sub 2}-annealing at 500 deg. C. Polycrystalline TNO films showed resistivity of 4.5 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and 1.5 x 10{sup -3} {omega} cm for films prepared at substrate temperature of room temperature and 250 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction measurements and transmission electron microscopy reveal that grain crystallinity and grain boundary play key roles in conductive films.

  5. Zero and low coefficient of thermal expansion polycrystalline oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-09-01

    Polycrystalline oxide systems with zero to low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) investigated by the author include hafnia-titania and hafnia. The CTE for 30 to 40 mol% TiO 2 in HfO 2 is less than or equal to 1 x 10 -6 / 0 C, while for other compositions in the range 25 to 60 mol% it is approximately 4 x 10 -6 / 0 C. An investigation of the CTE of 99.999% HfO 2 yielded a value of 4.6 x 10 -6 / 0 C from room temperature to 1000 0 C. Correlation with data on HfO 2 by other investigators shows a definite relationship between the CTE and the amount of ZrO 2 present. Data are listed for comparison of the CTE of several other polycrystalline oxides investigated by Holcombe at Oak Ridge

  6. Zero and low coefficient of thermal expansion polycrystalline oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    Polycrystalline oxide systems with zero to low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) investigated by the author include hafnia-titania and hafnia. The CTE for 30 to 40 mol percent TiO 2 in HfO 2 is less than or equal to 1 x 10 -6 / 0 C, while for other compositions in the range 25 to 60 mol percent approximately 4 x 10 -6 / 0 C. An investigation of the CTE of 99.999 percent HfO 2 yielded a value of 4.6 x 10 -6 / 0 C from room temperature to 1000 0 C. Correlation with data on HfO 2 by other investigators shows a definite relationship between the CTE and the amount of ZrO 2 present. Data are listed for comparison of the CTE of several other polycrystalline oxides investigated by Holcombe at Oak Ridge

  7. Surface Potential of Polycrystalline Hematite in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Preočanin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface potential of polycrystalline hematite in aqueous sodium perchlorate environment as a function of pH was examined. Surface potential of hematite was obtained from measured electrode potential of a nonporous polycrystalline hematite electrode. Acidic solution was titrated with base, and the backward titration with acid was performed. Substantial hysteresis was obtained which enabled location of the point of zero potential and equilibrium values of surface potentials. The theoretical interpretation of the equilibrium data was performed by applying the surface complexation model and the thermodynamic equilibrium constants for the first and the second step of surface protonation was obtained as logK1∘=11.3;logK2∘=2.8.

  8. Inelastic x-ray scattering from polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.

    2008-09-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is a tool to determine the phonon dispersion along high symmetry directions in single crystals. However, novel materials and crystals under extreme conditions are often only available in form of polycrystalline samples. Thus the investigation is limited to orientation-averaged properties. To overcome these limitations, a methodology to extract the single crystal phonon dispersion from polycrystalline materials was developed. The approach consists of recording IXS spectra over a large momentum transfer region and confront them with a Born - von Karman model calculation. A least-square refinement of the model IXS spectra then provides the single crystal dispersion scheme. In this work the method is developed on the test case Be. Further studies were performed on more and more complex systems, in order to explore the limitations. This novel application of IXS promises to be a valuable tool in cases where single crystalline materials are not available. (author)

  9. Ultrathin polycrystalline 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Zhang, Dongrong; Nikiforov, Gueorgui O.; Lee, Michael V.; Qi, Yabing, E-mail: Yabing.Qi@oist.jp [Energy Materials and Surface Sciences Unit (EMSS), Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST), 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Joo Shin, Tae; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Han-Koo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Shin, Hyun-Joon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Ultrathin (<6 nm) polycrystalline films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-P) are deposited with a two-step spin-coating process. The influence of spin-coating conditions on morphology of the resulting film was examined by atomic force microscopy. Film thickness and RMS surface roughness were in the range of 4.0–6.1 and 0.6–1.1 nm, respectively, except for small holes. Polycrystalline structure was confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggested that the plane through aromatic rings of TIPS-P molecules was perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  10. Formation of photovoltaic modules based on polycrystalline solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Dobrzański; A. Drygała; A. Januszka

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of the paper is formation of photovoltaic modules and analysis of their main electric parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Photovoltaic modules were produced from four polycrystalline silicon solar cells, that were cut and next joined in series. Soft soldering technique and copper-tin strip were used for joining cells.Findings: In order to provide useful power for any application, the individual solar cells must be connected together to give the appropriate current an...

  11. Polycrystalline diamond film UV detectors for excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, V G; Savel'ev, A V; Konov, Vitalii I; Mazzeo, G; Spaziani, F; Conte, G; Polyakov, V I

    2006-01-01

    Photoresistive metal-semiconductor-metal detectors based on polycrystalline diamond films are fabricated for recording cw and pulsed UV radiation. The detectors have a high spectral selectivity (the UV-to-VIS response ratio is ∼10 5 ) and a temporal resolution of the order of 10 9 s. 'Solar-blind' photostable diamond detectors are promising for applications in UV lithography, laser micromachining, medicine, and space research. (letters)

  12. Ferromagnetic clusters in polycrystalline BaCoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, P.M.; Pardo, V.; Calle, C. de la; Baldomir, D.; Alonso, J.A.; Rivas, J.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline BaCoO 3 was synthesized by a citrate technique using thermal treatments at high oxygen pressure. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on the compound were carried out under AC conditions. The magnetic properties of the material at low temperatures were found to be determined by the appearance of nanoscale ferromagnetic (FM) regions and not by a true magnetic phase transition. These clusters have a mean size of about 1 nm in diameter and obey an Arrhenius-like thermal relaxation

  13. Effect of thermal annealing on structural properties of SrGa2S4:Ce thin films prepared by flash evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarov, E.F.; Bayramov, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    In the present report the preparation technology and structural characterization of Ce 3 +activated SrGa 2 S 4 thin films are given. SrGa 2 S 4 : e thin films are prepared by so called flash evaporation which is simple and inexpensive method for thin film deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the as deposited films exhibit amorphous behavior, but after annealing in H S stream, the polycrystalline one. EPMA results indicate nearly stoichiometric composition of the thin films

  14. Mesoscopic approach to modeling elastic-plastic polycrystalline material behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Cizelj, L.

    2001-01-01

    Extreme loadings during severe accident conditions might cause failure or rupture of the pressure boundary of a reactor coolant system. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of such an accident. One of important drawbacks of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. This paper discusses the mesoscopic approach to modeling the elastic-plastic behavior of a polycrystalline material. The main idea is to divide the continuum (e.g., polycrystalline aggregate) into a set of sub-continua (grains). The overall properties of the polycrystalline aggregate are therefore determined by the number of grains in the aggregate and properties of randomly shaped and oriented grains. The random grain structure is modeled with Voronoi tessellation and random orientations of crystal lattices are assumed. The elastic behavior of monocrystal grains is assumed to be anisotropic. Crystal plasticity is used to describe plastic response of monocrystal grains. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to two-dimensional models.(author)

  15. Polycrystalline diamond detectors with three-dimensional electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, S., E-mail: lagomarsino@fi.infn.it [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bellini, M. [INO-CNR Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Carzino, R. [Smart Materials-Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Cindro, V. [Joseph Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Corsi, C. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS Firenze, Via N. Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Department of Physics, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via B. Rossi 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Servoli, L. [INFN Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The three-dimensional concept in diamond detectors has been applied, so far, to high quality single-crystal material, in order to test this technology in the best available conditions. However, its application to polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond could be desirable for two reasons: first, the short inter-electrode distance of three-dimensional detectors should improve the intrinsically lower collection efficiency of polycrystalline diamond, and second, at high levels of radiation damage the performances of the poly-crystal material are not expected to be much lower than those of the single crystal one. We report on the fabrication and test of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors with several inter-electrode distances, and we demonstrate that their collection efficiency is equal or higher than that obtained with conventional planar detectors fabricated with the same material. - Highlights: • Pulsed laser fabrication of polycristalline diamond detectors with 3D electrodes. • Measurement of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) under beta irradiation. • Comparation between the CCE of 3D and conventional planar diamond sensors. • A rationale for the behavior of three-dimensional and planar sensors is given.

  16. Comparison of effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients e31,f of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films between direct and converse piezoelectric effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujiura, Yuichi; Kawabe, Saneyuki; Kurokawa, Fumiya; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films from both the direct and converse piezoelectric effects of unimorph cantilevers. (001) preferentially oriented polycrystalline PZT thin films and (001)/(100) epitaxial PZT thin films were deposited on (111)Pt/Ti/Si and (001)Pt/MgO substrates, respectively, by rf-magnetron sputtering, and their piezoelectric responses owing to intrinsic and extrinsic effects were examined. The direct and converse |e31,f| values of the polycrystalline PZT thin films were calculated as 6.4 and 11.5-15.0 C/m2, respectively, whereas those of the epitaxial PZT thin films were calculated as 3.4 and 4.6-4.8 C/m2, respectively. The large |e31,f| of the converse piezoelectric property of the polycrystalline PZT thin films is attributed to extrinsic piezoelectric effects. Furthermore, the polycrystalline PZT thin films show a clear nonlinear piezoelectric contribution, which is the same as the Rayleigh-like behavior reported in bulk PZT. In contrast, the epitaxial PZT thin films on the MgO substrate show a piezoelectric response owing to the intrinsic and linear extrinsic effects, and no nonlinear contribution was observed.

  17. Modeling and simulation of the deposition/relaxation processes of polycrystalline diatomic structures of metallic nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, M. F.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; Riaño-Rojas, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    This work develops a model that mimics the growth of diatomic, polycrystalline thin films by artificially splitting the growth into deposition and relaxation processes including two stages: (1) a grain-based stochastic method (grains orientation randomly chosen) is considered and by means of the Kinetic Monte Carlo method employing a non-standard version, known as Constant Time Stepping, the deposition is simulated. The adsorption of adatoms is accepted or rejected depending on the neighborhood conditions; furthermore, the desorption process is not included in the simulation and (2) the Monte Carlo method combined with the metropolis algorithm is used to simulate the diffusion. The model was developed by accounting for parameters that determine the morphology of the film, such as the growth temperature, the interacting atomic species, the binding energy and the material crystal structure. The modeled samples exhibited an FCC structure with grain formation with orientations in the family planes of , and . The grain size and film roughness were analyzed. By construction, the grain size decreased, and the roughness increased, as the growth temperature increased. Although, during the growth process of real materials, the deposition and relaxation occurs simultaneously, this method may perhaps be valid to build realistic polycrystalline samples.

  18. Angular-Dependent EDMR Linewidth for Spin-Dependent Space-Charge-Limited Conduction in a Polycrystalline Pentacene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunito Fukuda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spin-dependent space-charge-limited carrier conduction in a Schottky barrier diode using polycrystalline p-type π-conjugated molecular pentacene is explored using multiple-frequency electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR spectroscopy with a variable-angle configuration. The measured EDMR spectra are decomposed into two components derived, respectively, from mobile and trapped positive polarons. The linewidth of the EDMR signal for the trapped polarons increases with increasing resonance magnetic field for an in-plane configuration where the normal vector of the device substrate is perpendicular to the resonance magnetic field, while it is independent of the field for an out-of-plane configuration. This difference is consistent with the pentacene arrangement on the device substrate, where pentacene molecules exhibit a uniaxial orientation on the out-of-substrate plane. By contrast, the mobile polarons do not show anisotropic behavior with respect to the resonance magnetic field, indicating that the anisotropic effect is averaged out owing to carrier motion. These results suggest that the orientational arrangements of polycrystalline pentacene molecules in a nano thin film play a crucial role in spin-dependent electrical conduction.

  19. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe Solar Cells on Buffered Commercial TCO-Coated Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegrove, E.; Banai, R.; Blissett, C.; Buurma, C.; Ellsworth, J.; Morley, M.; Barnes, S.; Gilmore, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Dhere, R.; Scott, M.; Gessert, T.; Sivananthan, Siva

    2012-10-01

    Multiple polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies greater than 15% were produced on buffered, commercially available Pilkington TEC Glass at EPIR Technologies, Inc. (EPIR, Bolingbrook, IL) and verified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). n-CdS and p-CdTe were grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and close space sublimation, respectively. Samples with sputter-deposited CdS were also investigated. Initial results indicate that this is a viable dry-process alternative to CBD for production-scale processing. Published results for polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells with high efficiencies are typically based on cells using research-grade transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) requiring high-temperature processing inconducive to low-cost manufacturing. EPIR's results for cells on commercial glass were obtained by implementing a high-resistivity SnO2 buffer layer and by optimizing the CdS window layer thickness. The high-resistivity buffer layer prevents the formation of CdTe-TCO junctions, thereby maintaining a high open-circuit voltage and fill factor, whereas using a thin CdS layer reduces absorption losses and improves the short-circuit current density. EPIR's best device demonstrated an NREL-verified efficiency of 15.3%. The mean efficiency of hundreds of cells produced with a buffer layer between December 2010 and June 2011 is 14.4%. Quantum efficiency results are presented to demonstrate EPIR's progress toward NREL's best-published results.

  20. Angular-dependent EDMR linewidth for spin-dependent space charge limited conduction in a polycrystalline pentacene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kunito; Asakawa, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    Spin-dependent space charge limited carrier conduction in a Schottky barrier diode using polycrystalline p-type π-conjugated molecular pentacene is explored using multiple-frequency electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy with a variable-angle configuration. The measured EDMR spectra are decomposed into two components derived respectively from mobile and trapped positive polarons. The linewidth of the EDMR signal for the trapped polarons increases with increasing resonance magnetic field for an in-plane configuration where the normal vector of the device substrate is perpendicular to the resonance magnetic field, while it is independent of the field for an out-of-plane configuration. This difference is consistent with the pentacene arrangement on the device substrate, where pentacene molecules exhibit a uniaxial orientation on the out-of-substrate plane. By contrast, the mobile polarons do not show anisotropic behavior with respect to the resonance magnetic field, indicating that the anisotropic effect is averaged out owing to carrier motion. These results suggest that the orientational arrangements of polycrystalline pentacene molecules in a nano thin film play a crucial role in spin-dependent electrical conduction.

  1. Topography evolution of germanium thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schumacher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Germanium thin films were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD onto single crystal Ge (100 and Si (100 substrates with a native oxide film on the surface. The topography of the surface was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM to evaluate the scaling behavior of the surface roughness of amorphous and polycrystalline Ge films grown on substrates with different roughnesses. Roughness evolution was interpreted within the framework of stochastic rate equations for thin film growth. Here the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation was used to describe the smoothening process. Additionally, a roughening regime was observed in which 3-dimensional growth occurred. Diffusion of the deposited Ge adatoms controlled the growth of the amorphous Ge thin films. The growth of polycrystalline thin Ge films was dominated by diffusion processes only in the initial stage of the growth.

  2. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  3. Sensitivity enhancement of metal oxide thin film transistor with back gate biasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, V.A.T.; Blauw, M.A.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego-Calama, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a room-temperature sensing device for detecting carbon monoxide using a ZnO thin film is presented. The ZnO layer (thickness close to the Debye length), which has a polycrystalline structure, is deposited with atomic-layer deposition (ALD) on an Al2O3/Si substrate. The operating

  4. Surface and sub-surface thermal oxidation of thin ruthenium films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Kokke, S.; Zoethout, E.; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    A mixed 2D (film) and 3D (nano-column) growth of ruthenium oxide has been experimentally observed for thermally oxidized polycrystalline ruthenium thin films. Furthermore, in situ x-ray reflectivity upon annealing allowed the detection of 2D film growth as two separate layers consisting of low

  5. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  6. Polycrystalline thin-film TiO2/Se solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, T; Kunioka, A

    1985-07-01

    A new type of selenium solar cell with a titanium dioxide (TiO2)/Se heterojunction has been fabricated by low-cost process.An efficiency of 5.01 percent under AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW/sq cm) has been achieved without antireflection coatings. The corresponding short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, and fill factor are 10.8 mA/sq cm, 0.884 V, and 0.525, respectively.The efficiency is the highest among Se-based solar cells reported to date. These cells also have extremely high spectral response at short wavelengths, resulting in efficiencies of 11-13 percent under fluorescent light (500 lux). 10 references.

  7. Phosphorus Doping Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma for Large-Area Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Mohri, Mikio; Tsuruoka, Taiji

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorus doping using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, for application to the poly-Si driving circuits of liquid crystal displays or image sensors. The PH3/He was ionized and accelerated to poly-Si and c-Si substrates with a self bias of -220 V. The P concentration, as detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), is ˜5×1021 cm-3 at the surface, which decayed to ˜1017 cm-3 within 50 100 nm depth. The surface is found to be etched during doping. The etching is restored by adding a small amount of SiH4 and the sheet resistance R s decreases. The optimized as-irradiated R s is ˜ 1× 105 Ω/\\Box and 1.7× 102 Ω/\\Box for poly-Si and (110) c-Si, respectively. The dependence of R s on the substrates and the anomalous diffusion constants derived from SIMS are also discussed.

  8. Crystallographic properties of grain size-controlled polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited on alumina substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ogane, A.; Honda, Shinya; Uraoka, Y.; Fuyuki, T.; Fejfar, Antonín; Kočka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 3 (2009), s. 789-793 ISSN 0022-0248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : crystallites * defects * chemical vapor deposition processes * solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.534, year: 2009

  9. Fabrication of polycrystalline silicon thin films on glass substrates using fiber laser crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Vinh Ai; Han, Kuymin; Heo, Jongkyu; Kyeong, Dohyeon; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Youngseok; Kim, Yongkuk; Jung, Sungwook; Kim, Kyunghae [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin, E-mail: yi@yurim.skku.ac.k [Information and Communication Device Laboratory, School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Laser crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si), using a fiber laser of {lambda} = 1064 nm wavelength, was investigated. a-Si films with 50 nm thickness deposited on glass were prepared by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The infrared fundamental wave ({lambda} = 1064 nm) is not absorbed by amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Thus, different types of capping layers (a-CeO{sub x}, a-SiN{sub x}, and a-SiO{sub x}) with a desired refractive index, n and thickness, d were deposited on the a-Si surface. Crystallization was a function of laser energy density, and was performed using a fiber laser. The structural properties of the crystallized films were measured via Raman spectra, a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The relationship between film transmittance and crystallinity was discussed. As the laser energy density increased from 10-40 W, crystallinity increased from 0-90%. However, the higher laser density adversely affected surface roughness and uniformity of the grain size. We found that favorable crystallization and uniformity could be accomplished at the lower energy density of 30 W with a-SiO{sub x} as the capping layer.

  10. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahe, E. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Devilliers, D. [LI2C CNRS/UMR 7612, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Universite Pierre-et-Marie Curie - case courrier 51, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Comninellis, Ch. [Unite de Genie Electrochimique, Institut de sciences des procedes chimiques et biologiques, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2005-04-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp{sup 3} diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp{sup 2} contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them.

  11. Size effects of polycrystalline lanthanum modified Bi4Ti3O12 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Riccardi, C.S.; Cavalcante, L.S.; Gonzalez, A.H.M.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The film thickness dependence on the ferroelectric properties of lanthanum modified bismuth titanate Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 was investigated. Films with thicknesses ranging from 230 to 404 nm were grown on platinum-coated silicon substrates by the polymeric precursor method. The internal strain is strongly influenced by the film thickness. The morphology of the film changes as the number of layers increases indicating a thickness dependent grain size. The leakage current, remanent polarization and drive voltage were also affected by the film thickness

  12. Electrochemical reactivity at graphitic micro-domains on polycrystalline boron doped diamond thin-films electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, E.; Devilliers, D.; Comninellis, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. A comparative study has been carried out to show the influence of the presence of graphitic micro-domains upon the surface of these films. Those graphitic domains are sometimes present on as-grown boron doped diamond electrodes. The effect of doping a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode is established by highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) abrasion onto the diamond surface. In order to establish the effect of doping on a pure Csp 3 diamond electrode, the amount of graphitic domains was increased by means of HOPG crystals grafted onto the BDD surface. Indeed that method allows the enrichment of the Csp 2 contribution of the electrode. The presence of graphitic domains can be correlatively associated with the presence of kinetically active redox sites. The electrochemical reactivity of boron doped diamond electrodes shows a distribution of kinetic constants on the whole surface of the electrode corresponding to different active sites. In this paper, we have studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy the kinetics parameters of the ferri/ferrocyanide redox couple in KCl electrolyte. A method is proposed to diagnose the presence of graphitic domains on diamond electrodes, and an electrochemical 'pulse cleaning' procedure is proposed to remove them

  13. Palladium assisted silver transport in polycrystalline SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neethling, J.H., E-mail: Jan.Neethling@nmmu.ac.za [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); O' Connell, J.H.; Olivier, E.J. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-10-15

    The transport of silver in polycrystalline 3C-SiC and hexagonal 6H-SiC has been investigated by annealing the SiC samples in contact with a Pd-Ag compound at temperatures of 800 and 1000 Degree-Sign C and times of 24 and 67 h. The Pd was added in an attempt to improve the low wetting of SiC by Ag and further because Pd is produced in measurable concentrations in coated particles during reactor operation. Pd is also known to coalesce at the IPyC-SiC interface and to chemically attack the SiC layer. SEM, TEM and EDS were used to show that the Ag penetrates polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries together with Pd. It is suggested that Ag transport in SiC takes place along grain boundaries in the form of moving nodules consisting of a Ag-Pd mixture. It is assumed that the nodules move along grain boundaries by dissolving the SiC at the leading edge followed by the reprecipitation of SiC at the trailing edge. Since the solubility of Cs in Ag and Pd is extremely low, it is unlikely that Cs will penetrate the SiC together with the Ag-Pd compound if present at the IPyC-SiC interface. If it is assumed that the dominant transport mechanism of Ag in intact polycrystalline SiC is indeed the Pd assisted mechanism, then the stabilization of Pd (and other metallic fission products) in the kernel could be a way of mitigating Ag release from TRISO-coated particles.

  14. Palladium assisted silver transport in polycrystalline SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neethling, J.H.; O’Connell, J.H.; Olivier, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of silver in polycrystalline 3C-SiC and hexagonal 6H-SiC has been investigated by annealing the SiC samples in contact with a Pd–Ag compound at temperatures of 800 and 1000 °C and times of 24 and 67 h. The Pd was added in an attempt to improve the low wetting of SiC by Ag and further because Pd is produced in measurable concentrations in coated particles during reactor operation. Pd is also known to coalesce at the IPyC–SiC interface and to chemically attack the SiC layer. SEM, TEM and EDS were used to show that the Ag penetrates polycrystalline SiC along grain boundaries together with Pd. It is suggested that Ag transport in SiC takes place along grain boundaries in the form of moving nodules consisting of a Ag–Pd mixture. It is assumed that the nodules move along grain boundaries by dissolving the SiC at the leading edge followed by the reprecipitation of SiC at the trailing edge. Since the solubility of Cs in Ag and Pd is extremely low, it is unlikely that Cs will penetrate the SiC together with the Ag–Pd compound if present at the IPyC–SiC interface. If it is assumed that the dominant transport mechanism of Ag in intact polycrystalline SiC is indeed the Pd assisted mechanism, then the stabilization of Pd (and other metallic fission products) in the kernel could be a way of mitigating Ag release from TRISO-coated particles.

  15. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  16. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kamal P.; Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D.; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  17. Hydrogen retention properties of polycrystalline tungsten and helium irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Koyama, K.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hirohata, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogen retention properties of a polycrystalline tungsten and tungsten irradiated by helium ions with an energy of 5 keV were examined by using an ECR ion irradiation apparatus and a technique of thermal desorption spectroscopy, TDS. The polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated at RT with energetic hydrogen ions, with a flux of 10 15 H cm -2 and an energy of 1.7 keV up to a fluence of 5 x 10 18 H cm -2 . Subsequently, the amount of retained hydrogen was measured by TDS. The heating temperature was increased from RT to 1000 C, and the heating rate was 50 C min -1 . Below 1000 C, two distinct hydrogen desorption peaks were observed at 200 C and 400 C. The retained amount of hydrogen was observed to be five times smaller than that of graphite, but the concentration in the implantation layer was comparable with that of graphite. Also, the polycrystalline tungsten was irradiated with 5 keV helium ions up to a fluence of 1.4 x 10 18 He cm -2 , and then re-irradiated with 1.7 keV hydrogen ions. The amount of retained hydrogen in this later experiment was close to the value in the case without prior helium ion irradiation. However, the amount of hydrogen which desorbed around the low temperature peak, 200 C, was largely enhanced. The desorption amount at 200 C saturated for the helium fluence of more than 5 x 10 17 He cm -2 . The present data shows that the trapping state of hydrogen is largely changed by the helium ion irradiation. Additionally, 5 keV helium ion irradiation was conducted on a sample pre-implanted with hydrogen ions to simulate a helium ion impact desorption of hydrogen retained in tungsten. The amount of the hydrogen was reduced as much as 50%. (orig.)

  18. Trace diffusion of different nuclear reactions products in polycrystalline tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, G.J.; Fromm, W.D.; Novgorodov, A.F.

    1976-07-01

    Measurements of the lattice diffusion coefficients for carrier free isotopes of Hf, Lu, Yb, Tm, Tb, Gd, Eu, Ba, Cs, Y, Sr, Rb and As in polycrystalline tantalum were made over the temperature range 1700 Fsub(As)>Fsub(lanthanides)>Fsub(Sr)>Fsub(Ba)>Fsub(Hf)>Fsub(Rb)>Fsub(Cs). The data indicate, that the Arrhenius relation was obeyed over the entire temperature range. Within the lanthanide-group no differences in the diffusion velocities could be detected, this fact points to a diffusion mechanism of Me 3+ -ions of lanthanides, Me 2+ -ions of earth alkaline elements and Me + -ions of alkaline elements. (author)

  19. Compensation for thermally induced birefringence in polycrystalline ceramic active elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, M A; Khazanov, E A

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramics differ significantly from single crystals in that the crystallographic axes (and hence of the axes of thermally induced birefringence) are oriented randomly in each granule of the ceramic. The quaternion formalism is employed to calculate the depolarisation in the ceramics and the efficiency of its compensation. The obtained analytic expressions are in good agreement with the numerical relations. It is shown that the larger the ratio of the sample length to the granule size, the closer the properties of the ceramics to those of a single crystal with the [111] orientation (in particular, the uncompensated depolarisation is inversely proportional to this ratio). (active media)

  20. Modeling chemisorption kinetics of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, R.G.; Modell, M.; Baddour, R.F.

    1978-04-01

    Seven distinct desorption surface states of carbon monoxide on polycrystalline platinum were detected by deconvoluting temperature-programed desorption spectra of 4-100% carbon monoxide monolayer coverage. The adstates had fixed activation energies of desorption (22.5-32.6 kcal/mole) over the entire coverage range. Rates of formation and populations were derived. The chemisorption was modeled by a Hinshelwood-type expression which allowed for site creation and suggested that adsorbed molecules are sufficiently mobile during desorption heating to fill ordered states of minimum energy and that chemisorption into these states is noncompetitive and determined by the surface. Spectra, diagrams, graphs, tables, and 49 references.

  1. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  2. Rotary Ultrasonic Machining of Poly-Crystalline Cubic Boron Nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuruc Marcel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly-crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN is one of the hardest material. Generally, so hard materials could not be machined by conventional machining methods. Therefore, for this purpose, advanced machining methods have been designed. Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM is included among them. RUM is based on abrasive removing mechanism of ultrasonic vibrating diamond particles, which are bonded on active part of rotating tool. It is suitable especially for machining hard and brittle materials (such as glass and ceramics. This contribution investigates this advanced machining method during machining of PCBN.

  3. New deformation model of grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefilov, V.I.; Moiseev, V.F.; Pechkovskij, Eh.P.

    1988-01-01

    A new model explaining grain boundary strengthening in polycrystalline metals and alloys by strain hardening due to localization of plastic deformation in narrow bands near grain boundaries is suggested. Occurrence of localized deformation is caused by different flow stresses in grains of different orientation. A new model takes into account the active role of stress concentrator, independence of the strengthening coefficient on deformation, influence of segregations. Successful use of the model suggested for explanation of rhenium effect in molybdenum and tungsten is alloys pointed out

  4. An acoustic emission study of plastic deformation in polycrystalline aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Frederick, J. R.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic emission experiments were performed on polycrystalline and single crystal 99.99% aluminum while undergoing tensile deformation. It was found that acoustic emission counts as a function of grain size showed a maximum value at a particular grain size. Furthermore, the slip area associated with this particular grain size corresponded to the threshold level of detectability of single dislocation slip events. The rate of decline in acoustic emission activity as grain size is increased beyond the peak value suggests that grain boundary associated dislocation sources are giving rise to the bulk of the detected acoustic emissions.

  5. An electrical conductivity inspection methodology of polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, G.; Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-05-01

    The polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) is widely used in oil and gas drilling operations. It is manufactured by sintering diamond powder onto a tungsten carbide substrate at 6 GPa and 1500 C. During sintering, molten cobalt from the substrate infiltrates the diamond table. The residual metal content correlates with cutter performance. We present an instrument that employs electrical impedance tomography capable of imaging the 3D metal content distribution in the diamond table. These images can be used to predict cutter performance as well as detect flaws.

  6. Complex strain paths in polycrystalline copper: microstructural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural aspects of polycrystalline copper sheets subjected to complex strain paths were analysed in this work. Dislocation structures developed during the strain paths (rolling and tension and the evolution of this microstructure during reloading have been studied. The active slip systems developed in each strain path were used to explain the microstructural evolution. The heterogeneous surface deformation observed on polished tensile specimens prestrained in rolling was also analysed. The structural aspects are related with the mechanical behaviour of the material, namely with the increase in yield stress in reloading, the work hardening evolution and the premature occurrence of plastic instability for some prestrain values.

  7. Low-temperature transport properties of chemical solution deposited polycrystalline La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 ferromagnetic films under a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Junyu; Chen, Ying; Xu, Wenfei; Yang, Jing; Bai, Wei; Wang, Genshui; Duan, Chungang; Tang, Zheng; Tang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) films were prepared on SiO 2 /Si (001) substrates by chemical solution deposition technique. Electrical and magnetic properties of LSMO were investigated. A minimum phenomenon in resistivity is found at the low temperature ( 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 films were grown by a modified chemical solution deposition route. → High quality LSMO thin films were prepared directly onto SiO 2 /Si substrates. → Abnormality in resistivity of LSMO films at low temperatures was studied in detail. → The abnormality was mainly attributed to Kondo-like spin dependent scattering.

  8. Fabrication of poly-crystalline Si-based Mie resonators via amorphous Si on SiO2 dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Bidault, Sebastien; Bonod, Nicolas; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-02-07

    We report the fabrication of Si-based dielectric Mie resonators via a low cost process based on solid-state dewetting of ultra-thin amorphous Si on SiO2. We investigate the dewetting dynamics of a few nanometer sized layers annealed at high temperature to form submicrometric Si-particles. Morphological and structural characterization reveal the polycrystalline nature of the semiconductor matrix as well as rather irregular morphologies of the dewetted islands. Optical dark field imaging and spectroscopy measurements of the single islands reveal pronounced resonant scattering at visible frequencies. The linewidth of the low-order modes can be ∼20 nm in full width at half maximum, leading to a quality factor Q exceeding 25. These values reach the state-of-the-art ones obtained for monocrystalline Mie resonators. The simplicity of the dewetting process and its cost-effectiveness opens the route to exploiting it over large scales for applications in silicon-based photonics.

  9. Growth of high-quality CuInSe sub 2 polycrystalline films by magnetron sputtering and vacuum selenization

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Da Tao; Wang Li; Zhu Feng; Quan Sheng Wen; Meng Tie Jun; Zhang Bao Cheng; Chen J

    2002-01-01

    High-quality CuInSe sub 2 thin films have been prepared using a two stages process. Cu and In were co-deposited onto glass substrates by magnetron sputtering method to produce a predominant Cu sub 1 sub 1 In sub 9 phase. The alloy films were selenised and annealed in vacuum at different temperature in the range of 200-500 degree C using elemental selenium in a closed graphite box. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the films. It is found that the polycrystalline and single-phase CuInSe sub 2 films were uniform and densely packed with a grain size of about 3.0 mu m

  10. Exploring electronic structure of one-atom thick polycrystalline graphene films: A nano angle resolved photoemission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, José; Razado, Ivy; Lorcy, Stéphane; Fleurier, Romain; Pichonat, Emmanuelle; Vignaud, Dominique; Wallart, Xavier; Asensio, María C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce large, continuous and defect free films of graphene is presently a major challenge for multiple applications. Even though the scalability of graphene films is closely associated to a manifest polycrystalline character, only a few numbers of experiments have explored so far the electronic structure down to single graphene grains. Here we report a high resolution angle and lateral resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (nano-ARPES) study of one-atom thick graphene films on thin copper foils synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. Our results show the robustness of the Dirac relativistic-like electronic spectrum as a function of the size, shape and orientation of the single-crystal pristine grains in the graphene films investigated. Moreover, by mapping grain by grain the electronic dynamics of this unique Dirac system, we show that the single-grain gap-size is 80% smaller than the multi-grain gap recently reported by classical ARPES. PMID:23942471

  11. Evolutionary selection growth of two-dimensional materials on polycrystalline substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Stehle, Yijing; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Unocic, Raymond R.; Rack, Philip D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; List, Frederick; Gupta, Nitant; Bets, Ksenia V.; Yakobson, Boris I.; Smirnov, Sergei N.

    2018-03-01

    There is a demand for the manufacture of two-dimensional (2D) materials with high-quality single crystals of large size. Usually, epitaxial growth is considered the method of choice1 in preparing single-crystalline thin films, but it requires single-crystal substrates for deposition. Here we present a different approach and report the synthesis of single-crystal-like monolayer graphene films on polycrystalline substrates. The technological realization of the proposed method resembles the Czochralski process and is based on the evolutionary selection2 approach, which is now realized in 2D geometry. The method relies on `self-selection' of the fastest-growing domain orientation, which eventually overwhelms the slower-growing domains and yields a single-crystal continuous 2D film. Here we have used it to synthesize foot-long graphene films at rates up to 2.5 cm h-1 that possess the quality of a single crystal. We anticipate that the proposed approach could be readily adopted for the synthesis of other 2D materials and heterostructures.

  12. Temperature-dependent plastic hysteresis in highly confined polycrystalline Nb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, S.; Hao, R.; Zheng, Z.; Wheeler, J. M.; Michler, J.; Balint, D. S.; Giuliani, F.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the cyclic deformation behaviour of a confined polycrystalline Nb film is investigated. Micropillars encapsulating a thin niobium interlayer are deformed under cyclic axial compression at different test temperatures. A distinct plastic hysteresis is observed for samples tested at elevated temperatures, whereas negligible plastic hysteresis is observed for samples tested at room temperature. These results are interpreted using planar discrete dislocation plasticity incorporating slip transmission across grain boundaries. The effect of temperature-dependent grain boundary energy and dislocation mobility on dislocation penetration and, consequently, the size of plastic hysteresis is simulated to correlate with the experimental results. It is found that the decrease in grain boundary energy barrier caused by the increase in temperature does not lead to any appreciable change in the cyclic response. However, dislocation mobility significantly affects the size of plastic hysteresis, with high mobilities leading to a larger hysteresis. Therefore, it is postulated that the experimental observations are predominantly caused by an increase in dislocation mobility as the temperature is increased above the critical temperature of body-centred cubic niobium.

  13. Growth and characterization of polycrystalline Ge1-xCx by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.P.; Farias, M.H.; Castillon, F.F.; Diaz, Jesus A.; Avalos, M.; Ulloa, L.; Gallegos, J.A.; Yee-Madeiros, H.

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of Ge-C were grown on Si (1 1 1) substrates by means of reactive pulsed laser deposition with methane pressure of 100 mTorr. Effect substrate temperature, T s , on C incorporation to substitutional sites (x) in Ge 1-x C x was investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyzes. The substrate temperatures were ranging from 250 to 400 deg. C. The substitutional C composition x in the films by XRD were estimated using the Vegard's linear law. The maximum value of x calculated by XRD was 0.032 for T s of 350 deg. C. The position of the C 1s peak at 283.4 eV in the XPS spectrum confirmed the germanium-carbon alloys. XRD measurements indicated that x increased with T s from 250 deg. C to 350 deg. C. At T s = 400 deg. C, the estimation of x was lowered. However, the C content calculated by XPS analyzes increased with T s being more these values than substitutional C composition x. XPS and XRD analyzes demonstrate that the remaining C atoms are incorporated to interstitial sites. The use of the T s plays important roles in the incorporation of substitutional C and in restraining C-cluster formation in the reactive pulsed laser deposition growth of Ge-C/Si.

  14. Study on optimizing ultrasonic irradiation period for thick polycrystalline PZT film by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kanako; Isobe, Gaku; Bornmann, Peter; Hemsel, Tobias; Morita, Takeshi

    2013-04-01

    The hydrothermal method utilizes a solution-based chemical reaction to synthesize piezoelectric thin films and powders. This method has a number of advantages, such as low-temperature synthesis, and high purity and high quality of the product. In order to promote hydrothermal reactions, we developed an ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method and confirmed that it produces dense and thick lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) films. In the hydrothermal method, a crystal growth process follows the nucleation process. In this study, we verified that ultrasonic irradiation is effective for the nucleation process, and there is an optimum irradiation period to obtain thicker PZT films. With this optimization, a 9.2-μm-thick PZT polycrystalline film was obtained in a single deposition process. For this film, ultrasonic irradiation was carried out from the beginning of the reaction for 18 h, followed by a 6 h deposition without ultrasonic irradiation. These results indicate that the ultrasonic irradiation mainly promotes the nucleation process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Large exchange bias induced by polycrystalline Mn3Ga antiferromagnetic films with controlled layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haokaifeng; Sudoh, Iori; Xu, Ruihan; Si, Wenshuo; Vaz, C. A. F.; Kim, Jun-young; Vallejo-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline Mn3Ga layers with thickness in the range from 6–20 nm were deposited at room temperature by a high target utilisation sputtering. To investigate the onset of exchange-bias, a ferromagnetic Co0.6Fe0.4 layer (3.3–9 nm thick) capped with 5 nm Ta, were subsequently deposited. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the presence of Mn3Ga (0 0 0 2) and (0 0 0 4) peaks characteristic of the D019 antiferromagnetic structure. The 6 nm thick Mn3Ga film shows the largest exchange bias of 430 Oe at 120 K with a blocking temperature of 225 K. The blocking temperature is found to decrease with increasing Mn3Ga thickness. These results in combination with x-ray reflectivity measurements confirm that the quality of the Mn3Ga/Co0.6Fe0.4 interface controls the exchange bias, with the sharp interface with the 6-nm-thick Mn3Ga inducing the largest exchange bias. The magneto-crystalline anisotropy for 6 nm thick Mn3Ga thin film sample is calculated to be . Such a binary antiferromagnetic Heusler alloy is compatible with the current memory fabrication process and hence has a great potential for antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  16. Significant enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of polycrystalline Si films by reducing grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valalaki, K; Nassiopoulou, A G; Vouroutzis, N

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of p-type polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) were accurately determined at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit was deduced as a function of film thickness, ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The effect of film thickness on their thermoelectric performance is discussed. More than threefold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of the 100 nm thick polysilicon film was observed compared to the 500 nm thick film, reaching a value as high as 0.033. This enhancement is mainly the result of the smaller grain size in the thinner films. With the decrease in grain size the resistivity of the films is increased twofold and electrical conductivity decreased, however the Seebeck coefficient is increased by 30% and the thermal conductivity is decreased eightfold, being mainly at the origin of the increased figure of merit of the 100 nm film. Our experimental results were compared to known theoretical models and the possible mechanisms involved are presented and discussed. (paper)

  17. Analysis and evaluation for practical application of photovoltaic power generation system. Analysis and evaluation for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells (alloy-base amorphous materials, PIN layers, strains in the interface, and effects of impurities); Taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka. Usumaku taiyo denchi jitsuyoka no tame no kaiseki hyoka (gokinkei amorphous zairyo pin kakuso kaimen ni okeru yugami fujunbutsu nado no eikyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, A; Oeda, H; Yamasaki, S; Hata, N; Kondo, M; Toshima, Y; Sakata, I; Ganguly, G; Suzuki, A; Kamei, T; Okushi, H; Nonaka, H; Oda, N; Katagiri, H; Ichimura, N; Kokubu, K; Nakamura, K; Sekikawa, T; Yamanaka, M [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for analysis and evaluation for thin film solar cells. The study on quantitative analysis of hydrogen atoms in a plasma determines quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma of monosilane diluted with hydrogen. It is found, contrary to expectation, that quantity of hydrogen atoms in the plasma decreases as it is more diluted with hydrogen. The study on light-induced degradation of the thin chlorine-base amorphous silicon films confirms that the plasma CVD method with 20% of dichlorosilane gas added to monosilane gas produces the thin amorphous silicon film 3 times faster than the conventional method. The thin film has essentially the same defect density as the one prepared by the conventional method, showing good photoelectric characteristics. The thin film of chlorinated amorphous silicon has a 1 digit lower defect density than the conventional one of amorphous silicon, as revealed by the accelerated degradation test with irradiated laser light and the constant current method to determine saturated defect density. 3 figs.

  18. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  19. Performance of in-pixel circuits for photon counting arrays (PCAs) based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Albert K; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Street, Robert A; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2016-01-01

    Photon counting arrays (PCAs), defined as pixelated imagers which measure the absorbed energy of x-ray photons individually and record this information digitally, are of increasing clinical interest. A number of PCA prototypes with a 1 mm pixel-to-pixel pitch have recently been fabricated with polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si)—a thin-film technology capable of creating monolithic imagers of a size commensurate with human anatomy. In this study, analog and digital simulation frameworks were developed to provide insight into the influence of individual poly-Si transistors on pixel circuit performance—information that is not readily available through empirical means. The simulation frameworks were used to characterize the circuit designs employed in the prototypes. The analog framework, which determines the noise produced by individual transistors, was used to estimate energy resolution, as well as to identify which transistors contribute the most noise. The digital framework, which analyzes how well circuits function in the presence of significant variations in transistor properties, was used to estimate how fast a circuit can produce an output (referred to as output count rate). In addition, an algorithm was developed and used to estimate the minimum pixel pitch that could be achieved for the pixel circuits of the current prototypes. The simulation frameworks predict that the analog component of the PCA prototypes could have energy resolution as low as 8.9% full width at half maximum (FWHM) at 70 keV; and the digital components should work well even in the presence of significant thin-film transistor (TFT) variations, with the fastest component having output count rates as high as 3 MHz. Finally, based on conceivable improvements in the underlying fabrication process, the algorithm predicts that the 1 mm pitch of the current PCA prototypes could be reduced significantly, potentially to between ∼240 and 290 μm. (paper)

  20. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  1. Initial steps toward the realization of large area arrays of single photon counting pixels based on polycrystalline silicon TFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Albert K.; Koniczek, Martin; Antonuk, Larry E.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Jiang, Hao; Street, Robert A.; Lu, Jeng Ping

    2014-03-01

    The thin-film semiconductor processing methods that enabled creation of inexpensive liquid crystal displays based on amorphous silicon transistors for cell phones and televisions, as well as desktop, laptop and mobile computers, also facilitated the development of devices that have become ubiquitous in medical x-ray imaging environments. These devices, called active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), measure the integrated signal generated by incident X rays and offer detection areas as large as ~43×43 cm2. In recent years, there has been growing interest in medical x-ray imagers that record information from X ray photons on an individual basis. However, such photon counting devices have generally been based on crystalline silicon, a material not inherently suited to the cost-effective manufacture of monolithic devices of a size comparable to that of AMFPIs. Motivated by these considerations, we have developed an initial set of small area prototype arrays using thin-film processing methods and polycrystalline silicon transistors. These prototypes were developed in the spirit of exploring the possibility of creating large area arrays offering single photon counting capabilities and, to our knowledge, are the first photon counting arrays fabricated using thin film techniques. In this paper, the architecture of the prototype pixels is presented and considerations that influenced the design of the pixel circuits, including amplifier noise, TFT performance variations, and minimum feature size, are discussed.

  2. Fracture properties of polycrystalline YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.F.; Shaw, T.M.; Duncombe, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O x has been prepared by sintering pre-reacted powder in oxygen to yield a material with 15 μm grain size, 86% relative density and which superconducts above liquid nitrogen temperatures. Indentation crack length measurements give a toughness K c = 1.3 ± 0.2 MPa m 1/2 , above a threshold contact load for radial crack initiation of approximately 5 N (compared with 1.1 MPa m 1/2 and < 0.1 N, respectively, for single crystals). The increased toughness and threshold contact load are controlled by the deviation of cracks from the plane of maximum driving force for fracture by weak grain boundaries and preferred fracture planes within grains. Optical microscopy of indentation cracks and scanning electron microscopy of fracture surfaces reveals approximately 50% intergranular fracture. The hardness of the polycrystal was H = 2.0 ± 0.5 GPa (compared with 8.7 GPa for single crystals). The decreased hardness arises from the porosity of the polycrystalline material and grain boundary sliding under the indentation contact. Time dependent growth of lateral cracks at the indentation contacts suggests that these materials are susceptible to moisture controlled non-equilibrium crack growth

  3. Microdamage in polycrystalline ceramics under dynamic compression and tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K.S.; Zhang, D.; Feng, R.; Wu, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In-grain microplasticity and intergranular microdamage in polycrystalline hexagonal-structure ceramics subjected to a sequence of dynamic compression and tension are studied computationally using the Voronoi polycrystal model, by which the topological heterogeneity and material anisotropy of the crystals are simulated explicitly. The constitutive modeling considers crystal plasticity by basal slip, intergranular shear damage during compression, and intergranular mode-I cracking during tension. The model parameters are calibrated with the available shock compression and spall strength data on polycrystalline α-6H silicon carbide. The numerical results show that microplasticity is a more plausible micromechanism for the inelastic response of the material under shock compression. On the other hand, the spallation behavior of the shocked material can be well predicted by intergranular mode-I microcracking during load reversal from dynamic compression to tension. The failure process and the resulting spall strength are, however, affected strongly by the intensity of local release heterogeneity induced by heterogeneous microplasticity, and by the grain-boundary shear damage during compression

  4. Electrostrain in excess of 1% in polycrystalline piezoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Bastola; Malhotra, Jaskaran Singh; Pandey, Rishikesh; Yaddanapudi, Krishna; Nukala, Pavan; Dkhil, Brahim; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2018-05-01

    Piezoelectric actuators transform electrical energy into mechanical energy, and because of their compactness, quick response time and accurate displacement, they are sought after in many applications. Polycrystalline piezoelectric ceramics are technologically more appealing than single crystals due to their simpler and less expensive processing, but have yet to display electrostrain values that exceed 1%. Here we report a material design strategy wherein the efficient switching of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains by an electric field is exploited to achieve a high electrostrain value of 1.3% in a pseudo-ternary ferroelectric alloy system, BiFeO3-PbTiO3-LaFeO3. Detailed structural investigations reveal that this electrostrain is associated with a combination of several factors: a large spontaneous lattice strain of the piezoelectric phase, domain miniaturization, a low-symmetry ferroelectric phase and a very large reverse switching of the non-180° domains. This insight for the design of a new class of polycrystalline piezoceramics with high electrostrains may be useful to develop alternatives to costly single-crystal actuators.

  5. Semantic modeling of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Hassan A.; Davarpanah, Armita

    2018-02-01

    We have developed the first iteration of the Plastic Rock Deformation (PRD) ontology by modeling the semantics of a selected set of deformational processes and mechanisms that produce, reconfigure, displace, and/or consume the material components of inhomogeneous polycrystalline rocks. The PRD knowledge model also classifies and formalizes the properties (relations) that hold between instances of the dynamic physical and chemical processes and the rock components, the complex physio-chemical, mathematical, and informational concepts of the plastic rock deformation system, the measured or calculated laboratory testing conditions, experimental procedures and protocols, the state and system variables, and the empirical flow laws that define the inter-relationships among the variables. The ontology reuses classes and properties from several existing ontologies that are built for physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics. With its flexible design, the PRD ontology is well positioned to incrementally develop into a model that more fully represents the knowledge of plastic deformation of polycrystalline rocks in the future. The domain ontology will be used to consistently annotate varied data and information related to the microstructures and the physical and chemical processes that produce them at different spatial and temporal scales in the laboratory and in the solid Earth. The PRDKB knowledge base, when built based on the ontology, will help the community of experimental structural geologists and metamorphic petrologists to coherently and uniformly distribute, discover, access, share, and use their data through automated reasoning and integration and query of heterogeneous experimental deformation data that originate from autonomous rock testing laboratories.

  6. Dielectric and conducting behaviour of polycrystalline holmium octa-molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Want, Basharat; Zahoor Ahmad, Bhat; Hamid Bhat, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline holmium octa-molybdate spherulites have been obtained by using gel diffusion technique and characterized by different physio-chemical techniques. The surfaces of these spherulites are composed of nano-rod with an average diameter of about 80 nm. At room temperature the initial crystal structure is triclinic, space group P1. Thermal studies suggested a phase transition occurring in holmium octa-molybdate crystals at about 793 K. The electrical properties of the system have been studied as a function of frequency and temperature in the ranges of 20 Hz–3 MHz and 290–570 K, respectively. A giant dielectric constant and two loss peaks have been observed in the permittivity formalism. The conducting behaviour of the material is also discussed. The conductivity was found to be 1572 μ Ω −1 m −1 at room temperature and 3 MHz frequency. The conductivity of the polycrystalline material was attributed to the fact that it arises due to the migration of defects on the oxygen sub-lattice. Impedance studies were also performed in the frequency domain to infer the bulk and grain boundary contributions to the overall electric response of the material. The electrical responses have been attributed to the grain, grain-boundary, and interfacial effects. (paper)

  7. Shear strength of shock-loaded polycrystalline tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, J.R.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Dandekar, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that tungsten undergoes a significant loss of shear strength when shock loaded to stresses greater than 7 GPa. In order to investigate this effect in more detail, a series of experiments was conducted in which polycrystalline tungsten was first shock loaded to approximately 10 GPa and then either unloaded or reloaded from the shocked state. Analysis of measured time-resolved wave profiles indicates that during initial compression to 9.7 GPa, the shear stress in polycrystalline tungsten increases to a maximum value of 1.1 GPA near a longitudinal stress of 5 GPa, but decreases to a final value of 0.8 GPa for stresses approaching 10 GPa. During reloading from a longitudinal stress of 9.7 GPa to a final value of approx.14 GPa, the shear stress increases to a peak value of 1.2 GPa and softens to 1.0 GPa in the final state. During unloading from the shocked state, the initial response is elastic with a strong Baushinger effect. Examination of a recovered sample shows evidence for both deformation slipping and twinning, which may be responsible for the observed softening

  8. Three dimensional grain boundary modeling in polycrystalline plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, Tuncay; Özdemir, Izzet; Fırat, Ali Osman

    2018-05-01

    At grain scale, polycrystalline materials develop heterogeneous plastic deformation fields, localizations and stress concentrations due to variation of grain orientations, geometries and defects. Development of inter-granular stresses due to misorientation are crucial for a range of grain boundary (GB) related failure mechanisms, such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue cracking. Local crystal plasticity finite element modelling of polycrystalline metals at micron scale results in stress jumps at the grain boundaries. Moreover, the concepts such as the transmission of dislocations between grains and strength of the grain boundaries are not included in the modelling. The higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity modelling approaches offer the possibility of defining grain boundary conditions. However, these conditions are mostly not dependent on misorientation of grains and can define only extreme cases. For a proper definition of grain boundary behavior in plasticity, a model for grain boundary behavior should be incorporated into the plasticity framework. In this context, a particular grain boundary model ([l]) is incorporated into a strain gradient crystal plasticity framework ([2]). In a 3-D setting, both bulk and grain boundary models are implemented as user-defined elements in Abaqus. The strain gradient crystal plasticity model works in the bulk elements and considers displacements and plastic slips as degree of freedoms. Interface elements model the plastic slip behavior, yet they do not possess any kind of mechanical cohesive behavior. The physical aspects of grain boundaries and the performance of the model are addressed through numerical examples.

  9. The fabrication of YBCO superconductor polycrystalline powder by CCSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K S; Luss, D; Galstyan, E; Xue, Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel, cost-effective and simple method to produce polycrystalline superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) powder by a self-sustaining one-step process called carbon combustion synthesis of oxides (CCSO). In this process the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles generates a thermal wave that propagates at a velocity of about 1 mm s -1 through the solid yttrium, barium, and copper precursors, converting them rapidly (in the order of seconds) to polycrystalline YBCO. The carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the sample, generating a highly porous (∼70%) and friable product. Most of the grains have a plate-like shape, are well connected, and have a size of between 1 and 3 μm. The concentration of the residual carbon was less than 0.06 wt%. The magnetization of as-synthesized samples (without external post-annealing in oxygen), as determined by a SQUID magnetometer, showed an onset of the superconducting (SC) transition at ∼91 K, with a 44% shielding fraction of the -1/(4π) value

  10. Grain-boundary unzipping by oxidation in polycrystalline graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Simone; Lucio, Aline; Nunes, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    The need for large-scale production of graphene will inevitably lead to synthesis of the polycrystalline material [1,2]. Understanding the chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties of grain boundaries in graphene polycrystals will be crucial for the development of graphene-based electronics. Oxidation of this material has been suggested to lead to graphene ribbons, by the oxygen-driven unzipping mechanism. A cooperative-strain mechanism, based on the formation of epoxy groups along lines of parallel bonds in the hexagons of graphene's honeycomb lattice, was proposed to explain the unzipping effect in bulk graphene In this work we employ ab initio calculations to study the oxidation of polycrystalline graphene by chemisorption of oxygen at the grain boundaries. Our results indicate that oxygen tends to segregate at the boundaries, and that the unzipping mechanism is also operative along the grain boundaries, despite the lack of the parallel bonds due to the presence of fivefold and sevenfold carbon rings along the boundary core. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian agencies: CNPq, Fapemig, and INCT-Materiais de Carbono.

  11. Morphology selection for cupric oxide thin films by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, V; Mahalingam, T; Chandramohan, R

    2011-10-01

    Polycrystalline cupric oxide thin films were deposited using alkaline solution bath employing cathodic electrodeposition method. The thin films were electrodeposited at various solution pH. The surface morphology and elemental analyzes of the films were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, respectively. SEM studies revealed that the surface morphology could be tailored suitably by adjusting the pH value during deposition. Mesh average on multiple lattice mode atomic force microscopy image was obtained and reported. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Optical constants and structural properties of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.; Stebunov, Yury V.

    2017-01-01

    We report a comprehensive experimental study of optical and electrical properties of thin polycrystalline gold films in a wide range of film thicknesses (from 20 to 200 nm). Our experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations based on the measured morphology of the fabricated gold...... rules for thin-film plasmonic and nanophotonic devices....... films. We demonstrate that the dielectric function of the metal is determined by its structural morphology. Although the fabrication process can be absolutely the same for different films, the dielectric function can strongly depend on the film thickness. Our studies show that the imaginary part...

  13. Electromechanical Response of Polycrystalline Barium Titanate Resolved at the Grain Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majkut, Marta; Daniels, John E.; Wright, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    critical for understanding bulk polycrystalline ferroic behavior. Here, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction is used to reconstruct a 3D grain map (grain orientations and neighborhoods) of a polycrystalline barium titanate sample and track the grain-scale non-180° ferroelectric domain switching strains...

  14. Friction and dynamically dissipated energy dependence on temperature in polycrystalline silicon MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkouzou, A.; Kokorian, J.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; van Spengen, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the influence of capillary condensation on the sliding friction of sidewall surfaces in polycrystalline silicon micro-electromechanical
    systems (MEMS). We developed a polycrystalline silicon MEMS tribometer, which is a microscale test device with two components

  15. Mechanisms limiting the performance of large grain polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.; Alexander, P.; Dumas, K. A.; Wohlgemuth, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of large-grain (1 to 10 mm grain diameter) polycrystalline silicon solar cells is determined by the minority-carrier diffusion length within the bulk of the grains. This was demonstrated by irradiating polycrystalline and single-crystal (Czochralski) silicon solar cells with 1 MeV electrons to reduce their bulk lifetime. The variation of short-circuit current with minority-carrier diffusion length for the polycrystalline solar cells is identical to that of the single-crystal solar cells. The open-circuit voltage versus short-circuit current characteristic of the polycrystalline solar cells for reduced diffusion lengths is also identical to that of the single-crystal solar cells. The open-circuit voltage of the polycrystalline solar cells is a strong function of quasi-neutral (bulk) recombination, and is reduced only slightly, if at all, by grain-boundary recombination.

  16. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of bulk and thin films of CuInTe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthan, M R; Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Kasiviswanathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements were made on polycrystalline and amorphous thin films of CuInTe 2 as well as bulk polycrystalline CuInTe 2 . Various vibrational modes exhibited by the bulk and polycrystalline thin films were attributed to those expected for single crystal CuInTe 2 . Raman spectra of amorphous films presented a broad spectrum, decomposition of which revealed the presence of elemental tellurium on the film surface. Laser-induced changes on CuInTe 2 thin films were studied by acquiring spectra with higher laser beam power. Modes due to tellurium appeared when the spectra were acquired during laser–sample interaction, indicating tellurium segregation. The Raman spectra measured from polycrystalline films during high laser power irradiation did not show decrease in the intensity of the A 1 mode of CuInTe 2 in spite of loss of tellurium from the lattice. This has been interpreted as related to an increased contribution from the undistorted subsurface CuInTe 2 region at higher excitation power

  17. Mueller matrix mapping of biological polycrystalline layers using reference wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubolazov, A.; Ushenko, O. G.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Sidor, M. I.; Grytsyuk, M.; Prysyazhnyuk, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the short theoretical basics of the method of differential Mueller-matrix description of properties of partially depolarizing layers. It was provided the experimentally measured maps of differential matrix of the 1st order of polycrystalline structure of the histological section of brain tissue. It was defined the statistical moments of the 1st-4th orders, which characterize the distribution of matrix elements. In the second part of the paper it was provided the data of statistic analysis of birefringence and dichroism of the histological sections of mice liver tissue (normal and with diabetes). It were defined the objective criteria of differential diagnostics of diabetes.

  18. Analysis of Operating Temperature of the Polycrystalline Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír GÁLL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the solar cells with orientation on the calculation of operating temperature of the polycrystalline solar cell, which is under actual load. Operating conditions have a significant effect on the efficiency of solar cells. In the summer with increasing temperature, the efficiency decreases. In the winter, efficiency and output voltage are rising. The operating temperature is determined by intensity of solar radiation, the types of materials used by construction and operating condition. The aim of this work was simplify of the calculation of operating temperature of solar cells. The result of this work is a derived equation that allows a more accurate and faster calculation this temperature with using Matlab software.

  19. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test has been utilized to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Qualitative, S-shaped 1hr BSR curves were compared for three selected advanced SiC fiber types and standard Nicalon CG fiber. The temperature corresponding to the middle of the S-curve (where the BSR parameter m = 0.5) is a measure of a fiber`s thermal stability as well as it creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, the measured transition temperatures were Nicalon S (1450{degrees}C), Sylramic (1420{degrees}C), Hi-Nicalon (1230{degrees}C) and Nicalon CG (1110{degrees}C).

  20. Microcracking in polycrystalline YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.S.; Suasmoro, S.; Huger, M.; Gault, C.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of microcracks can have a significant role for the electrical properties of polycrystalline YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ due to the reduction of the effective current carrying cross section. This results in an increase of the normal state resistivity and a decrease of the critical current density, j c . Shaw et.al have reported an onset of microcracking for grain sizes greater than 1-2 μm. In this work we focus attention on the geometrical aspects of the microstructure by using ultrasonic measurements to characterize the mechanical properties of the ceramic for comparison to the electrical data. The studies have been extended with experiments as a function of temperature and atmosphere in order to investigate the origins of the microcracks. (orig./BHO)

  1. Characterization of CdSe polycrystalline films by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, M.J.S.P.

    1985-01-01

    The characterization of CdSe polycristalline films were done by photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, diagrams IxV, and efficiency of solar energy conversion for cells done by these films. The experimental data shown strong temperature dependence of annealing, and the optimum temperature around 650 0 C was determined. The films did not present photoluminescence before heat treatment, but the annealed sample spectrum showed fine structures in the excitonic region, crystal phase transformation, enhancement of grain size, and better efficiency of the cell. Measurements of photoluminescence between 2 and 300 K, showed two bands of infrared emission, width and intense enough. The shape, at half-width, and the integrated intensity of one these bands were described by a configuration coordinate model for deep centers. Based on obtained results, some hypothesis about the origin of these bands and its correlation with efficiency of cells done with CdSe polycrystalline films, are proposed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Mechanical properties of amorphous and polycrystalline multilayer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzen, I.; Edinger, M.; Scherer, J.; Ulrich, S.; Jung, K.; Ehrhardt, H.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous and polycrystalline multilayer structures containing materials with metallic (Cr, Cr 3 C 2 ), ionic (Al 2 O 3 ) and covalent (SiC) bonding have been prepared by magnetron sputtering and ion plating in a dual-source apparatus. Up to 1000 layers have been deposited with a constant total thickness of 2.3 μm. Below a single-layer thickness of 10-30 nm the mechanical properties stress and hardness show strong variations. On one hand it is possible that below a certain thickness the mechanical properties of a single layer change. On the other hand electrical resistance and electron spin density measurements indicate that electronic effects may be involved. An attempt is made to explain the observed correlations by transport mechanisms of the electrons, by saturation of dangling bonds with delocalized electrons and by changes in the electronic band structure. (orig.)

  3. Polycrystalline Diamond Coating of Additively Manufactured Titanium for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Aaqil; Tran, Nhiem; Lau, Desmond W; Elbourne, Aaron; Zhan, Hualin; Stacey, Alastair D; Mayes, Edwin L H; Sarker, Avik; Ivanova, Elena P; Crawford, Russell J; Tran, Phong A; Gibson, Brant C; Greentree, Andrew D; Pirogova, Elena; Fox, Kate

    2018-03-14

    Additive manufacturing using selective laser melted titanium (SLM-Ti) is used to create bespoke items across many diverse fields such as medicine, defense, and aerospace. Despite great progress in orthopedic implant applications, such as for "just in time" implants, significant challenges remain with regards to material osseointegration and the susceptibility to bacterial colonization on the implant. Here, we show that polycrystalline diamond coatings on these titanium samples can enhance biological scaffold interaction improving medical implant applicability. The highly conformable coating exhibited excellent bonding to the substrate. Relative to uncoated SLM-Ti, the diamond coated samples showed enhanced mammalian cell growth, enriched apatite deposition, and reduced microbial S. aureus activity. These results open new opportunities for novel coatings on SLM-Ti devices in general and especially show promise for improved biomedical implants.

  4. Structural Evolution and Mechanisms of Fatigue in Polycrystalline Brass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jesper Vejlø

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic...... type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass....... It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the sec-ondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence...

  5. Polycrystalline Silicon Gettered by Porous Silicon and Heavy Phosphorous Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuming(刘祖明); Souleymane K Traore; ZHANG Zhongwen(张忠文); LUO Yi(罗毅)

    2004-01-01

    The biggest barrier for photovoltaic (PV) utilization is its high cost, so the key for scale PV utilization is to further decrease the cost of solar cells. One way to improve the efficiency, and therefore lower the cost, is to increase the minority carrier lifetime by controlling the material defects. The main defects in grain boundaries of polycrystalline silicon gettered by porous silicon and heavy phosphorous diffusion have been studied. The porous silicon was formed on the two surfaces of wafers by chemical etching. Phosphorous was then diffused into the wafers at high temperature (900℃). After the porous silicon and diffusion layers were removed, the minority carrier lifetime was measured by photo-conductor decay. The results show that the lifetime's minority carriers are increased greatly after such treatment.

  6. Wavelet analysis of polarization maps of polycrystalline biological fluids networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    The optical model of human joints synovial fluid is proposed. The statistic (statistic moments), correlation (autocorrelation function) and self-similar (Log-Log dependencies of power spectrum) structure of polarization two-dimensional distributions (polarization maps) of synovial fluid has been analyzed. It has been shown that differentiation of polarization maps of joint synovial fluid with different physiological state samples is expected of scale-discriminative analysis. To mark out of small-scale domain structure of synovial fluid polarization maps, the wavelet analysis has been used. The set of parameters, which characterize statistic, correlation and self-similar structure of wavelet coefficients' distributions of different scales of polarization domains for diagnostics and differentiation of polycrystalline network transformation connected with the pathological processes, has been determined.

  7. Effect of localized polycrystalline silicon properties on solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D.; Iles, P. A.; Hyland, S.; Kachare, A.

    1984-01-01

    Several forms of polycrystalline silicon, mostly from cast ingots, (including UCP, SILSO and HEM) were studied. On typical slices, localized properties were studied in two ways. Small area (about 2.5 sq mm) mesa diodes were formed, and localized photovoltaic properties were measured. Also a small area (about .015 sq mm) light spot was scanned across the cells; the light spot response was calibrated to measure local diffusion length directly. Using these methods, the effects of grain boundaries, or of intragrain imperfections were correlated with cell performance. Except for the fine grain portion of SILSO, grain boundaries played only a secondary role in determining cell performance. The major factor was intra-grain material quality and it varied with position in ingots and probably related to solidification procedure.

  8. Dislocation structures around crack tips of fatigued polycrystalline copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yoshihisa; Ishikawa, Masao; Hashimoto, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Dislocation structures near fatigue cracks of polycrystalline copper specimens were analyzed using the electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI) technique. Prior to the ECCI observations, optical microscopy was conducted to classify the fatigue crack morphologies into several kinds. It was found that the dislocation structures were correlated with the slip morphologies observed using the optical microscope. The cell structure almost corresponded to the severely deformed plastic zone where the individual slip bands could not be identified. The labyrinth dislocation structure was detected at the double-slip region. Ladder-like dislocation structure was detected ahead of the Stage I type fatigue crack. Hence, it can be said that the persistent slip band (PSB) was a favorable crack path. However, the microscopic route of the crack growth was not along the PSB but along the cell structure, which was developed locally in the vicinity of the crack tip

  9. Slip activity of persistent slip bands in polycrystalline nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, A.; Beyer, R.; Blochwitz, C.; Holste, C.; Schwab, A.; Tirschler, W.

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of glide localizations after cyclic deformation in the saturation stage was investigated for polycrystalline nickel. It was shown that persistent slip bands (PSBs) are formed in a wide range of grain orientations. Concerning the grain size it was found, that the probability for the appearance of PSBs is higher for larger grains. The local slip activity of the formed PSBs was studied after half-cycle deformation using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fraction of grains with glide-active PSBs and the glide-active PSB volume itself is very small after the half-cycle loading. The obtained local shear strain amplitudes are quite high and vary in the range of 0.2-5%. They are comparable with those found in nickel single crystals at the same loading procedure

  10. Surface roughness effects on blister formation in polycrystalline molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidoh, Masahiro; Sone, Kazuho; Yamada, Rayji; Ohtsuka, Hidewo; Murakami, Yoshio

    1977-07-01

    Polycrystalline molybdenum targets with electropolished and roughened surfaces were bombarded with 100 keV He + and 200 keV H 2 + ions at room temperature. It has been demonstrated that the blister formation is largely or completely suppressed by roughening the electropolished surface with emery paper of No. 1200, No. 400 and No. 100. Up to a He + fluence of 1.0 x 10 19 particles/cm 2 , no blisters are observed in the targets with the two roughest surfaces, while on the smooth surface blisters begin to occur at a fluence of 7.5 x 10 17 particles/cm 2 . The surface roughness effect on blister suppression is discussed in relation to the projected range of incident particles. (auth.)

  11. Sputtering mechanisms of polycrystalline platinum by low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernysh, V.S.; Eckstein, W.; Haidarov, A.A.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study and a computer simulation with the TRIM.SP code of the angular distributions of atoms sputtered from polycrystalline platinum under 1.5-9 keV He + bombardment at the normal ion incidence are presented. It has been found that angular distributions of sputtered atoms are overcosine and that their shape is practically independent of the bombarding ion species and ion energy. Good agreement between experimental results and computer simulation data was found. Computer simulations of the partial angular distributions of Pt atoms ejected due to various sputtering mechanisms for He and Ar bombardments were performed. The role of different mechanisms in the formation of angular distributions of sputtered atoms has been analyzed

  12. Incorporation, diffusion and segregation of impurities in polycrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville, J.P.; Soltani, M.L. (Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)); Quesada, J. (Laboratoire de Metallurgie-Chimie des Materiaux, E.N.S.A.I.S., 67 - Strasbourg (France))

    1982-01-01

    We studied by means of X-Ray photoelectron Spectroscopy the nature, distribution and, when possible, the chemical bond of impurities at the surface of polycrystalline silicon samples grown on a carbon ribbon. Besides main impurities (carbon and oxygen), always present at concentrations around their limit of solubility in silicon, metal impurities have been found: their nature varies from one sample to another. Their spatial distribution is not random: some are strictly confined at the surface (sodium), whereas others are in the superficial oxidized layer (calcium, magnesium) or localized at the oxide-bulk silicon interface (iron). Metal impurities are coming from the carbon ribbon and are incorporated to silicon during the growth process. It is not yet possible to give a model of diffusion processes of impurities since they are too numerous and interact one with the other. However oxygen seems to play a leading role in the spatial distribution of metal impurities.

  13. Electronic properties of polycrystalline graphene under large local strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning; Duan, Junxi; Mei, Fuhong; Meng, Hu; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun

    2014-01-01

    To explore the transport properties of polycrystalline graphene under large tensile strain, a strain device has been fabricated using piezocrystal to load local strain onto graphene, up to 22.5%. Ionic liquid gate whose capability of tuning carrier density being much higher than that of a solid gate is used to survey the transfer characteristics of the deformed graphene. The conductance of the Dirac point and field effect mobility of electrons and holes is found to decrease with increasing strain, which is attributed to the scattering of the graphene grain boundaries, the strain induced change of band structure, and defects. However, the transport gap is still not opened. Our study is helpful to evaluate the application of graphene in stretchable electronics.

  14. Improved orientation sampling for indexing diffraction patterns of polycrystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Mahler; Schmidt, Søren

    2017-01-01

    to that of optimally distributing points on a four‐dimensional sphere. In doing so, the number of orientation samples needed to achieve a desired indexing accuracy is significantly reduced. Orientation sets at a range of sizes are generated in this way for all Laue groups and are made available online for easy use.......Orientation mapping is a widely used technique for revealing the microstructure of a polycrystalline sample. The crystalline orientation at each point in the sample is determined by analysis of the diffraction pattern, a process known as pattern indexing. A recent development in pattern indexing...... in the presence of noise, it has very high computational requirements. In this article, the computational burden is reduced by developing a method for nearly optimal sampling of orientations. By using the quaternion representation of orientations, it is shown that the optimal sampling problem is equivalent...

  15. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  16. Brine migration in hot-pressed polycrystalline sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggers, J.V.; Dayton, G.O.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes experiments designed to provide data on brine migration in polycrystalline salt. Polycrystalling samples of various grain sizes, density, and purity were prepared from several commercial-grade salts by hot-pressing. Three distinct experimental set-ups were used to place salt billets in an induced thermal gradient in contact with brine source. The test designs varied primarily in the way in which the thermal gradient was applied and monitored and the way in which brine migration was determined. All migration was in enclosed vessels which precluded visual observation of brine movement through the microstructure. Migration velocities were estimated either by the timed appearance of brine at the hot face of the sample, or by determination of the penetration distance of migration artifacts in the microstructure after tests of fixed duration. For various reasons both of these methods were subject to a large degree of error. Our results suggest, however, that the migration velocity in dense polycrystalline salt may be at least an order of magnitude greater than that suggested by single-crystal experiments. Microstructural analysis shows that brine prefers to migrate along paths of high crystalline activity such as grain and subgrain boundaries and is dispersed rather quickly in the microstructure. A series of tests were performed using various types of tracers in brine in order to flag migration paths and locate brine in the microstructure more decisively. These attempts failed and it appears that only the aqueous portion of the brine moves through the microstructure with the dissolved ions being lost and replaced rather quickly. This suggests the use of deuterium as a tracer in future work

  17. Polycrystalline CVD diamond device level modeling for particle detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozzi, A.; Passeri, D.; Kanxheri, K.; Servoli, L.; Lagomarsino, S.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material whose excellent physical properties foster its use for radiation detection applications, in particular in those hostile operating environments where the silicon-based detectors behavior is limited due to the high radiation fluence. Within this framework, the application of Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) simulation tools is highly envisaged for the study, the optimization and the predictive analysis of sensing devices. Since the novelty of using diamond in electronics, this material is not included in the library of commercial, state-of-the-art TCAD software tools. In this work, we propose the development, the application and the validation of numerical models to simulate the electrical behavior of polycrystalline (pc)CVD diamond conceived for diamond sensors for particle detection. The model focuses on the characterization of a physically-based pcCVD diamond bandgap taking into account deep-level defects acting as recombination centers and/or trap states. While a definite picture of the polycrystalline diamond band-gap is still debated, the effect of the main parameters (e.g. trap densities, capture cross-sections, etc.) can be deeply investigated thanks to the simulated approach. The charge collection efficiency due to β -particle irradiation of diamond materials provided by different vendors and with different electrode configurations has been selected as figure of merit for the model validation. The good agreement between measurements and simulation findings, keeping the traps density as the only one fitting parameter, assesses the suitability of the TCAD modeling approach as a predictive tool for the design and the optimization of diamond-based radiation detectors.

  18. Magnetic field and temperature dependent measurements of hall coefficient in thermal evaporated Tin-Doped Cadmium Oxide Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadi, O.; Shakir, N.; Mohammed, F.

    2010-01-01

    CdO:Sn thin films are deposited onto glass substrates by thermal evaporation under vacuum. The studied films are polycrystalline and have an NaCl structure. The Hall effect is studied for films with different thickness as substrates are maintained at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the Hall mobility is also investigated. (authors)

  19. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method

  20. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  1. Oxidation of Zr and thin (0.2-4 nm) Zr films on Ag: An ESCA investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, P.; Sander, I.; Siegwart, B.; Huefner, S.

    1987-01-01

    The oxidation of polycrystalline Zr under 10 -8 -10 -3 mbar oxygen pressure in the temperature range 25 0 -350 0 C is obtained from ESCA experiments. Changes in the ESCA spectra for thin Zr films on Ag oxidized at 250 0 C are observed and compared to the bulk Zr-metal. Thin Ag overlayers on Zr show a catalytic increase of the room temperature oxidation of Zr. (orig.)

  2. Preparation and characterization of SnO2 thin film by chemical bath deposition method for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Saeideh Ebrahimiasl; Anuar Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tin oxide thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method on glass substrate .The as-deposited thin films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the sample indicate that all samples are polycrystalline structure. AFM images show that the films consist of small uniform grains and are free of pinholes. (author)

  3. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney; Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh; Kotakoski, Jani; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices

  4. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, David; Chaves, Ferney [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kotakoski, Jani [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Roche, Stephan [ICN2, Institut Català de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-01-27

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

  5. Hydrogen-induced structural changes in polycrystalline silicon as revealed by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arole, V.M.; Takwale, M.G.; Bhide, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline silicon wafer is carried out in order to reduce the deleterious effects of grain boundaries. A systematic variation is made in the process parameters implemented during hydrogen passivation and the results of room temperature resistivity measurements are reported. As an efficient tool to study the structure change, positron lifetime spectroscopic measurements are performed on original and hydrogenated polycrystalline silicon wafers and a systematic correlation is sought between the changes that take place in the electrical and structural properties of polycrystalline silicon wafer, brought about by hydrogen passivation. (author)

  6. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in a composite multiferroic system via interposing a thin film polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhuyun; Mohanchandra, Kotekar P.; Lo Conte, Roberto; Ty Karaba, C.; Schneider, J. D.; Chavez, Andres; Tiwari, Sidhant; Sohn, Hyunmin; Nowakowski, Mark E.; Scholl, Andreas; Tolbert, Sarah H.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Carman, Gregory P.; Candler, Rob N.

    2018-05-01

    Enhancing the magnetoelectric coupling in a strain-mediated multiferroic composite structure plays a vital role in controlling magnetism by electric fields. An enhancement of magnetoelastic coupling between ferroelectric single crystal (011)-cut [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3](1-x)-[PbTiO3]x (PMN-PT, x≈ 0.30) and ferromagnetic polycrystalline Ni thin film through an interposed benzocyclobutene polymer thin film is reported. A nearly twofold increase in sensitivity of remanent magnetization in the Ni thin film to an applied electric field is observed. This observation suggests a viable method of improving the magnetoelectric response in these composite multiferroic systems.

  7. Mastering the biaxial stress state in nanometric thin films on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurie, D., E-mail: faurie@univ-paris13.fr [LSPM-CNRS, UPR3407, Université Paris 13, Villetaneuse (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS UMR7198, Université de Lorraine, Nancy Cedex (France); Goudeau, P. [Institut Pprime UPR3346, CNRS – Université de Poitiers, Futuroscope (France); Thiaudière, D. [SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint-Aubin, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Biaxial stress state of thin films deposited on flexible substrate can be mastered thanks to a new biaxial device. This tensile machine allows applying in-plane loads F{sub x} and F{sub y} in the two principal directions x and y of a cruciform-shaped polymer substrate. The transmission of the deformation at film/substrate interface allows controlling the stress and strain field in the thin films. We show in this paper a few illustrations dealing with strain measurements in polycrystalline thin films deposited on flexible substrate. The potentialities of the biaxial device located at Soleil synchrotron are also discussed.

  8. Effect of doping on electronic states in B-doped polycrystalline CVD diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsherif, O S; Vernon-Parry, K D; Evans-Freeman, J H; May, P W

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution Laplace deep-level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS) and thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) have been used to determine the effect of boron (B) concentration on the electronic states in polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition diamond thin films grown on silicon by the hot filament method. A combination of high-resolution LDLTS and direct-capture cross-sectional measurements was used to investigate whether the deep electronic states present in the layers originated from point or extended defects. There was good agreement between data on deep electronic levels obtained from DLTS and TAS experiments. Two hole traps, E1 (0.29 eV) and E2 (0.53 eV), were found in a film with a boron content of 1 × 10 19 cm −3 . Both these levels and an additional level, E3 (0.35 eV), were found when the B content was increased to 4 × 10 19 cm −3 . Direct capture cross-sectional measurements of levels E1 and E2 show an unusual dependence on the fill-pulse duration which is interpreted as possibly indicating that the levels are part of an extended defect. The E3 level found in the more highly doped film consisted of two closely spaced levels, both of which show point-like defect characteristics. The E1 level may be due to B-related extended defects within the grain boundaries, whereas the ionization energy of the E2 level is in agreement with literature values from ab initio calculations for B–H complexes. We suggest that the E3 level is due to isolated B-related centres in bulk diamond. (paper)

  9. Structural characterization of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lima, F.A.; Gonzalez-Alfaro, Y.; Larramendi, E.M.; Fonseca Filho, H.D.; Maia da Costa, M.E.H.; Freire, F.L.; Prioli, R.; Avillez, R.R. de; Silveira, E.F. da; Calzadilla, O.; Melo, O. de; Pedrero, E.; Hernandez, E.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) grown using substrate colloidal coating chemical bath depositions were characterized by RBS, XPS, AFM and GIXRD techniques. The films were grown on glass substrates previously coated with PbS colloidal particles in a polyvinyl alcohol solution. The PbS films obtained with the inclusion of the polymer showed non-oxygen-containing organic contamination. All samples maintained the Pb:S 1:1 stoichiometry throughout the film. The amount of effective nucleation centers and the mean grain size have being controlled by the substrate colloidal coating. The analysis of the polycrystalline PbS films showed that a preferable (1 0 0) lattice plane orientation parallel to the substrate surface can be obtained using a substrate colloidal coating chemical bath deposition, and the orientation increases when a layer of colloid is initially dried on the substrate

  10. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt doped nickel oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathisha, D.; Naik, K. Gopalakrishna

    2018-05-01

    Cobalt (Co) doped nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of about 400 °C by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of Co doping concentration on structural, optical and compositional properties of NiO thin films was investigated. X-ray diffraction result shows that the deposited thin films are polycrystalline in nature. Surface morphologies of the deposited thin films were observed by FESEM and AFM. EDS spectra showed the incorporation of Co dopants in NiO thin films. Optical properties of the grown thin films were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap energy and transmittance of the films decrease with increasing Co doping concentration.

  12. Thermal processing of polycrystalline NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, Carl P.; Ortega, Alicia M.; Tyber, Jeffrey; Maksound, A.El.M.; Maier, Hans J.; Liu Yinong; Gall, Ken

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of heat treatment on polycrystalline Ti-50.9 at.% Ni in hot-rolled and cold-drawn states. In particular, we examine microstructure, transformation temperatures as well as mechanical behavior in terms of both uniaxial monotonic testing and instrumented Vickers micro-indentation. The results constitute a fundamental understanding of the effect of heat treatment on thermal/stress-induced martensite and resistance to plastic flow in NiTi, all of which are critical for optimizing the mechanical properties. The high temperature of the hot-rolling process caused recrystallization, recovery, and hindered precipitate formation, essentially solutionizing the NiTi. The subsequent cold-drawing-induced a high density of dislocations and martensite. Heat treatments were carried out on hot-rolled, as well as, hot-rolled then cold-drawn materials at various temperatures for 1.5 h. Transmission Electron Microscopy observations revealed that Ti 3 Ni 4 precipitates progressively increased in size and changed their interface with the matrix from being coherent to incoherent with increasing heat treatment temperature. Accompanying the changes in precipitate size and interface coherency, transformation temperatures were observed to systematically shift, leading to the occurrence of the R-phase and multiple-stage transformations. Room temperature stress-strain tests illustrated a variety of mechanical responses for the various heat treatments, from pseudoelasticity to shape memory. The changes in stress-strain behavior are interpreted in terms of shifts in the primary martensite transformation temperatures, rather then the occurrence of the R-phase transformation. The results confirm that Ti 3 Ni 4 precipitates can be used to elicit a desired isothermal stress-strain behavior in polycrystalline NiTi. Instrumented micro-indention tests revealed that Martens (Universal) Hardness values are more dependent on the resistance to dislocation

  13. Synthesis and nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chengguo [Yibin University, Key Laboratory of Computational Physics of Sichuan Province, Yibin (China); Yibin University, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Yibin (China)

    2017-04-15

    Polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6} powder has been synthesized by a new approach that MnO{sub 2} is used as the manganese source. The transformation mechanism of manganese ions in the new approach has been discussed. The nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6} has been investigated, and compared with single-crystalline samples. The transformation Mn{sup 4+} → Mn{sup 2+} may be formed directly without stable intermediates, and TeO{sub 2} may serve as catalyst. The SHG response of polycrystalline MnTeMoO{sub 6} powder is worse than that of single-crystalline powder in the same particle size distribution as its pseudo-size. The results indicate that it should pay special attention with the pseudo-size of polycrystalline powder when the potential nonlinear optical materials are screened by powder second harmonic generation measurements. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of the Anisotropic Thermoelectric Properties of Oriented Polycrystalline SnSe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline SnSe was synthesized by a melting-annealing-sintering process. X-ray diffraction reveals the sample possesses pure phase and strong orientation along [h00] direction. The degree of the orientations was estimated and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties are characterized. The polycrystalline sample shows a low electrical conductivity and a positive and large Seebeck coefficient. The low thermal conductivity is also observed in polycrystalline sample, but slightly higher than that of single crystal. The minimum value of thermal conductivity was measured as 0.3 W/m·K at 790 K. With the increase of the orientation factor, both electrical and thermal conductivities decrease, but the thermopowers are unchanged. As a consequence, the zT values remain unchanged in the polycrystalline samples despite the large variation in the degree of orientation.

  15. Solvent-free synthesis of nanosized hierarchical sodalite zeolite with a multi-hollow polycrystalline structure

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing; Wang, Runwei; Li, Ang; Huang, Weiwei; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun

    2016-01-01

    A solvent-free route is developed for preparing nanoscale sodalite zeolite with a multi-hollow structure. Furthermore, the synthesis of nanosized hollow sodalite polycrystalline aggregates with a mesoporous structure and high crystallinity

  16. The adhesion and tribology analysis of polycrystalline diamond coated on Si3N4 substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Purniawan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cauliflower and octahedral structure of polycrystalline diamond was deposited on silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) substrate by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD). In our earlier work, the effects of deposition parameters namely, % Methane (CH 4 ) diluted in hydrogen (H 2 ), microwave power and chamber pressure on surface morphology were studied. In the present work the polycrystalline diamond coating adhesion and tribology behaviour were investigated. Rockwell C hardness tester and pin-on-disk tribometer were used to determine the adhesion and tribology properties on diamond coating, respectively. The morphology of the diamond before and after indentation was observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Based on the adhesion analysis results, it was found that octahedral morphology has better adhesion than cauliflower structure. It was indicated by few cracks and less peel-off than cauliflower structure of polycrystalline diamond after indentation. Based on tribology analysis, polycrystalline diamond coated on substrate has better tribology properties than uncoated substrate. (author)

  17. Synthesis and nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chengguo

    2017-01-01

    Polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6 powder has been synthesized by a new approach that MnO_2 is used as the manganese source. The transformation mechanism of manganese ions in the new approach has been discussed. The nonlinear optical property of polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6 has been investigated, and compared with single-crystalline samples. The transformation Mn"4"+ → Mn"2"+ may be formed directly without stable intermediates, and TeO_2 may serve as catalyst. The SHG response of polycrystalline MnTeMoO_6 powder is worse than that of single-crystalline powder in the same particle size distribution as its pseudo-size. The results indicate that it should pay special attention with the pseudo-size of polycrystalline powder when the potential nonlinear optical materials are screened by powder second harmonic generation measurements. (orig.)

  18. Polycrystalline Mn-alloyed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Xu, Qingyu; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Kolitsch, Andreas; Helm, Manfred; Iacomi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic ITO films are interesting for integrating ITO into magneto-optoelectronic devices. We investigated n-conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films with different Mn doping concentration which have been grown by chemical vapour deposition using targets with the atomic ratio In:Sn:Mn=122:12:0,114:12:7, and 109:12:13. The average film roughness ranges between 30 and 50 nm and XRD patterns revealed a polycrystalline structure. Magnetotransport measurements revealed negative magnetoresistance for all the samples, but high field positive MR can be clearly observed at 5 K with increasing Mn doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to prove the existence of midgap states in the Mn-alloyed ITO films revealing a transmittance less than 80%. A reasonable model for the ca. 250 nm thick Mn-alloyed ITO films has been developed to extract optical constants from SE data below 3 eV. Depending on the Mn content, a Lorentz oscillator placed between 1 and 2 eV was used to model optical absorption below the band gap

  19. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  20. Estimating minimum polycrystalline aggregate size for macroscopic material homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2002-01-01

    During severe accidents the pressure boundary of reactor coolant system can be subjected to extreme loadings, which might cause failure. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of severe accidents. Important drawback of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. Classical continuum mechanics therefore cannot predict accurately the differences between measured responses of specimens, which are different in size but geometrical similar (size effect). A numerical approach, which models elastic-plastic behavior on mesoscopic level, is proposed to estimate minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. The main idea is to divide continuum into a set of sub-continua. Analysis of macroscopic element is divided into modeling the random grain structure (using Voronoi tessellation and random orientation of crystal lattice) and calculation of strain/stress field. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to 2D models.(author)

  1. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Kohyama, Akira

    1997-01-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep open-quotes mclose quotes curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261 degrees C), Nicalon S (1256 degrees C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215 degrees C), Hi Nicalon (1078 degrees C), Nicalon CG (1003 degrees C) and Tyranno E (932 degrees C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests

  2. The interpretation of polycrystalline coherent inelastic neutron scattering from aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Daniel L.; Ross, D. Keith; Gale, Julian D.; Taylor, Jon W.

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to the interpretation and analysis of coherent inelastic neutron scattering from polycrystals (poly-CINS) is presented. This article describes a simulation of the one-phonon coherent inelastic scattering from a lattice model of an arbitrary crystal system. The one-phonon component is characterized by sharp features, determined, for example, by boundaries of the (Q, ω) regions where one-phonon scattering is allowed. These features may be identified with the same features apparent in the measured total coherent inelastic cross section, the other components of which (multiphonon or multiple scattering) show no sharp features. The parameters of the model can then be relaxed to improve the fit between model and experiment. This method is of particular interest where no single crystals are available. To test the approach, the poly-CINS has been measured for polycrystalline aluminium using the MARI spectrometer (ISIS), because both lattice dynamical models and measured dispersion curves are available for this material. The models used include a simple Lennard-Jones model fitted to the elastic constants of this material plus a number of embedded atom method force fields. The agreement obtained suggests that the method demonstrated should be effective in developing models for other materials where single-crystal dispersion curves are not available. PMID:24282332

  3. Platinum-induced structural collapse in layered oxide polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Changhui; Huang, Haoliang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    Effect of a platinum bottom electrode on the SrBi 5 Fe 1−x Co x Ti 4 O 18 layered oxide polycrystalline films was systematically studied. The doped cobalt ions react with the platinum to form a secondary phase of PtCoO 2 , which has a typical Delafossite structure with a weak antiferromagnetism and an exceptionally high in-plane electrical conductivity. Formation of PtCoO 2 at the interface partially consumes the cobalt dopant and leads to the structural collapsing from 5 to 4 layers, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Considering the weak magnetic contribution from PtCoO 2 , the observed ferromagnetism should be intrinsic of the Aurivillius compounds. Ferroelectric properties were also indicated by the piezoresponse force microscopy. In this work, the platinum induced secondary phase at the interface was observed, which has a strong impact on Aurivillius structural configuration and thus the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties

  4. Creep behavior for advanced polycrystalline SiC fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kohyama, Akira [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    A bend stress relaxation (BSR) test is planned to examine irradiation enhanced creep in polycrystalline SiC fibers which are under development for use as fiber reinforcement in SiC/SiC composite. Baseline 1 hr and 100 hr BSR thermal creep {open_quotes}m{close_quotes} curves have been obtained for five selected advanced SiC fiber types and for standard Nicalon CG fiber. The transition temperature, that temperature where the S-shaped m-curve has a value 0.5, is a measure of fiber creep resistance. In order of decreasing thermal creep resistance, with the 100 hr BSR transition temperature given in parenthesis, the fibers ranked: Sylramic (1261{degrees}C), Nicalon S (1256{degrees}C), annealed Hi Nicalon (1215{degrees}C), Hi Nicalon (1078{degrees}C), Nicalon CG (1003{degrees}C) and Tyranno E (932{degrees}C). The thermal creep for Sylramic, Nicalon S, Hi Nicalon and Nicalon CG fibers in a 5000 hr irradiation creep BSR test is projected from the temperature dependence of the m-curves determined during 1 and 100 hr BSR control tests.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and structural refinement of polycrystalline uranium substituted zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, O.P.; Narendra Kumar; Sharma, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic precursors of Zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ) family have a remarkable property of substitution Zr 4+ cationic sites. This makes them potential material for nuclear waste management in 'synroc' technology. In order to simulate the mechanism of partial substitution of zirconium by tetravalent actinides, a solid phase of composition CaZr 0.95 U 0.5 Ti 2 O 7 has been synthesized through ceramic route by taking calculated quantities of oxides of Ca, Ti and nitrates of uranium and zirconium respectively. Solid state synthesis has been carried out by repeated pelletizing and sintering the finely powdered oxide mixture in a muffle furnace at 1050 degC. The polycrystalline solid phase has been characterized by its typical powder diffraction pattern. Step analysis data has been used for ab initio calculation of structural parameters. The uranium substituted zirconolite crystallizes in monoclinic symmetry with space group C2/c (15). The following unit cell parameters have been calculated: a =12.4883(15), b =7.2448(5), c 11.3973(10) and β = 100.615(9)0. The structure was refined to satisfactory completion. The Rp and Rwp are found to be 7.48% and 9.74% respectively. (author)

  6. Internal friction and elastic softening in polycrystalline Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussiere, J.F.; Faucher, B.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Welch, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The vibrating-reed technique was used to measure internal friction and Young's modulus of polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn in the form of composite Nb/Nb 3 Sn tapes from 6 to 300 K. In tapes with only small residual strain in the A15 layers, a dramatic increase in internal friction with decreasing temperature is observed with an abrupt onset at approx.48 K. The internal friction Q -1 between 6 and 48 K is believed to be associated with stress-induced motion of martensitic-domain walls. In this temperature range, Q -1 is approximately proportional to the square of the tetragonal strain of the martensitic phase; Q -1 α (c/a-1) 2 . With residual compressive strains of approx.0.2%, the internal friction associated with domain-wall motion is considerably reduced. This is attributed to a biasing of domain-wall orientation with residual stress, which reduces wall motion induced by the (much smaller) applied stress. The transformation temperature, however, is unchanged (within +- 1 K) by residual strains of up to 0.2%. Young's modulus exhibits substantial softening on cooling from 300 to 6 K. This softening, is substantially reduced in the presence of small residual compressive strains, indicating a highly nonlinear stress-strain relationship as previously reported for V 3 Si

  7. Rare Earth Doped Lanthanum Calcium Borate Polycrystalline Red Phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phased Sm3+ doped lanthanum calcium borate (SmxLa2−xCaB10O19, SLCB, x=0.06 polycrystalline red phosphor was prepared by solid-state reaction method. The phosphor has two main excitation peaks located at 398.5 nm and 469.0 nm, which are nicely in accordance with the emitting wavelengths of commercial near-UV and blue light emitting diode chips. Under the excitation of 398.0 nm, the dominant red emission of Sm3+ in SLCB phosphor is centered at 598.0 nm corresponding to the transition of 4G5/2 → 6H7/2. The Eu3+ fluorescence in the red spectral region is applied as a spectroscopic probe to reveal the local site symmetry in the host lattice and, hence, Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωt  (t=2, 4 of Eu3+ in the phosphor matrix are derived to be 3.62×10-20 and 1.97×10-20 cm2, indicating a high asymmetrical and strong covalent environment around rare earth luminescence centers. Herein, the red phosphors are promising good candidates employed in white light emitting diodes (LEDs illumination.

  8. CVD-graphene growth on different polycrystalline transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical vapor deposition (CVD graphene growth on two polycrystalline transition metals (Ni and Cu was investigated in detail using Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy as a way to synthesize graphene of the highest quality (i.e. uniform growth of monolayer graphene, which is considered a key issue for electronic devices. Key CVD process parameters (reaction temperature, CH4/H2flow rate ratio, total flow of gases (CH4+H2, reaction time were optimized for both metals in order to obtain the highest graphene uniformity and quality. The conclusions previously reported in literature about the performance of low and high carbon solubility metals in the synthesis of graphene and their associated reaction mechanisms, i.e. surface depositionand precipitation on cooling, respectively, was not corroborated by the results obtained in this work. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a large percentage of monolayer graphene was obtained over the Ni foil since the carbon saturation was not complete, allowing carbon atoms to be stored in the bulk metal, which could diffuse forming high quality monolayer graphene at the surface. However, under the optimal reaction conditions, the formation of a non-uniform mixture of few layers and multilayer graphene on the Cu foil was related to the presence of an excess of active carbon atoms on the Cu surface.

  9. Plastic strain caused by contraction of pores in polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Yoda, Shinichi; Konishi, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of porosity on mechanical properties and deformation behavior of four isotropic polycrystalline graphites were studied. The pore size distributions of the graphites were measured using a conventional mercury penetration technique. The average pore radius of ISO-88 graphite was about one-tenth of that of ISEM-1, IG-11 or IG-15 graphites. Young's modulus of the graphites decreased with increasing porosity. The stress-strain curve of each graphite was measured in its lateral and axial directions. Young's modulus of graphite decreased with increasing load. The plastic strain at a given compressive load was calculated from the stress-strain curve and the initial gradient of the unloading curve at the load. The ratio of lateral plastic strain to axial plastic strain for the graphites was less than 0.5, indicating that the volume of the graphites decreased during compressive loading. By assuming that the volume change was caused by contraction of pores, plastic strain associated with contraction of pores was calculated from the axial plastic strain and lateral plastic strain by slips along the basal planes. The plastic strain increased with increasing axial plastic strain and porosity of graphite. (author)

  10. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  11. Correlation between some mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Shinichi; Fujisaki, Katsuo

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of polycrystalline graphites, tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, Young's modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, electrical resistivity, volume fraction of porosity, and graphitisation were measured for ten brand graphites. Correlation between the mechanical and physical properties of the graphites were studied. Young's modulus and thermal expansion coefficient of the graphites depend on volume fraction of porosity. The Young's modulus of the graphites tended to increase with increasing the thermal expansion coefficient. For an anisotropic graphite, an interesting relationship between the Young's modulus E and the thermal expansion coefficient al pha was found in any specimen orientations; alpha E=constant. The value of alphah E was dependent upon the volume fraction of porosity. It should be noted here that the electrical resistivity increased with decreasing grain size. The flexural and the compressive strength were related with the volume fraction of porosity while the tensile strength was not, The relationships between the tensile, the compressive and the flexural strength can be approximately expressed as linear functions over a wide range of the stresses. (author)

  12. Helium-induced hardening effect in polycrystalline tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanhang; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Ailin; Peng, Shixiang; Xue, Jianming; Wang, Yugang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, helium induced hardening effect of tungsten was investigated. 50 keV He2+ ions at fluences vary from 5 × 1015 cm-2 to 5 × 1017 cm-2 were implanted into polycrystalline tungsten at RT to create helium bubble-rich layers near the surface. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the irradiated specimens were studied by TEM and nano-indentor. Helium bubble rich layers are formed in near surface region, and the layers become thicker with the rise of fluences. Helium bubbles in the area of helium concentration peak are found to grow up, while the bubble density is almost unchanged. Obvious hardening effect is induced by helium implantation in tungsten. Micro hardness increases rapidly with the fluence firstly, and more slowly when the fluence is above 5 × 1016 cm-2. The hardening effect of tungsten can be attributed to helium bubbles, which is found to be in agreement with the Bacon-Orowan stress formula. The growing diameter is the major factor rather than helium bubbles density (voids distance) in the process of helium implantation at fluences below 5 × 1017 cm-2.

  13. Influence of wavelength on transient short-circuit current in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1993-10-01

    The influence of the wavelength of a monochromatic illumination on transient short-circuit current in an n/p polycrystalline silicon part solar cell junction is investigated. A wavelength dependence in the initial part of the current decay is observed in the case of cells with moderate grain boundary effects. This influence is attenuated in polycrystalline cells with strong grain boundary activity. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs

  14. In vitro study of color stability of polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Cibele Braga; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Santos-Pinto, Ary; Gandini J?nior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze color stability of monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets after immersion in dye solutions. METHODS: Seven ceramic brackets of four commercial brands were tested: Two monocrystalline and two polycrystalline. The brackets were immersed in four dye solutions (coffee, red wine, Coke and black tea) and in artificial saliva for the following times: 24 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days, respectively. Color changes were measured by a...

  15. Nanopores creation in boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Mohammadreza; Abadi, Rouzbeh; Nezhad Shirazi, Ali Hossein; Alajlan, Naif; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, molecular dynamic simulations have been conducted to investigate the nanopores creation on 10% of boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene by silicon and diamond nanoclusters. Two types of nanoclusters based on silicon and diamond are used to investigate their effect for the fabrication of nanopores. Therefore, three different diameter sizes of the clusters with five kinetic energies of 10, 50, 100, 300 and 500 eV/atom at four different locations in boron or nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets have been perused. We also study the effect of 3% and 6% of boron doped polycrystalline graphene with the best outcome from 10% of doping. Our results reveal that the diamond cluster with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm fabricates the largest nanopore areas on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic energies of 10 and 50 eV/atom can not fabricate nanopores in some cases for silicon and diamond clusters on boron doped polycrystalline graphene nanosheets. On the other hand, silicon and diamond clusters fabricate nanopores for all locations and all tested energies on nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene. The area sizes of nanopores fabricated by silicon and diamond clusters with diameter of 2 and 2.5 nm are close to the actual area size of the related clusters for the kinetic energy of 300 eV/atom in all locations on boron doped polycrystalline graphene. The maximum area and the average maximum area of nanopores are fabricated by the kinetic energy of 500 eV/atom inside the grain boundary at the center of the nanosheet and in the corner of nanosheet with diameters of 2 and 3 nm for silicon and diamond clusters on boron and nitrogen doped polycrystalline graphene.

  16. Investigation of Processing, Microstructures and Efficiencies of Polycrystalline CdTe Photovoltaic Films and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit Harenkumar

    with processes suitable for mass production. These are the highest efficiencies reported by any university or national laboratory for polycrystalline thin-film CdTe photovoltaics bettered only by researchers at First Solar Inc. Processing experiments are traditionally designed based on simulation results however in these study microscopic materials characterization has been used as the primary driving force to understand the effects of processing conditions. Every structure and efficiency reported in this study has been extensively studied using microscopic imaging and materials characterization and processing conditions accordingly altered to achieve higher efficiencies. Understanding CdCl2 passivation treatment out of this has been critical to this process. Several observations with regard to effect of CdCl 2 passivation have allowed the use to this treatment to achieve optimum performance. The effects of deposition temperature are also studied in rigorous details. All of these studies have played an important role in optimization of process that lead to high efficiency thin-film CdTe photovoltaic devices. An effort is made in this study to better understand and establish a 3-way relationship between processing conditions, film microstructure and device efficiency for sublimated thin-film CdTe photovoltaics. Some crucial findings include impact of grain size on efficiency of photovoltaic devices and improvement in fill-factor resulting from use of thicker CdTe absorber with larger grain size. An attempt is also made to understand the microstructure as the device efficiency improves from 1% efficiency to over 18% efficiency.

  17. Thickness and temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thin films prepared by flash evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xingkai; Yang Junyou; Zhu, W; Fan, X A; Bao, S Q

    2006-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 thin films with thicknesses in the range 80-320 nm have been deposited by the flash evaporation method on glass substrates at 473 K. XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope were performed to characterize the thin films. The results show that the thin films are polycrystalline and the grain size of the thin films increases with increasing thickness of the thin films. Compositional analysis of the thin films was also carried out by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. A near linear relationship was observed between the electrical resistivity and the inverse thickness of the annealed thin films, and it agrees with Tellier's model. Electrical resistivity of the annealed thin films was studied in the temperature range 300-350 K, and their thermal activation behaviour was characterized, the activation energy for conduction decreases with increasing thickness of the thin films

  18. Recent progress in Si thin film technology for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yukinori; Nakano, Shoichi; Tsuda, Shinya

    1991-11-01

    Progress in Si thin film technology 'specifically amorphous Si (a-Si) and polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film' for solar cells is summarized here from fabrication method, material, and structural viewpoints. In addition to a-Si, primary results on poly-Si thin film research are discussed. Various applications for a-Si solar cells are mentioned, and consumer applications and a-Si solar cell photovoltaic systems are introduced. New product developments include see-through solar cells, solar cell roofing tiles, and ultra-light flexible solar cells. As for new systems, air conditioning equipment powered by solar cells is described. Looking to the future, the proposed GENESIS project is discussed.

  19. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of immediately effective and innovative energy environment technology. Part 1. Development of immediately effective and high-efficiency solar cells, and development of technology to slice and manufacture thin-type large-area polycrystalline substrates; 1999 nendo sokkoteki kakushinteki energy kankyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sokkogata kokoritsu taiyo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu (usugata daimenseki takessho kiban slice seizo gijutsu kaihatsu 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective of decreasing silicon usage quantity for the purpose of reducing the solar cell production cost, development is being performed on an ingot cutting technology to cut a silicon ingot to Kerf loss of 150 {mu} m and thickness of 150 {mu} m, and in which the produced wafers can withstand the cell making. Investigations revealed that a wire saw is suitable as the cutting system, and the wire used must have a diameter of less than 120 {mu} m, and a strength of more than 3850 N/mm{sup 2}. A prototype wire was fabricated, whose diameter is 120 {mu} m, and in which the strength is distributed between 3870 and 4110 N/mm{sup 2}. It was found possible that a wire of 160 {mu} m can be used to slice an ingot having a cross section surface of 150 mm square and a length of 300 mm into a slice having a Kerf loss of 200 {mu} m and a thickness of 180 {mu} m. This wafer had the in-plane distribution of the substrate thickness at {+-} 12.5 {mu}, swell of 120 {mu} at maximum, and surface roughness of 5 {mu}. Making ten of these wafers into a cell resulted in a yield of 60%. Assignments are the clarification of the properties of the cutting wire, the preparation of a thin wire with homogeneous quality, and the establishment of a technology to cut Kerf loss of 150 {mu} and substrate thickness of 150 {mu}. (NEDO)

  20. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J.

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au)

  1. Micromechanical simulation of Uranium dioxide polycrystalline aggregate behaviour under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacull, J.

    2011-02-01

    In pressurized water nuclear power reactor (PWR), the fuel rod is made of dioxide of uranium (UO 2 ) pellet stacked in a metallic cladding. A multi scale and multi-physic approaches are needed for the simulation of fuel behavior under irradiation. The main phenomena to take into account are thermomechanical behavior of the fuel rod and chemical-physic behavior of the fission products. These last years one of the scientific issue to improve the simulation is to take into account the multi-physic coupling problem at the microscopic scale. The objective of this ph-D study is to contribute to this multi-scale approach. The present work concerns the micro-mechanical behavior of a polycrystalline aggregate of UO 2 . Mean field and full field approaches are considered. For the former and the later a self consistent homogenization technique and a periodic Finite Element model base on the 3D Voronoi pattern are respectively used. Fuel visco-plasticity is introduced in the model at the scale of a single grain by taking into account specific dislocation slip systems of UO 2 . A cohesive zone model has also been developed and implemented to simulate grain boundary sliding and intergranular crack opening. The effective homogenous behaviour of a Representative Volume Element (RVE) is fitted with experimental data coming from mechanical tests on a single pellet. Local behavior is also analyzed in order to evaluate the model capacity to assess micro-mechanical state. In particular, intra and inter granular stress gradient are discussed. A first validation of the local behavior assessment is proposed through the simulation of intergranular crack opening measured in a compressive creep test of a single fuel pellet. Concerning the impact of the microstructure on the fuel behavior under irradiation, a RVE simulation with a representative transient loading of a fuel rod during a power ramp test is achieved. The impact of local stress and strain heterogeneities on the multi

  2. The Relationship Between Debris and Grain Growth in Polycrystalline Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; McCarthy, C.

    2017-12-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of ice flow, as well as the factors that affect it, must be improved in order to make more accurate predictions of glacial melting rates, and hence, sea level rise. Both field and laboratory studies have made an association between smaller grain sizes of ice and more rapid deformation. Therefore, it is essential to understand the different factors that affect grain size. Observations from ice cores have shown a correlation between debris content in layers of ice with smaller grain sizes, whereas layers with very little debris have larger grain sizes. Static grain growth rates for both pure ice and ice containing bubbles are well constrained, but the effect of small rock/dust particles has received less attention. We tested the relationship between debris and grain growth in polycrystalline ice with controlled annealing at -5°C and microstructural characterization. Three samples, two containing fine rock powder and one without, were fabricated, annealed, and imaged over time. The samples containing powder had different initial grain sizes due to solidification temperature during fabrication. Microstructural analysis was done on all samples after initial fabrication and at various times during the anneal using a light microscope housed in a cold room. Microstructural images were analyzed by the linear-intercept method. When comparing average grain size over time between pure ice and ice with debris, it was found that the rate of growth for the pure ice was larger than the rate of growth for the ice with debris at both initial grain sizes. These results confirm the observations seen in nature, and suggest that small grain size is indeed influenced by debris content. By understanding this, scientists could gain a more in-depth understanding of internal ice deformation and the mechanisms of ice flow. This, in turn, helps improve the accuracy of glacial melting predictions, and sea level rise in the future.

  3. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte-Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometer for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. Also other neutron related applications have been suggested. (author)

  4. The thermoviscoplastic response of polycrystalline tungsten in compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennon, A.M.; Ramesh, K.T.

    2000-01-01

    The thermomechanical response of commercially pure polycrystalline tungsten was investigated over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. The material was examined in two forms: one an equiaxed recrystallized microstructure and the other a heavily deformed extruded microstructure that was loaded in compression along the extrusion axis. Low strain rate (10 -3 -10 0 s -1 ) compression experiments were conducted on an MTS servo-hydraulic load frame equipped with an infra-red furnace capable of sustaining specimen temperatures in excess of 600 C. High strain rate (10 3 -10 4 s -1 ) experiments were performed on a compression Kolsky bar equipped with an infra-red heating system capable of developing specimen temperatures as high as 800 C. Pressure-shear plate impact experiments were used to obtain shear stress versus shear strain curves at very high rates (∝10 4 -10 5 s -1 ). The recrystallized material was able to sustain very substantial plastic deformations in compression (at room temperature), with a flow stress that appears to be rate-dependent. Intergranular microcracks were developed during the compressive deformations. Under quasi-static loadings a few relatively large axial splitting cracks were formed, while under dynamic loadings a very large number of small, uniformly distributed microcracks (that did not link up to form macrocracks) were developed. The rate of nucleation of microcracks increased dramatically with strain rate. The extruded tungsten is also able to sustain large plastic deformations in compression, with a flow stress that increases with the rate of deformation. The strain hardening of the extruded material is lower than that of the recrystallized material, and is relatively insensitive to the strain rate. (orig.)

  5. Structural evolution and mechanisms of fatigue in polycrystalline brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejloe Carstensen, J

    1998-03-01

    The plastic strain controlled fatigue behaviour of polycrystalline Cu-15%Zn and Cu-30%Zn has been investigated with the aim of studying the effect of slip mode modification by the addition of zinc to copper. It has been clearly demonstrated, that true cyclic saturation does not occur in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. This complicates the contstruction of a cyclic stress-strain (CSS) curve and thus the comparison with copper. A method to overcome this complication has been suggested. Surface observations on fatigued brass specimens show that individual grains tend to deform by Sachs type single slip. This behaviour has been described by the self-consistent Sachs-Eshelby model, which provides estimates of the CSS curve for brass polycrystals. Successive stages of primary hardening, softening and secondary hardening has been observed in the plastic strain controlled fatigue of brass. It has been found that the primary hardening is attributed to an increase of intergranular stresses whereas the secondary hardening apparently is attributed to an increase of friction stresses. Investigations of the structural evolution show that the softening behaviour can be explained by the presence of short-range order (SRO). SRO promote the formation of extended dipole arrays which hardens the material. The formation of intense shear bands destroy the dipole arrays, which explains the cyclic softening. The present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn in a pure planar slip alloy, while Cu-15%Zn displays both planar and wavy slip. The mechanical and structural behaviour observed in brass resembles recent observations in 316L austenitic stainless steels, and the present results reveal that Cu-30%Zn and 316L have approximately the same fatigue life curve. This emphasizes brass as being a convenient model system for the industrially important austenitic steels. (au) 9 tabs., 94 ills., 177 refs.; The thesis is also available as DCAMM-R-S80 and as an electronic document on http://www.risoe.dk/rispubl

  6. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-07-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation-hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometry for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. (author)

  7. Polycrystalline apatite synthesized by hydrothermal replacement of calcium carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasioptas, Argyrios; Geisler, Thorsten; Perdikouri, Christina; Trepmann, Claudia; Gussone, Nikolaus; Putnis, Andrew

    2011-06-01

    Aragonite and calcite single crystals can be readily transformed into polycrystalline hydroxyapatite pseudomorphs by hydrothermal treatment in a (NH 4) 2HPO 4 solution. Scanning electron microscopy of the reaction products showed that the transformation of aragonite to apatite is characterised by the formation of a sharp interface between the two phases and by the development of intracrystalline porosity in the hydroxyapatite phase. In addition, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) imaging showed that the c-axis of apatite is predominantly oriented perpendicular to the reaction front with no crystallographic relationship to the aragonite lattice. However, the Ca isotopic composition of the parent aragonite, measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry was inherited by the apatite product. Hydrothermal experiments conducted with use of phosphate solutions prepared with water enriched in 18O (97%) further revealed that the 18O from the solution is incorporated in the product apatite, as measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Monitoring the distribution of 18O with Raman spectroscopy was possible because the incorporation of 18O in the PO 4 group of apatite generates four new Raman bands at 945.8, 932, 919.7 and 908.8 cm -1, in addition to the ν1(PO 4) symmetric stretching band of apatite located at 962 cm -1, which can be assigned to four 18O-bearing PO 4 species. The relative intensities of these bands reflect the 18O content in the PO 4 group of the apatite product. By using equilibrated and non-equilibrated solutions, with respect to the 18O distribution between aqueous phosphate and water, we could show that the concentration of 18O in the apatite product is linked to the degree of 18O equilibration in the solution. The textural and chemical observations are indicative of a coupled mechanism of aragonite dissolution and apatite precipitation taking place at a moving reaction interface.

  8. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films from dimethyl sulfoxide solution: Nucleation and growth mechanism, structural and optical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriquez, R.; Badan, A.; Grez, P.; Munoz, E.; Vera, J.; Dalchiele, E.A.; Marotti, R.E.; Gomez, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrodeposition of CdSe nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films. → Polycrystalline wurtzite structure with a slight (1010) preferred orientation. → Absorption edge shifts in the optical properties due to quantum confinement effects. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanocrystalline semiconductor thin films have been synthesized by electrodeposition at controlled potential based in the electrochemical reduction process of molecular selenium in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution. The nucleation and growth mechanism of this process has been studied. The XRD pattern shows a characteristic polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure with a slight (1 0 1 0) crystallographic preferred orientation. The crystallite size of nanocrystalline CdSe thin films can be simply controlled by the electrodeposition potential. A quantum size effect is deduced from the correlation between the band gap energy and the crystallite size.

  9. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Valitova, Irina; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard; Cicoira, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs.

  10. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Valitova, Irina; Cicoira, Fabio; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  11. Fabrication of highly conductive Ta-doped SnO2 polycrystalline films on glass using seed-layer technique by pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Hitosugi, Taro; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of highly conductive Ta-doped SnO 2 (Sn 1-x Ta x O 2 ; TTO) thin films on glass by pulse laser deposition. On the basis of the comparison of X-ray diffraction patterns and resistivity (ρ) values between epitaxial films and polycrystalline films deposited on bare glass, we proposed the use of seed-layers for improving the conductivity of the TTO polycrystalline films. We investigated the use of rutile TiO 2 and NbO 2 as seed-layers; these are isostructural materials of SnO 2, which are expected to promote epitaxial-like growth of the TTO films. The films prepared on the 10-nm-thick seed-layers exhibited preferential growth of the TTO (110) plane. The TTO film with x = 0.05 on rutile TiO 2 exhibited ρ = 3.5 x 10 -4 Ω cm, which is similar to those of the epitaxial films grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001).

  12. Fabrication of highly conductive Ta-doped SnO{sub 2} polycrystalline films on glass using seed-layer technique by pulse laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Shoichiro, E-mail: tg-s-nakao@newkast.or.j [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamada, Naoomi [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Hitosugi, Taro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-03-31

    We discuss the fabrication of highly conductive Ta-doped SnO{sub 2} (Sn{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 2}; TTO) thin films on glass by pulse laser deposition. On the basis of the comparison of X-ray diffraction patterns and resistivity ({rho}) values between epitaxial films and polycrystalline films deposited on bare glass, we proposed the use of seed-layers for improving the conductivity of the TTO polycrystalline films. We investigated the use of rutile TiO{sub 2} and NbO{sub 2} as seed-layers; these are isostructural materials of SnO{sub 2,} which are expected to promote epitaxial-like growth of the TTO films. The films prepared on the 10-nm-thick seed-layers exhibited preferential growth of the TTO (110) plane. The TTO film with x = 0.05 on rutile TiO{sub 2} exhibited {rho} = 3.5 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, which is similar to those of the epitaxial films grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001).

  13. Superconducting oxide thin films by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.; DeNatale, J.F.; Housley, R.M.; Flintoff, J.F.; Harker, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of ternary copper oxides from the Y-Ba-Cu-O and La-Sr-Cu-O systems have been deposited by ion beam sputtering of ceramic targets. Crystallographic orientation of the polycrystalline films has been shown to vary with substrate identity, deposition temperature and annealing temperature. The onset of the superconductive transition occurs near 90K in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system. Fe impurities of < 0.2% have been found to inhibit the superconducting transition, probably by migrating to the grain boundaries

  14. Properties of MoO3 thin film polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, E.M.; Carcia, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film polymorphs of molybdenum trioxide have been synthesized by RF sputtering. Films deposited on thermally floating substrates are polycrystalline and exhibit preferred orientation. Depending upon the oxygen partial pressure maintained during sputtering, the films can be made to crystallize in either the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic α MoO 3 form (unique 2D-layered structure) or the metastable monoclinic β MoO 3 phase (3D ReO 3 -related structure). Metastable β films can be converted thermally to the α phase and the transformation appears topotactic. Films deposited on the cooled substrates are amorphous. A correlation between the particular phase formed and adatom mobility is noted

  15. Thin films of molecular metals TTF-TCNQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraxedas, J.; Molas, S.; Figueras, A.; Jimenez, I.; Gago, R.; Auban-Senzier, P.; Goffman, M.

    2002-01-01

    We present recent results on the characterization of highly ordered polycrystalline thin films of the charge transfer salt TTF-TCNQ (TTF=tetrathiafulvalene, TCNQ=tetracyanoquinodimethane) prepared by thermal sublimation in high vacuum under different conditions. The increase in orientation and microcrystal size as a function of substrate and annealing temperatures is addressed. A consequence of such an increase is the reduction of the conductivity activation energy, which eventually leads to the observation of the Peierls transition by resistivity measurements. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy studies performed with synchrotron radiation reveal directly the influence of charge transfer on unoccupied states near the Fermi level

  16. Thin films of molecular metals TTF-TCNQ

    CERN Document Server

    Fraxedas, J; Figueras, A; Jimenez, I; Gago, R; Auban-Senzier, P; Goffman, M

    2002-01-01

    We present recent results on the characterization of highly ordered polycrystalline thin films of the charge transfer salt TTF-TCNQ (TTF=tetrathiafulvalene, TCNQ=tetracyanoquinodimethane) prepared by thermal sublimation in high vacuum under different conditions. The increase in orientation and microcrystal size as a function of substrate and annealing temperatures is addressed. A consequence of such an increase is the reduction of the conductivity activation energy, which eventually leads to the observation of the Peierls transition by resistivity measurements. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy studies performed with synchrotron radiation reveal directly the influence of charge transfer on unoccupied states near the Fermi level.

  17. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  18. A Novel Semiconductor CIGS Photovoltaic Material and Thin-Film ED Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to achieve low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells, a novel Semiconductor Photovoltaic (PV) active material CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) and thin-film Electro-Deposition (ED) technology is explored. Firstly,the PV materials and technologies is investigated, then the detailed experimental processes of CIGS/Mo/glass structure by using the novel ED technology and the results are reported. These results shows that high quality CIGS polycrystalline thin-films can be obtained by the ED method, in which the polycrystalline CIGS is definitely identified by the (112), (204, 220) characteristic peaks of the tetragonal structure, the continuous CIGS thin-film layers with particle average size of about 2μm of length and around 1.6μm of thickness. The thickness and solargrade quality of CIGS thin-films can be produced with good repeatability. Discussion and analysis on the ED technique, CIGS energy band and sodium (Na) impurity properties, were also performed. The alloy CIGS exhibits not only increasing band-gap with increasing x, but also a change in material properties that is relevant to the device operation. The beneficial impurity Na originating from the low-cost soda-lime glass substrate becomes one prerequisite for high quality CIGS films. These novel material and technology are very useful for low-cost high-efficiency thin-film solar cells and other devices.

  19. YBa2Cu3O(7-x) based superconducting thin films by multitarget sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouteloup, E.; Mercey, B.; Poullain, G.; Brousse, T.; Murray, H.; Raveau, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique to prepare superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O (7-x) thin films. The multitarget sputtering apparatus described below allows the simultaneous and reproducible production of numerous films with a metallic composition close to Y 17% Ba 33% Cu 50% . Superconducting films (R = 0) at 80 K have been produced on polycrystalline zirconia substrates after a high temperature annealing [fr

  20. Grain growth: The key to understand solid-state dewetting of silver thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Podor, R.; Ravaux, J.; Teisseire, J.; Gozhyk, I.; Jupille, J.; Lazzari, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of solid-state dewetting of polycrystalline silver thin films in oxygen atmosphere was investigated with in situ and real-time environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy at high temperature combined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Three steps were identified during dewetting: induction, hole propagation without specific rim and sintering. Moreover, it was observed that a very selective grain growth, promoted by surface diffusion, plays a key role all along the process.

  1. Growth of Cu thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, S.; Ruuskanen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M.

    2004-01-01

    Copper thin films were grown on reduced indium tin oxide, molybdenum and polymer substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Copper films were grown sequentially in a controlled way using simple copper salt and basic solution of formaldehyde as precursors. The copper films were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation as characterised by X-ray diffraction. On all substrates, the growth was clearly island growth in the beginning but after the whole surface was covered, the growth was more homogeneous

  2. Phase transition in lead titanate thin films: a Brillouin study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, P; Dugautier, C; Moch, P; Marrec, F Le; Karkut, M G

    2002-01-01

    The elastic properties of both polycrystalline and epitaxial PbTiO 3 (PTO) thin films are studied using Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. The epitaxial PTO films were prepared by pulsed laser ablation on (1) a [0 0 1] single crystal of SrTiO 3 (STO) doped with Nb and (2) a [0 0 1] STO buffered with a layer of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . The polycrystalline PTO films were prepared by sol-gel on a Si substrate buffered with TiO 2 and Pt layers. The data analysis takes into account the ripple and the elasto-optic contributions. The latter significantly affects the measured spectra since it gives rise to a Love mode in the p-s scattering geometry. At room temperature, the spectra of the epitaxially grown samples are interpreted using previously published elastic constants of PTO single crystals. Sol-gel samples exhibit appreciable softening of the effective elastic properties compared to PTO single crystals: this result is explained by taking into account the random orientation of the microscopic PTO grains. For both the polycrystalline and the epitaxial films we have determined that the piezoelectric terms do not contribute to the spectra. The temperature dependence of the spectra shows strong anomalies of the elastic properties near the ferroelectric phase transition. Compared to the bulk, T C is higher in the sol-gel films, while in the epitaxial films the sign of the T C shift depends on the underlying material

  3. Preventing Thin Film Dewetting via Graphene Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peigen; Bai, Peter; Omrani, Arash A; Xiao, Yihan; Meaker, Kacey L; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yan, Aiming; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Rodgers, Griffin F; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S; Kolaczkowski, Mattew A; Liu, Yi; Zettl, Alex; Xu, Ke; Crommie, Michael F; Xu, Ting

    2017-09-01

    A monolayer 2D capping layer with high Young's modulus is shown to be able to effectively suppress the dewetting of underlying thin films of small organic semiconductor molecule, polymer, and polycrystalline metal, respectively. To verify the universality of this capping layer approach, the dewetting experiments are performed for single-layer graphene transferred onto polystyrene (PS), semiconducting thienoazacoronene (EH-TAC), gold, and also MoS 2 on PS. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the exceptionally high Young's modulus and surface conformity of 2D capping layers such as graphene and MoS 2 substantially suppress surface fluctuations and thus dewetting. As long as the uncovered area is smaller than the fluctuation wavelength of the thin film in a dewetting process via spinodal decomposition, the dewetting should be suppressed. The 2D monolayer-capping approach opens up exciting new possibilities to enhance the thermal stability and expands the processing parameters for thin film materials without significantly altering their physical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Electrical properties of grain boundaries in polycrystalline materials under intrinsic or low doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M H; Kabir, M Z

    2011-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to study the electrical properties (electric field and potential distributions, potential energy barrier height and polarization phenomenon) of polycrystalline materials at intrinsic or low doping for detector and solar cell applications by considering an arbitrary amount of grain boundary charge and a finite width of grain boundary region. The general grain boundary model is also applicable to highly doped polycrystalline materials. The electric field and potential distributions are obtained by solving Poisson's equation in both depleted grains and grain boundary regions. The electric field and potential distributions across the detector are analysed under various doping, trapping and applied biases. The electric field collapses, i.e. a nearly zero-average electric field region exists in some part of the biased detector at high trapped charge densities at the grain boundaries. The model explains the conditions of existence of a zero-average field region, i.e. the polarization mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. The potential energy barrier at the grain boundary exists if the electric field changes its sign at the opposite side of the grain boundary. The energy barrier does not exist in all grain boundaries in the low-doped polycrystalline detector and it never exists in intrinsic polycrystalline detectors under applied bias condition provided that there is no charge trapping in the grain.

  5. A comparative study of transport properties in polycrystalline and epitaxial chromium nitride films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, X. F.

    2013-01-08

    Polycrystalline CrNx films on Si(100) and glass substrates and epitaxial CrNx films on MgO(100) substrates were fabricated by reactive sputtering with different nitrogen gas flow rates (fN2). With the increase of fN2, a lattice phase transformation from metallic Cr2N to semiconducting CrN appears in both polycrystalline and epitaxial CrNx films. At fN2= 100 sccm, the low-temperature conductance mechanism is dominated by both Mott and Efros-Shklovskii variable-range hopping in either polycrystalline or epitaxial CrN films. In all of the polycrystalline and epitaxial films, only the polycrystalline CrNx films fabricated at fN2 = 30 and 50 sccm exhibit a discontinuity in ρ(T) curves at 260-280 K, indicating that both the N-vacancy concentration and grain boundaries play important roles in the metal-insulator transition. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  6. PROPERTIES AND OPTICAL APPLICATION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ZINC SELENIDE OBTAINED BY PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dunaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings on production technology, mechanical and optical properties of polycrystalline zinc selenide are presented. The combination of its physicochemical properties provides wide application of ZnSe in IR optics. Production technology is based on the method of physical vapor deposition on a heated substrate (Physical Vapor Deposition - PVD. The structural features and heterogeneity of elemental composition for the growth surfaces of ZnSe polycrystalline blanks were investigated using CAMEBAX X-ray micro-analyzer. Characteristic pyramid-shaped crystallites were recorded for all growth surfaces. The measurements of the ratio for major elements concentrations show their compliance with the stoichiometry of the ZnSe compounds. Birefringence, optical homogeneity, thermal conductivity, mechanical and optical properties were measured. It is established that regardless of polycrystalline condensate columnar and texturing, the optical material is photomechanically isotropic and homogeneous. The actual performance of parts made of polycrystalline optical zinc selenide in the thermal spectral ranges from 3 to 5 μm and from 8 to 14 μm and in the CO2 laser processing plants with a power density of 500 W/cm2 is shown. The developed technology gives the possibility to produce polycrystalline optical material on an industrial scale.

  7. Process Research On Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM). [flat plate solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culik, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The performance-limiting mechanisms in large-grain (greater than 1 to 2 mm in diameter) polycrystalline silicon solar cells were investigated by fabricating a matrix of 4 sq cm solar cells of various thickness from 10 cm x 10 cm polycrystalline silicon wafers of several bulk resistivities. Analysis of the illuminated I-V characteristics of these cells suggests that bulk recombination is the dominant factor limiting the short-circuit current. The average open-circuit voltage of the polycrystalline solar cells is 30 to 70 mV lower than that of co-processed single-crystal cells; the fill-factor is comparable. Both open-circuit voltage and fill-factor of the polycrystalline cells have substantial scatter that is not related to either thickness or resistivity. This implies that these characteristics are sensitive to an additional mechanism that is probably spatial in nature. A damage-gettering heat-treatment improved the minority-carrier diffusion length in low lifetime polycrystalline silicon, however, extended high temperature heat-treatment degraded the lifetime.

  8. A new computer-aided simulation model for polycrystalline silicon film resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Yuan Wu; Weng-Dah Ken

    1983-07-01

    A general transport theory for the I-V characteristics of a polycrystalline film resistor has been derived by including the effects of carrier degeneracy, majority-carrier thermionic-diffusion across the space charge regions produced by carrier trapping in the grain boundaries, and quantum mechanical tunneling through the grain boundaries. Based on the derived transport theory, a new conduction model for the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline film resitors has been developed by incorporating the effects of carrier trapping and dopant segregation in the grain boundaries. Moreover, an empirical formula for the coefficient of the dopant-segregation effects has been proposed, which enables us to predict the dependence of the electrical resistivity of phosphorus-and arsenic-doped polycrystalline silicon films on thermal annealing temperature. Phosphorus-doped polycrystalline silicon resistors have been fabricated by using ion-implantation with doses ranged from 1.6 × 10 11 to 5 × 10 15/cm 2. The dependence of the electrical resistivity on doping concentration and temperature have been measured and shown to be in good agreement with the results of computer simulations. In addition, computer simulations for boron-and arsenic-doped polycrystalline silicon resistors have also been performed and shown to be consistent with the experimental results published by previous authors.

  9. A Power Case Study for Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Solar Panels in Bursa City, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Taşçıoğlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It was intended to reveal the time dependent power generation under different loads for two different solar panels under the conditions of Bursa province in between August 19 and 25, 2014. The testing sets include solar panels, inverter, multimeter, accumulator, regulator, pyranometer, pyrheliometer, temperature sensor, and datalogger. The efficiency of monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels was calculated depending on the climatic data’s measurements. As the result of the study, the average performances of monocrystalline and polycrystalline panels are 42.06 and 39.80 Wh, respectively. It was seen that 87.14 W instantaneous power could be obtained from monocrystalline solar panel and that 80.17 W instantaneous power could be obtained from polycrystalline solar panel under maximum total radiation (1001.13 W/m2. Within this frame, it was determined that monocrystalline solar panel is able to operate more efficiently under the conditions of Bursa compared to polycrystalline solar panel. When the multivariate correlations coefficients were examined statistically, a significant relationship in positive direction was detected between total and direct radiation and ambient temperature on energy generation from monocrystalline and polycrystalline panel.

  10. The latent fingerprint in mass transport of polycrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukarasu, Gopinath; Kundu, Sukumar; Chatterjee, Subrata

    2016-02-01

    Herein, a systematic investigation was carried out to reach a rational understanding and to provide information concerning the possible causes for a significant influence of pressure variation in the underlying processes of mass transport in polycrystalline materials. The authors focused their research in solid-state diffusion, a part of the subject "Mass Transport in Solids". Theories on diffusion are the subject by itself which exists as a latent fingerprint in every text of higher learning in interdisciplinary science. In this research, authors prepared sandwich samples of titanium alloy and stainless steel using nickel as an intermediate metal. The samples were processed at three different levels of bonding pressure (3, 4 and 5 MPa) while bonding temperature and bonding time was maintained at 750 °C and 1 h, respectively, throughout the experiments. It was observed that the net flux of atomic diffusion of nickel atoms into Ti-alloy at TiA/Ni interface increased by ~63 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 3 to 4 MPa, but decreased by ~40 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 4 to 5 MPa. At the same time, the net flux of atomic diffusion of nickel atoms into stainless steel at Ni/SS interface increased by ~19 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 3 to 4 MPa, but increased by ~17 % with the rise in the bonding pressure from 4 to 5 MPa. Here authors showed that the pressure variations have different effects at the TiA/Ni interface and Ni/SS interface, and tried to explain the explicit mechanisms operating behind them. In general for sandwich samples processed irrespective of bonding pressure chosen, the net flux of Ni-atoms diffused into SS is greater than that of the net flux of Ni-atoms diffused in Ti-alloy matrix by four orders of magnitude. The calculated diffusivity of Ni-atoms into Ti-alloy reaches its highest value of ~5.083 × 10-19 m2/s for the sandwich sample processed using 4-MPa bonding-pressure, whereas the diffusivity of Ni

  11. Multi-terminal memtransistors from polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Lee, Hong-Sub; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Beck, Megan E.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-02-01

    Memristors are two-terminal passive circuit elements that have been developed for use in non-volatile resistive random-access memory and may also be useful in neuromorphic computing. Memristors have higher endurance and faster read/write times than flash memory and can provide multi-bit data storage. However, although two-terminal memristors have demonstrated capacity for basic neural functions, synapses in the human brain outnumber neurons by more than a thousandfold, which implies that multi-terminal memristors are needed to perform complex functions such as heterosynaptic plasticity. Previous attempts to move beyond two-terminal memristors, such as the three-terminal Widrow-Hoff memristor and field-effect transistors with nanoionic gates or floating gates, did not achieve memristive switching in the transistor. Here we report the experimental realization of a multi-terminal hybrid memristor and transistor (that is, a memtransistor) using polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a scalable fabrication process. The two-dimensional MoS2 memtransistors show gate tunability in individual resistance states by four orders of magnitude, as well as large switching ratios, high cycling endurance and long-term retention of states. In addition to conventional neural learning behaviour of long-term potentiation/depression, six-terminal MoS2 memtransistors have gate-tunable heterosynaptic functionality, which is not achievable using two-terminal memristors. For example, the conductance between a pair of floating electrodes (pre- and post-synaptic neurons) is varied by a factor of about ten by applying voltage pulses to modulatory terminals. In situ scanning probe microscopy, cryogenic charge transport measurements and device modelling reveal that the bias-induced motion of MoS2 defects drives resistive switching by dynamically varying Schottky barrier heights. Overall, the seamless integration of a memristor and transistor into one multi-terminal device could

  12. Surface finish and subsurface damage in polycrystalline optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrir, Shai Negev

    We measure and describe surface microstructure and subsurface damage (SSD) induced by microgrinding of hard metals and hard ceramics used in optical applications. We examine grinding of ceramic materials with bonded abrasives, and, specifically, deterministic microgrinding (DMG). DMG, at fixed nominal infeed rate and with bound diamond abrasive tools, is the preferred technique for optical fabrication of ceramic materials. In DMG material removal is by microcracking. DMG provides cost effective high manufacturing rates, while attaining higher strength and performance, i.e., low level of subsurface damage (SSD). A wide range of heterogeneous materials of interest to the optics industry were studied in this work. These materials include: A binderless tungsten carbide, nonmagnetic Ni-based tungsten carbides, magnetic Co-based tungsten carbides, and, in addition, other hard optical ceramics, such as aluminum oxynitride (Al23O27N5/ALON), polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3/PCA), and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (Si4C/SiC). These materials are all commercially available. We demonstrate that spots taken with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) platforms can be used for estimating SSD depth induced by the grinding process. Surface morphology was characterized using various microscopy techniques, such as: contact interferometer, noncontact white light interferometer, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of surface roughness with the amount of material removed by the MRF process, as measured within the spot deepest point of penetration, can be divided into two stages. In the first stage the induced damaged layer and associated SSD from microgrinding are removed, reaching a low surface roughness value. In the second stage we observe interaction between the MRF process and the material's microstructure as MRF exposes the subsurface without introducing new damage. Line scans taken parallel to the MR

  13. An in situ XPS study of L-cysteine co-adsorbed with water on polycrystalline copper and gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, Astrid; Raschke, Hannes; Esser, Norbert; Hergenröder, Roland

    2018-03-01

    The interactions of biomolecules with metal surfaces are important because an adsorbed layer of such molecules introduces complex reactive functionality to the substrate. However, studying these interactions is challenging: they usually take place in an aqueous environment, and the structure of the first few monolayers on the surface is of particular interest, as these layers determine most interfacial properties. Ideally, this requires surface sensitive analysis methods that are operated under ambient conditions, for example ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS). This paper focuses on an AP-XPS study of the interaction of water vapour and l-Cysteine on polycrystalline copper and gold surfaces. Thin films of l-Cysteine were characterized with XPS in UHV and in a water vapour atmosphere (P ≤ 1 mbar): the structure of the adsorbed l-Cysteine layer depended on substrate material and deposition method, and exposure of the surface to water vapour led to the formation of hydrogen bonds between H2O molecules and the COO- and NH2 groups of adsorbed l-Cysteine zwitterions and neutral molecules, respectively. This study also proved that it is possible to investigate monolayers of biomolecules in a gas atmosphere with AP-XPS using a conventional laboratory Al-Kα x-ray source.

  14. Growth and characterization of polycrystalline Ge{sub 1-x}C{sub x} by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.P., E-mail: mayrap@fisica.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Zapata y G, P.O. Box 10400, Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Farias, M.H.; Castillon, F.F.; Diaz, Jesus A.; Avalos, M. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Ulloa, L. [Universidad de Guadalajara, (CUCEI) Blvd. Marcelino Garcia Barragan 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gallegos, J.A.; Yee-Madeiros, H. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-IPN, UP' ALM' , Colonia Lindavista 07738 (Mexico)

    2011-03-15

    Polycrystalline thin films of Ge-C were grown on Si (1 1 1) substrates by means of reactive pulsed laser deposition with methane pressure of 100 mTorr. Effect substrate temperature, T{sub s}, on C incorporation to substitutional sites (x) in Ge{sub 1-x}C{sub x} was investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyzes. The substrate temperatures were ranging from 250 to 400 deg. C. The substitutional C composition x in the films by XRD were estimated using the Vegard's linear law. The maximum value of x calculated by XRD was 0.032 for T{sub s} of 350 deg. C. The position of the C 1s peak at 283.4 eV in the XPS spectrum confirmed the germanium-carbon alloys. XRD measurements indicated that x increased with T{sub s} from 250 deg. C to 350 deg. C. At T{sub s} = 400 deg. C, the estimation of x was lowered. However, the C content calculated by XPS analyzes increased with T{sub s} being more these values than substitutional C composition x. XPS and XRD analyzes demonstrate that the remaining C atoms are incorporated to interstitial sites. The use of the T{sub s} plays important roles in the incorporation of substitutional C and in restraining C-cluster formation in the reactive pulsed laser deposition growth of Ge-C/Si.

  15. The interfacial capacitance of an oxidised polycrystalline gold electrode in an aqueous HClO4 electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdeń, M.

    2013-01-01

    The interfacial capacitance of a polycrystalline gold electrode electrochemically oxidised in an aqueous 0.1 M HClO 4 electrolyte has been investigated by means of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. From 1.3 to 3 monolayers of Au atoms were oxidised under constant potential conditions and for various oxidation times. The capacitance of the oxidised layers was analysed as a function of the electrode potential and the extent of the surface oxidation. It was found that the interfacial capacitance decreases upon surface oxidation. The components of the interfacial capacitance of the oxidised layer: the double layer capacitance and the capacitance of the oxidised layer; have been separated. The capacitance of the double layer of the oxidised surface was found to be comparable to the capacitance measured for the metallic surface. - Highlights: • The impedance spectra for thin layers of Au oxides/hydroxides were acquired. • Separate determination of the double layer and the oxide capacitances of oxidised Au • The double layer capacitances of oxidised and non-oxidised Au surfaces are comparable

  16. Nanoporous Zeolite Thin Film-Based Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor for Detection of Dissolved Organics in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Xiao

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A fiber optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (IFPI chemical sensor wasdeveloped by fine-polishing a thin layer of polycrystalline nanoporous MFI zeolitesynthesized on the cleaved endface of a single mode fiber. The sensor operated bymonitoring the optical thickness changes of the zeolite thin film caused by the adsorption oforganic molecules into the zeolite channels. The optical thickness of the zeolite thin filmwas measured by white light interferometry. Using methanol, 2-propanol, and toluene as themodel chemicals, it was demonstrated that the zeolite IPFI sensor could detect dissolvedorganics in water with high sensitivity.

  17. Polycrystalline La1-xSrxMnO3 films on silicon: Influence of post-Deposition annealing on structural, (Magneto-)Optical, and (Magneto-)Electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrick; Monecke, Manuel; Buja, Oana-Maria; Solonenko, Dmytro; Dudric, Roxana; Ciubotariu, Oana-Tereza; Albrecht, Manfred; Deac, Iosif G.; Tetean, Romulus; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Salvan, Georgeta

    2018-01-01

    The integration of La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) thin film technology into established industrial silicon processes is regarded as challenging due to lattice mismatch, thermal expansion, and chemical reactions at the interface of LSMO and silicon. In this work, we investigated the physical properties of thin La0.73Sr0.27MnO3 films deposited by magnetron sputtering on silicon without a lattice matching buffer layer. The influence of a post-deposition annealing treatment on the structural, (magneto-)optical, and (magneto-)electrical properties was investigated by a variety of techniques. Using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction we could show that the thin films exhibit a polycrystalline, rhombohedral structure after a post-deposition annealing of at least 700 °C. The dielectric tensor in the spectral range from 1.7 eV to 5 eV determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry in combination with magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was found to be comparable to that of lattice matched films on single crystal substrates reported in literature [1]. The values of the metal-isolator transition temperature and temperature-dependent resistivities also reflect a high degree of crystalline quality of the thermally treated films.

  18. Stress-strain relationship and XRD line broadening in [0001] textured hexagonal polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi

    2011-01-01

    Stress analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for hexagonal polycrystalline materials in the Laue classes 6/mmm and 6/m has been studied on the basis of the crystal symmetry of the constituent crystallites which was proposed by R. Yokoyama and J. Harada ['Re-evaluation of formulae for X-ray stress analysis in polycrystalline specimens with fibre texture', Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol.42, pp.185-191 (2009)]. The relationship between the stress and strain observable by XRD in a hexagonal polycrystalline material with [0001] fibre texture was formulated in terms of the elastic compliance defined for its single crystal. As a result, it was shown that the average strains obtained in the crystallites for both symmetries of 6/mmm and 6/m are different from each other under the triaxial or biaxial stress field. Then, it turned out that the line width of XRD changes depending on the measurement direction. (author)

  19. The importance of stress percolation patterns in rocks and other polycrystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, P C

    2013-01-01

    A new framework for thinking about the deformation behavior of rocks and other heterogeneous polycrystalline materials is proposed, based on understanding the patterns of stress transmission through these materials. Here, using finite element models, I show that stress percolates through polycrystalline materials that have heterogeneous elastic and plastic properties of the same order as those found in rocks. The pattern of stress percolation is related to the degree of heterogeneity in and statistical distribution of the elastic and plastic properties of the constituent grains in the aggregate. The development of these stress patterns leads directly to shear localization, and their existence provides insight into the formation of rhythmic features such as compositional banding and foliation in rocks that are reacting or dissolving while being deformed. In addition, this framework provides a foundation for understanding and predicting the macroscopic rheology of polycrystalline materials based on single-crystal elastic and plastic mechanical properties.

  20. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting, E-mail: yasun@kth.se; Lourdudoss, Sebastian [Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials, Department of Materials and Nano Physics, KTH—Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Pietralunga, Silvia M. [CNR-Institute for Photonics and Nanotechnologies, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy); Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto [Department of Physics Politecnico di Milano, P. Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 μm/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 μm polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  1. Growth of high quality large area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Moeckly, Brian H.; Ruby, Ward S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in-situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials u...

  2. The Effect of Deposition Rate on Electrical, Optical and Structural Properties of ITO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Raghupathi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared using the reactive evaporation technique on glass substrates in an oxygen atmosphere. It is found that the deposition rate plays prominent role in controlling the electrical and optical properties of the ITO thin films. Resistivity, electrical conductivity, activation energy, optical transmission and band gap energy were investigated. A transmittance value of more than 90% in the visible region of the spectrum and an electrical conductivity of 3x10–6 Ωm has been obtained with a deposition rate of 2 nm/min. XRD studies showed that the films are polycrystalline.

  3. Structural transformation of CsI thin film photocathodes under exposure to air and UV irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, O H W

    2000-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been employed to study the structure of polycrystalline CsI thin films and its transformation under exposure to humid air and UV irradiation. The catastrophic degradation of CsI thin film photocathode performance is shown to be associated with the film dissolving followed by its re-crystallization. This results in the formation of large lumps of CsI crystal on the substrate surface, so that the film becomes discontinuous and its performance as a photocathode is permanently degraded. No change in the surface morphology and the film crystalline structure was observed after the samples were UV irradiated.

  4. Advances in thin-film solar cells for lightweight space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic arrays beyond the next generation is discussed with attention given to the potentials of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells. Of particular importance is the efficiency (the fraction of incident solar energy converted to electricity) and specific power (power to weight ratio). It is found that the radiation tolerance of thin-film materials is far greater than that of single crystal materials. CuInSe2 shows no degradation when exposed to 1-MeV electrons.

  5. Simulation of inter- and transgranular crack propagation in polycrystalline aggregates due to stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musienko, Andrey; Cailletaud, Georges

    2009-01-01

    The motivation of the study is the development of a coupled approach able to account for the interaction between environment and plasticity in a polycrystalline material. The paper recalls first the constitutive equations used to describe the behavior of the grain core and of the grain boundary (GB). The procedure that is applied to generate synthetic polycrystalline aggregates with an explicit representation of the grain boundary area by 2D or 3D finite elements is then described. The approach is applied to the modeling of iodine-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in Zircaloy tubes used in nuclear power plants.

  6. Computer studies of the scattering of low energy hydrogen ions from polycrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-02-01

    Reflection of 50 eV to 10 keV H atoms from polycrystalline Cu, Nb and Au targets has been calculated using the binary collision cascade program MARLOWE. The fractions of particles and energy reflected (backscattered) increase with increasing atomic number of the target and decrease with increasing incident energy. The results indicate that the effects of polycrystallinity are modest, reducing the amorphous reflection coefficients by about 25 percent. The calculations agree quite well with the experimental data for Cu and Au, but are about a factor of two larger than is observed for Nb

  7. Characterization of Polycrystalline Materials Using Synchrotron X-ray Imaging and Diffraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Wolfgang; King, A.; Herbig, M.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of synchrotron radiation x-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offers new possibilities for in-situ observation of deformation and damage mechanisms in the bulk of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (i.e., cracks, porosities) can be detected using...... propagation based phase contrast imaging, a 3-D imaging mode exploiting the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. Furthermore, for some classes of polycrystalline materials, one may use a 3-D variant of x-ray diffraction imaging, termed x-ray diffraction contrast tomography. X-ray...

  8. The X-ray sensitivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline CdZnTe thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Hyun; Suh, Jong Hee; Cho, Shin Hang; Cho, Pyong Kon; Hong, Jin Ki; Kim, Sun Ung

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray sensitivity is one of the important parameters indicating the detector performance. The X-ray sensitivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline CdZnTe:Cl thick films was investigated as a function of electric field, mean photon energy, film thickness, and charge carrier transport parameters and, compared with another promising detector materials. The X-ray sensitivities of the polycrystalline CdZnTe films with 350 μm thickness were about 2.2 and 6.2 μC/cm 2 /R in the ohmic-type and Schottky-type detector at 0.83 V/μm, respectively

  9. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Development of novel technologies for fabrication of high quality silicon thin films for solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Kohinshitsu silicon usumaku sakusei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of novel technologies for fabrication of high quality thin films of silicon for solar cells. The study on the mechanisms and effects of chemical annealing reveals that the film structure greatly varies depending on substrate temperature during the hydrotreatment process, based on the tests with substrate temperature, deposition of superthin film (T1) and hydrotreatment (T2) as the variable parameters. Chemical annealing at low temperature produces a high-quality a-Si:H film of low defect content. The study on fabrication of thin polycrystalline silicon films at low temperature observes on real time the process of deposition of the thin films on polycrystalline silicon substrates, where a natural oxide film is removed beforehand from the substrate. The results indicate that a thin polycrystalline silicon film of 100% crystallinity can be formed even on a polycrystalline silicon substrate by controlling starting gas composition and substrate temperature. The layer-by-layer method is used as the means for forming the seed crystals on a glass substrate, where deposition and hydrotreatment are repeated alternately, to produce the thin crystalline silicon films of high crystallinity. 3 figs.

  10. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Lei; Hu, Juejun; Jiang, Peng; Kim, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hun; Onbasli, Mehmet Cengiz; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, Caroline A

    2013-11-08

    Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO₂ -δ , Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO 3- δ , as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti 0.2 Ga 0.4 Fe 0.4 )O 3- δ and polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY₂)Fe₅O 12 /silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  11. Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cengiz Onbasli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates.

  12. Micromachined Polycrystalline Si Thermopiles in a T-shirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Leonov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology for in-plane poly-Si thermopiles has been developed. The bulk-micromachined thermopiles are located between two Si bars and connected thermally with those bars through thin-film thermal shunts. The patterned strips of thermocouple material together with thermal shunts form bridges between Si bars. Two versions of a thermoelectric generator (TEG with micromachined thermopiles have been assembled and tested on a person’s wrist, and when integrated in a T-shirt. The TEG still produces less than 1 μW in the office, but at ambient temperatures below 11-13 °C it produces more than 1 μW at a voltage of more than 2 V on the matched load. The new way of integration of wearable TEG in clothing is shown. The TEG is located under the textile, and the fabric is used as a flexible radiator.

  13. About some practical aspects of X-ray diffraction : From powder to thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ. Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Structure of thin films can be amorphous, polycrystalline or epitaxial, and the films can be prepared as a single layer films, multilayers or as graded films. A complete structure analysis of thin films by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) usually needs more than one diffraction geometry to be used. Their principles, advantages and disadvantages will be shortly described, especially with respect to their different sampling depth and different response to orientation of diffracting crystallographic planes. Main differences in structure of thin films with respect to powder samples are given by a singular direction of their growth, by their adhesion to a substrate and often also by a simultaneous bombardment by atomic species during the growth. It means that a thermodynamically unstable atomic structures can be found too. These special features of growth of thin polycrystalline films are reflected in often found strong preferred orientation of grains and in residual stresses conserved in the films. The methods of structure analysis of thin films by XRD will be compared with other techniques which can supply structure images on different scales.

  14. Electron-beam deposition of vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvel, R.E.; Appavoo, K. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Choi, B.K. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nashville, TN (United States); Nag, J. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States); Haglund, R.F. [Vanderbilt University, Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Nashville, TN (United States); Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Developing a reliable and efficient fabrication method for phase-transition thin-film technology is critical for electronic and photonic applications. We demonstrate a novel method for fabricating polycrystalline, switchable vanadium dioxide thin films on glass and silicon substrates and show that the optical switching contrast is not strongly affected by post-processing annealing times. The method relies on electron-beam evaporation of a nominally stoichiometric powder, followed by fast annealing. As a result of the short annealing procedure we demonstrate that films deposited on silicon substrates appear to be smoother, in comparison to pulsed laser deposition and sputtering. However, optical performance of e-beam evaporated film on silicon is affected by annealing time, in contrast to glass. (orig.)

  15. Interfacial Properties of CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muhunthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-deficient CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide thin films were grown on soda lime as well as molybdenum coated soda lime glass by reactive cosputtering. Polycrystalline CZTS film with kesterite structure was produced by annealing it at 500°C in Ar atmosphere. These films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical, and transport properties using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement. A CZTS solar cell device having conversion efficiency of ~0.11% has been made by depositing CdS, ZnO, ITO, and Al layers over the CZTS thin film deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass. The series resistance of the device was very high. The interfacial properties of device were characterized by cross-sectional SEM and cross-sectional HRTEM.

  16. Properties of nanostructured undoped ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolytes by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition for thin film solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Gu Young; Noh, Seungtak; Lee, Yoon Ho; Cha, Suk Won, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Sanghoon [Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Iui-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon Wook; Koo, Bongjun; Kim, Young-Beom, E-mail: ybkim@hanyang.ac.kr, E-mail: swcha@snu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); An, Jihwan [Manufacturing Systems and Design Engineering Programme, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, 232 Gongneung-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Nanostructured ZrO{sub 2} thin films were prepared by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) and by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). The effects of the deposition conditions of temperature, reactant, plasma power, and duration upon the physical and chemical properties of ZrO{sub 2} films were investigated. The ZrO{sub 2} films by PEALD were polycrystalline and had low contamination, rough surfaces, and relatively large grains. Increasing the plasma power and duration led to a clear polycrystalline structure with relatively large grains due to the additional energy imparted by the plasma. After characterization, the films were incorporated as electrolytes in thin film solid oxide fuel cells, and the performance was measured at 500 °C. Despite similar structure and cathode morphology of the cells studied, the thin film solid oxide fuel cell with the ZrO{sub 2} thin film electrolyte by the thermal ALD at 250 °C exhibited the highest power density (38 mW/cm{sup 2}) because of the lowest average grain size at cathode/electrolyte interface.

  17. The effect of ammonia upon the electrocatalysis of hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction on polycrystalline platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Hernandez-Fernandez, Patricia; Stephens, Ifan E.L.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of ammonium ions on the catalysis of hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction is studied by means of rotating ring-disk electrode experiments on polycrystalline platinum in perchloric acid. While ammonium does not affect the hydrogen oxidation reaction, the oxygen reduction reaction...

  18. Solvent-free synthesis of nanosized hierarchical sodalite zeolite with a multi-hollow polycrystalline structure

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Shangjing

    2016-08-03

    A solvent-free route is developed for preparing nanoscale sodalite zeolite with a multi-hollow structure. Furthermore, the synthesis of nanosized hollow sodalite polycrystalline aggregates with a mesoporous structure and high crystallinity is investigated by adding an organosilane surfactant as a mesopore-generating agent.

  19. CdTe polycrystalline films on Ni foil substrates by screen printing and their photoelectric performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Huizhen; Ma, Jinwen; Mu, Yannan; Su, Shi; Lv, Pin; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhou, Liying; Li, Xue; Liu, Li; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The sintered CdTe polycrystalline films by a simple screen printing. • The flexible Ni foil was chose as substrates to reduce the weight of the electrode. • The compact CdTe film was obtained at 550 °C sintering temperature. • The photoelectric activity of the CdTe polycrystalline films was excellent. - Abstract: CdTe polycrystalline films were prepared on flexible Ni foil substrates by sequential screen printing and sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere for the first time. The effect of temperature on the quality of the screen-printed film was investigated in our work. The high-quality CdTe films were obtained after sintering at 550 °C for 2 h. The properties of the sintered CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and UV–visible spectroscopy. The high-quality CdTe films have the photocurrent was 2.04 mA/cm 2 , which is higher than that of samples prepared at other temperatures. Furthermore, CdCl 2 treatment reduced the band gap of the CdTe film due to the larger grain size. The photocurrent of photoelectrode based on high crystalline CdTe polycrystalline films after CdCl 2 treatment improved to 2.97 mA/cm 2 , indicating a potential application in photovoltaic devices

  20. Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of reactive sputtered polycrystalline Ti1 - XCrxN films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaofei; Mi, Wenbo; Guo, Zaibing; Bai, Haili

    2013-01-01

    The reactive-sputtered polycrystalline Ti1 - xCrxN films with 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 are ferromagnetic and at x = 0.47 the Curie temperature TC shows a maximum of ~ 120 K. The films are metallic at 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.47, while the films with x = 0.51 and 0

  1. Determining grain resolved stresses in polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...

  2. Enhanced thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Bi2Te3 core fibers with preferentially oriented nanosheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi2Te3-based materials have been reported to be one of the best room-temperature thermoelectric materials, and it is a challenge to substantially improve their thermoelectric properties. Here novel Bi2Te3 core fibers with borosilicate glass cladding were fabricated utilizing a modified molten core drawing method. The Bi2Te3 core of the fiber was found to consist of hexagonal polycrystalline nanosheets, and polycrystalline nanosheets had a preferential orientation; in other words, the hexagonal Bi2Te3 lamellar cleavage more tended to be parallel to the symmetry axis of the fibers. Compared with a homemade 3-mm-diameter Bi2Te3 rod, the polycrystalline nanosheets’ preferential orientation in the 89-μm-diameter Bi2Te3 core increased its electrical conductivity, but deduced its Seebeck coefficient. The Bi2Te3 core exhibits an ultrahigh ZT of 0.73 at 300 K, which is 232% higher than that of the Bi2Te3 rod. The demonstration of fibers with oriented nano-polycrystalline core and the integration with an efficient fabrication technique will pave the way for the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric fibers.

  3. On the evolution of surface roughness during deformation of polycrystalline aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, WP; van Tijum, Redmer; de Hosson, JTM

    Surface roughening of polycrystalline Al-Mg alloys during tensile deformation is investigated using white light confocal microscopy. Materials are tested that differ only in grain size. A height-height correlation technique is used to analyze the data. The surface obeys self-affine scaling on length

  4. Effects of crystal structure and grain orientation on the roughness of deformed polycrystalline metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Onne; Vellinga, WP; van Tijum, Redmer; De Hosson, JTM

    Surface roughening during tensile deformation of polycrystalline aluminum, iron and zinc is investigated using white light confocal microscopy and orientation imaging microscopy. A height-height correlation technique is used to analyze the data. The surface obeys self-affine scaling on length scales

  5. The importance of surface morphology in controlling the selectivity of polycrystalline copper for CO(2) electroreduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Wei; Peterson, Andrew A; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This communication examines the effect of the surface morphology of polycrystalline copper on electroreduction of CO(2). We find that a copper nanoparticle covered electrode shows better selectivity towards hydrocarbons compared with the two other studied surfaces, an electropolished copper elect...

  6. Statistic derivation of Taylor factors for polycrystalline metals with application to pure magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, J.H.; Li, Y.L.; Wei, Q.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the Taylor factors of textured as well as texture-free polycrystalline aggregates. We begin with examining the Schmid factors of single crystals. A statistical model is then introduced to describe the distribution of grain orientations as well as the Schmid factor of individual grains of the polycrystalline system. The grains are classified into “soft” and “hard” ones. Based on this, a model is proposed for the derivation of the Taylor factors of textured as well as texture-free polycrystalline metals, and as a case study it is applied to polycrystalline magnesium. The model predictions are in very good agreement with the available experimental results. No free parameters have been involved in the development of this model, and the physical processes are clearly defined. Based on the fundamental assumption that grains can be classified into “soft” and “hard” in metals, this model should also be applicable to other hexagonal close packed metals such as α-titanium, beryllium and zirconium, as well as metals of other lattice structures such as face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic. It will also be interesting to see if this model can be incorporated into existing crystal plasticity models for the prediction of texture evolution under mechanical loading

  7. A comparative study of transport properties in polycrystalline and epitaxial chromium nitride films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, X. F.; Mi, Wenbo; Guo, Zaibing; Bai, Haili

    2013-01-01

    Polycrystalline CrNx films on Si(100) and glass substrates and epitaxial CrNx films on MgO(100) substrates were fabricated by reactive sputtering with different nitrogen gas flow rates (fN2). With the increase of fN2, a lattice phase transformation

  8. Synthesis and characterization of silicon-doped polycrystalline GaN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon-doped polycrystalline GaN films were successfully deposited at temperatures ranging from 300 to 623 K on fused silica and silicon substrates by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering at a system pressure of ~ 5 Pa. The films were characterized by optical as well as microstructural measurements. The optical ...

  9. Misoriented dislocation substructures and the fracture of polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, N. A.; Trishkina, L. I.; Cherkasova, T. V.; Kozlov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the dislocation substructure in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys with various grain sizes is studied during deformation to failure. A relation between the fracture of the alloys and the forming misorientation dislocation substructures is revealed. Microcracks in the alloy are found to form along grain boundaries and the boundaries of misoriented dislocation cells and microtwins.

  10. Zinc-substituted ZIF-67 nanocrystals and polycrystalline membranes for propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chongqing

    2016-09-09

    Continuous ZIF-67 polycrystalline membranes with effective propylene/propane separation performances were successfully fabricated through the incorporation of zinc ions into the ZIF-67 framework. The separation factor increases from 1.4 for the pure ZIF-67 membrane to 50.5 for the 90% zinc-substituted ZIF-67 membrane.

  11. Chemically deposited Sb2S3 thin films for optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B; O'Brien, J J; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb 2 S 3 thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 0 C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  12. Chemically deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optical recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B [Facultad de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P- 66450 (Mexico); O' Brien, J J; Liu, J, E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.m [Center for Nanoscience and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One Univ. Blvd., St. Louis, MO - 63121 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 {sup 0}C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  13. Molybdenum Doped SnO2 Thin Films as a Methanol Vapor Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Shriram B.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The molybdenum doped SnO2 thin films were synthesized by conventional spray pyrolysis route and has been investigated for the methanol vapor sensing. The structural and elemental composition analysis of thin films was carried out by X- ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX.The XRD spectrum revealed that the thin films have the polycrystalline nature with a mixed phase comprising of SnO2 and MoO3. The scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM clears that the surface morphology observed to be granular, uniformly covering the entire surface area of the thin film. The methanol vapor sensing studies were performed in dry air at the different temperatures. The influence of the concentration of Molybdenum and operating temperature on the sensor performance has been investigated.

  14. Implanted ZnO thin films: Microstructure, electrical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Metson, J.; Evans, P.J.; Kinsey, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline ZnO thin films were implanted using Al, Ag, Sn, Sb and codoped with TiN in order to improve the conductivity and to attempt to achieve p-type behaviour. Structural and electrical properties of the implanted ZnO thin films were examined with X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductivity measurements. Depth profiles of the implanted elements varied with the implant species. Implantation causes a partial amorphisation of the crystalline structure and decreases the effective grain size of the films. One of the findings is the improvement, as a consequence of implantation, in the conductivity of initially poorly conductive samples. Heavy doping may help for the conversion of conduction type of ZnO thin films. Annealing in vacuum mitigated structural damage and stress caused by implantation, and improved the conductivity of the implanted ZnO thin films

  15. Ultra-thin film encapsulation processes for micro-electro-mechanical devices and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoldt, Conrad R; Bright, Victor M

    2006-01-01

    A range of physical properties can be achieved in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) through their encapsulation with solid-state, ultra-thin coatings. This paper reviews the application of single source chemical vapour deposition and atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the growth of submicron films on polycrystalline silicon microstructures for the improvement of microscale reliability and performance. In particular, microstructure encapsulation with silicon carbide, tungsten, alumina and alumina-zinc oxide alloy ultra-thin films is highlighted, and the mechanical, electrical, tribological and chemical impact of these overlayers is detailed. The potential use of solid-state, ultra-thin coatings in commercial microsystems is explored using radio frequency MEMS as a case study for the ALD alloy alumina-zinc oxide thin film. (topical review)

  16. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO x thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO x thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh 3+ and Rh n+ . We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO x thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO x thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties

  17. Structural and electrical properties of CZTS thin films by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. C.; Basha, Sk. Shahenoor

    2018-06-01

    CZTS (Cu2ZnSnS4) thin films were coated on ITO glass substrates by single bath electrodeposition technique. The prepared films were subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman studies. The thickness of the thin films was measured by wedge method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of polycrystalline phase. The morphological surface of the prepared thin films was examined by SEM and AFM and showed the presence of microcrystals on the surface of the samples. The elemental analysis and their compositional ratios present in the samples were confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Functional groups and the position of band structure involved in the materials were confirmed by FTIR. Optical absorption studies were performed on the prepared thin films in the wavelength ranging from 300 to 1000 nm and the energy bandgap values were found to be in the range from 1.39 to 1.60 eV. Raman spectral peak which was observed at 360 cm-1 correspond to kesterite phase, was formed due to the vibration of the molecules. Electrical measurements confirmed the nature of the thin film depending on the charge concentration present in the samples.

  18. Self-assembly of dodecaphenyl POSS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handke, Bartosz; Klita, Łukasz; Niemiec, Wiktor

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly abilities of Dodecaphenyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane thin films on Si(1 0 0) surfaces were studied. Due to their thermal properties - relatively low sublimation temperature and preservation of molecular structure - cage type silsesquioxanes are ideal material for the preparation of a thin films by Physical Vapor Deposition. The Ultra-High Vacuum environment and the deposition precision of the PVD method enable the study of early stages of thin film growth and its molecular organization. X-ray Reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements allow to pursuit size-effects in the structure of thin films with thickness ranges from less than a single molecular layer up to several tens of layers. Thermal treatment of the thin films triggered phase change: from a poorly ordered polycrystalline film into a well-ordered multilayer structure. Self-assembly of the layers is the effect of the π-stacking of phenyl rings, which force molecules to arrange in a superlattice, forming stacks of alternating organic-inorganic layers.

  19. Nanofrictional behavior of amorphous, polycrystalline and textured Y-Cr-O films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervacio-Arciniega, J.J.; Flores-Ruiz, F.J.; Diliegros-Godines, C.J.; Broitman, E.; Enriquez-Flores, C.I.; Espinoza-Beltrán, F.J.; Siqueiros, J.; Cruz, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Friction coefficient (μ) of ferroelectric textured and polycrystalline YCrO_3 films. • A simple method to evaluate μ from a single AFM image is presented. • The AFM-cantilever spring constant was determined from its dynamic response. • Polycrystalline and amorphous films have a lower μ than textured samples. - Abstract: Differences in friction coefficients (μ) of ferroelectric YCrO_3, textured and polycrystalline films, and non-ferroelectric Y-Cr-O films are analyzed. The friction coefficient was evaluated by atomic force microscopy using a simple quantitative procedure where the dependence of friction force with the applied load is obtained in only one topographical image. A simple code was developed with the MATLAB"® software to analyze the experimental data. The code includes a correction of the hysteresis in the forward and backward scanning directions. The quantification of load exerted on the sample surface was obtained by finite element analysis of the AFM cantilever starting from its experimental dynamic information. The results show that the ferroelectric YCrO_3 film deposited on a Pt(150 nm)/TiO_2(30 nm)/SiO_2/Si (100) substrate is polycrystalline and has a lower friction coefficient than the deposited on SrTiO_3 (110), which is highly textured. From a viewpoint of industrial application in ferroelectric memories, where the writing process is electrical or mechanically achieved by sliding AFM tips on the sample, polycrystalline YCrO_3 films seem to be the best candidates due to their lower μ.

  20. Influence of ammonia flow rate for improving properties of polycrystalline GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, A.; Ahmad, M. A.; Hassan, Z.; Zainal, N.

    2018-06-01

    Post-annealing treatment in ammonia ambient is widely accepted for GaN material, but less works have been done to investigate the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow rate for reducing the N-deficiency as well as improving the quality of the material. In this work, we investigated the influence of NH3 flow rate at 1, 2, 3, and 4 slm in improving properties of a ∼1 μm thick polycrystalline GaN layer. Our simulation work suggested that the uniformity of temperature and pressure gradient of the NH3 gas did not lead to the reduction of N-deficiency of the polycrystalline GaN layer. Instead, it was found that the mitigation of the N-deficiency was strongly influenced by the fluid velocity of the NH3 gas, which had passed over the layer. Either at lower or higher fluid velocity, the chance for the active N atoms to incorporate into the GaN lattice structure was low. Therefore, the N-deficiency on the polycrystalline GaN layer could not be minimized under these conditions. As measured by EDX, the N atoms incorporation was the most effective when the NH3 flow rate at 3 slm, suggesting the flow rate significantly improved the N-deficiency of the polycrystalline GaN layer. Furthermore, it favored the formation of larger hexagonal faceted grains, with the smallest FWHM of XRD peaks from the GaN diffractions in (10 1 bar 0), (0002) and (10 1 bar 1) orientations, while allowing the polycrystalline GaN layer to show sharp and intense emissions peak of NBE in a PL spectrum.

  1. Nanofrictional behavior of amorphous, polycrystalline and textured Y-Cr-O films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervacio-Arciniega, J.J. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Flores-Ruiz, F.J., E-mail: fcojfloresr@gmail.com [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Diliegros-Godines, C.J. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Broitman, E. [Thin Film Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Enriquez-Flores, C.I.; Espinoza-Beltrán, F.J. [CINVESTAV Unidad Querétaro, Lib. Norponiente 2000, Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Querétaro, Qro. (Mexico); Siqueiros, J.; Cruz, M.P. [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Friction coefficient (μ) of ferroelectric textured and polycrystalline YCrO{sub 3} films. • A simple method to evaluate μ from a single AFM image is presented. • The AFM-cantilever spring constant was determined from its dynamic response. • Polycrystalline and amorphous films have a lower μ than textured samples. - Abstract: Differences in friction coefficients (μ) of ferroelectric YCrO{sub 3}, textured and polycrystalline films, and non-ferroelectric Y-Cr-O films are analyzed. The friction coefficient was evaluated by atomic force microscopy using a simple quantitative procedure where the dependence of friction force with the applied load is obtained in only one topographical image. A simple code was developed with the MATLAB{sup ®} software to analyze the experimental data. The code includes a correction of the hysteresis in the forward and backward scanning directions. The quantification of load exerted on the sample surface was obtained by finite element analysis of the AFM cantilever starting from its experimental dynamic information. The results show that the ferroelectric YCrO{sub 3} film deposited on a Pt(150 nm)/TiO{sub 2}(30 nm)/SiO{sub 2}/Si (100) substrate is polycrystalline and has a lower friction coefficient than the deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} (110), which is highly textured. From a viewpoint of industrial application in ferroelectric memories, where the writing process is electrical or mechanically achieved by sliding AFM tips on the sample, polycrystalline YCrO{sub 3} films seem to be the best candidates due to their lower μ.

  2. Formation of VO{sub 2} by rapid thermal annealing and cooling of sputtered vanadium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ba, Cheikhou O. F., E-mail: cheikhou.ba.1@ulaval.ca; Fortin, Vincent; Bah, Souleymane T.; Vallée, Réal [Centre d' optique, photonique et laser (COPL), Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Pandurang, Ashrit [Thin Films and Photonics Research Group (GCMP), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Université de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick E1A 3E9 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Sputtered vanadium-rich films were subjected to rapid thermal annealing-cooling (RTAC) in air to produce vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films with thermochromic switching behavior. High heating and cooling rates in the thermal oxidation process provided an increased ability to control the film's microstructure. X-ray diffraction patterns of the films revealed less intense VO{sub 2} peaks compared to traditional polycrystalline samples fabricated with a standard (slower) cooling time. Such films also exhibit a high optical switching reflectance contrast, unlike the traditional polycrystalline VO{sub 2} thin films, which show a more pronounced transmittance switching. The authors find that the RTAC process stabilizes the VO{sub 2} (M2) metastable phase, enabling a rutile-semiconductor phase transition (R-M2), followed by a semiconductor–semiconductor phase transition (M2-M1).

  3. Effect of Ag doping on opto-electrical properties of CdS thin films for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, Adnan; Toma, Andrea; Shah, Nazar Abbas; Panaro, Simone; Butt, Sajid; Sagar, Rizwan ur Rehman; Raja, Waseem; Rasool, Kamran; Maqsood, Asghari

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline CdS thin films are fabricated by means of Close Spaced Sublimation technique. • Ag is doped by simple ion-exchange technique in order to reduce resistivity of CdS thin films. • Remarkable reduction in resistivity without introducing many transparency losses. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) polycrystalline thin films of different thicknesses (ranging from 370 nm to 750 nm) were fabricated on corning glass substrates using Close Spaced Sublimation (CSS) technique. Optical and electrical investigation revealed that CdS thin films show an appreciable transparency (50–70% transmission) in visible range and a highly resistive behavior (10 6 Ω cm). Samples were doped by silver (Ag) at different concentrations, using ion exchange technique, in order to reduce the resistivity of CdS thin films and to improve their efficiency as a window layer for solar cell application. The doping of Ag in pure CdS thin films resulted into an increase of surface roughness and a decrease both in electrical resistivity and in transparency. By optimizing annealing parameters, we were able to properly control the optical properties of the present system. In fact, the Ag doping of pure CdS films has led to a decrease of the sample resistivity by three orders of magnitude (10 3 Ω cm) against a 20% cut in optical transmission

  4. Microscopic hole-transfer efficiency in organic thin-film transistors studied with charge-modulation spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Ishino, Yuuta; Watanabe, Kazuya; Uemura, Takafumi; Takeya, Jun; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2015-01-01

    While the microscopic transfer properties of carriers are of primary importance for carrier transport of organic semiconductors, the mesoscopic features including the morphologies of grains and the structure of grain boundaries limit the overall carrier transport particularly in polycrystalline organic thin films. Thus the conventional evaluation methods of carrier mobility that rely on macroscopic properties such as I−V curves of devices are not capable to determine carrier transfer probabil...

  5. Study of sputtered ZnO thin films on SiO2 and GaP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brath, T.; Buc, D.; Kovac, J.; Hrnciar, V.; Caplovic, L.

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated n-ZnO polycrystalline thin films prepared on SiO 2 and p-GaP substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. The structural and electrical properties of these structures were studied. The measured parameters give promising results with a possibility to utilize n-ZnO/p-GaP heterostructure for application in the solar cells development especially in the field of nanostructures. The prepared structures will be a subject of further research. (authors)

  6. Substrate Independence of THz Vibrational Modes of Polycrystalline Thin Films of Molecular Solids in Waveguide THz-TDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    2001). 2J. Zhang and D. Grischkowsky, Opt. Lett. 19, 1617 (2004). 3J. S. Melinger, N. Laman , S. Sree Harsha, and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett...89, 251110 (2006). 4N. Laman , S. Sree Harsha, D. Grischkowsky, and J. S. Melinger, Biophys. J. 94, 1010 (2008). 5N. Laman , S. Sree Harsha, and D...Grischkowsky, Appl. Spect. 62, 319 (2008). 6J. S. Melinger, N. Laman , and D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011102 (2008). 7J. S. Melinger, S. Sree

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POLYCRYSTALLINE AND THIN-FILM PHOTOVOLTAIC FARM IN THE DOLINA ZIELAWY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dragan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an opportunity not only to improve the energy efficiency of individual customers, but also to ensure energy security for local governments. In 2007, in Lublin province 5 municipalities have formed a partnership government called "Valley of Zielawa". The objectives of the partnership is the cooperation in the field of education, tasks in the field of culture, health protection, social welfare, fire protection and street lighting. One of the overarching goals of the partnership include ensure energy security and improving energy efficiency through the utilization of solar energy. Solar energy resources in the Lublin region are mainly characterized by a very high degree of sunlight compared to other regions of the country. The greatest potential for solar energy use is the eastern area of the province (including the area of partnership. In order to ensure the energy security of the community established a company Energy Valley of Zielawa, which in 2014 built a photovoltaic farm with a capacity of 1.4 MW in the Bordziłówka in Municipality Rossosz. This paper presents an analysis of photovoltaic farm work over the year and a half and the analysis of the energy efficiency of various types of photovoltaic panels which produce energy on a farm in photovoltaic Bordziłówce.

  8. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. I. Shape of polycrystalline product domains versus constraints and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.; Watelle, G.

    1980-03-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with varying crystallographic orientations. The morphological and kinetic features of the trihydrate domains were examined. Different shapes were observed: polygons (parallelograms, hexagons) and ellipses; their conditions of occurrence are reported in the (P, T) diagram. At first (for about 2 min), the ratio of the long to the short axes of elliptical domains changes with time; these subsequently develop homothetically and the rate ratio is then only pressure dependent. Temperature influence is inferred from that of pressure. Polygonal shapes are time dependent and result in ellipses. So far, no model can be put forward. Yet, qualitatively, the polygonal shape of a domain may be explained by the prevalence of the crystal arrangement and the elliptical shape by that of the solid tensorial properties. The influence of those factors might be modulated versus pressure, temperature, interface extent, and, thus, time.

  9. Thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, 1 April 1980-30 June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, K. R.; Rice, M. J.; Legge, R.; Ellis, R. J.

    1980-06-01

    During this third quarter of the program, the high pressure plasma (hpp) deposition process has been thoroughly evaluated using SiHCl/sub 3/ and SiCl/sub 4/ silicon source gases, by the gas chromatographic analysis of the effluent gases from the reactor. Both the deposition efficiency and reactor throughput rate were found to be consistently higher for hpp mode of operation compared to conventional CVD mode. The figure of merit for various chlorosilanes as a silicon source gas for hpp deposition is discussed. A new continuous silicon film deposition scheme is developed, and system design is initiated. This new system employs gas interlocks and eliminates the need for gas curtains which have been found to be problematic. Solar cells (2 cm x 2 cm area) with AM1 efficiencies of up to 12% were fabricated on RTR grain enhanced hpp deposited films. The parameters of a 12% cell under simulated AM1 illumination were: V/sub OC/ = 0.582 volts, J/sub SC/ = 28.3 mA/cm/sup 2/ and F.F. = 73.0%.

  10. Investigations on electrical, magnetic and optical behaviors of five-layered Aurivillius Bi6Ti3Fe2O18 polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, W.; Xu, W.F.; Wu, J.; Zhu, J.Y.; Chen, G.; Yang, J.; Lin, T.; Meng, X.J.; Tang, X.D.; Chu, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Five-layered Aurivillius Bi 6 Ti 3 Fe 2 O 18 (BTF2) polycrystalline thin films were prepared by a chemical solution deposition route. The crystalline structures and microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, micro-Raman spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. Its electrical and magnetic properties were investigated, and especially optical properties were addressed in detail. Coexistence of the ferroelectric and weak ferromagnetic properties indicated the multiferroic behavior of the BTF2 films. The optical dielectric functions in the photon energy range of 1.13–4.13 eV have been extracted by fitting the experimental data in the light of the Tauc–Lorentz dispersion model. A direct interband transition with bandgap energy ∼ 3.72 eV was determined for the BTF2 films. The weak absorption below band-gap edge was explained by the Urbach band tail rule. Finally, the optical dispersion behaviors of the BTF2 films in the transparent oscillating region were described using a single oscillator model. - Highlights: ► Five-layered Aurivillius Bi 6 Ti 3 Fe 2 O 18 (BTF2) thin films were prepared. ► Electrical and magnetic properties of the BTF2 films were investigated. ► Optical properties of the BTF2 films were especially addressed in detail.

  11. Cu2SixSn1-xS3 Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering For Low-Cost Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chang; Liu, Fang-Yang; Lai, Yan-Qing; Li, Jie; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2SixSn1-xS3 thin films for thin film solar cell absorbers using the reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique. Energy dispersive spectrometer and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate that Cu2Si1-xSnxS3 thin films can be synthesized successfully by partly substituting Si atoms for Sn atoms in the Cu2SnS3 lattice, leading to a shrinkage of the lattice, and, accordingly, by 2θ shifting to larger values. The blue shift of the Raman peak further confirms the formation of Cu2SixSn1-xS3. Environmental scanning electron microscope analyses reveal a polycrystalline and homogeneous morphology with a grain size of about 200-300 nm. Optical measurements indicate an optical absorption coefficient of higher than 104 cm-1 and an optical bandgap of 1.17±0.01 eV.

  12. Thin-Film Transformation of NH4 PbI3 to CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite: A Methylamine-Induced Conversion-Healing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yingxia; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Ju, Minggang; Garces, Hector F; Krause, Amanda R; Ji, Fuxiang; Cui, Guanglei; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Padture, Nitin P; Pang, Shuping

    2016-11-14

    Methylamine-induced thin-film transformation at room-temperature is discovered, where a porous, rough, polycrystalline NH 4 PbI 3 non-perovskite thin film converts stepwise into a dense, ultrasmooth, textured CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite thin film. Owing to the beneficial phase/structural development of the thin film, its photovoltaic properties undergo dramatic enhancement during this NH 4 PbI 3 -to-CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 transformation process. The chemical origins of this transformation are studied at various length scales. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of coating thickness on interfacial shear behavior of zirconia-coated sapphire fibers in a polycrystalline alumina matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmann, J.R.; Chou, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of zirconia (ZrO 2 ) interfacial coatings on the interfacial shear behavior in sapphire reinforced alumina was examined in this study. Zirconia coatings of thicknesses ranging from 0.15 to 1.45 μm were applied to single crystal sapphire (Saphikon) fibers using a particulate loaded sol dipping technique. After calcining at 1,100 C in air, the coated fibers were incorporated into a polycrystalline alumina matrix via hot pressing. Interfacial shear strength and sliding behavior of the coated fibers was examined using thin-slice indentation fiber pushout and pushback techniques. In all cases, debonding and sliding occurred at the interface between the fibers and the coating. The coatings exhibited a dense microstructure and led to a higher interfacial shear strength (> 240 MPa) and interfacial sliding stress (> 75 MPa) relative to previous studies on the effect of a porous interphase on interfacial properties. The interfacial shear strength decreased with increasing fiber coating thickness (from 389 ± 59 to 241 ± 43 MPa for 0.15 to 1.45 microm thick coatings, respectively). Sliding behavior exhibited load modulation with increasing displacement during fiber sliding which is characteristic of fiber roughness-induced stick-slip. The high interfacial shear strengths and sliding stresses measured in this study, as well as the potentially strength degrading surface reconstruction observed on the coated fibers after hot pressing and heat treatment, indicate that dense zirconia coatings are not suitable candidates for optimizing composite toughness and strength in the sapphire fiber reinforced alumina system

  14. Effective hydrogenation and surface damage induced by MW-ECR plasma of fine-grained polycrystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madi, D. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS)-CNRS/UdS, Strasbourg (France); Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Jijel (Algeria); Prathap, P.; Focsa, A.; Slaoui, A. [Institut d' Electronique du Solide et des Systemes (InESS)-CNRS/UdS, Strasbourg (France); Birouk, B. [Universite de Jijel, Laboratoire d' Etudes et de Modelisation en Electrotechnique (LAMEL), Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Jijel (Algeria)

    2010-06-15

    This work reports the investigations on the effects of the hydrogenation process of thin film polycrystalline n{sup +}pp{sup +} mesa silicon cells using MW-ECR plasma in a conventional PECVD system. Different operating parameters such as MW-ECR power, annealing temperature and the doping level of the emitter region were varied. The n{sup +}-type emitter regions were obtained by phosphorus diffusion in a conventional furnace using an oxide doping source containing phosphorus (P507 or P509 solutions, from Filmtronics Inc.). The MW hydrogenation was carried out at a sample temperature of 400 C for 60 min. Both types of emitters formed from P507 and P509 showed V{sub oc} of 155 mV and 206 mV, which increased linearly to 305 mV and 331 mV, respectively, after hydrogenation when the MW power varied from 200 to 650 W. However, the sheet resistances of the n{sup +} emitter region showed a slight increase depending upon hydrogenation power because of its etching. In a further study, hydrogenated samples were annealed in neutral or forming gas (FG) and we observed interesting results on V{sub oc} in the presence of FG. The FG annealing temperature study revealed a strong dependence of V{sub oc} on MW power, which affected the etching level of emitter and emitter dopant concentration, which controls the diffusion of hydrogen ions during post-hydrogenation step. The results were explained in detail by combining the effects of MW power and dopant level of the emitter. (orig.)

  15. Influence of strain and polycrystalline ordering on magnetic properties of high moment rare earth metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, G; Ward, C; Hendren, W R; Bowman, R M; Lapicki, A A; Hardeman, R; Mooney, M; Gubbins, M

    2014-01-01

    Despite being the most suitable candidates for solenoid pole pieces in state-of-the-art superconductor-based electromagnets, the intrinsic magnetic properties of heavy rare earth metals and their alloys have gained comparatively little attention. With the potential of integration in micro and nanoscale devices, thin films of Gd, Dy, Tb, DyGd and DyTb were plasma-sputtered and investigated for their in-plane magnetic properties, with an emphasis on magnetization versus temperature profiles. Based on crystal structure analysis of the polycrystalline rare earth films, which consist of a low magnetic moment fcc layer at the seed interface topped with a higher moment hcp layer, an experimental protocol is introduced which allows the direct magnetic analysis of the individual layers. In line with the general trend of heavy lanthanides, the saturation magnetization was found to drop with increasing unit cell size. In situ annealed rare earth films exceeded the saturation magnetization of a high-moment Fe 65 Co 35 reference film in the cryogenic temperature regime, proving their potential for pole piece applications; however as-deposited rare earth films were found completely unsuitable. In agreement with theoretical predictions, sufficiently strained crystal phases of Tb and Dy did not exhibit an incommensurate magnetic order, unlike their single-crystal counterparts which have a helical phase. DyGd and DyTb alloys followed the trends of the elemental rare earth metals in terms of crystal structure and magnetic properties. Inter-rare-earth alloys hence present a desirable blend of saturation magnetization and operating temperature. (paper)

  16. Growth and characterisation of potentiostatically electrodeposited Cu2O and Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesundera, R.P.; Hidaka, M.; Koga, K.; Sakai, M.; Siripala, W.

    2006-01-01

    Cuprous oxide and copper thin films were potentiostatically electrodeposited in an acetate bath. Voltammetric curves were used to investigate the growth parameters; deposition potential, pH and temperature of the bath. Deposition potential dependency on the structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of the films were investigated by the X-ray diffraction measurements, scanning electron micrographs, absorption measurements and dark and light current-voltage characterisations. It was observed that single phase polycrystalline Cu 2 O can be deposited from 0 to - 300 mV Vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) and co-deposition of Cu and Cu 2 O starts at - 400 mV Vs SCE. Further increase in deposition potential from - 700 mV Vs SCE produces single phase Cu thin films. Single phase polycrystalline Cu 2 O thin films with cubic grains of 1-2 μm can be possible within the very narrow potential domain around - 200 mV Vs SCE. Enhanced photoresponse in a photoelectrochemical cell is produced by the Cu 2 O thin film prepared at - 400 mV Vs SCE, where Cu is co-deposited with Cu 2 O with random distribution of Cu spheres on the Cu 2 O surface. This study reveals that a single deposition bath can be used to deposit both Cu and Cu 2 O separately and an admixture of Cu-Cu 2 O by controlling the deposition parameters

  17. LaF3 thin films as chemically sensitive material for semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeponik, J.; Moritz, W.; Sellam, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new kind of semiconductor based fluoride sensor was prepared by growing thin polycrystalline LaF 3 films directly on silicon substrates using vacuum vapour deposition technique. The EICS (Electrolyte Ion Conductor Semiconductor) structure was investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy, C-V measurements and exchange measurements with labeled ions ( 18 F). Whereas charge and potential conditions at the LaF 3 /electrolyte interface are governed by the fast fluoride exchange the LaF 3 bulk and the blocked Si/LaF 3 interface determine the electrical behavior. Although the Si/LaF 3 contact is not reversible the potential stability of the EICS structure is surprisingly high. Additional results at epitaxial LaF 3 layers, prepared by MBE, were taken into account for comparision with those at polycrystalline layers. (orig.)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of lead sulphide thin films from ethanolamine (ETA) complexing agent chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashaw Hone, Fekadu; Dejene, F. B.

    2018-02-01

    Polycrystalline lead sulphide (PbS) thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition route using ethanolamine (ETA) as a complexing agent. The effects of ETA molar concentration on the structural, morphological, electrical and optical properties of lead sulphide thin films were thoroughly studied. The XRD analyses revealed that all the deposited thin films were face center cubic crystal structure and their preferred orientations were varied along the (111) and (200) planes. The XRD results further confirmed that ETA concentration had a significant effects on the strain, average crystalline size and dislocation density of the deposited thin films. The SEM studies illustrated the evolution and transformation of surface morphology as ETA molar concentration increased from 0.41 M to 1.64 M. The energy dispersive x-ray analysis was used to verify the compositional elements of the deposited thin films. Optical spectroscopy investigation established that the band gap of the PbS thin films were reduced from 0.98 eV to 0.68 eV as ETA concentration increased. The photoluminescence spectra showed a well defined peak at 428 nm and shoulder around 468 nm for all PbS thin films. The electrical resistivity of the thin films found in the order of 103 Ω cm at room temperature and decreased as the ETA molar concentration was increased.

  19. The structural and optical characterizations of tetraphenylporphyrin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, M.M., E-mail: m_makhlof@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science at Turabah branch, Taif University, Turabah, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); El-Denglawey, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science at Turabah branch, Taif University, Turabah, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Zeyada, H.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); El-Nahass, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-03-15

    X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural properties of tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, which is polycrystalline in a synthesized condition. It turns to amorphous structure upon thermal deposition. Annealing temperature ranging from 295 to 473 K does not influence the amorphous structure of films. The optical properties of TPP were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range of 200–2200 nm. The absorption spectra were recorded in UV–visible region of spectra for the as-deposited and annealed samples show different absorption bands, namely four bands labeled as Q-band in visible region of spectra and a more intense band termed as the Soret band in near UV region of spectra. The Soret band shows its splitting (Davydov splitting). Two other bands labeled N and M appear in UV region. The film thickness has no influence on optical properties of films while annealing temperatures have a slight influence on optical properties of TPP films. The type of optical transition in as deposited and annealed conditions of films was found to be indirect allowed band-gap. Both fundamental and onset energy gap decreases upon annealing. -- Highlights: • Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) is polycrystalline in powder form, while the as-deposited and annealed TPP thin films have amorphous structure. • The absorption spectra of TPP in UV–visible region consists of Q-bands, Soret band and two other bands labeled N and M. • The optical parameters of TPP thin film were measured. • Thermal annealing influences optical properties of TPP thin films.

  20. The structural and optical characterizations of tetraphenylporphyrin thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, M.M.; El-Denglawey, A.; Zeyada, H.M.; El-Nahass, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural properties of tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, which is polycrystalline in a synthesized condition. It turns to amorphous structure upon thermal deposition. Annealing temperature ranging from 295 to 473 K does not influence the amorphous structure of films. The optical properties of TPP were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range of 200–2200 nm. The absorption spectra were recorded in UV–visible region of spectra for the as-deposited and annealed samples show different absorption bands, namely four bands labeled as Q-band in visible region of spectra and a more intense band termed as the Soret band in near UV region of spectra. The Soret band shows its splitting (Davydov splitting). Two other bands labeled N and M appear in UV region. The film thickness has no influence on optical properties of films while annealing temperatures have a slight influence on optical properties of TPP films. The type of optical transition in as deposited and annealed conditions of films was found to be indirect allowed band-gap. Both fundamental and onset energy gap decreases upon annealing. -- Highlights: • Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) is polycrystalline in powder form, while the as-deposited and annealed TPP thin films have amorphous structure. • The absorption spectra of TPP in UV–visible region consists of Q-bands, Soret band and two other bands labeled N and M. • The optical parameters of TPP thin film were measured. • Thermal annealing influences optical properties of TPP thin films

  1. Mn-implanted, polycrystalline indium tin oxide and indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Xu Qingyu; Buerger, Danilo; Zhou Shengqiang; Kolitsch, Andreas; Grenzer, Joerg; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline conducting, ca. 250 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) films grown on SiO 2 /Si substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, have been implanted with 1 and 5 at.% of Mn, followed by annealing in nitrogen or in vacuum. The effect of the post-growth treatment on the structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties has been studied. The roughness of implanted films ranges between 3 and 15 nm and XRD measurements revealed a polycrystalline structure. A positive MR has been observed for Mn-implanted and post-annealed ITO and IO films. It has been interpreted by considering s-d exchange. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to prove the existence of midgap electronic states in the Mn-implanted ITO and IO films reducing the transmittance below 80%.

  2. Weak antilocalization and low-temperature characterization of sputtered polycrystalline bismuth selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Protyush; Chen, Jun-Yang; Myers, Jason C.; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We report a thorough crystal and transport characterization of sputtered polycrystalline BixSe1 -x (20 nm), grown on a thermally oxidized silicon substrate. The crystal and grain structures of the sample are characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Selected-area electron diffraction shows a highly polycrystalline structure. Transport measurements suggest semiconducting behavior of the BixSe1 -x film with a very high carrier concentration (˜1020 cm3) and low mobility [˜8 cm2/(V s)]. High-field magnetoresistance measurements reveal weak antilocalization, to which both the low mobility and the angular dependence suggest an impurity-dominated contribution. Fitting parameters are obtained from 2D magnetoconductivity using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka equation. The variation of the phase coherence length with temperature suggests electron-electron scattering for phase decoherence. Electron-electron interaction theory is used to analyze the low-temperature conductivity.

  3. Impact of Joule heating, roughness, and contaminants on the relative hardness of polycrystalline gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeze, Christopher R; Ji, Xiaoyin; Irving, Douglas L; Kingon, Angus I

    2013-01-01

    Asperities play a central role in the mechanical and electrical properties of contacting surfaces. Changes in trends of uniaxial compression of an asperity tip in contact with a polycrystalline substrate as a function of substrate geometry, compressive stress and applied voltage are investigated here by implementation of a coupled continuum and atomistic approach. Surprisingly, an unmodified Au polycrystalline substrate is found to be softer than one containing a void for conditions of high stress and an applied voltage of 0.2 V. This is explained in terms of the temperature distribution and weakening of Au as a function of temperature. The findings in this communication are important to the design of materials for electrical contacts because applied conditions may play a role in reversing relative hardness of the materials for conditions experienced during operation. (fast track communication)

  4. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  5. The effect of crystal symmetry on the maximum polarization of polycrystalline ferroelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Jacob L.

    2010-01-01

    In polycrystalline ceramics, the degree of domain orientation in all possible crystal orientations contributes to the total realizable polarization. The extent to which domains are oriented towards an applied field can be described by a polarization distribution function. Such representations are calculated and presented in the present work for several different crystal systems including monoclinic symmetries that exhibit a polarization rotation mechanism. The relationship between the polarization distribution functions and the attainable macroscopic polarization is also developed for polycrystalline ceramics that are initially randomly oriented. In these cases, polarization rotation allows a significant degree of preferred orientation parallel to the electric field (>1000 multiples of a random distribution). However, the fraction of single crystal polarization that can be achieved (97.5%) is only marginally better than those of higher crystal symmetry.

  6. Modeling elasto-plastic behavior of polycrystalline grain structure of steels at mesoscopic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, Marko; Cizelj, Leon

    2005-01-01

    The multiscale model is proposed to explicitly account for the inhomogeneous structure of polycrystalline materials. Grains and grain boundaries are modeled explicitly using Voronoi tessellation. The constitutive model of crystal grains utilizes anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity. Commercially available finite element code is applied to solve the boundary value problem defined at the macroscopic scale. No assumption regarding the distribution of the mesoscopic strain and stress fields is used, apart the finite element discretization. The proposed model is then used to estimate the minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate of selected reactor pressure vessel steel (22 NiMoCr 3 7), above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. Elastic and rate-independent plastic deformation modes are considered. The results are validated by the experimental and simulation results from the literature

  7. The three-dimensional microstructure of polycrystalline materials unravelled by synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, W.; Herbig, M.; Ludwig, W.; King, A; Reischig, P.; Marrow, J.; Babout, L.; Mejdal Lauridsen, E.; Proudhon, H.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer new possibilities for non-destructive bulk characterization of polycrystalline materials. Minute changes in electron density (different crystallographic phases, cracks, porosities) can be detected using 3D imaging modes exploiting Fresnel diffraction and the coherence properties of third generation synchrotron beams. X-ray diffraction contrast tomography, a technique based on Bragg diffraction imaging, provides access to the 3D shape, orientation and elastic strain state of the individual grains from polycrystalline sample volumes containing several hundred up to a few thousand grains. Combining both imaging modalities allows a comprehensive description of the microstructure of the material at the micrometer length scale. Repeated observations during (interrupted) mechanical tests provide unprecedented insight into crystallographic and grain microstructure related aspects of polycrystal deformation and degradation mechanisms in materials, fulfilling some conditions on grain size and deformation state. (authors)

  8. Effect of texture on grain boundary misorientation distributions in polycrystalline high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Specht, E.D.; Kroeger, D.M.; Mason, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Computer simulations were performed to determine the most probable grain boundary misorientation distribution (GBMD) in model polycrystalline superconductors. GBMDs in polycrystalline superconductors can be expected to dictate the macroscopic transport critical current density, J c . Calculations were performed by simulating model polycrystals and then determining the GBMD. Such distributions were calculated for random materials having cubic, tetragonal, and orthorhombic crystal symmetry. In addition, since most high temperature superconductors are tetragonal or pseudotetragonal, the effect of macroscopic uniaxial and biaxial grain orientation texture on the GBMD was determined for tetragonal materials. It is found that macroscopic texture drastically alters the grain boundary misorientation distribution. The fraction of low angle boundaries increases significantly with uniaxial and biaxial texture. The results of this study are important in correlating the macroscopic transport J c with the measured grain orientation texture as determined by x-ray diffraction copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. High-pressure-assisted synthesis of high-volume ZnGeP2 polycrystalline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changbao; Wu, Haixin; Xiao, Ruichun; Chen, Shijing; Ma, Jiaren

    2018-06-01

    The pnictide and chalcogenide semiconductors are promising materials for the applications in the field of photoelectric. High-purity and high-volume polycrystalline required in the real-world applications is hard to be synthesized due to the high vapor pressure of phosphorus and sulfur components at high temperature. A new high-pressure-resisted method was used to investigate the synthesis of the nonlinear-optical semiconductor ZnGeP2. The high-purity ZnGeP2 polycrystalline material of approximately 500 g was synthesized in one run, which enables the preparation of nominally stoichiometric material. Since increasing internal pressure resistance of quartz crucible and reducing the reaction space, the high-pressure-resisted method can be used to rapidly synthesize other pnictide and chalcogenide semiconductors and control the components ratio.

  10. Oxygen deficiency in MoO{sub 3} polycrystalline nanowires and nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlec, Ana, E-mail: ana.varlec@ijs.si [Condensed Matter Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Arčon, Denis [Condensed Matter Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska cesta 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Škapin, Srečo D. [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Condensed Matter Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the synthesis of polycrystalline molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanowires via oxidation of molybdenum-sulfur-iodine (Mo{sub 6}S{sub 2}I{sub 8}) nanowires. This unique synthesis route results in an interesting morphology comprising porous nanowires and nanotubes. We found the nanowires to have the orthorhombic MoO{sub 3} structure. The structure is slightly oxygen deficient which results in the appearance of a new resonant Raman band (1004 cm{sup −1}) and paramagnetic defects (Mo{sup 5+}) of both the point and crystallographic shear plane nature. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline MoO{sub 3} nanowires were obtained via oxidation of Mo{sub 6}S{sub 2}I{sub 8} nanowires. • Nanowires are porous and tubular with either filled or empty interior. • Nanowires are slightly oxygen deficient which leads to a new Raman band.

  11. Diffusion phenomena in polycrystalline chromium near the upper homological temperature of intercrystalline diffusion manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajgorodov, V.N.; Klothman, S.M.; Kurkin, M.I.; Dyakin, V.V.; Zherebthov, D.V.

    1997-01-01

    A study is made into the temperature dependences of density of states in a zone of intercrystalline diffusion of atomic probes 57 Co in polycrystalline chromium as well as in the temperature dependences of isomer shift and line width in Moessbauer spectra near the upper temperature boundary of manifestation of intercrystalline diffusion. In polycrystalline chromium the release of states in the core of the crystallite conjugation region (CCR) takes place only at high temperatures due to the fact that a stationary zone of high point defect concentration in the vicinity of CCR is conserved up to high temperatures. The atomic probe escape from the core of CCR starts at the temperatures at which the equilibrium vacancy concentration in the bulk of crystallite is equal to that in a stationary zone of high defect concentration

  12. Reconstruction of the domain orientation distribution function of polycrystalline PZT ceramics using vector piezoresponse force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Markus; Lasnik, Michael; Röhrig, Sören; Teichert, Christian; Deluca, Marco

    2018-01-11

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is one of the prominent materials used in polycrystalline piezoelectric devices. Since the ferroelectric domain orientation is the most important parameter affecting the electromechanical performance, analyzing the domain orientation distribution is of great importance for the development and understanding of improved piezoceramic devices. Here, vector piezoresponse force microscopy (vector-PFM) has been applied in order to reconstruct the ferroelectric domain orientation distribution function of polished sections of device-ready polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material. A measurement procedure and a computer program based on the software Mathematica have been developed to automatically evaluate the vector-PFM data for reconstructing the domain orientation function. The method is tested on differently in-plane and out-of-plane poled PZT samples, and the results reveal the expected domain patterns and allow determination of the polarization orientation distribution function at high accuracy.

  13. On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S.; Clausen, B.; Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.

  14. On elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline martensitic NiTi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Padula, S.A.; Noebe, R.D. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: raj@mail.ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    A combined experimental and computational effort was undertaken to provide insight into the elastic response of B19' martensitic NiTi variants as they exist in bulk, polycrystalline aggregate form during monotonic tensile and compressive loading. The experimental effort centered on using in situ neutron diffraction during loading to measure elastic moduli in several directions along with an average Young's modulus and a Poisson's ratio. The measurements were compared with predictions from a 30,000 variant, self-consistent polycrystalline deformation model that accounted for the elastic intergranular constraint, and also with predictions of single crystal behavior from previously published ab initio studies. Variant conversion and detwinning processes that influenced the intergranular constraint occurred even at stresses where the macroscopic stress-strain response appeared linear. Direct evidence of these processes was revealed in changes in texture, which were captured in inverse pole figures constructed from the neutron diffraction measurements.

  15. 'Observation' of dislocation motion in single crystal and polycrystalline aluminum during uniaxial deformation using photoemission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, M.; Levine, L.E.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of photostimulated electron emission (PSE) from single-crystalline aluminum (99.995%) and high-purity polycrystalline aluminum (>99.9%) during uniaxial tensile deformation. Photoelectron intensities are sensitive to changes in surface morphology accompanying deformation, including slip line and slip band formation. In the single crystalline material, the PSE intensity increases linearly with strain. In the polycrystalline material, the PSE intensity increases exponentially with strain. In both materials, time-resolved PSE measurements show step-like increases in intensity consistent with the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of slip bands during tensile deformation. In this sense, we have 'observed' dislocation motion by this technique. Slip bands on the surfaces of deformed samples were subsequently imaged by atomic-force microscopy (AFM). Photoelectron measurements can provide reliable, quantitative information for dislocation dynamics

  16. EPR of gamma-irradiated polycrystalline alanine-in-glass dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karmi, Anan M.; Morsy, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to overcome some of the reported discrepancies in alanine-EPR reproducibility that may be related to alanine dosimeter preparation and/or EPR spectrometer settings. The dosimeters were prepared by packing pure polycrystalline L-α-alanine directly as supplied by the manufacturer in glass tubes. This dosimeter production scheme avoids any possible contribution to the EPR signal from a binding material. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray to low-dose ranges typical for medical therapy (0-20 Gy). Special attention has been paid to the study of minimum detectable dose, measurement repeatability and reproducibility, and post-irradiation stability. The dosimeter exhibited a linear dose response in the dose range from 0.1 to 20 Gy. These positive properties favor the polycrystalline alanine-in-glass tube as a radiation dosimeter

  17. Elasticity and hardness of nano-polycrystalline boron nitrides: The apparent Hall-Petch effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakubo, A.; Ogi, H.; Hirao, M.; Sumiya, H.

    2014-01-01

    Nano-polycrystalline boron nitride (BN) is expected to replace diamond as a superhard and superstiff material. Although its hardening was reported, its elasticity remains unclear and the as-measured hardness could be significantly different from the true value due to the elastic recovery. In this study, we measured the longitudinal-wave elastic constant of nano-polycrystalline BNs using picosecond ultrasound spectroscopy and confirmed the elastic softening for small-grain BNs. We also measured Vickers and Knoop hardness for the same specimens and clarified the relationship between hardness and stiffness. The Vickers hardness significantly increased as the grain size decreased, while the Knoop hardness remained nearly unchanged. We attribute the apparent increase in Vickers hardness to the elastic recovery and propose a model to support this insight.

  18. Predicting intragranular misorientation distributions in polycrystalline metals using the viscoplastic self-consistent formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecevic, Miroslav; Pantleon, Wolfgang; Lebensohn, Ricardo A.

    2017-01-01

    In a recent paper, we reported the methodology to calculate intragranular fluctuations in the instantaneous lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials within the mean-field viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. This paper is concerned with the time integration and subsequent use......, we calculate intragranular misorientations in face-centered cubic polycrystals deformed in tension and plane-strain compression. These predictions are tested by comparison with corresponding experiments for polycrystalline copper and aluminum, respectively, and with full-field calculations....... It is observed that at sufficiently high strains some grains develop large misorientations that may lead to grain fragmentation and/or act as driving forces for recrystallization. The proposed VPSC-based prediction of intragranular misorientations enables modeling of grain fragmentation, as well as a more...

  19. Comparison of Deformation in High-Purity Single/Large Grain and Polycrystalline Niobium Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; Peter Kneisel

    2005-01-01

    The current approach for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is to roll and deep draw sheets of polycrystalline high-purity niobium. Recently, a new technique was developed at Jefferson Laboratory that enables the fabrication of single-crystal high-purity Nb SRF cavities. To better understand the differences between SRF cavities fabricated out of fine-grained polycrystalline sheet in the standard manner and single crystal cavities fabricated by the new technique, two half-cells were produced according to the two different procedures and compared using a variety of analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning laser confocal microscopy, profilometry, and X-ray diffraction. Crystallographic orientations, texture, and residual stresses were determined in the samples before and after forming and this poster presents the results of this ongoing study

  20. Experimental study of stress-induced localized transformation plastic zones in tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Q.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, W.; Qing, X.; Xu, X.; Dai, F.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-induced martensitic transformation plastic zones in ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics (Ce-TZP), under loading conditions of uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending, are studied by experiments. The transformed monoclinic phase volume fraction distribution and the corresponding plastic strain distribution and the surface morphology (surface uplift) are measured by means of moire interferometry, Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and the surface measurement system. The experimental results from the above three kinds of specimens and methods consistently show that the stress-induced transformation at room temperature of the above specimen is not uniform within the transformation zone and that the plastic deformation is concentrated in some narrow band; i.e., macroscopic plastic flow localization proceeds during the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow localization phenomena are all observed in uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending specimens. Some implications of the flow localization to the constitutive modeling and toughening of transforming thermoelastic polycrystalline ceramics are explored