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Sample records for polychlorinated dibenzofuran congeners

  1. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners in air particulate and marine sediment standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C H; Turle, R; Poole, G; Thibert, B; Brubaker, W W; Schantz, M M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    Due to the limited number of environmental matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) with assigned values for natural levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), an interlaboratory study was undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Environment Canada to establish reference concentration values for selected PCDD/Fs in two well-characterized NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs): SRM 1649a (Urban Dust) and SRM 1944 (New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment). Results from 14 laboratories were used to provide reference values for the seventeen 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted PCDD/F congeners, the totals for individual tetra- through hepta-substituted PCDD/F homologues, and the total amount of tetra- through hepta-substituted PCDD/Fs. The mass fractions for the individual 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners range from approximately 0.01 microg/kg to 7 microg/kg dry mass.

  2. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  3. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  4. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.; Nelson, K.G.; Everson, R.B.; Wong, T.K.; Philpot, R.M.; Tiernan, T.; Taylor, M.; Sunahara, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  5. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  6. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  7. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  8. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using simultaneous dual gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirler, W.; Voto, G.; Donega, M. [Eco-Research, Bolzano (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are two classes of environmental contaminants. Seventeen congeners exist that are substituted in the 2,3,7,8 position and are considered to be the most toxic. Due to the large number (210) of compounds of the PCDD/F family, gas chromatographic (GC) separation of these from the cluster of less toxic isomers is a difficult task. At present no commercially available column can separate all 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners from the remaining PCDD/F. The co elution of less toxic with toxic congeners can cause false TEQ related results, because mass spectrometry cannot differentiate between toxic and non toxic congeners within the same homologous group. To overcome this, the analysis is performed using at least two capillary GC columns, of different polarity. Non polar columns can separate chlorine homologous groups and all toxic congeners from each other but not from all nontoxic congeners. Thus, a polar column should be used in addition for specific separation. Exchange of a GC column on a HRGC-HRMS system is usually a time consuming procedure. Significant time saving can be achieved using a mass spectrometer coupled to two GCs, that allows switching between two different GC columns, without disturbing the measurement conditions of the mass spectrometer. The aim of the present work was to develop a method that permits to work simultaneously with both GCs in order to further improve time savings.

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  10. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Talidda, A.; Malisch, R.; Kotz, A.; Tritsher, A.; Fiedler, H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Kooijman, M.; Wienk, K.J.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

  11. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  12. Rapid measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and planar chlorobiphenyls using microcolumn chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Haines, B.K.; Tokarczyk, R.; Uthe, J.F. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran classes and chlorobiphenyl in lobster from Atlantic Canada was measured using a newly developed quick and low-cost measuring method. The method is based on saponification followed by extraction into hexane, clean-up by gel-permeation chromatography and sulfuric acid treatment, and the separation of the non-ortho-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from other chlorinated compounds. Detection limits as low as 1-5 pg.g{sup -1} wet wt. were achieved for some of the chlorinated compounds.

  13. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall.

  14. Level and characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in feed and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, HeidQunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Feed security is a prerequisite for safe animal food products. In this study, 13 groups of feed and feed ingredients, totaling 2067 samples, were collected in the period of 2011 to 2014 from China. The highest mean level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was found in fish meals and shell powders, with a concentration of 60.35ng/kg, followed by mineral origin materials. In terms of the toxicity equivalent concentration, the fish oil group showed the highest PCDD/F levels because of their bio-accumulation through the aquatic food chain, with an average concentration of 1.26ng WHO-TEQ/kg, while the lowest level was observed in compound feed for chickens and pigs, with an average value of 0.16ng WHO-TEQ/kg. OCDD and OCDF were the predominant congeners in all groups except fish oils, in which the primary congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF. For zinc chloride samples, different from other zinc-based compound samples, the main congeners were 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF (17%), 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF (15%), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF (12%) and OCDF (30%). Considering toxicity equivalency factors, the dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and the contribution to the total TEQ was 29%, 16%, 14% and 12%, respectively. Overall, 2.1% (43 out of 2067) of all the analyzed samples exceeded the different individual 'European Union maximum limited levels for PCDD/Fs. This study is beneficial for the determination of the status of contamination levels of feed and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Emissions control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans at municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, S.C.; Jozewicz, W.; Sedman, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an analysis of available emission data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to evaluate the effectiveness of various air pollution control devices on PCDD/PCDF removal. The effects of flue gas temperature, recycling fabric filter ash, and process additives such as ammonia and Tesisorb powder were also analyzed. The analysis shows that MWCs equipped with a spray dryer followed by fabric filters can achieve PCDD/PCDF removal efficiencies (REs) of 97% and higher. A RE of 94% has been achieved at a combustor equipped with a Thermal DeNO x system followed by a spray dryer and fabric filters. MWCs equipped with a duct sorbent injection system followed by fabric filters can potentially achieve a RE of 99%. A combustor equipped with a spray dryer followed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) has achieved a RE of 64%. Neither a duct sorbent injection system followed by ESPs nor a furnace sorbent injection system followed by ESPs could effectively remove PCDD/PCDF. PCDD/PCDF were not effectively removed from MWCs equipped with ESPs as the only devices to control air pollution

  16. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  17. Development of new cleanup method of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in fish by freezing-lipid filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jungju [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeoung Hwa [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jeehyeong [Department of Civil Environment Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongki [College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-Dong, Dongdaemoon-Ku, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhong@khu.ac.kr

    2006-08-18

    Freezing-lipid filtration as a new method has been developed for the rapid determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in biological samples. This method can effectively reduce the time of sample pretreatment, labor and amount of solvents compared with conventional methods. By freezing-lipid filtration procedure, about 90% of lipids in extract could be removed without any significant loss of PCDD/Fs. For further cleanup of extracts after freezing-lipid filtration, automatic parallel LC columns including silica gel, alumina and carbon columns were applied. During automatic parallel LC columns cleanup, most of co-extracted interferences such as residue lipids and fatty acids could be eliminated and dioxins could be separated from many other dioxin-like congeners such as polychlorinated biphenyls by this procedure. The extracts after cleanup were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using an isotope dilution method. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 17 native congeners in the spiked fish samples at 8-80 pg/g (n = 3) were ranged between 85.3 and 117.2% and 5.7-20.3%, respectively.

  18. Development of new cleanup method of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in fish by freezing-lipid filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong; Seo, Jungju; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Khim, Jeehyeong; Hong, Jongki

    2006-01-01

    Freezing-lipid filtration as a new method has been developed for the rapid determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in biological samples. This method can effectively reduce the time of sample pretreatment, labor and amount of solvents compared with conventional methods. By freezing-lipid filtration procedure, about 90% of lipids in extract could be removed without any significant loss of PCDD/Fs. For further cleanup of extracts after freezing-lipid filtration, automatic parallel LC columns including silica gel, alumina and carbon columns were applied. During automatic parallel LC columns cleanup, most of co-extracted interferences such as residue lipids and fatty acids could be eliminated and dioxins could be separated from many other dioxin-like congeners such as polychlorinated biphenyls by this procedure. The extracts after cleanup were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using an isotope dilution method. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 17 native congeners in the spiked fish samples at 8-80 pg/g (n = 3) were ranged between 85.3 and 117.2% and 5.7-20.3%, respectively

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  2. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  3. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deziel, N.C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Colt, J.S.; Roos, A.J. de; Pronk, A.; Gourley, C.; Severson, R.K.; Cozen, W.; Cerhan, J.R.; Hartge, P.; Ward, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources,

  4. The OH-initiated atmospheric chemical reactions of polyfluorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: A comparative theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric chemical reactions of some polyfluorinated dibenzofurans (PFDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), initiated by OH radical, were investigated by performing theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,p) method. The obtained results indicate that OH addition reactions of PFDFs and PCDFs occurring at C 1∼4 and C A sites are thermodynamic spontaneous changes and the branching ratio of the PF(C)DF-OH adducts is decided primarily by kinetic factor. The OH addition reactions of PFDFs taking place at fluorinated C 1∼4 positions are kinetically comparable with those occurring at nonfluorinated C 1∼4 positions, while OH addition reactions of PCDFs occurring at chlorinated C 1∼4 sites are negligible. The total rate constants of the addition reactions of PFDFs or PCDFs become smaller with consecutive fluorination or chlorination, and substituting at C 1 position has more adverse effects than substitution at other sites. The succedent O 2 addition reactions of PF(C)DF-OH adducts are thermodynamic nonspontaneous processes under the atmospheric conditions, and have high Gibbs free energies of activation (Δ r G ≠ ). The substituted dibenzofuranols are the primary oxidation products for PCDFs under the atmospheric conditions. However, other oxidative products may also be available for PFDFs besides substituted dibenzofuranols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p < 0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries. - Brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans in Hong Kong and Korean waters are emitted from industrial activities

  8. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  9. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jing; Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ΣPBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  12. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Lodge, Keith B.; Harris, Hallett J.; Beaver, Donald L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Hagley, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Accumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), and H411E rat hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) was evaluated in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, and in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) nestlings from colonies nesting in several locations within the watershed. Concentrations of the PCHs were greatest in eggs and chicks of the two tern species, less in the tree swallows and least in the red-winged blackbirds. Young of all four species accumulated total PCBs, PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, and TCDD-EQ. The young birds also accumulated small concentrations of several 2,3,7,8-sbustituted PCDF and PCDD congeners. Uptake rates for certain of the PCHs for the Forster's tern chicks were: 15 μg/day for total PCBs, 70, 200, 6.5, and 0.14 ng/day for PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, respectively, and 270 μg/day for TCDD-EQ. Principal components analysis revealed that the patterns of PCH concentrations in the samples were influenced by species of bird, their age (or length of exposure) and nesting location. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that exposure of avian species to contaminants derived from aquatic food chains can be characterized and quantified for the purposes of ecological risk assessment.

  13. Inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Smith, Andrew; Quensen, John F.; Stack, Allison; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants, and their ubiquitous nature has prompted studies of their potential health hazards. As a result of their lipophilic nature, PCBs accumulate in breast milk and subsequently affect the health of offspring of exposed individuals. Biological effects of PCBs in animals have mostly been attributed to coplanar congeners, although effects of ortho congeners also have been demonstrated. To investigate the relationship of immunotoxicity and chlorine substitution pattern, the effects of PCB congeners and mixtures of ortho and non-ortho-substituted constituents of Aroclor 1242 on splenocytes from C57B1/6 mice were examined. The immunotoxic endpoints investigated included splenocyte viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation, and LPS-induced antibody secretion. Congeners with multiple ortho chlorines preferentially inhibited splenocyte proliferation as compared with non- or mono-ortho-substituted congeners. However, mixtures of non- and mono-ortho-substituted congeners and multi-ortho-substituted congeners inhibited LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation and antibody secretion at similar concentrations. Exposure of splenocytes to these mixtures did not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signal transduction pathway. These results suggest individual multi-ortho-substituted congeners preferentially inhibit LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation, while congeners not exhibiting an effect individually may have additive effects in a mixture to produce an immunotoxic response through an AhR-independent pathway

  14. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Sintering and steel production as the main emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may affect environment and human health. The concentrations, profiles, and distributions of PCDD/Fs in soil samples from around four typical sintering and steel production...... plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  15. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  16. Development of a reference material for routine performance monitoring of methods measuring polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selliah, S S; Cussion, S; MacPherson, K A; Reiner, E J; Toner, D

    2001-06-01

    Matrix-matched environmental certified reference materials (CRMs) are one of the most useful tools to validate analytical methods, assess analytical laboratory performance and to assist in the resolution of data conflicts between laboratories. This paper describes the development of a lake sediment as a CRM for polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs). The presence of DLPCBs in the environment is of increased concern and analytical methods are being developed internationally for monitoring DLPCBs in the environment. This paper also reports the results of an international interlaboratory study involving thirty-five laboratories from seventeen countries, conducted to characterize and validate levels of a sediment reference material for PCDDs, PCDFs and DLPCBs.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Dam, ten G.; Bruggen, van Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6

  18. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  19. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  20. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  1. A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; McLachlan, Michael S; Wiberg, Karin; Jonsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  2. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K.F.; Chen Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, M.K.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity. - Health risk assessment of organochlorine compounds associated with seafood consumption reveals low health risks for two coastal populations in China

  3. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  4. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@tiehh.ttu.ed [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Halbrook, Richard S. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  8. A solid-phase extraction method for analyzing trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sung Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has regulated emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fsin waste water of manufacturing facilities producing chlorinated compounds since 2009. As this regulation is expected to bereinforced in 2013 to 50 pg I-TEQ/L, a large sample volume is required for the analysis of trace amounts of PCDD/Fs in wastewater. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE is used to extract PCDD/Fs from aqueous samples; however, its low efficiency makes itinadequate for analyzing large sample volumes. Herein, we present a disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysisof dioxin at a part per quadrillion level in waste water. This SPE system contains airtight glass covers with a decompressionpump, which enables continuous semi-automated extraction. Small (0.5 L and large (7 L samples were extracted using LLE andSPE methods, respectively. The method detection limits (MDLs were 0.001−0.25 and 0.015−4.1 pg I-TEQ/L for the SPE andLLE methods, respectively. The concentrations of detected congeners with both methods were similar. However, the concentrationsof several congeners that were not detected with the LLE method were quantified using the SPE method

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in fish near the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Delistraty, Damon; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-03-03

    It is well-known that absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes in fish can alter polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in fish, but these patterns have never been investigated using an advanced source-apportionment tool. In this work, PCB congener patterns in freshwater fish were examined with positive matrix factorization (PMF). PCB congeners were quantified via EPA Method 1668 in fillet and carcass of six species in four study areas in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. Six factors were resolved with PMF2 software. Depletion and enhancement of PCB congeners in factors, relative to Aroclor 1254, suggested biotransformation (via cytochrome P450) and bioaccumulation in fish, respectively. Notable differences were observed among species and across study locations. For example, sturgeon and whitefish exhibited congener patterns consistent with Aroclor weathering, suggesting potential PCB metabolism in these species. In terms of location, average concentration of total PCBs for all species combined was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Hanford 100 and 300 areas, relative to upriver and downriver study sites. Furthermore, a distinct PCB signature in sturgeon and whitefish, collected at Hanford study areas, suggests that Hanford is a unique PCB source.

  10. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  11. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  12. Comparing Mini-Mental State Examination and Attention and Digit Span in elderly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kao-Chang; Huang, Po-Chang; Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Ke, Der-Shin

    2010-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are known to affect central nervous functioning. In recent studies, elderly patients who have been exposed to these have been noted to have psychological deficits. There is little known about which test is sensitive to neurotoxins in cognitive evaluation. The objective of the present study was to compare the significance between selective psychological tests in cognitive assessment in PCB-laden elderly. A retrospective PCB/PCDF exposed cohort was observed. Exposed elderly aged ≥ 60 years and registered in Central Health Administration were enrolled, and similar age- and sex-matched subjects served as non-exposed controls. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Attention and Digit Span (ADS) were tested in both groups. Student's t-test, χ(2) -test and linear regression models were used for statistical analysis.  A total of 165 exposed patients and 151 controls were analyzed. The exposed group included 49% men, a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.4 years and an education level of 4.0 ± 3.9 years. The controls included 52% men, a mean age of 69.9 ± 5.5 years and an education level of 4.5 ± 3.2 years. There was no statistical difference in MMSE before and after adjusting for the confounding variables of age, sex and education (P= 0.16 vs P= 0.12). However, ADS-forward and ADS-total scores showed a significant decline in the exposed subjects (P= 0.0001 vs P= 0.001). Using a linear regression among stratified PCB and cognitive functioning (≤30 ppb; 31-89; ≥90), a dose effect was found at the medium (31-89 ppb) and high exposure (≧90 ppb) levels. Our observations showed attention and short-term memory were impaired in PCB-laden elderly patients. Higher exposure level showed lower cognitive functioning in ADS. The MMSE was insensitive to neurotoxins. The present study shows that the selective test has a decisive role in toxic-related cognitive assessments. © 2010 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics

  13. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Arikawa, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-22

    2,3,7,8-Substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for almost all of the total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in environmental samples. Activated carbon columns are used to fractionate the samples for GC-MS analysis or bioassay. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon is highly selective for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs and can improve the conventional activated carbon column clean-up. Along with sulfuric acid-coated diatomaceous earth columns, micropore-free surface-activated carbon provides a rapid, robust, and high-throughput sample preparation method for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs analysis.

  14. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang Tieyu; Wan Yi; Luo Wei; Hu Wenyou; Jiao Wentao; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Jones, Paul D.; Lu Yonglong

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ΣTEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines. - Research highlights: → PCDDs were comparable or greater than PCDFs for Yellow Sea soils and sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns in soils were different but similar in sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns varied among regions reflecting regional activities. → Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were mainly independent of each other. → ΣTEQs in Yellow Sea soils and sediments often exceeded corresponding guidelines. - PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments along the Yellow Sea indicated both point and non-point sources and their contribution to total TEQs differed among land uses and by regional activities.

  15. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  16. Mortality after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: a meta-analysis of two highly exposed cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-09-15

    Both Yucheng and Yusho were events of accidental exposure to highly doses of polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans in Asian people. Mortality experiences caused by various diseases were reported in both cohorts with similar and dissimilar findings. We thus conducted a meta-analysis of two cohorts to reevaluate the effects of PCBs and PCDFs on major causes of mortalities. Two recently updated Yucheng and Yusho mortality studies were included. For selected diseases, standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model only when heterogeneity (I(2)  > 50% and/or p value <0.10 by the Q test) was not found. A total of 1,803 Yucheng subjects (male, N = 830; female, N = 973) with 48,751 person-years of follow-up and 1,664 Yusho subjects (male, N = 860; female, N = 804) with 50,773 person-years are included. An increase in all-cause mortality (pooled SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, I(2)  = 0.0%), all cancers (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, I(2)  = 0.0%), lung cancer (pooled SMR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, I(2) =0.0%), heart disease (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7, I(2)  = 43.4%) and hepatic disease (pooled SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, I(2)  = 0.0%) were found in pooled males. Significant elevation from liver cancer was found in pooled females (pooled SMR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6, I(2)  = 0.0%). This meta-analysis of Yucheng and Yusho cohorts showed similar elevation from all cancer, lung cancer, heart disease and hepatic disease mortalities in exposed men. Furthermore, a new finding of elevated liver cancer mortality in exposed women was identified. © 2015 UICC.

  17. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  18. Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Mai, Bixian; Meng, Xiangzhou; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    A short-term sampling scheme was devised to determine the levels of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Guangzhou atmosphere and to evaluate the impact of PCDD/Fs on the lives of the inhabitants in Guangzhou. Samples were collected from four different districts of Guangzhou City, and the results indicated that industrial activities had tremendous influence on the levels of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in these districts. The mean PCDD/Fs concentrations (mean I-TEQ values) for Huadu, Liwan, Tianhe and Huangpu districts were 3815 fg m -3 (104.6 fg I-TEQ m -3), 12 777 fg m -3 (430.5 fg I-TEQ m -3), 6963 fg m -3 (163.7 fg I-TEQ m -3) and 10 953 fg m -3 (769.3 fg I-TEQ m -3), respectively, which were higher than the concentration ranges for other cities in the world. The mean concentrations of particulate organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 17.61±0.94 and 3.17±0.21 μg m -3 for Huadu district, 44.18±2.29 and 13.32±0.75 μg m -3 for Liwan district, 33.53±1.72 and 9.89±0.56 μg m -3 for Tianhe district, and 29.52±1.53 and 8.87±0.53 μg m -3 for Huangpu district, respectively. The relationship between PCDD/Fs concentrations and OC and EC concentrations demonstrated that EC could be a better predictor for the concentration of PCDD/Fs. Detailed source analysis indicated that the PCDD/Fs in Guangzhou were derived from small diffuse combustion sources, e.g., traffic sources, domestic burning of fossil fuels, non-industrial combustion sources and industrial combustion sources. Results of daily intake of PCDD/Fs by inhaling air suggested that the inhalation exposure of PCDD/Fs by the inhabitants in Liwan district is relatively high.

  19. Milk transfer and neonatal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinjari, T. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Div. of Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden); Klasson-Wehler, W. [Stockholm Univ., Wallenberg Lb., Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Oskarsson, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Food Hygiene, Uppsala (Sweden); Darnerud, P.O. [National Food Administration, Toxicology Div., uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-03-01

    The selective accumulation of 3,3`4,3`-tetrachlorobiphenyl metabolites in late gestational fetal blood and soft tissues in mice as a result of administration of different coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, is reported elsewhere. The situation in the nursing neonate after maternal exposure to the same congeners is now studied: The {sup 14}C-labelled congeners 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77), 3,3`,4,4`,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-126), 3,3`4,4`5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-169) (all three non-ortho congeners) and 2,3,3`,4,4`-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-105) (mono-ortho congener) were injected intravenously in lactating mice at day 11 post partum. One day and four days later, milk and neonatal/maternal tissues and plasma radioactivity was monitored by liquid scintillation counting (dose: 2.0 {mu}mol (20-50 {mu}Ci)/kg body weight). In milk, CB-126, -169 and -105 showed higher levels (1450-2520 pmol/ml; one day after administration) than did CB-77 (580 pmol/ml), and in neonates, the relative whole-body levels of radioactivity were related to the levels seen in milk (probably the consequences of their metabolic persistence). The comparably high {sup 14}C-concentration found in neonatal liver (about 15,000 pmol/kg) after CB-126 administration and in plasma (880 pmol/ml) after CB-77 administration could be explained by binding to specific proteins. In general, neonatal mice had two to seven times higher plasma levels than those of their mothers. These results indicate that CB-126, -169 and -105 are transferred via milk to neonates in considerable quantity and are deposited in neonatal liver, whereas CB-77 is transferred in a comparably lower amount and accumulated in neonatal plasma. The lower {sup 14}C-levels in the NMRI mothers and offspring (about half of C57BL values in maternal and neonatal plasma), could possibly be explained by a differentiated metabolism of CB-77 in these two strains.

  20. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  1. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  2. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  5. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-01-01

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. α-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas β-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples

  6. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  7. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ

  8. Long-term persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in air, soil and sediment around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Zheng, Minghui; Zhang Bing; Gao Lirong; Liu Lidan; Zhou Xin; Ma Xiaodong; Xiao Ke

    2012-01-01

    Air, soils and sediments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory were sampled to determine the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), unintentionally formed during PCP production. The mean concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air was one order of magnitude higher than that of the reference site. A trend of decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the factory was observed, suggesting this site has a significant influence on the regional ambient air. As for soil samples collected within 3 km from the factory and sediment samples from the adjacent rivers, high levels of contamination were found with WHO-TEQ concentrations of 193 ± 211 pg/g and 667 ± 978 pg/g, respectively. The PCDD/F homologue profiles of all samples were consistent with those found in the technical product of PCP, with OCDD as the dominant congener. These results indicate PCDD/Fs in the historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - Highlights: ► PCDD/Fs were investigated in various environmental compartments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory. ► High levels of PCDD/F contamination were found in ambient air, soils and the sediments around this factory. ► PCDD/F homologue profiles were consistent with PCDD/Fs in technical product of PCP. ► PCDD/Fs in this historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - PCDD/Fs around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment.

  9. Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl indicator congeners in Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Adam T; Aeppli, Christoph; Burnell, Craig A; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2017-07-15

    In the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWAO), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a promising commercial species following of collapse of traditional groundfish stocks. There are little available data assessing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in NWAO spiny dogfish. Here, six non-dioxin like PCB indicator congeners used in European Union regulations (EU NDL-PCB) were quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 50 mature male spiny dogfish landed in southern New England. The average total concentration of EU NDL-PCBs was 58±43ng/g (mean±1 standard deviation). PCB values (corrected for co-elution) were below the 200ng/g EU regulatory limit. Results provide first recent regional insight into the PCB content of spiny dogfish in the NWAO. However, our study offers only a snapshot of one particular dogfish population, and might not be representative for the whole NWAO. This study underscores the need for further testing in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  11. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  12. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d -1 ) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  13. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  14. Environmental impact and human health risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator: a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;analysis;Benzofurans;cancer epidemiology;Dioxins;Environmental Exposure;Environmental Health;Environmental Monitoring;Hazardous Waste;Humans;Incineration;metabolism;Refuse Disposal;Research;Risk Assessment;Spain;Toxicology. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) 4 years after regular operation of the...

  15. Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/tcoke, while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDD/F emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  17. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L.; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K oc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K ow , organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  19. Use of olive oil for soil extraction and ultraviolet degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, P; Tuhkanen, T; Vartiainen, T

    2001-03-15

    This paper represents a successful laboratory-scale photolysis of soil-bound tetra- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in olive oil. The irradiation source consisted of two blacklight lamps emitting light at a near-ultraviolet range. Samples used in the experiments included pure 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, PCDD/F extract made of a wood preservative (chlorophenol product Ky 5), and soil that was highly contaminated with PCDD/Fs. Degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran dissolved in olive oil proceeded rapidlywith a first-order reaction half-life of 13 min. Irradiation of a soil sample resulted in an 84% reduction in PCDD/F toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) in 17.5 h. A more complete degradation of soil-bound PCDD/Fs was achieved after extraction of the soil with olive oil. The oil was effective in solubilizing PCDD/Fs. After one extraction at room temperature, only 9% of I-TEQ remained in soil. Irradiation of the resulting extract reduced toxicity of the extract by 99%, and even the highly chlorinated congeners octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran degraded easily (97 and 99% degradation, respectively). Photodegradation byproducts found included diphenyl ether and small amounts of dechlorination products, which were mainly nontoxic PCDD/Fs. Degradation was probably mediated by light absorption of unsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds in olive oil, leading to sensitized photolysis of PCDD/Fs.

  20. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  1. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in Irish farmed salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruemping, R.; Hamm, S.; Stegemann, D.; Maulshagen, A. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A recent survey published by Hites in the journal Science compared the level of organochlorine contaminants including PCBs and dioxins in farmed versus wild salmon collected from around the world. Most organochlorine substances analysed in the study show a significantly higher concentration level in farmed than in wild salmon. While dioxin and PCB levels of wild fish mainly reflect the contamination level of the environment in which the fish is grown, the dioxin and PCB concentration in farmed fish may mainly be attributed to the fish feed used. In January 2004, the Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM) conducted the present study on the concentration of Polychlorinated Dibenzo(p)dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in farmed salmon from two locations in Ireland. The present study should examine whether the PCDD/F and WHO-PCB levels of Irish farmed salmon correlate to the dioxin data for farmed Atlantic salmon from other countries in Northern Europe (e.g. Scotland, Faroe Islands and Norway) presented in the study by Hites. In the Hites survey, raw salmon filets with skin on were tested. Since PCBs, dioxins and other organic pollutants are mainly bound to the fish fat, a reduction of fat content by removal of the skin was supposed to lower the amount of organic contaminants. Thus, the effect of skin removal on the dioxin and PCB levels was also examined in the present study. In addition, the influence of cooking the fish meat was investigated.

  2. Associations between dietary intake and serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) levels in Taiwanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-L.; Lee, C.-C.; Liao, P.-C.; Guo, Y.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Su, H.-J. mail: hjsu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the consumption frequency of different food groups (milk, eggs, fish, and others) and the levels of serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations of residents living near a municipal waste incinerator. All selected subjects were between 18 and 65 years old and proportionally chosen from each age group based on population distribution. In addition, they had to have lived within a 5-km radius of the incinerator for at least 5 years. Trained interviewers administered a dietary questionnaire interview. Higher serum CDD/F levels were found in older than in younger subjects, and higher PCDD/F concentrations were found in females than in males. An analysis between the consumption frequency of different foods and serum PCDD/F levels showed that fish might have contributed the highest quantity of measured serum PCDD/Fs. et, the regression coefficient of dietary intake and PCDD/F concentration as only 0.017 before and 0.105 after adjusting for the variables of age, gender, and smoking status of the study subjects. The frequency of fish consumption may be the most significant contributor to serum PCDD/F levels. Further research is needed to quantify the association between the consumption of various food groups and their potential contributions to the corresponding serum PCDD/F concentrations

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Christine M.; Read, Lorraine B.

    2006-01-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts, USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153, 138, 180, 187, 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor[reg] 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that congener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet, and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. - Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in swallows differed between the main stem of the Housatonic River, MA and other locations in the watershed

  4. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng, E-mail: enewujh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  6. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  7. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  9. Teratogenic potency of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran and of three mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mice. Problems with risk assessment using TCDD toxic-equivalency factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Tetsuji (Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Golor, G. (Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)); Hagenmaier, H. (Inst. fuer Organische Chemie, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)); Neubert, D. (Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Embryopharmakologie, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The potency of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (P5CDF) and of three defined 2,3,7,8-TCDD-free mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) to induce cleft palates in NMRI mice was studied. The data were compared with a dose-response curve for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The slope of the dose-response curve for P5CDF was the same as for TCDD. However, application of the International-TCDD-Toxic-Equivalency (I-TE) factor (NATO/CCMS 1988) of 0.5 overestimated the potency of the pentachlorinated congener about 2.5-fold under these experimental conditions, suggesting 0.2 as a TE factor. When assessing the cleft palate frequency on the basis of I-TEs and the weight of the substances, the potencies of the two PCDF mixtures studied were also clearly overestimated. This result was not substantially changed when using the TE factor of 0.2 for P5CDF. For the PCDD mixture studied, the cleft palate-inducing potency found largely agreed with the prediction when applying the I-TE factors. According to our data, the use of TE factors as calculated by the UBA/BGA (1985) or the NATO/CCMS (1988) are both conservative when attempting to assess the cleft palate incidence induced by PCDF mixtures in mice. (orig.)

  10. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  11. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, I. [Environmental Science Bureau, Ottawa (Canada); Valli, V.E. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There has been considerable interest in conducting toxicity studies on mixtures since this approach represents realistic human exposure and would provide a better model to predict the health impacts of environmental chemicals. However, risk assessment of the chemicals is largely based on the toxicity data of individual compounds by assuming simple additive effects of these compounds. This practice has been accepted by regulatory agencies provided that the concentrations of chemicals are extremely low, and there are no interactions. The existence of interactions among the chemicals co-administered to test animals may under or over estimate the effects of a mixture if the simple additive rule is applied. Previously, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect in rats when tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was co-administered with polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). The hepatic microsomal EROD, MROD and UDPGT activities of TCDD were decreased when co-administered with PCB congeners. To further explore the combined effects of these pollutants, we examined and report results on tissue residue levels of TCDD and histopathological changes in target organs of rats exposed to TCDD, PCBs and mixtures of both.

  13. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  14. Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners Produce Tissue- and Gene-Specific Effects on Thyroid Hormone Signaling during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Stefanie; Bansal, Ruby; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa M.; Taub, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are industrial chemicals linked to developmental deficits that may be caused in part by disrupting thyroid hormone (TH) action by either reducing serum TH or interacting directly with the TH receptor (TR). Individual PCB congeners can activate the TR in vitro when the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is induced, suggesting that specific PCB metabolites act as TR agonists. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we compared two combinations of PCB congeners that either activate the TR (PCB 105 and 118) or not (PCB 138 and 153) in the presence or absence of a PCB congener (PCB 126) that induces CYP1A1 in vitro. Aroclor 1254 was used as a positive control, and a group treated with propylthiouracil was included to characterize the effects of low serum TH. We monitored the effects on TH signaling in several peripheral tissues by measuring the mRNA expression of well-known TH-response genes in these tissues. Aroclor 1254 and its component PCB 105/118/126 reduced total T4 to the same extent as that of propylthiouracil but increased the expression of some TH target genes in liver. This effect was strongly correlated with CYP1A1 expression supporting the hypothesis that metabolism is necessary. Effects were gene and tissue specific, indicating that tissue-specific metabolism is an important component of PCB disruption of TH action and that PCB metabolites interact in complex ways with the TR. These are essential mechanisms to consider when evaluating the health risks of contaminant exposures, for both PCB and other polycyclic compounds known to interact with nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:21540284

  15. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Parmanne, Raimo; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2006-01-01

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHO PCDD/F -TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 ± 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  17. Defining the sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls: evidence for the influence of microbially dechlorinated congeners from river sediment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarenzelli, J. [SUNYat Oswego, NY (United States); Bush, B.; Casey, A.; O' Keefe, P. [SUNY at Albany, School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Barnard, E.; Smith, B. [New York State Dept. of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States); Gilligan, E. [Syracuse Univ., Dept. of Civil an Environmental Engineering, NY (United States); Johnson, G. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, Dept, of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2000-07-01

    During sampling in 1993, elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls were discovered near three industrial facilities on the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation Reserve along the St. Lawrence River, straddling the Canadian-US. border. Volatilization of Aroclor 1248, which was used extensively at all three sites, was identified as the dominant source, augmented in a minor way by a dechlorinated source, presumably from river sediment and waters. These two sources were found to account for 80 per cent of the contamination. Further, it was established that at a small cove adjacent to an industrial landfill, summer concentrations of PCBs exceeded winter concentrations by a factor of 27. Observation showed the presence of similar congener-specific PCB patterns at all sample sites and an increase in the concentrations of chlorine to biphenyl ratios during the summer months. During the colder months PCB concentrations at all sites declined, nevertheless, PCB levels were still higher than those measured elsewhere in the Great Lakes region during the same time period. Results of this investigation suggest that atmospheric deposition from local contaminant sources can elevate concentrations in produce and vegetative matter, complicating exposure routes and bioaccumulation via modeling of food chain. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig.

  18. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  19. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.

    2016-08-01

    All 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast (Jeddah region) of Saudi Arabia were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The upper-bound total PCB (ΣPCB) levels in nine commonly consumed fish species from three areas were 0.2–82.5 ng/g wet weight (17–8450 ng/g lipid weight), which were at the lower end of reported global range and far below international tolerance limits (500–3000 ng/g ww). Dioxin-like congeners contributed up to 12.8% (mean 6.5%) to ΣPCB in tissue samples, with the total PCB toxic equivalencies (TEQs) at a tolerable range (0.05–2.6 pg TEQ/g ww or 2–238 pg TEQ/g lw) for all species. PCB profiles were dominated by moderately chlorinated homologs, mainly hexachlorobiphenyls, but less chlorinated congeners were also consistently elevated, notably in Siganus rivulatus (Area III) and Mugil cephalus (Area I). It remains to be ascertained if the latter were breakdown products or due to fresh inputs. The top congeners based on dominance by both occurrence and abundance were identified as potential markers of ΣPCB in fish tissue, which can be used for future selective biomonitoring in case of reasonable constraints on full congener approach.

  20. Congener specific distribution and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were primarily used in transformers and capacitors, lubricants, flame retardants, plasticizers, paint, carbonless papers, etc. These are capable of long-range atmospheric transport and have been designated as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention. Due to their characteristic properties, PCBs are found worldwide in all environmental matrices (including human and biota. Soils are usually considered to be the source as well as sink for environmental pollutants, with cumulative effects of long-range atmospheric transport and local sources. Around the world, comparatively higher concentrations of PCBs have been reported in urban soils than suburban or rural soils. Higher amount of PCBs in urban soils may cause toxicological health risks to urban residents through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. This paper presents the PCB distribution in soils from Delhi, India, and exposure risk estimates for human health through soil ingestion. The concentration of ΣPCBs ranged between 1.08-100.67 ng g–1 (mean 21.16 ng g–1±5.24 ng g–1, which was much lower than the Canadian soil quality guideline value of 1.3 mg/kg or 1300 ng g–1. Human health risk estimates through the soil ingestion pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD, incremental lifetime cancer risks and non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ. The LADD for Delhi adults and children was 3.02x10–8 mg kg–1 d–1 and 1.57x10–7 mg kg–1 d–1, respectively, which corresponds to toxic equivalent quotients (TEQ intake of 0.105 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (0.735 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1 and 0.543 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (3.801 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1, respectively. The estimated LADD for Delhi residents was lower than the acceptable

  1. Stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2016-07-15

    In present work, a new configuration of micro-solid phase extraction was introduced and termed as stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction (SB-μ-SPE). A tiny stir-bar was packed inside the porous polypropylene membrane along with sorbent material and the edges of membrane sheet were heat sealed to secure the contents. The packing of stir-bar inside the μ-SPE device does not allow the device to stick with the wall or any corner of the sample vial during extraction, which is, however, a frequent observation in routine μ-SPE. Moreover, it enhances effective surface area of the sorbent exposed to sample solution through continuous agitation (motion and rotation). It also completely immerses the SB-μ-SPE device in the sample solution even for non-polar sorbents. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as model compounds and the method performance was evaluated in human serum samples. After extraction, samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors that affect extraction efficiency of SB-μ-SPE were optimized. Under optimum conditions, a good linearity (0.1-100ngmL(-1)) with coefficients of determinations ranging from 0.9868 to 0.9992 was obtained. Limits of detections were ranged between 0.003 and 0.047ngmL(-1). Acceptable values for inter-day (3.2-9.1%) and intra-day (3.1-7.2%) relative standard deviations were obtained. The optimized method was successfully applied to determine the concentration of PCB congeners in human serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  3. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries

  4. Historical trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in three dated sediment cores from Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunuen, Canedo-Lopez [Postgrado en Oceanografia Costera, Facultad de Ciencias Marinas/Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Apartado postal 453, Ensenada, CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Vinicio, Macias-Zamora J., E-mail: vmacias@uabc.edu.m [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Apartado postal 453, Ensenada, CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Miguel Angel, Huerta-Diaz [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Apartado postal 453, Ensenada, CP 22860, Baja California (Mexico); Laval Liong Wee Kwong [Radiometrics Laboratory, IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan Albert [Environmental Science and Technology Institute and Physics Department, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    This paper describes the first report of dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) in sediment cores from Mexico. Sedimentation rates and vertical fluxes were estimated using {sup 210}Pb dating. Two cores correspond to marine sediments and one to an endorheic lake. Concentrations of PCDDs/Fs found in the three sites are typical of non-impacted areas with low concentrations when compared to reference values. However the PCDDs/Fs sediment profiles show an increasing concentration trend in the upper core sections. This behavior is different from that found at many sites around the globe where diminishing concentrations have been reported. A strong predominance of OCDD was observed, and a comparison to typical composition profiles of industrial and other sources did not result in clear origin assignments for these measured compounds. We suggest that local sources may be responsible for the increase in concentration and, because these undetermined sources have not been curtailed, their importance is still growing. - Research highlights: PCDDs/Fs are reported for the first time in three dated core sediments from Mexico. It was determined that one characteristic of congener profiles for the three sites is that they are quite similar. The most preponderant congener was the OCDD, which may indicate similarity of sources, persistence of this congener or even long term transport and degradation of less chlorinated congeners. The increase in concentration for the sum of PCDDs/Fs for all three sites is not in agreement with reported trends at other sites suggesting that local sources may be growing in importance. PCDDs/Fs concentrations are typical of un-impacted sites. - Increasing concentration trends of PCDDs/Fs were observed for three sediment cores from Mexico suggesting the growing importance of local sources.

  5. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)).

  7. Congener-specific model for polychlorinated biphenyl effect on otter (Lutra lutra) and associated sediment quality criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traas, T.P.; Luttik, R.; Klepper, O.; Beurskens, J.E.M.; Smit, M.D.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, van A.G.M.; Aldenberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model for risk assessment was built for simultaneous, congener-specific PCB bioaccumulation from sediment to fish to otters (Lutra lutra). Toxic equivalence factors (TEFs) were used to sum individual congeners in otters to a toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) relative to

  8. Editor's Highlight: Congener-Specific Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Lactating Mice and Their Offspring: Implications for PCB Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lukasiewicz, Tracy; Barnhart, Christopher D; Stamou, Marianna; Chung, Haeun; Kelly, Kevin M; Bandiera, Stelvio; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been implicated by laboratory and epidemiological studies in PCB developmental neurotoxicity. These congeners are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). The present study explores the enantioselective disposition and toxicity of 2 environmentally relevant, neurotoxic PCB congeners and their OH-PCB metabolites in lactating mice and their offspring following dietary exposure of the dam. Female C57BL/6N mice (8-weeks old) were fed daily, beginning 2 weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation, with 3.1 µmol/kg bw/d of racemic 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) or 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in peanut butter; controls received vehicle (peanut oil) in peanut butter. PCB 95 levels were higher than PCB 136 levels in both dams and pups, consistent with the more rapid metabolism of PCB 136 compared with PCB 95. In pups and dams, both congeners were enriched for the enantiomer eluting second on enantioselective gas chromatography columns. OH-PCB profiles in lactating mice and their offspring were complex and varied according to congener, tissue and age. Developmental exposure to PCB 95 versus PCB 136 differentially affected the expression of P450 enzymes as well as neural plasticity (arc and ppp1r9b) and thyroid hormone-responsive genes (nrgn and mbp). The results suggest that the enantioselective metabolism of PCBs to OH-PCBs may influence neurotoxic outcomes following developmental exposures, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Occurrence and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in surficial sediments of Lakes Superior and Huron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Khurana, Vin; Helm, Paul A.; Howell, E. Todd; Burniston, Debbie A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations and congener profile patterns of 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs and DLPCBs in offshore, nearshore and tributary sediments of Lakes Superior and Huron are reported, and spatial trends and source contributions assessed. PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 5 to 18 000 pg/g dw (Lake Superior) and 3 to 6100 pg/g dw (Lake Huron); DLPCBs ranged from 9 to 11 000 pg/g dw (Lake Superior) and 9 to 27 000 pg/g dw (Lake Huron). Our analysis indicated atmospheric deposition is a primary source to depositional areas of both lakes; however, greater PCDD/F and DLPCB concentrations were observed at several nearshore and tributary sites, and were attributed to corresponding land use in the watershed. Statistical analysis and pattern comparison suggested that industrial inputs mainly associated with wood treatment plants, pulp and paper mills, mining operations, and chlorine-based chemical manufacturing also contributed to contamination by PCDD/Fs and DLPCBs in certain nearshore and offshore areas of Lakes Superior and Huron. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F and DLPCB concentrations, spatial trends, and congener patterns are first reported in Lakes Superior and Huron sediments

  10. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in food and human milk: determination of co-planar and mono-ortho substituted congeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, V.; Schulte, E.; Thier, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical method is described for determining the residues of coplanar as well as mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners both exhibiting toxicological relevance, in foods of animal origin and in human milk. The unsophisticated procedure, convenient for routine analyses, includes the extraction of lipids, clean-up steps using liquid/liquid partition and column chromatography, fractionation of the congeners using HPLC on a special carbon column with an optimal gradient elution, and capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection. As preliminary results indicate, the low-chlorinated PCB technical products contribute more to the actual contamination of environment and foods than has been estimated so far. Obviously the co-planar congeners are accumulated during the food chain in a portion different from that found for the other congeners. (orig.)

  12. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  13. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  14. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 40 congeners (0.001 < p < 0.05). The distribution ratios determined for these congeners from the slope of the regression lines averaged 1.235 +/- 0.279, 0.430 +/- 0.170, and 0.387 +/- 0.115, respectively. The plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized concentration ratios for these congeners averaged 0.012 +/- 0.006. Both egg-FT and plasma wet weight-FT lipid-normalized ratios regressed against log K(ow) showed significant decreases, with increasing log K(ow), indicating greater accumulation of highly chlorinated congeners in FT than in other compartments. The estimated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents ranged from 0.007 ng/g at reference sites to 0.060 ng/g at contaminated sites and from 0.099 to 1.992 ng/g in plasma and eggs, respectively. In both plasma and eggs, coplanar-CBs were the major contributors to total toxic equivalents (TEQs). Eggs from all contaminated sites had TEQs that exceeded the lowest observed effect level TEQs proposed for bald eagle chicks, in addition to high SigmaPCB levels at some of these sites, especially the Ottawa and Maumee River sites, indicate

  17. Comparison of proposed frameworks for grouping polychlorinated biphenyl congener data applied to a case-control pilot study of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Justine M.; Vial, Scott L.; Fuortes, Laurence J.; Robertson, Larry W.; Guo, Haijun; Reedy, Victoria E.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the commercial synthesis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the United States for several decades, they are persistent in the environment with exposure mainly being through diet. The biologic and toxic effects of PCBs and their metabolites are due in part to their ability to interact with several cellular and nuclear receptors, thereby altering signaling pathways and gene transcription. These effects include endocrine modulation and disruption. Therefore, the natural history of cancer in tissues expressing these receptors may be modulated by PCB congeners, which are known to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and other hormonal effects. Several frameworks for grouping PCB congeners based on these interactions have been proposed. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control pilot study of 58 prostate cancer cases and 99 controls to evaluate the association between the proposed PCB groupings and the risk of prostate cancer. Serum samples were analyzed for a total of 30 PCBs. In multivariate analyses, the odds of prostate cancer among men with the highest concentrations of moderately chlorinated PCBs or PCBs with phenobarbital-like activities (constitutively active receptor (CAR) agonists) was over two times that among men with the lowest concentrations. Increasing trends in risk across the concentration levels were also observed. These results suggest that a higher burden of PCBs that are CAR agonists may be positively associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and they encourage further research in this area

  18. Congener-specific accumulation and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in spider crab food webs revealed by stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, N. [IFREMER, DCN-BE, Technopole Brest-Iroise, Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane (France); LPTC-UMR 5472 CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation, 33400 Talence (France)], E-mail: bodin.nathalie@caramail.com; Le Loc' h, F. [IRD, UR 070 RAP, Centre de Recherche Halieutique, Avenue Jean Monnet, B.P. 171, 34203 Sete Cedex (France); Caisey, X.; Le Guellec, A.-M.; Abarnou, A.; Loizeau, V. [IFREMER, DCN-BE, Technopole Brest-Iroise, Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane (France); Latrouite, D. [IFREMER, DCB-STH, Technopole Brest-Iroise, Pointe du Diable, 29280 Plouzane (France)

    2008-01-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCB) and stable isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N and {delta}{sup 13}C) were analyzed in the spider crab (Maja brachydactyla) food web from the Iroise Sea (Western Brittany) and the Seine Bay (Eastern English Channel). PCB concentrations were all significantly higher in organisms from the Seine Bay than those from the Iroise Sea. PCB patterns were strongly related to the feeding mode of the species, and increased influence of higher chlorinated congeners was highlighted with trophic position of the organisms. PCB concentrations (lipid normalized) were significantly related to the isotopically derived trophic level (TL) in spider crab food webs. The highest trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were calculated for the congeners with 2,4,5-substitution, and were lower in the Seine Bay compared to the Iroise Sea. The confrontation of PCB and TL data also revealed biotransformation capacity of decapod crustaceans for specific congeners based on structure-activity relations. - The influence of feeding mode and trophic position on the fate of PCBs in spider crab food webs is discussed by using a stable isotopic approach.

  19. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  20. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    dibenzo-p-dioxins(PCDDs, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs. These compounds are the least explored of all known pollutions generated in the metallurgical processes, in terms of the impact of their emissions to the environment.The paper provides elementary toxicity data for these compounds and a survey of reference data on the currently completed listings of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the world and in Croatia, illustrating that the metallurgical process account for most of the total emission of these compounds into the environment.Based on the experience of the developed countries that are at the same time the largest iron and steel producers, we calculated an estimate of potential emissions of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes in Croatia. The calculation took into account the coking processes, iron ore sintering processes, pig iron production, cast iron, openhearth steel and EAF steel production.The estimated total emission of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes to the environment in the time period between 1990 and 2000 in Croatia was m = 3.987 g I-TEQ and annual emission in the same period ranged from QI-TEQ= 1.284 g a-1 in 1990 to QI-TEQ = 0.153 g a-1 in 1995.Emissions of these compounds from metallurgical processes that were active in less recent past were also calculated and the values in the time period between 1960 and 2000 ranged from m =2.888 g I-TEQ in 1980 to m = 0.153 g I-TEQ in 1995.Based on the data on the existing facilities for steel production in electric arc furnaces we estimated that annual emission of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans could amount to QI-TEQ ~ 0.260 g a-1, whereas the future emission of these compounds from the existing cast iron facilities could be QI-TEQ ~ 0.100 g a-1.In the research follow-up for the impact of metallurgical processes on the overall emission of these compounds

  1. [Uncertainty evaluation of the determination of toxic equivalent quantity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Liu Aimin; Huang, Yeru

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil samples were analyzed by isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/HRMS), and the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) were calculated. The impacts of major source of measurement uncertainty are discussed, and the combined relative standard uncertainties were calculated for each 2, 3, 7, 8 substituted con- gener. Furthermore, the concentration, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty for TEQ of PCDD/Fs in a soil sample in I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF schemes are provided as an example. I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF are the evaluation schemes of toxic equivalent factor (TEF), and are all currently used to describe 2,3,7,8 sub- stituted relative potencies.

  2. Development of an online emission measuring system for quasi-continuous measurement of organic halgen compounds in off-gases of thermal processes. The example of polychlorinated dibeno-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pure gas of incinerators for domestic waste; Entwicklung einer on-line Emissionsmesstechnik zur quasi-kontinuierlichen Bestimmung von Organohalogen-Verbindungen in Abgasen thermischer Prozesse. Ausgefuehrt am Beispiel polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane im Reingas von Hausmuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K.

    2000-07-01

    Industrial processes are connected with the emission of xenobiotic substances that represent a burden on the environment. Standardised methods currently available for the quantitative determination of these substances are time consuming, require a lot of work and are therefore expensive. Consequently they are not suited to perform extensive screening or monitoring programs. The aim of this work was therefore to develop a reliable quasi-continuous time and cost effective measuring method that can be used as a screening tool for the determination of such substances. The method has been developed according to stack emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). (orig.)

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and congener composition in masu salmon from Japan: A study of all 209 PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Reiko; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Haruta, Shinsuke; Kawano, Masahide; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two subspecies of masu salmon collected from central to northern Japan were examined. • All 209 PCB congeners in the fish were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS with δ 15 N and δ 13 C determinations. • ∑ PCBs was highest in fish that had upstreamed from Ise Bay, which is close to a heavy industrial area. • However, TEQ dl-PCBs values were highest in fish from southern part of the Sea of Japan. - Abstract: We collected two subspecies of masu salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou from four localities (southern Sea of Japan northward to Hokkaido) and O. masou ishikawae from upstream from Ise Bay close to a heavy industrial area. All 209 PCB congeners were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. PCA ordination of congener concentrations divided data into three groups: (i) ssp. masou from Hokkaido, (ii) ssp. masou from the other regions and (iii) ssp. ishikawae. The highest ∑ PCB concentration (40.39 ng/wet wt) was in ssp. ishikawae followed by ssp. masou from southern waters; however the TEQ dioxin-like PCBs was highest in ssp. masou from southern water (1.96 pg-TEQ dioxin-like PCBs /g wet wt.) due to the high proportion of congener #126 in its complement (#126 has the highest toxic equivalency factor among congeners). There is likely a contamination source offshore in the southern Sea of Japan and/or along the migratory route of ssp. masou

  4. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.; Mannalamkunnath Alikunhi, Nabeel; Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna; Aljahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jahdali, Haitham; Aziz, Mohammed A.M.; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.

    2016-01-01

    chlorinated homologs, mainly hexachlorobiphenyls, but less chlorinated congeners were also consistently elevated, notably in Siganus rivulatus (Area III) and Mugil cephalus (Area I). It remains to be ascertained if the latter were breakdown products or due

  5. Impact of forest fires on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in coastal waters of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Marco; Chandía, Cristian; Hernández, Aldo

    2016-12-15

    The relationship between the occurrence of forest fires in central Chile and the total concentration of dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) in nearby coastal waters was analyzed. The data for this analysis was obtained from a long-term environmental monitoring program (PROMNA) in the Bio-Bio Region. Quantification of PCDD/F was performed using HRGC/HRMS at the MSS laboratory in England. Between 2006 and 2014, peaks were observed in February 2007 and 2012. These concentration maxima coincided with major forest fires in the Bio-Bio Region and particularly with those in the Itata River Basin. The January 2012 fires generated an intense short-term response that was associated with atmospheric transport which increases medium toxicity furan-type congeners concentrations (TCDF, PCDF and HxCDF) and six months later a concentration increase of low toxicity dioxin-type congeners was observed (OCDD, HpCDD and HxCDD) coinciding with maximum winter river flow. These results suggest that forest fires near the coastal zone are responsible for increases in PCDD/F concentration observed in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated PCDD/F levels and distinctive PCDD/F congener profiles in free range eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chen, Chun; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2010-07-14

    Chicken eggs are one of the most important foods in the human diet all over the world, and the demand for eggs from free range hens has steadily increased. Congener-specific analyses of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were performed on 6 free range and 12 caged chicken egg samples collected in Taiwan. The mean level of PCDD/Fs in the free range egg samples was 5.7 (1.79/0.314) times higher than those in the caged egg samples. Principle component analysis revealed that at least three characteristic patterns of PCDD/F congener were observed among the 18 egg samples. The different PCDD/F congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples may reflect distinctive exposure scenarios among the free range and caged hens. We suggest that the differences of PCDD/F levels and congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples give rise to the issues related to the safety of eating free range chicken eggs. The present data may provide useful information for further investigation of the possible PCDD/F sources in the contaminated free range eggs.

  7. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  9. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizi, Barbara; Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco; Foggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds

  10. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrizi, Barbara, E-mail: patrizi@lens.unifi.it [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Foggi, Paolo [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds.

  11. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in the common fishes in Zhujiang area of China by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianqing; Zhuang Zhixiong; Jiang Yousheng; Zhou Jian [Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Jiang Jie

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans(PCDDs /PCDFs) are important two kinds of persistent organic pollutants(POPs) in environment since their persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative properties. The primary route of human exposure to POPs for the general population is through consumption of food. The dietary intake of PCDDs, PCDFs for human exposure is estimated to account for greater than 90%. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in foods have been widely reported in the largely international literature. Where sufficient historical data are available in many nations and tighter regulatory controls on them, the general trend internationally has been for a decline in the levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in foods. Although the research work on POPs has been processed in China currently, less information especially for food or environment background is available on PCDDs and PCDFs level in China. The HRGC/HRMS method has been constructed in our laboratory reference US EPA 1613 method, and the method has been validated by participated the international laboratory proficiency test for fish. The paper reports the results of a survey to determine the level of PCDDs/PCDFs in fishes commonly consumed by zhujiang river area people.

  12. Application of tritium-labeled complex technical mixture of PCB congeners as radiotracer in ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    methods: A method of a quantitative estimation of completeness of PCBs extraction from soil and biological samples. The complex of simple, effective and relatively inexpensive methods of research of PCB- destructive activity of soil bacteria. - The method of definition of accumulation and degradation pkhb in soil bacteria in culture allows to determine quantitative characteristics of bacteria strains at research of ability bacteria strains to use PCBs as alone source of carbon and energy. - The method of definition of degradation of PCBs by soil bacteria strains in model conditions in the ground allows to estimate PCB-destructive activity of strains after their introducing in the ground. - The method of direct determination of PCB-destructive of own soil microbiota. The developed methods have been effectively applied for researches at creation of a collection of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics active soil bacteria strains have been determined. It is shown, that investigated strains possess the ability to accumulate and destroy of PCBs in culture and in model conditions in ground. Thus, the developed complex of radiochemical methods allows to determine PCB-destructive activity of bacteria at primary screening, selection and research of soil bacteria strains. Thus we suppose that developed approach of use of tritium labeled complex technical mix PCBs congeners as radiotracer allows obtaining valuable additional information, inaccessible for gas chromatography analysis. The main advantage of developed approach is the possibility of direct precise quantitative measurement of PCBs. The developed approach can be applied with success for the quantitative analysis of' similar complex mixes of congeners of other organic compounds, such as dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  13. Trans-polychlorinated azobenzenes (PCABs) - new possibly ''dioxin-like'' environmental pollutants. Multidimensional analysis of the structural feature space of congener set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J.; Wilczynska, A.; Piliszek, S.; Puzyn, T. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Azoxybenzene is molecule composed of two benzene ring fused to azoxy group (- N(O)=N-). Trans-PCAOBs consist at 399 congeners, and some of them can be formed as unwanted byproduct in the manufacture of 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and its derivatives, and can be found in herbicides such as Diuron {sup registered}, Linuron {sup registered}, Methazole {sup registered} and Propanil {sup registered}. Degradation of chloroaniline herbicides is also a source of environmental pollution with PCAOBs as well as photolysis and biolysis of DCA. Trans-PCAOBs are planar compounds and can be considered as stereoisomers to highly toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. They is lack or very limited number of data available regarding to sources, possible mechanism of formation, environmental occurence and fate, analytical chemistry, properties, and effects of trans-PCAOBs. In this work some selected thermodynamic and quantum-mechanical properties of trans- PCAOBs were computed using ab initio methods. Presented property data of trans-PCAOBs can be useful as structural descriptors in further QSAR/QSPR studies of those compounds.

  14. Neuro-genetic multioptimization of the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in human milk by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann Kowalski, Claudia; Silva, Gilmare Antonia da; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Teixeira Godoy, Helena; Augusto, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can eventually contaminate breast milk, which is a serious issue to the newborn due to their high vulnerability. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) can be a very convenient technique for their isolation and pre-concentration prior chromatographic analysis. Here, a simultaneous multioptimization strategy based on a neuro-genetic approach was applied to a headspace SPME method for determination of 12 PCB in human milk. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD) was adopted for the separation and detection of the analytes. Experiments according to a Doehlert design were carried out with varied extraction time and temperature, media ionic strength and concentration of the methanol (co-solvent). To find the best model that simultaneously correlate all PCB peak areas and SPME extraction conditions, a multivariate calibration method based on a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) was applied. The net output from the neural network was used as input in a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization operation (neuro-genetic approach). The GA pointed out that the best values of the overall SPME operational conditions were the saturation of the media with NaCl, extraction temperature of 95 deg. C, extraction time of 60 min and addition of 5% (v/v) methanol to the media. These optimized parameters resulted in the decrease of the detection limits and increase on the sensitivity for all tested analytes, showing that the use of neuro-genetic approach can be a promising way for optimization of SPME methods

  15. Emission factors and congener-specific characterization of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from an off-road diesel engine using waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung; Yeh, C Kuei-Jyum

    2017-10-05

    Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends. The PCDD/Fs contributed 87.2% of total dioxin-like toxicity (PCDD/Fs+PCBs+PBDD/Fs) in the exhaust, while the PCBs and PBDD/Fs only contributed 8.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Compared with petroleum diesel, B20 (20vol% WCO-based biodiesel+80vol% diesel) reduced total toxicity by 46.5% for PCDD/Fs, 47.1% for PCBs, and 24.5% for PBDD/Fs, while B40 (40vol% WCO-based biodiesel+60vol% diesel) reduced it by 89.5% for PCDD/Fs, 57.1% for PCBs, and 63.2% for PBDD/Fs in POP emission factors. The use of WCO-based biodiesel not only solves the problem of waste oil disposal, but also lowers POP emissions from diesel generators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Congener-specific metabolism and sequestration of dioxin-like compounds by cytochrome P450 1A induced in the liver of crows from Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, M.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Yoneda, K.; Hashimoto, T. [Japan Wildlife Research Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Jungle crow (JC; Corvus macrorhynchos) is a useful bioindicator for monitoring contaminants in urban areas, because this species is residential, occupies a same habitat as human, and feeds variety of foods including domestic waste and garbage. Therefore, JCs may accumulate environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), which are released by human activities. Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A is a responsive mechanism elicited by exposure to dioxinlike compounds including PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs. Toxicokinetic behavior of dioxin-like compounds in organisms is controlled by excretion, metabolism and absorption. These processes are, at least partly, dependent on CYP1A expression in addition to chemical structure and number of chlorine substitution of each congener. Low chlorinated congeners such as 2378-T{sub 4}CDD, 2378- T{sub 4}CDF, 12378-P{sub 5}CDD and 33'44'-PCB were easily metabolized by CYP1A1/2 in rat liver microsomes. PCDDs/DFs accumulate in hepatic tissue to a greater extent than adipose tissue in rats and mice. Recent study using transgenic CYP1A2 knockout mice demonstrated that CYP1A2 is responsible for the sequestration of 2378-T{sub 4}CDD and 23478-P{sub 5}CDF in hepatic tissue. Therefore, CYP1A is considered as a key factor responsible for toxicokinetics of dioxin-like compounds. However, there's no comprehensive data on the contribution of CYP1A to the toxicokinetics of dioxin-like congeners in wild populations. In this study, we investigated contamination levels of PCDDs/DFs and Co-PCBs in liver and breast muscle of JCs from Tokyo, Japan, and interactions of dioxin-like congeners with hepatic CYP to elucidate congener-specific toxicokinetics related to CYP expression in JC.

  17. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  18. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  19. Prediction of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB 2005-WHO-TEQ content based on the contribution of six congeners: Toward a new screening approach for fish samples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Marchand, Philippe; Venisseau, Anais; Brosseaud, Aline; Bertrand, Dominique; Qannari, El Mostafa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Current European Union regulation regarding polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in food and feed is based on Toxic Equivalent Quotient (TEQ) concept. For confirmatory purpose, the isotope-dilution method associated to a measurement by gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry is usually the method of choice for precisely measuring the 29 target congeners in three separated fractions. Time and cost related to these analyses are very significant. Various kinds of screening concepts can be considered. In the present study, we elaborated and validated a prediction model for the 2005 World Health Organization TEQ in fish, based on the measurement of 4 PCDD/F and 2 non-ortho dl-PCB congeners, potentially analyzable in a single extracted fraction by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Large independent datasets have been used for model elaboration (n = 108) and validation (n = 363, n = 357 and n = 6). - This study describes a statistical regression model approach for screening PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fish.

  20. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Vopa, V.; Satterfield, C.N.

    The hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran (DBF) on a sulfided NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst was studied at 350-390 C and 7.0 MPa. The major products isolated were single-ring hydrocarbons, cyclohexane predominating; the remainder were double-ring hydrocarbons, cyclohexylbenzene predominating. No oxygen-containing species other than water were isolated in any significant amount. The initial reactions in the hydrodeoxygenation of DBF are rate-limiting. The non-sulfided (oxide) catalyst is much less active, and double-ring products predominate over single-ring products. From studies of possible intermediates it appears that on a sulfided catalyst two pathways operate in parallel for the hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran: (1) hydrogenation of DBF to hexahydro DBF, which reacts via 2-cyclohexylphenol to form signle-ring hydrocarbons; (2) direct hydrogenolysis via 2-phenylphenol, without prior ring hydrogenation, to form biphenyl and cyclohexylbenzene (a minor route). On this catalyst the overall reaction is first order with respect to hydrogen and to DBF and exhibits an apparent activation energy of 67 kJ/mol. 26 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    Full Text Available Copper sulfates (CuSO4 are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g. In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4 application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1 also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date.

  2. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  3. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  4. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  5. Regiospecific synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans with chlorine-37 excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoonseok Chang; Deinzer, M.L.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of regiospecifically chlorine-37 labeled di-and trichlorodibenzofurans is described. The strategy for introducing a chlorine-37 label regiospecifically has been to reduce the nitro derivative to the corresponding amine. The amine is converted to the diazonium salt with t-butyl nitrite, and this product is converted to the final product via the Sandmeyer reaction with chlorine-37 labeled cuprous chloride. (author)

  6. Quantitative Structure Retention Relationships of Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    be a projection onto the X-Y plane. The algorithm for this calculation can be found in Stouch and Jurs (22), but was further refined by Rohrbaugh and...throughspace distances. WPSA2 (c) Weighted positive charged surface area. MOMH2 (c) Second major moment of inertia with hydrogens attached. CSTR 3 (d) Sum...of the models. The robust regression analysis method calculates a regression model using a least median squares algorithm which is not as susceptible

  7. Isolation and characterization of a novel polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. KBC101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, M.; Ezaki, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kurane, R. [Kubota Corporation, Ryuugasaki City (Japan). Biotechnology Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    The biphenyl-utilizing bacterial strain KBC101 has been newly isolated from soil. Biphenyl-grown cells of KBC101 efficiently degraded di- to nonachlorobiphenyls. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus sp. with respect to its 16S rDNA sequence and fatty acid profiles, as well as various biological and physiological characteristics. In the case of highly chlorinated biphenyl (polychlorinated biphenyl; PCB) congeners, the degradation activities of this strain were superior to those of the previously reported strong PCB degrader, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1. Recalcitrant coplanar PCBs, such as 3,4,3',4'-CB, were also efficiently degraded by strain KBC101 cells. This is the first report of a representative of the genus Paenibacillus capable of degrading PCBs. In addition to growth of biphenyl, strain KBC101 could grow on dibenzofuran, xanthene, benzophenone, anthrone, phenanthrene, napthalene, fluorene, fluoranthene, and chrysene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Paenibacillus sp. strain KBC101 presented heterogeneous degradation profiles toward various aromatic compounds. (orig.)

  8. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  9. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  10. PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil from informal e-waste recycling sites and open dumpsites in India: Levels, congener profiles and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Nakamura, Masafumi; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bang, John J

    2018-04-15

    Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz., New Delhi (North), Kolkata (East), Mumbai (West) and Chennai (South). In the informal e-waste recycling sites, the range of Σ 26 PCBs (0.4-488ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (1.0-10.6ng/g) were higher than Ʃ 26 PCBs (0.3-21ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (0.15-7.3ng/g) from open dumpsites. In the e-waste sites, ƩPCDDs were found with increasing trend from ƩTetraCDD to OctaCDD, whereas ƩPCDFs showed a reverse trend. The dominance of PCDF congeners and maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for both PCDDs (17pg TEQ/g) and PCDFs (82pg TEQ/g) at Mandoli in New Delhi has been related to intensive precious metal recovery process using acid bath. Among dumpsites, highest TEQ for PCDD/Fs was observed at Kodangaiyur dumpsite of Chennai (CN DS -02, 45pg TEQ/g). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model identified distinct congener pattern based on the functional activities, such as e-waste dismantling, shredding, precious metal recovery and open burning in dumpsites. E-waste metal recovery factor was loaded with 86-91% of PCB-77, -105, -114, -118 and 30% of PCB-126, possibly associated with the burning of wires during the copper extraction process. Almost 70% of the Ʃ 26 PCB concentrations was comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners with a maximum concentration of 437ng/g at New Moore market in Chennai, followed by Wire Lane (102ng/g), in Mumbai. We speculate that PCB-126 might have resulted from combustion of plastic materials in e-waste stream and dumped waste

  11. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  12. Pollution level and distribution of PCDD/PCDF congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase in winter air of Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Songtao; Song, Yu; Xu, Qian; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Xueping; Mu, Jim; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2011-06-01

    In December 2009, ambient air was sampled with active high-volume air samplers at two sites: on the roof of the No. l building of Dalian Jiaotong University and on the roof of the building of Dalian Meteorological Observatory. The concentrations and the congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the air were measured. Sample analysis results showed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in particulate phase was higher than that in gaseous phase. The ratio of PCDD to PCDF in gaseous phase and particulate phase was lower than 0.4 in all samples. The total I-TEQ value in gaseous phase and particulate phase was 5.5 and 453.8 fg/m(3) at Dalian Jiaotong University, 16.6 and 462.1 fg/m(3) at Dalian Meteorological Observatory, respectively. The I-TEQ value of Dalian atmosphere was 5.5-462.1 fg/m(3) which was lower than international standard, the atmospheric quality in Dalian is better. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  14. Characteristics of PCDD/F congener distributions in gas/particulate phases and emissions from two municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Moo Been [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Central University, Chungli 320 (Taiwan); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping [Department of Chemical Engineering, Cheng-Shiu University, Kaohsiung 833 (Taiwan); Lin, Chieh [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 920 (Taiwan)

    2005-07-15

    Partitioning of PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran) congeners between gaseous and particulate phases and removal efficiencies of the existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) for PCDD/Fs at two large-scale municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) in Taiwan are evaluated via stack sampling and analysis. Two MWIs investigated are equipped with activated carbon injection (ACI) and selective catalytic reduction system (SCR) as major PCDD/F control devices, respectively. The average PCDD/F concentrations of stack gases are 2.35 and 1.49 ng/N m{sup 3}, and the international toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) are 0.17 and 0.043 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3} in MWI-A and MWI-B, respectively. The average removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs achieved with ACI+BF (bag filters) reaches 95% (MWI-A) while that achieved with the WS (wet scrubber)+SCR system reaches 99% (MWI-B). The results obtained on gas/particulate partitioning in flue gases indicate that particulate-phase PCDD/Fs accounted for 27.7% and 24.7% of the total PCDD/F concentrations at the outlets of cyclone (CY) and electrostatic precipitator (EP) for MWI-A and MWI-B, respectively. But the gas/particulate partitioning in flue gas after PCDD/Fs control devices is quite different in two MWIs. This study also indicates that total 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F discharges are 142.3 {mu}g TEQ/ton waste for MWI-A and 98.6 {mu}g TEQ/ton waste for MWI-B, respectively.

  15. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans from the World Trade Center attacks in exterior window films from lower Manhattan in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Ikonomou, Michael G; Butt, Craig M; Diamond, Miriam L; Truong, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Samples of ambient organic films deposited on exterior window surfaces from lower Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City were collected six weeks after the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total tetra- through octa-CDD/F concentrations in window films within 1 km of the WTC site in lower Manhattan ranged up to 630,000 pg/m2 (estimated as a mass concentration of ca. 1,300,000 pg/ g) and a maximum toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 4700 TEQ/m2 (ca. 10 000 pg TEQ/g). Measurements at a background site 3.5 km away in Brooklyn showed lower concentrations at 130 pg TEQ/m2 (260 pg TEQ/g). Ambient gas-phase PCDD/F concentrations estimated for each site using an equilibrium partitioning model suggested concentrations ranging from ca. 2700 fg-TEQ/m3 near the WTC site to the more typical urban concentration of 20 fg-TEQ/m3 atthe Brooklyn site. Multivariate analyses of 2,3,7,8-substitued congeners and homologue group profiles suggested unique patterns in films near the WTC site compared to that observed at background sites in the study area and in other literature-derived combustion source profiles. Homologue profiles near the WTC site were dominated by tetra-, penta-, and Hexa-CDD/Fs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted profiles contained mostly octa- and hexachlorinated congeners. In comparison, profiles in Brooklyn and near mid-Manhattan exhibited congener and homologue patterns comprised mainly of hepta- and octa-CDDs, similar to that commonly reported in background air and soil.

  17. Comparison of quantification methods for the analysis of polychlorinated alkanes using electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Korytar, P.; de Boer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four quantification methods for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) or polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) using gas chromatography electron capture negative ionisation low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) were investigated. The method based on visual comparison of congener group

  18. Comparison of quantification methods for the analysis of polychlorinated alkanes using electron capture negative ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Korytar, P.; Boer, de J.

    2011-01-01

    Four quantification methods for short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) or polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) using gas chromatography electron capture negative ionisation low resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) were investigated. The method based on visual comparison of congener group

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  20. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed...... as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data...

  1. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  2. Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Michael [Aarhus Univ. (DK). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Centre (iNANO); Lechner, Ute [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Biology/Microbiology

    2009-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most harmful environmental contaminants. Their widespread distribution due to unintentional or unknown release coincides with environmental persistence, acute and chronic toxicity to living organisms, and long-term effects due to the compounds' tendency for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. While microbial aerobic degradation of PCDD/Fs is mainly reported for the turnover of low chlorinated congeners, this review focuses on anaerobic reductive dehalogenation, which may constitute a potential remediation strategy for polychlorinated compounds in soils and sediments. Microorganisms in sediments and in microcosms or enrichment cultures have been shown to be involved in the reductive dechlorination of dioxins. Bacteria related to the genus Dehalococcoides are capable of the reductive transformation of dioxins leading to lower chlorinated dioxins including di- and monochlorinated congeners. Thus, reductive dehalogenation might be one of the very few mechanisms able to mediate the turnover of polychlorinated dioxins by reducing their toxicity and paving the way for a subsequent breakdown of the carbon skeleton. (orig.)

  3. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Chizzali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe.

  4. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballschmiter, K.; Bacher, R.; Riehle, U.; Swerev, M.

    1990-01-01

    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl 4 to Cl 8 ) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl 1 to Cl 6 and from Br 1 to Br 4 ). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl 4 DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl 5 DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl 7 DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.) [de

  5. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a U.S. meat market basket and estimates of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Janice K; Larsen, Gerald L

    2005-08-01

    Persistent environmental contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 65 meat samples collected from supermarkets across the U.S. in 2001. The samples included hamburger, sirloin steaks, pork chops, bacon, and whole chickens from nine different cities. The average PCDD/F/non-ortho-PCB toxic equivalency (TEQ) for all the samples was 0.55 pg/g of lipid (nd (nondetect) = DL (detection limit)/2) with a range from nondetectable to 3.21 pg/g of lipid. For PBDEs, eight congeners were routinely found in the meat samples with an average sum of 1.71 ng/g of lipid (nd = DL/2) and a range from nondetectable to 16.6 ng/g of lipid. While average TEQs were similar to recent values reported in Europe and Asia, the sums of PBDEs in chicken and pork were 3-20 times higher than levels reported in Spain and Japan for these foods. The presence of a few outliers raised the average PBDE sums and indicated that isolated sources of contamination may exist that, if identified, could be removed from the U.S. animal production chain. Using these TEQ and PBDE values and USDA food consumption data, the estimated dietary intake ranges from meat products were 5.3-16.0 pg TEQ and 14.9-44.7 ng of PBDEs/d or 0.1-0.3 pg TEQ and 0.3-0.5 (ng of PBDEs/kg of body mass)/d for an average individual, similar to intakes in other countries.

  6. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  7. Congener profiles of PCBs and new proposal of indicator congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Y.; Noma, Y.; Sakai, Shin-ichi [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Mori, Y. [Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Full homologue analysis for PCB has been standardized in Japan since 2002 as JIS K0093 and since 1992 as Methods of Examining Standards of General Waste under Special Control and Industrial Waste under Special Control with HRGC/HRMS. GC-ECD was also used as the standard method for PCB analysis. Same type of analytical method was specified as EPA Method1668 in US. On the other hand, a simple analytical method has been established in Europe, DIN 51527, where six indicator congeners are identified and quantified and total PCB are calculated as 5 times the sum of the individual congeners. Balfanz et al. reported the investigation about PCB-related indoor air contamination due to sealants determined according to DIN 51527. When the homologue pattern of samples is similar to that of technical PCB, DIN method is reasonable. But PCB has origins from both technical PCB and thermally and/or chemically by-products. The purpose of this research is to establish simplified methods for PCB analysis without failure of the precision, for example, which congeners should be selected and how total PCB should be calculated in the different media of target samples.

  8. Reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, Tatyana I., E-mail: gorbunova@ios.uran.ru [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Subbotina, Julia O. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St., 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Saloutin, Viktor I.; Chupakhin, Oleg N. [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum chemical calculations were carried out for PCBs congeners. • Calculated descriptors were used to explain the PCBs reactivity in S{sub N} and S{sub E} substitutions. • Obtained data were used to estimate the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub N} reactions. • Calculated descriptors were insufficient to explain the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions. • New neutralization methods of the large-capacity PCBs were discussed. - Abstract: To explain the chemical reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic (S{sub N}) and electrophilic (S{sub E}) substitutions, quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the Density Functional Theory in gas phase. Carbon atomic charges in biphenyl structure were calculated by the Atoms-in-Molecules method. Chemical hardness and global electrophilicity index parameters were determined for congeners. A comparison of calculated descriptors and experimental data for congener reactivity in the S{sub N} and S{sub E} reactions was made. It is shown that interactions in the S{sub N} mechanism are reactions of the hard acid–hard base type, these are the most effective in case of highly chlorinated substrates. To explain the congener reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions, correct descriptors were not established. The obtained results can be used to carry out chemical transformations of the polychlorinated biphenyls in order to prepare them for microbiological destruction or preservation.

  9. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viger, Jean-François; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE LB400 ) metabolizes PCBs. ► Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. ► We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE LB400 variants. ► The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE LB400 variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE LB400 ) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE RR41 , a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE LB400 , metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE LB400 . Hence, BphAE RR41 was able to metabolize 2,6,2′,6′-, 3,4,3′,5′- and 2,4,3′,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE LB400 is unable to metabolize. BphAE RR41 was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE LB400 to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  10. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viger, Jean-Francois; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada); Sylvestre, Michel, E-mail: Michel.Sylvestre@iaf.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE{sub LB400}) metabolizes PCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE{sub RR41}, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE{sub LB400}, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE{sub LB400}. Hence, BphAE{sub RR41} was able to metabolize 2,6,2 Prime ,6 Prime -, 3,4,3 Prime ,5 Prime - and 2,4,3 Prime ,4 Prime -tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE{sub LB400} is unable to metabolize. BphAE{sub RR41} was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE{sub LB400} to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos.

  12. Predicting water solubility of congeners: Chloronaphthalenes-A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzyn, Tomasz, E-mail: puzi@qsar.eu.org [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Mostrag, Aleksandra; Falandysz, Jerzy [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Kholod, Yana; Leszczynski, Jerzy [NSF CREST Nanotoxicity Center, Department of Chemistry, Jackson State University, 1325 Lynch St, Jackson, MS 39217-0510 (United States)

    2009-10-30

    Since the important physicochemical data for chloronaphtalenes (PCNs) are still scarce, we have predicted water solubility (log S) of all 75 congeners with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme. The values of log S, predicted by the most efficient model, varied from 0.01 to 1660 {mu}g dm{sup -3} (2.85 x 10{sup -11}-1.02 x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), depending on the number of chlorine atoms present in the molecule and the substitution pattern. We found that the main factor determining relative differences in solubility between the congeners is the solvent accessible volume related to the cavitation process occurring in the solvent. The results are presented as a case study of QSPR modeling for those Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that exist as families of congeners. By investigating the impact of (i) the way of the molecular descriptors' calculation, (ii) the size of applied database and (iii) chemometric method of modeling (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, and/or Partial Least Squares regression, PLS) on the quality of the models we proposed general recommendations for dealing with congeners. We found that the combination of the B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was the most optimal technique of the molecular descriptors' calculation for congeners when comparing with semi-empirical PM3, ab initio Hartee-Fock (HF), and Moller-Pleset 2 (MP2) method carried out with different-size basis sets. Moreover, the model developed with a larger and more general database that includes chloronaphthalenes, polychlorinated dibezno-p-dioxins, furans and biphenyls predicted the values of log S for PCNs noticeable worse than the model calibrated only on PCNs. In the later case it was possible to obtain satisfactory results by employing even the simplest MLR method and only one molecular descriptor. The values of log S were also calculated with the WSKOWIN and COSMO-RS models as the reference techniques and then compared to our

  13. Predicting water solubility of congeners: Chloronaphthalenes-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzyn, Tomasz; Mostrag, Aleksandra; Falandysz, Jerzy; Kholod, Yana; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    Since the important physicochemical data for chloronaphtalenes (PCNs) are still scarce, we have predicted water solubility (log S) of all 75 congeners with the Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) scheme. The values of log S, predicted by the most efficient model, varied from 0.01 to 1660 μg dm -3 (2.85 x 10 -11 -1.02 x 10 -5 mol dm -3 ), depending on the number of chlorine atoms present in the molecule and the substitution pattern. We found that the main factor determining relative differences in solubility between the congeners is the solvent accessible volume related to the cavitation process occurring in the solvent. The results are presented as a case study of QSPR modeling for those Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) that exist as families of congeners. By investigating the impact of (i) the way of the molecular descriptors' calculation, (ii) the size of applied database and (iii) chemometric method of modeling (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, and/or Partial Least Squares regression, PLS) on the quality of the models we proposed general recommendations for dealing with congeners. We found that the combination of the B3LYP functional with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was the most optimal technique of the molecular descriptors' calculation for congeners when comparing with semi-empirical PM3, ab initio Hartee-Fock (HF), and Moller-Pleset 2 (MP2) method carried out with different-size basis sets. Moreover, the model developed with a larger and more general database that includes chloronaphthalenes, polychlorinated dibezno-p-dioxins, furans and biphenyls predicted the values of log S for PCNs noticeable worse than the model calibrated only on PCNs. In the later case it was possible to obtain satisfactory results by employing even the simplest MLR method and only one molecular descriptor. The values of log S were also calculated with the WSKOWIN and COSMO-RS models as the reference techniques and then compared to our results.

  14. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Analysis on the Effects of Sediment Ageing and Organic Carbon on the Fate of a PCB Congener Spiked to Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the full cycle transport and fate of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener spiked to sediment to empirically and spectroscopically investigate the effects of sediment ageing and organic carbon on the adsorption, desorption, and reaction of the PCB. Caesar ...

  16. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H{sub 2} to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products.

  17. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Jim A.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H 2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  18. Electronic transitions of fluorene, dibenzofuran, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Trunk, John; Nakhimovsky, Lina

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of the electronic transitions of fluorene and its hetero-analogues dibenzofuran, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene was performed in a wide energy range. Gas phase, crystal phase, and linear dichroism electronic transmittance spectra were measured with synchrotron radiation...

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  1. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rhizosphere of rape, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorská, Hana; Tlustos, Pavel; Kaliszová, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rhizosphere effect of rape plants on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) dissipation in soils spiked with seven indicator congeners. Depletion of PCB in the rhizosphere was significantly higher in the soil with lower organic matter content. While in the Chernozem soil, 87% of PCB related to bulk soil were found in the 1st mm from roots, only 62%-69% were found in the Fluvisol soil with no significant influence of increased initial PCB concentration. Further from the roots, the concentration of lower chlorinated congeners decreased, which indicates their greater biodegradation in comparison with more chlorinated ones.

  2. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed "fast foods". Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food. This study adds to the previous paper by presenting data, in addition to dioxins and dibenzofurans, on the closely related dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the persistent metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), in four types of popular U.S. fast food. These include McDonald's Big Mac Hamburger, Pizza Hut's Personal Pan Pizza Supreme, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) three piece original recipe mixed dark and white meat luncheon package, and Häagen-Daz chocolate-chocolate chip ice cream. Dioxin plus dibenzofuran dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 TEQ pg/g wet or whole weight for the Big Mac, from 0.03 to 0.29 for the Pizza, from 0.01 to 0.31 for the KFC, and from 0.03 to 0.49 TEQ pg/g for the ice cream. Daily TEQ consumption per kilogram body weight (kg/BW), assuming an average 65 kg adult and a 20 kg child, from one serving of each of these fast food ranged between 0.046 and 1.556 pg/kg in adults whereas in children the values were between 0.15 and 5.05 pg/kg. Total measured PCDD/Fs in the Big Mac, Personal Pan Pizza, KFC, and the Häagen-Daz ice cream varied from 0.58 to 9.31 pg/g. Measured DDE levels in the fast foods ranged from 180 to 3170 pg/g. Total mono-ortho PCB levels ranged up to 500 pg/g or 1.28 TEQ pg/g for the KFC and for di-ortho PCBs up to 740 pg/g or 0.014 TEQ pg/g for the pizza sample. Total PCB values in the four samples ranged up to 1170 pg/g or 1.29 TEQ pg/g for the chicken sample.

  3. Forensic Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Furan Fingerprints to Elucidate Dechlorination Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Dewani, Yashika; Häggblom, Max M; Kerkhof, Lee J; Fennell, Donna E

    2017-09-19

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants whose main removal process in the environment is due to biodegradation, and particularly anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Since PCDD/F congeners that are substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions are the most toxic, removal of these chlorines is advantageous, but previous studies have only demonstrated their removal under laboratory conditions. We evaluated a concentration data set of PCDD/F congeners with four or more chlorines along with all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in surface water, treated and untreated wastewater, landfill leachate, and biosolids (NY CARP data set) to determine whether peri and peri/lateral dechlorination of PCDD/Fs occurs in these environments. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) applied to the data set revealed a factor indicative of the microbial dechlorination of PCBs, and this factor also contained a variety of non-2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD/F congeners. These results suggest that dechlorination of PCDD/Fs at the lateral positions is facile if not preferred in these environments. The relative lack of tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCDD/Fs suggested that dechlorination proceeds to PCDD/F congeners with less than four chlorines. The PMF results were confirmed by examining three samples that contained >90% PCB dechlorination products from the Fresh Kills Landfill and the Hudson River. Even without factor analysis, these samples demonstrated almost identical PCDD/F congener patterns. This study suggests that PCDD/Fs are reductively dechlorinated to nontoxic non-2,3,7,8 PCDD/F congeners in sewers and landfills as well as in the sediment of the Upper Hudson River.

  4. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhang, Yuan; Miao, Yi; Ma, Ling-Ling; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2013-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  6. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  7. Background Contamination by Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Trace Level High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) Analytical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  8. DIFFUSIVE EXCHANGE OF GASEOUS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ACROSS THE AIR-WATER INTERFACE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY. (R825245)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved and gas-phase concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 46 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured at eight sites on the Chesapeake Bay at four different times of the year to estimate net diffusive air-water gas exchange rates. Gaseous PAHs ar...

  9. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies. © The Author(s) 2012.

  10. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  11. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  12. Effect of highly bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners on estrogen and androgen receptor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C.; Andersen, H. R.; Rasmussen, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    pleiotropic effects on the estrogen- and androgen-receptor. In MCF-7 cells a slightly increased cell proliferation was observed at low concentrations (1-10 nM) in cells co-treated with 0.01 nM 17 beta -Estradiol. whereas the compounds inhibited cell growth significantly at 1 and 10 muM. In reporter gene (ERE-tk-CAT...

  13. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson's disease neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I; Miller, Gary W; Pennell, Kurt D

    2012-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson's disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson's disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson's disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and laboratory studies

  14. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  15. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  16. Investigations in the microbial degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and means of reductive dechlorination and aerobic mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbrock, P.

    1997-12-01

    The work had the objective to develop a biological method for cleaning up PCDD/PCDF contaminated upper soil layers (PCDDs/PCDFs: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans). Since highly chlorinated aromatic compounds persist in soil under aerobic conditions, reductive dechlorination of the compounds under anaerobic conditions was aimed at in a first phase of the project. A second, topped phase was destined for aerobic mineralization of the dechlorinated matrices. The tests were carried out on three farmland soils following long-term contamination with PCDDs/PCDFs. (orig./MG)

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals...... was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated...... to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth)....

  18. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products. Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products require specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. This report provides: (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial product analyses for HDDs and HDFs; (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs; (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices; and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry or electron capture detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous OA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products

  19. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E.; Tew, Kwee S.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k u ) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K ow , and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  20. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  1. Low-Temperature Catalytic Decomposition of 130 Tetra- to Octa-PCDD/Fs Congeners over CuOX and MnOX Modified V2O5/TiO2-CNTs with the Assistance of O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rixiao; Jin, Dongdong; Yang, Hangsheng; Lu, Shengyong; Potter, Phillip M; Du, Cuicui; Peng, Yaqi; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-10-07

    In this study, a reliable and steady PCDD/F generation system was utilized to investigate the performance of catalysts, in which 130 congeners of tetra- to octapolychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) vapors were studied under simulated flue gas with/without O 3 . TiO 2 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported vanadium oxides (VO X /TiO 2 -CNTs) modified with MnO X and CuO X , which were reported to be beneficial to the decomposition of model molecules, were found to have a negative effect on the removal of real PCDD/Fs in the simulated flue gas without O 3 . Moreover, the addition of MnO X presented different effects depending on whether CuO X existed in catalysts or not, which was also contrary to its effects on the degradation of model molecules. In an O 3 -containing atmosphere, low chlorination level PCDD/Fs congeners were removed well over VO X -MnO X /TiO 2 -CNTs, while high chlorination level PCDD/Fs congeners were removed well over VO X -CuO X /TiO 2 -CNTs. Fortunately, all PCDD/Fs congeners decomposed well over VO X -MnO X -CuO X /TiO 2 -CNTs. Finally, the effects of tetra- to octachlorination level for the adsorption and degradation behaviors of PCDD/Fs congeners were also investigated.

  2. Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.

  3. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.-C.; Hsi, H.-C.; Wang, Y.-F.; Lin, S.-L.; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2010-01-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Bottom ashes (BA) exhibited much higher PBDD/F (8.11-52.2 pg TEQ/g) and PBDE contents (20.4-186 ng/g) than those of fly ashes (0.0932-2.02 pg TEQ/g and 0.332-25.5 ng/g), revealing that the PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the feeding waste may not be completely destroyed. The PBDE concentrations/contents in the stack flue gases (26.1-109 ng/Nm 3 ) and in the BA (20.4-186 ng/g) of the MSWIs could reach three orders higher than those in the atmosphere and reference soils. PBDE contributions to the environment from the stack flue gases or the reutilization of BA of MSWIs should not be ignored from the developing PBDE inventory. - Municipal solid waste incinerators contributed PBDEs and PBDD/Fs to the environment through stack flue gases and reutilization of bottom ashes.

  4. Emissions of PCDD/Fs in flue gas from a medical waste incinerator in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Liu, Tao; Qiang, Ning; Li, Zhaohai; Cao, Yiqi; Xie, Li; Zhao, Yuanchen

    2017-12-01

    Emission characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 17 congeners from a medical waste incineration plants in Shanghai, China were investigated. Results showed that the dioxin concentration ranged from 5.0 to 23.3ng I-TEQ (Toxic Equivalent Quantity) Nm-3 under normal combustion concentration. The high dioxin incidence area was found in the boiler outlet and the bag filter inlet, and over 95% of the dioxins were present in the gaseous state. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) accounted for a higher proportion of the total amount of PCDD/Fs than polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs).

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark near a former manufacturing plant in Anniston, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, Mark H; Johnson, Glenn W

    2007-05-01

    Tree bark samples were collected to identify the relative amounts and congener profiles of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls dissolved into bark lipids from the gas phase in Anniston, Alabama, USA, where PCBs were manufactured from the 1920s until 1971. The area is heavily contaminated with PCBs: At least 4550 metric tons (mt) of PCB and 14000 mt of PCB distillation residue, known as Montar, remain buried in two landfills near the plant site. A minimum of 20.5 mt of PCBs were emitted to the atmosphere by the plant between 1953 and 1971 based on emissions figures for 1970. Bark results show that total PCB concentrations range over more than three orders of magnitude from 171927 ng/g lipid near the plant/landfill area, dropping exponentially to 35 ng/g lipid at a distance of about 7 km. The exponential trend is highly correlated (r=-0.77) and significant (ptree started growing after 1971 showing that atmospheric PCB concentrations remained high after PCB production ended. All PCB congener profiles show persistent congeners 31+28, 52, 66, 153, 138, and 180. Congener profiles from trees growing near the plant/landfill all have somewhat similar profiles but those growing during PCB production show high molecular mass compounds not usually found in the atmosphere and not found in younger trees, even in the most concentrated sample. We believe that high-temperature Montar disposal released high molecular mass PCBs into the gas phase which were dissolved into older tree bark lipids.

  6. A comparison of dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar PCBs in uncooked and broiled ground beef, catfish and bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Dellarco, M; Päpke, O; Olson, J

    1998-01-01

    The primary source of dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs for the general population is food, especially meat, fish, and dairy products. However, most data on the levels of these chemicals is from food in the raw or uncooked state. We report here the effect of one type of cooking (broiling) on the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in ground beef (hamburger), bacon and catfish. Samples of hamburger, bacon, and catfish were broiled and compared to uncooked samples in order to measure changes in the amounts of dioxins in cooked food. The total amount of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB TEQ decreased by approximately 50% on average for each portion as a result of broiling the hamburger, bacon and catfish specimens. The mean concentration (pg TEQ/kg, wet weight) of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, however, remained the same in the hamburger, increased by 83% in the bacon, and decreased by 34% in the catfish. On average, the total measured concentration (pg/kg) of the congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs increased 14% in the hamburger, increased 29% in the bacon, and decreased 33% in the catfish.

  7. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  8. Ortho-substituent correlated retention of polychlorinated biphenyls on a 50% n-octyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase by HRGC/MSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1988-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been known as ubiquitous environmental pollutants since the late 60s. They are found partitioned between all environmental compartments according to their physico-chemical properties. Investigation of their partitioning, degradation, and transport behaviour demands sensitive and selective analytical methods for this complex mixture of up to 209 theoretically possible compounds. Congener-specific separation by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection would be a suitable approach to this multi-compound problem. In this paper, the separation of PCB congeners by capillary gas chromatography (HRGC) on a 50% n-octyl-methylpolysiloxane phase is presented.

  9. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (fish products (e.g., catfish).

  10. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  11. Laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiencies of PCB congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination.

  12. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners on placental cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Yuko; Yeh, Corinne; Thoma, Theodosia; Getahun, Darios; Menon, Ramkumar; Peltier, Morgan R

    2018-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are pollutants that may increase the risk of preterm birth. In previous studies, we found that a mixture of PBDEs altered the expression of biomarkers for preterm birth by the placenta. However, there are 209 different PBDE congeners with different tissue distributions. How these different congeners may alter the production of immunomodulators by the placenta that help to maintain the survival of the fetal allograft is unclear. Therefore, we compared the effects 5 common congeners on basal and bacteria-stimulated cytokine production by the placenta. Placental explant cultures were incubated with 20 μM of PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209 or vehicle in the presence and absence of Escherichia coli for 20 h. Conditioned medium was harvested and concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, sgp130, HO-1, IL-10, BDNF, and 8-IsoP quantified. For unstimulated cultures, all congeners, except for PBDE-47, reduced the production of IL-1β and IL-6 production was enhanced by PBDE-153. BDNF concentrations tended to be reduced by most PBDE congeners and IL-10 production was enhanced by PBDE-99, -153, and -209. 8-IsoP production was enhanced by PBDE-153, but not the other congeners. For bacteria-stimulated cultures, PBDE-47 increased IL-1β production and PBDE-47, -153, and -209 tended to reduce TNF-α production. IL-6 production was enhanced by all PBDEs except 153. IL-10 production was enhanced by all congeners except for PBDE-47. All congeners significantly enhanced BDNF and 8-IsoP. These results suggest that PBDEs can alter the expression of placental biomarkers in a congener and infection-dependent manner. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  14. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in food and feed using a bioassay. Result of a validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizzi, G.; Holst, C. von; Anklam, E. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurement, Food Safety and Quality Unit; Hoogenboom, R. [RIKILT-Intitute of Food Safety, Wageningen (Netherlands); Rose, M. [Defra Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    It is estimated that more than 90% of dioxins consumed by humans come from foods derived from animals. The European Commission through a Council Regulation (No 2375/2001) and a Directive (2001/102/EC), both revised by the Commission Recommendation (2002/201/EC), has set maximum levels for dioxins in food and feedstuffs. To implement the regulation, dioxin-monitoring programs of food and feedstuffs will be undertaken by the Member States requiring the analysis of large amounts of samples. Food and feed companies will have to control their products before putting them into the market. The monitoring for the presence of dioxins in food and feeds needs fast and cheap screening methods in order to select samples with potentially high levels of dioxins to be then analysed by a confirmatory method like HRGC/HRMS. Bioassays like the DR CALUX {sup registered} - assay have claimed to provide a suitable alternative for the screening of large number of samples, reducing costs and the required time of analysis. These methods have to comply with the specific characteristics considered into two Commission Directives (2002/69/EC; 2002/70/EC), establishing the requirements for the determination of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs for the official control of food and feedstuffs. The European Commission's Joint Research Centre is pursuing validation of alternative techniques in food and feed materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the DR CALUX {sup registered} technique as screening method in compliance with the Commission Directives, a validation study was organised in collaboration with CSL and RIKILT. The aim of validating an analytical method is first to determine its performance characteristics (e.g. variability, bias, rate of false positive and false negative results), and secondly to evaluate if the method is fit for the purpose. Two approaches are commonly used: an in-house validation is preferentially performed first in order to establish whether the method is mature enough for being tested in a collaborative trial. A number of reports have described the in-house validation of the DR CALUX {sup registered} -assay, thus allowing proceeding to the second step, an interlaboratory trial. In this step a set of chicken feeds and fish oil samples at four different levels of contamination were analysed by both experienced and newly trained laboratories.

  15. Contamination of a municipal sewage system with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) with precipitation. Phase 1 (1990-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Reissinger, M.; Horstmann, M.; Kaune, A.; Buresch, H.; Hutzinger, O.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to estimate and assess the contamination of a municipal sewerage with PCDD/F through precipitation. Potential sources such as the rainwash of rooves and roads were examined directly. The last stages in the sewage transport are waters or water purification plants. Primary sludge, the most important accumulating compartment for PCDD/F, was also examined. (BBR) [de

  16. Levels, profiles and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk from North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.H.; Sun, S.J.; Horiguchi, H.; Kayama, F. [Dept. of Environ. Medicine, Jichi Medical School, Kawachi-gun (Japan)]|[CREST-JST, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Nakamura, M. [Hiyoshi Corp., Omihachiman, Shiga (Japan); Li Li; Ge Jun [Hospital of gynaecology and maternity of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province (China); Ma Yu-Xia [Dept. of Hygienic Food, Collection of Public Health, Hebei Medical Univ. (China); Hou Xiu-Jun [The Second Hospital of Luanxian, Hebei Province (China); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection System International Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    China have produced and used organochlorine pesticides with low purity in a large quantity. However, there is little information on the environmental levels of organohalogens contamination as well as body burden of these chemicals, especially in Mainland China. After recent rapid growth of economy in China, health effects of persistent organohalogens are of growing concern. To assess mother's body burden and perinatal exposure of dioxins and pesticides, we collected breast milk specimens from Shijiazhuang urban and Tangshan rural area, Hebei Province, North China, and measured dioxins by DIPS-CALUX{sup circledR} bioassay (Dioxin and PCB specific Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression cell bioassay system).

  17. Matrix Effect on the De novo Synthesis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, Biphenyls and Benzenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Weber, R.; Grabic, R.; Šolcová, Olga; Fišerová, Eva; Šyc, Michal; Karban, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2007), s. 51-61 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : model fly ash * PCDD/F * formation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2007

  18. In Situ Enhancement of Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haeggblom, Max M; Fennell, Donna E; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2006-01-01

    ... that is associated with dredging, and decrease the cost of sediment management. Reductive dehalogenation is a promising mechanism for the removal of toxic organohalides from estuarine and marine sediments...

  19. Levels of toxaphene congeners in fish from Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Hilbert, G.

    2000-01-01

    The levels of toxaphene congeners, in addition to PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides, were determined in various fish samples from different Danish waters. While PCB-153 and p,p'-DDE show different levels depending on the fishing area, with highest levels in fish from the Western Baltic...... Sea, toxaphene was detected in all the samples investigated at a more constant level. The distribution of the three toxaphene congeners Parlar #26, #50 and #62 depends on the fishing area, with the Western Baltic Sea being different from the other waters by having almost equal levels of toxaphene...

  20. Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; Erdman, Nicholas R.; Rodenburg, Zachary L.; Eastling, Paul M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2012-01-01

    Residential soils from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA were collected and analyzed for chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study is one of the very few urban soil investigations in the USA. The chlordanes concentrations ranged from 0 to 7500 ng g −1 dry weight (d.w.), with a mean and standard deviation of 130 ± 920 ng g −1 d.w., which is about 1000 times larger than background levels. ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 3 to 1200 ng g −1 d.w., with a mean and standard deviation of 56 ± 160 ng g −1 d.w. and are about 10 times higher than world-wide background levels. Both groups exhibit considerable variability in chemical patterns and site-to-site concentrations. Although no measurements of dioxins were carried out, the potential toxicity due to the 12 dioxin-like PCBs found in the soil is in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Graphical Abstract: Spatial location and measured concentrations of ΣPCB (left, 64 sites) and chlordanes (right, 66 sites) (ng g −1 d.w.) in soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Samples were collected in August 2008. Estimated flood area was obtained from the Linn County Auditor's Office. Highlights: ► Chlordanes and PCBs congeners were measured in surficial soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ► Measured values for both chemical groups are similar to other urban/industrial site around the world. ► This is one of the few urban soil studies in the USA. ► TEQs values are in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Chlordane compounds (trans-, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and PCBs (164 peaks for 209 congeners) were measured in the soils of a small medium-sized American city.

  1. The inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted and microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with a decreased expression of cyclin D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Quensen, John F.; Smith, Andrew; Kurtz, David T.; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Immunological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been demonstrated in our laboratories with the preferential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted PCB congeners. An investigation of the mechanism behind this immunotoxicity revealed an interruption in the progression of murine lymphocytes from G 0 /G 1 into S phase by Aroclor 1242 and the di-ortho-substituted congener, 2,2'-chlorobiphenyl (CB), whereas, a non-ortho-substituted congener, 4,4'-CB, did not affect cell cycle progression. This interruption of cell cycle progression by 2,2'-CB and Aroclor 1242 was associated with a decreased expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein, cyclin D2, while expression was not affected by exposure to the non-ortho-substituted 4,4'-CB. These results suggest the preferential inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted congeners is a result of a decreased expression of cyclin D2, which leads to an interruption in cell cycle progression. In addition, PCB mixtures with an increased percentage of chlorines in the ortho position following an environmentally occurring degradation process inhibited LPS-induced proliferation, interrupted cell cycle progression, and decreased cyclin D2 expression. This study provides evidence for a mechanism of action of the immunological effects of ortho-substituted individual congeners as well as environmentally relevant mixtures enriched in congeners with this substitution pattern

  2. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in the environment; Dioxinas y dibenzofuranos en el medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, M.; Fernandez, H.; Sastre, A.; Diez Sanz, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-11-01

    The dioxins and dibenzofurans are toxic substances. They are doing in a few of industrial process and are dangerous for the environment. This article presents the analysis of these substances: characterization, origin and transmission in the environment. (Author)

  3. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were analyzed in young of the year bluefish collected along the U.S. Atlantic coastline from...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  6. Time-trends and congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in California peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Holden, Arthur; Chu, Vivian; Kim, Michele; Rhee, Alexandra; Patel, Puja; Shi, Yating; Linthicum, Janet; Walton, Brian J; McKeown, Karen; Jewell, Nicholas P; Hooper, Kim

    2009-12-01

    High levels (microg/g lw) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in peregrine falcon eggs from California (n = 90 eggs from 52 birds, 38 nest sites, collected 1986-2007, SigmaPBDEs median = 4.53, range = 0.08-53.1). Over the past 22 years, PBDE levels more than tripled each decade in the eggs, whereas PCB levels had no significant changes. PBDE levels were highest in eggs from major California cities ("Big Cities"), whereas PCBs showed no difference across the regions. For PBDEs, Big City eggs had markedly different patterns from Coastal eggs: BDE-209 and the higher brominated PBDEs (hexa-nona) were dominant congeners in Big City eggs, while BDE-47 and -99 were dominant in Coastal eggs. In many of the birds that gave multiple eggs over time ("time series"), PBDE patterns changed over time: the high proportions of BDE-209 and higher brominated PBDEs (short half-lives) in young birds contrasted with increasingly higher proportions of BDE-153 (long half-life) and other lower brominated PBDEs as the birds aged. These data are consistent with metabolic debromination of BDE-209 (t(1/2) = 1-2 weeks) to the lower brominated PBDEs, with accumulation over time of BDE-153 (t(1/2) = 3-4 years). In contrast, PCB patterns showed no differences by locations, and did not change over time. Diet (prey birds) may explain the urban PBDE pattern, as the patterns in urban pigeons and peregrines were similar, with high proportions of BDE-209 and the higher-brominated PBDEs. Also, our prey data (feathers from peregrine nests) showed urban peregrines having a higher proportion (>2 fold) of granivorous/opportunistic birds (e.g., "introduced feral" pigeons, mourning doves, starlings) in their diet than coastal peregrines. In summary, these data indicate that BDE-209 exits consumer products as an environmental contaminant to be taken up by wildlife (particularly in urban locations), and undergoes metabolic debromination to the banned lower

  7. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  8. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. © 2013 SETAC.

  10. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  11. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreitmueller, J.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m 3 ]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient K gw was observed. (orig.)

  12. Passive air monitoring of PCBs and PCNs across East Asia: a comprehensive congener evaluation for source characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarh, Jonathan Nartey; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Habib, Ahsan; Nam, Jae-Jak; Lee, Jong-Sik; Li, Qilu; Liu, Xiang; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive congener specific evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the atmosphere was conducted across East Asia in spring 2008, applying polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air sampler (PAS) as monitoring device. Mean concentrations derived for Japan, China and Korea were 184 ± 24, 1100 ± 118, and 156 ± 20 pg m(-3) for ∑(202) PCBs, and 9.5 ± 1.5, 61 ± 6, and 16 ± 2.4 pg m(-3) for ∑(63) PCNs, respectively. Relative to reported data from 2004, the present results suggest that air PCBs concentrations have not changed much in Japan and Korea, while it has increased by one order of magnitude in China. From principal component analysis, combustion emerged highly culpable in contemporary emissions of both PCBs and PCNs across the East Asian sub-region. Another factor derived as important to air PCBs was re-emissions/volatilization. Signals from PCBs formulations were also picked, but their general importance was virtually consigned to the re-emissions/volatilization tendencies. On the contrary, counterpart PCNs formulations did not appear to contribute much to air PCNs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products (re-announcement of PB88-101050 - see notes field for explanation). Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-09-01

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products requires specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. The report provides (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial-product analyses for HDDs and HDFs, (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs, (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices, and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or electron-capture-detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous QA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products

  14. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  15. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and indoor dust associated with electricity generation facilities in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Bilikis Temitope; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Oluseyi, Temilola; Olayinka, Kehinde; Harrad, Stuart

    2018-09-01

    Concentrations of 7 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in dust and soil samples from 12 power stations collected over the two major seasons of the Nigerian climate. Median ƩPCB 7 concentrations in soil ranged from 2 ng/g for power station A to 220 ng/g for power station I; while those in dust ranged from 21 ng/g for power station L to 2200 ng/g for power station I. For individual congeners, median PCB concentrations ranged from 3.8 ng/g for PCB 101 to 52 ng/g for PCB 180 in dust, and  transmission > distribution). Congener patterns in dust and soil samples were compared using principal component analysis (PCA) with those in transformer oil samples from 3 of the power stations studied and with common PCB mixtures (Aroclors). This revealed congener patterns in soil were more closely related to that in the transformer oil than dust. Congener patterns in most samples were similar to Aroclor 1260. Concentrations of PCBs in soil samples close to the transformers significantly exceeded those in soil sampled further away. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emissions of dioxin and dibenzofuran from electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueira, S. L.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work done in order to clarify the formation mechanism of highly toxic micropoUutants, such as dioxins and dibenzofurans, from electric arc furnaces used in the production of carbon steel from scrap. The study is allowing to derive relationships between the levels of airborne micropoUutants and the operational parameters of the production process so that an abatement of pollution could be achieved. By using the European standard method CEN 1948 for dioxin like compounds sampling and measurement, it was possible to determine the characteristic fingerprint of micropoUutants emitted by this particular stationary source.

    Este artículo contiene resultados del trabajo ejecutado para el esclarecimiento de los mecanismos de formación de los micropolutantes muy tóxicos, como dioxinas y dibenzofuranos, que son emitidos por los hornos de arco eléctrico utilizados en la producción de acero. Estos estudios han permitido relacionar las concentraciones de polutantes emitidos a la atmósfera con las condiciones operación del homo eléctrico. Utilizando el método normalizado CEN 1948 para captación y análisis de muestras de compuestos análogos a las dioxinas ha sido posible determinar el perfil característico de los micropolutantes emitidos por esta fuente

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  18. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  19. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  1. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  3. Degradation of carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzofuran at low temperature by Pseudomonas sp. strain C3211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anne-Mette; Finster, Kai Waldemar; Karlson, Ulrich

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C3211 was isolated from a temperate climate soil contaminated with creosote. This strain was able to degrade carbazole, dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran at 10 degrees C with acetone as a co-substrate. When dibenzothiophene was degraded by strain C3211, an orange compound, which absorbed at 472 nm, accumulated in the medium. Degradation of dibenzofuran was followed by accumulation of a yellowish compound, absorbing at 462 nm. The temperature optimum of strain C3211 for degradation of dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran was at 20 to 21 degrees C, while the maximum temperature for degradation was at 27 degrees C. Both compounds were degraded at 4 degrees C. Degradation at 10 degrees C was faster than degradation at 25 degrees C. This indicates that strain C3211 is adapted to life at low temperatures.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  5. Biodegradation of 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, a congener of polychlorinated biphenyl, by Pseudomonas isolates GSa and GSb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, D; Shobha, K J

    2015-08-01

    Bioegradation of 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (2,4 CB), by two isolates of Pseudomonas (GSa and GSb) was compared using GC-MS. Transformer oil polluted soil was used for the isolation of 2,4 CB degrading bacteria. GC-MS analysis of the solvent extracts obtained from Pseudomonas sp. GSa spent culture indicated the presence of Phenol 2,6-bis (1,1-dimethyl)-4-methyl (C15H24O). Further, the enzyme analysis of the cell free extracts showed the presence of 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl dehalogenase (CBD), 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl-NADPH-oxido-reductase (2,4 CBOR) and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-NADPH-oxido-reductase (2,3 DHOR) with specific activity of 6.00, 0.4 and 0.22 pmol/min/mg of protein, suggesting that dechlorination as an important step during 2,4 CB catabolism. Further, the cell free extract of GSb showed only 2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl-NADPH-oxido-reductase (2,4 CBOR) and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-NADPH-oxido-reductase (2,3 DHOR), with specific activity of 0.3 and 0.213 μmol/min/mg of protein, suggesting attack on non-chlorinated aromatic ring of 2,4 CB, releasing chlorinated intermediates which are toxic to the environment. Although, both the isolated bacteria (GSa and GSb) belong to Pseudomonas spp., they exhibited different metabolic potential.

  6. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran over Pt/mesoporous zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Won; Jun, Bo Ram; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Ko, Chang Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    The hydrodeoxygenation of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran, which are representative model compounds of bio-oil, was performed using two different Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts, Pt/mesoporous Y and Pt/mesoporous MFI. The reforming of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation was investigated using a batch reactor at 40 bar and 250 °C. The characteristics of the catalysts were analyzed by N 2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, and NH 3 temperature programmed desorption. Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts containing both strong acid sites and mesopores showed the higher conversion of 2-methoxy phenol than Pt/SiO 2 and Pt/Si-MCM-48 with no acid sites, Pt/γ-Al 2 O 3 , and a mixture of mesoporous Y and Pt/SiO 2 , indicating the importance of both Pt and strong acid sites for high catalytic activity. Among the two Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts tested, the conversion of 2-methoxy phenol to cyclohexane over Pt/mesoporous Y was much higher than that over the Pt/mesoporous MFI. This was attributed to the better textural properties, such as surface area, pore volume and micropore size, compared to those of Pt/mesoporous MFI. The catalytic conversions of dibenzofuran obtained using two Pt/mesoporous zeolite catalysts were similar and the main products were 1,1′-bicyclohexyl, cyclopentylmethyl-cyclohexane and cyclohexane. In addition, the reaction mechanisms of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran over Pt/mesoporous zeolite were suggested. - Highlights: • HDO of 2-methoxy phenol and dibenzofuran was performed over Pt/mesoporous zeolites. • Pt/mesoporous zeolites have mesopores and strong acid sites. • Main product of HDO of 2-methoxy phenol was cyclohexane. • Main products of HDO of dibenzofuran were bicyclohexyl (BCH), i-BCH, and cyclohexane

  7. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A.; Alsberg, Tomas; Wit, de Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are

  8. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters and sediments of rivers in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Han, Jingchao; Bi, Chunjuan; Huang, Xing; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2017-06-01

    The distribution, sources, and potential risks of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the rivers of Shanghai, China were investigated. Fourteen PCB congeners in surface waters and sediments, which were collected from 53 sampling sites, were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase, in particulates, and in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 34.8 ng•L‒1, from 0.76 to 39.71 ng•L‒1, and from 1.46 to 46.11 ng•g-1 (dry weight, dw), respectively. The corresponding WHO toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) ranged between nd-1135.63 pg TEQ•L-1, 0.02-605.94 pg TEQ•L-1, and 0.05-432.12 pg TEQ•g-1 dw, respectively. The penta-CBs, especially PCB 118 and PCB 105, were the dominant congeners in all samples. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the PCBs were mainly influenced by a historical accumulation of commercial PCB products, the burning of house coal, and emissions from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and secondary metallurgy industries. The center of Shanghai was significantly affected by PCB contamination, followed by the industrial parklands and suburban towns, while the farmland of Chongming Island was the least affected area. Adverse biological and health effects would be likely in the central urban areas, industrial parks, and residential towns of Shanghai.

  9. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread...... cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ≥ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...

  11. Solid phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifazi, P.; Pierini, E.; Bruner, F. [Centro di Studio per la Chimica dell`Ambiente e le Tecnologie Strumentali Avanzate dell` Universita degli Studi di Urbino, Ist. di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    A study was carried out of the recovery by solid phase extraction of the eleven most toxic polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic acids. Experiments were performed using water polluted with a humic acid (sodium salt) concentration of 9-18 mg L{sup -1}. The effect of humic acids on the recoveries was noticeable, especially where the more chlorinated congeners were concerned. The effect was also evident with river water containing naturally dissolved humic acids. A method for destroying humic acids prior to extraction was applied. The recoveries after the destruction of humic acids were in the range of 90%, even in the case of river water, demonstrating the applicability of the method to real samples. (orig.)

  12. Immunotoxicity of environmentally relevant mixtures of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons with methyl mercury on rat lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omara, F.O.; Brochu, C.; Flipo, D.; Denizeau, F.; Fournier, M. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of methyl mercury (MHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well established at higher exposure levels but unclear at low exposure levels. The authors exposed Fischer 344 rat splenocytes, thymocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro for 72 h to MHg of three PCDDs and two PCDFs PCB mixtures, or combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures Mitogenic responses of lymphocytes to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, or lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate were determined by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake; cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were determined by flow cytometry. Methylmercury mixtures with 2 {micro}g/ml MHg decreased the viability of splenocytes to 57 and 40% at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Basal intracellular calcium ion levels were unaffected by the treatments. Methylmercury suppressed the responses of lymphocytes to T and B cell mitogens. All combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures decreased mitogenic responses to levels similar to those to MHg alone. In contrast, PCB and PCDD/PCDF mixtures did not suppress but augmented responses of splenocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes to T cell mitogens. Overall, no interactive toxicity was observed with MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures on cytotoxicity and lymphocyte mitogenic responses. Therefore, MHg may pose a greater threat than organochlorines to the mammalian immune system.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rapaport, David P; Rodan, Bruce D

    2005-07-15

    Human adipose tissue samples (n=52) collected in New York City during 2003-2004 were analyzed for the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of PBDEs in adipose tissues ranged from 17 to 9630 ng/g, lipid wt (median: 77; mean: 399 ng/g, lipid wt; sum all di- through hexaBDE congeners). Average PBDE concentrations in human adipose tissues from New York City were 10- to 100-times greater than those reported for European countries. A concentration of 9630 ng/g, lipid wt, found in a sample of adipose tissue, is one of the highest concentrations reported to date. PBDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE) was the major congener detected in human tissues, followed by PBDE congeners #99 (2,2',4,4',5-penta BDE), 100 (2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE), and 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE). A few individuals contained PBDE 153 as the predominant congener in total PBDE concentrations, suggesting alternative exposure sources, possibly occupational. Principal component analysis of PBDE congener composition in human adipose tissues revealed the presence of five clusters, each characterized by varying composition. No significant difference was found in the concentrations of PBDEs between gender. Concentrations of PBDEs were, on average, similar to those for PCBs in human adipose tissues, and substantially higher when PBDE outliers were retained. PBDE and PCB concentrations were not correlated. PBDE concentrations did not increase with increasing age of the subjects, whereas concentrations of PCBs increased with increasing age in males but not in females in this study. These results suggest differences between PBDEs and PCBs in their sources or time course of exposure and disposition. The presence of comparable or greater concentrations of PBDEs, relative to PCBs, highlights the importance of recentvoluntary and regulatory effortsto cease production of commercial penta- and octa-BDE in North America, although these efforts do not address

  14. Laboratory evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, and petroleum-based paint were tested in small environmental chambers to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB sorption and estimate the key parameters required by a barrier model. Wipe samples were collected from PCB contaminated surface encapsulated with the coating materials to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB migration from the source. A barrier model was used to calculate the PCB concentrations in the sources and the encapsulant layers, and at the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant and in the room air at different times. The performance of the encapsulants was ranked by those concentrations and PCB percent reductions. Overall, the three epoxy coatings performed better than the other coatings. Both the experimental results and the mathematical modeling showed that selecting proper encapsulants can effectively reduce the PCB concentrations at the exposed surfaces. The encapsulation method is most effective for contaminated surfaces that contain low levels of PCBs. This study answers some of these questions by using a combination of laboratory testing and mathematical modeling. The results should be useful to mitigation engineers, building owners and managers

  15. Optical detection of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncova, Gabriela; Berkova, Daniela; Burkhard, Jiri; Demnerova, Katerina; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we describe the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which is based on the measurement of changes of optical absorption at 400 nm of the medium in an aerobic bioreactor with immobilized cells Pseudomonas species 2. The rate of production, composition and the concentration of yellow intermediates are influenced by concentration and composition of PCB mixtures, concentration of cells and by the methods of immobilization. The method was applied in the detection of commercial mixture D103. It was found that the advantageous carriers were inorganic or organic-inorganic matrices, which sorbed PCBs and a cell outgrowth from their surface was low. In water contaminated with transformer oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons the detection limit is 10-2 gD103/kg. In transformer oil the upper limit for degradation of D103 by sodium dehalogenation (1.5 gD103 /kgoil) was determined also in the presence of the same concentration of trichloroethylene. The employment to of a liquid core waveguide spectrophotometer instead of a diode array spectrophotometer increased the sensitivity of the measurement of yellow intermediates by a factor of 100. An extrinsic fiber-optic sensor was used for in-situ measurement during biodegradation of PCBs in bioreactors.

  16. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCNs) behavior in the thermal destruction process of wastes containing PCNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noma, Y.; Sakai, Shin-ichi [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Giraud, R. [DuPont Engineering Technology Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) can compose a mixture of up to 75 congeners and eight CN homologue groups. The large-scale manufacture of PCNs and their main use from 1910 to 1980 as popular industrial compounds become a main source of environmental pollution. The production and use of PCNs were phased out in the US and Europe in the 1980s due to their toxicity and environmental persistence. Although PCNs were also banned for import and manufacture from the year 1979 in Japan, PCN wax was accidentally imported during 1998-2000 to manufacture Neoprene FB polymer, which is a special grade of synthetic rubber product. Rubber belts (FB belts) were made from Neoprene FB and used for the domestic market during 1999-2001. Large efforts recalled all FB polymer as well as finished products containing FB polymer from distribution channels. Most of the remaining finished products in the marketplace will probably be incinerated as wastes after usage in the near future. Therefore, testing was conducted using the thermal testing plant equipment in order to evaluate the emissions from thermal destruction of FB belts containing PCNs, determining TEQ emissions, studying PCNs behavior, considering the mixture effect of FB belts co-incinerated with municipal solid waste (MSW) and examining the effect of two-stage combustion and post-combustion controls. Material balances were analyzed to grasp input and output of PCNs and the destruction behaviors are examined by congener specific analysis of PCNs.

  17. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish from Shandong, China, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanping; Jiang, Dafeng; Li, Fenghua; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yanni; Li, Lu

    2018-05-22

    The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0.011 to 9.214 pg WHO TEQ/g ww. The mean dietary intake for all fish species was 36.5 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, which was lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ/kg bw/month set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. To monitor the trend of DL-PCBs in fish for food safety control it is necessary to maintain a surveillance program.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Wania, Frank; Lei, Ying D.; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C.G.; Xiao, Hang

    2006-01-01

    To assess the spatial concentration variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the atmosphere on a large continental scale, their annually integrated air concentrations were determined in 2000/2001 using XAD-based passive air samplers (PAS). The network included 40 stations in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize and Costa Rica, and covered 72 degrees of latitude and longitude. Total concentrations of PCB and PBDE congeners ranged from below the detection limit to 130 ng PAS -1 and 24 ng PAS -1 , respectively. PCBs displayed a large variation between urban, rural and remote sites, whereas PBDEs did not follow such a pattern. Open burning of 'Penta'-containing waste may have contributed to the PBDEs detected in the air samples from rural and remote areas. Air from the Canadian Arctic had a relatively higher percentage of lighter PCB congeners than air sampled in the tropical region, which is interpreted as evidence for global fractionation. - A continental passive air sampling network reveals atmospheric distribution patterns of two classes of industrial chemicals

  19. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in polysulfide sealants-Occurrence and emission from a landfill station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, N. Johan; Pettersen, Harald; Ishaq, Rasha; Axelman, Johan; Bandh, Cecilia; Broman, Dag; Zebuehr, Yngve; Hammar, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 80 000 kg polysulfide sealant containing 10 000-18 000 kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was deposited at a Swedish municipal landfill station during 1965-1973. Investigations during 1994 showed that soil layers underneath the landfill had concentration of PCB not alarmingly high. The concentration of PCB congeners in ground water samples was elevated 4-750 times compared to a reference sample. Based on samples of ground water, leachate water, and flux chambers measuring evaporation of PCB from the landfill surface, the emission of PCB was estimated to be 1 g ΣPCB/yr. This very low rate was attributed to the high sorptive capacity of the sealant. Compared to a reference site, the evaporation flux was elevated for the most volatile congeners, but factors 20-1400 lower than from another landfill which was contaminated with PCB in paper-pulp fibres. - From a municipal 2-ha landfill containing 10-18 tonnes of ΣPCB bound in polysulfide sealants, only 1 g per year escape to the surroundings

  1. Immunomodulatory effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluoroalkyl acids in East Greenland ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Jasperse, Lindsay; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Bossi, Rossana; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    To better elucidate the potential immune-related health effects of exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in ringed seals (Pusa hispida), a sentinel Arctic species, we assessed 1) associations between mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo tissue contaminant burdens, and 2) the concentration-response effects of in vitro exposure to PFASs and PCB congeners on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Upon in vitro contaminant exposure, the non-coplanar PCB congeners CB 138, 153, and 180, but not the coplanar CB 169, significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation between 10 and 20 µg g −1 ww. The respective in vitro EC 50 values for these congeners were 13.3, 20.7, 20.8, and 54.6 µg g −1 ww. No modulation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed upon in vitro exposure to two individual PFASs, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), at concentrations up to 1000 ng g-1. In addition, no significant correlations were found between lymphocyte proliferation and any blood or blubber contaminant measured. Taken together, these data suggest this population of ringed seals is not currently at high risk of altered lymphocyte proliferation from exposure to the POPs or PFASs in this study. - Highlights: • Assess relationships between tissue contaminants and changes in immune function. • Risk for contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in East Greenland ringed seal is low. • Weight of evidence suggest non-coplanar PCBs are immunotoxic at high concentrations.

  2. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs. © 2013.

  3. Selected chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants in Bjornoya (Bear Island) freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N.; Kallenborn, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Levels of selected sparsely investigated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been measured in organisms from two Arctic lakes on Bjornoya (Bear Island). Elevated levels of chlorobornanes (CHBs) (up to 46.7 ng/g wet weight=ww), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (up to 27.2 ng/g ww), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) (up to 1.1 ng/g ww) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, only 4 congeners) (up to 62.7 pg/g ww), were measured in biota from Lake Ellasjoen. In Lake Oyangen, located only 5 km north of Ellasjoen, levels of these contaminants were significantly lower. δ 15 N-values were 7-10%o higher in organisms from Ellasjoen as compared to Oyangen. This is attributed to biological inputs related to seabird activities. The present study illustrates that contaminants such as CHBs, brominated flame retardants and PCNs accumulate in the Ellasjoen food web in a manner similar to PCBs and conventional organochlorine pesticides. Transport mechanisms that control PCB and DDT distributions, i.e. atmospheric long-range transport and biotransport by seabirds, are also relevant for the contaminants investigated in the present study. - Elevate levels of chlorobornanes, polychlorinated naphthalenes and brominated flame retardants have been measured in biota from a Norwegian Arctic lake

  4. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: Levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K.S.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ 25 PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m −3 with a dominance of congeners with 4–7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ 25 PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. Highlights: •Unlike decreasing trend of PCBs in United States and European countries, high levels of PCBs remain in the Indian atmosphere. •Existing emission inventories cannot explain the high PCB concentrations in Indian atmosphere. •Electronic waste recycling, ship dismantling and open burning of municipal solid waste are implicated as potential sources. -- Measurement of atmospheric Polychlorinated biphenyls in seven major Indian cities

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-04-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamontova, Elena A.; Mamontov, Alexander A.; Tarasova, Eugenia N.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu.; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Highlights: •First study to measure PCBs in surface soil sampled throughout Mongolia. •The PCB patterns in polluted soil were similar to those in Sovol or Aroclor 1254. •Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in soils throughout Mongolia

  7. Concentrations and trophic magnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in marine fish from the Bohai coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Shasha; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have been found widely in the aquatic environment and can be transferred through food chains, which can magnify or dilute their toxic effects on humans. In this study, PCNs were analyzed in samples of 17 species of fish with different dietary habits collected in the Bohai coastal area in China. Dichloronaphthalenes, which have rarely been quantified in previous studies, were determined. The total PCN concentrations were from 7.3 to 214 pg/g wet weight, and the highest concentration was found in ditrema. The trichloronaphthalenes were the most abundant PCNs, followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and pentachloronaphthalenes. The relatively high contributions of the less-chlorinated homologs to the total PCN concentrations indicated that the main PCN sources around the Bohai were industrial thermal process emissions rather than technical PCN formulations. The trophic magnification factors of the PCN homologs were from 3.1 to 9.9, indicating that PCNs were biomagnified by fish. The trophic magnification factor of dichloronaphthalene and trichloronaphthalenes was 5.8 and 6.4, respectively, indicating for the first time that dichloronaphthalene and trichloronaphthalenes can undergo trophic magnification by fish. The two highest trophic magnification factors were for the pentachloronaphthalenes and hexachloronaphthalenes, probably because these PCNs having fewer vicinal carbon atoms without chlorine atoms attached are less easily biotransformed than the other homologs. The dioxin-like toxicities of the PCNs in the samples, expressed as potential toxic equivalences (TEQs), were assessed. The highest total TEQ was 0.0090 pg/g ww, in Pacific herring, and the hexachloronaphthalenes were the dominant contributors to the total TEQs in the fish samples. The PCN TEQs were much lower than the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl TEQs found in fish from the Bohai in previous studies, and

  8. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have become a persistent... unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient period of time following...

  9. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by iron and its oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Kainuma, Masashi; Wang, Wei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    The decomposition efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined using elemental iron (Fe) and three iron (hydr)oxides, i.e., α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and α-FeOOH, as catalysts. The experiments were performed using four distinct PCB congeners (PCB-209, PCB-153, and the coplanar PCB-167 and PCB-77) at temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 380 °C and under an inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere composed of N2, N2+O2, or N2+H2. From these three options N2 showed to provide the best reaction atmosphere. Among the iron compounds tested, Fe3O4 showed the highest activity for decomposing PCBs. The decomposition efficiencies of PCB-209, PCB-167, PCB-153, and PCB-77 by Fe3O4 in an N2 atmosphere at 230 °C were 88.5%, 82.5%, 69.9%, and 66.4%, respectively. Other inorganic chlorine (Cl) products which were measured by the amount of inorganic Cl ions represented 82.5% and 76.1% of the reaction products, showing that ring cleavage of PCBs was the main elimination process. Moreover, the dechlorination did not require a particular hydrogen donor. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the elemental distribution at the catalyst's surface. The O/Fe ratio influenced upon the decomposition efficiency of PCBs: the lower this ratio, the higher the decomposition efficiency. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that α-Fe2O3 effectively worked as a catalyst, while Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH were consumed as reactants, as their final state is different from their initial state. Finally, a decomposition pathway was postulated in which the Cl atoms in ortho-positions were more difficult to eliminate than those in the para- or meta-positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioinspired chemical synthesis of monomeric and dimeric stephacidin A congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Ken; de Sant'ana, Danilo Pereira; Hirooka, Yasuo; Mercado-Marin, Eduardo V.; Stephens, David E.; Kou, Kevin G. M.; Richter, Sven C.; Kelley, Naomi; Sarpong, Richmond

    2018-01-01

    Stephacidin A and its congeners are a collection of secondary metabolites that possess intriguing structural motifs. They stem from unusual biosynthetic sequences that lead to the incorporation of a prenyl or reverse-prenyl group into a bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane framework, a chromene unit or the vestige thereof. To complement biosynthetic studies, which normally play a significant role in unveiling the biosynthetic pathways of natural products, here we demonstrate that chemical synthesis can provide important insights into biosynthesis. We identify a short total synthesis of congeners in the reverse-prenylated indole alkaloid family related to stephacidin A by taking advantage of a direct indole C6 halogenation of the related ketopremalbrancheamide. This novel strategic approach has now made possible the syntheses of several natural products, including malbrancheamides B and C, notoamides F, I and R, aspergamide B, and waikialoid A, which is a heterodimer of avrainvillamide and aspergamide B. Our approach to the preparation of these prenylated and reverse-prenylated indole alkaloids is bioinspired, and may also inform the as-yet undetermined biosynthesis of several congeners.

  11. Identification of an enhancer element of class Pi glutathione S-transferase gene required for expression by a co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1999-01-01

    3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), one of the most toxic co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, specifically induces class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as well as cytochrome P-450 1A1 in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells [Aoki, Matsumoto and Suzuki (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 114-118]. However, the 5'-flanking sequence of the GSTP1 gene does not contain a xenobiotic responsive element, to which arylhydrocarbon receptor binds. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferas...

  12. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and placental CYP1A1 activity in Inuit women from northern Québec.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereg, Daria; Dewailly, Eric; Poirier, Guy G; Ayotte, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are CYP1A1 inducers, and induction of this enzyme in the placenta has been linked to adverse effects on fetal development. The objective of this study was to determine if the body burden of PCBs is related to placental CYP1A1 activity in Inuit women from Nunavik (northern Québec), a population highly exposed to organochlorines. Placenta and cord blood samples were obtained from 35 Inuit women and 30 women from a southern Québec community exposed t...

  13. Computational estimation of logarithm of octanol/air partition coefficients and subcooled vapour pressures for each of 75 chloronaphtalene congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzyn, T.; Falandysz, J.; Rostkowski, P.; Piliszek, S.; Wilczyniska, A. [Univ. of Gdansk (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs, CNs) are known persistent organic pollutants, contaminating natural ecosystems in effect of technical human activity. Toxic effects induced by individual congers of PCNs are reported elsewhere. Great risk of these chemical compounds is additionally connected with theirs excellent ability to be transported via atmosphere from a source to the remote regions on the Glob. Chloronaphthalene congeners had been found in Arctic regions at significant level in spite of the fact, that they had never been synthesized there, and also thermal processes like municipal waste incineration or domestic heating (other possible sources of PCNs in the environment) were not so intensive there. In 1996 F. Wania and D. Mackay have formulated some empirical rules, which have been very useful in estimation and modeling of environmental transport processes of persistent organic pollutants like PCNs. Two very important physico-chemical parameters in the theory of global distillation and cold condensation are: logarithm of n-octanol/air partition coefficient (log K{sub OA}) and logarithm of subcooled vapour pressure (log P{sub L}). Values of log K{sub OA} and log P{sub L} in standard procedures are determined by means of chromatographic methods. In order to reduce costs and number of experiments, we have proposed simple computational method of estimation log K{sub OA} and log P{sub L}.

  14. Plant enzymes in metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, L.; Moeder, M.; Kučerová, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 291-295 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * plants * peroxidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  15. Karnatakafuran A and B: Two novel dibenzofurans isolated from the fungus Aspergillus karnatakaensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, S.; Sprogøe, K.; Dalsgaard, Petur

    2004-01-01

    Karnatakafurans A (1) and B (2), two novel dibenzofurans, have been isolated from the Specie Novum Aspergillus karnatakaensis Frisvad. The compounds were the major secondary metabolites and were isolated through UV-guided fractionation. of the organic extract. The structures were elucidated by sp...... by spectroscopic methods including MS and NMR. The compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antimalarial activity and proved to be moderately active against Plasmodium falciparum....

  16. Radiological tracing for historical patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in creek ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    The marine sediments act like sink for most of the pollutants entering the aquatic environment. It becomes more critical in the case of creek ecosystem due to its landlocked and relatively stagnant nature. Various persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are brought into the creek in the form of dissolved and particulate fluxes from industrial effluents, sewerage discharge, urban runoff from the city, spillage, disposal and chemical weathering. PCBs cycle between sediment, water, air and soil. Studying the historical patterns of these toxic pollutants depositions in sediment cores have several applications. They throw light on the chronological inputs of the pollutants in the marine body. Natural radionuclides like 210 Pb act as tracers for determining the historical patterns of these pollutants in different sediment layers. Determining the activities of these radionuclides is useful for determining the age of sediment layers from the sedimentation rates. The unsupported 210 Pb activity of the Thane creek sediments was determined and modeled for assigning the age to different layers of the cores contaminated with PCBs. The unsupported activity of 210 Pb tracer was found to decrease with the increase in depth of the sediment layers. This pattern of the 210 Pb activity was used for determining the sedimentation rate and age of the core layers. The CRS model with 210 Pb activity traced the average sedimentation rate in Thane Creek to 0.67 cm/yr. This helped in labeling the age of formation of the deep core sediment layers. The vertical profile of different PCB congener concentrations in the core samples depicts a gradient from top to bottom, which indicates the influence of industrial contributions over the period. Peak concentrations for the congeners were observed at 13-24 depth, which indicates excessive loading of sediment with these compounds during 1970s (20-30 cm) which was the period of the maximum use and production of these

  17. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 1. Texts. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 1. Textband. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Koemp, P.

    1998-07-01

    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration of a chemical in the plants as a function of time. A validation of this model for the less chlorinated PCBs showed, that the measured plant/air-partitioning and the corresponding components of the model can be extrapolated to environmental conditions. This model summarizes the results of this study and provides a valuable tool in understanding the enrichment of semivolatile lipophilic organic compounds in agricultural plants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Exposition des Menschen gegenueber PCDD/F spielt die landwirtschaftliche Nahrungskette `Atmosphaere - Futterpflanze - Kuh - Milch/Rindfleisch - Mensch` die entscheidende Rolle. Das uebergreifende Ziel dieses Vorhabens war die Erstellung einer quantitativen Beziehung zwischen der Immissionsbelastung mit PCDDF/F und Futtermittelkonzentrationen. Die Identifizierung der wichtigsten atmosphaerischen Eintragswege von PCDD/F in Gruenlandpflanzen wurde unter naturnahen Bedingungen im Rahmen eines kombinierten Gewaechshaus-Freilandversuches durchgefuehrt. Es wurde deutlich, dass fuer die Cl{sub 4-6}DD/F die trockene gasfoermige und fuer die Cl{sub 7/8}DD/F die trockene partikelgebundene Deposition der Hauptaufnahmepfad ist. Aus einem weiteren Gewaechshausversuch ergaben sich deutliche Hinweise auf einen isomerenunspezifischen Photoabbau von PCDD/F auf Pflanzenoberflaechen. Die trockene gasfoermige Deposition, die den Haupteintragsweg fuer die niederchlorierten toxikologisch relevanten PCDD/F darstellt, kann als Verteilung einer Verbindung zwischen der Gasphase der Atmosphaere und der Vegetation angesehen werden. Es wurde eine Reihe von Laborversuchen mit PCT, die als Modellverbindungen fuer die PCDD/F dienten, durchgefuehrt. Es konnten wichtige Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der Pflanzen/Luft-Verteilung, ihrer Abhaengigkeit von Temperatur und Pflanzenart, ihrer Kinetik und Reversibilitaet gewonnen werden. Fuer die PCDD/F konnte keine Gleichgewichtseinstellung zwischen Pflanze und Atmosphaere beobachtet werden. Die Anreicherung von PCDD/F in Futtermitteln wird folglich durch eine gasfoermige Depositionsgeschwindigkeit bestimmt. An zwei fuer Deutschland typischen landwirtschaftlichen Standorten wurden repraesentative gasfoermige und, analog dazu, partikelgebundene Depositionsgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die insgesamt unabhaengig von den Standortbedingungen eine relativ geringe Variationsbreite aufwiesen. Die zahlreichen Teilergebnisse dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden in ein mathematisches Modell der Anreicherung von PCDD/F und PCB in Gruenland integriert. Auf der Basis von Luftbelastung, Artenzusammensetzung und Wachstum des Bestandes, Temperatur und Substanzeigenschaften berechnet dieses Modell die Konzentration einer Verbindung im Gruenlandaufwuchs als Funktion der Zeit. Eine Modellvalidierung konnte fuer die niederchlorierten PCB die gute Uebertragbarkeit der Laborversuche zur Pflanzen/Luft/Verteilung und der entsprechenden Modellkomponenten zeigen. Durch dieses Modell konnten die Teilergebnisse dieses Vorhabens zu einer sinnvollen Einheit zusammengefasst und somit ein wertvolles Werkzeug zum Verstaendnis der Anreicherung von mittelfluechtigen lipophilen organischen Verbindungen in landwirtschaftlichen Nutzpflanzen geschaffen werden. (orig.)

  18. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 2. Appendix. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 2. Anhang. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M S; Welsch-Pausch, K; Koemp, P

    1998-07-01

    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration of a chemical in the plants as a function of time. A validation of this model for the less chlorinated PCBs showed, that the measured plant/air-partitioning and the corresponding components of the model can be extrapolated to environmental conditions. This model summarizes the results of this study and provides a valuable tool in understanding the enrichment of semivolatile lipophilic organic compounds in agricultural plants. (orig.)

  19. Quantifying Short-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin Congener Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Bogdal, Christian; Berger, Urs; MacLeod, Matthew; Gebbink, Wouter A; Alsberg, Tomas; de Wit, Cynthia A

    2017-09-19

    Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a "congener group" C n Cl m . Recently, we resolved individual C n Cl m by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying C n Cl m by introducing C n Cl m specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each C n Cl m are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were -0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q-Orbitrap-MS. C n Cl m concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R 2 > 0.90) with each other.

  20. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure. PMID:21668970

  1. Synthesis of (+)-dumetorine and congeners by using flow chemistry technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Elena; Rencurosi, Anna; Gagliardi, Stefania; Passarella, Daniele; Martinelli, Marisa

    2011-05-23

    An efficient total synthesis of the natural alkaloid (+)-dumetorine by using flow technology is described. The process entailed five separate steps starting from the enantiopure (S)-2-(piperidin-2-yl)ethanol 4 with 29% overall yield. Most of the reactions were carried out by exploiting solvent superheating and by using packed columns of immobilized reagents or scavengers to minimize handling. New protocols for performing classical reactions under continuous flow are disclosed: the ring-closing metathesis reaction with a novel polyethylene glycol-supported Hoveyda catalyst and the unprecedented flow deprotection/Eschweiler-Clarke methylation sequence. The new protocols developed for the synthesis of (+)-dumetorine were applied to the synthesis of its simplified natural congeners (-)-sedamine and (+)-sedridine. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Progressive risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls through a Total Diet Study in the Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun-su; Nguyen, Khanh-Hoang; Kim, Jongchul; Kim, Cho-il; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from foods was investigated through a Total Diet Study (TDS) for the first time in Korea. A representative food list was developed from food intake data. Non-selected foods were also included in the TDS through the mapping process to anticipate practical risk assessment. For better representativeness, data (2008–2011) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were combined with the TDS data set. And also, we estimated the dietary exposure to PCBs from various food items using a ‘best-fit’ mapping process and assessed the differences in PCB exposures by sex and age. In this study, we examined total PCBs (62 congeners) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and indicator PCBs, which are congeners that are mainly detected in various environmental matrices. The average dietary exposure (3.94 ng/kg body weight/day) that was estimated through food intake was 19.7% of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. - Highlights: • A total of 282 samples, composed of the most consumed foodstuffs in Korea, were analysed and shown in detail. • The contamination status of total PCBs in food was assessed, through their various condition on cooking methods. • The dietary intakes of PCBs in various food groups were estimated in different region, gender and age groups. • The improved and systematic food selection process was applied such as ‘mapping process’. - This study is to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCBs with the improved risk assessment method.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in two salt marsh sediments of the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Cristian; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca G; Carraro, Claudio; Favotto, Maurizio; Frignani, Mauro

    2011-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in two dated salt marsh cores of the Venice Lagoon to assess their input chronology and to evaluate the importance of atmospheric deposition as a source. Sampling sites were chosen in order to evidence the differences between areas located leeward and windward with respect to inputs originating in both the city of Venice and the industrial area. Concentrations of PCB indicators (0.13-15.6 ng g⁻¹) increased gradually from the 1930s, reached maxima from the 1950s to the late 1970s, and then decreased. PCB loadings to marshes are driven by both the atmospheric deposition and the resuspension of subtidal sediments, this latter being more important for heavier congeners. The downwind marsh recorded higher fluxes (0.06-9.72 ng cm⁻² year⁻¹) than the upwind one (0.01-0.53 ng cm⁻² year⁻¹). Recent fluxes are rather consistent with bulk deposition measurements. A higher contribution of CB-101 and CB-118 was detected in the intermediate layers of the downwind site, suggesting a different PCB source for the corresponding time interval. In the other marsh, PCBs showed a rather constant composition at all levels (mostly CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180), accounting for a regional influence. Deep layers showed an enrichment of higher chlorinated congeners at both sites, whereas recent samples conserve the patterns typical of surficial and subsurficial subtidal sediments. The scientific approach adopted in this research can be considered as a sort of methodological procedure for the determination of fluxes and pathways of PCBs through the study of marsh cores.

  4. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  5. Sources, emissions, and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls indoors in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Diamond, Miriam L; Robson, Matthew; Harrad, Stuart

    2011-04-15

    Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.

  6. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation enzymes in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K L; Lopez Castro, M; Gardner, S C; Schlenk, D

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as the expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in livers of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley (Lepidocheyls olivacea) sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. The mean concentrations of total PCBs were 18.1, 10.5, and 15.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) respectively for the three species and PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all samples. Total PCB concentrations were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. The mean estimated TEQs were 42.8, 22.9, and 10.4 pg/g (ww) for loggerhead, green, and olive ridley, respectively, and more than 70% was accounted for by non-ortho PCBs. Western blots revealed the presence of hepatic microsomal proteins that cross-reacted with anti-CYP2K1 and anti-CYP3A27 antibodies but not with anti-CYP1A antibody. There were no significant differences in GST activities between species. Grouping congeners based on structure-activity relationships for CYP isoenzymes suggested limited activity of CYP1A contribution to PCB biotransformation in sea turtles. These results suggest potential accumulation of PCBs that are CYP1A substrates and provide evidence for biotransformation capacity, which differs from known animal models, highlighting the need for further studies in reptiles, particularly those threatened with extinction.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; O'Brien, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  10. Impacts of channel morphology on residues and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls in water and sediment in Chahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-hua Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of channel morphology on the residues and ecological risks of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners in water and sediment were investigated in summer (July and autumn (September in the Chahe River, in Nanjing, China. The residual concentrations of tri-chlorobiphenyls (tri-CBs, PCB 18 and tetra-CBs (PCB 52 in water were significantly higher than those of penta-CBs to deca-CBs, and the average residual concentration of ∑PCBs (sum of 14 PCB congeners in summer was about six times higher than in autumn. However, the residues in sediment did not change significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that channel morphology and the corresponding environmental indices had significant impacts on PCB residues and their composition profiles in water and sediment. The overflow weir and lake-type watercourse may remarkably reduce the residual concentration and ecological risks of PCBs in water. The highest reduction percentages of the residual concentration and ecological risks of ∑PCBs induced by an overflow weir were 78% and 67%, respectively, and those induced by a lake-type watercourse were 36% and 70%, respectively. The watercourses with different channel morphologies were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in the following descending order: the natural ecological watercourse, vertical concrete watercourse, and vegetation-type riprap watercourse. However, they were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in sediment in the following descending order: the vertical concrete watercourse, vegetation-type riprap watercourse, and natural ecological watercourse.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls pattern analysis: Potential nondestructive biomarker in vertebrates for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. De; Broekhuizen, S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2000-03-01

    Biomarkers are valuable instruments to assess the risks from exposure of organisms to organochlorines. In general, however, these biomarkers are either destructive to the animal of interest or extremely difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, the authors present a nondestructive biomarker for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines. This marker is based on a pattern analysis of metabolizable and nonmetabolizable polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, which occur in several kinds of tissues (and even blood) that can be obtained without serious effects on the organism involved. The fraction of metabolizable PCB congeners is negatively correlated with exposure to PCBs, which are known to induce specific P450 isoenzymes. This relation can be modeled by a logistic curve, which can be used to define critical levels of exposure. In addition, this method creates an opportunity to analyze biomarker responses in archived tissues stored at standard freezing temperatures ({minus}20 C), at which responses to established biomarkers deteriorate. Furthermore, this method facilitates attribution of the enzyme induction to certain classes of compounds.

  12. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study.

  13. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jiangping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi [School of Life Sciences, SunYat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K{sub OW} (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web.

  14. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiangping; Luo Xiaojun; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K OW (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web

  15. Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ge

    Full Text Available Concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were assessed in soils from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The analytical procedure involved the application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometric detection (GC/ITMS for identification and quantification. Among the 28 PCB congeners studied, 26 of them, except CB195 and CB209, were detected in the analyzed samples at different frequencies. The total concentrations of 28 indicator PCBs (ΣPCBs ranged from 2.6 to 148.8 ng g⁻¹ with an average value of 50.7 ng g⁻¹ and median of 39.5 ng g⁻¹. Sources and congeners' pattern of PCB were investigated in the soil of Midway Atoll. The principal component analysis indicated that the compositions of PCBs in most of the soil samples were similar. The total concentrations of PCBs were used to assess the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣPCBs.

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tato, Liliana [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Tremolada, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tremolada@unimi.it [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Ballabio, Cristiano [Department of Environmental and Land Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, Milan, I-20126 (Italy); Guazzoni, Niccolo; Parolini, Marco; Caccianiga, Marco; Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher K{sub oa} values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: > A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. > Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. > A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. > A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. > Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  17. Tests of bioaccumulation models for polychlorinated biphenyl compounds: a study of young-of-the-year bluefish in the Hudson River estuary, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Lawrence A; Buckel, Jeffrey A; Conover, David O; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2006-08-01

    A field-based study regarding uptake of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) by young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) was initiated to test a steady-state model of bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in a rapidly growing fish. Determination of prey composition as well as size-dependent growth and specific consumption rates for YOY bluefish from separate field and laboratory studies enabled the input of these species-specific parameters into the model. Furthermore, the time and duration of the exposure of YOY bluefish to dissolved PCBs from a well-characterized system (Hudson River, USA) was well known. Patterns of accumulation of individual PCB congeners differed relative to the accumulation of total PCBs, with the greatest net accumulation occurring for the higher-molecular-weight congeners. Comparison of lipid-normalized bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) with the octanol-water partition coefficients of individual PCB congeners revealed bluefish to be above the BAFs predicted by lipid-based equilibrium partitioning, suggesting that uptake from food is an important source of PCBs in YOY bluefish. Comparison of measured BAFs with values predicted by a steady-state, food-chain model showed good first-order agreement.

  18. Decontamination of metals, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorined dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans polluted soil in alkaline conditions using an amphoteric biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Nicolas; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, flotation in acidic conditions and alkaline leaching soil washing processes were compared to decontaminate four soils with variable contamination with metals, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polychlorodibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The measured concentrations of the four soils prior treatment were between 50 and 250 mg/kg for As, 35 and 220mg/kg for Cr, 80 and 350mg/kg for Cu, and 2.5 and 30mg/kg for PCP. PCDD/F concentrations reached 1394, 1375, 3730, and 6289ng/kg for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively. The tests were carried out with masses of 100g of soil (fraction 0-2 mm) in a 2 L beaker or in a 1 L flotation cell. Soil flotation in sulphuric acid for 1 h at 60 degreeC with three flotation cycles using the surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (BW) at 1% allows the solubilization of metals and PCP with average removal yields of 85%, 51%, 90%, and 62% for As, Cr, Cu, and PCP, respectively. The alkaline leaching for 2 h at 80 degreeC solubilizes As, Cr, Cu, and PCP with average removal yields of 60%, 32%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. Tests on PCDD/F solubilization with different surfactants were carried out in combination with the alkaline leaching process. PCDD/F removal yields of 25%, 72%, 70%, and 74% for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively, were obtained using the optimized conditions.

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluoroalkyl acids in East Greenland ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Milton, E-mail: Milton.levin@uconn.edu [Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089 (United States); Gebhard, Erika; Jasperse, Lindsay [Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089 (United States); Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Eulaers, Igor [Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bossi, Rossana [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); De Guise, Sylvain [Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, University of Connecticut, 61 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3089 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To better elucidate the potential immune-related health effects of exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in ringed seals (Pusa hispida), a sentinel Arctic species, we assessed 1) associations between mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo tissue contaminant burdens, and 2) the concentration-response effects of in vitro exposure to PFASs and PCB congeners on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Upon in vitro contaminant exposure, the non-coplanar PCB congeners CB 138, 153, and 180, but not the coplanar CB 169, significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation between 10 and 20 µg g{sup −1} ww. The respective in vitro EC{sub 50} values for these congeners were 13.3, 20.7, 20.8, and 54.6 µg g{sup −1} ww. No modulation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed upon in vitro exposure to two individual PFASs, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), at concentrations up to 1000 ng g-1. In addition, no significant correlations were found between lymphocyte proliferation and any blood or blubber contaminant measured. Taken together, these data suggest this population of ringed seals is not currently at high risk of altered lymphocyte proliferation from exposure to the POPs or PFASs in this study. - Highlights: • Assess relationships between tissue contaminants and changes in immune function. • Risk for contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in East Greenland ringed seal is low. • Weight of evidence suggest non-coplanar PCBs are immunotoxic at high concentrations.

  20. Congener-specific data of PBDEs in pine needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Hanari, Nobuyasu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Guruge, Keerthi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH), Tsukuba (Japan); Wzykowska, B.; Orlikowska, A.; Falandysz, J. [Gdansk Univ. (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are from many years used as one of the most popular group of brominated flame retardants which are added to a variety of goods and especially those based on plastic polymer materials. DecaBDE is the primarily formulation used amongst of PBDEs while less are pentaBDE and octaBDE, which both are banned in Europe since 2004. PBDEs in general properties and environmental fate well resemble chlorinated and brominated naphthalenes/biphenyls (PCNs, PBNs, PCBs, PBBs) and seems to possess a similar threat due to bioaccumulation and toxicity. Recently several investigations have done to make clear environmental residue of PBDEs and some of brominated dibenzo-pdioxins (PBDDs) and furans (PBDFs). However most of these analysis subjected in environmental matrix is sediment and biota those show relatively high concentration residues. There is no reliable report of PBDEs/PBDDs/PBDFs in ambient air because of un-clarified resident time related to the relatively easy degradation by photo catalysis in air. It is urgent issue to develop a reliable indicator of air pollution by these chemicals. In this communication we are presented early data of the analytical method developed enabling simultaneous separation of several PBDE and PBDD/DF congeners as well as good applicability on pine needles as passive indicator of source emission related troposphere pollution with PBDEs in Tokyo Bay area in Japan.

  1. Contrasting patterns of transgenerational plasticity in ecologically distinct congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E; Barton, Kasey; Wilczek, Amity M

    2009-07-01

    Stressful parental environments can influence offspring size and development either adaptively or maladaptively, yet little is known about species' differences in this complex aspect of phenotypic plasticity. We performed a reciprocal split-brood experiment to compare transgenerational plasticity in response to drought stress in two closely related annual plant species. We raised inbred replicate parent plants of eight genotypes per species in dry vs. moist soil to generate offspring of each genetic line that differed only in parental environment, then monitored seedling development in both dry and moist conditions. Individuals of the two species expressed contrasting patterns of transgenerational plasticity for traits important to seedling drought tolerance. In Polygonum persicaria, a weedy generalist found in moist, dry, and variably dry sites, drought-stressed plants produced offspring with longer and more rapidly extending root systems and greater biomass when growing in dry soil. In contrast, in P. hydropiper, a non-weedy congener restricted to moist habitats, the offspring of drought-stressed parents had reduced root system development and seedling biomass in dry soil. In P. persicaria, transgenerational and immediate adaptive plasticity combined to produce drought-adapted seedling phenotypes. These results make clear that characteristic patterns of transgenerational plasticity can contribute to ecological diversity among species.

  2. Brown Norway chromosome 1 congenic reduces symptoms of renal disease in fatty Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig H Warden

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a congenic rat with Brown Norway (BN alleles on chromosome 1 reduces renal disease of 15-week old fatty Zucker rats (ZUC. Development of renal disease in fatty BN congenic and fatty ZUC rats from 9 through 28 weeks is now examined. Analysis of urine metabolites by (1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy revealed a significantly increased urinary loss of glucose, myo-inositol, urea, creatine, and valine in ZUC. Food intake was lower in the BN congenic rats at weeks 9-24, but they weighed significantly more at 28 weeks compared with the ZUC group. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in ZUC than congenic and adiponectin levels were significantly lower in ZUC, but there was no significant genotype effect on Insulin levels. Glucose tolerance tests exhibited no significant differences between ZUC and congenic when values were normalized to basal glucose levels. Quantitative PCR on livers revealed evidence for higher gluconeogenesis in congenics than ZUC at 9 weeks. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine were more than 2-fold higher in 28-week ZUC. Twelve urine protein markers of glomerular, proximal and distal tubule disease were assayed at three ages. Several proteins that indicate glomerular and proximal tubular disease increased with age in both congenic and ZUC. Epidermal growth factor (EGF level, a marker whose levels decrease with distal tubule disease, was significantly higher in congenics. Quantitative histology of 28 week old animals revealed the most significant genotype effect was for tubular dilation and intratubular protein. The congenic donor region is protective of kidney disease, and effects on Type 2 diabetes are likely limited to fasting glucose and adiponectin. The loss of urea together with a small increase of food intake in ZUC support the hypothesis that nitrogen balance is altered in ZUC from an early age.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in pooled serum from people in different age groups from five Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Yuan, Haodong; Jin, Jun; Li, Peng; Ma, Yulong; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in human serum samples pooled by donor age and sex (≥60, 50-59, 40-49, 30-39, and 20-29 years old) were determined. The pooled samples were supplied by hospitals in five Chinese cities, which were Yitong (Jilin Province), Weifang (Shandong Province), Ganzi (Sichuan Province), Huaihua (Hunan Province), and Lingshui (Hainan Province). The total PCB concentrations were relatively low compared with concentrations that have been found in other parts of the world. Pentachlorobiphenyls were the dominant PCBs. The total PCB concentrations and the concentrations of most of the pentachlorobiphenyl congeners were slightly higher in the samples from younger donors than in the samples from older donors. The results indicated there is a new source of PCBs in China. Heptachlorobiphenyls in Lingshui may have been transported from Vietnam. Statistical analysis showed that young and old people had been exposed to different sources of PCBs. PCB 126 contributed more than the other dioxin-like PCBs to the total toxic equivalents when the samples were examined as a whole or by city, and the total toxic equivalents were higher in younger people than in older people for the whole sample set and for the Yitong samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using polyparameter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk-Sekulić Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of partial or total destruction of industrial plants, military targets, infrastructure, uncontrolled fires and explosions during the conflict period from 1991 to 1999, at the area of Western Balkans, were large amounts of hazardous organic matter that have been generated and emitted in the environment. In order to assess gas/particle partition of seven EPA polychlorinated biphenyls and sixteen EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, twenty air samples have been collected at six urban, industrial and highly contaminated localities in Vojvodina. Hi-Vol methodology has been used for collecting ambiental air samples, that simultaneously collects gaseous and particulate phase with polyurethane foam filters (PUF and glass fiber filters (GFF. PUF and GFF filters have been analyzed, and concentration levels of gaseous PCBs and PAHs molecules in gaseous and particulate phase were obtained, converted and expressed through fraction of individual compounds sorbed onto particulate phase of the sample, in total detected quantity. Experimentally gained gas/particle partitioning values of PCBs and PAHs molecules have been compared with PP-LFER model estimated values. Significant deviation has been noticed during comparative analysis of estimated polyparameter model values for complete set of seven PCBs congeners. Much better agreement of experimental and estimated values is for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially for molecules with four rings. These results are in a good correlation with literature data where polyparameter model has been used for predicting gas/particle partition of studied group of organic molecules.

  5. Characteristics of trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine organisms in Incheon North Harbor, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jae Ryong

    2002-04-01

    The trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized for zooplankton (primarily Paracalanus spp. and Acartia spp.), pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), shore crab (Hemigrapsus penicillatus), and goby (Acanthogobius hasta) in the aquatic system of Incheon North Harbor, Korea. The congener pattern in the species was clearly divided by the main PCB uptake route. Compared with zooplankton and oyster, the fraction of heavier homologues increased in crab and goby that take PCBs from food. Linear relationships were observed between log (fugacity in lipid/fugacity in seawater) and log Kow for all the species. For zooplankton and oyster, such an observation should not be regarded as a true absence of superhydrophobicity, because establishment of equilibrium with seawater was not evident. For crab and goby, the absence of superhydrophobicity was evidenced by the trophic transfer factor that continuously increased with Kow up to 10(7.8). These results suggest that superhydrophobicity might be species specific. The trophic transfer factors and the fugacity levels in the lipid phase indicated that bioaccumulation in crab and goby advanced beyond the level in equilibrium with seawater in the harbor basin.

  6. Enantioseparation and identification for the rationalization of the environmental impact of 4 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjie; Tang, Qiaozhi; Xie, Jingqian; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Kai; Liu, Weiping

    2018-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC. The resolution was optimized with respect to n-hexane-based mobile phases, temperature, and flow rate. All pure enantiomers were recovered from semi-preparative HPLC within 15 minutes for practical purpose. Characterization of the absolute configurations were conducted with a combination of theoretical and experimental electronic circular dichroism measurements. The enantiomers of PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149 proved to be eluted as R > S, S > R, R > S, and S > R, respectively. Molecular structures (eg, substituent groups) and properties (eg, bond lengths, bond angles, and dipole moments) were quantitatively analyzed to understand the toxicity effect of PCBs. In summary, we have developed a well-established methodology of collection and configuration identification for analogous PCB derivatives. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  9. Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Taiki; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2011-01-01

    A sample mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/MPI/TOF-MS) using four types of laser sources. When a fourth harmonic emission (266 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) was utilized, highly chlorinated PCBs larger than hepta-CBs were not observed. A fifth harmonic emission (213 nm) of the picosecond Nd:YAG laser allowed the measurement of PCBs from di-CBs to octa-CBs, and the limit of detection (LOD) was several pg for each component of PCBs. The LOD for the total amount of PCBs, which was calculated using the protocol provided by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, was 1000 pg. The signal intensity of the congeners with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions (non-coplanar PCBs) was enhanced by using the fifth harmonic emission. When the fourth harmonic emission remaining after fifth harmonic generation was simultaneously used, the LOD for total PCBs was improved to 667 pg. The PCB sample was also measured using a third harmonic emission (267 nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm), providing an LOD of 677 pg. Thus, the two-color beam (266/213 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser had a comparable, or even slightly superior, performance to the more expensive femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser.

  10. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  11. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  12. Advances and perspective in bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra K; Gautam, Ravindra K; Nanekar, Sneha V; Weber, Roland; Singh, Brajesh K; Singh, Sanjeev K; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, microbial degradation and bioremediation approaches of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied extensively considering their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistency potential in the environment. In this direction, different catabolic enzymes have been identified and reported for biodegradation of different PCB congeners along with optimization of biological processes. A genome analysis of PCB-degrading bacteria has led in an improved understanding of their metabolic potential and adaptation to stressful conditions. However, many stones in this area are left unturned. For example, the role and diversity of uncultivable microbes in PCB degradation are still not fully understood. Improved knowledge and understanding on this front will open up new avenues for improved bioremediation technologies which will bring economic, environmental and societal benefits. This article highlights on recent advances in bioremediation of PCBs in soil. It is demonstrated that bioremediation is the most effective and innovative technology which includes biostimulation, bioaugmentation, phytoremediation and rhizoremediation and acts as a model solution for pollution abatement. More recently, transgenic plants and genetically modified microorganisms have proved to be revolutionary in the bioremediation of PCBs. Additionally, other important aspects such as pretreatment using chemical/physical agents for enhanced biodegradation are also addressed. Efforts have been made to identify challenges, research gaps and necessary approaches which in future, can be harnessed for successful use of bioremediation under field conditions. Emphases have been given on the quality/efficiency of bioremediation technology and its related cost which determines its ultimate acceptability.

  13. Effects of in ovo exposure to PCBs (coplanar congener, kanechlor mixture, hydroxylated metabolite) on the developing cell-mediated immunity in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, J.; Matsuda, M.; Kawano, M.; Wakimoto, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kashima, Y. [Dept. of Hygiene, Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are wide spread environmental contaminants and known to cause various adverse effects on health of human and wildlife. Immune system is one of the several targets for toxic effects of PCBs and its normal balance is often disrupted by the exposure of the compounds. For example, PCBs may induce immune suppression and result in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, or conversely, excessive immune enhancement may cause adverse outcomes including as autoimmune disease and anergy. Therefore immune function is regarded as one of an important endpoint in toxicological risk assessment. There are a number of studies shown that neonatal organisms perinatally exposed to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as PCBs have severer effects on their immune system than adult. Dioxins and coplanar PCB congeners, structurally planar PHAHs are known to have high affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the strongest affinity among such compounds and these are considered to act on immune system through AhR. On the other hand, such as non-planar PCB congeners with low affinity for AhR, which are abundantly contained in commercial PCB preparations have non-additive (antagonistic) effects on immune function. Prenatal exposure of TCDD to rodent induced abnormal lymphoid development in the thymus and thymus-dependent immune functions were remarkably disturbed. Although several experimental studies in mammals have been carried out on the developmental immunotoxicity of PCBs, there are still limited information available on avian species. Thus in this study, prenatal exposure to low level of PCBs and the effects on the developing immune system were investigated with chicken as a model animal of avian species, especially it is focused on the cell-mediated immune function.

  14. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  15. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Heo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17 of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3 and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3, respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11 was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1 and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°. The slope (m values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies was the dominant source for PCBs.

  16. Transcriptomics identifies differences between ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like PCB126 in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wens, B.; De Boever, P.; Maes, M.; Hollanders, K.; Schoeters, G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain ubiquitously present in human lipids despite the ban on their production and use. Their presence can be chemically monitored in peripheral blood samples of the general population. We tested whether in vitro exposure to different PCB congeners induced different gene expression profiles in peripheral blood cells. We have isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood of 8 healthy individuals and exposed these cells in vitro to individual non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCB congeners (PCB52, 138 or 180; 10 μM) or dioxin-like (DL)-PCB congener PCB126 (1 μM) during 18 h. Differential gene expression response was measured using Agilent whole-human genome microarrays. Two-way ANOVA analysis of the data showed that both gender and PCB exposure are important factors influencing gene expression responses in blood cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of genes influenced by PCB exposure, revealed that DL-PCB126 induced a different gene expression response compared to the NDL-PCBs. Biological interpretation of the results revealed that exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway, whereas the induction of nuclear receptor pathways by the NDL-PCBs was limited in blood cells. Nevertheless, molecular responses of blood cells to individual PCB congeners revealed significantly expressed genes that play a role in biological functions and processes known to be affected by PCB exposure in vivo. Observed gene expression changes in this in vitro model were found to be related to hepatotoxicity, immune and inflammatory response and disturbance of lipid and cholesterol homeostasis.

  17. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klop, A.; Herbes, R.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated

  18. Electric Arc Furnace as a Source of Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Perspective of the Council Directive 96/61 EC Concerning Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the accumulation of PCDDs/Fs in the natural environment poses a great threat, and the pollution of the environment with these highly toxic compounds from various emitters needs to be prevented, many countries have conducted an inventory of industrial sources and their emissions in order to obtain better insight into the share of particular sources in the total emission of PCDDs/Fs and to develop strategies to reduce these emissions.Metallurgical processes like sintering of iron ore, production of steel and non-ferrous and light metals from scrap material belong to a group of stationary PCDDs/Fs emitters and their share in the total PCDDs/Fs emission into the environment is very significant. The relative significance of particular metallurgical processes varies from country to country, depending on the nature of a particular process, installed capacities and annual output levels.As the modern approach to observing the environment includes preventive measures, as opposed to corrective post-event measures that were common practice in the past, the owners/operators of metallurgical processes are developing and introducing pollution monitoring and surveillance systems, based on which they take appropriate measures.One of the frequently applied measures is to build and implement the ISO 14001 environmental management system that very efficiently runs production processes along with maintenance of environmental protection on a daily basis. Since the adoption of the ISO 14001 environmental management system is a voluntary decision to be made by each organization, in 1996 the European Union adopted, for the purpose of environmental protection and pollution prevention, the Directive 96/61 EC or IPPC Directive on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC requiring from industrial installations, depending on their type and output level, to obtain environmental permits to run production processes using best available techniques, thus maintaining daily care for environmental protection and preservation. This Directive integrates control of emissions and overall impact of industrial installations on the environment, meaning recognition of the entire impact from particular industrial processes on the environment (air, water, soil, waste, noise, use of raw materials, energy efficiency, prevention of accidents, etc.. The IPPC Directive has introduced a system of authorization (environmental permit that needs to be obtained in order to perform business activities and run processes using the best available techniques (BAT.Taking into account the harmful impact of PCDDs/Fs on the environment, and their unavoidability in metallurgical processes, a series of methods has been developed for their partial prevention or at least reduction of their concentration in smoke gas discharge, and thus prevent environmental pollution through these very harmful compounds. In order to prevent the occurrence of PCDDs/Fs metallurgical processes often use methods based on the principle of selective catalyst reduction. For removal of the already generated PCDDs/Fs from waste gases methods of thermal decomposition at high temperatures or various sorption, i. e. "dry" and "wet" cleaning techniques are used.As the implementation of the IPPC Directive is a complex procedure requiring highly educated experts, significant investments into production processes and their modernization, or sometimeseven replacement, steel shops need to timely prepare themselves for the obligations in order to harmonize the existing regulation with the requirements of the IPPC Directive.The requirements of the Directive have to be studied thoroughly. The required steps have to be carefully thought through, previously identifying the cost and time frame necessary to bring the existing electric arc furnace (EAF steel production processes into conformance with the requirements of the IPPC Directive.The paper discusses the requirements of the IPPC Directive that are imposed on the steel business owners/operators, with a special review of the PCDDs/Fs emission. It also presents the ways in which the IPPC Directive requirements concerning these highly toxic pollutants can be fulfilled, ensuring conditions to obtain environmental permits to run this activity once the Directive has entered into force.

  19. Use of herbarium data to evaluate weediness in five congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan-A, Ana M; Vibrans, Heike; Cacho, N Ivalú; Villaseñor, José L; Ortiz, Enrique; Gómez-G, Vinicio A

    2015-12-15

    It is often desirable to quantify a plant's relative weediness or synanthropy, that is, the degree to which a species associates with human-caused disturbance, in order to study and understand the biology, ecology and evolution of weeds and invasive plants. Herbarium specimens are among the most accessible and verifiable sources of data on distribution and habitat. However, the habitat distribution of species may not be reflected accurately by herbarium specimen data, due to well-known biases in plant collection. Here, we assess how well herbarium specimens reflect species' weediness, when compared with direct field surveys. We used five species of Melampodium (Asteraceae) and classified their degree of weediness with a modification of Nuorteva's synanthropy index, based on herbarium specimens. We then modelled the distribution of our focal species in Mexico using MaxEnt and identified a polygon of ∼3000 km(2) in the state of Nayarit, Mexico, where there was a high probability of finding all five species. Systematic field searches in the target area documented all visible populations of four species along major and minor roads. Then we, again, classified their degree of weediness with the synanthropy index, based now on field data, and compared. We found that herbarium data were an accurate predictor of a species' weediness relative to its congeners despite the well-documented skew of herbarium data towards natural areas, which our data reflected as well. So, herbarium data can be used to classify species' weediness relative to each other, but not in absolute terms, if the specimens were correctly identified and none of the species were subject to particular collection bias. This study is the first attempt to compare herbarium and field data on this subject and may be relevant for other types of investigations based on herbarium data. Our work also highlights the usefulness of distribution models based on herbarium specimens. Published by Oxford University Press

  20. The Identification of Congeners and Aliens by Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Pino

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Drosophila larva olfactory system in identification of congeners and aliens. We discuss the importance of these activities in larva navigation across substrates, and the implications for allocation of space and food among species of similar ecologies. Wild type larvae of cosmopolitan D. melanogaster and endemic D. pavani, which cohabit the same breeding sites, used species-specific volatiles to identify conspecifics and aliens moving toward larvae of their species. D. gaucha larvae, a sibling species of D. pavani that is ecologically isolated from D. melanogaster, did not respond to melanogaster odor cues. Similar to D. pavani larvae, the navigation of pavani female x gaucha male hybrids was influenced by conspecific and alien odors, whereas gaucha female x pavani male hybrid larvae exhibited behavior similar to the D. gaucha parent. The two sibling species exhibited substantial evolutionary divergence in processing the odor inputs necessary to identify conspecifics. Orco (Or83b mutant larvae of D. melanogaster, which exhibit a loss of sense of smell, did not distinguish conspecific from alien larvae, instead moving across the substrate. Syn97CS and rut larvae of D. melanogaster, which are unable to learn but can smell, moved across the substrate as well. The Orco (Or83b, Syn97CS and rut loci are necessary to orient navigation by D. melanogaster larvae. Individuals of the Trana strain of D. melanogaster did not respond to conspecific and alien larval volatiles and therefore navigated randomly across the substrate. By contrast, larvae of the Til-Til strain used larval volatiles to orient their movement. Natural populations of D. melanogaster may exhibit differences in identification of conspecific and alien larvae. Larval locomotion was not affected by the volatiles.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL"−"1 for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL"−"1 for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL"−"1 for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g"−"1 and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g"−"1 in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic

  2. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Lirong, E-mail: gaolr@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL{sup −1} for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL{sup −1} for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL{sup −1} for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g{sup −1} and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g{sup −1} in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and

  3. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  4. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  5. Identification of an enhancer element of class Pi glutathione S-transferase gene required for expression by a co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1999-01-01

    3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), one of the most toxic co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, specifically induces class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as well as cytochrome P-450 1A1 in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells [Aoki, Matsumoto and Suzuki (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 114-118]. However, the 5'-flanking sequence of the GSTP1 gene does not contain a xenobiotic responsive element, to which arylhydrocarbon receptor binds. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay we demonstrate here that the enhancer termed GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI) is necessary for the stimulation by PenCB of GSTP1 gene expression in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GPEI is already known to contain a dyad of PMA responsive element-like elements oriented palindromically. It is suggested that a novel signal transduction pathway activated by PenCB contributes to the stimulation of GSTP1 expression. PMID:10051428

  6. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu Thi Thuy; Duong, Vu; Lien, Nghiem Thi Ha; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Hoa, Do Quang; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. Case study: Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds play a significant role as bioindicators: they are conspicuous, relatively easy to observe, well-established studied group of organisms, and in the focus of public interest due to pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Systematically, a significant number of man-made chemicals have been introduced in the marine environment and represent the major problem arising in the development worldwide. Many of these chemical contaminants are persistent, known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify through the aquatic food web, affecting species associated with aquatic systems. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD, dibenzofurans (PCDF] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB concentrations were measured in Kelp gull Larus dominicanus collected from 2006 to 2011 on Marambaia Island, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Detectable liver concentrations of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. These represent some of the first measurements of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs in seabirds from this area. Although levels of these contaminants in the tested species currently appear to fall below critical values, a continuous and systematic monitoring on these compounds becomes essential and desirable to not express toxic values in the future.   

  9. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Brizio, P.; Nespoli, R.; Stella, C.; Abete, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g"−"1 for NDL-PCBs). Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits. - Highlights: • We analyzed free-range eggs from farms close to a secondary aluminum smelter (ALS). • Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs strongly exceeded the limit set by EU Regulation. • Concentrations decrease at increasing distances from the plant. • Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a health risk for humans. - Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are of concern in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Dibenzofuran, Alkyldibenzofurans, and Benzo[b]naphthofurans in crude oils and source rock extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijun Li,; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzofuran (DBF), its alkylated homologues, and benzo[b]naphthofurans (BNFs) are common oxygen-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. A series of positional isomers of alkyldibenzofuran and benzo[b]naphthofuran were identified in mass chromatograms by comparison with internal standards and standard retention indices. The response factors of dibenzofuran in relation to internal standards were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of a set of mixed solutions with different concentration ratios. Perdeuterated dibenzofuran and dibenzothiophene are optimal internal standards for quantitative analyses of furan compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. The average concentration of the total DBFs in oils derived from siliciclastic lacustrine rock extracts from the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea, was 518 μg/g, which is about 5 times that observed in the oils from carbonate source rocks in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China. The BNFs occur ubiquitously in source rock extracts and related oils of various origins. The results of this work suggest that the relative abundance of benzo[b]naphthofuran isomers, that is, the benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]furan} ratio, may be a potential molecular geochemical parameter to indicate oil migration pathways and distances.

  11. Process-diagnostic patterns of chlorobiphenyl congeners in two radiochronologically characterized sediment cores from the northern Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, O.; Axelman, J.; Broman, D.

    2001-01-01

    that the PCB distribution in Arctic surface sediments is governed by the organic carbon (OC) content of the sediments. The historical development of the PCB congener fingerprint suggests that the modern sediments are enriched in medium-chlorinated congeners, implying that there are at least two significant......, but distinctly different, sink processes acting on the PCB pool. The relative abundance of light-to-heavy congeners, in mid-shelf marine sediments of similar ages, between 40 degreesN and 76 degreesN latitude suggests a northward dilution of PCBs which is stronger attenuated for heavier congeners, consistent...

  12. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Can polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and enantiomer fractions be used for source identification and to age date occupational exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megson, David; Focant, Jean-Françios; Patterson, Donald G; Robson, Matthew; Lohan, Maeve C; Worsfold, Paul J; Comber, Sean; Kalin, Robert; Reiner, Eric; O'Sullivan, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and chiral Enantiomer Fractions (EFs) of CB-95, CB-136 and CB-149 were measured for 30 workers at a transformer dismantling plant. This was undertaken to identify sources of exposure and investigate changes to the PCB signature and EFs over different exposure periods. Approximately 1.5 g of serum was extracted and PCB signatures were created through analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and EFs calculated following analysis by gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). A total of 84 PCBs were identified in the serum samples with concentrations of the 7 indicator PCBs ranging from 11-350 ng g(-1) of serum (1.2-39 μg g(-1) lipid). The PCB signatures were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) which was able to distinguish workers with background or recent minimal exposure from those with prolonged occupational exposure. Occupationally exposed individuals had a similar PCB profile to Aroclor A1260. However, individuals with prolonged exposure had depleted proportions of several PCB congeners that are susceptible to metabolism (CB-95, CB-101 and CB-151) and elevated proportions of PCBs that are resistant to metabolism (CB-74, CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180). The results also identified a third group of workers with elevated proportions of CB-28, CB-60, CB-66, CB-74, CB-105 and CB-118 who appeared to have been exposed to an additional source of PCBs. The results show near complete removal of the CB-95 E2 enantiomer in some samples, indicating that bioselective metabolism or preferential excretion of one enantiomer occurs in humans. By considering PCB concentrations along with detailed congener specific signatures it was possible to identify different exposure sources, and gain an insight into both the magnitude and duration of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  16. Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huayun; Zhuo Shanshan; Xue Bin; Zhang Chunlong; Liu Weiping

    2012-01-01

    A large portion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from e-waste released into the coastal areas may be the potential source of PCBs to the global oceans. The paper presents data of PCBs concentrations in fifty surface sediment samples and a dated sediment core in Yangtze River Delta (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The total PCBs levels varied from 5.08 to 19.64 ng/g dry weight, with the highest concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone which is so-called “marginal filter”. Concurrent with the operation of e-waste recycling over the last two decades, PCB fluxes started to rise again after 1980s and reached a maximum in this century. The full data set was used to estimate the burden of PCBs in YRE and adjacent ECS. A total sediment burdens were 192.8 tons, with the spatial density of 364 ng/cm 2 which accounts for 1.9% of all the PCBs in China. - Highlights: ► PCBs residues remained widespread in Yangtze River Delta and adjacent East China Sea. ► Highest PCBs concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone. ► Congener profiles and PCA highlight the influence of e-waste recycling. ► Temporal distributions indicated PCB fluxes reached a maximum in this century. ► Total sediment burdens accounts for 1.9 % of all the PCBs in China. - Spatial and temporal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls have been delineated in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  17. Rate constants of hydroxyl radical oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the gas phase: A single−descriptor based QSAR and DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Luo, Shuang; Wei, Zongsu; Ye, Tiantian; Spinney, Richard; Chen, Dong; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-01

    The second‒order rate constants (k) of hydroxyl radical (·OH) with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the gas phase are of scientific and regulatory importance for assessing their global distribution and fate in the atmosphere. Due to the limited number of measured k values, there is a need to model the k values for unknown PCBs congeners. In the present study, we developed a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model with quantum chemical descriptors using a sequential approach, including correlation analysis, principal component analysis, multi−linear regression, validation, and estimation of applicability domain. The result indicates that the single descriptor, polarizability (α), plays an important role in determining the reactivity with a global standardized function of lnk = −0.054 × α ‒ 19.49 at 298 K. In order to validate the QSAR predicted k values and expand the current k value database for PCBs congeners, an independent method, density functional theory (DFT), was employed to calculate the kinetics and thermodynamics of the gas‒phase ·OH oxidation of 2,4′,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB31), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB47), 2,3,4,5,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB116), 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB169), and 2,3,3′,4,5,5′,6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB192) at 298 K at B3LYP/6–311++G**//B3LYP/6–31 + G** level of theory. The QSAR predicted and DFT calculated k values for ·OH oxidation of these PCB congeners exhibit excellent agreement with the experimental k values, indicating the robustness and predictive power of the single–descriptor based QSAR model we developed. - Highlights: • We developed a single−descriptor based QSAR model for ·OH oxidation of PCBs. • We independently validated the QSAR predicted k values of five PCB congeners with the DFT method. • The QSAR predicted and DFT calculated k for the five PCB congeners exhibit excellent agreement. - We developed a single

  18. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  19. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, I.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  20. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, and Chemical Properties on Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation from Marine Sediments in Two Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, H; Jackman, P; Dangerfield, N D; Ross, P S

    2017-08-01

    Shellfish and sediment invertebrates have been widely used to assess pollution trends over space and time in coastal environments around the world. However, few studies have compared the bioaccumulation potential of different test species over a range of sediment-contaminant concentrations and profiles. The bioavailability of sediment-related contaminants was evaluated using sediments collected from sites (n = 12) throughout the Salish Sea, British Columbia, Canada. Two benthic marine invertebrates-the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata-were exposed for 28 days in a controlled environment to these field-collected coastal sediments. The congener-specific uptake of legacy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and emergent polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in sediments and in invertebrates after the experimental exposure. The polychaete Neanthes accumulated lower concentrations of PCBs but higher concentrations of PBDEs. The present study indicates that differences in bioaccumulation between these two invertebrates shape the accumulation of PCB and PBDE congeners, reflect differences in feeding strategies, and reveal the physicochemical properties of the contaminants and sediment properties. Because biota-sediment accumulation factor values are often calculated for environmental monitoring or site-specific impact assessments, our results provide insight into potentially confounding factors and the need for caution when selecting indicator species for coastal marine pollution.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air and soil from a high-altitude pasture in the Italian Alps: evidence of CB-209 contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremolada, Paolo; Guazzoni, Niccolò; Comolli, Roberto; Parolini, Marco; Lazzaro, Serena; Binelli, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    This study analyses the seasonal trend of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in air and soil from a high-altitude mountain pasture in the Italian Alps. PCB concentrations in soil were generally comparable to background levels and were lower than those previously measured in the same area. Only CB-209 unexpectedly showed high concentrations with respect to the other congeners. GC-MS-MS identification was very clear, rising a new problem of increasing PCB contamination concerning only CB-209, which is not present in commercial mixtures used in the past in Italy and Europe. Considering all of the congeners, seasonal PCB trends were observed both in air and in soil that were related to the temperature and precipitation measured specifically in the study area. Highly significant relationships were found between the temperature-normalised concentrations in soil and the precipitation amounts. A north/south enrichment factor was present only in soil with rapid early summer re-volatilisation kinetics from soil to air and autumn re-deposition events from air to soil. Fugacity ratio calculations confirmed these trends. Surface soils respond rapidly to meteorological variables, while subsurface soils respond much more slowly. Seasonal trends were different for the northern and southern sides of the mountain. A detailed picture of the interactions among temperature, precipitation, mountain aspects and soil features was obtained.

  3. Microbial dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls in aerobic conditions Dehalogenación microbiana de bifenilos policlorados en condiciones aeróbicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aráoz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available From soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs a strain of Alcaligenes sp. able to grow in a mineral medium with a commercial mixture of PCBs as carbon source was isolated. This strain consumed up to 200 ppm in seven days in laboratory conditions. After 24 h of incubation, some new congeners of PCBs could be recognized by mass spectrometry. Through the identification of these compounds it was possible to postulate examples of possible transformations by dechlorinations of penta- and tetra-chlorinated congeners into tri-chlorinated ones. The properties of the isolated strain are appropriate for bioremediation of contaminated areas and also for using in bioreactors in order to remove the xenobiotic chemical.A partir de suelos contaminados con bifenilos policlorados (PCBs se aisló una cepa de Alcaligenes sp. capaz de crecer en medio mineral con una mezcla comercial de PCBs como fuente de carbono. Esta cepa consumió hasta 200 ppm de PCBs en siete días de incubación en condiciones de laboratorio. En 24 horas de incubación se han podido detectar nuevos congéneres de PCBs mediante espectrometria de masa. La identificación de estos compuestos ha permitido postular transformaciones de congéneres penta- y tetra-clorados que originarían derivados triclorados. Las propiedades de la cepa aislada son apropiadas para biorremediación y para su uso en biorreactores para eliminar estos compuestos xenobióticos.

  4. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  5. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  6. China action of "Cleanup Plan for Polychlorinated Biphenyls Burial Sites": emissions during excavation and thermal desorption of a capacitor-burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lingli; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Yan, Yunzhong; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Scarce data are available so far on emissions in a given scenario for excavation and thermal desorption, a common practice, of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As part of China action of "Cleanup Plan for PCBs Burial Sites", this study roughly estimated PCBs emissions in the scenario for a capacitor-burial site. The concentrations of total PCBs (22 congeners) in soils were in the range of 2.1-16,000μg/g with a mean of 2300μg/g, among the same order of magnitude as the highest values obtained in various PCBs-contaminated sites. Only six congeners belonging to Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-CBs were observed above limits of detection in air samples in the scenario, partially which can be estimated by the USEPA air emission model. Comparing concentrations and composition profiles of PCBs in the soil and air samples further indicated a leaked source of commercial PCBs formulations of trichlorobiphenyl (China PCB no. 1). The measures taken if any to mitigate the volatilization and movement of PCBs and to minimize worker exposure were discussed for improvements of the excavation practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  8. Seasonal atmospheric deposition variations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and comparison of some deposition sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgül, Askın; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2011-03-01

    Ambient air and bulk deposition samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009. Eighty-three polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were targeted in the samples. The average gas and particle PCB concentrations were found as 393 ± 278 and 70 ± 102 pg/m(3), respectively, and 85% of the atmospheric PCBs were in the gas phase. Bulk deposition samples were collected by using a sampler made of stainless steel. The average PCB bulk deposition flux value was determined as 6,020 ± 4,350 pg/m(2) day. The seasonal bulk deposition fluxes were not statistically different from each other, but the summer flux had higher values. Flux values differed depending on the precipitation levels. The average flux value in the rainy periods was 7,480 ± 4,080 pg/m(2) day while the average flux value in dry periods was 5,550 ± 4,420 pg/m(2) day. The obtained deposition values were lower than the reported values given for the urban and industrialized areas, yet close to the ones for the rural sites. The reported deposition values were also influenced by the type of the instruments used. The average dry deposition and total deposition velocity values calculated based on deposition and concentration values were found as 0.23 ± 0.21 and 0.13 ± 0.13 cm/s, respectively.

  9. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  10. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colciago, A.; Casati, L.; Mornati, O.; Vergoni, A.V.; Santagostino, A.; Celotti, F.; Negri-Cesi, P.

    2009-01-01

    The gender-specific expression pattern of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R) during brain development provides neurons the right amount of estradiol and DHT to induce a dimorphic organization of the structure. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disruptive pollutants; exposure to PCBs through placental transfer and breast-feeding may adversely affect the organizational action of sex steroid, resulting in long-term alteration of reproductive neuroendocrinology. The study was aimed at: a) evaluating the hypothalamic expression of aromatase, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in fetuses (GD20), infant (PN12), weaning (PN21) and young adult (PN60) male and female rats exposed to PCBs during development; b) correlating these parameters with the time of testicular descent, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity and copulatory behavior; c) evaluating possible alterations of some non reproductive behaviors (locomotion, learning and memory, depression/anxiety behavior). A reconstituted mixture of four indicator congeners (PCB 126, 138, 153 and 180) was injected subcutaneously to dams at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily from GD15 to GD19 and then twice a week till weanling. The results indicated that developmental PCB exposure produced important changes in the dimorphic hypothalamic expression of both aromatase and the 5alpha-Rs, which were still evident in adult animals. We observed that female puberty onset occurs earlier than in control animals without cycle irregularity, while testicular descent in males was delayed. A slight but significant impairment of sexual behavior and an important alteration in memory retention were also noted specifically in males. We conclude that PCBs might affect the dimorphic neuroendocrine control of reproductive system and of other neurobiological processes.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Gardner, Susan C; Urbán R, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports unique data on concentrations of several classes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in blubber biopsies from healthy living fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico, one of the most isolated and unstudied population in the world. OC levels in this population were generally lower than levels reported in fin whales from other regions. The rank order of OCs were SigmaDDTs (range from 300 to 2400 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaPCBs (range from 40 to 290 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaHCHs (range from or = SigmaCHLORs (from pesticide measured was the DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were the most abundant PCBs congeners found in the fin whales samples. Males had significant higher concentrations of SigmaOC, SigmaDDTs and SigmaPCBs than females (P < 0.05), although the p,p'-DDE/SigmaDDTs ratios were similar between the sexes. Although the OC concentrations found in this population were generally below the levels that would be expected to cause deleterious health effects, the maximum values observed (2700 ng g(-1) lw) in some animals were higher than those associated with reproductive effects in whales. Given the small population size and highly isolated characteristics of Gulf of California fin whales, health effects in individuals could readily translate into population-level effects. Future research on this topic will be necessary to better understand the role that these compounds may have on the health of this population.

  12. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Qin, Zhihui; Yang, Kai; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huang, Ronglang; Shi, Huixiang

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic

  13. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  14. Contamination of freshwater fish from rivers Sava and Danube with polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, S.; Radicevic, T.; Spiric, A.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    During air strikes, in april 1999, Institute of meat hygiene and technology have begun examination of freshwater fish to establish the degree of contamination. The information about damaged industrial facilities and toxic waste that have been spilled were hard to find, and was unofficial and contradicts. Because of that, at the first time we collected samples from different locations, but after first results, we concentrated our attention on locations on river Danube downstream from Pancevo and on river Sava upstream from Belgrade, the locations indicated as environmental 'hot spots'. According to our experience, knowledge, equipment and analytical skills we have chosen to determine the concentrations of PCBs in freshwater fish species, since aquatic fauna might be used as indicator organisms for the evaluation of water pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls as contaminant of interest, have been chosen because large quantities of PCBs reached the soil and waste and ground waters from damaged transformers and capacitors, where they serve as dielectric fluids. Also, PCBs are highly toxic and due to their liposolubility and persistence, these compounds accumulate through food chain. In 1999, from April to December, we had collected 23 samples of different fish species on river Danube, downstream from Pancevo and 15 samples from locations on river Sava upstream from Belgrade. The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat and mg/kg fresh weight) were expressed as the sum of individual congeners (IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and as Aroclor 1260 (peaks were identified as a fingerprint pattern by comparison with Aroclor standards). The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat) are determined to evaluate the extent of contamination and concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fresh weight) indicate daily intake and help us to estimate the risk for human health. Residues of PCBs in the fat extracted from fish sample were analysed according to the USDA Analytical Chemistry Guidebook. Gas

  15. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, accumulation rates in soil from atmospheric deposition and analysis of their affecting landscape variables along an urban-rural gradient in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shubo; Cui, Qu; Matherne, Brian; Hou, Aixin

    2017-11-01

    This study initiated an in-situ soil experimental system to quantify the annual dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener's concentrations and accumulation rates in soil from atmosphere deposition in a rural-urban fringe, and correlated them by landscape physical and demographic variables in the area. The results showed that the concentrations of all PCB congeners significantly increased with the sampling time (p urban center. The moderate average concentrations along the gradient for PCB 8, 18, and 28 were 31.003, 18.825, and 19.505 ng g-1, respectively. Tetra-CBs including PCB 44, 52, 66, and 77 were 10.243, 31.214, 8.330 and 9.530 ng g-1, respectively. Penta-CBs including PCB 101, 105, 118, and 126 were 9.465, 7.896, 17.703, and 6.363 ng g-1, respectively. Hexa-CBs including PCB 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187 were 6.798, 11.522, 4.969, 6.722, 6.317, and 8.243 ng g-1 respectively. PCB 195, 206, and 209 were 8.259, 9.506, and 14.169 ng g-1, respectively. Most of the PCB congeners had a higher accumulation rate approximately 28 km from the urban center. The computed variables were found to affect the soil PCB concentrations with a threshold effect (p urban sprawling (i.e. built-up areas expanding) were the sources of PCBs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  18. Degradation of dibenzofuran via multiple dioxygenation by a newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T T; Murugesan, K; Nam, I-H; Jeon, J-R; Chang, Y-S

    2014-03-01

    To demonstrate the biodegradation of dibenzofuran (DF) and its structural analogs by a newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08. To assess the biodegradation potential of newly isolated Agrobacterium sp. PH-08, various substrates were evaluated as sole carbon sources in growth and biotransformation experiments. ESI LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of angular degrading by-products as well as lateral dioxygenation metabolites in the upper pathway. The metabolites in the lower pathway also were detected. In addition, the cometabolically degraded daughter compounds of DF-related compounds such as BP and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in dual substrate degradation were observed. Strain PH-08 exhibited the evidence of meta-cleavage pathway as confirmed by the activity and gene expression of catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. Newly isolated bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. PH-08, grew well with and degraded DF via both angular and lateral dioxygenation as demonstrated by metabolites identified through ESI LC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses. The other heterocyclic pollutants were also cometabolically degraded. Few reports have described the complete degradation of DF by a cometabolic lateral pathway. Our study demonstrates the novel results that the newly isolated strain utilized the DF as a sole carbon source and mineralized it via multiple dioxygenation. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionization bands of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Shojaei, S.H.; Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The photoelectron spectra of the title compounds are assigned in details. • Shake-up lines are found to severely contaminate both π- and σ-ionization bands. • σ-ionization onsets are subject to severe vibronic coupling complications. • We compare the results of OVGF, ADC(3) and TDDFT calculations. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran is presented with the aid of one-particle Green’s Function calculations employing the outer-valence Green’s Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with Dunning’s correlation consistent basis sets of double and triple zeta quality (cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ). Extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the outermost one-electron π-ionization energies to the cc-pVTZ basis set enable theoretical insights into He (I) measurements within ∼0.15 eV accuracy, up to the σ-ionization onset. The lower ionization energy of carbazole is the combined result of mesomeric and electronic relaxation effects. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital picture of ionization at the ADC(3) level. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet–doublet excitation energies of the radical cation of fluorene, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  20. Cometabolic Degradation of Dibenzofuran and Dibenzothiophene by a Naphthalene-Degrading Comamonas sp. JB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangyu; Xu, Jing; Ning, Shuxiang; Li, Nan; Tan, Liang; Shi, Shengnan

    2017-12-01

    Comamonas sp. JB was used to investigate the cometabolic degradation of dibenzofuran (DBF) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) with naphthalene as the primary substrate. Dehydrogenase and ATPase activity of the growing system with the presence of DBF and DBT were decreased when compared to only naphthalene in the growing system, indicating that the presence of DBF and DBT inhibited the metabolic activity of strain JB. The pathways and enzymes involved in the cometabolic degradation were tested. Examination of metabolites elucidated that strain JB cometabolically degraded DBF to 1,2-dihydroxydibenzofuran, subsequently to 2-hydroxy-4-(3'-oxo-3'H-benzofuran-2'-yliden)but-2-enoic acid, and finally to catechol. Meanwhile, strain JB cometabolically degraded DBT to 1,2-dihydroxydibenzothiophene and subsequently to the ring cleavage product. A series of naphthalene-degrading enzymes including naphthalene dioxygenase, 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase, salicylate hydroxylase, and catechol 2,3-oxygenase have been detected, confirming that naphthalene was the real inducer of expression the degradation enzymes and metabolic pathways were controlled by naphthalene-degrading enzymes.

  1. The atmosphere as a source/sink of polychlorinated biphenyls to/from the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apell, Jennifer N.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Waterbodies polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause the air in the surrounding area to become PCB-contaminated. Conversely, when a waterbody is located in or near an urban area, the deposition of atmospheric PCBs may act as a low-level, ongoing source of PCB contamination to that water. Distinguishing these situations is necessary to be protective of human populations and to guide efforts seeking to cleanup such aquatic ecosystems. To assess the situation at the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW) Superfund site, low-density polyethylene passive samplers were deployed in the summer of 2015 to quantify freely dissolved water and gaseous air concentrations of PCBs thereby enabling estimates of the direction and magnitude of air-water exchange of PCB congeners. For the sum of the 27 PCB congeners, average concentrations were 220 pg/m 3 (95% C.I.: 80–610) in the air and 320 pg/L (95% C.I.: 110–960) in the water. The sum of air-water exchange fluxes of these PCB congeners was estimated to be 68 ng/m 2 /day (95% C.I.: 30–148) into the lower atmosphere, contrasting with the reported wet and dry depositional flux of only 5.5 ng/m 2 /day (95% C.I.: 1–38) from the air into the water. Therefore, the atmosphere was ultimately a sink of PCBs from the LDW Superfund site, at least under 2015 summertime conditions. However, we conclude that air-water exchange of PCBs is likely only a minor sink of PCBs from the LDW and only a minor source of contamination to the region's local atmosphere. - Highlights: • Passive samplers were used to estimate air and water concentrations. • At this site, PCBs were being transported from the water into the local atmosphere. • Air-water exchange was likely only a minor sink of PCBs for the LDW site. • The LDW was likely only a minor source of PCBs to the local atmosphere. - Air-water exchange of PCBs from the LDW Superfund site, calculated using passive sampler data, was determined to be a minor sink of PCBs from

  2. Predicting sediment sorption coefficients for linear alkylbenzenesulfonate congeners from polyacrylate-water partition coefficients at different salinities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico Rico, A.; Droge, S.T.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834017; Hermens, J.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069681384

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the molecular structure and the salinity on the sorption of the anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) to marine sediment has been studied. The analysis of several individual LAS congeners in seawater and of one specific LAS congener at different dilutions of seawater

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, -furans, and -biphenyls in three species of Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Schiamone, Alessandra; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-09-01

    Fish-eating seabirds are recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to their high position in the trophic web and to their low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Penguins are widely distributed in Antarctica and represent an important fraction of the Antarctic biomass. They feed mainly on krill and, depending on krill availability, also on fish. It has been reported that predators may be a sink for volatile and toxic chemicals and this may pose a serious environmental problem. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), and -biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE, were quantified in three species of Antarctic Pygoscelids in order to evaluate their accumulation patterns. The potential toxicity of twenty-two dioxin-like congeners was assessed and expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQs). Differences between males and females were investigated. Blood samples of the Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae, Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua were collected at Admiralty Bay, King George Is (62 degrees 10'39" S, 58 degrees 26'46" W) in February 2004. Halogenated hydrocarbons were identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results are expressed on a wet weight basis. HCB, p,p'-DDE and sigmaPCBs were higher in Adélie penguins (6.7 +/- 6.1, 8.2 +/- 3.3 and 9.8 +/- 3.8 ng/g, respectively) than in Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, both of which showed values in the same order of magnitude, but approximately 40% lower than Adélie penguins. Hexa-CBs ranged 35-45% of the residue. Low-chlorinated PCBs (nos. 70+76+95+ 56+60+101) accounted for 40-60% in the three species. PCB101 made up 15% of the residue in Adélie penguins. PBDEs were 291 +/- 477, 107 +/- 104 and 116 +/- 108 pg/g in Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, respectively; the

  4. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  5. Micelles versus Ribbons: How Congeners Drive the Self-Assembly of Acidic Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasaiyan, Prabhu; Le Griel, Patrick; Roelants, Sophie; Redant, Emile; Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Prevost, Sylvain; Prasad, B L V; Baccile, Niki

    2017-03-17

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a class of microbially derived biosurfactants, are reported by different research groups to have different self-assembled structures (either micelles or giant ribbons) under the same conditions. Here we explore the reasons behind these contradictory results and attribute these differences to the role of specific congeners that are present in minute quantities. We show that a sample composed of a majority of oleic acid (C18:1) sophorolipid in the presence of only 0.5 % (or more) of congeners with stearic acid (C18:0) or linoleic acid (C18:2) results in the formation of micelles that are stable over long periods of time. Conversely, the presence of only 10 to 15 % of congeners with a stearic acid chain gives fibrillar structures instead of micelles. To study the mechanisms responsible, oleic acid SLs devoid of any other congeners were prepared. Very interestingly, this sample can self-assemble into either micelles or fibers depending on minute modifications to the self-assembly conditions. The findings are supported by light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy under cryogenic conditions, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and NMR spectroscopy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Concentrations and congener profiles of chlorinated paraffins in domestic polymeric products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu; Gao, Wei; Liang, Yong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2018-03-21

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are widely used in domestic polymeric products as plasticizers and fire retardants. In this study, concentrations and congener profiles of short-chain and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) were investigated in domestic polymeric products, including plastics, rubber and food packaging in China. The average concentrations of SCCPs in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and food packaging were 234, 3968, 150 and 188 ng/g, respectively and the corresponding average concentrations of MCCPs in these samples were 37.4, 2537, 208 and 644 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of CPs in rubber and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were significantly higher than in other matrices. The highest concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs were found in a PVC cable sheath with 191 mg/g and 145 mg/g, respectively. Congener group profiles analysis indicated C 11 - and C 13 -congener groups were predominant in carbon homologues of SCCPs, and C 14 -congener groups were predominant in MCCPs. High levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in domestic polymeric products implied that they might be a significant source to the environment and human exposure. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Development and validation of methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated terphenyls in organic materials; Erarbeitung und Validierung von Verfahren zur Bestimmung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und polychlorierten Terphenylen in organischen Materialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Schuetz, Sebastian; Redlich, Christel; Win, Tin; Philipp, Rosemarie; Kaminski, Katja [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    The aim of the project was to develop and validate a testing method for the determination of PCB and PCT in organic waste matrices such as cable covering material, waste wood and automotive shredder residue. The proposed method contains steps to grind the sample, extraction, clean up and quantification. For each matrix a maximum particle sizes was determined, necessary for reproducible results. A test series with different extraction methods such as accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), sonication extraction, shaking extraction and Soxhlet extraction was carried out to compare various extraction techniques. Solvent and extraction times were varied. Different clean up methods were tested and evaluated. The results were taken into account in the method proposal. For quantification the GC/ECD procedure is favored, since hereby both PCB and PCB substitutes can be analysed simultaneously within one chromatographic run, if the detector response is sufficient. In presence of interfering substances like polychlorinated naphthalenes PCB can be quantified by variation of the GC-conditions. For the quantitation of PCT a calculation method based on freely selectable congeners is suggested. For the investigation of PCB and PCT in waste quality-assurance measures are formulated, which correspond both with the legal as well as the analytic requirements. (orig.)

  8. The Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect Studied for All 209 PCB Congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk was developed; with application to a set of caulk and window glazing material samples. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, and including quality...

  9. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, Katrine; Wolkers, Hans; Skaare, Janneche U.; Hop, Haakon; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2005-01-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ 13 C) or trophic position (δ 15 N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R PCB-153 ) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R PCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high R PCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in

  10. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  11. Novel determination of polychlorinated naphthalenes in water by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukas, Athanasios I; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Calokerinos, Antony C

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development, optimization, and validation of a novel method for the determination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), using toluene as dopant. The mass spectra of PCN 52, 54, 66, 67, 73, and 75 were recorded in negative ionization. The base ions corresponded to [M-Cl+O](-), where M is the analyte molecule. A strategy, which includes designs of experiments, for the development, the evaluation, and the optimization of the LC-APPI-MS/MS methods is also described. Finally, a highly sensitive method with low instrumental limits of detection (LoDs), ranging from 0.8 pg for PCN 75 to 16 pg for PCN 54 on column, was validated. A Thermo Hypersil Green PAH (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column was used with acetonitrile/water/methanol as mobile phase. The method was applied for the determination of the selected PCNs in surface and tap water samples. A simple liquid-liquid extraction method for the extraction of PCNs from water samples was used. Method LoQs ranged from 29 ng L(-1), for PCN 73, to 63 ng L(-1), for PCN 54, and the recoveries ranged from 97 to 99%, for all congeners. This is the first LC-APPI-MS/MS method for the determination of PCNs in water samples.

  12. Analysis of water, sediment and fish to detect contaminations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PVB) in the profile of the river Inde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwiening, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schuphan, I.

    1993-01-01

    Water, sediment and fish samples of the river Inde in the course from source to mouth were analysed for their contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (6 indicator-congeners). Analysis of the water samples showed no contents of PCB (detection limit: 10 ng/l). The resulting PCB concentration profile of the sediment showed at the upper part of the Inde uniform PCB values of 18 μg/kg dry weight sediment. In the middle part, after the tributary of an industrial influenced brook, the Vicht, the contents of PCB increased precipitously to about 110 μg/kg dry weight. In the further course - downstream near the mouth into the river Rur - the PCB contents in the sediment decreased steplike along a distance of about 20 km resulting in a level of 34 μg/kg dry weight. From the analysed fishes the brook trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) also showed PCB contents dependent on the position in the river where they were cought. In relation to muscle lipid content the averange values at the upper part of the river amounted to 6 mg/kg, in the middle part to ca 38 mg/kg and downstream to ca 8 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. Because of absence at some sampling points for the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) an analogues correlation could not be found. This fishes showed concentrations of PCB ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. (orig.) [de

  13. The effect of activated carbon on partitioning, desorption, and biouptake of native polychlorinated biphenyls in four freshwater sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal

    2008-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of activated carbon amendment in four freshwater sediments from the Great Lakes (North America) areas of concern with a wide range of sediment geochemical characteristics (0.83-5.1% total organic carbon) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (0.33-84.7 microg/g). The work focused on understanding the impact of activated carbon amendment on PCB aqueous partitioning, PCB desorption characteristics, and PCB biouptake in a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus). The results showed that PCB aqueous equilibrium concentrations, rapid desorption fractions, and biouptake by the oligochaete were reduced after activated carbon amendment. Addition of activated carbon at a dose of 0.5-fold native organic carbon reduced PCB bioaccumulation by 42% for Niagara River sediment, 85% for Grasse River sediment, 74% for Milwaukee River sediment 1, and 70% for Milwaukee River sediment 2. A linear relationship was observed between log biota-sediment accumulation factor and the first 6-h desorption fractions for each PCB homologue for treated and untreated sediments. Water-lipid bioconcentration factors for PCB congeners were largely conserved after amendment with activated carbon. Our present results suggest that at steady state, changes in the aqueous PCB concentrations can be used to predict changes in PCB bioaccumulation in deposit-feeding organisms. Thus, use of advanced pore-water measurement techniques, such as solid-phase extraction passive samplers, may be suitable for long-term monitoring of treatment performance.

  14. Characteristics, distribution and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal sediments from the heavily industrialized area of Asalouyeh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Asadgol, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Seifi, Morteza; Moradi, Masoud; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the marine sediments of Asaluyeh harbor, in the Persian Gulf. The samples were taken from industrial, semi-industrial and urban regions. The mean concentration levels of total (Σ) 18 detected PCBs were 514.32, 144.67 and 31.6 pg/g dw for the industrial, semi-industrial and urban sampling stations, respectively. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis, it was found that high contamination levels of PCBs in sediments collected along the Persian Gulf were associated with releases from local industries. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of PCB congeners. World Health Organization toxic equivalents (TEQs) for PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.66 pg TEQ/g dry weight (dw) in the coastal sediments. The TEQ values in this study were higher than many reported worldwide in the literature for sediments. This suggests that there are high levels of contamination in the area due to industrial and other human activities.

  15. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the Upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Rada, R.G.; Balogh, S.J.; Rupprecht, J.E.; Young, R.D.; Johnson, D.K.

    1999-12-15

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels revealed accumulation of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH{sub 3}Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs in zebra mussels varied longitudinally, but the composition of PCB congeners was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  17. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of Salicylate and Dibenzofuran Metabolism in Sphingomonas wittichii RW1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith eCoronado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium isolated for its ability to degrade the xenobiotic compounds dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (DBF. A number of genes involved in DBF degradation have been previously characterized, such as the dxn cluster, dbfB, and the electron transfer components fdx1, fdx3 and redA2. Here we use a combination of whole genome transcriptome analysis and transposon library screening to characterize RW1 catabolic and other genes implicated in the reaction to or degradation of DBF. To detect differentially expressed genes upon exposure to DBF, we applied three different growth exposure experiments, using either short DBF exposures to actively growing cells or growing them with DBF as sole carbon and energy source. Genome-wide gene expression was examined using a custom-made microarray. In addition, proportional abundance determination of transposon insertions in RW1 libraries grown on salicylate or DBF by ultra-high throughput sequencing was used to infer genes whose interruption caused a fitness loss for growth on DBF. Expression patterns showed that batch and chemostat growth conditions, and short or long exposure of cells to DBF produced very different responses. Numerous other uncharacterized catabolic gene clusters putatively involved in aromatic compound metabolism increased expression in response to DBF. In addition, only very few transposon insertions completely abolished growth on DBF. Some of those (e.g., in dxnA1 were expected, whereas others (in a gene cluster for phenylacetate degradation were not. Both transcriptomic data and transposon screening suggest operation of multiple redundant and parallel aromatic pathways, depending on DBF exposure. In addition, increased expression of other non-catabolic genes suggests that during initial exposure, S. wittichii RW1 perceives DBF as a stressor, whereas after longer exposure, the compound is recognized as a carbon source and metabolized using several pathways in

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl in fish samples from Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... toxic chemical compounds consisting of 209 congeners. These persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have spread globally, and .... Extraction. Prior to extraction, the fish specimens were dissected and the ... The isolation of PCBs from the lipid matrix was done by solid phase ... Activated silica gel was loaded.

  20. 75 FR 17645 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Office (DCO), EPA East Bldg., Rm. 6428, 1201 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Attention: Docket ID... action or selective metabolism of individual congeners. Noteworthy impacts on fish, birds, and mammals... have taken or planned to take and how these measures will help to safely manage their PCBs. EPA also is...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  2. Metabolic Pathways of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komancová, M.; Jurčová, Irena; Kochánková, L.; Burkhard, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 537ů543 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * biodegradation * aerobic bacteria Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2003

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and deiodinase activity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, Shalini D.; Berghuis, Sietske A.; Visser, Theo J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct

  4. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  5. Transgenic plants to improve rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 242-247 ISSN 0958-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bacterial dioxygenases * GM- plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.820, year: 2009

  6. Photochemical of Polychlorinated biphenyl by the photolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure mercury lamp. The whole Lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling the temperature at 32 ± 2 °C. The Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by GC/ECD. The degradation of PCBs in terms of one, two and three lamp ...

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in suspended-sediment samples from outfalls to Meandering Road Creek at Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas, 2003-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2010-01-01

    Meandering Road Creek is an intermittent stream and tributary to Lake Worth, a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. U.S. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth. Meandering Road Creek gains inflow from several stormwater outfalls as it flows across AFP4. Several studies have characterized polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water and sediments of Lake Worth and Meandering Road Creek; sources of PCBs are believed to originate primarily from AFP4. Two previous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reports documented elevated PCB concentrations in surficial sediment samples from Woods Inlet relative to concentrations in surficial sediment samples from other parts of Lake Worth. The second of these two previous reports also identified some of the sources of PCBs to Lake Worth. These reports were followed by a third USGS report that documented the extent of PCB contamination in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and identified runoff from outfalls 4 and 5 at AFP4 as prominent sources of these PCBs. This report describes the results of a fourth study by the USGS, in cooperation with the Lockheed Martin Corporation, to investigate PCBs in suspended-sediment samples in storm runoff from outfalls 4 and 5 at AFP4 following the implementation of engineering controls designed to potentially alleviate PCB contamination in the drainage areas of these outfalls. Suspended-sediment samples collected from outfalls 4 and 5 during storms on March 2 and November 10, 2008, were analyzed for selected PCBs. Sums of concentrations of 18 reported PCB congeners (Sigma PCBc) in suspended-sediment samples collected before and after implementation of engineering controls are compared. At both outfalls, the Sigma PCBc before engineering controls was higher than the Sigma PCBc after engineering controls. The Sigma PCBc in suspended-sediment samples collected at AFP4 before and after implementation of

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert J. Gonzales

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties

  9. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  10. Novel chemistry of invasive plants: exotic species have more unique metabolomic profiles than native congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macel, Mirka; de Vos, Ric C H; Jansen, Jeroen J; van der Putten, Wim H; van Dam, Nicole M

    2014-07-01

    It is often assumed that exotic plants can become invasive when they possess novel secondary chemistry compared with native plants in the introduced range. Using untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting, we compared a broad range of metabolites of six successful exotic plant species and their native congeners of the family Asteraceae. Our results showed that plant chemistry is highly species-specific and diverse among both exotic and native species. Nonetheless, the exotic species had on average a higher total number of metabolites and more species-unique metabolites compared with their native congeners. Herbivory led to an overall increase in metabolites in all plant species. Generalist herbivore performance was lower on most of the exotic species compared with the native species. We conclude that high chemical diversity and large phytochemical uniqueness of the exotic species could be indicative of biological invasion potential.

  11. Effects of two PBDE congeners on the moulting enzymes of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismondi, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are abundant in aquatic environment. However, only few studies have investigated their impacts on freshwater invertebrates. This work aimed to study the effects of BDE-47 and BDE-99 congeners on the chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes activities of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex, according to gender, PBDE concentration and time of exposure. In addition, the bioaccumulation of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were measured. Results revealed that females have bioaccumulated more PBDE than males, and BDE-99 was more accumulated than BDE-47. PBDE exposures for 96 h have caused chitobiase and chitinolytic enzymes inhibition. This study not only indicate the importance of taking into account various confounding factors (gender, congeners, concentration) to understand PBDE effects, but underline also disruptions of molting enzymes activities. These disturbances suggest effects on the gammarid development and reproduction, and consequently effects on the gammarid population, and on a larger scale, a dysfunction of the ecosystem. - Highlights: • G. pulex females bioaccumulate more PBDE than males. • PBDE exposure increases enzyme activities involved in moult process. • Gammarid gender, PBDE congener and concentration are confounding factors. - BDE-47 and BDE-99 are accumulated in Gammarus pulex males and females and have impacted the moulting process, since they influenced the moult enzymes activities

  12. Detailed analysis of polybrominated biphenyl congeners in bird eggs from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Walter; Recke, Roland von der; Herzke, Dorte; Nygard, Torgeir

    2008-01-01

    Individual eggs of six species of birds from Norway representing different food chains were analysed for residues of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). In all species, the residue pattern was dominated by hexaBBs. The dominating congeners were PBB 153, PBB 154, and PBB 155. Whereas PBB 153 is present in technical hexabromobiphenyl, PBB 154 and PBB 155 are formed by the reductive debromination of decabromobiphenyl. This was evidenced by the detection of several heptaBBs and octaBBs all of which are typical degradation intermediates of PBB 209. Hepta- and octaBBs were more than one order of magnitude less abundant than the hexaBBs. The second most prevailing homologue group was pentaBBs. The most relevant pentabrominated isomers were PBB 99 and PBB 101. Concentrations of the three hexaBBs - PBB 153, PBB 154, and PBB 155 - amounted to 1.3-13 ng/g wet weight or 3-23% of the contamination with polybrominated diphenyl ethers. - We provide for the first time detailed information on the PBB congeners present in eggs of bird of prey, and quantified three hexabromo congeners

  13. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beans, Carolyn M; Roach, Deborah A

    2015-02-01

    The ecological consequences of plant competition have frequently been tested, but the evolutionary outcomes of these interactions have gone largely unexplored. The study of species invasions can make an important contribution to this field of research by allowing us to watch ecological and evolutionary processes unfold as a novel species is integrated into a plant community. We explored the ecological and evolutionary impact of an invasive jewelweed, Impatiens glandulifera, on a closely related native congener, I. capensis and asked: (1) Does the presence of the invasive jewelweed alter the fitness of native jewelweed populations? (2) Does the invasive jewelweed affect the vegetative growth of the native congener? and (3) Does the invasive jewelweed alter phenotypic selection on the vegetative traits of the native congener? We used a greenhouse competition experiment, an invasive species removal field experiment, and a survey of natural populations. We show that when the invasive jewelweed is present, phenotypic selection favors native jewelweed individuals investing less in rapid upward growth and more in branching and fruiting potential through the production of nodes. This research demonstrates that invasive plants have the potential to greatly alter natural selection on native competitors. Studies investigating altered selection in invaded communities can reveal the potential evolutionary impact of invasive competitors, while deepening our understanding of the more general role of competition in driving plant evolution and permitting species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Ashok D.; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Dockum, Bruce W.; Brill, Richard W.; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6 years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  15. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntssen, M.H.G., E-mail: marc.berntssen@nifes.no [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Postbox 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway); Lundebye, A.-K.; Hop-Johannessen, L.; Lock, E.-J. [National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Postbox 2029 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food Safety Authority to be included in future surveillance of fish samples (CHB-40, 41, and 44) were investigated in the present study. Model fish Danio rerio were fed either (a) diets spiked with a combination as well as the pure individual toxaphene congeners CHB-50 or 62 or (b) diets spiked with the combination of CHB N-Ary-Summation 50 + 62 and/or CHB N-Ary-Summation 40 + 41 + 44. In addition, seawater adapted Atlantic salmon smolts were fed technical toxaphene enriched feeds for 62 days. Zebrafish fed a diet containing CHB-50 and CHB-62 accumulated newly formed CHB-40 and 41 and CHB-44, respectively. The biomagnifications factors (BMF) of the toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon muscle from the feeds spiked with technical toxaphene were significantly correlated with their relative lipophilicity (expressed as log K{sub ow}). An exception was CHB-44 which had a higher BMF than could be expected from its specific log K{sub ow}, reflecting that CHB-44 is a metabolite formed under dietary exposure to CHB-62. This paper reports the in vivo dechlorination of nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners into octa-chlorinated congeners in feeding trials with a model fish (zebrafish) and an oily food fish (Atlantic salmon).

  16. Dechlorination of the dietary nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 62 and 50 into the octa-chlorinated toxaphene congeners 44 and 40 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntssen, M.H.G.; Lundebye, A.-K.; Hop-Johannessen, L.; Lock, E.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The relative feed-to-fish accumulation and possible biotransformation of the nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners currently included in EU-legislation (CHB-50 and -62) and the octa-chlorinated congeners recommended by the European Food Safety Authority to be included in future surveillance of fish samples (CHB-40, 41, and 44) were investigated in the present study. Model fish Danio rerio were fed either (a) diets spiked with a combination as well as the pure individual toxaphene congeners CHB-50 or 62 or (b) diets spiked with the combination of CHB ∑50 + 62 and/or CHB ∑40 + 41 + 44. In addition, seawater adapted Atlantic salmon smolts were fed technical toxaphene enriched feeds for 62 days. Zebrafish fed a diet containing CHB-50 and CHB-62 accumulated newly formed CHB-40 and 41 and CHB-44, respectively. The biomagnifications factors (BMF) of the toxaphene congeners in Atlantic salmon muscle from the feeds spiked with technical toxaphene were significantly correlated with their relative lipophilicity (expressed as log K ow ). An exception was CHB-44 which had a higher BMF than could be expected from its specific log K ow , reflecting that CHB-44 is a metabolite formed under dietary exposure to CHB-62. This paper reports the in vivo dechlorination of nona-chlorinated toxaphene congeners into octa-chlorinated congeners in feeding trials with a model fish (zebrafish) and an oily food fish (Atlantic salmon).

  17. Study on the impact of industrial flue gases on the PCDD/Fs congener profile in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgiel, Małgorzata; Chrząszcz, Ryszard; Maślanka, Anna; Grochowalski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of emissions from combustion processes from sinter, medical, waste and sewage waste incineration plants on the PCDD and PCDF congener profile in ambient air in Krakow (city in Poland). The subject matter of the study were air samples from the outskirts and the city center. It was found that in flue gases from industrial sources and in ambient air the share of PCDF congeners in relation to the total content of PCDD/Fs was higher than the share of PCDDs. However, in air samples collected in the city center, this relationship was reversed. The PCDD congener profiles in flue gases and in air samples are comparable. However, in the samples from the city centre, the share of OCDD is significantly higher and amounts to about 80%. The PCDF congener shares show higher spatial diversity, although in all the analyzed air samples, ODCF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8 HpCDF dominated. Analyzing the share of congeners in regard to the sum of PCDDs/Fs a mutual resemblance of air from the suburbs, exhaust gases from the sinter ore and sewage sludge incinerator plant was observed. The study showed a similarity between the profile of congeners in air from the city centre and exhaust gases from the medical waste incinerator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  20. Catalytic Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of New Polychlorinated Natural Terpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Ighachane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various unsaturated natural terpenes were selectively converted to the corresponding polychlorinated products in good yields using iron acetylacetonate in combination with nucleophilic cocatalyst. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity. The antifungal bioassays showed that 2c and 2d possessed significant antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. canariensis (Foc, and Verticillium dahliae (Vd.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  2. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  3. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in fractions of wheat grains and in selected bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Elzbieta; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Smoczyński, S S

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of synthetic aromatic chemical compounds, commonly occurring in the environment as a result of industrialisation. Despite the ban on PCBs production, their wide application in the past resulted in their common occurrence in all elements of the environment. The lipophilic nature of the compounds resulting in their accumulation in live organisms and in the human body may trigger many harmful effects. The aim of this study was to determine the PCBs content in the selected species of wheat and in bakery products. The studies aiming at confirming possible correlation between the size of the grain of the selected species of wheat and the content of polychlorinated biphenyls were presented in this paper. Moreover, PCBs concentration in cereals' grains and in bread was compared. The PCBs content was defined in different sizes of grains species of wheat i.e. Opatka, Zyta, Elena and Almari. The study included also two kinds of wheat bread. PCBs were determined after the extraction with n-hexane followed by sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Gas chromatography analysis was conducted on a PU 4600 Unicam apparatus with an electron capture detector. The large variations in PCBs content depending on the grain size were confirmed. In the Opatka species the increase in the content of all determined congeners and the size of grain was confirmed. The lowest PCBs concentrations were in smallest grains (0,0090 mg/kg of fat), and the highest in the largest grains (0,0264 mg/kg of fat). In Zyta species PCBs content was also lowest in the smallest grains, however these results were not statistically significant. In the Elena species the increase in the PCBs content together with the increase in the grain size was confirmed. Basing on the determination coefficient it was found that the concentration of PCBs depends on the size of grains in 24%. The highest concentration of PCBs (0,0366 mg/kg of fat) was found in the largest grains, however differences

  4. Evaluating the behavior of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds in Lake Superior using a dynamic multimedia model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Perlinger, J. A.; Urban, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    Certain toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative, and semivolatile compounds known as atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants or ASEPs are emitted into the environment by primary sources, are transported, deposited to water surfaces, and can be later re-emitted causing the water to act as a secondary source. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds, a class of ASEPs, are of major concern in the Laurentian Great Lakes because of their historical use primarily as additives to oils and industrial fluids, and discharge from industrial sources. Following the ban on production in the U.S. in 1979, atmospheric concentrations of PCBs in the Lake Superior region decreased rapidly. Subsequently, PCB concentrations in the lake surface water also reached near equilibrium as the atmospheric levels of PCBs declined. However, previous studies on long-term PCB levels and trends in lake trout and walleye suggested that the initial rate of decline of PCB concentrations in fish has leveled off in Lake Superior. In this study, a dynamic multimedia flux model was developed with the objective to investigate the observed levelling off of PCB concentrations in Lake Superior fish. The model structure consists of two water layers (the epilimnion and the hypolimnion), and the surface mixed sediment layer, while atmospheric deposition is the primary external pathway of PCB inputs to the lake. The model was applied for different PCB congeners having a range of hydrophobicity and volatility. Using this model, we compare the long-term trends in predicted PCB concentrations in different environmental media with relevant available measurements for Lake Superior. We examine the seasonal depositional and exchange patterns, the relative importance of different process terms, and provide the most probable source of the current observed PCB levels in Lake Superior fish. In addition, we evaluate the role of current atmospheric PCB levels in sustaining the observed fish concentrations and appraise the need

  5. Preliminary studies on photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins on soils surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobara, Y.; Ishihara, S.; Ohtsu, K.; Horio, T.; Endo, S.

    2002-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and di benzofurans (PCDFs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and widely distributed in air, water and soil. They are persistent in the environmental and accumulate in living organisms. Some of these compounds are extremely toxic and carcinogenic to animals and possible humans. The Occurrence of PCDDs/PCDFs in the environment originated from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources are not manufactured for commercial purposes. These toxic compounds, however, are formed as unintentional by-products from chemical impurities in various industrial processes involving chlorine or by burning organic matter in the presence of chlorine molecules. A significant portion of PCDDs accumulated in soils in Japanese paddy fields was shown to have originated from agrochemicals, especially pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitorofen (2, 4, 6-trichlorophenyl-4-nitrophenyl ether, CNP). Their impurities of PCP were mostly highly chlorinated congeners, especially OCDD that currently remains to the level of 20,000 pg/g in paddy soils. Compounds such as PCDDs/PCDFs that absorbed UV/Vis light can react photochemically by reaching excited state through the direct absorption of light (direct photolysis) or by accepting energy from an excited donor molecule (sensitized photolysis). Reactions can also occur with reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, etc. formed from photochemical interactions with other organic molecules such as humic acids. Direct photolysis is the only mechanism for photolysis of organic chemicals in pure water and hydrocarbon solutions. However, PCDDs/PCDFs solubilities are extremely low in pure water. The low solubilities of these compounds in aqueous solution make photolysis experiments difficult. Therefore, in most previous studies of photolysis in aqueous solutions an acetonitrile/water mixture was used, furthermore, photolysis experiments were conducted through exposing

  6. Prediction of octanol-air partition coefficients for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using 3D-QSAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Cai, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Long; Li, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on the experimental data of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, two types of QSAR methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), are used to establish 3D-QSAR models using the structural parameters as independent variables and using logKOA values as the dependent variable with the Sybyl software to predict the KOA values of the remaining 190 PCB congeners. The whole data set (19 compounds) was divided into a training set (15 compounds) for model generation and a test set (4 compounds) for model validation. As a result, the cross-validation correlation coefficient (q(2)) obtained by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models (shuffled 12 times) was in the range of 0.825-0.969 (>0.5), the correlation coefficient (r(2)) obtained was in the range of 0.957-1.000 (>0.9), and the SEP (standard error of prediction) of test set was within the range of 0.070-0.617, indicating that the models were robust and predictive. Randomly selected from a set of models, CoMFA analysis revealed that the corresponding percentages of the variance explained by steric and electrostatic fields were 23.9% and 76.1%, respectively, while CoMSIA analysis by steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic fields were 0.6%, 92.6%, and 6.8%, respectively. The electrostatic field was determined as a primary factor governing the logKOA. The correlation analysis of the relationship between the number of Cl atoms and the average logKOA values of PCBs indicated that logKOA values gradually increased as the number of Cl atoms increased. Simultaneously, related studies on PCB detection in the Arctic and Antarctic areas revealed that higher logKOA values indicate a stronger PCB migration ability. From CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps, logKOA decreased when substituents possessed electropositive groups at the 2-, 3-, 3'-, 5- and 6- positions, which could reduce the PCB migration ability. These results are

  7. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China: Distribution, sources, and air-soil exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan; Cheng Zhineng; Li Jun; Luo Chunling; Xu Yue; Li Qilu; Liu Xiang; Zhang Gan

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are now under review by the Stockholm Convention as a candidate for POPs for their persistence, toxicity, bioaccumulation, and long-range atmospheric transport. Data regarding PCN levels and their environmental fate are sparse in China. The PCN concentration and distribution in soils of the Pearl River Delta were reported, and the average total concentration was 59.9 ± 86.7 pg/g. Tri-CNs was the dominant homologue group, and CN 24 was the most abundant congener. A gradient of PCN levels between more and less developed areas was observed. Based on fugacity fraction results, CN 51 is proposed as a possible source marker for specific combustion emissions. Air-soil exchange of PCNs was estimated by calculating the soil and air fugacity. Fugacity fraction values indicated that tri- to penta-CNs were closer to equilibrium in winter and toward net volatilization in summer, while hexa-CNs experienced net air-to-soil transfer in both seasons. Highlights: ► A gradient of PCN levels between highly and less developed areas was observed. ► CN 51 may be a new specific source indicator compared to other congeners. ► Soil acts as a secondary source in summer and a recipient in winter for PCNs in PRD. ► Low-chlorinated PCNs released from the PRD may transport to North China. - As a potential source during the hot period, low-chlorinated PCNs released from contaminated soils may transport to nearby regions.

  8. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of C max , t max , area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β 60 ) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also t max (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (C max , t max, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β 60 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The performance of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry compared to gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of polychlorinated dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Dam, Guillaume; Pussente, Igor Cabreira; Scholl, Georges; Eppe, Gauthier; Schaechtele, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Stefan

    2016-12-16

    Recently, gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) has been added in European Union (EU) legislation as an alternative to magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the analysis of dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) in food and feed. In this study the performance of APGC-MS/MS compared to GC-HRMS is investigated and compared with EU legislation. The study includes the legislative parameters, relative intermediate precision standard deviation (S Rw ,rel), trueness, sensitivity, linear range and ion ratio tolerance. In addition, over 200 real samples of large variety and spanning several orders of magnitude in concentration were analyzed by both techniques and the selectivity was evaluated by comparing chromatograms. The S Rw ,rel and trueness were evaluated using (in-house) reference samples and fulfill to EU legislation, though the S Rw ,rel was better with GC-HRMS. The sensitivity was considerably better than of GC-HRMS while the linear range was similar. Ion ratios were mostly within the tolerable range of ±15%. A (temporary unresolved) systematic deviation in ion ratio was observed for several congeners, yet this did not lead to exceeding of the maximum ion ratio limits. The APGC-MS/MS results for the non-dioxin-like-PCBs (ndl-PCBs) were negatively biased, particularly for PCB138 and 153 in contaminated samples. The selectivity of APGC-MS/MS was lower for several matrices. Particularly for contaminated samples, interfering peaks were observed in the APGC chromatograms of the native compounds (dioxins) and labeled internal standards (PCBs). These can lead to biased results and ultimately to false positive samples. It was concluded that the determination of dioxins and PCBs using APGC-MS/MS meets the requirements set by the European Commission. However, due to generally better selectivity and S Rw ,rel, GC-HRMS is the preferred method for monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreiem, Anne; Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  12. Deterministic modeling of the exposure of individual participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Armitage, James M; Binnington, Matthew J; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-14

    A population's exposure to persistent organic pollutants, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is typically assessed through national biomonitoring programs, such as the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To complement statistical methods, we use a deterministic modeling approach to establish mechanistic links between human contaminant concentrations and factors (e.g. age, diet, lipid mass) deemed responsible for the often considerable variability in these concentrations. Lifetime exposures to four PCB congeners in 6128 participants from NHANES 1999-2004 are simulated using the ACC-Human model supplied with individualized input parameters obtained from NHANES questionnaires (e.g., birth year, sex, body mass index, dietary composition, reproductive behavior). Modeled and measured geometric mean PCB-153 concentrations in NHANES participants of 13.3 and 22.0 ng g -1 lipid, respectively, agree remarkably well, although lower model-measurement agreement for air, water, and food suggests that this is partially due to fortuitous error cancellation. The model also reproduces trends in the measured data with key factors such as age, parity and sex. On an individual level, 62% of all modeled concentrations are within a factor of three of their corresponding measured values (Spearman r s = 0.44). However, the model attributes more of the inter-individual variability to differences in dietary lipid intake than is indicated by the measured data. While the model succeeds in predicting levels and trends on the population level, the accuracy of individual-specific predictions would need to be improved for refined exposure characterization in epidemiological studies.

  13. Exposure to 27 polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor environment of a workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Ebbehøj, N E; Göen, T

    2016-01-01

    -chlorinated congeners. Health effect from this little-acknowledged exposure has not yet been documented, but data supporting lack of effect are sparse and research generating information on effect of exposure to specific congeners including at levels relevant for the indoor environment should be encouraged....

  14. Tissue-specific congener composition of organohalogen and metabolite contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbink, Wouter A.; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja; Riget, Frank F.; Born, Erik W.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Congener patterns of the major organohalogen contaminant classes of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites and/or by-products (OH-PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) were examined in adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus). PCB, OH-PCB, MeSO 2 -PCB and PBDE congener patterns showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) mainly in the liver and the brain relative to the adipose tissue and the blood. OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were not detected in the brain and liver, but had different patterns in blood versus the adipose tissue. Novel OH-polybrominated biphenyls (OH-PBBs), one tri- and two tetra-brominated OH-PBBs were detected in all tissues and blood. Congener pattern differences among tissues and blood are likely due to a combination of factors, e.g., biotransformation and retention in the liver, retention in the blood and blood-brain barrier transport. Our findings suggest that different congener pattern exposures to these classes of contaminants should be considered with respect to potential target tissue-specific effects in East Greenland polar bears. - Tissues-specific (adipose tissue, liver, brain and blood) differences exist for the congener patterns of PCBs, PBDEs and their metabolites/degradation products in East Greenland polar bears

  15. Changes of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils from urban agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta, in China between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuang-Xin; Huang, Ye-Ru; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Li-Fei; Dong, Liang; Yang, Wen-Long; Zhang, Xiu-Lan

    2015-07-01

    Surface soil samples were collected from urban agglomeration of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China in 2003 and 2012, respectively. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed to determine if there were any changes in their levels and compositional profiles between the two sampling years. The concentrations of Σ8PBDEs ranged from 0.553 to 13.0 μg kg(-1)(with the mean of 3.31 μg kg(-1)) in the 2003 samples and from 1.01 to 43.2 μg/kg (with the mean of 10.0 μg kg(-1)) in the 2012 samples. The concentrations of Σ32PCBs ranged from 0.301 to 3.29 μg kg(-1)(with the mean of 1.01 μg kg(-1)) in the 2003 samples and from 0.205 to 3.96 μg/kg (with the mean of 0.991 μg kg(-1)) in the 2012 samples. The comparisons between the 2012 and 2003 data showed that PBDEs concentrations increased over the years, but PCB concentrations did not change much. BDE-209 was the major BDE congener in both the 2003 and 2012 samples, indicating that the dominant PBDE mixture production and usage in the YRD had been the commercial deca-BDE mixture. Investigation of the PBDE congener profiles indicated that there had been new input of octa-BDEs in this region in recent years. Little change was found for the pattern of PCBs congener profiles between 2 years' samples. As such, spatial distributions of PBDEs or PCBs in surface soil samples reflected a gradient (from high to low) from the central cities out to rural areas in both the 2003 and 2012 data. In addition, high concentrations of PBDEs were observed in the industrial and residential areas, whereas high concentrations of PCBs were only observed in the industrial areas.

  16. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ 13 C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m −2 ⋅y −1 . Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial

  17. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  18. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  19. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  1. Increased susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis in female mice carrying congenic Cia40/Pregq2 fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljander, Maria; Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is a commonly used experimental model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have previously identified a significant quantitative trait locus denoted Cia40 on chromosome 11 that affects CIA in older female mice. This locus colocalizes...... with another locus, denoted Pregq2, known to affect reproductive success. The present study was performed to evaluate the role of the Cia40 locus in congenic B10.Q mice and to identify possible polymorphic candidate genes, which may also be relevant in the context of RA. METHODS: Congenic B10.Q mice carrying...... an NFR/N fragment surrounding the Cia40/Pregq2 loci were created by 10 generations of backcrossing (N10). The congenic mice were investigated in the CIA model, and the incidence and severity of arthritis as well as the serum levels of anti-collagen II (CII) antibodies were recorded. RESULTS: Significant...

  2. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P.; Davenport, D.

    1997-01-01

    Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils

  3. Polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes), polybrominated diphenylethers and other halogenated organic pollutants in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard and Bjoernoeya (Bear Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzke, Dorte; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Evenset, Anita; Burkow, I.C.

    2003-01-01

    PCBs and p,p'-DDE constituted 90% of contaminants found. - The levels of polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes) were investigated in liver samples from 18 glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjoernoeya (74 deg. N, 19 deg. E) and four individuals from Longyearbyen (78 deg. N, 15 deg. E). Additionally brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides were investigated in liver and intestinal contents of 15 of the glaucous gulls from Bjoernoeya. Of the analysed BFRs only 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenylethers (PBDE 47 and 99) could be detected. The concentrations ranged between 2 and 25 ng/g ww. In addition, high resolution measurements with GC/HRMS revealed the existence of several, not quantified, PBDEs and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) congeners in the samples. B9-1679 and B8-1413 were the dominating toxaphenes with median concentrations of 8 and 15 ng/g ww. Concentrations of toxaphenes and PBDEs were up to 100-times lower than the concentrations of PCB and some of the pesticides. PCB and p,p'-DDE constituted 90% of the contaminants found

  4. Biphenyl-metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of horseradish and bulk soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls as revealed by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-10-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [(13)C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase alpha subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [(13)C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [(13)C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: Assessment of mass loading, input source and environmental fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yufeng; Wang Jizhong; Ni Honggang; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2009-01-01

    A large-scale sampling program was conducted to simultaneously collect water samples at the eight major riverine runoff outlets of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China to assess the importance of riverine runoff in transporting anthropogenic pollutants from terrestrial sources to the coastal ocean. The concentrations of Σ 21 OCPs (sum of 21 OCP components) and Σ 20 PCBs (sum of 20 PCB congeners) were 2.57-41.2 and 0.12-1.47 ng/L, respectively. Compositional distributions of DDTs suggested the possibility of new input sources in the study area, but contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. The annual inputs of Σ 21 OCPs and Σ 20 PCBs were 3090 and 215 kg, with those of total HCHs and DDTs being 1110 and 1020 kg, respectively. A mass balance consideration indicated that riverine runoff is the major mode carrying OCPs from the PRD to the coastal ocean, and the majority of OCPs is further dissipated to open seas. - Mass loadings, input sources and environmental fate of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China are assessed

  6. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationship (3D-QSPR) models for prediction of thermodynamic properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): enthalpy of vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Swati; Chickos, James S; Welsh, William J

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models have been derived using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) to correlate the vaporization enthalpies of a representative set of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at 298.15 K with their CoMFA-calculated physicochemical properties. Various alignment schemes, such as inertial, as is, and atom fit, were employed in this study. The CoMFA models were also developed using different partial charge formalisms, namely, electrostatic potential (ESP) charges and Gasteiger-Marsili (GM) charges. The most predictive model for vaporization enthalpy (Delta(vap)H(m)(298.15 K)), with atom fit alignment and Gasteiger-Marsili charges, yielded r2 values 0.852 (cross-validated) and 0.996 (conventional). The vaporization enthalpies of PCBs increased with the number of chlorine atoms and were found to be larger for the meta- and para-substituted isomers. This model was used to predict Delta(vap)H(m)(298.15 K) of the entire set of 209 PCB congeners.

  7. Temporal and spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl chiral signatures of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) and its arctic marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhe; Fisk, Aaron T.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian; McKinney, Melissa A.; Tomy, Gregg T.; Rosenburg, Bruno; McMeans, Bailey C.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wong, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) chiral signatures were measured in Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) and their potential prey in arctic marine food webs from Canada (Cumberland Sound) and Europe (Svalbard) to assess temporal and spatial variation in PCB contamination at the stereoisomer level. Marine mammals had species-specific enantiomer fractions (EFs), likely due to a combination of in vivo biotransformation and direct trophic transfer. Greenland sharks from Cumberland Sound in 2007–2008 had similar EFs to those sharks collected a decade ago in the same location (PCBs 91, 136 and 149) and also similar to their conspecifics from Svalbard for some PCB congeners (PCBs 95, 136 and 149). However, other PCB EFs in the sharks varied temporally (PCB 91) or spatially (PCB 95), suggesting a possible spatiotemporal variation in their diets, since biotransformation capacity was unlikely to have varied within this species from region to region or over the time frame studied. -- Highlights: • Chiral PCB signatures were measured in Greenland sharks and their prey. • Marine mammals accumulated non-racemic PCBs from biotransformation and their diet. • Chiral PCB signatures were similar in sharks at two different arctic locations. • Some changes in chiral PCB signatures in sharks over a decade. -- PCB chiral signatures in Greenland sharks shift over time and space, likely in parallel with dietary variation

  8. Rapid and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and their main metabolites (hydroxylated and methyl sulfonyl) by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: Comparison of different ionisation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Puyana, M.; Herrero, L.; González, M.J.; Gómara, B.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simultaneous determination of PCB, OH-PCBs and MeSO 2 -PCBs in a single GC–MS run. •Two different ionisation modes (EI and ECNI) are studied and compared. •The analytical characterisation of both methods is satisfactory. •Better LODs are achieved using ECNI-MS as ionisation mode. •The developed methodology is successfully applied to fish liver oil. -- Abstract: Instrumental methods based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) have been developed and compared using two different MS ionisation modes, electron impact (EI) and electron capture negative ionisation (ECNI), for the fast, quantitative and simultaneous determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their main metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs, OH-PCBs, and methyl sulfone PCBs, MeSO 2 -PCBs). Parameters affecting chromatographic separation and MS detection were evaluated in order to achieve the highest selectivity and sensitivity for both operation modes. The analytical characteristics of the developed methods were studied and compared in terms of linear range, limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification (LOQs), and instrumental precision (repeatability and intermediate precision). Both ionisation methods showed similar precision, being relative standard deviations (RSD, %) lower than 9% and 14% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. However, better LODs (from 0.01 to 0.14 pg injected for the three families of congeners studied) were achieved using ECNI-MS as ionisation mode. The suitability of the developed method was demonstrated through their application to fish liver oil samples

  9. Ultratrace analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K.; Watanabe, K.; Takemori, H. [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shoda, T. [Ehime Univ. Medical Research Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, we established pretreatment and high sensitivity analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans for the first time. Analyzing serum and CSF samples from humans found unique because PCBs behavior and metabolism could be discerned. Furthermore, so far studies reported concentrations of OH-PCBs in wildlife samples obtained by HRGC-LRMS or GC-ECD data. In this study, we established cleanup and analytical methods by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using 1 mL of sample. Mainly, total PCBs and OH-PCBs in the CSF were extracted by specialized developed method. Using this method, PCBs and OH-PCBs could be determined swiftly. Based on this method, major OH-PCB congeners were detected from human, serum, CSF, control serum and Rhesus monkey plasma. Present methodology developed based on the isotope dilution technique using OH-PCBs standard and thus we suggest the present methodology could apply for ultra trace analysis of OHPCBs as well as total PCBs in human samples.

  10. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spontaneous metastasis in congenic mice with transgenic breast cancer is unaffected by plasminogen gene ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almholt, Kasper; Juncker-Jensen, Anna; Lærum, Ole Didrik

    2013-01-01

    , suggesting that there is a functional redundancy with other proteases. To explore this functional overlap in the transgenic MMTV-PyMT breast cancer metastasis model, we have combined Plg deficiency and a pharmacological metalloprotease inhibitor, which is known to reduce metastasis in this model, and has...... been shown to synergistically inhibit other tissue remodeling events in Plg-deficient mice. While metalloprotease inhibition dramatically reduced metastasis, we found no effect of Plg deficiency on metastasis, either independently or in combination with metalloprotease inhibition. We further show...... that Plg gene deficiency is of no significant consequence in this metastasis model, when analyzed in two different congenic strains: the FVB strain, and a F1 hybrid of the FVB and C57BL/6J strains. We suggest that the extensive backcrossing performed prior to our studies has eliminated the confounding...

  12. Segregation of genes from donor strain during the production of recombinant congenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zutphen, L F; Den Bieman, M; Lankhorst, A; Demant, P

    1991-07-01

    Recombinant congenic strains (RCS) constitute a set of inbred strains which are designed to dissect the genetic control of multigenic traits, such as tumour susceptibility or disease resistance. Each RCS contains a small fraction of the genome of a common donor strain, while the majority of genes stem from a common background strain. We tested at two stages of the inbreeding process in 20 RCS, derived from BALB/cHeA and STS/A, to see whether alleles from the STS/A donor strain are distributed over the RCS in a ratio as would theoretically be expected. Four marker genes (Pep-3; Pgm-1; Gpi-1 and Es-3) located at 4 different chromosomes were selected and the allelic distribution was tested after 3-4 and after 12 generations of inbreeding. The data obtained do not significantly deviate from the expected pattern, thus supporting the validity of the concept of RCS.

  13. Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Ahlborg, U. G.; van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L. S.; Boersma, E. R.; Bosveld, B.; Denison, M. S.; Gray, L. E.; Hagmar, L.; Holene, E.

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  14. Feasibility of Trace Alcohol Congener Detection and Identification Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jialiang; Wang Shangmin; Zhao Lixian; Liu Liying; Wang Dezhen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a feasible scheme is reported for the detection and identification of trace alcohol congeners that have identical elemental composition using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). In the scheme, an intensive pulsed laser is used to break down trace alcohol samples and the optical emission spectra of the induced plasma are collected for the detection and identification of alcohol molecules. In order to prepare trace alcohol samples, pure ethanol or methanol is bubbled by argon carrier gas and then mixed into matrix gases. The key issue for the scheme is to constitute indices from the LIBS data of the alcohol samples. Two indices are found to be suitable for alcohol detection and identification. One is the emission intensity ratio (denoted as H/C) of the hydrogen line (653.3 nm) to the carbon line (247.9 nm) for identification and the other is the ratio of the carbon line (as C/Ar) or the hydrogen line (as H/Ar) to the argon lines (866.7 nm) for quantitative detection. The calibration experiment result shows that the index H/C is specific for alcohol congeners while almost being independent of alcohol concentration. In detail, the H/C keeps a specific constant of 34 and 23 respectively for ethanol and methanol. In the meanwhile, the C/Ar and H/Ar indices respond almost linearly to the alcohol concentration below 1300 ppm, and are therefore competent for concentration measurement. With the indices, trace alcohol concentration measurement achieves a limit of 140 ppm using a laser pulse energy of 300 mJ. (plasma technology)

  15. Mesencephalic neuron death induced by congeners of nitrogen monoxide is prevented by the lazaroid U-83836E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasbon-Frodl, E M; Brundin, P

    1997-01-01

    We explored the effects of congeners of nitrogen monoxide (NO) on cultured mesencephalic neurons. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as a donor of NO, the congeners of which have been found to exert either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects depending on the surrounding redox milieu. In contrast to a previous report that suggests that the nitrosonium ion (NO+) is neuroprotective to cultured cortical neurons, we found that the nitrosonium ion reduces the survival of cultured dopamine neurons to 32% of control. There was a trend for further impairment of dopamine neuron survival, to only 7% of untreated control, when the cultures were treated with SNP plus ascorbate, i.e. when the nitric oxide radical (NO.) had presumably been formed. We also evaluated the effects of an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, the lazaroid U-83836E, against SNP toxicity. U-83836E exerted marked neuroprotective effects in both insult models. More than twice as many dopamine neurons (75% of control) survived when the lazaroid was added to SNP-treated cultures and the survival was increased eight-fold (to 55% of control) when U-83836E was added to cultures treated with SNP plus ascorbate. We conclude that the congeners of NO released by SNP are toxic to mesencephalic neurons in vitro and that the lazaroid U-83836E significantly increases the survival of dopamine neurons in situations where congeners of NO are generated.

  16. Long-term trends in mercury and PCB congener concentrations in gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M. Gloria; Walker, Lee A.; Best, Jennifer; Shore, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bass Rock (North Sea) and Ailsa Craig (eastern Atlantic) were monitored for PCB congeners (1990-2004) and total mercury (1974-2004). Congener profiles for both colonies were dominated by PCBs 153, 138, 180, 118 and 170. All declined in concentration at Ailsa Craig but some (153, 170, 180) remained stable or increased slightly at Bass Rock. Egg congener concentrations at Bass Rock were typically 10-fold higher than at Ailsa Craig by 2002, and Principal Component Analysis indicated that colony differences were driven by the dominant congeners. Egg mercury concentrations were significantly lower at Bass Rock than at Ailsa Craig and temporal trends differed, there being a significant decline at Ailsa Craig but a marginal increase at Bass Rock. Our results suggest there may be differences in contamination between the eastern Atlantic and North Sea and/or there are colony differences in prey selection and associated contaminant loads. - Monitoring of PCBs and Hg in gannet eggs reveals contrasting temporal patterns between colonies on the eastern Atlantic and North Sea coasts of Britain

  17. Response to Ecological Risk Assessment Forum Request for Information on the Benefits of PCB Congener-Specific Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 2001, the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) submitted a formal question to the Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) on the benefits of evaluating PCB congeners in environmental samples. This question was developed by ERAF members Bruce Duncan and Cla...

  18. Sources, fate, bioaccumulation and sinks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the People`s Republic of China, especially Ya-Er Lake Area, near Wuhan. Final report (1995.09-1998.12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Henkelmann, B.; Kettrup, A. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Xu Ying; Wu Wen-Zhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China). Inst. of Hydrobiology

    1999-08-01

    The aim of the project is to find out the emission of PCDD/F and related compounds, their environmental levels and the toxic potency to results, so as to lay a solid basis for decision-making on the pollution control and environment quality assessment in China and other developing countries. The investigations of the project included three major parts: analytical methodology of PCDD/F, fate and transfer of PCDD/F and related compounds, as well as their ecotoxicological effects. (orig.)

  19. Consensus Toxicity Factors for Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls Combining in Silico Models and, Extensive in Vitro Screening of AhR-Mediated Effects in Human and Rodent Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsson, M.; van den Berg, M.; Brenerová, P.; van Duursen, M. B. M.; van Ede, K.I.; Lohr, C.; Luecke-Johansson, S.; Machala, M.; Neser, S.; Pěnčíková, K.; Poellinger, L.; Schrenk, D.; Strapáčová, S.; Vondráček, Jan; Andersson, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), s. 641-650 ISSN 0893-228X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : relative effect potencies * blood mononuclear-cells * cyp1a2 enzyme-activity * equivalency factors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2015

  20. Dietary exposure of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): Part 1. Bioaccumulation and elimination kinetics of individual congeners and their debrominated metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munschy, C.; Heas-Moisan, K.; Tixier, C.; Olivier, N.; Gastineau, O.; Le Bayon, N.; Buchet, V.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake and elimination of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -209) were studied in juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.) exposed to spiked contaminated food over a three-month period, then depurated over a five-month period. The results show that all of the studied PBDEs accumulate in fish tissues, including the higher brominated congener BDE-209. Several additional PBDE congeners were identified in the tissues of exposed fish, revealing PBDE transformation, mainly via debromination. The identified congeners originating from PBDE debromination include BDE-49 and BDE-202 and a series of unidentified tetra-, penta-, and hepta- BDEs. Contaminant assimilation efficiencies (AEs) were related to their hydrophobicity (log K ow ) and influenced by PBDE biotransformation. Metabolism via debromination appears to be a major degradation route of PBDEs in juvenile sole in comparison to biotransformation into hydroxylated metabolites. - Juvenile sole exposed to artificially-contaminated food accumulate PBDEs, including the higher brominated congeners, and have a debromination capacity.

  1. Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Douglas A.; Dougherty, Edward J.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward

  2. Evolution of body shape in differently coloured sympatric congeners and allopatric populations of Lake Malawi's rock-dwelling cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, M; Tobler, M; McCauley, C; Ding, B; Danley, P D

    2014-05-01

    The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi represent one of the most diverse adaptive radiations of vertebrates known. Among the rock-dwelling cichlids (mbuna), closely related sympatric congeners possess similar trophic morphologies (i.e. cranial and jaw structures), defend overlapping or adjacent territories, but can be easily distinguished based on male nuptial coloration. The apparent morphological similarity of congeners, however, leads to an ecological conundrum: theory predicts that ecological competition should lead to competitive exclusion. Hence, we hypothesized that slight, yet significant, ecological differences accompanied the divergence in sexual signals and that the divergence of ecological and sexual traits is correlated. To evaluate this hypothesis, we quantified body shape, a trait of known ecological importance, in populations of Maylandia zebra, a barred, widespread mbuna, and several sympatric nonbarred congeners. We found that the barred populations differ in body shape from their nonbarred sympatric congeners and that the direction of shape differences was consistent across all barred vs. nonbarred comparisons. Barred populations are generally deeper bodied which may be an adaptation to the structurally complex habitat they prefer, whereas the nonbarred species have a more fusiform body shape, which may be adaptive in their more open microhabitat. Furthermore, M. zebra populations sympatric with nonbarred congeners differ from populations where the nonbarred phenotype is absent and occupy less morphospace, indicating potential ecological character displacement. Mitochondrial DNA as well as published AFLP data indicated that the nonbarred populations are not monophyletic and therefore may have evolved multiple times independently. Overall our data suggest that the evolution of coloration and body shape may be coupled as a result of correlational selection. We hypothesize that correlated evolution of sexually selected and ecological traits may have

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  4. Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

    1982-01-01

    After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

  5. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Dominici, L.; Fatigoni, C.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  6. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  7. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...

  8. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Phthalate esters and childhood asthma: A systematic review and congener-specific meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) has been associated with childhood asthma, but the congener-specific effects of PAEs on childhood asthma were unclear. We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze observational studies on the associations between specific effects of PAEs and the risk of childhood asthma. Material and methods: Relevant studies were identified by searching three databases up to October 20, 2016. The reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included observational studies that reported risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between phthalate exposure and the risk of childhood asthma. Fixed-effects models were generally applied to calculate pooled risk estimates. When heterogeneity was present, random-effects models were applied. Results: A total of nine studies featuring 43 data points were included in our final meta-analyses. Results indicated that the benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) exposure had a significant association with the risk of childhood asthma. The Odd Ratios (ORs) were from 1.39 to 1.41 for different combination strategies. Subgroup analyses by different exposure period or samples used showed that prenatal exposure to BBzP had a stronger association with the risk of childhood asthma (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.09–1.75), compared to those with postnatal exposure. Besides, the association was evident when the phthalate exposure was measured from dust samples. The OR for the associations between di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in dust and childhood asthma was 2.71 (95% CI = 1.39–5.28), and 2.08 (95% CI = 1.10–3.92) for BBzP. Conclusions: Our study suggested a positive association between DEHP and BBzP exposure and childhood asthma. Future studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms of the association. - Highlights: • We identified the risk associated with different phthalates and childhood asthma. • Pooled analysis showed that BBz

  9. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  10. Estimation of uptake rate constants for PCB congeners accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices and brown treat (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Huckins, J.N.; Borsuk, F.A.; Carline, R.F.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMD to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB- contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and dissolved concentrations averaged 4.9 and 3.7 ??g/L, respectively, during the exposure. Total concentrations of PCBs in fish rose from 0.06 to 118.3 ??g/g during the 28-day exposure, while concentrations in the SPMD rose from 0.03 to 203.4 ??g/ g. Uptake rate constants (k1) estimated for SPMDs and brown trout were very similar, with k1 values for SPMDs ranging from one to two times those of the fish. The pattern of congener uptake by the fish and SPMDs was also similar. The rates of uptake generally increased or decreased with increasing K(ow), depending on the assumption of presence or absence of TOC.The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMB to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB-contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and

  11. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and

  12. Hydrocortisone-induced embryotoxicity and embryonic drug disposition in H-2 congenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Congenic mouse strains C57BL/10Sn (B10) and B10.A/SgSn(B10A), genetically different only at the H-2 complex, were compared for sensitivity to glucocorticoid-induced embryotoxicity and embryonic drug disposition. B10A mice dosed intramuscularly with 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg hydrocortisone/kg body weight on gestational day twelve, and B10 mice injected with 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/kg, were evaluated at dissection on gestational day eighteen for signs of toxicity. In both strains, probit analysis of cleft palate production demonstrated a linear dose response. The ED50 for cleft palate production demonstrates a linear dose response. The ED50 for cleft palate production in B10A mice was 143.6 mg/kg and 512.0 mg/kg for the B10 strain. Embryonic exposure was evaluated by administration of 3 H-hydrocortisone (5 uCi/mouse) to pregnant mice on day twelve of gestation, at the ED50 for cleft palate production in B10A strain. The purposes of the experiment were to quantify the difference in susceptibility to steroid-induced cleft palate, determine if a milder manifestation of embryotoxicity, fetal growth retardation, occurred at sub-clefting dosages, and determine if the difference in sensitivity to hydrocortisone-induced embryotoxicity was the result of an underlying difference in embryonic exposure to the teratogen

  13. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Adenosine Amine Congener in Cochlear Perilymph after Systemic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a global health problem affecting over 5% of the population worldwide. We have shown previously that acute noise-induced cochlear injury can be ameliorated by administration of drugs acting on adenosine receptors in the inner ear, and a selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist adenosine amine congener (ADAC has emerged as a potentially effective treatment for cochlear injury and resulting hearing loss. This study investigated pharmacokinetic properties of ADAC in rat perilymph after systemic (intravenous administration using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection method. The method was