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Sample records for polychlorinated biphenyls dibenzofurans

  1. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Dam, ten G.; Bruggen, van Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6

  3. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p < 0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries. - Brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans in Hong Kong and Korean waters are emitted from industrial activities

  4. Development of a reference material for routine performance monitoring of methods measuring polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selliah, S S; Cussion, S; MacPherson, K A; Reiner, E J; Toner, D

    2001-06-01

    Matrix-matched environmental certified reference materials (CRMs) are one of the most useful tools to validate analytical methods, assess analytical laboratory performance and to assist in the resolution of data conflicts between laboratories. This paper describes the development of a lake sediment as a CRM for polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs). The presence of DLPCBs in the environment is of increased concern and analytical methods are being developed internationally for monitoring DLPCBs in the environment. This paper also reports the results of an international interlaboratory study involving thirty-five laboratories from seventeen countries, conducted to characterize and validate levels of a sediment reference material for PCDDs, PCDFs and DLPCBs.

  5. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Arikawa, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-22

    2,3,7,8-Substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for almost all of the total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in environmental samples. Activated carbon columns are used to fractionate the samples for GC-MS analysis or bioassay. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon is highly selective for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs and can improve the conventional activated carbon column clean-up. Along with sulfuric acid-coated diatomaceous earth columns, micropore-free surface-activated carbon provides a rapid, robust, and high-throughput sample preparation method for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs analysis.

  6. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.; Nelson, K.G.; Everson, R.B.; Wong, T.K.; Philpot, R.M.; Tiernan, T.; Taylor, M.; Sunahara, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  7. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  8. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K.F.; Chen Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, M.K.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity. - Health risk assessment of organochlorine compounds associated with seafood consumption reveals low health risks for two coastal populations in China

  9. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  10. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  13. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Chizzali

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  18. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  19. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viger, Jean-François; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE LB400 ) metabolizes PCBs. ► Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. ► We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE LB400 variants. ► The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE LB400 variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE LB400 ) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE RR41 , a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE LB400 , metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE LB400 . Hence, BphAE RR41 was able to metabolize 2,6,2′,6′-, 3,4,3′,5′- and 2,4,3′,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE LB400 is unable to metabolize. BphAE RR41 was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE LB400 to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Parmanne, Raimo; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2006-01-01

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHO PCDD/F -TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 ± 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  2. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viger, Jean-Francois; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada); Sylvestre, Michel, E-mail: Michel.Sylvestre@iaf.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE{sub LB400}) metabolizes PCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE{sub RR41}, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE{sub LB400}, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE{sub LB400}. Hence, BphAE{sub RR41} was able to metabolize 2,6,2 Prime ,6 Prime -, 3,4,3 Prime ,5 Prime - and 2,4,3 Prime ,4 Prime -tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE{sub LB400} is unable to metabolize. BphAE{sub RR41} was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE{sub LB400} to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  6. Comparing Mini-Mental State Examination and Attention and Digit Span in elderly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kao-Chang; Huang, Po-Chang; Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Ke, Der-Shin

    2010-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are known to affect central nervous functioning. In recent studies, elderly patients who have been exposed to these have been noted to have psychological deficits. There is little known about which test is sensitive to neurotoxins in cognitive evaluation. The objective of the present study was to compare the significance between selective psychological tests in cognitive assessment in PCB-laden elderly. A retrospective PCB/PCDF exposed cohort was observed. Exposed elderly aged ≥ 60 years and registered in Central Health Administration were enrolled, and similar age- and sex-matched subjects served as non-exposed controls. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Attention and Digit Span (ADS) were tested in both groups. Student's t-test, χ(2) -test and linear regression models were used for statistical analysis.  A total of 165 exposed patients and 151 controls were analyzed. The exposed group included 49% men, a mean age of 69.3 ± 6.4 years and an education level of 4.0 ± 3.9 years. The controls included 52% men, a mean age of 69.9 ± 5.5 years and an education level of 4.5 ± 3.2 years. There was no statistical difference in MMSE before and after adjusting for the confounding variables of age, sex and education (P= 0.16 vs P= 0.12). However, ADS-forward and ADS-total scores showed a significant decline in the exposed subjects (P= 0.0001 vs P= 0.001). Using a linear regression among stratified PCB and cognitive functioning (≤30 ppb; 31-89; ≥90), a dose effect was found at the medium (31-89 ppb) and high exposure (≧90 ppb) levels. Our observations showed attention and short-term memory were impaired in PCB-laden elderly patients. Higher exposure level showed lower cognitive functioning in ADS. The MMSE was insensitive to neurotoxins. The present study shows that the selective test has a decisive role in toxic-related cognitive assessments. © 2010 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics

  7. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  8. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a novel polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. KBC101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, M.; Ezaki, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kurane, R. [Kubota Corporation, Ryuugasaki City (Japan). Biotechnology Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    The biphenyl-utilizing bacterial strain KBC101 has been newly isolated from soil. Biphenyl-grown cells of KBC101 efficiently degraded di- to nonachlorobiphenyls. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus sp. with respect to its 16S rDNA sequence and fatty acid profiles, as well as various biological and physiological characteristics. In the case of highly chlorinated biphenyl (polychlorinated biphenyl; PCB) congeners, the degradation activities of this strain were superior to those of the previously reported strong PCB degrader, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1. Recalcitrant coplanar PCBs, such as 3,4,3',4'-CB, were also efficiently degraded by strain KBC101 cells. This is the first report of a representative of the genus Paenibacillus capable of degrading PCBs. In addition to growth of biphenyl, strain KBC101 could grow on dibenzofuran, xanthene, benzophenone, anthrone, phenanthrene, napthalene, fluorene, fluoranthene, and chrysene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Paenibacillus sp. strain KBC101 presented heterogeneous degradation profiles toward various aromatic compounds. (orig.)

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  11. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Lodge, Keith B.; Harris, Hallett J.; Beaver, Donald L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Hagley, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Accumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), and H411E rat hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) was evaluated in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, and in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) nestlings from colonies nesting in several locations within the watershed. Concentrations of the PCHs were greatest in eggs and chicks of the two tern species, less in the tree swallows and least in the red-winged blackbirds. Young of all four species accumulated total PCBs, PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, and TCDD-EQ. The young birds also accumulated small concentrations of several 2,3,7,8-sbustituted PCDF and PCDD congeners. Uptake rates for certain of the PCHs for the Forster's tern chicks were: 15 μg/day for total PCBs, 70, 200, 6.5, and 0.14 ng/day for PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, respectively, and 270 μg/day for TCDD-EQ. Principal components analysis revealed that the patterns of PCH concentrations in the samples were influenced by species of bird, their age (or length of exposure) and nesting location. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that exposure of avian species to contaminants derived from aquatic food chains can be characterized and quantified for the purposes of ecological risk assessment.

  12. Mortality after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: a meta-analysis of two highly exposed cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-09-15

    Both Yucheng and Yusho were events of accidental exposure to highly doses of polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans in Asian people. Mortality experiences caused by various diseases were reported in both cohorts with similar and dissimilar findings. We thus conducted a meta-analysis of two cohorts to reevaluate the effects of PCBs and PCDFs on major causes of mortalities. Two recently updated Yucheng and Yusho mortality studies were included. For selected diseases, standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model only when heterogeneity (I(2)  > 50% and/or p value <0.10 by the Q test) was not found. A total of 1,803 Yucheng subjects (male, N = 830; female, N = 973) with 48,751 person-years of follow-up and 1,664 Yusho subjects (male, N = 860; female, N = 804) with 50,773 person-years are included. An increase in all-cause mortality (pooled SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, I(2)  = 0.0%), all cancers (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, I(2)  = 0.0%), lung cancer (pooled SMR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, I(2) =0.0%), heart disease (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7, I(2)  = 43.4%) and hepatic disease (pooled SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, I(2)  = 0.0%) were found in pooled males. Significant elevation from liver cancer was found in pooled females (pooled SMR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6, I(2)  = 0.0%). This meta-analysis of Yucheng and Yusho cohorts showed similar elevation from all cancer, lung cancer, heart disease and hepatic disease mortalities in exposed men. Furthermore, a new finding of elevated liver cancer mortality in exposed women was identified. © 2015 UICC.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals...... was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated...... to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth)....

  14. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial chemicals. Because of their widespread, uncontrolled industrial applications, PCB's have become a persistent... unavoidable environmental or industrial contaminants are established for a sufficient period of time following...

  15. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deziel, N.C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Colt, J.S.; Roos, A.J. de; Pronk, A.; Gourley, C.; Severson, R.K.; Cozen, W.; Cerhan, J.R.; Hartge, P.; Ward, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources,

  16. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Talidda, A.; Malisch, R.; Kotz, A.; Tritsher, A.; Fiedler, H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Kooijman, M.; Wienk, K.J.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

  18. Rapid measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and planar chlorobiphenyls using microcolumn chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Haines, B.K.; Tokarczyk, R.; Uthe, J.F. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran classes and chlorobiphenyl in lobster from Atlantic Canada was measured using a newly developed quick and low-cost measuring method. The method is based on saponification followed by extraction into hexane, clean-up by gel-permeation chromatography and sulfuric acid treatment, and the separation of the non-ortho-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from other chlorinated compounds. Detection limits as low as 1-5 pg.g{sup -1} wet wt. were achieved for some of the chlorinated compounds.

  19. Development of new cleanup method of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in fish by freezing-lipid filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Jungju [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeoung Hwa [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jeehyeong [Department of Civil Environment Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongki [College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-Dong, Dongdaemoon-Ku, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhong@khu.ac.kr

    2006-08-18

    Freezing-lipid filtration as a new method has been developed for the rapid determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in biological samples. This method can effectively reduce the time of sample pretreatment, labor and amount of solvents compared with conventional methods. By freezing-lipid filtration procedure, about 90% of lipids in extract could be removed without any significant loss of PCDD/Fs. For further cleanup of extracts after freezing-lipid filtration, automatic parallel LC columns including silica gel, alumina and carbon columns were applied. During automatic parallel LC columns cleanup, most of co-extracted interferences such as residue lipids and fatty acids could be eliminated and dioxins could be separated from many other dioxin-like congeners such as polychlorinated biphenyls by this procedure. The extracts after cleanup were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using an isotope dilution method. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 17 native congeners in the spiked fish samples at 8-80 pg/g (n = 3) were ranged between 85.3 and 117.2% and 5.7-20.3%, respectively.

  20. Development of new cleanup method of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in fish by freezing-lipid filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong; Seo, Jungju; Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Khim, Jeehyeong; Hong, Jongki

    2006-01-01

    Freezing-lipid filtration as a new method has been developed for the rapid determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in biological samples. This method can effectively reduce the time of sample pretreatment, labor and amount of solvents compared with conventional methods. By freezing-lipid filtration procedure, about 90% of lipids in extract could be removed without any significant loss of PCDD/Fs. For further cleanup of extracts after freezing-lipid filtration, automatic parallel LC columns including silica gel, alumina and carbon columns were applied. During automatic parallel LC columns cleanup, most of co-extracted interferences such as residue lipids and fatty acids could be eliminated and dioxins could be separated from many other dioxin-like congeners such as polychlorinated biphenyls by this procedure. The extracts after cleanup were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC)/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) using an isotope dilution method. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 17 native congeners in the spiked fish samples at 8-80 pg/g (n = 3) were ranged between 85.3 and 117.2% and 5.7-20.3%, respectively

  1. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d -1 ) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  2. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (fish products (e.g., catfish).

  3. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  4. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  5. Plant enzymes in metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, L.; Moeder, M.; Kučerová, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 291-295 ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * plants * peroxidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  6. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  7. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B. [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  8. Evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans under exotoxicological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, B [Northrhine-Westphalia State Environment, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The air pollution strategy in Germany is historically based on the principles of minimization of emissions according to the best available technology and the control of air quality according to specific air quality standards. A board of administrative and scientific people appointed by the federal and state governments, called Laenderausschuss fuer Immissionsschulz (= states air quality council), is responsible to develop and to propose appropriate criteria and standards. Such a proposal exists now for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In the following the major basic elements in deriving the proposed air quality standards for PCDD/Fs are presented. (author)

  9. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  11. Photochemical of Polychlorinated biphenyl by the photolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure mercury lamp. The whole Lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling the temperature at 32 ± 2 °C. The Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by GC/ECD. The degradation of PCBs in terms of one, two and three lamp ...

  12. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Jim A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, PO Box 210011, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H{sub 2} to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products.

  13. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Jim A.; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H 2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  14. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  15. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  16. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and deiodinase activity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, Shalini D.; Berghuis, Sietske A.; Visser, Theo J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct

  18. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  19. Influence of Aroclor 1242 Concentration on Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biotransformations in Hudson River Test Tube Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    When 93.3 to 933 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added to Hudson River sediment test tube microcosms, the rates of polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations increased with increasing Aroclor 1242 concentration after a 4- to 8-week acclimation period. In contrast, when 37.3 (mu)mol of Aroclor 1242 per kg was added, polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations occurred at slow constant rates. PMID:16535387

  20. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  1. Emissions control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans at municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, S.C.; Jozewicz, W.; Sedman, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an analysis of available emission data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to evaluate the effectiveness of various air pollution control devices on PCDD/PCDF removal. The effects of flue gas temperature, recycling fabric filter ash, and process additives such as ammonia and Tesisorb powder were also analyzed. The analysis shows that MWCs equipped with a spray dryer followed by fabric filters can achieve PCDD/PCDF removal efficiencies (REs) of 97% and higher. A RE of 94% has been achieved at a combustor equipped with a Thermal DeNO x system followed by a spray dryer and fabric filters. MWCs equipped with a duct sorbent injection system followed by fabric filters can potentially achieve a RE of 99%. A combustor equipped with a spray dryer followed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) has achieved a RE of 64%. Neither a duct sorbent injection system followed by ESPs nor a furnace sorbent injection system followed by ESPs could effectively remove PCDD/PCDF. PCDD/PCDF were not effectively removed from MWCs equipped with ESPs as the only devices to control air pollution

  2. Transgenic plants to improve rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 242-247 ISSN 0958-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bacterial dioxygenases * GM- plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.820, year: 2009

  3. Metabolic Pathways of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Degradation by Pseudomonas sp. 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komancová, M.; Jurčová, Irena; Kochánková, L.; Burkhard, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2003), s. 537ů543 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * biodegradation * aerobic bacteria Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2003

  4. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  5. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  6. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  8. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  9. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...

  10. Hybrid pseudomonads engineered by two-step homologous recombination acquire novel degradation abilities toward aromatics and polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Hikaru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Bioproduction Research Inst.; Nonaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Furukawa, Kensuke [Beppu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Fermentation and Food Science

    2010-10-15

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 possesses a chromosomally encoded bph gene cluster responsible for the catabolism of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls. Previously, we constructed chimeric versions of the bphA1 gene, which encodes a large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase, by using DNA shuffling between bphA1 genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In this study, we demonstrate replacement of the bphA1 gene with chimeric bphA1 sequence within the chromosomal bph gene cluster by two-step homologous recombination. Notably, some of the hybrid strains acquired enhanced and/or expanded degradation capabilities for specific aromatic compounds, including single aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. (orig.)

  11. Preparation of plants containing bacterial enzyme for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Surá, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Szekeres, M.; Bancos, S.; Demnerová, K.; Sylvestre, M.; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 309-313 ISSN 1018-4619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : transgenic plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  12. The OH-initiated atmospheric chemical reactions of polyfluorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: A comparative theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric chemical reactions of some polyfluorinated dibenzofurans (PFDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), initiated by OH radical, were investigated by performing theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,p) method. The obtained results indicate that OH addition reactions of PFDFs and PCDFs occurring at C 1∼4 and C A sites are thermodynamic spontaneous changes and the branching ratio of the PF(C)DF-OH adducts is decided primarily by kinetic factor. The OH addition reactions of PFDFs taking place at fluorinated C 1∼4 positions are kinetically comparable with those occurring at nonfluorinated C 1∼4 positions, while OH addition reactions of PCDFs occurring at chlorinated C 1∼4 sites are negligible. The total rate constants of the addition reactions of PFDFs or PCDFs become smaller with consecutive fluorination or chlorination, and substituting at C 1 position has more adverse effects than substitution at other sites. The succedent O 2 addition reactions of PF(C)DF-OH adducts are thermodynamic nonspontaneous processes under the atmospheric conditions, and have high Gibbs free energies of activation (Δ r G ≠ ). The substituted dibenzofuranols are the primary oxidation products for PCDFs under the atmospheric conditions. However, other oxidative products may also be available for PFDFs besides substituted dibenzofuranols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  14. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat...

  15. Reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, Tatyana I., E-mail: gorbunova@ios.uran.ru [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Subbotina, Julia O. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St., 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Saloutin, Viktor I.; Chupakhin, Oleg N. [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum chemical calculations were carried out for PCBs congeners. • Calculated descriptors were used to explain the PCBs reactivity in S{sub N} and S{sub E} substitutions. • Obtained data were used to estimate the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub N} reactions. • Calculated descriptors were insufficient to explain the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions. • New neutralization methods of the large-capacity PCBs were discussed. - Abstract: To explain the chemical reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic (S{sub N}) and electrophilic (S{sub E}) substitutions, quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the Density Functional Theory in gas phase. Carbon atomic charges in biphenyl structure were calculated by the Atoms-in-Molecules method. Chemical hardness and global electrophilicity index parameters were determined for congeners. A comparison of calculated descriptors and experimental data for congener reactivity in the S{sub N} and S{sub E} reactions was made. It is shown that interactions in the S{sub N} mechanism are reactions of the hard acid–hard base type, these are the most effective in case of highly chlorinated substrates. To explain the congener reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions, correct descriptors were not established. The obtained results can be used to carry out chemical transformations of the polychlorinated biphenyls in order to prepare them for microbiological destruction or preservation.

  16. EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AND DIOXINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAUER, PJJ; HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; MORSE, DC; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; VANDEBERG, KJ; TUINSTRA, LGMT; VANDERPAAUW, CG; BOERSMA, ER; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; LAMMERS, JHCM; KULIG, BM; BROUWER, A

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are potentially toxic compounds which occur widely in the environment. Their effects on the growth and development of infants at the levels currently found in highly industrialised western countries is not well known. This Dutch multicenter study,

  17. Determination of vaporization enthalpies of polychlorinated biphenyls by correlation gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, S; Chickos, J S; Welsh, W J

    2001-04-01

    The vaporization enthalpies of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls have been determined by correlation gas chromatography. This study was prompted by the realization that the vaporization enthalpy of the standard compounds used in previous studies, octadecane and eicosane, were values measured at 340 and 362 K, respectively, rather than at 298 K. Adjustment to 298 K amounts to a 7-8 kJ/mol increment in the values. With the inclusion of this adjustment, vaporization enthalpies evaluated by correlation gas chromatography are in good agreement with the values determined previously in the literature. The present results are based on the vaporization enthalpies of several standards whose values are well established in the literature. The standards include a variety of n-alkanes and various chlorinated hydrocarbons. The vaporization enthalpies of PCBs increased with the number of chlorine atoms and were found to be larger for meta- and para-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls.

  18. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  19. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  1. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Shuai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province, northern (Shanxi Province and eastern China (Shanghai municipality. From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  3. Allee effect in polar bears: A potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlová, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Grimm, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 1843 (2016), č. článku 20161883. ISSN 0962-8452 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : allee effect * polychlorinated biphenyls * polar bears * male reproduction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.940, year: 2016

  4. Analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in transformer oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S.K. [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea); Kim, H.J.; Chung, D.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, Y.H.; Chung, I.R.

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a chlorinated biphenyl compound with the general formula C{sub 12}H{sub 10-n}/Cl{sub n}. PCBs generally occur as mixtures, where n can vary from 1 to 10. The 10 sites available for possible chlorine substitution result in 209 possible PCB congeners. There is now considerable concern regarding; the presence of PCB congeners in insulating oils used within large-scale electrical supply systems. Due to its outstanding chemical and thermal stabilities and electrical insulation properties, the commercial and industrial products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors, Kaneclors, Clophens, Phenaclors etc., had been widely used as thermal oil and transformer oil from 1930s until the 1970s. PCBs from a group of persistent organic pollutants of the environment, especially dangerous to living organisms due to high toxicity, persistency, and bio-concentration in adipose tissue. Despite of this fact, PCB-contaminated oils are still commonly encountered partly because PCBs used as dielectric liquids in transformer and condenser. The source of PCBs in environments can range from used transformer oils or dielectric liquids to liquid wastes, and some PCBs contamination is occurred due to the re-use of incompletely reconditioned oil. The current action plan of Republic of Korea dictates that organizations with electrical equipment contaminated with more than 2 mg/L PCBs will need to treat as PCBs-containing wastes, and 50mg/L of PCBs or PCBs equivalent to be treated as a pure PCB preparation. In this study, transformer oils analyzed based on guideline for PCBs analytical method of transformer oil in Korea.

  5. Effects of black carbon on bioturbination-induced benthic fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether carbonaceous geosorbents, such as black carbon (BC) affect bioturbation by benthic invertebrates, thereby possibly affecting sediment–water exchange of sediment-bound contaminants. Here, we assess the effects of oil soot on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mass transfer from

  6. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  7. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Metals and metallic products are fundamental to a large number of modern industries and steel is certainly one of the most significant metallurgical products. Steel and steel castings as universal production material, that provided the grounds for the contemporary industrialization process,will have a continuously irreplaceable role in the future, regardless of the fact that nowadays steel materials are often replaced by other materials (ceramics, polymers, etc., whenever it is technically required and cost-justified.The development of metallurgy and metallurgical processes is accompanied by pollution of the environment that directly or indirectly endangered the health of humans, certain animal and plant species, water resources systems, and soil. It also lead to increased erosion of material goodsand caused many other adverse social and economy-related effects.The integral steelworks concept has, for example, set off a significant increase in the number of emission sources and the increase of harmful substances concentration in the environment. The largest polluters have always been coking plants, iron ore agglomeration facilities, blast furnaces, steel mills, foundries and thermal energy plants.Numerous fundamental scientific research works have proven a series of adverse effects caused by uncontrolled emissions of harmful substances from these plants. Beside the considerable quantities of usual and well-known polluting substances such as sulfur and carbon oxides, fluorides,ammonia, benzene, heavy metals, phenols, cyanides, oil and grease, slag, used refractory material, metallic scrapings, sludge, dust, and scale, there are also relatively small pollutions with long-lasting effects that are hazardous even in their low concentrations and they rarely receivedue attention.This polluting substance group consists of persistent organic pollutions represented by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl reduction in lake trout by irradiation and broiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, R.F.; Zabik, M.E.; Weaver, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental contaminants surveys (1974-1975) have concluded that excessive concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in a specific species of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Over 30 ppM of PCBs have been detected in the edible fillet of this fat trout. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation combined with broiling on the levels of PCBs in lake trout fillets

  10. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  11. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  12. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    Full Text Available Copper sulfates (CuSO4 are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g. In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4 application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1 also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-04-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard.

  14. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monarca, S.; Dominici, L.; Fatigoni, C.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  16. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A. I.; Leppänen, M. T.; Akkanen, J.; Sormunen, A. J.; Leonards, P. E.G.; van Hattum, B.; van Vliet, L. A.; Brack, W.; Smedes, F.; Kukkonen, J. V.K.

    2016-01-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in

  17. Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanderPaauw, CG; Tuinstra, LGMT; Fidler, [No Value; WeisglasKuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1995-01-01

    The neurological optimality of 418 Dutch children was evaluated at the age of 18 months, in order to determine whether prenatal and breast milk mediated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins affected neurological development, Half of the infants were breast-fed, the other half

  18. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  19. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. Case study: Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds play a significant role as bioindicators: they are conspicuous, relatively easy to observe, well-established studied group of organisms, and in the focus of public interest due to pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Systematically, a significant number of man-made chemicals have been introduced in the marine environment and represent the major problem arising in the development worldwide. Many of these chemical contaminants are persistent, known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify through the aquatic food web, affecting species associated with aquatic systems. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD, dibenzofurans (PCDF] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB concentrations were measured in Kelp gull Larus dominicanus collected from 2006 to 2011 on Marambaia Island, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Detectable liver concentrations of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. These represent some of the first measurements of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs in seabirds from this area. Although levels of these contaminants in the tested species currently appear to fall below critical values, a continuous and systematic monitoring on these compounds becomes essential and desirable to not express toxic values in the future.   

  1. Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Ahlborg, U. G.; van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L. S.; Boersma, E. R.; Bosveld, B.; Denison, M. S.; Gray, L. E.; Hagmar, L.; Holene, E.

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  2. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamontova, Elena A.; Mamontov, Alexander A.; Tarasova, Eugenia N.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu.; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Highlights: •First study to measure PCBs in surface soil sampled throughout Mongolia. •The PCB patterns in polluted soil were similar to those in Sovol or Aroclor 1254. •Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in soils throughout Mongolia

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and fem...

  5. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, def...

  6. Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human adipose tissue from New York, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hilker, David R.; Aldous, Kenneth M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic contaminants. Prior to this study, the occurrence of PCNs in human adipose tissues from the USA has not been analyzed. Here, we have measured concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissue samples collected in New York City during 2003-2005. Concentrations of PCNs were in the range of 61-2500 pg/g lipid wt. in males and 21-910 pg/g lipid wt. in females. PCN congeners 52/60 (1,2,3,5,7/1,2,4,6,7) and 66/67 (1,2,3,4,6,7/1,2,3,5,6,7) were predominant, collectively accounting for 66% of the total PCN concentrations. Concentrations of PCNs in human adipose tissues were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the previously reported concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of PCNs were not correlated with PCB concentrations. The contribution of PCNs to dioxin-like toxic equivalents (TEQs) in human adipose tissues was estimated to be <1% of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F)-TEQs. - Polychlorinated naphthalenes have been measured in human adipose tissues from the USA for the first time

  7. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  8. Biphenyl Modulates the Expression and Function of Respiratory Oxidases in the Polychlorinated-Biphenyls Degrader Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Sandri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 is a soil bacterium which is known for its capacity to aerobically degrade harmful organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs using biphenyl as co-metabolite. Here we provide the first genetic and functional analysis of the KF707 respiratory terminal oxidases in cells grown with two different carbon sources: glucose and biphenyl. We identified five terminal oxidases in KF707: two c(caa3 type oxidases (Caa3 and Ccaa3, two cbb3 type oxidases (Cbb31 and Cbb32, and one bd type cyanide-insensitive quinol oxidase (CIO. While the activity and expression of both Cbb31 and Cbb32 oxidases was prevalent in glucose grown cells as compared to the other oxidases, the activity and expression of the Caa3 oxidase increased considerably only when biphenyl was used as carbon source in contrast to the Cbb32 oxidase which was repressed. Further, the respiratory activity and expression of CIO was up-regulated in a Cbb31 deletion strain as compared to W.T. whereas the CIO up-regulation was not present in Cbb32 and C(caa3 deletion mutants. These results, together, reveal that both function and expression of cbb3 and caa3 type oxidases in KF707 are modulated by biphenyl which is the co-metabolite needed for the activation of the PCBs-degradation pathway.

  9. Persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor inducers increase with altitude, and estrogen-like disrupters are low in soils of the Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Bernhoft, S.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Buegger, F.; Jakobi, G.; Kirchner, M.; Bassan, R.; Krauchi, N.; Moche, W.; Offenthaler, I.; Simoncic, P.; Weiss, P.; Schramm, K.W.

    2011-01-01

    analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution gas spectrometry. Additionally, the EROD micro-assay and a genetically modified yeast estrogen bioassay were carried out to determine

  10. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  11. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  12. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: Levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K.S.; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ 25 PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m −3 with a dominance of congeners with 4–7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ 25 PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. Highlights: •Unlike decreasing trend of PCBs in United States and European countries, high levels of PCBs remain in the Indian atmosphere. •Existing emission inventories cannot explain the high PCB concentrations in Indian atmosphere. •Electronic waste recycling, ship dismantling and open burning of municipal solid waste are implicated as potential sources. -- Measurement of atmospheric Polychlorinated biphenyls in seven major Indian cities

  13. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  14. Biphenyl-metabolizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of horseradish and bulk soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls as revealed by stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-10-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [(13)C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase alpha subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [(13)C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [(13)C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl.

  15. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  16. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X; Kypke, Karin; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Lee, Seoung Yong; Magulova, Katarina; Fiedler, Heidelore; Malisch, Rainer

    Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010,

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos.

  18. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a U.S. meat market basket and estimates of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Janice K; Larsen, Gerald L

    2005-08-01

    Persistent environmental contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 65 meat samples collected from supermarkets across the U.S. in 2001. The samples included hamburger, sirloin steaks, pork chops, bacon, and whole chickens from nine different cities. The average PCDD/F/non-ortho-PCB toxic equivalency (TEQ) for all the samples was 0.55 pg/g of lipid (nd (nondetect) = DL (detection limit)/2) with a range from nondetectable to 3.21 pg/g of lipid. For PBDEs, eight congeners were routinely found in the meat samples with an average sum of 1.71 ng/g of lipid (nd = DL/2) and a range from nondetectable to 16.6 ng/g of lipid. While average TEQs were similar to recent values reported in Europe and Asia, the sums of PBDEs in chicken and pork were 3-20 times higher than levels reported in Spain and Japan for these foods. The presence of a few outliers raised the average PBDE sums and indicated that isolated sources of contamination may exist that, if identified, could be removed from the U.S. animal production chain. Using these TEQ and PBDE values and USDA food consumption data, the estimated dietary intake ranges from meat products were 5.3-16.0 pg TEQ and 14.9-44.7 ng of PBDEs/d or 0.1-0.3 pg TEQ and 0.3-0.5 (ng of PBDEs/kg of body mass)/d for an average individual, similar to intakes in other countries.

  19. Importance of Passive Diffusion in the Uptake of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Phagotrophic Protozoa†

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Farrington, John W.; Moffett, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments we...

  20. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ryan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs.

  1. Optical detection of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncova, Gabriela; Berkova, Daniela; Burkhard, Jiri; Demnerova, Katerina; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Triska, Jan; Vrchotova, Nadezda

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we describe the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which is based on the measurement of changes of optical absorption at 400 nm of the medium in an aerobic bioreactor with immobilized cells Pseudomonas species 2. The rate of production, composition and the concentration of yellow intermediates are influenced by concentration and composition of PCB mixtures, concentration of cells and by the methods of immobilization. The method was applied in the detection of commercial mixture D103. It was found that the advantageous carriers were inorganic or organic-inorganic matrices, which sorbed PCBs and a cell outgrowth from their surface was low. In water contaminated with transformer oil and chlorinated hydrocarbons the detection limit is 10-2 gD103/kg. In transformer oil the upper limit for degradation of D103 by sodium dehalogenation (1.5 gD103 /kgoil) was determined also in the presence of the same concentration of trichloroethylene. The employment to of a liquid core waveguide spectrophotometer instead of a diode array spectrophotometer increased the sensitivity of the measurement of yellow intermediates by a factor of 100. An extrinsic fiber-optic sensor was used for in-situ measurement during biodegradation of PCBs in bioreactors.

  2. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  3. Biphenyl-Metabolizing Bacteria in the Rhizosphere of Horseradish and Bulk Soil Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlik, Ondrej; Jecna, Katerina; Mackova, Martina; Vlcek, Cestmir; Hroudova, Miluse; Demnerova, Katerina; Paces, Vaclav; Macek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    DNA-based stable isotope probing in combination with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism was used in order to identify members of the microbial community that metabolize biphenyl in the rhizosphere of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) cultivated in soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) compared to members of the microbial community in initial, uncultivated bulk soil. On the basis of early and recurrent detection of their 16S rRNA genes in clone libraries constructed from [13C]DNA, Hydrogenophaga spp. appeared to dominate biphenyl catabolism in the horseradish rhizosphere soil, whereas Paenibacillus spp. were the predominant biphenyl-utilizing bacteria in the initial bulk soil. Other bacteria found to derive carbon from biphenyl in this nutrient-amended microcosm-based study belonged mostly to the class Betaproteobacteria and were identified as Achromobacter spp., Variovorax spp., Methylovorus spp., or Methylophilus spp. Some bacteria that were unclassified at the genus level were also detected, and these bacteria may be members of undescribed genera. The deduced amino acid sequences of the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunits (BphA) from bacteria that incorporated [13C]into DNA in 3-day incubations of the soils with [13C]biphenyl are almost identical to that of Pseudomonas alcaligenes B-357. This suggests that the spectrum of the PCB congeners that can be degraded by these enzymes may be similar to that of strain B-357. These results demonstrate that altering the soil environment can result in the participation of different bacteria in the metabolism of biphenyl. PMID:19700551

  4. Identification of Baltic Sea salmon based on PCB and dioxin profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren; Lund, Kirsten H.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht

    2016-01-01

    , important to be able to enforce correct labeling of geographical origin through authentication. One authentication strategy is to examine trace markers specific for a geographical origin. The chemical contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans...

  5. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  6. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  7. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  8. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh My Pham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degradation, we determined the concentration of

  9. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  10. Detection of Surface-Linked Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindzevicius, Tomas; Barten, Jan; Vorobiev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved procedure for analytical detection of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. A gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrate was utilized to concentrate PCB molecules within an area of high electromagnetic fields through...... formation of microsized nanopillar clusters, and consequently, so-called “hot spots” can be formed. In order to improve PCB detection limit, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) compounds were chemically modified with a – SCH3 (PCB77-SCH3) group. Experimental and numerical analysis of vibrational modes...

  11. Laboratory evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, and petroleum-based paint were tested in small environmental chambers to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB sorption and estimate the key parameters required by a barrier model. Wipe samples were collected from PCB contaminated surface encapsulated with the coating materials to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB migration from the source. A barrier model was used to calculate the PCB concentrations in the sources and the encapsulant layers, and at the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant and in the room air at different times. The performance of the encapsulants was ranked by those concentrations and PCB percent reductions. Overall, the three epoxy coatings performed better than the other coatings. Both the experimental results and the mathematical modeling showed that selecting proper encapsulants can effectively reduce the PCB concentrations at the exposed surfaces. The encapsulation method is most effective for contaminated surfaces that contain low levels of PCBs. This study answers some of these questions by using a combination of laboratory testing and mathematical modeling. The results should be useful to mitigation engineers, building owners and managers

  12. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  13. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-01-01

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. α-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas β-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples

  14. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  15. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  16. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  17. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Schoss, S.; Jong, de J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were

  18. Comparison of PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels in Turkish foodstuffs: industrial versus rural, local versus supermarket products, and assessment of dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, D.; Cakirogullari, G.C.; Ucar, Y.; Theelen, R.; Traag, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like (indicator) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in various foodstuffs of animal origin and edible oil samples obtained from two different cities in Turkey both rural and industrial. Total

  19. Environmental impact and human health risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator: a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;analysis;Benzofurans;cancer epidemiology;Dioxins;Environmental Exposure;Environmental Health;Environmental Monitoring;Hazardous Waste;Humans;Incineration;metabolism;Refuse Disposal;Research;Risk Assessment;Spain;Toxicology. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) 4 years after regular operation of the...

  20. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Lazorchak; Michael B. Griffith; Marc Mills; Joseph Schubauer-Berigan; Frank McCormick; Richard Brenner; Craig Zeller

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical, chemical, and biological...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of tissue-retainable methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, K.; Kuroki, H.; Masuda, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Eighty-six positional isomers of methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls (MSF-PCBs) have been synthesized by three synthetic routes: (1) the diazo coupling reaction of 3-(methylsulfonyl)chloroaniline with chlorobenzene; (2) nucleophilic substitution of PCB with methanethiolate and successive oxidation of the corresponding methyl sulfide; (3) the diazo coupling reaction of chloroaniline with chlorothioanisole and successive oxidation of the methyl sulfide. Pure isomers were characterized by their proton magnetic resonance and mass spectra and used to unambiguously identify the MSF metabolites retained in human tissues by using high-resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC). The GC analysis showed that 40 MSF derivatives were positively identified in the tissue of a patient with Yusho on the basis of comparisons of their GC retention data with those of the standard compounds

  2. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  3. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  4. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  5. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  6. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins - Consequences for longterm neurological and cognitive development of the child. A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, ER

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs) and dioxins are environmental pollutants. Calculated on a body weight basis, prenatally as well as postnatally through breast-feeding, large amounts are transferred from mother to the child. Formula is free of these substances. Considering their potential

  7. Solid phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifazi, P.; Pierini, E.; Bruner, F. [Centro di Studio per la Chimica dell`Ambiente e le Tecnologie Strumentali Avanzate dell` Universita degli Studi di Urbino, Ist. di Scienze Chimiche (Italy)

    1997-06-01

    A study was carried out of the recovery by solid phase extraction of the eleven most toxic polychlorinated biphenyls from water containing humic acids. Experiments were performed using water polluted with a humic acid (sodium salt) concentration of 9-18 mg L{sup -1}. The effect of humic acids on the recoveries was noticeable, especially where the more chlorinated congeners were concerned. The effect was also evident with river water containing naturally dissolved humic acids. A method for destroying humic acids prior to extraction was applied. The recoveries after the destruction of humic acids were in the range of 90%, even in the case of river water, demonstrating the applicability of the method to real samples. (orig.)

  8. Tissue deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in cats fed Atlantic Ocean bluefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, L G; Alo, D K; Scarlett, J M; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1991-07-01

    Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), a very popular marine sport fish caught in Atlantic coastal waters, contain significant levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since fish can be an appreciable portion of human and feline diets, a feeding study was conducted with cats fed exclusively bluefish for 86 days with determination of tissue concentrations of PCBs. The concentrations of PCBs in brain, liver, and fat were significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the fish-fed cats than in the control group using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The highest PCB levels were in fat, the median concentrations being 48 and 0.61 ppm (dry weight) in the fish-fed and control cats, respectively. The significance of the results is discussed.

  9. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls using mesoporous iron-based spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Linyan; Su, Guijin, E-mail: gjsu@rcees.ac.cn; Zhang, Aiqian; Shi, Yali; Xia, Chaobo; Lu, Huijie; Li, Liewu; Liu, Sha; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} had the highest activity in degradation of CB-209, followed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Hydroxyl species, organic acids, PCBs and chlorobenzenes were identified as products. • Three degradation reactions and one combination reaction competitively occurred. • Hydrodechlorination of CB-209 was more favored over Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} than NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Oxidation reaction of CB-209 was more favored over NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} than Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. -- Abstract: A series of mesoporous iron-based spinel materials were synthesized to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with CB-209 being used as a model compound. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), pore structure analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparison of the dechlorination efficiencies (DEs) of the materials revealed that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} had the highest DE, followed by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Newly produced polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated benzenes, hydroxyl species and organic acids were detected by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and ion chromatograph. Identification of the intermediate products indicates that three degradation pathways, hydrodechlorination, the breakage of C-C bridge bond and oxidative reaction, accompanied by one combination reaction, are competitively occurring over the iron-based spinels. The relative amounts of produced three NoCB isomers were illustrated by the C-Cl BDEs of CB-209 at meta-, para- and ortho-positions, and their energy gap between HOMO and LUMO. The consumption of the reactive oxygen species caused by the transformation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} into Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} reaction system, and the existence of the highly reactive O{sub 2}{sup −}· species in the NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} reaction system, could provide a reason why the oxidation reaction was more favored over NiFe{sub 2}O

  10. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PGH; Boersma, ER; Sauer, PJJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: To study possible adverse effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxins on cognitive functioning in young children. Methods: In a follow-up of the Dutch PCB/Dioxin study, cognitive abilities were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  11. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB exposure of non-breastfed Dutch infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P J M; Bakker, Martine I; Korver, K R; Goor Ghanaviztchi, K van; Wijnen, Joop H van

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs, i.e. polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. Young children have a relatively high intake of these substances, due to their

  12. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  14. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rhizosphere of rape, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorská, Hana; Tlustos, Pavel; Kaliszová, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rhizosphere effect of rape plants on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) dissipation in soils spiked with seven indicator congeners. Depletion of PCB in the rhizosphere was significantly higher in the soil with lower organic matter content. While in the Chernozem soil, 87% of PCB related to bulk soil were found in the 1st mm from roots, only 62%-69% were found in the Fluvisol soil with no significant influence of increased initial PCB concentration. Further from the roots, the concentration of lower chlorinated congeners decreased, which indicates their greater biodegradation in comparison with more chlorinated ones.

  15. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in bluefish before and after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, W J; Corneliussen, P E; Laski, R R; Vannelli, J J

    1989-01-01

    Similar levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and fat were found in 20 correlated uncooked and cooked (baked) bluefish fillets. Fillets averaged 2.5 ppm PCBs as Aroclor 1254 (whole basis) before cooking; after cooking, with the oil drippings and skin discarded, the average PCB level was 2.7 ppm. Although PCBs, lipophilic pesticides, and fat were lost along with oil drippings and skin that were discarded after cooking, the moisture loss in the fillets during cooking compensated for these weight losses almost completely. After the fillets were cooked and the oil drippings and skin were discarded, the PCB content of the fillets was 27% lower on the average.

  16. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective......% CI = 2-17%), respectively, of giving birth to a boy. In conclusion, maternal exposure to ΣPCB, DDE and methylmercury was associated with a slightly increased secondary sex ratio. The impact of paternal exposures could not be taken into account and deserves attention....

  17. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DEPENDENCY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BIOACCUMULATION IN MYA ARENARIA ON BOTH WATER COLUMN AND SEDIMENT BED CHEMICAL ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the filter-feeding soft-shell clam Mya arenaria was evaluated at three sites near Boston (MA, USA) by assessing the chemical activities of those hydrophobic organic compounds (H...

  19. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different....... Biotransformations were also species dependent. The flatfish dab and plaice exhibited higher metabolic rates than cod (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  1. DIFFUSIVE EXCHANGE OF GASEOUS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ACROSS THE AIR-WATER INTERFACE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY. (R825245)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved and gas-phase concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 46 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured at eight sites on the Chesapeake Bay at four different times of the year to estimate net diffusive air-water gas exchange rates. Gaseous PAHs ar...

  2. The need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chobtang, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments,

  3. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  4. A survey of the ambient concentrations and deposition rates of toxic organic micropollutants at urban sites in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, P.; Clayton, P.; Davis, B.; Donovan, B.; Duff, M.

    1994-01-01

    Warren Spring Laboratory (WSL) coordinates a programme funded by the UK Department of Environment, Air Quality Division, Science Unit. The aim of the programme is to investigate the behaviour of toxic organic micropollutants (TOMP) in the UK environment. Part of this programme involves the measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (dioxins) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in urban air in the UK. (orig.)

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  6. PCDD/F, PCB, HXCBZ, PAH, AND PM EMISSION FACTORS FOR FIREPLACE AND WOODSTOVE COMBUSTION IN THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from residential fireplace and woodstove appliances burning fuels available from the San Francisco Bay area were sampled for polychlornated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz), particulatematter (P...

  7. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  8. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  9. Background Contamination by Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Trace Level High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) Analytical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl rhizoremediation by Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 derivatives, using a Sinorhizobium meliloti nod system to drive bph gene expression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villacieros, M.; Whelan, C.; Macková, Martina; Molgaard, J.; Sánchez-Contreras, M.; Lloret, J.; Cárcer de, D.; Oruezábal, R. I.; Bolanos, L.; Macek, Tomáš; Karlson, U.; Dowling, D. N.; Martín, M.; Rivilla, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 5 (2005), 2687-2694 ISSN 0099-2240 Grant - others:5thFW(XE) QLK3-CT-2001-00101; European Commission(XE) BIO4-CT97-2227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.818, year: 2005

  11. Alteration of General Behavior of Male Medaka,oryzias latipes,Exposed to Tributyltin and /or Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Kei; Oshima, Yuji; Hiramatsu, Kazuaki; Honjo, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    We examined the general behavior of male Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, after exposed to tributyltin (TBT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or a mixture of these chamicals at a concentration of 1μg/g body weight daily for 3 weeks. We analyzed swimming velocity as an indicator of acute toxicity and counted the frequencies of straight swimming and swimming in circles. We also calclated the entropy of the positions of the fish within the experimental chamber. Neither TBT nor PCBs nor their ...

  12. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  13. Dual Two-Component Regulatory Systems Are Involved in Aromatic Compound Degradation in a Polychlorinated-Biphenyl Degrader, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Hisashi; Shimodaira, Jun; Yukawa, Kiyoshi; Hara, Naho; Kasai, Daisuke; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Masai, Eiji; Fukuda, Masao

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-positive polychlorinated-biphenyl (PCB) degrader, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, degrades PCBs by cometabolism with biphenyl. A two-component BphS1T1 system encoded by bphS1 and bphT1 (formerly bphS and bphT) is responsible for the transcription induction of the five gene clusters, bphAaAbAcAdC1B1, etbAa1Ab1CbphD1, etbAa2Ab2AcD2, etbAdbphB2, and etbD1, which constitute multiple enzyme systems for biphenyl/PCB degradation. The bphS2 and bphT2 genes, which encode BphS2 and BphT2, virtually ide...

  14. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    1991-01-01

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  15. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, I.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  17. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E.; Tew, Kwee S.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k u ) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K ow , and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  18. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings.

  1. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Blanton, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBS. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site

  2. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron......ZVI showed encouraging tendencies and a base is thus formed for further optimization towards a new method for remediation of PCB polluted soils....... nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...

  4. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the thyroid gland – examining and discussing possible longitudinal health effects in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaum, Petra M., E-mail: pgaum@ukaachen.de [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Lang, Jessica; Esser, André; Schettgen, Thomas [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Neulen, Joseph [Clinic for Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Background: Many previous studies have dealt with the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the thyroid gland, but their findings are inconsistent. One problem of these studies has been their use of cross-sectional designs. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to investigate longitudinal effects of PCBs on the thyroid gland, focusing on: morphological changes in thyroid tissue (i.e. thyroid volume), changes in thyroid hormones and in thyroid antibodies. Methods: A total of 122 individuals (M{sub age}=44.7) were examined over a period of four years (t{sup 1} until t{sup 4}). Medical history was collected via interviews, an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine plasma PCB levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TGab) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRab). Rank correlation coefficients and mixed effect models were performed controlling for age and total lipids. Results: There were negative correlations between higher chlorinated biphenyls and fT3, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. We also found an interaction effect of higher-chlorinated PCBs over time for fT4 as well as TSHRab. In case of high exposure, a decrease in fT4 and an increase in TSHRab level were found over time. In regards to the other variables, our findings yielded no clear results in the examined time period. Conclusion: This is the first study to shows a PCB-related effect on fT3, fT4 and TSHRab over a four year period. The data also suggest that morphological and antibody findings remain inconsistent and do not allow for unambiguous interpretation. - Highlights: • This is a longitudinal study which includes data from four cross sections. • Higher-chlorinated biphenyls are negatively correlated with fT3. • There are interactions of time and higher-chlorinated biphenyls to TSHRab and fT4.

  5. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using simultaneous dual gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirler, W.; Voto, G.; Donega, M. [Eco-Research, Bolzano (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are two classes of environmental contaminants. Seventeen congeners exist that are substituted in the 2,3,7,8 position and are considered to be the most toxic. Due to the large number (210) of compounds of the PCDD/F family, gas chromatographic (GC) separation of these from the cluster of less toxic isomers is a difficult task. At present no commercially available column can separate all 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners from the remaining PCDD/F. The co elution of less toxic with toxic congeners can cause false TEQ related results, because mass spectrometry cannot differentiate between toxic and non toxic congeners within the same homologous group. To overcome this, the analysis is performed using at least two capillary GC columns, of different polarity. Non polar columns can separate chlorine homologous groups and all toxic congeners from each other but not from all nontoxic congeners. Thus, a polar column should be used in addition for specific separation. Exchange of a GC column on a HRGC-HRMS system is usually a time consuming procedure. Significant time saving can be achieved using a mass spectrometer coupled to two GCs, that allows switching between two different GC columns, without disturbing the measurement conditions of the mass spectrometer. The aim of the present work was to develop a method that permits to work simultaneously with both GCs in order to further improve time savings.

  6. Use of RIA determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in prevention of their penetration into the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, J.; Sisak, M.; Diblikova, I.; Bendova, J.; Matouskova, O.; Hruska, K.

    1991-01-01

    Radiomimmunological determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in milk can serve in the screening of milk cows and condemnation of contaminated individuals. The source of PCB contamination can be ascertained by checking the routes the milk is passing. The RIA method was also employed to examine bioptically taken cow fat. The method was also applied to human milk in a maternity hospital in Brno; out of 55 samples, none exhibited a PCB concentration higher than 1.4 mg/kg. (M.D.). 3 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Determination of non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental Standard Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, W W; Schantz, M M; Wise, S A

    2000-07-01

    The concentrations of three non-ortho ("coplanar") polychlorinated biphenyls, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB 77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB 126), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB 169), were determined in five NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of environmental and biological interest. The measured levels were approximately between (0.2 to 1.3) ng/g in SRM 1588a (Organics in Cod Liver Oil), (0.3 to 9) ng/g in SRM 1944 (New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment), (0.2 to 0.4) ng/g in SRM 1945 (Organics in Whale Blubber), (1 to 18) ng/g in SRM 2974 (Organics in Freeze-dried Mussel Tissue [Mytilus edulis]), and (0.1 to 0.4) ng/g in candidate SRM 1946 (Lake Superior Fish Tissue). PCB 169 was present at < 0.1 ng/g in SRMs 1944 and 2974.

  8. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  9. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Vopa, V.; Satterfield, C.N.

    The hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran (DBF) on a sulfided NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst was studied at 350-390 C and 7.0 MPa. The major products isolated were single-ring hydrocarbons, cyclohexane predominating; the remainder were double-ring hydrocarbons, cyclohexylbenzene predominating. No oxygen-containing species other than water were isolated in any significant amount. The initial reactions in the hydrodeoxygenation of DBF are rate-limiting. The non-sulfided (oxide) catalyst is much less active, and double-ring products predominate over single-ring products. From studies of possible intermediates it appears that on a sulfided catalyst two pathways operate in parallel for the hydrodeoxygenation of dibenzofuran: (1) hydrogenation of DBF to hexahydro DBF, which reacts via 2-cyclohexylphenol to form signle-ring hydrocarbons; (2) direct hydrogenolysis via 2-phenylphenol, without prior ring hydrogenation, to form biphenyl and cyclohexylbenzene (a minor route). On this catalyst the overall reaction is first order with respect to hydrogen and to DBF and exhibits an apparent activation energy of 67 kJ/mol. 26 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  12. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  13. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  14. Henry's Constants of Persistent Organic Pollutants by a Group-Contribution Method Based on Scaled-Particle Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Neil K; Koshy, David M; Prausnitz, John M

    2017-11-07

    A group-contribution method based on scaled-particle theory was developed to predict Henry's constants for six families of persistent organic pollutants: polychlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. The group-contribution model uses limited experimental data to obtain group-interaction parameters for an easy-to-use method to predict Henry's constants for systems where reliable experimental data are scarce. By using group-interaction parameters obtained from data reduction, scaled-particle theory gives the partial molar Gibbs energy of dissolution, Δg̅ 2 , allowing calculation of Henry's constant, H 2 , for more than 700 organic pollutants. The average deviation between predicted values of log H 2 and experiment is 4%. Application of an approximate van't Hoff equation gives the temperature dependence of Henry's constants for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environmentally relevant range 0-40 °C.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread...... cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ≥ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...

  16. Activated carbon immobilizes residual polychlorinated biphenyls in weathered contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Valérie S; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has recently been shown to be effective in sequestering persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from aquatic sediments. Most studies have demonstrated significant reductions of POP concentrations in water and in aquatic organisms; however, limited data exist on the possibility of using AC to immobilize remaining POPs at terrestrial contaminated sites. Under greenhouse conditions, pumpkin ssp cv. Howden) were grown, and red wiggler worms () were exposed to an industrial contaminated soil containing a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e., Aroclors 1254 and 1260) treated with one of four concentrations of AC (0.2, 0.8, 3.1, and 12.5%) for 2 mo. The addition of AC to contaminated soils virtually eliminated the bioavailability of PCBs to the plant and invertebrate species. There were reductions in PCB concentrations of more than 67% in ssp and 95% in . These data suggest that AC could be included as part of comprehensive site closure strategy at PCB-contaminated sites. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Method and means for filtering polychlorinated biphenyls from a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of filtering, adjacent to an end user-customer's residence or business in which at least a single gas appliance is located, a natural gas stream in which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and degraded PCB products have been concentrated at sufficient levels to be a health threat in a natural gas gathering and distributing network. It comprises: introducing the natural gas stream to a filter selected from a group that includes impingement, absorbing and adsorbing media whereby PCB's and degraded PCB products concentrated in the gas stream at sufficient levels to be a health threat by a periodic loading of the natural gas within the gathering and distributing network, are filtered from the gas stream and captured irrespective of mode of transport, passing the filtered natural gas stream to the customer's gas appliance wherein safe use of the energy associated with the stream occurs; periodically and safely removing the filter, inserting a new filter in place of the removed filter

  18. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: evaluation of hepatic cytochrome P450 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Julie S; Halbrook, Richard S; Woolf, Alan; French, John B; Melancon, Mark J

    2004-08-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received betaNF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  19. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. BEEF: A PROGRESS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA and the USDA completed the first statistically designed survey of the occurrence and concentration of dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), dibenzofurans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat of beef animals raised for human consumption in the United Stat...

  20. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  1. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners in air particulate and marine sediment standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C H; Turle, R; Poole, G; Thibert, B; Brubaker, W W; Schantz, M M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    Due to the limited number of environmental matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) with assigned values for natural levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), an interlaboratory study was undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Environment Canada to establish reference concentration values for selected PCDD/Fs in two well-characterized NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs): SRM 1649a (Urban Dust) and SRM 1944 (New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment). Results from 14 laboratories were used to provide reference values for the seventeen 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted PCDD/F congeners, the totals for individual tetra- through hepta-substituted PCDD/F homologues, and the total amount of tetra- through hepta-substituted PCDD/Fs. The mass fractions for the individual 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners range from approximately 0.01 microg/kg to 7 microg/kg dry mass.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  3. Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

    1982-03-31

    A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  5. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters and sediments of rivers in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Han, Jingchao; Bi, Chunjuan; Huang, Xing; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2017-06-01

    The distribution, sources, and potential risks of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the rivers of Shanghai, China were investigated. Fourteen PCB congeners in surface waters and sediments, which were collected from 53 sampling sites, were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase, in particulates, and in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 34.8 ng•L‒1, from 0.76 to 39.71 ng•L‒1, and from 1.46 to 46.11 ng•g-1 (dry weight, dw), respectively. The corresponding WHO toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) ranged between nd-1135.63 pg TEQ•L-1, 0.02-605.94 pg TEQ•L-1, and 0.05-432.12 pg TEQ•g-1 dw, respectively. The penta-CBs, especially PCB 118 and PCB 105, were the dominant congeners in all samples. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the PCBs were mainly influenced by a historical accumulation of commercial PCB products, the burning of house coal, and emissions from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and secondary metallurgy industries. The center of Shanghai was significantly affected by PCB contamination, followed by the industrial parklands and suburban towns, while the farmland of Chongming Island was the least affected area. Adverse biological and health effects would be likely in the central urban areas, industrial parks, and residential towns of Shanghai.

  6. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  7. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  9. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  10. Studies on air and water pollution. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls and benzopyrene status report July 1977 - June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.L.; Cunanan, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical methodology developed for trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in water was described. The water sample was extracted with hexane and the extract passes through a florisil column. The cleaned extract was concentrated and then analyzed by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. The methodology has an efficiency of 85% recovery for PCB spiked at a concentration level of 1 ppm. Minimum detection limit obtained was 0.5 ppm PCB in water. A total of 27 water samples were collected and analyzed during the period January - June 1978. No PCB's were detected in the samples. (author)

  11. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: a neuropsychologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina; Bastien, Célyne H

    2009-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive functions that are particularly affected. Our aim is to review this literature in an attempt to identify the cognitive profile associated with prenatal PCB exposure. Studies were identified by searching the PubMed database for articles published before June 2008. We reviewed data from nine prospective longitudinal birth cohorts for different aspects of cognition. Associations between indicators of prenatal PCB exposure and performance on cognitive tasks reported in the selected studies are summarized and classified as general cognitive abilities, verbal or visual-spatial skills, memory, attention, and executive functions. The most consistent effects observed across studies are impaired executive functioning related to increased prenatal PCB exposure. Negative effects on processing speed, verbal abilities, and visual recognition memory are also reported by most studies. Converging results from different cohort studies in which exposure arises from different sources make it unlikely that co-exposure with another associated contaminant is responsible for the observed effects. Prenatal PCB exposure appears to be related to a relatively specific cognitive profile of impairments. Failure to assess functions that are specifically impaired may explain the absence of effects found in some studies. Our findings have implications in the selection of cognitive assessment methods in future studies.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in mullets, Chelon labrosus, treated by polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narbonne, J.F.; Suteau, P.; Daubeze, M.; Audy, C.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination of the ocean by hydrocarbons has become a major environmental problem. Consequently, it is not surprising that residues of potentially toxic xenobiotics, such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), are present in marine species used as human food. The oxidative metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons proceeds via intermediate arene oxides. Some of these metabolites are very reactive electrophiles and may interact with cellular macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA. Thus, the ability of an organism to further metabolize arene oxides can be an important protective mechanism against the possible toxic effect of these molecules. The existence of hepatic cytochrome P-450 dependent monooxygenase activities in fish is now well established. The exposure of fish to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) increases both the monooxygenase activities and the total amount of cytochrome P-450 in the microsomal fractions of fish liver. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxication-detoxication balance in both control and PCB induced estuarine fish (Grey mullets)

  13. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in polysulfide sealants-Occurrence and emission from a landfill station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, N. Johan; Pettersen, Harald; Ishaq, Rasha; Axelman, Johan; Bandh, Cecilia; Broman, Dag; Zebuehr, Yngve; Hammar, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 80 000 kg polysulfide sealant containing 10 000-18 000 kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was deposited at a Swedish municipal landfill station during 1965-1973. Investigations during 1994 showed that soil layers underneath the landfill had concentration of PCB not alarmingly high. The concentration of PCB congeners in ground water samples was elevated 4-750 times compared to a reference sample. Based on samples of ground water, leachate water, and flux chambers measuring evaporation of PCB from the landfill surface, the emission of PCB was estimated to be 1 g ΣPCB/yr. This very low rate was attributed to the high sorptive capacity of the sealant. Compared to a reference site, the evaporation flux was elevated for the most volatile congeners, but factors 20-1400 lower than from another landfill which was contaminated with PCB in paper-pulp fibres. - From a municipal 2-ha landfill containing 10-18 tonnes of ΣPCB bound in polysulfide sealants, only 1 g per year escape to the surroundings

  15. A review of the neurotoxicity of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegal, R. [Albany Univ., NY (United States). Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and School of Public Health

    2004-09-15

    It is perhaps both presumptuous and somewhat nostalgic for me to present research findings from both myself and others describing the changes in central nervous system (CNS) function that occur following exposure to non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the 2004 Dioxin meeting. Presumptuous because my presentation occurs during this meeting where the majority of the research is concerned with the consequences of exposure to dioxins (the most toxic substance produced by man) and nostalgic because, in 1992, I presented some of my earliest work demonstrating that non-dioxin-like PCBs were capable of significantly altering neurochemical function. Much has changed in the intervening twelve years. Laboratories in the United States and Europe now routinely study and describe the neurotoxicological effects of developmental and in vitro exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs. My task will be to briefly describe the highlights of that research and suggest additional approaches that will hopefully increase our ability to understand the mechanisms of action of non-dioxin-like PCBs on neuronal and behavioral function in populations of exposed humans.

  16. Forecasting long-range atmospheric transport episodes of polychlorinated biphenyls using FLEXPART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Eckhardt, Sabine; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Breivik, Knut

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air is costly and can only be done for a limited number of samples. It is thus beneficial to maximize the information content of the samples analyzed via a targeted observation strategy. Using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as an example, a forecasting system to predict and evaluate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) episodes of POPs at a remote site in southern Norway has been developed. The system uses the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART, and can be used for triggering extra ("targeted") sampling when LRAT episodes are predicted to occur. The system was evaluated by comparing targeted samples collected over 12-25 h during individual LRAT episodes with monitoring samples regularly collected over one day per week throughout a year. Measured concentrations in all targeted samples were above the 75th percentile of the concentrations obtained from the regular monitoring program and included the highest measured values of all samples. This clearly demonstrates the success of the targeted sampling strategy.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Wania, Frank; Lei, Ying D.; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C.G.; Xiao, Hang

    2006-01-01

    To assess the spatial concentration variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the atmosphere on a large continental scale, their annually integrated air concentrations were determined in 2000/2001 using XAD-based passive air samplers (PAS). The network included 40 stations in Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize and Costa Rica, and covered 72 degrees of latitude and longitude. Total concentrations of PCB and PBDE congeners ranged from below the detection limit to 130 ng PAS -1 and 24 ng PAS -1 , respectively. PCBs displayed a large variation between urban, rural and remote sites, whereas PBDEs did not follow such a pattern. Open burning of 'Penta'-containing waste may have contributed to the PBDEs detected in the air samples from rural and remote areas. Air from the Canadian Arctic had a relatively higher percentage of lighter PCB congeners than air sampled in the tropical region, which is interpreted as evidence for global fractionation. - A continental passive air sampling network reveals atmospheric distribution patterns of two classes of industrial chemicals

  18. In situ reproduction, abundance, and growth of young-of-year and adult largemouth bass in a population exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Dudley W; Greenberg, Emily S; Helser, Thomas E; Branton, Margaret; Jenkins, Kenneth D

    2004-07-01

    We conducted a two-year field study (2000-2001) in the Housatonic River, Massachusetts (USA) to determine if we could detect in situ population-level effects on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Calculated whole-body PCB concentrations in adult bass in 2002 averaged 121 mg/kg (range = 34-556 mg/kg). Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in young-of-year (YOY) composites in 2000 and 2002 averaged 28 mg/kg (range = 21-41 mg/kg) and 19 mg/kg (range = 16-24 mg/kg), respectively. Laboratory studies of fish have reported PCB toxicity at exposure levels below and within the range of those found in the Housatonic River. We evaluated five field-derived metrics: reproductive activity, relative abundance of YOY, YOY growth rates, adult growth, and adult condition to determine whether we could detect effects of PCBs in the largemouth bass population. These computed metrics, when compared with data sets assembled for numerous largemouth bass populations in North America, provided no evidence of population-level impairment. Results of this study suggest that PCB tissue concentrations associated with effects in laboratory studies do not necessarily translate to detectable effects on largemouth bass populations in their natural environment.

  19. Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings -- Part 4. Evaluation of the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS) for On-site Destruction of PCBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the fourth, also the last, report of the report series entitled “Laboratory Study of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contamination and Mitigation in Buildings.” This report evaluates the performance of an on-site PCB destruction method, known as the AMTS method, developed ...

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Carlos; Vales, Melissa; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined in surface sediments from three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 23 to 153, 31-294, and 151-1387ngg -1 for Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), Harbor Island West (HW) and Harbor Island East (HE), respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in HE and PCB group composition differed relative to HW and SIYB, which were not significantly different from each other in concentration or group composition. In marina sediments there was a predominance (82-85%) of heavier molecular weight PCBs with homologous groups (6CL-7CL) comprising 59% of the total. In HE 75% of the sites exceeded the effect range median (ERM), and toxicity equivalence (TEQ dioxin-like PCBs) values were higher relative to those of HW and SIYB, suggesting a potential ecotoxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl's (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6

  2. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  5. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    Sintering and steel production as the main emission sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may affect environment and human health. The concentrations, profiles, and distributions of PCDD/Fs in soil samples from around four typical sintering and steel production...... plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  6. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  7. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  8. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall.

  9. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data...... to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon...

  10. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ortho-substituent correlated retention of polychlorinated biphenyls on a 50% n-octyl-methylpolysiloxane stationary phase by HRGC/MSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, R.; Ballschmiter, K.

    1988-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been known as ubiquitous environmental pollutants since the late 60s. They are found partitioned between all environmental compartments according to their physico-chemical properties. Investigation of their partitioning, degradation, and transport behaviour demands sensitive and selective analytical methods for this complex mixture of up to 209 theoretically possible compounds. Congener-specific separation by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection would be a suitable approach to this multi-compound problem. In this paper, the separation of PCB congeners by capillary gas chromatography (HRGC) on a 50% n-octyl-methylpolysiloxane phase is presented.

  12. Identification of an enhancer element of class Pi glutathione S-transferase gene required for expression by a co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1999-01-01

    3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), one of the most toxic co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, specifically induces class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as well as cytochrome P-450 1A1 in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells [Aoki, Matsumoto and Suzuki (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 114-118]. However, the 5'-flanking sequence of the GSTP1 gene does not contain a xenobiotic responsive element, to which arylhydrocarbon receptor binds. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferas...

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic...... function and/or are associated with neurodegeneration. Wistar rats were treated orally with repeated doses of Aroclor 1254 and the levels of soluble alpha-synuclein, parkin, synaptophysin and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Aroclor...... did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha...

  14. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  15. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries

  16. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@tiehh.ttu.ed [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Halbrook, Richard S. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  17. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Junenette L.; Patricia Fabian, M.; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  18. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  19. Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huayun; Zhuo Shanshan; Xue Bin; Zhang Chunlong; Liu Weiping

    2012-01-01

    A large portion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from e-waste released into the coastal areas may be the potential source of PCBs to the global oceans. The paper presents data of PCBs concentrations in fifty surface sediment samples and a dated sediment core in Yangtze River Delta (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The total PCBs levels varied from 5.08 to 19.64 ng/g dry weight, with the highest concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone which is so-called “marginal filter”. Concurrent with the operation of e-waste recycling over the last two decades, PCB fluxes started to rise again after 1980s and reached a maximum in this century. The full data set was used to estimate the burden of PCBs in YRE and adjacent ECS. A total sediment burdens were 192.8 tons, with the spatial density of 364 ng/cm 2 which accounts for 1.9% of all the PCBs in China. - Highlights: ► PCBs residues remained widespread in Yangtze River Delta and adjacent East China Sea. ► Highest PCBs concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone. ► Congener profiles and PCA highlight the influence of e-waste recycling. ► Temporal distributions indicated PCB fluxes reached a maximum in this century. ► Total sediment burdens accounts for 1.9 % of all the PCBs in China. - Spatial and temporal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls have been delineated in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea.

  20. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and placental CYP1A1 activity in Inuit women from northern Québec.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereg, Daria; Dewailly, Eric; Poirier, Guy G; Ayotte, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are CYP1A1 inducers, and induction of this enzyme in the placenta has been linked to adverse effects on fetal development. The objective of this study was to determine if the body burden of PCBs is related to placental CYP1A1 activity in Inuit women from Nunavik (northern Québec), a population highly exposed to organochlorines. Placenta and cord blood samples were obtained from 35 Inuit women and 30 women from a southern Québec community exposed t...

  1. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  2. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...... or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95...

  3. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed "fast foods". Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food. This study adds to the previous paper by presenting data, in addition to dioxins and dibenzofurans, on the closely related dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the persistent metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), in four types of popular U.S. fast food. These include McDonald's Big Mac Hamburger, Pizza Hut's Personal Pan Pizza Supreme, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) three piece original recipe mixed dark and white meat luncheon package, and Häagen-Daz chocolate-chocolate chip ice cream. Dioxin plus dibenzofuran dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 TEQ pg/g wet or whole weight for the Big Mac, from 0.03 to 0.29 for the Pizza, from 0.01 to 0.31 for the KFC, and from 0.03 to 0.49 TEQ pg/g for the ice cream. Daily TEQ consumption per kilogram body weight (kg/BW), assuming an average 65 kg adult and a 20 kg child, from one serving of each of these fast food ranged between 0.046 and 1.556 pg/kg in adults whereas in children the values were between 0.15 and 5.05 pg/kg. Total measured PCDD/Fs in the Big Mac, Personal Pan Pizza, KFC, and the Häagen-Daz ice cream varied from 0.58 to 9.31 pg/g. Measured DDE levels in the fast foods ranged from 180 to 3170 pg/g. Total mono-ortho PCB levels ranged up to 500 pg/g or 1.28 TEQ pg/g for the KFC and for di-ortho PCBs up to 740 pg/g or 0.014 TEQ pg/g for the pizza sample. Total PCB values in the four samples ranged up to 1170 pg/g or 1.29 TEQ pg/g for the chicken sample.

  4. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in Irish farmed salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruemping, R.; Hamm, S.; Stegemann, D.; Maulshagen, A. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A recent survey published by Hites in the journal Science compared the level of organochlorine contaminants including PCBs and dioxins in farmed versus wild salmon collected from around the world. Most organochlorine substances analysed in the study show a significantly higher concentration level in farmed than in wild salmon. While dioxin and PCB levels of wild fish mainly reflect the contamination level of the environment in which the fish is grown, the dioxin and PCB concentration in farmed fish may mainly be attributed to the fish feed used. In January 2004, the Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM) conducted the present study on the concentration of Polychlorinated Dibenzo(p)dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in farmed salmon from two locations in Ireland. The present study should examine whether the PCDD/F and WHO-PCB levels of Irish farmed salmon correlate to the dioxin data for farmed Atlantic salmon from other countries in Northern Europe (e.g. Scotland, Faroe Islands and Norway) presented in the study by Hites. In the Hites survey, raw salmon filets with skin on were tested. Since PCBs, dioxins and other organic pollutants are mainly bound to the fish fat, a reduction of fat content by removal of the skin was supposed to lower the amount of organic contaminants. Thus, the effect of skin removal on the dioxin and PCB levels was also examined in the present study. In addition, the influence of cooking the fish meat was investigated.

  5. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enhancing effect of spawning on elimination of a persistent polychlorinated biphenyl from female yellow perch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodicnik, M.J.; Peterson, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution and elimination of 2,5,2',5'-tetrachloro[14C]biphenyl (4-CB) were studied for 6 months after exposing sexually mature female yellow perch to the compound in water and transferring them to flowing 4-CB-free water. Perch that were exposed in January spawned in May, and the study was terminated in June. During the first 41/2 months after exposure, the t1/2 for whole-body elimination was 22 weeks, primarily by elimination of 4-CB from the viscera and carcass. During spawning, enhanced elimination (t1/2 less than 0.7 weeks) was due to the voiding of eggs containing 4-CB. After spawning, whole-body elimination returned to a slower rate (t1/2 = 16.3 weeks). Prior to the enhancement in 4-CB elimination rate during spawning, there was a redistribution of 4-CB residues within the body of the perch which was characterized by a transfer of 4-CB residues from primarily the carcass and viscera to eggs. Two weeks after exposure, 30% of the initial 4-CB body burden was distributed to the eggs, whereas just prior to spawning, about 50% was present in this tissue. These findings demonstrate that egg maturation and spawning result in a significant reduction in the body burden of a persistent polychlorinated biphenyl in a lean-fish species

  7. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoradova-Murinova, Slavomira; Dudasova, Hana; Lukacova, Lucia; Certik, Milan; Dercova, Katarina [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology and Food Science; Silharova, Katarina; Vrana, Branislav [Water Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes. (orig.)

  8. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Concentrations, distributions, and cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Liang; Yang, Wenlong; Zhou, Li; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Xiulan; Niu, Shan; Li, Lingling; Wu, Zhongxiang; Huang, Yeru

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has been quickly industrialized and urbanized. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in the YRD in 2010–2011 to investigate their spatiotemporal distributions and estimate the risk of cancer from their inhalation. Annual concentrations were 151, 168, 18.8, 110, 17.9, and 35.0 pg m −3 for HCB, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, mirex, and PCBs, respectively. The highest OCP and PCB concentrations were generally detected in the autumn and winter. The average concentrations of OCPs and PCBs for the different site groups followed the order urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. The lifetime excess cancer risks from the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs were −6 . The predicted cancer cases per lifetime associated with the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs are 12, 7, and 4 per ten thousand people for urban, urban–rural transition, and rural areas, respectively. Highlights: •Organochlorine pollutants were measured in the air in the Yangtze River Delta area. •Air PCB concentration declined in recent years comparing with previous results. •HCB and DDEs predominated, with the highest values in winter and autumn, respectively. •OCPs and PCBs followed the order: urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. -- A detailed study of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air across the Yangtze River Delta area using passive air samplers

  9. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  10. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl indicator congeners in Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Adam T; Aeppli, Christoph; Burnell, Craig A; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2017-07-15

    In the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWAO), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a promising commercial species following of collapse of traditional groundfish stocks. There are little available data assessing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in NWAO spiny dogfish. Here, six non-dioxin like PCB indicator congeners used in European Union regulations (EU NDL-PCB) were quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 50 mature male spiny dogfish landed in southern New England. The average total concentration of EU NDL-PCBs was 58±43ng/g (mean±1 standard deviation). PCB values (corrected for co-elution) were below the 200ng/g EU regulatory limit. Results provide first recent regional insight into the PCB content of spiny dogfish in the NWAO. However, our study offers only a snapshot of one particular dogfish population, and might not be representative for the whole NWAO. This study underscores the need for further testing in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish from Shandong, China, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanping; Jiang, Dafeng; Li, Fenghua; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yanni; Li, Lu

    2018-05-22

    The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0.011 to 9.214 pg WHO TEQ/g ww. The mean dietary intake for all fish species was 36.5 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, which was lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ/kg bw/month set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. To monitor the trend of DL-PCBs in fish for food safety control it is necessary to maintain a surveillance program.

  13. Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on osmoregulatory response and apoptosis in GIFT tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Qiu, L; Fan, L; Song, C; Meng, S; Chen, J

    2016-09-02

    In the present study, GIFT tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 7, 14, and 21 days. Over the duration of the exposure, genotoxicity and the activity of Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and Ca + /Mg + -ATPase (CMA) were measured in the gill, kidney, and intestine, to evaluate changes in osmoregulatory response in O. niloticus. Our results showed significant decreases in organic NKA (except in gill tissues after 0.5 mg/L PCB-exposure) and CMA activity. The results of the genotoxicity assay showed significant increases in atp1a1a, nkcc2 (only in gill tissue), and fxyd7 (except after 21 days of 5 mg/L PCB exposure). We found significant increases in caspase proteins in the liver in the 5-mg/L PCB exposure group, and the transcripts showed dose-dependent increases between treatment groups over the exposure duration. This study presents evidence that chronic exposure to PCB could result in organic osmoregulatory response and hepatic apoptosis in GIFT tilapia.

  14. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  15. Construction and applications of DNA probes for detection of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading genotypes in toxic organic-contaminated soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, S.; Khan, A.; Rosenthal, N.

    1990-01-01

    Several DNA probes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading genotypes were constructed from PCB-degrading bacteria. These laboratory-engineered DNA probes were used for the detection, enumeration, and isolation of specific bacteria degrading PCBs. Dot blot analysis of purified DNA from toxic organic chemical-contaminated soil bacterial communities showed positive DNA-DNA hybridization with a 32P-labeled DNA probe (pAW6194, cbpABCD). Less than 1% of bacterial colonies isolated from garden topsoil and greater than 80% of bacteria isolated from PCB-contaminated soils showed DNA homologies with 32P-labeled DNA probes. Some of the PCB-degrading bacterial isolates detected by the DNA probe method did not show biphenyl clearance. The DNA probe method was found to detect additional organisms with greater genetic potential to degrade PCBs than the biphenyl clearance method did. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of DNA probes in detecting specific PCB-degrading bacteria, abundance of PCB-degrading genotypes, and genotypic diversity among PCB-degrading bacteria in toxic chemical-polluted soil environments. We suggest that the DNA probe should be used with caution for accurate assessment of PCB-degradative capacity within soils and further recommend that a combination of DNA probe and biodegradation assay be used to determine the abundance of PCB-degrading bacteria in the soil bacterial community

  16. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium...... with the sediment (Clip⇔sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along...... bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose...

  17. Parasite communities in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L., respond to small-scale variation in the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carreras-Aubets, M.; Montero, F. E.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2012), s. 1853-1860 ISSN 0025-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mullus barbatus * Parasite communities * Abundance * Similarity * Western Mediterranean * Polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1200269X#

  18. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKnight, S.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  1. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A solid-phase extraction method for analyzing trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sung Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has regulated emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fsin waste water of manufacturing facilities producing chlorinated compounds since 2009. As this regulation is expected to bereinforced in 2013 to 50 pg I-TEQ/L, a large sample volume is required for the analysis of trace amounts of PCDD/Fs in wastewater. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE is used to extract PCDD/Fs from aqueous samples; however, its low efficiency makes itinadequate for analyzing large sample volumes. Herein, we present a disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysisof dioxin at a part per quadrillion level in waste water. This SPE system contains airtight glass covers with a decompressionpump, which enables continuous semi-automated extraction. Small (0.5 L and large (7 L samples were extracted using LLE andSPE methods, respectively. The method detection limits (MDLs were 0.001−0.25 and 0.015−4.1 pg I-TEQ/L for the SPE andLLE methods, respectively. The concentrations of detected congeners with both methods were similar. However, the concentrationsof several congeners that were not detected with the LLE method were quantified using the SPE method

  3. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  4. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Catalani, Simona; Tomasi, Cesare; Pira, Enrico; Apostoli, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of studies on exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the risk of malignant melanoma (MM). We searched Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists; among 807 potentially relevant articles, we selected those based on 12 populations. Data were extracted according to a standardized form; the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Meta-analyses were carried out according to fixed-effect and random-effects models. The fixed-effect summary relative risk (RR) for MM was 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-1.00]; the random-effects summary RR was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.78-1.32). The random-effects summary RR from eight occupational cohorts was 1.13 (95% CI: 0.91-1.35) and that from four community-based studies was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.36-1.31). The quality of the studies and the methods for PCB exposure assessment did not influence the RR. These results do not support the hypothesis of an association between PCB exposure and the risk of MM.

  5. Remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls by microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guanyi; Zhao Ling; Dong Yuanhua; Zhang Qin

    2011-01-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) in PCB-contaminated soils under different conditions is investigated. The removal of PCB77 in two actual soil samples exhibits strong pH-dependent behavior, and the removal efficiency is higher in acidic soil (Ali-Perudic Ferrosols) than that in neutral soil (Udic Argosols). The removal kinetics of PCB77 using microwave-irradiated MnO 2 under different experimental conditions fits a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well. Both the removal efficiency and the kinetic constant (k) values of PCB77 in Ali-Perudic Ferrosols considerably increase, although in a nonlinear fashion, as the initial amount of MnO 2 is increased, as the treated soil mass is increased, and as the microwave power is increased. The reactivity of three PCBs (PCB28, PCB77, and PCB118) did not present as a function of the degree of chlorination in the reaction with microwave-irradiated MnO 2 . The pronounced removal of three PCBs in contaminated soil (all above 95%) indicates that MnO 2 in combination with microwave irradiation is promising for technological applications that seek to remediate sites critically polluted with PCBs.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in herring from the southern Baltic, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falandysz, J

    1986-02-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-benzenehexachloride (BHC, HCH), p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT (sigma DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels have been determined in muscle tissue of 187 herring (Clupea harengus) netted during 1983 in a different regions in the southern part of the Baltic Sea. The mean levels found for herring muscle tissue related to wet weight (microgram/kg) were: 14 HCB, 18 alpha-BHC, 23 beta-BHC, 14 gamma-BHC, delta-BHC remained undetected, 56 sigma BHC, 115 p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDT remained undetected, 84 p,p'-DDD, 51 p,p'-DDT, 250 sigma DDT and 530 PCB. The levels of organochlorine pesticides determined in wet muscles or extractable lipids of herring are nearly 2-3 times as high as those noted in fish sampled in the same area in two years before, while for PCBs the wet weight levels were comparable, and when based on a lipid weight are somewhat higher. The results are compared with levels found in herring collected in different regions of the Baltic Sea during 1965-1983, and reported previously by other authors.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in alfalfa: Accumulation, sorption and speciation in different plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Zhu, Lingjia; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-08-03

    The accumulation, chemical speciation and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in various parts of alfalfa. Moreover, the adsorption characteristics for PCB 28 by alfalfa and the influencing factors of the adsorption characteristics were studied. There were different degrees of PCB accumulation in alfalfa roots, root nodules and shoots. The decreasing order of the accumulation of PCBs in plant tissues was root nodules > roots > shoots, and the decreasing order of the total PCB contents was roots > shoots > root nodules, indicating that the roots were the main sink for PCB accumulation. There were three modes of PCB speciation in alfalfa roots and root nodules, comprising strong sorption (78%) and weak sorption (19%) on tissue surfaces and absorption within tissues (2%). The adsorption isotherms of PCB 28 indicate that the adsorption capacities of root nodules and shoots were both significantly higher than that of the roots. Both lipids and carbohydrates, and especially lipids, affected the PCB adsorption capacities of the tissues. These results may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms of sorption and accumulation of PCBs in the plants and their main influencing factors and thus contribute to the development of phytoremediation technologies for PCB-contaminated soils.

  8. Simultaneous extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites from small tissue samples using pressurized liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Zhao, Hongxia; Norstrom, Karin; Li, Xueshu; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    A pressurized liquid extraction-based method for the simultaneous extraction and in situ clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated (OH)-PCBs and methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)-PCBs from small (< 0.5 gram) tissue samples was developed and validated. Extraction of a laboratory reference material with hexane:dichloromethane:methanol (48:43:9, v/v) and Florisil as fat retainer allowed an efficient recovery of PCBs (78–112%; RSD: 13–37%), OH-PCBs (46±2%; RSD: 4%) and MeSO2-PCBs (89±21%; RSD: 24%). Comparable results were obtained with an established analysis method for PCBs, OH-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs. PMID:19019378

  9. Defining the sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls: evidence for the influence of microbially dechlorinated congeners from river sediment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarenzelli, J. [SUNYat Oswego, NY (United States); Bush, B.; Casey, A.; O' Keefe, P. [SUNY at Albany, School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY (United States); Barnard, E.; Smith, B. [New York State Dept. of Health, Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States); Gilligan, E. [Syracuse Univ., Dept. of Civil an Environmental Engineering, NY (United States); Johnson, G. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, Dept, of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2000-07-01

    During sampling in 1993, elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls were discovered near three industrial facilities on the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation Reserve along the St. Lawrence River, straddling the Canadian-US. border. Volatilization of Aroclor 1248, which was used extensively at all three sites, was identified as the dominant source, augmented in a minor way by a dechlorinated source, presumably from river sediment and waters. These two sources were found to account for 80 per cent of the contamination. Further, it was established that at a small cove adjacent to an industrial landfill, summer concentrations of PCBs exceeded winter concentrations by a factor of 27. Observation showed the presence of similar congener-specific PCB patterns at all sample sites and an increase in the concentrations of chlorine to biphenyl ratios during the summer months. During the colder months PCB concentrations at all sites declined, nevertheless, PCB levels were still higher than those measured elsewhere in the Great Lakes region during the same time period. Results of this investigation suggest that atmospheric deposition from local contaminant sources can elevate concentrations in produce and vegetative matter, complicating exposure routes and bioaccumulation via modeling of food chain. 22 refs., 4 tabs. 1 fig.

  10. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A.; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. - Highlights: • The monitoring system creation of the Moscow River is necessary. • The wastewater plant is the source of the river contamination with triclosan. • The Moscow River is contaminated with the low chlorinated biphenyls. • There is a background contamination of the Moscow River with phthalates. - The organic pollutants contamination levels of the Moscow River were investigated.

  11. Associations between dietary intake and serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) levels in Taiwanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-L.; Lee, C.-C.; Liao, P.-C.; Guo, Y.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Su, H.-J. mail: hjsu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the consumption frequency of different food groups (milk, eggs, fish, and others) and the levels of serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations of residents living near a municipal waste incinerator. All selected subjects were between 18 and 65 years old and proportionally chosen from each age group based on population distribution. In addition, they had to have lived within a 5-km radius of the incinerator for at least 5 years. Trained interviewers administered a dietary questionnaire interview. Higher serum CDD/F levels were found in older than in younger subjects, and higher PCDD/F concentrations were found in females than in males. An analysis between the consumption frequency of different foods and serum PCDD/F levels showed that fish might have contributed the highest quantity of measured serum PCDD/Fs. et, the regression coefficient of dietary intake and PCDD/F concentration as only 0.017 before and 0.105 after adjusting for the variables of age, gender, and smoking status of the study subjects. The frequency of fish consumption may be the most significant contributor to serum PCDD/F levels. Further research is needed to quantify the association between the consumption of various food groups and their potential contributions to the corresponding serum PCDD/F concentrations

  12. Temporal Trends of Hexabromocyclododecane, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Ringed Seals from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Riget, Frank Farsø; Bossi, Rossana

    2011-01-01

    also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding......Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed...... on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which...

  13. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  14. Advances and perspective in bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra K; Gautam, Ravindra K; Nanekar, Sneha V; Weber, Roland; Singh, Brajesh K; Singh, Sanjeev K; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, microbial degradation and bioremediation approaches of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied extensively considering their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistency potential in the environment. In this direction, different catabolic enzymes have been identified and reported for biodegradation of different PCB congeners along with optimization of biological processes. A genome analysis of PCB-degrading bacteria has led in an improved understanding of their metabolic potential and adaptation to stressful conditions. However, many stones in this area are left unturned. For example, the role and diversity of uncultivable microbes in PCB degradation are still not fully understood. Improved knowledge and understanding on this front will open up new avenues for improved bioremediation technologies which will bring economic, environmental and societal benefits. This article highlights on recent advances in bioremediation of PCBs in soil. It is demonstrated that bioremediation is the most effective and innovative technology which includes biostimulation, bioaugmentation, phytoremediation and rhizoremediation and acts as a model solution for pollution abatement. More recently, transgenic plants and genetically modified microorganisms have proved to be revolutionary in the bioremediation of PCBs. Additionally, other important aspects such as pretreatment using chemical/physical agents for enhanced biodegradation are also addressed. Efforts have been made to identify challenges, research gaps and necessary approaches which in future, can be harnessed for successful use of bioremediation under field conditions. Emphases have been given on the quality/efficiency of bioremediation technology and its related cost which determines its ultimate acceptability.

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunotoxicity of environmentally relevant mixtures of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons with methyl mercury on rat lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omara, F.O.; Brochu, C.; Flipo, D.; Denizeau, F.; Fournier, M. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of methyl mercury (MHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well established at higher exposure levels but unclear at low exposure levels. The authors exposed Fischer 344 rat splenocytes, thymocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro for 72 h to MHg of three PCDDs and two PCDFs PCB mixtures, or combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures Mitogenic responses of lymphocytes to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, or lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate were determined by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake; cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were determined by flow cytometry. Methylmercury mixtures with 2 {micro}g/ml MHg decreased the viability of splenocytes to 57 and 40% at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Basal intracellular calcium ion levels were unaffected by the treatments. Methylmercury suppressed the responses of lymphocytes to T and B cell mitogens. All combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures decreased mitogenic responses to levels similar to those to MHg alone. In contrast, PCB and PCDD/PCDF mixtures did not suppress but augmented responses of splenocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes to T cell mitogens. Overall, no interactive toxicity was observed with MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures on cytotoxicity and lymphocyte mitogenic responses. Therefore, MHg may pose a greater threat than organochlorines to the mammalian immune system.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  18. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  19. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. © 2013 SETAC.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1......,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3......A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta...

  1. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Christine M.; Read, Lorraine B.

    2006-01-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts, USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153, 138, 180, 187, 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor[reg] 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that congener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet, and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. - Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in swallows differed between the main stem of the Housatonic River, MA and other locations in the watershed

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  4. Seasonal air-water exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Hudson River Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shu; Rodenburg, Lisa A.; Dachs, Jordi; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the air and water over the Hudson River Estuary during six intensive field campaigns from December 1999 to April 2001. Over-water gas-phase ΣPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/m 3 and varied with temperature. Dissolved-phase ΣPCB concentrations averaged 1100 pg/L and displayed no seasonal trend. Uncertainty analysis of the results suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines exhibited net volatilization. The direction of net air/water exchange could not be determined for PCBs with 6 or more chlorines. Instantaneous net fluxes of ΣPCBs ranged from +0.2 to +630 ng m -2 d -1 . Annual fluxes of ΣPCBs were predicted from modeled gas-phase concentrations, measured dissolved-phase concentrations, daily surface water temperatures and wind speeds. The net volatilization flux was +62 μg m -2 yr -1 , corresponding to an annual loss of +28 kg/yr of ΣPCBs from the Hudson River Estuary for the year of 2000. - Investigation of the air-water exchange of PCBs in the Hudson River Estuary suggests that PCBs with 5 or fewer chlorines undergo net volatilization

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in fish near the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Delistraty, Damon; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-03-03

    It is well-known that absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) processes in fish can alter polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in fish, but these patterns have never been investigated using an advanced source-apportionment tool. In this work, PCB congener patterns in freshwater fish were examined with positive matrix factorization (PMF). PCB congeners were quantified via EPA Method 1668 in fillet and carcass of six species in four study areas in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. Six factors were resolved with PMF2 software. Depletion and enhancement of PCB congeners in factors, relative to Aroclor 1254, suggested biotransformation (via cytochrome P450) and bioaccumulation in fish, respectively. Notable differences were observed among species and across study locations. For example, sturgeon and whitefish exhibited congener patterns consistent with Aroclor weathering, suggesting potential PCB metabolism in these species. In terms of location, average concentration of total PCBs for all species combined was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Hanford 100 and 300 areas, relative to upriver and downriver study sites. Furthermore, a distinct PCB signature in sturgeon and whitefish, collected at Hanford study areas, suggests that Hanford is a unique PCB source.

  6. Dietary taurine alters ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Oda, H; Yokogoshi, H

    2000-04-01

    The effect of dietary taurine on ascorbic acid metabolism and hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated in rats fed diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to determine whether taurine has an adaptive and protective function in xenobiotic-treated animals. Young male Wistar rats (60 g) were fed diets containing 0 or 0.2 g/kg diet PCB with or without 30 g/kg diet of taurine for 14 d. The rats fed the PCB-containing diets had greater liver weight, higher ascorbic acid concentrations in the liver and spleen and greater hepatic cytochrome P-450 contents than control rats that were not treated with PCB (P ascorbic acid excretion was enhanced, and serum cholesterol concentration (especially HDL-cholesterol) was significantly elevated compared with those in control rats. Dietary taurine significantly potentiated the increases in the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid and the rise in the levels of cytochrome P-450 which were caused by PCB treatment. On the other hand, the supplementation of taurine to control diet did not alter these variables. Taurine may enhance the hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, leading to the stimulation of the ascorbic acid metabolism in rats fed diets containing PCB.

  7. High-pressure extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from soils and other fine-grained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowz, G.

    1996-12-01

    Four doped and three really contaminated samples were subjected to high-pressure PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) extraction in a laboratory-scale experimental plant using CO 2 (carbon dioxide) as solvent. The PCB levels (sum out of the six key substances) of the real samples were 2.6, 6.8, and 139 mg/kg. The success of the cleaning process was determined by measuring the residual PCB levels in the soil after the extraction. Parameters were varied and samples were taken selectively from various points in the bed (length 270 mm, diameter 14 mm, weighed - in soil 50-60 g) in order to gain an idea of the effects of upscaling. The following parameters were varied: extraction temperature 40-90 C; extraction pressure 200-300 bar; CO 2 flow rate 3.6-14.6 g/min; CO 2 quantity 0-328 g; degree of contamination (doped samples) 12-60 mg/kg; soil moisture 0-15%; particle size 0-2000 μm; entraining agent methanol, ethanol, acetone; proportion of entraining agent 0-7.5% by weight. Furthermore the influence of moisture at the time of doping on extraction was examined. (orig./ABI) [de

  8. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  9. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Xing, Ying; Wang, Dongshen; Zhao, Xingru; Gao, Lirong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    The chemical 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), also called paramoth, is one of the chemicals commonly used to make mothballs. For the more than 20 years, p-DCB has been used principally (35-55% of all uses) as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers, and as a fumigant for control of moths, molds, and mildews. The process of production of p-DCB currently used by industry is direct chlorination of benzene or chlorobenzene in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (typically FeCl{sub 3}), and the pure products of p-DCB are obtained by distillation and crystallization from the mixture of polychlorinated benzenes. This process is similar to that of production of PCBs which were manufactured commercially by the progressive chlorination of biphenyl in the presence of a suitable catalyst, e.g., iron chloride. However, few studies on the formation of PCBs from chlorobenzenes have been published. Buser reported significant quantities of PCDFs and a small amount of PCDDs, PCBs, and chlorophenols were formed in the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes at 620 C. Peng-Yan Liu et al. revealed that lower chlorinated benzenes produce more PCBs than higher ones. Nevertheless, prior to this study, no reports on PCBs in p-DCB and the restriction of PCBs in p-DCB products have been found. In this paper, the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs in some commercial p-DCB mothballs are investigated. Except of the toxic of p-DCB, the low concentration of PCBs in p-DCB mothballs should not be negligible.

  10. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  11. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  12. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson's disease neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I; Miller, Gary W; Pennell, Kurt D

    2012-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson's disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson's disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson's disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson's disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson's disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson's disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and laboratory studies

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C E; Azeredo, A; Meire, R; Torres, J P [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito, Jr, J L; Malm, O [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors followed 858 children from birth to one year of age to determine whether the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in breast milk affected their growth or health. Neither chemical showed an adverse effect on weight or frequency of physician visits for various illnesses, although differences were seen between breast-fed and bottle-fed children, with bottle-fed children being heavier and having more frequent gastroenteritis and otitis media. Children of mothers with higher levels of DDE were breast-fed for markedly shorter times, but adjustments for possible confounders and biases did not change the findings. In absence of any apparent effect on the health of the children, they speculate that DDE may be interfering with the mother's ability to lactate, possibly because of its estrogenic properties.

  15. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  16. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  17. Gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Taiki; Uchimura, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2011-01-01

    A sample mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured by gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/MPI/TOF-MS) using four types of laser sources. When a fourth harmonic emission (266 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) was utilized, highly chlorinated PCBs larger than hepta-CBs were not observed. A fifth harmonic emission (213 nm) of the picosecond Nd:YAG laser allowed the measurement of PCBs from di-CBs to octa-CBs, and the limit of detection (LOD) was several pg for each component of PCBs. The LOD for the total amount of PCBs, which was calculated using the protocol provided by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, was 1000 pg. The signal intensity of the congeners with chlorine atoms at the ortho positions (non-coplanar PCBs) was enhanced by using the fifth harmonic emission. When the fourth harmonic emission remaining after fifth harmonic generation was simultaneously used, the LOD for total PCBs was improved to 667 pg. The PCB sample was also measured using a third harmonic emission (267 nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm), providing an LOD of 677 pg. Thus, the two-color beam (266/213 nm) of a picosecond Nd:YAG laser had a comparable, or even slightly superior, performance to the more expensive femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser.

  18. Inhibition of LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation by ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithwick, L. Ashley; Smith, Andrew; Quensen, John F.; Stack, Allison; London, Lucille; Morris, Pamela J.

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants, and their ubiquitous nature has prompted studies of their potential health hazards. As a result of their lipophilic nature, PCBs accumulate in breast milk and subsequently affect the health of offspring of exposed individuals. Biological effects of PCBs in animals have mostly been attributed to coplanar congeners, although effects of ortho congeners also have been demonstrated. To investigate the relationship of immunotoxicity and chlorine substitution pattern, the effects of PCB congeners and mixtures of ortho and non-ortho-substituted constituents of Aroclor 1242 on splenocytes from C57B1/6 mice were examined. The immunotoxic endpoints investigated included splenocyte viability, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced splenocyte proliferation, and LPS-induced antibody secretion. Congeners with multiple ortho chlorines preferentially inhibited splenocyte proliferation as compared with non- or mono-ortho-substituted congeners. However, mixtures of non- and mono-ortho-substituted congeners and multi-ortho-substituted congeners inhibited LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation and antibody secretion at similar concentrations. Exposure of splenocytes to these mixtures did not activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signal transduction pathway. These results suggest individual multi-ortho-substituted congeners preferentially inhibit LPS-induced splenocyte proliferation, while congeners not exhibiting an effect individually may have additive effects in a mixture to produce an immunotoxic response through an AhR-independent pathway

  19. Characteristics of trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine organisms in Incheon North Harbor, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Jae Ryong

    2002-04-01

    The trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized for zooplankton (primarily Paracalanus spp. and Acartia spp.), pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), shore crab (Hemigrapsus penicillatus), and goby (Acanthogobius hasta) in the aquatic system of Incheon North Harbor, Korea. The congener pattern in the species was clearly divided by the main PCB uptake route. Compared with zooplankton and oyster, the fraction of heavier homologues increased in crab and goby that take PCBs from food. Linear relationships were observed between log (fugacity in lipid/fugacity in seawater) and log Kow for all the species. For zooplankton and oyster, such an observation should not be regarded as a true absence of superhydrophobicity, because establishment of equilibrium with seawater was not evident. For crab and goby, the absence of superhydrophobicity was evidenced by the trophic transfer factor that continuously increased with Kow up to 10(7.8). These results suggest that superhydrophobicity might be species specific. The trophic transfer factors and the fugacity levels in the lipid phase indicated that bioaccumulation in crab and goby advanced beyond the level in equilibrium with seawater in the harbor basin.

  20. Combined effect of microwave and activated carbon on the remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xitao; Yu, Gang

    2006-04-01

    The application of microwave and activated carbon for the treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated soil was explored in this study with a model compound of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29). PCB-contaminated soil was treated in a quartz reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450MHz with the addition of granular activated carbon (GAC). In this procedure, GAC acted as microwave absorbent for reaching high temperature and reductant for dechlorination. A sheltered type-K thermocouple was applied to record the temperature rising courses. It was shown that the addition of GAC could effectively promote the temperature rising courses. The determination of PCB residues in soil by gas chromatography (GC) revealed that rates of PCB removal were highly dependent on microwave power, soil moisture content, and the amount of GAC added. GC with mass spectrum (MS) detector and ion chromatography were employed for the analysis of degradation intermediates and chlorine ions, respectively. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of activated carbon might be a potential technology for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  1. QSAR models for predicting octanol/water and organic carbon/water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Gao, S; Gan, Y; Zhang, Y; Ruan, X; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Shi, J

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationship modelling can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce experimental testing. In particular, some endpoints such as octanol-water (KOW) and organic carbon-water (KOC) partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are easier to predict and various models have been already developed. In this paper, two different methods, which are multiple linear regression based on the descriptors generated using Dragon software and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships, were employed to predict suspended particulate matter (SPM) derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of 209 PCBs. The predictive ability of the derived models was validated using a test set. The performances of all these models were compared with EPI Suite™ software. The results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory, and could provide feasible and promising tools for the rapid assessment of the SPM derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of PCBs.

  2. Level and characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in feed and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, HeidQunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Feed security is a prerequisite for safe animal food products. In this study, 13 groups of feed and feed ingredients, totaling 2067 samples, were collected in the period of 2011 to 2014 from China. The highest mean level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was found in fish meals and shell powders, with a concentration of 60.35ng/kg, followed by mineral origin materials. In terms of the toxicity equivalent concentration, the fish oil group showed the highest PCDD/F levels because of their bio-accumulation through the aquatic food chain, with an average concentration of 1.26ng WHO-TEQ/kg, while the lowest level was observed in compound feed for chickens and pigs, with an average value of 0.16ng WHO-TEQ/kg. OCDD and OCDF were the predominant congeners in all groups except fish oils, in which the primary congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF. For zinc chloride samples, different from other zinc-based compound samples, the main congeners were 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF (17%), 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF (15%), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF (12%) and OCDF (30%). Considering toxicity equivalency factors, the dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and the contribution to the total TEQ was 29%, 16%, 14% and 12%, respectively. Overall, 2.1% (43 out of 2067) of all the analyzed samples exceeded the different individual 'European Union maximum limited levels for PCDD/Fs. This study is beneficial for the determination of the status of contamination levels of feed and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffal, A.; Givaudan, N.; Betoulle, S.; Terreau, A.; Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S.; Beall, E.; Roche, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49 o S, 70 o E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g -1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g -1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  5. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and biotransformation enzymes in three species of sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K L; Lopez Castro, M; Gardner, S C; Schlenk, D

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as the expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in livers of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley (Lepidocheyls olivacea) sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. The mean concentrations of total PCBs were 18.1, 10.5, and 15.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) respectively for the three species and PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all samples. Total PCB concentrations were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. The mean estimated TEQs were 42.8, 22.9, and 10.4 pg/g (ww) for loggerhead, green, and olive ridley, respectively, and more than 70% was accounted for by non-ortho PCBs. Western blots revealed the presence of hepatic microsomal proteins that cross-reacted with anti-CYP2K1 and anti-CYP3A27 antibodies but not with anti-CYP1A antibody. There were no significant differences in GST activities between species. Grouping congeners based on structure-activity relationships for CYP isoenzymes suggested limited activity of CYP1A contribution to PCB biotransformation in sea turtles. These results suggest potential accumulation of PCBs that are CYP1A substrates and provide evidence for biotransformation capacity, which differs from known animal models, highlighting the need for further studies in reptiles, particularly those threatened with extinction.

  7. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng, E-mail: enewujh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  8. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in fractions of wheat grains and in selected bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Elzbieta; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Smoczyński, S S

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of synthetic aromatic chemical compounds, commonly occurring in the environment as a result of industrialisation. Despite the ban on PCBs production, their wide application in the past resulted in their common occurrence in all elements of the environment. The lipophilic nature of the compounds resulting in their accumulation in live organisms and in the human body may trigger many harmful effects. The aim of this study was to determine the PCBs content in the selected species of wheat and in bakery products. The studies aiming at confirming possible correlation between the size of the grain of the selected species of wheat and the content of polychlorinated biphenyls were presented in this paper. Moreover, PCBs concentration in cereals' grains and in bread was compared. The PCBs content was defined in different sizes of grains species of wheat i.e. Opatka, Zyta, Elena and Almari. The study included also two kinds of wheat bread. PCBs were determined after the extraction with n-hexane followed by sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Gas chromatography analysis was conducted on a PU 4600 Unicam apparatus with an electron capture detector. The large variations in PCBs content depending on the grain size were confirmed. In the Opatka species the increase in the content of all determined congeners and the size of grain was confirmed. The lowest PCBs concentrations were in smallest grains (0,0090 mg/kg of fat), and the highest in the largest grains (0,0264 mg/kg of fat). In Zyta species PCBs content was also lowest in the smallest grains, however these results were not statistically significant. In the Elena species the increase in the PCBs content together with the increase in the grain size was confirmed. Basing on the determination coefficient it was found that the concentration of PCBs depends on the size of grains in 24%. The highest concentration of PCBs (0,0366 mg/kg of fat) was found in the largest grains, however differences

  11. Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Mai, Bixian; Meng, Xiangzhou; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    A short-term sampling scheme was devised to determine the levels of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Guangzhou atmosphere and to evaluate the impact of PCDD/Fs on the lives of the inhabitants in Guangzhou. Samples were collected from four different districts of Guangzhou City, and the results indicated that industrial activities had tremendous influence on the levels of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in these districts. The mean PCDD/Fs concentrations (mean I-TEQ values) for Huadu, Liwan, Tianhe and Huangpu districts were 3815 fg m -3 (104.6 fg I-TEQ m -3), 12 777 fg m -3 (430.5 fg I-TEQ m -3), 6963 fg m -3 (163.7 fg I-TEQ m -3) and 10 953 fg m -3 (769.3 fg I-TEQ m -3), respectively, which were higher than the concentration ranges for other cities in the world. The mean concentrations of particulate organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 17.61±0.94 and 3.17±0.21 μg m -3 for Huadu district, 44.18±2.29 and 13.32±0.75 μg m -3 for Liwan district, 33.53±1.72 and 9.89±0.56 μg m -3 for Tianhe district, and 29.52±1.53 and 8.87±0.53 μg m -3 for Huangpu district, respectively. The relationship between PCDD/Fs concentrations and OC and EC concentrations demonstrated that EC could be a better predictor for the concentration of PCDD/Fs. Detailed source analysis indicated that the PCDD/Fs in Guangzhou were derived from small diffuse combustion sources, e.g., traffic sources, domestic burning of fossil fuels, non-industrial combustion sources and industrial combustion sources. Results of daily intake of PCDD/Fs by inhaling air suggested that the inhalation exposure of PCDD/Fs by the inhabitants in Liwan district is relatively high.

  12. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jing; Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ΣPBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  13. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  14. [Uncertainty evaluation of the determination of toxic equivalent quantity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Liu Aimin; Huang, Yeru

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil samples were analyzed by isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/HRMS), and the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) were calculated. The impacts of major source of measurement uncertainty are discussed, and the combined relative standard uncertainties were calculated for each 2, 3, 7, 8 substituted con- gener. Furthermore, the concentration, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty for TEQ of PCDD/Fs in a soil sample in I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF schemes are provided as an example. I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF are the evaluation schemes of toxic equivalent factor (TEF), and are all currently used to describe 2,3,7,8 sub- stituted relative potencies.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartu, S.; Angelier, F.; Bustnes, J.O.; Moe, B.; Hanssen, S.A.; Herzke, D.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Verboven, N.; Verreault, J.; Labadie, P.; Budzinski, H.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - Highlights: • Relationships between PCBs and stress hormones (CORT) are not well known in birds. • We measured blood PCBs, baseline and stress-induced CORT in seven seabird species. • ∑PCB was positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT in three species. • ∑PCBs was negatively linked to stress-induced CORT in the most contaminated species. • The nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - In polar seabird species, the relationship between PCB and CORT concentrations may be related to the levels of contamination

  16. No changes in lymphocyte muscarinic receptors and platelet monoamine oxidase-B examined as surrogate central nervous system biomarkers in a Faroese children cohort prenatally exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi; Debes, Frodi

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Blood samples from 7-year-old exposed children were analyzed for platelet M....../or PCB exposure, whereas these markers are significantly altered in sustained exposure scenarios, as shown by clinical studies in drug addicts or patients treated with psychopharmacological agents....

  17. Structural insights into the metabolism of 2-chlorodibenzofuran by an evolved biphenyl dioxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pravindra; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Dhindwal, Sonali; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel (INRS); (IIT-India); (Purdue)

    2012-06-28

    The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) is a Rieske-type oxygenase that catalyzes the stereospecific oxygenation of many heterocyclic aromatics including dibenzofuran. In a previous work, we evolved BphAE{sub LB400} and obtained BphAE{sub RR41}. This variant metabolizes dibenzofuran and 2-chlorodibenzofuran more efficiently than BphAE{sub LB400}. However, the regiospecificity of BphAE{sub RR41} toward these substrates differs. Dibenzofuran is metabolized principally through a lateral dioxygenation whereas 2-chlorodibenzofuran is metabolized principally through an angular dioxygenation. In order to explain this difference, we examined the crystal structures of both substrate-bound forms of BphAE{sub RR41} obtained under anaerobic conditions. This structure analysis, in combination with biochemical data for a Ser283Gly mutant provided evidences that the substrate is compelled to move after oxygen-binding in BphAE{sub RR41}:dibenzofuran. In BphAE{sub RR41}:2-chlorodibenzofuran, the chlorine atom is close to the side chain of Ser283. This contact is missing in the BphAE{sub RR41}:dibenzofuran, and strong enough in the BphAE{sub RR41}:2-chlorodibenzofuran to help prevent substrate movement during the catalytic reaction.

  18. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in various tissues of waterbirds in Nalabana bird sanctuary, Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, V

    2012-07-01

    In order to understand whether organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are responsible for the mortality of waterbirds in Nalaban bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake, the current investigation was carried out in tissues of 11 individuals comprising 7 species of birds. One or more residues were detected in all the tissues of birds analysed. Concentration of ∑HCH, ∑DDT, and ∑PCBs were ranged from below detectable level (BDL)-811 ng/g, BDL-1,987 ng/g and BDL-1,027 ng/g respectively. PCBs levels were less than the food and drug administration's (FDA) action limits. Although varying levels of residues were detected among tissues, they do not appear to be responsible for the mass mortality of waterfowl. However, the need for additional research is heightened when considering that some of the birds are classified as a globally protected species by the international bodies.

  20. Increase deposition of organic matter, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cadmium by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, E. P; Mackie, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Biodeposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and cadmium by zebra mussels in the western basin of Lake Erie was investigated using sediment traps, and compared to natural rates of sedimentation. On a per unit area of organic matter, deposition rates by zebra mussels up to eight to ten times higher than natural rates of sedimentation were found. These results suggest that zebra mussels are altering contaminant movement in western Lake Erie. At the same time, it was also suggested that the net effect of biodeposition may not be as great as shown in this study since only the effects of zebra mussels on the flux of the contaminants was examined and the re-suspension factor was not considered. It was recommended that to better understand the overall effects of zebra mussels on contaminant dynamics in aquatic environments, future studies should incorporate the re-suspension factors. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  2. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by iron and its oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Kainuma, Masashi; Wang, Wei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    The decomposition efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined using elemental iron (Fe) and three iron (hydr)oxides, i.e., α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and α-FeOOH, as catalysts. The experiments were performed using four distinct PCB congeners (PCB-209, PCB-153, and the coplanar PCB-167 and PCB-77) at temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 380 °C and under an inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere composed of N2, N2+O2, or N2+H2. From these three options N2 showed to provide the best reaction atmosphere. Among the iron compounds tested, Fe3O4 showed the highest activity for decomposing PCBs. The decomposition efficiencies of PCB-209, PCB-167, PCB-153, and PCB-77 by Fe3O4 in an N2 atmosphere at 230 °C were 88.5%, 82.5%, 69.9%, and 66.4%, respectively. Other inorganic chlorine (Cl) products which were measured by the amount of inorganic Cl ions represented 82.5% and 76.1% of the reaction products, showing that ring cleavage of PCBs was the main elimination process. Moreover, the dechlorination did not require a particular hydrogen donor. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the elemental distribution at the catalyst's surface. The O/Fe ratio influenced upon the decomposition efficiency of PCBs: the lower this ratio, the higher the decomposition efficiency. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that α-Fe2O3 effectively worked as a catalyst, while Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH were consumed as reactants, as their final state is different from their initial state. Finally, a decomposition pathway was postulated in which the Cl atoms in ortho-positions were more difficult to eliminate than those in the para- or meta-positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of growth rate on mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Haffner, G. Douglas; Patterson, Gordon; Walters, David M.; Burtnyk, Michael D.; Drouillard, Ken G.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of fish growth on mercury (Hg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation, a non–steady‐state toxicokinetic model, combined with a Wisconsin bioenergetics model, was developed to simulate Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). The model was validated by comparing observed with predicted Hg and PCB 180 concentrations across 5 age classes from 5 different waterbodies across North America. The non–steady‐state model generated accurate predictions for Hg and PCB bioaccumulation in 3 of 5 waterbodies: Apsey Lake (ON, Canada), Sharbot Lake (ON, Canada), and Stonelick Lake (OH, USA). The poor performance of the model for the Detroit River (MI, USA/ON, Canada) and Lake Hartwell (GA/SC, USA), which are 2 well‐known contaminated sites with possibly high heterogeneity in spatial contamination, was attributed to changes in feeding behavior and/or prey contamination. Model simulations indicate that growth dilution is a major component of contaminant bioaccumulation patterns in fish, especially during early life stages, and was predicted to be more important for hydrophobic PCBs than for Hg. Simulations that considered tissue‐specific growth provided some improvement in model performance particularly for PCBs in fish populations that exhibited changes in their whole‐body lipid content with age. Higher variation in lipid growth compared with that of lean dry protein was also observed between different bluegill populations, which partially explains the greater variation in PCB bioaccumulation slopes compared with Hg across sampling sites.

  4. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Housatonic River and adjacent aquifer, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Frederick B.; Frimpter, Michael H.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are sorbed to the fine-grained stream-bottom sediments along the Housatonic River from Pittsfield, Massachusetts, southward to the Massachusetts-Connecticut boundary. The highest PCB concentrations, up to 140,000 micrograms per kilogram, were found in samples of bottom material from a reach of the river between Pittsfield and Woods Pond Dam in Lee, Massachusetts. Sediments in Woods Pond have been estimated to contain about 11,000 pounds of PCB's. Approximately 490 pounds per year of PCB's have also been estimated to move past the Housatonic River gaging station at Great Barrington. The distribution of hydraulic heads, water temperatures, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, iron, and manganese in ground water shows that industrial water-supply wells in a sand and gravel aquifer adjacent to a stretch of the river called Woods Pond have been inducing ground-water recharge through the PCB-contaminated bottom sediments of the pond since late 1956. These data indicate that, at one location along the shore of the pond, the upper 40 feet of the aquifer contains water derived from induced infiltration. However, this induced recharge has not moved PCB's from the bottom sediments into a vertical section of the aquifer located 5 feet downgradient from the edge of Woods Pond. Samples taken at selected intervals in this section showed that no PCB's sorbed to the aquifer material or dissolved in the ground water within the detection limits of the chemical analyses.

  5. Combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, I. [Environmental Science Bureau, Ottawa (Canada); Valli, V.E. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There has been considerable interest in conducting toxicity studies on mixtures since this approach represents realistic human exposure and would provide a better model to predict the health impacts of environmental chemicals. However, risk assessment of the chemicals is largely based on the toxicity data of individual compounds by assuming simple additive effects of these compounds. This practice has been accepted by regulatory agencies provided that the concentrations of chemicals are extremely low, and there are no interactions. The existence of interactions among the chemicals co-administered to test animals may under or over estimate the effects of a mixture if the simple additive rule is applied. Previously, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect in rats when tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was co-administered with polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). The hepatic microsomal EROD, MROD and UDPGT activities of TCDD were decreased when co-administered with PCB congeners. To further explore the combined effects of these pollutants, we examined and report results on tissue residue levels of TCDD and histopathological changes in target organs of rats exposed to TCDD, PCBs and mixtures of both.

  6. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in muck soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used as a non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muck soil. An optimized extraction method was developed which involved using a HPCD to soil mass ratio of 5.8 with a single extraction period of 20 h. An aging experiment was performed by spiking a muck soil with {sup 13}C-labeled OCs and non-labeled PCBs. The soil was extracted with the optimized HPCD method and Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane over 550 d periodically. The HPCD extractability of the spiked OCs was greater than of the native OCs. A decreased in HPCD extractability was observed for the spiked OCs after 550 d of aging and their extractability approached those of the natives. The partition coefficient between HPCD and soil (log K{sub CD-Soil}) was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) with r{sup 2} = 0.67 and p < 0.05. - The effect of aging on the extractability of organochlorine chemicals in muck soil was investigated using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a mild extractant.

  7. Accreditation of a screening method for non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl detection in fishery products according to European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, F P; Russo, R; Ambrosio, L; Esposito, M; Severino, L

    2013-06-01

    European Commission Regulation 882/2004/EC requires that official control laboratories for foodstuffs in the member states are certified according to UNI EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (general requirement for the competence of calibration and testing laboratories). This mandatory requirement has resulted in a continuous adaptation and development of analytical procedures. The aim of this study was to develop a method for semiquantitative screening of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish for human consumption. According to the Commission Decision 657/2002/CE, the detection capability, the precision, the selectivity-specificity, and applicability-ruggedness-stability were determined to validate the method. Moreover, trueness was verified. This procedure resulted in rapid execution, which allowed immediate and effective intervention by the local health authorities to protect the health of consumers. Finally, the procedure has been recognized by the Italian accrediting body, ACCREDIA.

  8. Structural insights into the metabolism of 2-chlorodibenzofuran by an evolved biphenyl dioxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pravindra; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Dhindwal, Sonali; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regiospecificity of BphAE RR41 toward dibenzofuran and 2-chlorodibenzofuran differs. ► We compared the structures of the substrate-bound forms of the enzyme with both substrates. ► Dibenzofuran is compelled to move during the catalytic reaction. ► Ser283 contact with 2-chlorodibenzofuran helps prevent substrate movement during the reaction. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE LB400 ) is a Rieske-type oxygenase that catalyzes the stereospecific oxygenation of many heterocyclic aromatics including dibenzofuran. In a previous work, we evolved BphAE LB400 and obtained BphAE RR41 . This variant metabolizes dibenzofuran and 2-chlorodibenzofuran more efficiently than BphAE LB400 . However, the regiospecificity of BphAE RR41 toward these substrates differs. Dibenzofuran is metabolized principally through a lateral dioxygenation whereas 2-chlorodibenzofuran is metabolized principally through an angular dioxygenation. In order to explain this difference, we examined the crystal structures of both substrate-bound forms of BphAE RR41 obtained under anaerobic conditions. This structure analysis, in combination with biochemical data for a Ser283Gly mutant provided evidences that the substrate is compelled to move after oxygen-binding in BphAE RR41 :dibenzofuran. In BphAE RR41 :2-chlorodibenzofuran, the chlorine atom is close to the side chain of Ser283. This contact is missing in the BphAE RR41 :dibenzofuran, and strong enough in the BphAE RR41 :2-chlorodibenzofuran to help prevent substrate movement during the catalytic reaction.

  9. Concentration and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.; Hirakawa, H.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Matsueda, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka (Japan); Todaka, T. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, T. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Non-Co-PCBs) and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Mono-Co-PCBs) accumulate in the human body due to their highly lipophilic properties. In recent years, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of dioxins and related chemicals for the general population of humans. Although there exists an enormous amount of data on this subject, most of it is from breast milk and blood, due to ease of collection; information concerning concentrations and distribution in various human organs hardly exists. Therefore, new data concerning various human tissues is required to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of dioxins and related compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organ tissues. We previously reported on the concentration levels in the human liver and adipose tissues from 28 donors. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of dioxin-like isomers in 8 organs, including blood, lungs, liver, bile, spleen, pancreas, kidney and mesentery fat from 20 donors.

  10. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases: quantitative structure-activity relationships for hydroxyl polychlorinated biphenyl substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Degao [Dalian University of Technology, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China)

    2005-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), which relate the glucuronidation of hydroxyl polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) - catalyzed by the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) - to their physicochemical properties and molecular structural parameters, can be used to predict the rate constants and interpret the mechanism of glucuronidation. In this study, QSARs have been developed that use 23 semi-empirical calculated quantum chemical descriptors to predict the logarithms of the constants 1/K{sub m} and V{sub max}, related to enzyme kinetics. A partial least squares regression method was used to select the optimal set of descriptors to minimize the multicollinearity between the descriptors, as well as to maximize the cross-validated coefficient (Q{sup 2} {sub cum}) values. The key descriptors affecting log(1/K{sub m}) were E{sub lumo}- E{sub homo} (the energy gap between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital) and q{sub C}{sup -} (the largest negative net atomic charge on a carbon atom), while the key descriptors affecting log V{sub max} were the polarizability {alpha}, the Connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), and logP (the logarithm of the partition coefficient for octanol/water). From the results obtained it can be concluded that hydrophobic and electronic aspects of OH-PCBs are important in the glucuronidation of OH-PCBs. (orig.)

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  13. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  14. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  15. Quantitative SERS detection of low-concentration aromatic polychlorinated biphenyl-77 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhi Yong; Liu, Xin; Chen, Y; Wu, Yucheng; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a simple label-free high-sensitive method for detecting low-concentration persistent organic pollutants and explosive materials. The proposed method combines surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and magnetomotive enrichment of the target molecules on the surface of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). This structure can be achieved through self-assembling integration of Ag NPs with ferromagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres, forming a hybrid SERS nanoprobe with both optical and magnetic properties. Moreover, the magnetic response of ferromagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres can be used to dynamically modulate the optical property of Ag NPs through controlling their geometric arrangement on the substrate by applying an external magnetic field. It is also demonstrated from the full-wave numerical simulation results that the maximum electromagnetic field enhancement can be greatly increased by shortening the distance of neighboring Ag NPs and therefore resulting in an improved SERS detecting limit. More importantly, by using the prepared substrate, the SERS signals from organic pollution substances, i.e. aromatic polychlorinated biphenyl-77 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, were quantitatively analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. An improved inventory of polychlorinated biphenyls in China: A case study on PCB-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Tian, Chongguo; Wang, Xiaoping; Ma, Jianmin; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-06-01

    Emission inventory of pollutants is essential for the environmental fate study and management of the pollutant. To construct a reasonable PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) inventory in China, this study estimates PCB usage and emission using power generating capacity, installed capacity of power plants and transformer substations, population density and GDP as surrogates. Inventory of representative PCB (PCB-153) with a resolution of 1/4° latitude × 1/4° longitude in China from 1952 to 2005 was generated and assessed as an example. Totally, about 20.3 kt PCBs were applied in China, of which 179 t were PCB-153. By the end of 2005, most of them (56.4%) were emitted into the soil, 2.7% entered the air, and about 20.8% was sealed in storage site or still in service. Historical emissions exhibited increasing trends after 1968, 1984 and 1994, which were mainly associated with usage or disposal processes. Although primary emission has been declined since 2005, the influence of secondary emission from soils, unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCB), and reemission from storage sites could be a long-lasting issue in the future. This new emission inventory improves previous PCB emission inventory significantly, which underestimated PCB emission in China considerably.

  17. Occurrence and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants in edible fish species collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Holmes, M; Rose, M; Zhihua, L; Huang, X; Smith, F; Panton, S; Marshall, L

    2018-05-01

    The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated. Sub-sets of samples (50-75) were also analysed for emerging contaminants: polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs and PXBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Contaminant occurrence varied with species and location, but all measured contaminants were detected, with sprats, sea bass, sardines, mackerel, and herring showing higher tissue concentrations. The concentrations of the different contaminants in the various samples were mapped utilising the GPS coordinate data of the capture locations to visualise spatial distribution levels. In terms of catch location, fish sampled from the coasts of southern Britain, north-western France and the Irish Sea appeared to contain proportionately higher levels of some contaminants - e.g. samples from the Irish Sea tended to show higher PCN concentrations, whereas higher levels of PCBs were observed in some fish sampled off the coasts of northern France. Similarly, samples of mullet from the southeast coast of UK showed much higher concentrations of BDE-99 than the other regions. In terms of occurrence trends, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations show a modest decline over the last decade but where limited background data is available for emerging

  18. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in two salt marsh sediments of the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Cristian; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca G; Carraro, Claudio; Favotto, Maurizio; Frignani, Mauro

    2011-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in two dated salt marsh cores of the Venice Lagoon to assess their input chronology and to evaluate the importance of atmospheric deposition as a source. Sampling sites were chosen in order to evidence the differences between areas located leeward and windward with respect to inputs originating in both the city of Venice and the industrial area. Concentrations of PCB indicators (0.13-15.6 ng g⁻¹) increased gradually from the 1930s, reached maxima from the 1950s to the late 1970s, and then decreased. PCB loadings to marshes are driven by both the atmospheric deposition and the resuspension of subtidal sediments, this latter being more important for heavier congeners. The downwind marsh recorded higher fluxes (0.06-9.72 ng cm⁻² year⁻¹) than the upwind one (0.01-0.53 ng cm⁻² year⁻¹). Recent fluxes are rather consistent with bulk deposition measurements. A higher contribution of CB-101 and CB-118 was detected in the intermediate layers of the downwind site, suggesting a different PCB source for the corresponding time interval. In the other marsh, PCBs showed a rather constant composition at all levels (mostly CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180), accounting for a regional influence. Deep layers showed an enrichment of higher chlorinated congeners at both sites, whereas recent samples conserve the patterns typical of surficial and subsurficial subtidal sediments. The scientific approach adopted in this research can be considered as a sort of methodological procedure for the determination of fluxes and pathways of PCBs through the study of marsh cores.

  20. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed...... as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data...

  1. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  2. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  4. Structural insights into the metabolism of 2-chlorodibenzofuran by an evolved biphenyl dioxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pravindra [Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Mohammadi, Mahmood [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier), Laval, QC, Canada H7V 1B7 (Canada); Dhindwal, Sonali [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Pham, Thi Thanh My [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier), Laval, QC, Canada H7V 1B7 (Canada); Bolin, Jeffrey T. [Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Sylvestre, Michel, E-mail: Michel.Sylvestre@iaf.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier), Laval, QC, Canada H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regiospecificity of BphAE{sub RR41} toward dibenzofuran and 2-chlorodibenzofuran differs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compared the structures of the substrate-bound forms of the enzyme with both substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dibenzofuran is compelled to move during the catalytic reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ser283 contact with 2-chlorodibenzofuran helps prevent substrate movement during the reaction. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) is a Rieske-type oxygenase that catalyzes the stereospecific oxygenation of many heterocyclic aromatics including dibenzofuran. In a previous work, we evolved BphAE{sub LB400} and obtained BphAE{sub RR41}. This variant metabolizes dibenzofuran and 2-chlorodibenzofuran more efficiently than BphAE{sub LB400}. However, the regiospecificity of BphAE{sub RR41} toward these substrates differs. Dibenzofuran is metabolized principally through a lateral dioxygenation whereas 2-chlorodibenzofuran is metabolized principally through an angular dioxygenation. In order to explain this difference, we examined the crystal structures of both substrate-bound forms of BphAE{sub RR41} obtained under anaerobic conditions. This structure analysis, in combination with biochemical data for a Ser283Gly mutant provided evidences that the substrate is compelled to move after oxygen-binding in BphAE{sub RR41}:dibenzofuran. In BphAE{sub RR41}:2-chlorodibenzofuran, the chlorine atom is close to the side chain of Ser283. This contact is missing in the BphAE{sub RR41}:dibenzofuran, and strong enough in the BphAE{sub RR41}:2-chlorodibenzofuran to help prevent substrate movement during the catalytic reaction.

  5. Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ge

    Full Text Available Concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were assessed in soils from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The analytical procedure involved the application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometric detection (GC/ITMS for identification and quantification. Among the 28 PCB congeners studied, 26 of them, except CB195 and CB209, were detected in the analyzed samples at different frequencies. The total concentrations of 28 indicator PCBs (ΣPCBs ranged from 2.6 to 148.8 ng g⁻¹ with an average value of 50.7 ng g⁻¹ and median of 39.5 ng g⁻¹. Sources and congeners' pattern of PCB were investigated in the soil of Midway Atoll. The principal component analysis indicated that the compositions of PCBs in most of the soil samples were similar. The total concentrations of PCBs were used to assess the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣPCBs.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls pattern analysis: Potential nondestructive biomarker in vertebrates for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, N.W. van den; Ruiter-Dijkman, E.M. De; Broekhuizen, S.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2000-03-01

    Biomarkers are valuable instruments to assess the risks from exposure of organisms to organochlorines. In general, however, these biomarkers are either destructive to the animal of interest or extremely difficult to obtain otherwise. In this paper, the authors present a nondestructive biomarker for exposure to cytochrome P450-inducing organochlorines. This marker is based on a pattern analysis of metabolizable and nonmetabolizable polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, which occur in several kinds of tissues (and even blood) that can be obtained without serious effects on the organism involved. The fraction of metabolizable PCB congeners is negatively correlated with exposure to PCBs, which are known to induce specific P450 isoenzymes. This relation can be modeled by a logistic curve, which can be used to define critical levels of exposure. In addition, this method creates an opportunity to analyze biomarker responses in archived tissues stored at standard freezing temperatures ({minus}20 C), at which responses to established biomarkers deteriorate. Furthermore, this method facilitates attribution of the enzyme induction to certain classes of compounds.

  7. QSPR models for predicting generator-column-derived octanol/water and octanol/air partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jintao; Yu, Shuling; Zhang, Ting; Yuan, Xuejie; Cao, Yunyuan; Yu, Xingchen; Yang, Xuan; Yao, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Octanol/water (K(OW)) and octanol/air (K(OA)) partition coefficients are two important physicochemical properties of organic substances. In current practice, K(OW) and K(OA) values of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are measured using generator column method. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models can serve as a valuable alternative method of replacing or reducing experimental steps in the determination of K(OW) and K(OA). In this paper, two different methods, i.e., multiple linear regression based on dragon descriptors and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, were used to predict generator-column-derived log K(OW) and log K(OA) values of PCBs. The predictive ability of the developed models was validated using a test set, and the performances of all generated models were compared with those of three previously reported models. All results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory and can thus be used as alternative models for the rapid assessment of the K(OW) and K(OA) of PCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in tree bark near a former manufacturing plant in Anniston, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, Mark H; Johnson, Glenn W

    2007-05-01

    Tree bark samples were collected to identify the relative amounts and congener profiles of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls dissolved into bark lipids from the gas phase in Anniston, Alabama, USA, where PCBs were manufactured from the 1920s until 1971. The area is heavily contaminated with PCBs: At least 4550 metric tons (mt) of PCB and 14000 mt of PCB distillation residue, known as Montar, remain buried in two landfills near the plant site. A minimum of 20.5 mt of PCBs were emitted to the atmosphere by the plant between 1953 and 1971 based on emissions figures for 1970. Bark results show that total PCB concentrations range over more than three orders of magnitude from 171927 ng/g lipid near the plant/landfill area, dropping exponentially to 35 ng/g lipid at a distance of about 7 km. The exponential trend is highly correlated (r=-0.77) and significant (ptree started growing after 1971 showing that atmospheric PCB concentrations remained high after PCB production ended. All PCB congener profiles show persistent congeners 31+28, 52, 66, 153, 138, and 180. Congener profiles from trees growing near the plant/landfill all have somewhat similar profiles but those growing during PCB production show high molecular mass compounds not usually found in the atmosphere and not found in younger trees, even in the most concentrated sample. We believe that high-temperature Montar disposal released high molecular mass PCBs into the gas phase which were dissolved into older tree bark lipids.

  9. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  10. A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; McLachlan, Michael S; Wiberg, Karin; Jonsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 stimulates basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis of human adrenocortical H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Wang, P.-W.; Chang, Louis W.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis, we have performed a systematical study to characterize the corresponding steroidogenic response of human adrenocortical cell line H295R to PCB126 exposure. We found that PCB126 at high concentrations stimulated basal and inducible aldosterone production. The aldosterone induction occurred concomitantly with activation of the CYP11B2 gene. Despite the fact that PCB126 acted in synergy with both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) in activation of aldosterone synthesis, PCB126 only modestly increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in the presence of Ang II contrary to the synergistic transcriptional induction elicited by PCB126 and potassium. This implicated that PCB126 had differential interactions with the potassium and Ang II signaling systems in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis. In addition, high concentrations of PCB126 elevated transcriptional expression of the type I Ang II receptor (AT 1 ) and might thus sensitize the cellular Ang II responsiveness in both basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis. SF-1 was not involved in the PCB126-induced transcriptional regulation despite its importance in steroidogenic gene activation

  12. Decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil with a dispersion mixture of metallic calcium and calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Miyata, Hideaki; Kakeda, Mitsunori

    2013-02-01

    This study describes the decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil with dispersion mixtures of metallic calcium (Ca) and calcium oxide (CaO) at different temperatures. In these experiments, naturally moisturized and contaminated soil (1.0 g [31 ppm PCBs]), CaO (dried 2.0 wt%), and metallic Ca (0.01 g [0.25 mmol]) were introduced into a stainless steel pressure reactor under 0.1 MPa N(2) gas. The mixtures were stirred magnetically and heated at 260, 280, and 300 °C, respectively. Soil treatment with metallic Ca and CaO under various temperature conditions is extremely effective for degrading existing PCBs. Decomposition resulted from dechlorination (DC). Initial moisture in soil acted as a hydrogen source during stirring. Soil moisture can be beneficial for hydrodechlorination in the presence of metallic Ca and CaO. Furthermore, metallic Ca and CaO can greatly increase the number of collisions and mutual refinement. Treatment at 260, 280, and 300 °C combined with metallic Ca and CaO is effective for the decomposition (approximately 95 % DC) of PCBs in soil under natural moisture conditions.

  13. Enantioseparation and identification for the rationalization of the environmental impact of 4 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjie; Tang, Qiaozhi; Xie, Jingqian; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Kai; Liu, Weiping

    2018-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC. The resolution was optimized with respect to n-hexane-based mobile phases, temperature, and flow rate. All pure enantiomers were recovered from semi-preparative HPLC within 15 minutes for practical purpose. Characterization of the absolute configurations were conducted with a combination of theoretical and experimental electronic circular dichroism measurements. The enantiomers of PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149 proved to be eluted as R > S, S > R, R > S, and S > R, respectively. Molecular structures (eg, substituent groups) and properties (eg, bond lengths, bond angles, and dipole moments) were quantitatively analyzed to understand the toxicity effect of PCBs. In summary, we have developed a well-established methodology of collection and configuration identification for analogous PCB derivatives. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Passive air sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers across Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaward, Foday M; Zhang, Gan; Nam, Jae Jak; Sweetman, Andrew J; Obbard, Jeffrey P; Kobara, Yuso; Jones, Kevin C

    2005-11-15

    Asia is of global importance economically, yet data on ambient persistent organic pollutant levels are still sparse for the region, despite international efforts under the Stockholm Convention to identify and reduce emissions. A large-scale passive air sampling survey was therefore conducted in Asia, specifically in China, Japan, South Korea, and Singapore. Polyurethane foam disks were deployed simultaneously at 77 sites, between Sept 21 and Nov 16, 2004, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordane), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The meteorological conditions prevailing in the region at this time facilitated the assessment of local/regional differences in atmospheric emissions, because large-scale advection effects due to monsoons or dust storms did not occur. Air concentrations estimated assuming an average sampler uptake rate of 3.5 m3/day ranged as follows (pg m(-3)): PCBs, 5-340; HCB, 10-460; DDTs, 0.4-1800; chlordanes, 1-660; PBDEs, < 0.13-340. South Korea and Singapore generally had regionally low concentrations. Elevated concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, and HCB occurred at sites in China, higher than reported in a similar recent sampling campaign in Europe. Chlordane was highest in samples from Japan (which also had elevated levels of PCBs and DDTs) and was also elevated in some Chinese locations. PBDE levels were generally low in the region.

  15. Specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in Japanese common squid as a bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, D.; Inoue, S.; Ikeda, K.; Tanaka, H.; Yamada, H.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-01-01

    Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring organochlorines pollution in waters around Japan. - Organochlorines (OCs) representing Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDTs (DDT and its metabolites), CHLs (chlordane compounds), HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were determined in the liver of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) collected from the waters around Japan (Japan Sea and western North Pacific Ocean). Among OCs concentrations, PCBs (upto 5600 ng/g lipid wt.) were the highest, and those of other OCs were in the order of DDT> CHLs > HCHs > HCB. Studies on growth trend and seasonal variation of OCs in this species suggest a rapid reflection of the pollution levels in seawater where and when they were collected, regardless of body-length and time of collection. These results indicate that Japanese common squid is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring OCs pollution in waters around Japan. With regard to the geographical distribution of OCs in this species collected from waters around Japan, OCs concentrations in specimens from Japan Sea were higher than those from the Pacific Ocean. This result might reflect some existing of local pollution sources of OCs around Japan Sea, and slower water exchange between Japan Sea and open ocean

  16. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  17. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Figueiredo, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations...... of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota....... The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities...

  19. Ultrathin-shell boron nitride hollow spheres as sorbent for dispersive solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meizhen; Xing, Hanzhu; Chen, Xiangfeng; Chen, Fan; Wu, Chi-Man Lawrence; Zhao, Rusong; Cheng, Chuange

    2014-11-21

    Boron nitride hollow spheres with ultrathin-shells were synthesized and used as sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction of aromatic pollutants at trace levels from environmental water samples. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as target compounds. Sample quantification and detection were performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Extraction parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were optimized through response surface methodology using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed method achieved good linearity within the concentration range of 0.15-250 ng L(-1) PCBs, low limits of detection (0.04-0.09 ng L(-1), S/N=3:1), good repeatability of the extractions (relative standard deviation, spring waters were analyzed using the developed method. Results demonstrated that the hexagonal boron nitride-based material has significant potential as a sorbent for organic pollutant extraction from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Allee effect in polar bears: a potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Grimm, Volker

    2016-11-30

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland and Svalbard exhibited very high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the 1980s and 1990s. In Svalbard, slow population growth during that period was suspected to be linked to PCB contamination. In this case study, we explored how PCBs could have impacted polar bear population growth and/or male reproductive success in Svalbard during the mid-1990s by reducing the fertility of contaminated males. A dose-response relationship linking the effects of PCBs to male polar bear fertility was extrapolated from studies of the effects of PCBs on sperm quality in rodents. Based on this relationship, an individual-based model of bear interactions during the breeding season predicted fertilization success under alternative assumptions regarding male-male competition for females. Contamination reduced pregnancy rates by decreasing the availability of fertile males, thus triggering a mate-finding Allee effect, particularly when male-male competition for females was limited or when infertile males were able to compete with fertile males for females. Comparisons of our model predictions on age-dependent reproductive success of males with published empirical observations revealed that the low representation of 10-14-year-old males among breeding males documented in Svalbard in mid-1990s could have resulted from PCB contamination. We conclude that contamination-related male infertility may lead to a reduction in population growth via an Allee effect. The magnitude of the effect is largely dependent on the population-specific mating system. In eco-toxicological risk assessments, appropriate consideration should therefore be given to negative effects of contaminants on male fertility and male mating behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Developmental and neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Ohba, Takashi; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    Because behavioral deficits associated with gestational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been a concern, we studied the developmental and neurobehavioral effects of perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a commercial mixture of PCBs, in mice. The PCB mixture (A1254; 0, 6, 18, and 54 mg/kg body weight) was administered to pregnant mice (C57BL/6Cr) every 3 days by gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20. Compared with the control, treatment with A1254 did not alter the maternal body weight during the gestation and lactation periods. The body weight of the offspring did not differ among treatments. To assess the effects on offspring following such exposure, physical and neurobehavioral development (i.e., pinna detachment, hair growth, eye opening, incisor eruption, grasp reflex, righting reflex, walking, negative geotaxis, and cliff avoidance) was observed before weaning. At PND 7, poor adult-like responses in negative geotaxis were observed in all exposed groups. When the offspring were at 8-week old, the PCB-treated (18 mg/kg body weight) mice showed a decreased walking speed in the open-field test, and a prolonged time to reach the platform in the water maze test. Spontaneous locomotion activity was not affected by PCB exposure at 9 weeks . These results showed that perinatal exposure to PCBs produces several behavioral alterations in mice. Although dose-dependent changes were not observed, the neurobehavioral effects such as a decreased walking speed in the open-field test and a prolonged time to reach the platform in the water maze test remained in adulthood after the seeming recovery from the transient delay in development before weaning.

  2. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the thyroid gland - examining and discussing possible longitudinal health effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaum, Petra M; Lang, Jessica; Esser, André; Schettgen, Thomas; Neulen, Joseph; Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Many previous studies have dealt with the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the thyroid gland, but their findings are inconsistent. One problem of these studies has been their use of cross-sectional designs. The aim of the current study is to investigate longitudinal effects of PCBs on the thyroid gland, focusing on: morphological changes in thyroid tissue (i.e. thyroid volume), changes in thyroid hormones and in thyroid antibodies. A total of 122 individuals (Mage=44.7) were examined over a period of four years (t(1) until t(4)). Medical history was collected via interviews, an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine plasma PCB levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TGab) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRab). Rank correlation coefficients and mixed effect models were performed controlling for age and total lipids. There were negative correlations between higher chlorinated biphenyls and fT3, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. We also found an interaction effect of higher-chlorinated PCBs over time for fT4 as well as TSHRab. In case of high exposure, a decrease in fT4 and an increase in TSHRab level were found over time. In regards to the other variables, our findings yielded no clear results in the examined time period. This is the first study to shows a PCB-related effect on fT3, fT4 and TSHRab over a four year period. The data also suggest that morphological and antibody findings remain inconsistent and do not allow for unambiguous interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Scheuhammer, Anton M.; O'Brien, Mike

    2007-01-01

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 ± 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 ± 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 ± 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  5. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the Upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Rada, R.G.; Balogh, S.J.; Rupprecht, J.E.; Young, R.D.; Johnson, D.K.

    1999-12-15

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels revealed accumulation of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH{sub 3}Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs in zebra mussels varied longitudinally, but the composition of PCB congeners was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  6. Levels, distribution and air-soil exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    An initial survey of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in air and soils across industrial and agricultural areas of Punjab Province, Pakistan, was conducted from January to March 2011. The total concentration of all PCBs (31 PCBs) ranged from 34 to 389pgm(-3) in air and from 7 to 45ngg(-1) dry weight in soils, where both ranges were similar to the average ranges in other areas of the world. PCBs were elevated across industrial regions near urban and industrial sources. Consistently low air concentrations of PCBs at the agricultural sites suggest that they are less widespread or uniformly distributed in the Pakistani atmosphere. The calculated air and soil fugacity fraction values indicated that soils are a potential secondary source of PCBs in agricultural areas, whereas they are in equilibrium or atmospheric deposition in industrial and urban areas. TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs for soil samples met the Canadian standard. However, local authorities should address the human health threats from urban and industrial soils in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  8. Development of an online emission measuring system for quasi-continuous measurement of organic halgen compounds in off-gases of thermal processes. The example of polychlorinated dibeno-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pure gas of incinerators for domestic waste; Entwicklung einer on-line Emissionsmesstechnik zur quasi-kontinuierlichen Bestimmung von Organohalogen-Verbindungen in Abgasen thermischer Prozesse. Ausgefuehrt am Beispiel polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane im Reingas von Hausmuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K.

    2000-07-01

    Industrial processes are connected with the emission of xenobiotic substances that represent a burden on the environment. Standardised methods currently available for the quantitative determination of these substances are time consuming, require a lot of work and are therefore expensive. Consequently they are not suited to perform extensive screening or monitoring programs. The aim of this work was therefore to develop a reliable quasi-continuous time and cost effective measuring method that can be used as a screening tool for the determination of such substances. The method has been developed according to stack emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). (orig.)

  9. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ

  10. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  11. Concentrations and trophic magnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in marine fish from the Bohai coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Shasha; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have been found widely in the aquatic environment and can be transferred through food chains, which can magnify or dilute their toxic effects on humans. In this study, PCNs were analyzed in samples of 17 species of fish with different dietary habits collected in the Bohai coastal area in China. Dichloronaphthalenes, which have rarely been quantified in previous studies, were determined. The total PCN concentrations were from 7.3 to 214 pg/g wet weight, and the highest concentration was found in ditrema. The trichloronaphthalenes were the most abundant PCNs, followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and pentachloronaphthalenes. The relatively high contributions of the less-chlorinated homologs to the total PCN concentrations indicated that the main PCN sources around the Bohai were industrial thermal process emissions rather than technical PCN formulations. The trophic magnification factors of the PCN homologs were from 3.1 to 9.9, indicating that PCNs were biomagnified by fish. The trophic magnification factor of dichloronaphthalene and trichloronaphthalenes was 5.8 and 6.4, respectively, indicating for the first time that dichloronaphthalene and trichloronaphthalenes can undergo trophic magnification by fish. The two highest trophic magnification factors were for the pentachloronaphthalenes and hexachloronaphthalenes, probably because these PCNs having fewer vicinal carbon atoms without chlorine atoms attached are less easily biotransformed than the other homologs. The dioxin-like toxicities of the PCNs in the samples, expressed as potential toxic equivalences (TEQs), were assessed. The highest total TEQ was 0.0090 pg/g ww, in Pacific herring, and the hexachloronaphthalenes were the dominant contributors to the total TEQs in the fish samples. The PCN TEQs were much lower than the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl TEQs found in fish from the Bohai in previous studies, and

  12. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  13. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and indoor dust associated with electricity generation facilities in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folarin, Bilikis Temitope; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Oluseyi, Temilola; Olayinka, Kehinde; Harrad, Stuart

    2018-09-01

    Concentrations of 7 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in dust and soil samples from 12 power stations collected over the two major seasons of the Nigerian climate. Median ƩPCB 7 concentrations in soil ranged from 2 ng/g for power station A to 220 ng/g for power station I; while those in dust ranged from 21 ng/g for power station L to 2200 ng/g for power station I. For individual congeners, median PCB concentrations ranged from 3.8 ng/g for PCB 101 to 52 ng/g for PCB 180 in dust, and  transmission > distribution). Congener patterns in dust and soil samples were compared using principal component analysis (PCA) with those in transformer oil samples from 3 of the power stations studied and with common PCB mixtures (Aroclors). This revealed congener patterns in soil were more closely related to that in the transformer oil than dust. Congener patterns in most samples were similar to Aroclor 1260. Concentrations of PCBs in soil samples close to the transformers significantly exceeded those in soil sampled further away. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  15. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  16. Assessment of atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using polyparameter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk-Sekulić Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of partial or total destruction of industrial plants, military targets, infrastructure, uncontrolled fires and explosions during the conflict period from 1991 to 1999, at the area of Western Balkans, were large amounts of hazardous organic matter that have been generated and emitted in the environment. In order to assess gas/particle partition of seven EPA polychlorinated biphenyls and sixteen EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, twenty air samples have been collected at six urban, industrial and highly contaminated localities in Vojvodina. Hi-Vol methodology has been used for collecting ambiental air samples, that simultaneously collects gaseous and particulate phase with polyurethane foam filters (PUF and glass fiber filters (GFF. PUF and GFF filters have been analyzed, and concentration levels of gaseous PCBs and PAHs molecules in gaseous and particulate phase were obtained, converted and expressed through fraction of individual compounds sorbed onto particulate phase of the sample, in total detected quantity. Experimentally gained gas/particle partitioning values of PCBs and PAHs molecules have been compared with PP-LFER model estimated values. Significant deviation has been noticed during comparative analysis of estimated polyparameter model values for complete set of seven PCBs congeners. Much better agreement of experimental and estimated values is for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially for molecules with four rings. These results are in a good correlation with literature data where polyparameter model has been used for predicting gas/particle partition of studied group of organic molecules.

  17. Occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in surface sediments from a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Wei; Bai, Ze-Lin; Liu, Wen-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake...... and microbial degradation accounted for 34.2 % and 65.8 % of total PCBs using PMF, and PMF revealed that natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals accounted for 38.1 % and 61.8 %, respectively. CA indicated that some toxic heavy metals (e.g., Cd, In, Tl, and Hg) were associated with Ca–Na–Mg minerals......, and Hg were at levels of environmental concern. The sediment in the drinking water source area (DWSA) was threatened by heavy metals from other areas, and some fundamental solutions were proposed to protect the DWSA....

  18. Screening of the persistent organic pollutants in sediments of almendares river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanno, Zoila; Depauw, E.; Focant, J.; Micaela, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Heydrich, Mayra

    2006-01-01

    The Almendares river the most important river of the city, show a critic situation due to the contamination of water and sediments with non treated or inefficient treatment of the domestic and industrial residues (Y. Nunnez). Previous studies performed in Cuba investigated the contamination of this river (R. Marsan), those studies describe the determination of heavy metals in water as well as in sediments and also have been tested the nutrient content (A. Rodriguez et all), physic-chemicals properties and microbiological analysis. However, there is not available information about levels of concentration and spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Taking into consideration these antecedents, the purpose of this work was the application of analytical methods for the detection of these organic compounds in the sediment of Almendares river

  19. Levels of dioxin-like compounds in Taiwan foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated DibenzoFurans (PCDFs), and WHO PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the consumption rate of foodstuffs are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in foodstuffs increases the population risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. The DLCs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs is, therefore, being surveyed for the first time.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in pooled serum from people in different age groups from five Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Yuan, Haodong; Jin, Jun; Li, Peng; Ma, Yulong; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in human serum samples pooled by donor age and sex (≥60, 50-59, 40-49, 30-39, and 20-29 years old) were determined. The pooled samples were supplied by hospitals in five Chinese cities, which were Yitong (Jilin Province), Weifang (Shandong Province), Ganzi (Sichuan Province), Huaihua (Hunan Province), and Lingshui (Hainan Province). The total PCB concentrations were relatively low compared with concentrations that have been found in other parts of the world. Pentachlorobiphenyls were the dominant PCBs. The total PCB concentrations and the concentrations of most of the pentachlorobiphenyl congeners were slightly higher in the samples from younger donors than in the samples from older donors. The results indicated there is a new source of PCBs in China. Heptachlorobiphenyls in Lingshui may have been transported from Vietnam. Statistical analysis showed that young and old people had been exposed to different sources of PCBs. PCB 126 contributed more than the other dioxin-like PCBs to the total toxic equivalents when the samples were examined as a whole or by city, and the total toxic equivalents were higher in younger people than in older people for the whole sample set and for the Yitong samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of an enhancer element of class Pi glutathione S-transferase gene required for expression by a co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1999-01-01

    3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PenCB), one of the most toxic co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, specifically induces class Pi glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) as well as cytochrome P-450 1A1 in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells [Aoki, Matsumoto and Suzuki (1993) FEBS Lett. 333, 114-118]. However, the 5'-flanking sequence of the GSTP1 gene does not contain a xenobiotic responsive element, to which arylhydrocarbon receptor binds. Using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay we demonstrate here that the enhancer termed GSTP1 enhancer I (GPEI) is necessary for the stimulation by PenCB of GSTP1 gene expression in primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells. GPEI is already known to contain a dyad of PMA responsive element-like elements oriented palindromically. It is suggested that a novel signal transduction pathway activated by PenCB contributes to the stimulation of GSTP1 expression. PMID:10051428

  2. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  3. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Gibson, Polly P.; Walters, David M.; Mills, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems.However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI,USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r2> 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged acrossall years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa lesseffective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1–9. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  4. Interacting influence of potassium and polychlorinated biphenyl on cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Lin, Tsu-Chun Emma

    2007-01-01

    Giving human adrenocortical H295R cells 14 mM KCl for 24 h significantly induced not only aldosterone biosynthesis but also cortisol biosynthesis. Pre-treating the cells with polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) further increased potassium-induced aldosterone and cortisol productions in a dose-dependent manner, but all examined concentrations of PCB126 had little effect on the yields of precursor steroids progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone. Subsequent examinations revealed that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, responsible for the respective final steps of the cortisol and aldosterone biosynthetic pathways, exhibited increased responsiveness to PCB126 under high potassium. While 10 -5 M PCB126 was needed to induce a significant increase in the basal mRNA abundance of either gene, PCB126 could enhance potassium-induced mRNA expression of CYP11B1 at 10 -7 M and CYP11B2 at 10 -9 M. Actually, potassium and PCB126 synergistically upregulated mRNA expression of both genes. Potassium raised the transcriptional rates of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 probably through a conserved Ad5 cis-element, whereas PCB126 appeared to regulate these two genes at the post-transcriptional level. Positive potassium-PCB126 synergism was also detected in CYP11B2 enzyme activity estimated by aldosterone/progesterone ratio. In contrast, potassium and PCB126 increased CYP11B1 enzyme activity or cortisol/17-OH-progesterone ratio additively. Moreover, potassium improved the time effect of PCB126 on gene expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B2, but not the PCB126 time response of CYP11B1. These data demonstrated that potassium differentially enhanced the potency of PCB126 to induce CYP11B1- and CYP11B2-mediated steroidogenesis

  5. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE FIELDS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Ivanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical three-dimensional model was developed by combining a physically complete block of circulation with modules of transport and transformation of detritus and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. This z-coordinate model has a horizontal resolution of 5 × 5 km, 45 vertical levels, and a step of 5 minutes. The model considers gravitational sedimentation and decomposition of detritus, as well as its deposition and erosion on the bottom. To calculate the transport and transformation of PCBs in the Sea, the model uses three state variables: the concentration of PCBs in solution, in detritus, and in the upper layer of sediment. It also considers sorption, desorption, and reversible flows of PCBs at the bottom.A 20-day model calculation was performed to simulate a potential accidental release of PCBs in the area of the Danube Delta in spring. The PCBs advection flows dominated and were comparable to the adsorption/desorption flows, while the diffusion fluxes were infinitesimal. Up to 20% of discharged PCBs were adsorbed by detritus in the first two days after the accident. There was a gradual accumulation of PCBs on the bottom; 16 days after the accident, 18% of the PCBs were bound to the sediments. The PCBs transport on detritus serves as a natural buffer mechanism that weakens the spread of PCBs in the sea. The paper analyzes the dynamics of PCB fields formed as a result of the application of an artificial active sorbent to minimize adverse effects on the ecosystem. An end-user oriented software application was developed; it allows forecasting the dynamics of potential releases of PCBs and planning counter-measures. A user-friendly interface allows tracking the field, visualizing the distribution of PCBs in the water column and sediments, and displaying the balance between dissolved and suspended phases.Key words: multidisciplinary model, PCB transport, adsorption, desorption, sediments

  6. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  7. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  8. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  9. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  10. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  11. Characteristics, distribution and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal sediments from the heavily industrialized area of Asalouyeh, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfaeinia, Hossein; Asadgol, Zahra; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Seifi, Morteza; Moradi, Masoud; Dobaradaran, Sina

    2017-12-01

    In this research, the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in the marine sediments of Asaluyeh harbor, in the Persian Gulf. The samples were taken from industrial, semi-industrial and urban regions. The mean concentration levels of total (Σ) 18 detected PCBs were 514.32, 144.67 and 31.6 pg/g dw for the industrial, semi-industrial and urban sampling stations, respectively. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis, it was found that high contamination levels of PCBs in sediments collected along the Persian Gulf were associated with releases from local industries. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations of PCB congeners. World Health Organization toxic equivalents (TEQs) for PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.66 pg TEQ/g dry weight (dw) in the coastal sediments. The TEQ values in this study were higher than many reported worldwide in the literature for sediments. This suggests that there are high levels of contamination in the area due to industrial and other human activities.

  12. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiangping; Luo Xiaojun; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Zhongyi

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K OW (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web

  13. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jiangping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: luoxiaoj@gig.ac.cn; Zhang Ying; Yu Mei [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang Zhongyi [School of Life Sciences, SunYat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    To evaluate the biomagnification extent of polybrominated diphenyls ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a highly contaminated freshwater food web from South China, trophic magnification factors (TMFs) for 18 PBDE congeners and 53 PCB congeners were calculated. The TMF values ranged 0.26-4.47 for PBDEs and 0.75-5.10 for PCBs. Forty-five of 53 PCBs and BDEs 47, 100 and 154 had TMFs greater than one, suggesting their biomagnification in the present food web. The TMFs for PBDEs were generally smaller than those for PCBs with the same degree of halogenation, indicating a lower biomagnification potential for PBDEs compared to PCBs. For PCBs, it followed a parabolic relationship between TMFs and log K{sub OW} (octanol-water partition coefficient). However, this relationship was not significant for PBDEs, possibly due to the more complex behaviors of PBDEs in the food web (e.g., metabolism), compared to that of PCBs. - Forty-five of 53 PCBs magnified in the freshwater food web, while only BDEs 47, 100 and 154 significantly magnified in the same food web.

  14. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)).

  15. Long-term persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in air, soil and sediment around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Zheng, Minghui; Zhang Bing; Gao Lirong; Liu Lidan; Zhou Xin; Ma Xiaodong; Xiao Ke

    2012-01-01

    Air, soils and sediments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory were sampled to determine the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), unintentionally formed during PCP production. The mean concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air was one order of magnitude higher than that of the reference site. A trend of decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the factory was observed, suggesting this site has a significant influence on the regional ambient air. As for soil samples collected within 3 km from the factory and sediment samples from the adjacent rivers, high levels of contamination were found with WHO-TEQ concentrations of 193 ± 211 pg/g and 667 ± 978 pg/g, respectively. The PCDD/F homologue profiles of all samples were consistent with those found in the technical product of PCP, with OCDD as the dominant congener. These results indicate PCDD/Fs in the historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - Highlights: ► PCDD/Fs were investigated in various environmental compartments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory. ► High levels of PCDD/F contamination were found in ambient air, soils and the sediments around this factory. ► PCDD/F homologue profiles were consistent with PCDD/Fs in technical product of PCP. ► PCDD/Fs in this historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - PCDD/Fs around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment.

  16. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colciago, A.; Casati, L.; Mornati, O.; Vergoni, A.V.; Santagostino, A.; Celotti, F.; Negri-Cesi, P.

    2009-01-01

    The gender-specific expression pattern of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R) during brain development provides neurons the right amount of estradiol and DHT to induce a dimorphic organization of the structure. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disruptive pollutants; exposure to PCBs through placental transfer and breast-feeding may adversely affect the organizational action of sex steroid, resulting in long-term alteration of reproductive neuroendocrinology. The study was aimed at: a) evaluating the hypothalamic expression of aromatase, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in fetuses (GD20), infant (PN12), weaning (PN21) and young adult (PN60) male and female rats exposed to PCBs during development; b) correlating these parameters with the time of testicular descent, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity and copulatory behavior; c) evaluating possible alterations of some non reproductive behaviors (locomotion, learning and memory, depression/anxiety behavior). A reconstituted mixture of four indicator congeners (PCB 126, 138, 153 and 180) was injected subcutaneously to dams at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily from GD15 to GD19 and then twice a week till weanling. The results indicated that developmental PCB exposure produced important changes in the dimorphic hypothalamic expression of both aromatase and the 5alpha-Rs, which were still evident in adult animals. We observed that female puberty onset occurs earlier than in control animals without cycle irregularity, while testicular descent in males was delayed. A slight but significant impairment of sexual behavior and an important alteration in memory retention were also noted specifically in males. We conclude that PCBs might affect the dimorphic neuroendocrine control of reproductive system and of other neurobiological processes.

  17. Modeling Population-Level Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in East Greenland Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Grimm, Volker; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause endocrine disruption, cancer, immunosuppression, or reproductive failure in animals. We used an individual-based model to explore whether and how PCB-associated reproductive failure could affect the dynamics of a hypothetical polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population exposed to PCBs to the same degree as the East Greenland subpopulation. Dose-response data from experimental studies on a surrogate species, the mink (Mustela vision), were used in the absence of similar data for polar bears. Two alternative types of reproductive failure in relation to maternal sum-PCB concentrations were considered: increased abortion rate and increased cub mortality. We found that the quantitative impact of PCB-induced reproductive failure on population growth rate depended largely on the actual type of reproductive failure involved. Critical potencies of the dose-response relationship for decreasing the population growth rate were established for both modeled types of reproductive failure. Comparing the model predictions of the age-dependent trend of sum-PCBs concentrations in females with actual field measurements from East Greenland indicated that it was unlikely that PCB exposure caused a high incidence of abortions in the subpopulation. However, on the basis of this analysis, it could not be excluded that PCB exposure contributes to higher cub mortality. Our results highlight the necessity for further research on the possible influence of PCBs on polar bear reproduction regarding their physiological pathway. This includes determining the exact cause of reproductive failure, i.e., in utero exposure versus lactational exposure of offspring; the timing of offspring death; and establishing the most relevant reference metrics for the dose-response relationship.

  18. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case-control study has reported an association...... between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels...... controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases...

  19. Relationship between dioxin concentration and particle size for suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K.; Sakurai, T.; Choi, J.W.; Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to find out how the amounts of adsorbed dioxins, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-ortho-PCBs, vary with the particle size of suspended sediment. As dioxins are hydrophobic, they tend to adsorb onto particles suspended in water, and the determination of which dioxin congeners readily dissolve in water or adsorb onto particles is central to the characterization of dioxin behavior in water/sediment systems. Presumably suspension of sediments and the size of the particles govern the transfer of dioxins to aquatic organisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount of dioxins and the particle-size distribution of resuspended, rather than settled, sediment.

  20. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu Thi Thuy; Duong, Vu; Lien, Nghiem Thi Ha; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Hoa, Do Quang; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  2. Annual variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings at Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of five eggs or five nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in two randomly selected sets of five eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency, both statistically and qualitatively, for there to be less exposure in the second year compared to the first year.

  3. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically 100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO's) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968

  5. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study.

  6. Seasonal atmospheric deposition variations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and comparison of some deposition sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgül, Askın; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2011-03-01

    Ambient air and bulk deposition samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009. Eighty-three polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were targeted in the samples. The average gas and particle PCB concentrations were found as 393 ± 278 and 70 ± 102 pg/m(3), respectively, and 85% of the atmospheric PCBs were in the gas phase. Bulk deposition samples were collected by using a sampler made of stainless steel. The average PCB bulk deposition flux value was determined as 6,020 ± 4,350 pg/m(2) day. The seasonal bulk deposition fluxes were not statistically different from each other, but the summer flux had higher values. Flux values differed depending on the precipitation levels. The average flux value in the rainy periods was 7,480 ± 4,080 pg/m(2) day while the average flux value in dry periods was 5,550 ± 4,420 pg/m(2) day. The obtained deposition values were lower than the reported values given for the urban and industrialized areas, yet close to the ones for the rural sites. The reported deposition values were also influenced by the type of the instruments used. The average dry deposition and total deposition velocity values calculated based on deposition and concentration values were found as 0.23 ± 0.21 and 0.13 ± 0.13 cm/s, respectively.

  7. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Atmospheric occurrence, transport and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls over the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilan; Lin, Tian; Li, Zhongxia; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Tianfeng; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Ship-board air samples were collected during March to May 2015 from the East China Sea (ECS) to the northwestern Pacific Ocean (NWP) to explore the atmospheric occurrence and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when the westerly East Asian Monsoon prevailed. Total PCB concentrations in the atmosphere ranged from 56.8 to 261 pg m-3. Higher PCB levels were observed off the coast and minor temperature-induced changes showed that continuous emissions from East Asia remain as an important source to the regional atmosphere. A significant relationship between Koa (octanol-air partition coefficient) and KP (gas-particle partition coefficient) for PCBs was observed under continental air masses, suggesting that land-derived organic aerosols affected the PCB gas-particle partitioning after long-range transport, while an absence of this correlation was identified in marine air masses. The PCB partitioning cannot be fully explained by the absorptive mechanism as the predicted KP were found to be 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the measured Kp, while the prediction was closely matched when soot adsorption was considered. The results suggested the importance of soot carbon as a transport medium for PCBs during their long-range transport and considerable impacts of continental outflows on PCBs across the downwind area. The estimated transport mass of particulate PCBs into the ECS and NWP totals 2333 kg during the spring, constituting ca. 17% of annual emission inventories of unintentionally produced PCB in China.

  9. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  10. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sedimentation in the Lianhua Mountain Reservoir, Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Amuzu-Sefordzi, Basil; Li, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the biggest electronics manufacturing regions in the world. Due to the presence of abandoned industrial sites and the proliferation of large-scale electronics companies in the past four decades, it is therefore imperative to investigate the extent of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in the region. Spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in the Lianhua Mountain reservoir in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City, China were examined based on a sedimentary profile analysis. Higher concentrations of the heavy metals detected were recorded in bottom sediments whereas 70% of the detected PCBs recorded maximum concentrations in top sediments. The geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) indicate that the study area is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Also, the integrated pollution indices (IPI) were above 1, except Pb, which shows that the study area is contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of individual heavy metals and PCBs over a period of 60 years were also analyzed in order to establish a historical trend of pollution in the study area. This study provides baseline information on the level and historical trend of heavy metals and PCBs pollution in the study area.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  12. Estimation of sources and inflow of dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the sediment core of Lake Suwa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Eun, Heesoo; Watanabe, Eiki; Kumon, Fujio; Miyabara, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the historical changes in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (co-PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) inflows in Lake Suwa, their concentrations in the sediment core were analyzed in 5 cm interval. The maximum concentrations (depth cm) of PCDDs/DFs, co-PCBs, and PAHs were 25.2 ng/g dry (30-35 cm), 19.0 ng/g dry (30-35 cm), and 738, 795 ng/g dry (50-55 cm, 30-35 cm), respectively. Age and sedimentation rate of the sediment were estimated from the vertical changes in apparent density. Deposition rate of dioxins and PAHs were calculated from the concentration and sedimentation rate of the sediment. The results indicate that large amounts of dioxins and PAHs flowed into the lake in flood stage compared to normal stage. - Large amounts of dioxins and PAHs flowed into a lake in flood events

  13. Ultratrace analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K.; Watanabe, K.; Takemori, H. [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shoda, T. [Ehime Univ. Medical Research Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, we established pretreatment and high sensitivity analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans for the first time. Analyzing serum and CSF samples from humans found unique because PCBs behavior and metabolism could be discerned. Furthermore, so far studies reported concentrations of OH-PCBs in wildlife samples obtained by HRGC-LRMS or GC-ECD data. In this study, we established cleanup and analytical methods by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using 1 mL of sample. Mainly, total PCBs and OH-PCBs in the CSF were extracted by specialized developed method. Using this method, PCBs and OH-PCBs could be determined swiftly. Based on this method, major OH-PCB congeners were detected from human, serum, CSF, control serum and Rhesus monkey plasma. Present methodology developed based on the isotope dilution technique using OH-PCBs standard and thus we suggest the present methodology could apply for ultra trace analysis of OHPCBs as well as total PCBs in human samples.

  14. Induction of monooxygenation in rainbow trout by polybrominated biphenyls: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcombe, C R; Lech, J J

    1978-01-01

    Two commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1242) and one polybrominated biphenyl mixture (FireMaster BP-6) were examined for their abilities to induce hepatic microsomal monooxygenation in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Pretreatment of rainbow trout with Aroclors 1254 and 1242 (150 mg/kg IP) resulted in an approximate 10-fold induction of arylhydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylation, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation within 7 days after injection. These enzyme activities remained elevated above control values for at least 2-3 weeks. Administration of FireMaster BP-6 (150 mg/kg IP) also resulted in an induction of several monooxygenase activities. Arylhydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylation, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation were increased by 6-, 3,- and 25-fold, respectively. Only the latter two activities remained elevated two weeks post-injection. Ethylmorphine-N-demethylation was unaffected by the polyhalogenated biphenyls. Significant increases in P-450 hemoprotein were not observed after pretreatment with any of the polyhalogenated biphenyls studied. PMID:209992

  15. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Qin, Zhihui; Yang, Kai; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huang, Ronglang; Shi, Huixiang

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic

  16. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  17. Atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, How-Ran; Lin, Ding-Yan; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Gou, Yan-Yu; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Shui-Jen; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the atmospheric occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the Pacific Ocean near southern Taiwan and the northern Philippines. We determined sixty-six compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), in air samples simultaneously collected from the offshore oceanic atmosphere (n=6) and over a rural area (n=2). We calculated the atmospheric World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalency levels (WHO2005-TEQ), for the total dioxin-like POPs, including PCDD/Fs, DLPCBs, and PBDD/Fs, being 0.00612 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) and 0.0138 pg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3) over the ocean and land, respectively. We found unexpected lower averaged atmospheric PBDE concentrations in the rural area (15.9 pg/m(3)) than over the ocean (31.1 pg/m(3)) due to higher levels of the BDE209 congener, although the difference was not statistically significant. We have compared and reported our field results with previously published datasets over the global oceans, which suggest PCBs and PBDEs are the dominant chemical contaminants in the global oceanic atmosphere among these halogenated POPs (e.g. PCBs and Σdi-hepta PBDEs could be found in the range of 0.09-48.7 and 8.07-94.0 pg/m(3), respectively, including our dataset). However, there are still very few investigations on the global atmospheric levels of PBDD/Fs, PCDEs and PBBs and our data sums to these earlier studies. Finally, we point out that the halogenated POPs originated from Taiwan or the continental East Asia which could easily reach remote ocean sites via atmospheric transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholesterol biosynthesis in polychlorinated biphenyl-treated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, D.; Gamble, W.

    1982-01-01

    After administration of polychlorinated biphenly (PCB) at 0.055 (w/w) of the diet to Wistar rats for 30 days, followed by intraperitioneal injection of tritiated water, [ 14 C]mevalonate, and [ 14 C]acetate, there was a decrease in cholesterol biosynthesis in rat liver. No significant change in cholesterol formation was observed when PCB was administered at 0.01% (w/w) of the diet. In vitro inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver microsomes was observed with PCB. Squalene 2,3-oxidocyclase activity of rat liver microsomes was not significantly altered. Desmosterol delta 24 reductase activity was inhibited only at relatively high concentrations of PCB. There was increased incorporation of radioactivity into squalene and lanosterol, in vitro, in the presence of PCB. The primary inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis appears to be at the demethylation and rearrangement reactions between lanosterol and cholesterol in the biosynthetic pathway

  19. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-property relationship (3D-QSPR) models for prediction of thermodynamic properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): enthalpy of vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Swati; Chickos, James S; Welsh, William J

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR) models have been derived using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) to correlate the vaporization enthalpies of a representative set of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at 298.15 K with their CoMFA-calculated physicochemical properties. Various alignment schemes, such as inertial, as is, and atom fit, were employed in this study. The CoMFA models were also developed using different partial charge formalisms, namely, electrostatic potential (ESP) charges and Gasteiger-Marsili (GM) charges. The most predictive model for vaporization enthalpy (Delta(vap)H(m)(298.15 K)), with atom fit alignment and Gasteiger-Marsili charges, yielded r2 values 0.852 (cross-validated) and 0.996 (conventional). The vaporization enthalpies of PCBs increased with the number of chlorine atoms and were found to be larger for the meta- and para-substituted isomers. This model was used to predict Delta(vap)H(m)(298.15 K) of the entire set of 209 PCB congeners.

  1. Measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid waste such as transformer insulation paper by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikushi, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yuka; Toda, Kei

    2012-09-21

    In this work, a method for measuring polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated solid waste was investigated. This waste includes paper that is used in electric transformers to insulate electric components. The PCBs in paper sample were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. The recoveries with this method (84-101%) were much higher than those with conventional water extraction (0.08-14%), and were comparable to those with conventional organic solvent extraction. Limit of detection was 0.0074 mg kg(-1) and measurable up to 2.5 mg kg(-1) for 0.5 g of paper sample. Data for real insulation paper by the proposed method agreed well with those by the conventional organic solvent extraction. Extraction from wood and concrete was also investigated and good performance was obtained as well as for paper samples. The supercritical fluid extraction is simpler, faster, and greener than conventional organic solvent extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  3. Contamination of freshwater fish from rivers Sava and Danube with polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, S.; Radicevic, T.; Spiric, A.; Nedeljkovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    During air strikes, in april 1999, Institute of meat hygiene and technology have begun examination of freshwater fish to establish the degree of contamination. The information about damaged industrial facilities and toxic waste that have been spilled were hard to find, and was unofficial and contradicts. Because of that, at the first time we collected samples from different locations, but after first results, we concentrated our attention on locations on river Danube downstream from Pancevo and on river Sava upstream from Belgrade, the locations indicated as environmental 'hot spots'. According to our experience, knowledge, equipment and analytical skills we have chosen to determine the concentrations of PCBs in freshwater fish species, since aquatic fauna might be used as indicator organisms for the evaluation of water pollution. Polychlorinated biphenyls as contaminant of interest, have been chosen because large quantities of PCBs reached the soil and waste and ground waters from damaged transformers and capacitors, where they serve as dielectric fluids. Also, PCBs are highly toxic and due to their liposolubility and persistence, these compounds accumulate through food chain. In 1999, from April to December, we had collected 23 samples of different fish species on river Danube, downstream from Pancevo and 15 samples from locations on river Sava upstream from Belgrade. The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat and mg/kg fresh weight) were expressed as the sum of individual congeners (IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and as Aroclor 1260 (peaks were identified as a fingerprint pattern by comparison with Aroclor standards). The concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fat) are determined to evaluate the extent of contamination and concentrations of PCBs (mg/kg fresh weight) indicate daily intake and help us to estimate the risk for human health. Residues of PCBs in the fat extracted from fish sample were analysed according to the USDA Analytical Chemistry Guidebook. Gas

  4. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Gibson, Polly P; Walters, David M; Mills, Marc A

    2017-05-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI, USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r 2  > 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged across all years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa less effective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1278-1286. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in

  5. Reproductive dysfunction in rhesus monkeys exposed to low levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1248)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsotti, D.A.; Marlar, R.J.; Allen, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Eighteen female and four male adult Rhesus monkeys were fed the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1248 at levels of either 2.5 or 5.0 ppM in the diet. These levels are equal to, and 50% of, the concentration allowed in certain foods destined for human consumption. After consuming these diets for 2 months, some of the females developed acne, alopecia, erythema and swelling of the eyelids, and by 6 months all females exhibited these changes to some degree. Modifications in serum lipids developed gradually, with a trend towards hypocholesterolaemia, hypolipidaemia and decreased serum triglycerides. In addition there was a shift in the plasma albumin/globulin ratio and an increase in serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase activity. Analysis of subcutaneous fat showed an accumulation of the PCB isomers in the adipose tissue. The concentrations in this tissue reached a plateau, after which only slight variations were observed. Within 4 months, menstrual cycles were altered: menostaxis and menorrhagia occurred frequently and at times amenorrhoea was apparent. The ability of the animals to maintain pregnancy was impaired, as indicated by frequent resorptions and abortions. When infants were born they were small, and the transplacental movement of PCBs was evident from analyses of skin biopsies of neonates and of autopsy tissue from one stillborn. Moreover, additional accumulation of PCBs occurred in infants during breast feeding. All males fed 5.0 ppM PCB exhibited only slight periorbital oedema and erythema after 14 months on the diet and showed no alterations in their breeding capacities. The data presented indicate that long-term, low-level exposure of female non-human primates to PCBs can affect many important biological parameters.

  6. Complete Reductive Dehalogenation of Brominated Biphenyls by Anaerobic Microorganisms in Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi M.

    1998-01-01

    We sought to determine whether microorganisms from the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment in Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) could dehalogenate brominated biphenyls. The PCB dechlorination specificities for the microorganisms in this sediment have been well characterized. This allowed us to compare the dehalogenation specificities for brominated biphenyls and chlorinated biphenyls within a single sediment. Anaerobic sediment microcosms were incubated separately at 25°C with 16 different mono- to tetrabrominated biphenyls (350 μM) and disodium malate (10 mM). Samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector and a mass spectrometer detector at various times for up to 54 weeks. All of the tested brominated biphenyls were dehalogenated. For most congeners, including 2,6-dibromobiphenyl (26-BB) and 24-25-BB, the dehalogenation began within 1 to 2 weeks. However, for 246-BB and 2-2-BB, debromination was first observed at 7 and 14 weeks, respectively. Most intermediate products did not persist, but when 2-2-BB was produced as a dehalogenation product, it persisted for at least 15 weeks before it was dehalogenated to 2-BB and then to biphenyl. The dehalogenation specificities for brominated and chlorinated biphenyls were similar: meta and para substituents were generally removed first, and ortho substituents were more recalcitrant. However, the brominated biphenyls were better dehalogenation substrates than the chlorinated biphenyls. All of the tested bromobiphenyls, including those with ortho and unflanked meta and para substituents, were ultimately dehalogenated to biphenyl, whereas their chlorinated counterparts either were not dehalogenation substrates or were only partially dehalogenated. Our data suggest that PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms may be able to dehalogenate brominated biphenyls and may exhibit a relaxed specificity for these substrates. PMID:16349530

  7. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi = 0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi = 0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  8. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  9. External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Millsap, Deborah S; Yeager, Ronnie L; Heise, Steve S; Sparks, Daniel W; Henshel, Diane S

    2006-02-01

    Necropsy-observable cardiac deformities were evaluated from 283 nestling passerines collected from one reference site and five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites around Bloomington and Bedford, Indiana, USA. Hearts were weighed and assessed on relative scales in three dimensions (height, length, and width) and for externally visible deformities. Heart weights normalized to body weight (heart somatic index) were decreased significantly at the more contaminated sites in both house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). Heart somatic indices significantly correlated with log PCB concentrations in Carolina chickadee (Parus carolinesis) and tree swallow and with log 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent values in tree swallow alone. Ventricular length was increased significantly in eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and decreased significantly in Carolina chickadee and tree swallow from contaminated sites versus the reference site. Heart length regressed significantly against the log PCB concentrations (Carolina chickadee and tree swallow) or the square of the PCB concentrations (red-winged blackbird [Agelaius phoeniceus]) in a sibling bird. The deformities that were observed most at the contaminated sites included abnormal tips (pointed, rounded, or flattened), center rolls, macro- and microsurface roughness, ventricular indentations on the ventral or dorsal surface, lateral ventricular notches, visibly thin ventricular walls, and changes in overall heart shape. A pooled heart deformity index regressed significantly against the logged contaminant concentrations for all species except red-winged blackbird. These results indicate that developmental changes in heart morphometrics and shape abnormalities are quantifiable and may be sensitive and useful indicators of PCB-related developmental impacts across many avian species.

  10. Dehalogenation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyl by Bimetallic, Impregnated, and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Ahn, Sungwoo; Seyfferth, Angelia L.; Masue-Slowey, Yoko; Fendorf, Scott; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (nZVI), bimetallic nanoparticles (nZVI/Pd), and nZVI/Pd impregnated activated carbon (nZVI/Pd-AC) composite particles were synthesized and investigated for their effectiveness to remove polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Palladization of nZVI promoted the dehalogenation kinetics for mono- to tri-BDEs and 2,3,4-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 21). Compared to nZVI, the iron-normalized rate constants for nZVI/Pd were about 2-, 3-, and 4-orders of magnitude greater for tri-, di-, and mono-BDEs, respectively, with diphenyl ether as a main reaction product. The reaction kinetics and pathways suggest an H-atom transfer mechanism. The reaction pathways with nZVI/Pd favor preferential removal of para-halogens on PBDEs and PCBs. X-ray fluorescence mapping of nZVI/Pd-AC showed that Pd mainly deposits on the outer part of particles, while Fe was present throughout the activated carbon particles. While BDE 21 was sorbed onto activated carbon composites quickly, debromination was slower compared to reaction with freely dispersed nZVI/Pd. Our XPS and chemical data suggest about 7% of the total iron within the activated carbon was zero-valent, which shows the difficulty with in-situ synthesis of a significant fraction of zero-valent iron in the micro-porous material. Related factors that likely hinder the reaction with nZVI/Pd-AC are the heterogenous distribution of nZVI and Pd on activated carbon and/or immobilization of hydrophobic organic contaminants at the adsorption sites thereby inhibiting contact with nZVI. PMID:21557574

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by lipid droplet enlargement through Fsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Kwon, Woo Young; Kim, Yeon A; Oh, Yoo Jin; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Mi Hwa; Bae, Ju Yong; Kim, Jong-Min; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Although epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) lead to insulin resistance, the mechanism underlying PCBs-induced insulin resistance has remained unsolved. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo effects of PCB-118 (dioxin-like PCB) and PCB-138 (non-dioxin-like PCB) on adipocyte differentiation, lipid droplet growth, and insulin action. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with PCB-118 or PCB-138 during adipocyte differentiation. For in vivo studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered PCB-118 or PCB-138 (37.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and we examined adiposity and whole-body insulin action. PCB-118 and PCB-138 significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and increased the lipid droplet (LD) size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mice, both PCBs increased adipose mass and adipocyte size. Furthermore, both PCBs induced insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Expression of fat-specific protein 27 (Fsp27), which is localized to LD contact sites, was increased in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. Depletion of Fsp27 by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of LD enlargement and attenuation of insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, attenuated insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the reduced expression of Fsp27 protein and LD size. This study suggests that PCB exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by LD enlargement through Fsp27.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jonrit; Damkier, Per; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Brosen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6β-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6β-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6β-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6β-OHC/FC ratios and ΣPCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only

  13. Progressive risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls through a Total Diet Study in the Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun-su; Nguyen, Khanh-Hoang; Kim, Jongchul; Kim, Cho-il; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from foods was investigated through a Total Diet Study (TDS) for the first time in Korea. A representative food list was developed from food intake data. Non-selected foods were also included in the TDS through the mapping process to anticipate practical risk assessment. For better representativeness, data (2008–2011) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were combined with the TDS data set. And also, we estimated the dietary exposure to PCBs from various food items using a ‘best-fit’ mapping process and assessed the differences in PCB exposures by sex and age. In this study, we examined total PCBs (62 congeners) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and indicator PCBs, which are congeners that are mainly detected in various environmental matrices. The average dietary exposure (3.94 ng/kg body weight/day) that was estimated through food intake was 19.7% of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. - Highlights: • A total of 282 samples, composed of the most consumed foodstuffs in Korea, were analysed and shown in detail. • The contamination status of total PCBs in food was assessed, through their various condition on cooking methods. • The dietary intakes of PCBs in various food groups were estimated in different region, gender and age groups. • The improved and systematic food selection process was applied such as ‘mapping process’. - This study is to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCBs with the improved risk assessment method.

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Gardner, Susan C; Urbán R, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    The present study reports unique data on concentrations of several classes of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in blubber biopsies from healthy living fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico, one of the most isolated and unstudied population in the world. OC levels in this population were generally lower than levels reported in fin whales from other regions. The rank order of OCs were SigmaDDTs (range from 300 to 2400 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaPCBs (range from 40 to 290 ng g(-1) lw) > SigmaHCHs (range from or = SigmaCHLORs (from pesticide measured was the DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The PCBs 138, 153, and 180 were the most abundant PCBs congeners found in the fin whales samples. Males had significant higher concentrations of SigmaOC, SigmaDDTs and SigmaPCBs than females (P < 0.05), although the p,p'-DDE/SigmaDDTs ratios were similar between the sexes. Although the OC concentrations found in this population were generally below the levels that would be expected to cause deleterious health effects, the maximum values observed (2700 ng g(-1) lw) in some animals were higher than those associated with reproductive effects in whales. Given the small population size and highly isolated characteristics of Gulf of California fin whales, health effects in individuals could readily translate into population-level effects. Future research on this topic will be necessary to better understand the role that these compounds may have on the health of this population.

  15. Low dose organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls predict obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among people free of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hee Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that background exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs are important in the development of conditions predisposing to diabetes as well as of type 2 diabetes itself. We recently reported that low dose POPs predicted incident type 2 diabetes in a nested case-control study. The current study examined if low dose POPs predicted future adiposity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance among controls without diabetes in that study.The 90 controls were diabetes-free during 20 years follow-up. They were a stratified random sample, enriched with overweight and obese persons. POPs measured in 1987-88 (year 2 sera included 8 organochlorine (OC pesticides, 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB. Body mass index (BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment value for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR were study outcomes at 2005-06 (year 20. The evolution of study outcomes during 18 years by categories of serum concentrations of POPs at year 2 was evaluated by adjusting for the baseline values of outcomes plus potential confounders. Parallel to prediction of type 2 diabetes, many statistically significant associations of POPs with dysmetabolic conditions appeared at low dose, forming inverted U-shaped dose-response relations. Among OC pesticides, p,p'-DDE most consistently predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 after adjusting for baseline values. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, and hexachlorobenzene also significantly predicted higher triglycerides. Persistent PCBs with ≥7 chlorides predicted higher BMI, triglycerides, and HOMA-IR and lower HDL-cholesterol at year 20 with similar dose-response curves.Simultaneous exposure to various POPs in the general population may contribute to development of obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, common precursors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases

  16. Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Cathrine; Haug, Line S; Stigum, Hein; Frøshaug, May; Broadwell, Sharon L; Becher, Georg

    2010-12-15

    At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p changes during the lactation period. After a year of nursing the breast-milk concentrations of PFCs, PBDEs, and PCBs were reduced by 15-94%.

  17. Development of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Bidari, Araz; Birjandi, Afsoon Pajand; Milani Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Assadi, Yaghoub

    2008-01-01

    A very simple and powerful microextraction procedure, the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), was used for the determination of the content of 10 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples, using gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The appropriate amount of acetone (disperser solvent) and chlorobenzene (extraction solvent) at the microlevel volume was used for this procedure. The conditions for the microextraction performance were investigated and optimized. The optimized method exhibited a good linearity (R 2 > 0.996) over the studied range (0.005-2 μg L -1 ), illustrating a satisfactory precision level with R.S.D. values between 4.1% and 11.0%. The values of the detection limit (S/N = 3) were found to be lower than 0.002 μg L -1 . Furthermore, a large enrichment factor for the analytes (up to a 540-fold) was achieved in a very short time for only a 5.00-mL water sample. The effectiveness of the method towards real samples was tested by analyzing well, river and seawater samples. The relative recoveries of the well, river and seawater samples, which had been spiked with different levels of PCBs were equal to 92.0-114.0%, 97.0-102.0% and 96.0-103.0%, respectively. The attained results demonstrated that DLLME combined with GC-ECD was a fast and inexpensive technique for the PCBs determination in water samples

  18. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema, common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B, and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of these contaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of these species did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematic monitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  19. Environmental pollution by dioxin and its biodegradation; Dioxin ni yoru kankyo osen to sono biseibutsu bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, H.; Yamane, H.; Omori, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) exhibit similar chemical and biological properties. Because of their highly toxic activity, the pollution with these compounds, which are called dioxin-related compounds, is one of the most serious environmental problems. In this review, we described the analytical methods of dioxin-related compounds in environmental samples, especially in the exhaust gas from the incineration site of municipal solid waste. In addition, we described the present situation of environmental pollution by dioxin-related compounds, including pollution levels in environmental, human, and food samples, daily intakes, and risk assessment. On the other hand, a number of microorganisms have been reported which are able to degrade dioxin-related compounds including PCDDs and PCDFs. These microorganisms are classified into two groups, lignin-degrading white rot fungi and the dioxin-degrading bacteria. We also described the degradation pathways of dioxin-related compounds in these microorganisms, and their degradative enzymes. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang Tieyu; Wan Yi; Luo Wei; Hu Wenyou; Jiao Wentao; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Jones, Paul D.; Lu Yonglong

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ΣTEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines. - Research highlights: → PCDDs were comparable or greater than PCDFs for Yellow Sea soils and sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns in soils were different but similar in sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns varied among regions reflecting regional activities. → Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were mainly independent of each other. → ΣTEQs in Yellow Sea soils and sediments often exceeded corresponding guidelines. - PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments along the Yellow Sea indicated both point and non-point sources and their contribution to total TEQs differed among land uses and by regional activities.

  1. Measurement and modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation from sediment for the marine polychaete neanthes arenaceodentata and response to sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.-L.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were characterized, including PCB uptake rates from water and sediment, and the effect of sorbent amendment to the sediment on PCB bioavailability, organism growth, and lipid content. Physiological parameters were incorporated into a biodynamic model to predict contaminant uptake. The results indicate rapid PCB uptake from contaminated sediment and significant organism growth dilution during time-series exposure studies. PCB uptake from the aqueous phase accounted for less than 3% of the total uptake for this deposit-feeder. Proportional increase of gut residence time and assimilation efficiency as a consequence of the organism's growth was assessed by PCB uptake and a reactor theory model of gut architecture. Pulse-chase feeding and multilabeled stable isotope tracing techniques proved high sediment ingestion rates (i.e., 6?10 times of dry body weight per day) indicating that such deposit-feeders are promising biological indicators for sediment risk assessment. Activated carbon amendment reduced PCB uptake by 95% in laboratory experiments with no observed adverse growth effects on the marine polychaete. Biodynamic modeling explained the observed PCB body burdens for N. arenaceodentata, with and without sorbent amendment. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/tcoke, while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDD/F emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.

  3. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs' similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946-1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975-1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  4. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Elena; Lohmann, Rainer; Meijer, Sandra; Jones, Kevin C.; Dachs, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  5. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  6. Dietary intake of organic pollutants in children from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocio, A.; Falco, G.; Llobet, J.M.; Domingo, J.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Reus (Spain); Mueller, L. [SGS GmbH, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Potential human toxicity of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is well known. Moreover, it is also well established that dietary intake is the major route of human exposure for most POPs. In recent years, concern on dietary intake of POPs and other organic environmental contaminants has notably increased. Dietary intake of these pollutants is of special interest in children populations, who in relation to their body weights consume greater quantities of food than adults. Consequently, they are more exposed to potentially toxic pollutants. In 2000, a wide survey on dietary intake of a number of organic contaminants by the general population of Catalonia Spain was carried out. The levels of the following pollutants were determined in an important number of food samples belonging to various food groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The present study was undertaken to estimate the dietary intake of the above pollutants by children between 4 and 9 years old, as well as to assess the potential health risks derived from this intake.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL"−"1 for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL"−"1 for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL"−"1 for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g"−"1 and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g"−"1 in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic

  8. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Lirong, E-mail: gaolr@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL{sup −1} for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL{sup −1} for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL{sup −1} for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g{sup −1} and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g{sup −1} in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and

  9. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  10. Magnetic matrix solid phase dispersion assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction of ultra trace polychlorinated biphenyls in water prior to GC-ECD determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Chunpeng; Li, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Sun, Ailing; Liu, Renmin

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic matrix solid phase dispersion (MMSPD) assisted dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) was applied to extract ultra traces of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. PCBs in water were adsorbed by micro particles of magnetic bamboo charcoal and then transferred into the elution solvent. PCBs in the elution solvent of the MMSPD were further concentrated into trace volume extraction solvent of the DLLME procedure. Under optimized conditions, good linearity in the range of 0.2–100 ng L"−"1 was obtained with regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9987. Based on a signal-noise ratio of 3, the limits of detection (LODs) range from 0.05–0.1 ng L"−"1. These LODs are much lower than those of MMSPD or DLLME alone. Relative standard deviations are between 4.9–8.2 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in lake and river water. Relative recoveries were 85.5–117.4 % for the spiked environmental water samples. (author)

  11. New Biochemical Pathway for Biphenyl Degradation in Plants: Structural, Mechanistic and Biotechnological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacios, L. F.; Campos, V. M.; Merino, I.; Gomez, L.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PVBs) and other structurally-related xenobiotics are amongst the most relevant organic pollutants known today. while some bacterial species can metabolize PCBs, with varying efficiency, no catabolic pathways have yet been described in plants. This is so despite the great potential of (at least some) plant species for soil and groundwater decontamination, a technology known as phyto remediation. (Author)

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  13. Determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in pet cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Arslan, Handan Hilal; Esin, Cagatay; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g -1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g -1 lw to 6.79 ng g -1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g -1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. β-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in human adipose tissue from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Rapaport, David P; Rodan, Bruce D

    2005-07-15

    Human adipose tissue samples (n=52) collected in New York City during 2003-2004 were analyzed for the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of PBDEs in adipose tissues ranged from 17 to 9630 ng/g, lipid wt (median: 77; mean: 399 ng/g, lipid wt; sum all di- through hexaBDE congeners). Average PBDE concentrations in human adipose tissues from New York City were 10- to 100-times greater than those reported for European countries. A concentration of 9630 ng/g, lipid wt, found in a sample of adipose tissue, is one of the highest concentrations reported to date. PBDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE) was the major congener detected in human tissues, followed by PBDE congeners #99 (2,2',4,4',5-penta BDE), 100 (2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE), and 153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE). A few individuals contained PBDE 153 as the predominant congener in total PBDE concentrations, suggesting alternative exposure sources, possibly occupational. Principal component analysis of PBDE congener composition in human adipose tissues revealed the presence of five clusters, each characterized by varying composition. No significant difference was found in the concentrations of PBDEs between gender. Concentrations of PBDEs were, on average, similar to those for PCBs in human adipose tissues, and substantially higher when PBDE outliers were retained. PBDE and PCB concentrations were not correlated. PBDE concentrations did not increase with increasing age of the subjects, whereas concentrations of PCBs increased with increasing age in males but not in females in this study. These results suggest differences between PBDEs and PCBs in their sources or time course of exposure and disposition. The presence of comparable or greater concentrations of PBDEs, relative to PCBs, highlights the importance of recentvoluntary and regulatory effortsto cease production of commercial penta- and octa-BDE in North America, although these efforts do not address

  15. Milk transfer and neonatal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinjari, T. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Div. of Toxicology, Uppsala (Sweden); Klasson-Wehler, W. [Stockholm Univ., Wallenberg Lb., Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Oskarsson, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Food Hygiene, Uppsala (Sweden); Darnerud, P.O. [National Food Administration, Toxicology Div., uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-03-01

    The selective accumulation of 3,3`4,3`-tetrachlorobiphenyl metabolites in late gestational fetal blood and soft tissues in mice as a result of administration of different coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, is reported elsewhere. The situation in the nursing neonate after maternal exposure to the same congeners is now studied: The {sup 14}C-labelled congeners 3,3`,4,4`-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77), 3,3`,4,4`,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-126), 3,3`4,4`5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-169) (all three non-ortho congeners) and 2,3,3`,4,4`-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-105) (mono-ortho congener) were injected intravenously in lactating mice at day 11 post partum. One day and four days later, milk and neonatal/maternal tissues and plasma radioactivity was monitored by liquid scintillation counting (dose: 2.0 {mu}mol (20-50 {mu}Ci)/kg body weight). In milk, CB-126, -169 and -105 showed higher levels (1450-2520 pmol/ml; one day after administration) than did CB-77 (580 pmol/ml), and in neonates, the relative whole-body levels of radioactivity were related to the levels seen in milk (probably the consequences of their metabolic persistence). The comparably high {sup 14}C-concentration found in neonatal liver (about 15,000 pmol/kg) after CB-126 administration and in plasma (880 pmol/ml) after CB-77 administration could be explained by binding to specific proteins. In general, neonatal mice had two to seven times higher plasma levels than those of their mothers. These results indicate that CB-126, -169 and -105 are transferred via milk to neonates in considerable quantity and are deposited in neonatal liver, whereas CB-77 is transferred in a comparably lower amount and accumulated in neonatal plasma. The lower {sup 14}C-levels in the NMRI mothers and offspring (about half of C57BL values in maternal and neonatal plasma), could possibly be explained by a differentiated metabolism of CB-77 in these two strains.

  16. Radiological tracing for historical patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in creek ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    The marine sediments act like sink for most of the pollutants entering the aquatic environment. It becomes more critical in the case of creek ecosystem due to its landlocked and relatively stagnant nature. Various persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are brought into the creek in the form of dissolved and particulate fluxes from industrial effluents, sewerage discharge, urban runoff from the city, spillage, disposal and chemical weathering. PCBs cycle between sediment, water, air and soil. Studying the historical patterns of these toxic pollutants depositions in sediment cores have several applications. They throw light on the chronological inputs of the pollutants in the marine body. Natural radionuclides like 210 Pb act as tracers for determining the historical patterns of these pollutants in different sediment layers. Determining the activities of these radionuclides is useful for determining the age of sediment layers from the sedimentation rates. The unsupported 210 Pb activity of the Thane creek sediments was determined and modeled for assigning the age to different layers of the cores contaminated with PCBs. The unsupported activity of 210 Pb tracer was found to decrease with the increase in depth of the sediment layers. This pattern of the 210 Pb activity was used for determining the sedimentation rate and age of the core layers. The CRS model with 210 Pb activity traced the average sedimentation rate in Thane Creek to 0.67 cm/yr. This helped in labeling the age of formation of the deep core sediment layers. The vertical profile of different PCB congener concentrations in the core samples depicts a gradient from top to bottom, which indicates the influence of industrial contributions over the period. Peak concentrations for the congeners were observed at 13-24 depth, which indicates excessive loading of sediment with these compounds during 1970s (20-30 cm) which was the period of the maximum use and production of these

  17. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  18. Effects of a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls on reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); McElroy, A.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

    1998-07-01

    To assess the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction, female Fundulus heteroclitus were exposed to a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs, mimicking the mixture found in fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, a PCB-contaminated estuary. Exposure was by intraperitoneal injection of the mixture dissolved in corn oil. Doses of 0.76, 3.8, and 19 {micro}g PCB mixture per gram of wet weight produced liver concentrations of 2.99, 12.2, and 32.8 {micro}g non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs per gram of dry liver, with dioxin toxic equivalency concentrations (TEQs) of 0.0963, 0.409, and 0.720 ng/g, respectively. Female mortality was 58%, and egg production was reduced by 77% at the highest dose, compared to controls. Food consumption declined with increasing PCB concentration, suggesting that PCBs act indirectly to reduce fecundity through an energetic effect. Pituitary gonadotropin content appeared to be suppressed at the highest dose, but the ability of ovarian follicles to produce estradiol and testosterone in vitro was not impaired. Significant residue-effects linkages were found, with TEQ emerging as a potential indicator of adverse effects. Mortality was directly related, and egg production was inversely related to log{sub 10}TEQ. Multiple regression analysis indicated that egg production was directly related to pituitary gonadotropin content and food consumption.

  19. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  20. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  1. Gender-dependent behavioral and sensory effects of a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A M; Oshiro, W M; Haykal-Coates, N; Kodavanti, P R; Bushnell, P J

    2001-02-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with behavioral and cognitive deficits in humans and animal models. Perinatal exposure to PCBs has also been associated with sensory deficits in animal models. These effects were hypothesized to be mediated in part by ortho-substituted PCBs, which do not or weakly bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. The present studies were designed to determine whether perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, a commercial mixture of > 99% ortho-substituted PCBs, would affect cognitive and sensory function in Long-Evans rats. Adult male and female offspring of female rats fed Aroclor 1254 (Lot #124-191; doses of 0, 1, or 6 mg/kg/day; gestational day 6 through postnatal day 21; n = eight/group) were trained to perform a signal detection task capable of assessing sensory thresholds. Training included autoshaping and operant conditioning. Thresholds for detecting a 1-s light stimulus were determined under background illuminations ranging from 2 lux to complete darkness. Female rats exposed to Aroclor 1254 autoshaped more rapidly than control females, at a rate akin to control males. Control females had lower thresholds than control males at all levels of background illumination. These differences were abolished by Aroclor 1254, which reduced thresholds in males and increased thresholds in females. These data extend previous findings of gender-specific effects of PCBs on neurobehavioral development to measures of acquisition and sensory function.

  2. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluoroalkyl acids in East Greenland ringed seals (Pusa hispida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Milton; Gebhard, Erika; Jasperse, Lindsay; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Bossi, Rossana; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    To better elucidate the potential immune-related health effects of exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), in ringed seals (Pusa hispida), a sentinel Arctic species, we assessed 1) associations between mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and in vivo tissue contaminant burdens, and 2) the concentration-response effects of in vitro exposure to PFASs and PCB congeners on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Upon in vitro contaminant exposure, the non-coplanar PCB congeners CB 138, 153, and 180, but not the coplanar CB 169, significantly reduced lymphocyte proliferation between 10 and 20 µg g −1 ww. The respective in vitro EC 50 values for these congeners were 13.3, 20.7, 20.8, and 54.6 µg g −1 ww. No modulation of lymphocyte proliferation was observed upon in vitro exposure to two individual PFASs, perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), at concentrations up to 1000 ng g-1. In addition, no significant correlations were found between lymphocyte proliferation and any blood or blubber contaminant measured. Taken together, these data suggest this population of ringed seals is not currently at high risk of altered lymphocyte proliferation from exposure to the POPs or PFASs in this study. - Highlights: • Assess relationships between tissue contaminants and changes in immune function. • Risk for contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in East Greenland ringed seal is low. • Weight of evidence suggest non-coplanar PCBs are immunotoxic at high concentrations.

  4. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated ethers (PBDEs, chloronaftalens (PCNs, and bisphenol A (BPA, are stable, lipophilic pollutants that affect fertility and cause serious reproductive problems, including ovotoxic action, lack of ovulation, premature ovarian failure (POF, or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Most of the representatives of POPs influence the activation of transcription factors, not only activation of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, but also the steroid hormone receptors. This minireview will focus on a variety of PAH activities in oocyte, ovary, placenta, and mammary gland. The complexity and diversity of factors belonging to POPs and disorders of the reproductive function of women indicate that the impact of environmental pollution as an important determinant factor in fertility should not be minimize.

  5. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  6. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P.; Davenport, D.

    1997-01-01

    Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils

  7. China action of "Cleanup Plan for Polychlorinated Biphenyls Burial Sites": emissions during excavation and thermal desorption of a capacitor-burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lingli; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Yan, Yunzhong; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Scarce data are available so far on emissions in a given scenario for excavation and thermal desorption, a common practice, of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As part of China action of "Cleanup Plan for PCBs Burial Sites", this study roughly estimated PCBs emissions in the scenario for a capacitor-burial site. The concentrations of total PCBs (22 congeners) in soils were in the range of 2.1-16,000μg/g with a mean of 2300μg/g, among the same order of magnitude as the highest values obtained in various PCBs-contaminated sites. Only six congeners belonging to Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-CBs were observed above limits of detection in air samples in the scenario, partially which can be estimated by the USEPA air emission model. Comparing concentrations and composition profiles of PCBs in the soil and air samples further indicated a leaked source of commercial PCBs formulations of trichlorobiphenyl (China PCB no. 1). The measures taken if any to mitigate the volatilization and movement of PCBs and to minimize worker exposure were discussed for improvements of the excavation practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  9. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt -1 , respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t -1 , respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  11. Emission factors and congener-specific characterization of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from an off-road diesel engine using waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung; Yeh, C Kuei-Jyum

    2017-10-05

    Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends. The PCDD/Fs contributed 87.2% of total dioxin-like toxicity (PCDD/Fs+PCBs+PBDD/Fs) in the exhaust, while the PCBs and PBDD/Fs only contributed 8.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Compared with petroleum diesel, B20 (20vol% WCO-based biodiesel+80vol% diesel) reduced total toxicity by 46.5% for PCDD/Fs, 47.1% for PCBs, and 24.5% for PBDD/Fs, while B40 (40vol% WCO-based biodiesel+60vol% diesel) reduced it by 89.5% for PCDD/Fs, 57.1% for PCBs, and 63.2% for PBDD/Fs in POP emission factors. The use of WCO-based biodiesel not only solves the problem of waste oil disposal, but also lowers POP emissions from diesel generators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of metabolites from chloro biphenyls by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400 after growth on different carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, K.A.; Ward, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    The transformation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), when exposed to microorganisms, into chlorobenzoic acid metabolites was studied. PCBs are widely used in electrical transformers and have become widely dispersed in the environment. A proposed system for clean up of PCBs involves the combined use of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated congeners followed by aerobic degradation of moderately chlorinated PCBs, mediated by oxidative ring attack. Much of this work focused on biphenyl-grown cells, in particular Pseudomonas strain LB400 grown on biphenyl, which contains a multicomponent enzyme system. It was shown that resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400, grown on glycerol or glucose, could also transform purified PCB congeners and mixtures of PCBs in Aroclors, however, transformation rates were less than those observed with biphenyl-grown cells. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  14. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal exposures among fishermen in the Straits of Malacca: neurobehavioural performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Alina; Azlan, Azrina; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Khoo, Hock Eng; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected heavy metals among fishermen via dietary intake of fish and other seafood from the eastern coast along the Straits of Malacca. This study determined the neurobehavioural performances (based on neurobehavioural core test battery scores) of the fishermen and evaluated the correlations between scores of neurobehavioural core test battery and exposure factors. Ninety fishermen participated in the study. The total fish intakes of the fishermen were measured using a set of food frequency questionnaires. The PCBs contents in the seafood samples ranged between 0.2 and 0.6 pg/g fresh sample. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the seafood samples were 1.1-5.4, 0.3-4.4, 0.6-36.1, and 0.02-0.3 μg/g fresh sample, respectively. The PCBs, Hg, As, Cd, and Pb exposures of the fishermen was estimated to be 2.8, 0.02, 4.5, 0.09, and 0.5 pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. PCB and heavy metal exposures through dietary intake of fish and seafood were within the tolerable daily limits. The results of neurobehavioural core test battery revealed that the neurobehavioural performances of the fishermen were not affected due to PCB and heavy metal intoxication. No correlations were found between the exposure and neurobehavioural performance among the fishermen. These data are useful for policy makers to assure the safety and quality of seafood in relation to sea pollution. Although the levels of exposure were low, periodic assessment of the quality of fish and fish products is required due to the polluted seawater.

  16. Sources, emissions, and fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls indoors in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Diamond, Miriam L; Robson, Matthew; Harrad, Stuart

    2011-04-15

    Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.

  17. Investigations in the microbial degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and means of reductive dechlorination and aerobic mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbrock, P.

    1997-12-01

    The work had the objective to develop a biological method for cleaning up PCDD/PCDF contaminated upper soil layers (PCDDs/PCDFs: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans). Since highly chlorinated aromatic compounds persist in soil under aerobic conditions, reductive dechlorination of the compounds under anaerobic conditions was aimed at in a first phase of the project. A second, topped phase was destined for aerobic mineralization of the dechlorinated matrices. The tests were carried out on three farmland soils following long-term contamination with PCDDs/PCDFs. (orig./MG)

  18. Proinflammatory Adhesion Molecules Facilitate Polychlorinated Biphenyl–Mediated Enhancement of Brain Metastasis Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Sipos, Eszter; Chen, Lei; András, Ibolya E.; Wrobel, Jagoda; Zhang, Bei; Pu, Hong; Park, Minseon; Eum, Sung Yong; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental toxicants that cause vascular inflammation and facilitate the development of brain metastases. The crucial event in metastasis formation is adhesion of blood-borne tumor cells to the vascular endothelium, followed by their transcapillary migration. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanisms of PCB118-induced brain metastasis formation at the blood-brain barrier level with the focus on tumor cell adhesion to the brain endotheli...

  19. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.