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Sample records for poly propylene oxide

  1. Poly(ethylene oxide)–Poly(propylene oxide)-Based Copolymers for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(propylene oxide) (PEO–PPO)-based copolymers are thermoresponsive materials having aggregation properties in aqueous medium. As hydrosolubilizers of poorly water-soluble drugs and improved stability of sensitive agents, these materials have been investigated for improvement ...

  2. Characterization of nylon 6/poly(propylene oxide) polymeric mixture by combined NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Dilma Alves; Oliveira, Clara Marize F.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    1995-01-01

    Polymeric mixtures aim to improve physical or chemical properties of materials. This mixtures can be compatible or not. The compatibility between polymers determine changes of properties. This work has presented a detailed study where nylon 6 and poly(propylene oxide) mixture was analysed by 13 C NMR in the solid state, and NMR spectra were shown and explained. The molecular mobility as well as the compatibility have been observed and discussed

  3. Effect of block composition on thermal properties and melt viscosity of poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate], poly(ethylene oxide and poly(propylene oxide block co-polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To modify the rheological properties of certain commercial polymers, a set of block copolymers were synthesized through oxyanionic polymerization of 2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate to the chain ends of commercial prepolymers, namely poly(ethylene oxide (PEO, poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(propylene oxide-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO-PPO-PEO, and poly(propylene oxide (PPO. The formed block copolymers were analysed with size exclusion chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in order to confirm block formation. Thermal characterization of the resulting polymers was done with differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal transition points were also confirmed with rotational rheometry, which was primarily used to measure melt strength properties of the resulting block co-polymers. It was observed that the synthesised poly[2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate]-block (PDM affected slightly the thermal transition points of crystalline PEO-block but the influence was stronger on amorphous PPO-blocks. Frequency sweeps measured above the melting temperatures for the materials confirmed that the pre-polymers (PEO and PEO-PPO-PEO behave as Newtonian fluids whereas polymers with a PDM block structure exhibit clear shear thinning behaviour. In addition, the PDM block increased the melt viscosity when compared with that one of the pre-polymer. As a final result, it became obvious that pre-polymers modified with PDM were in entangled form, in the melted state as well in the solidified form.

  4. Hofmeister effect of salt mixtures on thermo-responsive poly(propylene oxide)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghaddam, Saeed Zajforoushan; Thormann, Esben

    2015-01-01

    of aqueous solutions of poly(propylene oxide) is affected by mixtures of ions with different location in the Hofmeister series. Our results show that the Hofmeister effects of pure salt species are not always linearly additive and that the relative effect of some ions can be reversed depending...... on the composition of the salt mixture as well as by the absolute and relative concentration of the different species. We suggest that these results can lead to a better understanding of the potential role of the Hofmeister effect in regulation of biological processes, which does always take place in salt mixtures...... rather than solutions containing just single salt species....

  5. Effect of acid on the aggregation of poly(ethylene xide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Guo, Chen; Chen, Shu; Ma, Junhe; Wang, Jing; Liang, Xiangfeng; Zheng, Lily; Liu, Huizhou

    2006-11-23

    The acid effect on the aggregation of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers EO(20)PO(70)EO(20) has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size analyzer (PSA), Fourier transformed infrared, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The critical micellization temperature for Pluronic P123 in different HCl aqueous solutions increases with the increase of acid concentration. Additionally, the hydrolysis degradation of PEO blocks is observed in strong acid concentrations at higher temperatures. When the acid concentration is low, TEM and PSA show the increase of the micelle mean diameter and the decrease of the micelle polydispersity at room temperature, which demonstrate the extension of EO corona and tendency of uniform micelle size because of the charge repulsion. When under strong acid conditions, the aggregation of micelles through the protonated water bridges was observed.

  6. Preparation and Properties of Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/poly(dimethylsiloxane) graft (poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide)) blend porous separators and corresponding electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Hong; Liang, Zhi-Ying; Chen, Yue-Ming; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Zhu, Li-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •This work aims exploring microporous PVDF separators for lithium ion batteries. •Comb structure polymer PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) was used in PVDF blend separators. •The influence of polyether side chains on interfacial resistance was studied. -- Abstract: This work aims exploring the high performance porous separators that can be activated into gel electrolyte membranes for lithium ion batteries. A comb-like copolymer poly (dimethylsiloxane) graft poly (propylene oxide)-block-poly (ethylene oxide) (PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO)) was synthesized and blended with poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to fabricate porous separators via a typical phase inversion process, and then the separators absorbed liquid electrolyte solution and formed into polymer electrolyte membranes. By measuring the composition, morphology and ion conductivity etc, the influence of PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) on structure and properties of blend separators were discussed. Compared with pure PVDF separator with comparable porous structure, the adoption of PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) decreased the crystallinity and increased the liquid electrolyte uptake and stability effectively. It was also found that the electrode/electrolyte interfacial resistance could be reduced greatly. The resulting electrolyte membrane using separator with PVDF/PDMS-g-(PPO-PEO) mass ratio in 8/2 exhibited highest ionic conductivity in 4.5 × 10 −3 S/cm at room temperature, while the electrochemical stability was up to 4.7 V (vs. Li/Li + ). Coin cells assembled with such separators also exhibited stable cycle performance and improved rate capabilities, especially when discharge rate higher than 0.5 C

  7. Study concerning the compatibility of the mixture of nylon-6 and poly(propylene oxide) through solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Costa, D.A.; Menezes, Sonia M.C.

    1993-01-01

    NMR has been frequently used for the determination of polymers compatibility. The utilization of the simple pulse technique together with the contact time variation technique has been enabling the evaluation of the compatibility of polymeric systems. This work presents the study of the behaviour of the mixture composed by nylon-6 with poly(propylene oxide) using these techniques. Results are presented

  8. Morphological Development of Melt Crystallized Poly(propylene oxide) by In Situ AFM: Formation of Banded Spherulites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, L.G.M.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2004-01-01

    The morphology of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) crystals grown from the melt was investigated. The spherulites of the optically pure S polymers displayed a regular pattern of concentric rings as observed by polarizing optical microscopy, while the stereocopolymer developed irregularly banded, or

  9. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide): a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, K; Mazurek, P; Daugaard, A E; Skov, A L; Galantini, F; Gallone, G

    2013-01-01

    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of α,ω-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer was reinforced with hexamethylenedisilazane treated fumed silica to improve the mechanical properties of PPO. The mechanical properties of PPO and composites thereof were investigated by shear rheology and stress–strain measurements. It was found that incorporation of silica particles improved the stability of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 10 3 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910. The electromechanical actuation performance of both PPO and its composites showed properties as good as VHB4910 and a lower viscous loss. (paper)

  10. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide)- a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav; Galantini, F.; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of ,!-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer...... was reinforced with hexamethylenedisilazane treated fumed silica to improve the mechanical properties of PPO. The mechanical properties of PPO and composites thereof were investigated by shear rheology and stress–strain measurements. It was found that incorporation of silica particles improved the stability...... of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 103 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910...

  11. Effect of poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer and two different poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers on morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured unsaturated polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes, Daniel H; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Corcuera, Ma Angeles; Mondragon, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-01-22

    Novel nanostructured unsaturated polyester resin-based thermosets, modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and two poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymers (BCP), were developed and analyzed. The effects of molecular weights, blocks ratio, and curing temperatures on the final morphological, optical, and mechanical properties were reported. The block influence on the BCP miscibility was studied through uncured and cured mixtures of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins with PEO and PPO homopolymers having molecular weights similar to molecular weights of the blocks of BCP. The final morphology of the nanostructured thermosetting systems, containing BCP or homopolymers, was investigated, and multiple mechanisms of nanostructuration were listed and explained. By considering the miscibility of each block before and after curing, it was determined that the formation of the nanostructured matrices followed a self-assembly mechanism or a polymerization-induced phase separation mechanism. The miscibility between PEO or PPO blocks with one of two phases of UP matrix was highlighted due to its importance in the final thermoset properties. Relationships between the final morphology and thermoset optical and mechanical properties were examined. The mechanisms and physics behind the morphologies lead toward the design of highly transparent, nanostructured, and toughened thermosetting UP systems.

  12. Preparation and characterization of starch grafted with toluene poly (propylene oxide diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Dragunski

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylopectin-rich starch samples (Amidex 4001 Corn Products Brasil Ingredientes Industriais Ltda. were grafted with polyethers with the purpose of obtaining new materials for application as solid polymeric electrolytes. Grafting reaction was performed by the addition of starch dissolved in DMSO to toluene poly(propylene oxide diisocyanate (Resibras dissolved in the same solvent. This reaction produced a film with good mechanical properties. The film samples were characterized by 13C-NMR, FTIR, DSC, X-Ray and SEM. The FTIR spectrum shows a sharp NH band and a very small urethane band. The 13C-NMR spectrum revealed a peak at 20 ppm, that can be attributed to the CH3 of the polyether chain, and two small peaks at 117 and 140 ppm, attributed to the aromatic ring. The X-ray diffractograms also indicated that after the grafting reaction, the samples of amylopectin-rich starch are more amorphous. Moreover, the glass transition temperature (Tg dropped from 50 °C to -11 °C. These results indicate formation of grafted products and the low Tg of the samples suggests that polyether-grafted starch is a good candidate to obtain solid polymeric electrolytes.

  13. Impact of the poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(propylene oxide) macrodiols on the surface-related properties of polyurethane copolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefanović, I. S.; Godevac, D.; Špírková, Milena; Jovančić, P.; Tešević, V.; Milačić, V.; Pergal, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2016), s. 725-738 ISSN 0367-598X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : segmented polyurethanes * poly(dimethylsiloxane) * 2D NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2016

  14. Hofmeister effect on thermo-responsive poly(propylene oxide): Role of polymer molecular weight and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghaddam, Saeed Zajforoushan; Thormann, Esben

    2016-01-01

    ) salts on aqueous solutions of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) is studied. Four different molecular weights of PPO were investigated, to determine how the variation in the polymer coil size affects the Hofmeister effect. The investigation was further conducted for different PPO concentrations, in order...... with the transition. It was observed that increasing the molecular weight weakens the effect of the both salts, which is interpreted in terms of a scaling law between the molecular weight and the accessible surface area of the polymers. Increasing the PPO concentration further diminished the NaCl effect...

  15. Potentiometric chemical sensors from lignin-poly(propylene oxide) copolymers doped by carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Costa, Luis C; Graça, M Pedro F; Fernandes, António J S; Correia, M Rosario P; Gomes, M Teresa S R; Oliveira, J A B P

    2013-01-21

    Hardwood and softwood lignins obtained from industrial sulphite and kraft and laboratory oxygen-organosolv pulping processes were employed in co-polymerization with tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate terminated poly(propylene glycol). The obtained lignin-based polyurethanes were doped with 0.72 w/w% of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with the aim of increasing their electrical conductivity to the levels suitable for sensor applications. Effects of the polymer doping with MWCNTs were assessed using electrical impedance (EIS) and UV-Resonance Raman (UV-RR) spectroscopy. Potentiometric sensors were prepared by drop casting of liquid polymer on the surface of carbon glass or platinum electrodes. Lignin-based sensors displayed a very low or no sensitivity to all alkali, alkali-earth and transition metal cations ions except Cr(VI) at pH 2. Response to Cr(VI) values of 39, 50 and 53 mV pX(-1) for the sensors based on kraft, organosolv and lignosulphonate lignins, respectively, were observed. Redox sensitivity values close to the theoretical values of 20 and 21 mV pX(-1) for organosolv and lignosulphonate based sensors respectively were detected in the Cr(III)/Cr(VI) solutions while a very low response was observed in the solutions containing Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-). Conducting composite lignin-based polyurethanes doped with MWCNTs were suggested as being promising materials for Cr(VI)-sensitive potentiometric sensors.

  16. Theoretical consideration on phase behaviors of poly(ethylene oxide-block-propylene oxide)/LiCF3SO3 systems in lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sung Jin; Kim, Sun Joon; Kong, Sung Ho; Bae, Young Chan

    2004-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model is developed based on the extended perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) model and melting point depression theory to describe the phase behaviors of copolymer electrolyte/salt systems. The phase behaviors of poly(ethylene oxide-block-propylene oxide)/LiCF 3 SO 3 systems are investigated by thermo-optical analysis (TOA) technique. Quantitative descriptions according to the proposed model are in good agreement with experimental data. The obtained results show that monomer ratio and sequence type of copolymers play a great role in determining eutectic points of the given systems

  17. The influence of antioxidant and post-synthetic treatment on the properties of biodegradable poly(butylene succinates modified with poly(propylene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA PEPIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel poly(ester–ethers based on poly(butylene succinate (PBS as the hard segments and 30 mass % of poly(propylene oxide (PPO as the soft segments were synthesized with varying amount of the antioxidant (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine, DPPD. The influences of the addition of DPPD and the impact of post-synthetic treatment by precipitation on the molecular structure, thermal and physical properties, as well as on the storage stability of the biodegradable aliphatic copolyesters, were investigated. The structure and composition of the copolymers were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the poly(ester–ethers were evaluated from solution viscosity and GPC measurements. The thermal properties and stability were evaluated, respecttively, by means of DSC and non-isothermal thermogravimetry in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. The biodegradability potential of the polymers was studied in hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests with Candida cylindracea lipase by monitoring the weight loss of polymer films after incubation. The weight losses of the samples increased with time and were in the range from 1 to 5 mass % after 4 weeks. GPC analysis confirmed that there were changes in the molecular weight of the copolyesters during both hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation tests, leading to the conclusion that the degradation mechanism of poly(butylenes succinate modified with PPO occurred through surface erosion and bulk degradation.

  18. Lactosylated poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers for potential active targeting: synthesis and physicochemical and self-aggregation characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuestas, Maria L.; Glisoni, Romina J. [University of Buenos Aires, Group of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology for Improved Medicines (BIONIMED), Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry (Argentina); Mathet, Veronica L. [National Science Research Council (CONICET) (Argentina); Sosnik, Alejandro, E-mail: alesosnik@gmail.com [University of Buenos Aires, The Group of Biomaterials and Nanotechnology for Improved Medicines (BIONIMED), Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry (Argentina)

    2013-01-15

    Aiming to develop polymeric self-assembly nanocarriers with potential applications in active drug targeting to the liver, linear and branched poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) amphiphiles were conjugated to lactobionic acid (LA), a disaccharide of galactose and gluconic acid, by the conventional Steglich esterification reaction. The conjugation was confirmed by ATR/FT-IR, {sup 1}H-NMR, and {sup 13}C-NMR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were employed to elucidate the conjugation extent and the final molecular weight, respectively. The critical micellar concentration (CMC), the size and size distribution and zeta potential of the pristine and modified polymeric micelles under different conditions of pH and temperature were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Conjugation with LA favored the micellization process, leading to a decrease of the CMC with respect to the pristine counterpart, this phenomenon being independent of the pH and the temperature. At 37 Degree-Sign C, micelles made of pristine copolymers showed a monomodal size distribution between 12.8 and 24.4 nm. Conversely, LA-conjugated micelles showed a bimodal size pattern that comprised a main fraction of relatively small size (11.6-22.2 nm) and a second one with remarkably larger sizes of up to 941.4 nm. The former corresponded to single micelles, while the latter would indicate a secondary aggregation phenomenon. The spherical morphology of LA-micelles was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, to assess the ability of the LA-conjugated micelles to interact with lectin-like receptors, samples were incubated with concanavalin A at 37 Degree-Sign C and the size and size distribution were monitored by DLS. Findings indicated that regardless of the relatively weak affinity of this vegetal lectin for galactose, micelles underwent agglutination probably through the interaction of a secondary site in the lectin with the gluconic acid

  19. Hofmeister effect on thermo-responsive poly(propylene oxide): Role of polymer molecular weight and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Saeed Zajforoushan; Thormann, Esben

    2016-03-01

    Although a vast amount of research has been dedicated to investigate the Hofmeister effect on the stability of polymer solutions, a clear understanding of the role of polymer properties in this phenomenon is still missing. Here, the Hofmeister effect of NaCl (destabilizing) and NaSCN (stabilizing) salts on aqueous solutions of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) is studied. Four different molecular weights of PPO were investigated, to determine how the variation in the polymer coil size affects the Hofmeister effect. The investigation was further conducted for different PPO concentrations, in order to understand the effect of inter-chain interactions on the response to addition of salt. The temperature-driven phase separation of the solutions was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry, which provides the precise value of the phase separation temperature, as well as the enthalpy change accompanied with the transition. It was observed that increasing the molecular weight weakens the effect of the both salts, which is interpreted in terms of a scaling law between the molecular weight and the accessible surface area of the polymers. Increasing the PPO concentration further diminished the NaCl effect, but amplified the NaSCN effect. This difference is attributed to an electrostatic stabilization mechanism in the case of NaSCN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) by bacterial community from propylene oxide saponification wastewater residual sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwei; Zhu, Ying; Gu, Pengfei; Li, Yumei; Fan, Xiangyu; Song, Dongxue; Ji, Yan; Li, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    The saponification wastewater from the process of propylene oxide (PO) production is contaminated with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and chlorine contents. Although the activated sludge process could treat the PO saponification wastewater effectively, the residual sludge was difficult to be disposed properly. In this research, microbes in PO saponification wastewater residual sludge were acclimated to produce poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from volatile fatty acids. Through Miseq Illumina highthroughput sequencing, the bacterial community discrepancy between the original and the acclimated sludge samples were analyzed. The proportions of Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Brevundimonas and Pseudomonas, the potential PHBV-producers in the residual sludge, were all obviously increased. In the batch fermentation, the production of PHBV could achieve 4.262g/L at 300min, with the content increased from 0.04% to 23.67% of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) in the acclimated sludge, and the COD of the PO saponification wastewater was also decreased in the fermentation. This work would provide an effective solution for the utilization of PO saponification wastewater residual sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrode-Impregnable and Cross-Linkable Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(propylene oxide)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Polymer Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity and a Large Voltage Window for Flexible Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae Hee; Lee, Jang Yong; Suh, Dong Hack; Hong, Young Taik; Kim, Tae-Ho

    2017-10-04

    We present cross-linkable precursor-type gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) that have large ionic liquid uptake capability, can easily penetrate electrodes, have high ion conductivity, and are mechanically strong as high-performance, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (SC). Our polymer precursors feature a hydrophilic-hydrophobic poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock main-chain structure and trifunctional silane end groups that can be multi-cross-linked with each other through a sol-gel process. The cross-linked solid-state electrolyte film with moderate IL content (200 wt %) shows a well-balanced combination of excellent ionic conductivity (5.0 × 10 -3 S cm -1 ) and good mechanical stability (maximum strain = 194%). Moreover, our polymer electrolytes have various advantages including high thermal stability (decomposition temperature > 330 °C) and the capability to impregnate electrodes to form an excellent electrode-electrolyte interface due to the very low viscosity of the precursors. By assembling our GPE-impregnated electrodes and solid-state GPE film, we demonstrate an all-solid-state SC that can operate at 3 V and provides an improved specific capacitance (112.3 F g -1 at 0.1 A g -1 ), better rate capability (64% capacity retention until 20 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (95% capacitance decay over 10 000 charge/discharge cycles) compared with those of a reference SC using a conventional PEO electrolyte. Finally, flexible SCs with a high energy density (22.6 W h kg -1 at 1 A g -1 ) and an excellent flexibility (>93% capacitance retention after 5000 bending cycles) can successfully be obtained.

  2. The influence of starch oxidization and aluminate coupling agent on interfacial interaction, rheological behavior, mechanical and thermal properties of poly(propylene carbonate)/starch blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guo; Zhang, Shui-Dong; Huang, Han-Xiong; The Key Laboratory of Polymer Processing Engineering of the Ministry of Education Team

    Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) is a kind of new biodegradable polymer that is synthesized by copolymerization of propylene oxide and carbon dioxide. In this work, PPC end-capped with maleic anhydride (PPCMA)/thermoplastic starch (TPS), PPCMA/thermoplastic oxidized starch (TPOS) and PPCMA/AL-TPOS (TPOS modified by aluminate coupling agent) blends were prepared by melt blending to improve its thermal and mechanical properties. FTIR results showed that there existed hydrogen-bonding interaction between PPCMA and starch. SEM observation revealed that the compatibility between PPCMA and TPOS was improved by the oxidation of starch. The enhanced interfacial interactions between PPCMA and TPOS led to a better performance of PPC blends such as storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G''), complex viscosity (η*), tensile strength and thermal properties. Furthermore, the modification of TPOS by aluminate coupling agent (AL) facilitated the dispersion of oxidized starch in PPC matrix, and resulted in increasing the tensile strength and thermal stability. National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science Fund of Guangdong Province.

  3. Phase behavior in blends of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer and poly(ether sulfone) studied by modulated-temperature DSC and NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lokeren, Luk; Gotzen, Nicolaas-Alexander; Pieters, Ronny; Van Assche, Guy; Biesemans, Monique; Willem, Rudolph; Van Mele, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The state diagram of a blend consisting of a copolymer containing ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, P(EO-ran-PO), and poly(ether sulfone), PES, is constructed by using modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), T(2) NMR relaxometry, and light scattering. The apparent heat capacity signal in MTDSC is used for the characterization of polymer miscibility and morphology development. T(2) NMR relaxometry is used to detect the onset of phase separation, which is in good agreement with the onset of phase separation in the apparent heat capacity from MTDSC and the cloud-point temperature as determined from light scattering. The coexistence curve can be constructed from T(2) values at various temperatures by using a few blends with well-chosen compositions. These T(2) values also allow the detection of the boundary between the demixing zones with and without interference of partial vitrification and are in good agreement with stepwise quasi-isothermal MTDSC heat capacity measurements. Important interphases are detected in the heterogeneous P(EO-ran-PO)/PES blends.

  4. Poly(ethylene oxide monomethyl ether)- block-poly(propylene succinate) Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization, Enzymatic and Cellular Degradation, Micellar Solubilization of Paclitaxel, and in Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Alessandro; Jäger, Eliézer; Syrová, Zdeňka; Mazel, Tomas; Kováčik, Lubomír; Raška, Ivan; Höcherl, Anita; Kučka, Jan; Konefal, Rafal; Humajova, Jana; Poučková, Pavla; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2018-04-11

    Polyester-based nanostructures are widely studied as drug-delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. They are already used in the clinic. In this work, we describe a new and simple biodegradable and biocompatible system as the Food and Drug Administration approved polyesters (poly-ε-caprolactone, polylactic acid, and poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid)) for the delivery of the anticancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) as a model drug. A hydrophobic polyester, poly(propylene succinate) (PPS), was prepared from a nontoxic alcohol (propylene glycol) and monomer from the Krebs's cycle (succinic acid) in two steps via esterification and melt polycondensation. Furthermore, their amphiphilic block copolyester, poly(ethylene oxide monomethyl ether)- block-poly(propylene succinate) (mPEO- b-PPS), was prepared by three steps via esterification followed by melt polycondensation and the addition of mPEO to the PPS macromolecules. Analysis of the in vitro cellular behavior of the prepared nanoparticle carriers (NPs) (enzymatic degradation, uptake, localization, and fluorescence resonance energy-transfer pair degradation studies) was performed by fluorescence studies. PTX was loaded to the NPs of variable sizes (30, 70, and 150 nm), and their in vitro release was evaluated in different cell models and compared with commercial PTX formulations. The mPEO- b-PPS copolymer analysis displays glass transition temperature hydrolysis during transport in bloodstream, and simultaneous enzymatic degradability after uptake into the cells. The detailed cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo tumor efficacy studies have shown the superior efficacy of the NPs compared with PTX and PTX commercial formulations.

  5. Micellar copolymerization of poly(acrylamide-g-propylene oxide): rheological evaluation and solution characterization; Copolimerizacao micelar de poli(acrilamida-g-oxido de propileno): avaliacao reologica e caracterizacao de suas solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadicoff, Bianca L.; Brandao, Edimir M.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br; Amorim, Marcia C.V. [Universidade Estadual, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2001-06-01

    Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and poly(propylene oxide) were synthesized by a micellar copolymerization technique. The rheological properties of the copolymers solutions were evaluated and compared with literature data for solutions of the same copolymers, synthesized by solution polymerization. The effect of hydrophobe content, salt addition and surfactant addition on the rheological properties were also investigated. Increasing hydrophobe content resulted in higher solution viscosities in the semi-dilute regime. Upon addition of salts, the hydrophobic groups associated to minimize their exposure to water. In the semi-dilute region, higher contents of surfactant added resulted in lower reduced viscosities of the polymer solutions. The copolymers were qualitatively characterized by infra-red spectrometry. (author)

  6. Effect of the structure of commercial poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) demulsifier bases on the demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions: elucidation of the demulsification mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao Batista V.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Lechuga, Fernanda C.; Lucas, Elizabete F., E-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Profa. Eloisa Mano

    2010-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions are formed during petroleum production and asphaltenes play an important role in their stabilization. Demulsifiers are added to destabilize such emulsions,however the demulsification mechanism is not completely known. In this paper, the performances of commercial poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) demulsifiers were studied using synthetic water-in-oil emulsions and model-systems (asphaltenes in organic solvent). No change in the asphaltene aggregate size induced by the demulsifier was observed. The demulsification performance decreased as the asphaltene aggregate size increased, so it can be suggested that the demulsification mechanism is correlated to the voids between the aggregates adsorbed on the water droplets surface. (author)

  7. Effect of the structure of commercial poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) demulsifier bases on the demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions: elucidation of the demulsification mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Joao Batista V.S.; Lechuga, Fernanda C.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2010-01-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions are formed during petroleum production and asphaltenes play an important role in their stabilization. Demulsifiers are added to destabilize such emulsions,however the demulsification mechanism is not completely known. In this paper, the performances of commercial poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) demulsifiers were studied using synthetic water-in-oil emulsions and model-systems (asphaltenes in organic solvent). No change in the asphaltene aggregate size induced by the demulsifier was observed. The demulsification performance decreased as the asphaltene aggregate size increased, so it can be suggested that the demulsification mechanism is correlated to the voids between the aggregates adsorbed on the water droplets surface. (author)

  8. Effect of the structure of commercial poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide demulsifier bases on the demulsification of water-in-crude oil emulsions: elucidation of the demulsification mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista V. S. Ramalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water-in-crude oil emulsions are formed during petroleum production and asphaltenes play an important role in their stabilization. Demulsifiers are added to destabilize such emulsions,however the demulsification mechanism is not completely known. In this paper, the performances of commercial poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide demulsifiers were studied using synthetic water-in-oil emulsions and model-systems (asphaltenes in organic solvent. No change in the asphaltene aggregate size induced by the demulsifier was observed. The demulsification performance decreased as the asphaltene aggregate size increased, so it can be suggested that the demulsification mechanism is correlated to the voids between the aggregates adsorbed on the water droplets surface.

  9. Tissue Engineering Bionanocomposites Based on Poly(propylene fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Diez-Pascual

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(propylene fumarate (PPF is a linear and unsaturated copolyester based on fumaric acid that has been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications in recent years due to its tailorable mechanical performance, adjustable biodegradability and exceptional biocompatibility. In order to improve its mechanical properties and spread its range of practical applications, novel approaches need to be developed such as the incorporation of fillers or polymer blending. Thus, PPF-based bionanocomposites reinforced with different amounts of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONR, graphite oxide nanoplatelets (GONP, polyethylene glycol-functionalized graphene oxide (PEG-GO, polyethylene glycol-grafted boron nitride nanotubes (PEG-g-BNNTs and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles were synthesized via sonication and thermal curing, and their morphology, biodegradability, cytotoxicity, thermal, rheological, mechanical and antibacterial properties were investigated. An increase in the level of hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, stiffness and strength was found upon increasing nanofiller loading. The nanocomposites retained enough rigidity and strength under physiological conditions to provide effective support for bone tissue formation, showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and did not induce toxicity on human dermal fibroblasts. These novel biomaterials demonstrate great potential to be used for bone tissue engineering applications.

  10. Electrochemical Interrogation of G3-Poly(propylene thiophenoimine Dendritic Star Polymer in Phenanthrene Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlamulo R. Makelane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel dendritic star-copolymer, generation 3 poly(propylene thiophenoimine (G3PPT-co-poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT star co-polymer on gold electrode (i.e., Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT was used as a sensor system for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE. The G3PPT-co-P3HT star co-polymer was synthesized via in situ electrochemical co-polymerization of generation 3 poly (propylene thiophenoimine and poly (3-hexylthiophene on gold electrode. 1HNMR spectroscopy was used to determine the regioregularity of the polymer composites, whereas Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study their structural and morphological properties. Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT in the absence of PHE, exhibited reversible electrochemistry attributable to the oligo (thiophene ‘pendants’ of the dendrimer. PHE produced an increase in the voltammetric signals (anodic currents due to its oxidation on the dendritic material to produce catalytic current, thereby suggesting the suitability of the Au|G3PPT-co-P3HT electrode as a PHE sensor. The electrocatalysis of PHE was made possible by the rigid and planar oligo-P3HT species (formed upon the oxidation of the oligo (thiophene pendants of the star-copolymer, which allowed the efficient capture (binding and detection (electrocatalytic oxidation of PHE molecules.

  11. Poly(propylene carbonate): Insight into the Microstructure and Enantioselective Ring-Opening Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Salmeia, Khalifah A.

    2012-11-13

    Different poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) microstructures have been synthesized from the alternating copolymerization of CO 2 with both racemic propylene oxide (PO) and various mixtures of PO enantiomers using chiral salen catalysts. The microstructures of the obtained copolymers as a function of polymerization time have been analyzed by a combination of chiral GC and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The 13C NMR spectra of selected poly(propylene carbonate) samples were recorded using a 900 MHz ( 1H) spectrometer, showing a previously unreported fine splitting of the carbonate resonances. This allowed a detailed assignment of signals for various copolymer microstructures taking into account the specifics in their stereo- and regioirregularities. For example, the enantioselectivity preference of the (R,R-salen)Co catalyst for (S)-PO at the beginning of the copolymerization leads predominantly to (S)-PO insertion, with any (R)-PO misinsertion being followed by incorporation of (S)-PO, so that the microstructure features isolated stereoerrors. K rel calculations for the copolymerization showed around 5-fold enantioselectivity for (S)-PO over (R)-PO at short reaction time. Analysis of the copolymer microstructures obtained under various reaction conditions appears to be an additional approach to differentiate the occurrence of bimetallic and bifunctional copolymerization mechanisms that are widely discussed in the literature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Poly(propylene carbonate): Insight into the Microstructure and Enantioselective Ring-Opening Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Salmeia, Khalifah A.; Vagin, Sergei; Anderson, Carly E.; Rieger, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Different poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) microstructures have been synthesized from the alternating copolymerization of CO 2 with both racemic propylene oxide (PO) and various mixtures of PO enantiomers using chiral salen catalysts. The microstructures of the obtained copolymers as a function of polymerization time have been analyzed by a combination of chiral GC and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The 13C NMR spectra of selected poly(propylene carbonate) samples were recorded using a 900 MHz ( 1H) spectrometer, showing a previously unreported fine splitting of the carbonate resonances. This allowed a detailed assignment of signals for various copolymer microstructures taking into account the specifics in their stereo- and regioirregularities. For example, the enantioselectivity preference of the (R,R-salen)Co catalyst for (S)-PO at the beginning of the copolymerization leads predominantly to (S)-PO insertion, with any (R)-PO misinsertion being followed by incorporation of (S)-PO, so that the microstructure features isolated stereoerrors. K rel calculations for the copolymerization showed around 5-fold enantioselectivity for (S)-PO over (R)-PO at short reaction time. Analysis of the copolymer microstructures obtained under various reaction conditions appears to be an additional approach to differentiate the occurrence of bimetallic and bifunctional copolymerization mechanisms that are widely discussed in the literature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Mechanizm of propylene oxidation on modified cobalt-molybdenum catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutyrev, M.Yu.; Rozentuller, B.V.; Isaev, O.V.; Margolis, L.Ya.; Krylov, O.V.

    1977-01-01

    Effect is studied of additions of iron, copper, nickel, and vanadium oxides, introduced into cobalt, molybdate, on oxidation reactions of propylene to acrolein and acrylicacid. The principal parameters determining the activity and selectivity of oxidation of propylene and acrolein on modified cobalt molibdate are the structure, the type of Mo-O bond, and the nature of the electron transitions in the solid under the effect of adsorption of the reaction components

  14. Direct gas-phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide through radical reactions: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Ali Can; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi; Onal, Isik

    2010-03-01

    The gas-phase radical chain reactions which utilize O 2 as the oxidant to produce propylene oxide (PO) are investigated through theoretical calculations. The transition states and energy profiles were obtained for each path. The rate constants were also calculated. The energetics for the competing pathways indicate that PO can be formed selectively due to its relatively low activation barrier (9.3 kcal/mol) which is in a good agreement with the experimental value (11 kcal/mol) of gas-phase propylene epoxidation. The formation of the acrolein and combustion products have relatively high activation barriers and are not favored. These results also support the recent experimental findings.

  15. Action of microwave radiation in emulsion of oil demulsification by copolymers of poly (ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide); Acao da radiacao micro-ondas na desemulsificacao de emulsoes de petroleo por copolimeros de poli(oxido de etileno-b-oxido de propileno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Bianca M.S.; Ramalho, Joao B.V.; Guimaraes, Regina C.L.; Guarnieri, Ricardo A. [Petrobras Petroleo Brasileiro - CENPES/TPEP/TPP, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bmachado@petrobras.com.br; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria do Petroleo,Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: elucas@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    Emulsions of water-in-petroleum are generally formed during crude oil production. The emulsion needs to be destabilized, along the process in the production units, so as to allow the water-oil separation. This process is accomplished by heating and addition of demulsifier, like poly (ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide) which promotes the removal of the natural emulsifier from the water droplets interfaces. Normally, the conventional heating is used, but the microwave radiation has been suggested to heat de emulsions. The results obtained in this work show that microwave radiation can really enhance the demulsification rate of petroleum emulsions by gravitational mechanism. It is also shown that demulsification enhancement is greatly related to the selective and higher heating of the water phase induced by the microwave radiation, which causes the lowering of the interfacial film rigidity and the increase of the film drainage, after the demulsifier is added to the dispersed system. It was also observed that the higher the density, viscosity, acidity and asphaltenes content of the crude oil, the lower the demulsification rate. (author)

  16. 77 FR 28493 - Propylene Oxide; Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    .... SUMMARY: EPA is establishing the tree nut crop group tolerance and separate tolerances on pistachio and...; nut, tree, group 14; and pistachio; and in 40 CFR 180.491(a)(2) tolerances for propylene chlorohydrin at 10.0 ppm on nut, pine; nut, tree, group 14; and pistachio. Also, in accordance with current Agency...

  17. Synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and propylene glycol over zinc oxide: A homogeneous reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several metal oxides and zinc salts were used to catalyze propylene carbonate (PC synthesis from urea and propylene glycol (PG. According to the results of catalytic test and characterization, the catalytic pattern of ZnO was different from that of other metal oxides such as CaO, MgO and La2O3, but similar to that of zinc salts. In fact, the leaching of Zn species took place during reaction for ZnO. And ZnO was found to be the precursor of homogenous catalyst for reaction of urea and PG. Thus, the relationship between the amount of dissolved zinc species and the catalytic performance of employed ZnO was revealed. In addition, a possible reaction mechanism over ZnO was discussed based on the catalytic runs and the characterization of XRD, FTIR, and element analysis.

  18. Essential work of fracture analysis for starch filled poly(propylene carbonate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; Li, R.K.Y.; Cao, Y.X.; Meng, Y.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Starch filled poly(propylene carbonate) composites are environmental friendly materials. In this study, the fracture toughness of composites under mode I loading was determined by the essential work of fracture concept. The specific essential fracture work of the poly(propylene carbonate)/starch composites decreases with increasing the starch content, while the non-essential work term, βw p increases with increasing the starch content. In addition, the morphologies, thermal properties, thermo-mechanical properties were studied by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, dynamic mechanical analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The thermal and thermo-mechanical measurements revealed that increasing starch content led to an increase in glass transition temperature and thermal stability. Morphology observation indicates that poly(propylene carbonate) and starch have weak interfacial adhesion

  19. Simulation of 3D mesoscale structure formation in concentrated aqueous solution of the triblock polymer surfactants (ethylene oxide)(13)(propylene oxide)(30)(ethylene oxide)(13) and (propylene oxide)(19)(ethylene oxide)(33)(propylene oxide)(19). Application of dynamic mean-field density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, BAC; Maurits, NM; Zvelindovsky, AV; Sevink, GJA; Fraaije, JGEM

    1999-01-01

    We simulate the microphase separation dynamics of aqueous solutions of the triblock polymer surfactants (ethylene oxide)(13)(propylene oxide)(30)(ethylene oxide)(13) and (propylene oxide)(19)(ethylene oxide)(33)(propylene oxide)(19) by a dynamic variant of mean-field density functional theory for

  20. 76 FR 17611 - Propylene Oxide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...: This document proposes to amend the propylene oxide tolerance on ``nut, tree, group 14'' to ``nutmeat... or before April 14, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification (ID... ``nut, tree, group 14'' to read ``nutmeat, processed, except peanuts.'' A final rule published in the...

  1. 76 FR 79146 - Propylene Oxide; Proposed Tolerance Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...: EPA is proposing to establish the tree nut crop group tolerance and separate tolerances on pistachio... (pistachios, pine nuts) in 40 CFR 180.491(a)(1) for residues of propylene oxide in or on pistachio at 300 ppm... pistachio at 10.0 ppm and nut, pine at 10.0 ppm. Establishment of tolerances for pistachios, pine nuts, and...

  2. Functionalized Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers as Novel Phase Transfer Catalyst in Supercritical Cabon Dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goetheer, E.L.V.; Baars, M.W.P.L.; Broeke, van den L.J.P.; Meijer, E.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2000-01-01

    Perfluoro-functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimers have been used as reactive extractants for anionic species and as phase transfer catalysts for two types of reactions. Different generations of dendrimers have been used for applications in carbon dioxide. First, the reactive extraction of

  3. Hydrolase stabilization via entanglement in poly(propylene sulfide) nanoparticles: stability towards reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Brett L; Johnson, Jermaine D; Walker, Jeremy P

    2012-01-01

    In the advancement of green syntheses and sustainable reactions, enzymatic biocatalysis offers extremely high reaction rates and selectivity that goes far beyond the reach of chemical catalysts; however, these enzymes suffer from typical environmental constraints, e.g. operational temperature, pH and tolerance to oxidative environments. A common hydrolase enzyme, diisopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase, EC 3.1.8.2), has demonstrated a pronounced efficacy for the hydrolysis of a variety of substrates for potential toxin remediation, but suffers from the aforementioned limitations. As a means to enhance DFPase’s stability in oxidative environments, enzymatic covalent immobilization within the polymeric matrix of poly(propylene sulfide) (PPS) nanoparticles was performed. By modifying the enzyme’s exposed lysine residues via thiolation, DFPase is utilized as a comonomer/crosslinker in a mild emulsion polymerization. The resultant polymeric polysulfide shell acts as a ‘sacrificial barrier’ by first oxidizing to polysulfoxides and polysulfones, rendering DFPase in an active state. DFPase–PPS nanoparticles thus retain activity upon exposure to as high as 50 parts per million (ppm) of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), while native DFPase is observed as inactive at 500 parts per billion (ppb). This trend is also confirmed by enzyme-generated (chloroperoxidase (CPO), EC 1.11.1.10) reactive oxygen species (ROS) including both HOCl (3 ppm) and ClO 2 (100 ppm). (paper)

  4. Copolimerização micelar de poli(acrilamida-g-óxido de propileno: avaliação reológica e caracterização de suas soluções Micellar copolymerization of poly(acrylamide-g-propylene oxide: rheologic evaluation and solution characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L. Sadicoff

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Copolímeros graftizados de poliacrilamida e poli(óxido de propileno (PPO foram sintetizados via técnica de polimerização micelar. Foram investigadas as mudanças de viscosidade das suas soluções frente à variação do teor de monômero hidrófobo incorporado ao copolímero, adição de sal e de tensoativo. O maior teor de grupos hidrófobos resultou em aumento da viscosidade aparente das soluções poliméricas. A adição de sal provocou maior interação entre os grupos hidrófobos verificada pela desestabilização do sistema polimérico. A adição de tensoativos gerou decréscimo das viscosidades reduzidas das soluções poliméricas. Os copolímeros obtidos foram caracterizados, qualitativamente, por espectrometria de absorção na região do infravermelho (FTIR.Graft copolymers of polyacrylamide and poly(propylene oxide (PPO were synthesized by a micellar copolymerization technique. The rheological properties of the copolymers solutions were evaluated and compared with literature data for solutions of the same copolymers, synthesized by solution polymerization. The effect of hydrophobe content, salt addition and surfactant addition on the rheological properties were also investigated. Increasing hydrophobe content resulted in higher solution viscosities in the semi-dilute regime. Upon addition of salts, the hydrophobic groups associated to minimize their exposure to water. In the semi-dilute region, higher contents of surfactant added resulted in lower reduced viscosities of the polymer solutions. The copolymers were qualitatively characterized by infra-red spectrometry (IR.

  5. Copolymerisation of Propylene Oxide and Carbon Dioxide by Dinuclear Cobalt Porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.

    2013-09-18

    Two dinuclear cobalt porphyrins comprising different structural tethering motifs at the porphyrin periphery were synthesised, along with a representative mononuclear cobalt porphyrin, and their catalytic activities tested towards carbon dioxide-propylene oxide copolymerisation in the presence of bis(triphenylphosphoranyl)ammonium chloride cocatalyst. The catalytic activities of the mononuclear and the bis-para-tethered dinuclear cobalt porphyrin with selective formation of poly(propylene carbonate) are largely comparable, showing no benefit of dinuclearity in contrast to the case of cobalt salen complexes and suggesting that polymer growth proceeds exclusively from one metal centre. The alternative bis-ortho-tethered porphyrin demonstrated considerably reduced activity, with dominant formation of cyclic propylene carbonate, as a result of hindered substrate approach at the metal centre. Time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopic studies suggested a general intolerance of the cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts towards the copolymerisation conditions in the absence of carbon dioxide pressure, leading to catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species. In the presence of carbon dioxide, the bis-ortho-tethered catalyst showed the fastest deactivation, which is related to an unfavourable steric arrangement of the linker fragment, as was also confirmed by NMR spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Copolymerisation of Propylene Oxide and Carbon Dioxide by Dinuclear Cobalt Porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, Carly E.; Vagin, Sergei I.; Hammann, Markus; Zimmermann, Leander; Rieger, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Two dinuclear cobalt porphyrins comprising different structural tethering motifs at the porphyrin periphery were synthesised, along with a representative mononuclear cobalt porphyrin, and their catalytic activities tested towards carbon dioxide-propylene oxide copolymerisation in the presence of bis(triphenylphosphoranyl)ammonium chloride cocatalyst. The catalytic activities of the mononuclear and the bis-para-tethered dinuclear cobalt porphyrin with selective formation of poly(propylene carbonate) are largely comparable, showing no benefit of dinuclearity in contrast to the case of cobalt salen complexes and suggesting that polymer growth proceeds exclusively from one metal centre. The alternative bis-ortho-tethered porphyrin demonstrated considerably reduced activity, with dominant formation of cyclic propylene carbonate, as a result of hindered substrate approach at the metal centre. Time-resolved UV/Vis spectroscopic studies suggested a general intolerance of the cobalt(III) porphyrin catalysts towards the copolymerisation conditions in the absence of carbon dioxide pressure, leading to catalytically inactive cobalt(II) species. In the presence of carbon dioxide, the bis-ortho-tethered catalyst showed the fastest deactivation, which is related to an unfavourable steric arrangement of the linker fragment, as was also confirmed by NMR spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Poly(propylene carbonate)/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    use of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The selectivity of PPC ... strongly destroys the environment and harms human health. Among various methods ... oxides,14–16 zeolites,17 silica,18–21 various resins,22–25 bio-.

  8. Discovery of the First Interstellar Chiral Molecule: Propylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brandon; McGuire, Brett A.; Loomis, Ryan; Finneran, Ian A.; Jewell, Philip; Remijan, Anthony; Blake, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Life on Earth relies on chiral molecules, that is, species not superimposable on their mirror images. This manifests itself as a reliance on a single molecular handedness, or homochirality that is characteristic of life and perhaps most readily apparent in the large enhancement in biological activity of particular amino acid and sugar enantiomers. Yet, the ancestral origin of biological homochirality remains a mystery. The non-racemic ratios in some organics isolated from primitive meteorites hint at a primordial chiral seed but even these samples have experienced substantial processing during planetary assembly, obscuring their complete histories. To determine the underlying origin of any enantiomeric excess, it is critical to understand the molecular gas from which these molecules originated. Here, we present the first extra-solar, astronomical detection of a chiral molecule, propylene oxide (CH_3CHCH_2O), in absorption toward the Galactic Center. With the detection of propylene oxide, we at last have a target for broad-ranging searches for the possible cosmic origin of the homochirality of life.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) end capped poly (propylene fumarate) cross linked amphiphilic hydrogel as tissue engineering scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Lekshmi; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradable poly (caprolactone diol-co-propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) amphiphilic polymer with poly (ethylene glycol) and poly (caprolactone diol) chain ends (PCL-PPF-PEG) was prepared. PCL-PPF-PEG undergoes fast setting with acrylamide (aqueous solution) by free radical polymerization and produces a crosslinked hydrogel. The cross linked and freeze-dried amphiphilic material has porous and interconnected network. It undergoes higher degree of swelling and water absorption to form hydrogel with hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains at the surface and appreciable tensile strength. The present hydrogel is compatible with L929 fibroblast cells. PCL-PPF-PEG/acrylamide hydrogel is a candidate scaffold material for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Investigation of the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene on oxide catalysts containing molybdenum and using the response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiev, K.N.; Adzhamov, K.Y.; Alkhazov, T.G.; Khanmamedova, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The response method has been used to study the oxidative ammonolysis of propylene on MoO 3 and molybdenum oxide systems containing bismuth, silicon, and phosphorous ions. The response curves obtained for ammonia, propylene, CO 2 , acrolein, acrylonitrile in these systems are discussed and compared with individual molybdenum trioxide. It has been shown that the modifying action of ammonia on the catalyst surfaces determines the direction of the oxidative conversion of the propylene

  11. Radiochemical oxidation of an ethylene-propylene-hexadiene terpolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, J.; Pinel, B.; Gueguen, V.; Audouin, L.

    1996-01-01

    The γ ray initiated oxidation of an ethylene-propylene-hexadiene terpolymer (molar ratios 87/12/1) was studied by IR spectrophotometry in the 40-90 deg C temperature range, with dose rates varying from 10 to 2500 Gy h -1 and integrated doses up to 100 kGy. Bulk (∼ 8 mm) and thin (∼ 0.1 mm) samples were studied. It appears that the oxidation is diffusion controlled in the bulk samples and non diffusion controlled in thin films. A kinetic study of IR spectral changes in these latter reveals that vinylene groups of the hexadiene monomer unit disappear in the early period of exposure, presumably by addition reactions with peroxy radicals. A very simplified mechanistic scheme allows a satisfying modelling of this process whose rate is almost proportional to the dose rate (irradiation intensity). (authors)

  12. Controlled synthesis of multi-arm star polyether-polycarbonate polyols based on propylene oxide and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilf, Jeannette; Schulze, Patricia; Seiwert, Jan; Frey, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Multi-arm star copolymers based on a hyperbranched poly(propylene oxide) polyether-polyol (hbPPO) as a core and poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) arms are synthesized in two steps from propylene oxide (PO), a small amount of glycidol and CO2 . The PPC arms are prepared via carbon dioxide (CO2 )/PO copolymerization, using hbPPO as a multifunctional macroinitiator and the (R,R)-(salcy)CoOBzF5 catalyst. Star copolymers with 14 and 28 PPC arms, respectively, and controlled molecular weights in the range of 2700-8800 g mol(-1) are prepared (Mw /Mn = 1.23-1.61). Thermal analysis reveals lowered glass transition temperatures in the range of -8 to 10 °C for the PPC star polymers compared with linear PPC, which is due to the influence of the flexible polyether core. Successful conversion of the terminal hydroxyl groups with phenylisocyanate demonstrates the potential of the polycarbonate polyols for polyurethane synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nanomechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with DAB dendrimers (poly-propylene imine) coatings onto titanium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charitidis, Costas A.; Skarmoutsou, Amalia; Tsetsekou, Athena; Brasinika, Despina; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB). ► The nanomechanical properties of different HAP-DAB coatings onto titanium surfaces. ► Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the synthesized coatings quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. -- Abstract: Coatings of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods onto titanium surfaces were synthesized with the aim to improve coatings’ mechanical properties and adhesion to the substrate. The coatings are consisting of HAP nanorods synthesized in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB) bearing 32 amine end groups employing varying calcium: dendrimer ratios and varying hydrothermal treatments. The quality, surface morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis. Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the coatings onto titanium substrates were studied through nanoindentation analysis. The experimental conditions, namely the calcium: dendrimer molar ratio and the hydrothermal treatment temperature were carefully selected; thus, it was possible to produce coatings of high hardness and elastic modulus values (ranging between 1–4.5 GPa and 40–150 GPa, respectively) and/or high wear resistance and plastic deformation values

  14. Nanomechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with DAB dendrimers (poly-propylene imine) coatings onto titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charitidis, Costas A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Skarmoutsou, Amalia [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsetsekou, Athena; Brasinika, Despina [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsiourvas, Dimitris [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB). ► The nanomechanical properties of different HAP-DAB coatings onto titanium surfaces. ► Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the synthesized coatings quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. -- Abstract: Coatings of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods onto titanium surfaces were synthesized with the aim to improve coatings’ mechanical properties and adhesion to the substrate. The coatings are consisting of HAP nanorods synthesized in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB) bearing 32 amine end groups employing varying calcium: dendrimer ratios and varying hydrothermal treatments. The quality, surface morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis. Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the coatings onto titanium substrates were studied through nanoindentation analysis. The experimental conditions, namely the calcium: dendrimer molar ratio and the hydrothermal treatment temperature were carefully selected; thus, it was possible to produce coatings of high hardness and elastic modulus values (ranging between 1–4.5 GPa and 40–150 GPa, respectively) and/or high wear resistance and plastic deformation values.

  15. Propylene oxidation on catalytic Pt-Cu/y alumina. (Part II) chemical Kinetics of catalysts of Pt-Cu/y-alumina in the propylene oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, Luis M; Zea, Hugo R

    1999-01-01

    In this work is treated the effect of the composition of catalysts of Pt-Cu/y - alumina on the specific superficial activity corresponding to the total oxidation of propylene. Although the catalyst activity of the Cu in the operation conditions went practically null the specific activity of the catalytic Pt-Cu it incremented with the increase of the contained proportion of Cu in the catalyst. The total global speed by gram of catalyst was also increased with the introduction of Cu, but only to medium and high concentrations of propylene. The specific superficial activity was bigger for the sinterizated catalyst, for a given composition of the bimetallic catalyst, compared with that of the fresh catalyst (non-sinterizated). To explain, the catalytic behavior of the propylene oxidation, on the catalysts here studied, it is postulated that the propylene molecule it absorb with less force on the faces than in the corners or borders of the crystals of the catalyst and that the connection of adsorption on a place of given Pt is affected by the atoms of neighboring Cu on the surface causing changes in the mobility of the absorbed species. The kinetic results reveal a complex dependence between the reaction speed and the concentration of the propylene. In low concentrations of propylene the reaction speed was increased until to reach a maximum, and then to continue with a marked decreasing; and to concentrations. In bigger propylene concentrations, the reaction kinetics is presented as zero order with regard to the propylene, for some given concentrations of oxygen

  16. Catalytic properties of a titanium-antimony oxide system in oxidative ammonolysis of propylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkovets, G.A.; Tarasova, D.V.; Andrushkevich, T.V.; Aleshina, G.I.; Nikoro, T.A.; Ravilov, R.G.

    1979-03-01

    The catalytic properties of titanium-antimony oxide system in oxidative ammonolysis of propylene at 450/sup 0/C depended both on the catalyst and the reactant compositions. Stable and high (75-80Vertical Bar3<) selectivities for acrylonitrile and high activities were observed over catalysts containing 5-60 mole Vertical Bar3< Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ with 2Vertical Bar3< propylene and 3Vertical Bar3< ammonia in air at Vertical Bar3; 70Vertical Bar3< conversions. The selectivities of the catalysts for acetonitrile and acrolein did not exceed 5 and 1Vertical Bar3<, respectively. At high ammonia and propylene contents in the reaction mixture and over individual TiO/sub 2/ or Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ catalysts, the reaction selectivity shifted toward deep oxidation products. These findings were attributed to the reducing effect of propylene and ammonia at high concentrations on the active components of the catalyst, a solid solution of Sb in TiO/sub 2/ containing 5-7 mole Vertical Bar3< of Sb/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and a chemical compound with TiSb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ composition.

  17. Poly(propylene)/aspen/liquid polybutadiene composites: maximization of impact strength, tensile and modulus by statistical experimental design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokta, B. V.; Michálková, Danuše; Fortelný, Ivan; Kruliš, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2007), s. 106-111 ISSN 1042-7147 Grant - others:Network of Centres of Excellence(EU) AUTO21 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : poly butadiene * composites * poly (propylene) (pp) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2007

  18. Degradation and biocompatibility of a poly(propylene fumarate)-based/alumoxane nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mistry, A.S.; Mikos, A.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of a novel poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF)-based/alumoxane nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering applications. The incorporation of functionalized alumoxane nanoparticles into the PPF-based polymer was previously

  19. Immobilization of surface active compounds on polymer supports using glow discharge processess. 1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate on poly(propylene)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlingen, J.G.A.; Terlingen, Johannes G.A.; Feijen, Jan; Hoffman, Allan S.

    1993-01-01

    A new method has been developed in which a reversibly adsorbed layer of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) is covalently immobilized in one step onto a hydrophobic substrate (poly(propylene), PP) by applying an argon plasma treatment. The adsorption of SDS from aqueous solutions onto PP

  20. Multivalent contrast agents based on Gd-DTPA-terminated poly (propylene imine) dendrimers for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langereis, S.; Lussanet, de Q.G; Genderen, van M.H.P.; Backes, W.H.; Meijer, E.W.

    2004-01-01

    A convenient methodol. has been developed for the synthesis of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-terminated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In our strategy, isocyanate-activated, tert-butyl-protected DTPA analogs were

  1. Poly(Propylene Imine Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3. The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  2. Interactive transport of guanidinylated poly(propylene imine)-based dendrimers through liposomal and cellular membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsogas, Ioannis; Sideratou, Zili; Tsiourvas, Dimitris; Theodossiou, Theodossis A; Paleos, Constantinos M

    2007-10-15

    The ability of guanidinylated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers to translocate across lipid bilayers was assessed by employing either a model phosphate-bearing liposomal membrane system or A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Two dendrimer generations, differing in the number of surface guanidinium groups, were employed, while surface acetylation or the use of spacers affected the binding of the guanidinium group to the phosphate moiety and finally the transport efficiency. Following adhesion of dendrimers with liposomes, fusion or transport occurred. Transport through the liposomal bilayer was observed at low guanidinium/phosphate molar ratios, and was enhanced when the bilayer was in the liquid-crystalline phase. For effective transport through the liposomal membrane, an optimum balance between the binding strength and the degree of hydrophobicity of the guanidinylated dendrimer is required. In experiments performed in vitro with cells, efficient penetration and internalization in subcellular organelles and cytosol was observed.

  3. Effect of homopolymer poly(vinyl acetate on compatibility and mechanical properties of poly(propylene carbonate/poly(lactic acid blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A small amount of homopolymer poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc is used to compatibilize the biodegradable blends of poly(propylene carbonate (PPC and poly(lactic acid (PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results show that PVAc is selectively localized in the PLA phase and at the interface between PPC and PLA phases. As a result, these interface-localized PVAc layers act as not only a compatibilizer to improve the phase dispersion significantly but also a bridge to increase the interfacial adhesion between PPC and PLA phases dramatically. Both of them are believed to be responsible for the enhancement in mechanical properties. This work provides a simple avenue to fabricate eco-friendly PPC/PLA blends with high performance, and in some cases, reducing the demand for petroleumbased plastics such as polypropylene.

  4. Preparation, melting behavior and thermal stability of poly(lactic acid)/poly(propylene carbonate) blends processed by vane extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wei, E-mail: zw55624@163.com; Chen, Rongyuan; Zhang, Haichen; Qu, Jinping, E-mail: jpqu@scut.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Novel Equipment for Polymer Processing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-03-09

    Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) blends were prepared by vane extruder which is a type of novel polymer processing extruder based on elongation force field. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) were used respectively to analyze the compatibility, the melting behavior and thermal stability properties of PLA/PPC blends affected by the different content of PPC. The results showed that with the increase of the PPC content, the glass transition temperature of PLA was reduced, and the glass transition temperature of PPC was increased, which indicated that PLA and PPC had partial compatibility. The cold crystallization temperature of PLA increased with the increase of the PPC content, which showed that PPC hindered the cold crystallization process of PLA. The addition of PPC had little impact on the melting process of PLA, and the melting temperature of PLA was almost kept the same value. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stability of PPC was worse than that of PLA, the addition of PPC reduced the thermal stability of PLA.

  5. In vitro study of a new biodegradable nanocomposite based on poly propylene fumarate as bone glue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, S.; Moztarzadeh, F. [Department of Medical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, G. Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Y., E-mail: y.j.arisman@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    A novel poly propylene fumarate (PPF)-based glue which is reinforced by nanobioactive glass (NBG) particles and promoted by hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as crosslinker agent, was developed and investigated for bone-to-bone bonding applications. In-vitro bioactivity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bone adhesion were tested and the results have verified that it can be used as bone glue. In an in-vitro condition, the prepared nanocomposite (PPF/HEMA/NBG) showed improved adhesion to wet bone surfaces. The combined tension and shear resistance between two wet bone surfaces was measured, and its maximum value was 9 ± 59 MPa. To investigate the bioactivity and biodegradability of the nanocomposite, it has been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). After 14 days exposure to SBF, a hydroxyapatite (HA) layer formed on the surface of the composite confirms the bioactivity of this material. In the XRD pattern of the nanocomposite surface, the HA characteristic diffraction peak at θ = 26 and 31.8 were observed. Also, by monitoring the weight change after 8 weeks immersion in SBF, the mass loss was about 16.46 wt%. It has been confirmed that this nanocomposite is a biodegradable material. Also, bioactivity and biodegradability of nanocomposite have been proved by SEM images. It has been showed that by using NBG particles and HEMA precursor, mechanical properties increased significantly. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of nanocomposite which contains 20% NBG and the ratio of 70/30 wt% PPF/HEMA (PHB.732) was approximately 62 MPa, while the UTS in the pure PPF/HEMA was about 32 MPa. High cell viability in this nanocomposite (MTT assays, 85–95%) can be attributed to the NBG nature which contains calcium phosphate and is similar to physiological environment. Furthermore, it possesses biomineralization and biodegradation which significantly affected by impregnation of hydrophilic HEMA in the PPF-based polymeric matrix. The results indicated that the new

  6. Laboratory Investigations into the Spectra and Origin of Propylene Oxide: A Chiral Interstellar Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Loeffler, M. J.; Yocum, K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Propylene oxide was recently identified in the interstellar medium, but few laboratory results are available for this molecule to guide current and future investigations. To address this situation, here we report infrared spectra, absorption coefficients, and band strengths of solid propylene oxide along with the first measurement of its refractive index and a calculation of its density, all for the amorphous solid form of the compound. We present the first experimental results showing a low-temperature formation pathway for propylene oxide near 10 K in interstellar ice analogs. Connections are drawn between our new results and the interstellar molecules propanal and acetone, and predictions are made about several as yet unobserved vinyl alcohols and methylketene. Comparisons are given to earlier laboratory work and a few applications to interstellar and solar system astrochemistry are described.

  7. Laboratory Investigations into the Spectra and Origin of Propylene Oxide: A Chiral Interstellar Molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, R. L.; Loeffler, M. J. [Astrochemistry Laboratory (Code 691), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yocum, K. M., E-mail: Reggie.Hudson@nasa.gov [Department of Chemistry, Kutztown University, Kutztown, PA 19530 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Propylene oxide was recently identified in the interstellar medium, but few laboratory results are available for this molecule to guide current and future investigations. To address this situation, here we report infrared spectra, absorption coefficients, and band strengths of solid propylene oxide along with the first measurement of its refractive index and a calculation of its density, all for the amorphous solid form of the compound. We present the first experimental results showing a low-temperature formation pathway for propylene oxide near 10 K in interstellar ice analogs. Connections are drawn between our new results and the interstellar molecules propanal and acetone, and predictions are made about several as yet unobserved vinyl alcohols and methylketene. Comparisons are given to earlier laboratory work and a few applications to interstellar and solar system astrochemistry are described.

  8. New eco-friendly random copolyesters based on poly(propylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate: Structure-properties relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Genovese

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel random copolymers of poly(propylene 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate (PPCE containing neo -pentyl glycol sub-unit (P(PCExNCEy were synthesized and characterized in terms of molecular and solid-state properties. In addition, biodegradability studies in compost have been conducted. The copolymers displayed a high and similar thermal stability with respect to PPCE. At room temperature, all the copolymers appeared as semicrystalline materials: the main effect of copolymerization was a lowering of crystallinity degree (χc and a decrease of the melting temperature compared to the parent homopolymer. In particular, Wide Angle X-Ray diffraction (WAXD measurements indicated that P(PCExNCEy copolymers are characterized by cocrystallization, PNCE counits cocrystallizing in PPCE crystalline phase. Final properties and biodegradation rate of the materials under study were strictly dependent on copolymer composition and χc. As a matter of fact, the elastic modulus and the elongation at break decreased and increased, respectively, as neopentyl glycol cyclohexanedicarboxylate (NCE unit content was increased. The presence of a rigid-amorphous phase was evidenced by means of Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA analysis in all the samples under investigation. Lastly, the biodegradation rate of P(PCExNCEy copolymers was found to slightly increase with the increasing of NCE molar content.

  9. Fracture studies of poly(propylene)/elastomer blend with β-form nucleating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Hongwei; Wang Yong; Zhang Danli; Xiao Chengquan; Song Bo; Li Yanli; Han Liang

    2009-01-01

    Poly(propylene)/elastomer blends with β-form nucleating agent (β-NA) aryl amides compound (TMB-5) were prepared. The effects of β-NA on crystallization, melting behaviors and elastomer morphologies of PP/elastomer blends were studied through polarization optical microscope (POM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The fracture behaviors, including notched Izod impact fracture and single-edge notched tensile (SENT) fracture, were comparatively studied to establish the role of NA in improving the fracture toughness of PP/elastomer blends. Our results showed that the presence of β-NA leads to determinable β-PP formation in the blends, and as a consequence the fracture toughness of the blend is improved dramatically. Compared with notched Izod impact testing, which can efficiently characterize the fracture toughness of the blends only at lower elastomer content, SENT testing provides more detail of fracture behavior in all the compositions. Furthermore, SENT test shows that the significant improvement in fracture toughness of PP/elastomer/β-NA is contributed to the simultaneous enhancement of crack initiation energy and crack propagation energy, but largely dominated by crack propagation stage.

  10. Ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene) before and after X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, M.

    2001-01-01

    Study on the ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene), before and after X-ray irradiation within the temperature range 300-360 K are reported. The measurements have been performed in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 to 10 5 Hz) and under the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses (from 0 to 15 Gy). Cole-Cole diagrams have been used to show the frequency dependence of the complex impedance at different temperatures. The results exhibit semicircles which are consistent with existing equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the results reveal semiconducting features based mainly on a hopping mechanism. The study shows a pronounced effect of X-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity at zero frequency σ DC . At the early stage of irradiation, σ DC increased as a result of free radical formation. As the irradiation progressed, it decreased as a result of crosslinking, then it increased again due to irradiation induced degradation, which motivates the generation of mobile free radicals. The study shows that this polymer is one among other polymers which its electrical conductivity is modified by irradiation

  11. Ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene) before and after X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, M.

    2001-05-01

    Study on the ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene), before and after X-ray irradiation within the temperature range 300-360 K are reported. The measurements have been performed in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 to 10 5 Hz) and under the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses (from 0 to 15 Gy). Cole-Cole diagrams have been used to show the frequency dependence of the complex impedance at different temperatures. The results exhibit semicircles which are consistent with existing equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the results reveal semiconducting features based mainly on a hopping mechanism. The study shows a pronounced effect of X-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity at zero frequency σDC. At the early stage of irradiation, σDC increased as a result of free radical formation. As the irradiation progressed, it decreased as a result of crosslinking, then it increased again due to irradiation induced degradation, which motivates the generation of mobile free radicals. The study shows that this polymer is one among other polymers which its electrical conductivity is modified by irradiation.

  12. Extrusion-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds with hydroxyapatite gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Jordan E.; Placone, Jesse K.; Smith, Brandon T.; Fisher, John P.; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2017-01-01

    The primary focus of this work is to present the current challenges of printing scaffolds with concentration gradients of nanoparticles with an aim to improve the processing of these scaffolds. Furthermore, we address how print fidelity is related to material composition and emphasize the importance of considering this relationship when developing complex scaffolds for bone implants. The ability to create complex tissues is becoming increasingly relevant in the tissue engineering community. For bone tissue engineering applications, this work demonstrates the ability to use extrusion-based printing techniques to control the spatial deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles in a 3D composite scaffold. In doing so, we combined the benefits of synthetic, degradable polymers, such as poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), with osteoconductive HA nanoparticles that provide robust compressive mechanical properties. Furthermore, the final 3D printed scaffolds consisted of well-defined layers with interconnected pores, two critical features for a successful bone implant. To demonstrate a controlled gradient of HA, thermogravimetric analysis was carried out to quantify HA on a per-layer basis. Moreover, we non-destructively evaluated the tendency of HA particles to aggregate within PPF using micro-computed tomography (µCT). This work provides insight for proper fabrication and characterization of composite scaffolds containing particle gradients and has broad applicability for future efforts in fabricating complex scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. PMID:28125380

  13. Injectable, in situ forming poly(propylene fumarate)-based ocular drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Hacker, M C; Haesslein, A; Jo, S; Ammon, D M; Borazjani, R N; Kunzler, J F; Salamone, J C; Mikos, A G

    2007-12-01

    This study sought to develop an injectable formulation for long-term ocular delivery of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) by dissolving the anti-inflammatory drug and the biodegradable polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) in the biocompatible, water-miscible, organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). Upon injection of the solution into an aqueous environment, a FA-loaded PPF matrix is precipitated in situ through the diffusion/extraction of NMP into surrounding aqueous fluids. Fabrication of the matrices and in vitro release studies were performed in phosphate buffered saline at 37 degrees C. Drug loadings up to 5% were achieved. High performance liquid chromatography was employed to determine the released amount of FA. The effects of drug loading, PPF content of the injectable formulation, and additional photo-crosslinking of the matrix surface were investigated. Overall, FA release was sustained in vitro over up to 400 days. After an initial burst release of 22 to 68% of initial FA loading, controlled drug release driven by diffusion and bulk erosion was observed. Drug release rates in a therapeutic range were demonstrated. Release kinetics were found to be dependent on drug loading, formulation PPF content, and extent of surface crosslinking. The results suggest that injectable, in situ formed PPF matrices are promising candidates for the formulation of long-term, controlled delivery devices for intraocular drug delivery. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characteristic of Irradiation Result Film of Poly-Propylene-Co-Ethylene/Poly-ε-Caprolactone and Poly-Propylene Grafted Maleic Anhydrate Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gamma rays irradiation to film of melt-blending polypropylene-co-ethylene (CPP) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH) blend as compatibilizer has been studied. The objective of the research is to prepare the biodegradable polyblend. The composition blend of CPP/PCL with 0, 10, 15, 20 wt % PP-g-MAH i.e. 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75 and 0/100 were irradiated by using gamma rays 60 Co with activity 420 kCi at doses; 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kGy, at dose rate 8.2 kGy/hrs and temperature 90 o C. The elongation at break, tensile strength, gel fraction, enzymatic degradation and heat resistance were evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility of PP-g-MAH to reach good enough polyblend is 20 % weight. Elongation at break film of CPP/PCL 50/50 blend which irradiated at dose 200 kGy decreased, whereas the tensile strength increased. Gel fraction and heat resistance of the film irradiated increased. Enzyme of lipase AK can degraded either without irradiated or irradiated film. Thus quality of the polyblend can be called as biodegradable plastic material. (author)

  15. Iron-tellurium-selenium mixed oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.M.; Price, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on iron-tellurium-selenium mixed oxide catalysts prepared by coprecipitation from aqueous solution investigated for the propylene to acrolein reaction in the temperature range 543-773 K. Infrared spectroscopy, electron dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and isotopic tracer techniques have also been employed to characterize this catalytic system. Properties of the Fe-Te-Se mixed oxide catalysts have been compared with Fe-Te mixed oxides in an effort to deduce the functionality of Se. The selenium in the Fe-Te-Se-O catalyst has been found to be the hydrocarbon activating site. The activation energies for the acrolein and carbon dioxide formation are 71 and 54 kJ/mol, respectively. Reactions carried out with 18 O 2 have shown lattice oxygen to be primarily responsible for the formation of both acrolein and carbon dioxide. The initial and rate-determining step for acrolein formation is hydrogen abstraction as determined by an isotope effect associated with the C 3 D 6 reaction. No isotope effect is observed for carbon dioxide formation from C 3 D 6 suggesting that CO 2 is formed by parallel, not consecutive, oxidation of propylene

  16. Cooperative properties of single phases of complex oxide catalyst for oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orel, L.I.; Udalova, O.V.; Korchak, V.N.; Isaev, O.V.; Krylov, O.V.; Gershenzon, Yu.M.; Aptekar', E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Synergetic effect of increase of acrolein yield during propylene oxidation on mechanical mixture of (α + β)CoMoO 4 and MoO 3 , as well as CO and CO 2 yield on mixture of CoMoO 4 and Bi 2 O 3 ·2MoO 3 was revealed. It is shown that CoMoO 4 generates allyl radicals, desorption of these radicals to gaseous phase is not practically observed with MoO 3 , bismuth molybdates and Fe 2 O 3 · Fe 2 O 3 ·3MoO 3

  17. Crystalline structure and propylene oxidation in complex bismuth-molybdenum oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaila, R.; Ionescu, N.I.; Caldararu, M.

    1980-01-01

    Complex Bi-Mo oxide catalysts supported on amorphous SiO 2 were prepared by coprecipitation and tested in the reaction of selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. They consist of a mixture of molybdate phases and excess MoO 3 . The Fe 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 phase was found to have a high concentration of lattice defects, induced by a Mo excess. These defects could be related to the catalytic conversion and to the selectivity to total oxidation by varying the calcination temperature. Calcination above 500 0 C induced also the transition of the metastable modification β-NiMoO 4 to the stable form α, accompanied by a loss of conversion. A complex Bi molybdate with scheelitic structure was found to have a high selectivity to acrolein. (author)

  18. Digital micromirror device (DMD)-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Eric J; Busso, Mallory; Luo, Xinyi; Dolder, Courtney; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P; Dean, David

    2016-04-01

    Our recent investigations into the 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), a linear polyester, using a DMD-based system brought us to a resin that used titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an ultraviolet (UV) filter for controlling cure depth. However, this material hindered the 3D printing process due to undesirable lateral or "dark" curing (i.e., in areas not exposed to light from the DMD chip). Well known from its use in sunscreen, another UV filter, oxybenzone, has previously been used in conjunction with TiO2. In this study we hypothesize that combining these two UV filters will result in a synergistic effect that controls cure depth and avoids dark cure. A resin mixture (i.e., polymer, initiator, UV filters) was identified that worked well. The resin was then further characterized through mechanical testing, cure testing, and cytotoxicity testing to investigate its use as a material for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Results show that the final resin eliminated dark cure as shown through image analysis. Mechanically the new scaffolds proved to be far weaker than those printed from previous resins, with compressive strengths of 7.8 ± 0.5 MPa vs. 36.5 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. The new scaffolds showed a 90% reduction in elastic modulus and a 74% increase in max strain. These properties may be useful in tissue engineering applications where resorption is required. Initial cytotoxicity evaluation was negative. As hypothesized, the use of TiO2 and oxybenzone showed synergistic effects in the 3D printing of PPF tissue engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polyethers for biomedical applications. Polymerization of propylene oxide by organozinc/organotin catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Jan Gert; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Broersma, Jaap

    1987-01-01

    The polymerization of propylene oxide to obtain a high-molecular-weight polymer with an atactic structure required for the application as artificial blood vessels was investigated using combinations of organozinc and organotin compounds as catalyst. The composition of the most active catalyst,

  20. Theoretical study on the nucleophilic fluoroalkylation of propylene oxide with fluorinated sulfones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ling-Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The path of nucleophilic fluoroalkylation reaction of propylene oxide with PhSO2CYF- (Y=F,H, and PhSO2, respectively in gas phase and in Et2O solvent were studied theoretically. The nucleophilic fluoroalkylation of propylene oxide with fluorinated carbanions was probed by the reactivity comparison between (benzenesulfonylmonofluoromethyl anion (PhSO2CHF-, (benzenesulfonyl difluoromethyl anion (PhSO2CF2-, and bis(benzenesul-fonyl monofluoromethyl anion ((PhSO22CF-. The nucleophilicity reactivity order of PhSO2CYF- (Y = F, H, and PhSO2 is [(PhSO22CF-] > PhSO2CHF- > PhSO2CF2-, which indicates that introducing another electron-withdrawing benzenesulfonyl group is an effective way to significantly increase the nucleophilicity of the fluorinate carbanions. For comparison, we also studied the nucleophilic addition reactions of propylene oxide with chlorine substituted carbanion PhSO2CHCl-. The calculated results show that the nucleophilicity of PhSO2CYF- is better than that of PhSO2CHCl- for the ring opening reaction with propylene oxide. The calculated results are in good agreement with the available experiments.

  1. Selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein by silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duc, Duc Truong; Ha, Hanh Nguyen; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Silica-supported bismuth molybdate catalysts have been prepared by impregnation, structurally characterized and examined as improved catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Catalysts with a wide range of loadings (from 10 to 90 wt%) of beta bismuth molybdate (β-Bi2Mo2O9) w...

  2. Quantifying residues from postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel analytical approach, involving solvent extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by gas chromatography (GC), was developed to quantify residues that result from the postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide (PPO). Verification and quantification of PPO,...

  3. Selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein by hydrothermally synthesized bismuth molybdates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang; Høj, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis has been used as a soft chemical method to prepare bismuth molybdate catalysts for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. All obtained samples displayed a plate-like morphology, but their individual aspect ratios varied with the hydrothermal synthesis conditions...... of nitric acid during hydrothermal synthesis enhanced both propylene conversion and acrolein yield, possibly due to a change in morphology. Formation of β-Bi2Mo2O9 was not observed under the applied conditions. In general, the catalytic performance of all samples decreased notably after calcination at 550...

  4. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers as efficient "active" chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambón, A; Rey-Rico, A; Mistry, D; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Attwood, D; Barbosa, S; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

    2013-03-10

    Five reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BOnEOmBOn, with BO ranging from 8 to 21 units and EO from 90 to 411 were synthesized and evaluated as efficient chemotherapeutic drug delivery nanocarriers and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line. The copolymers were obtained by reverse polymerization of poly(butylene oxide), which avoids transfer reaction and widening of the EO block distribution, commonly found in commercial poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamers). BOnEOmBOn copolymers formed spherical micelles of 10-40 nm diameter at lower concentrations (one order of magnitude) than those of equivalent poloxamers. The influence of copolymer block lengths and BO/EO ratios on the solubilization capacity and protective environment for doxorubicin (DOXO) was investigated. Micelles showed drug loading capacity ranging from ca. 0.04% to 1.5%, more than 150 times the aqueous solubility of DOXO, and protected the cargo from hydrolysis for more than a month due to their greater colloidal stability in solution. Drug release profiles at various pHs, and the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the DOXO-loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. DOXO loaded in the polymeric micelles accumulated more slowly inside the cells than free DOXO due to its sustained release. All copolymers were found to be cytocompatible, with viability extents larger than 95%. In addition, the cytotoxicity of DOXO-loaded micelles was higher than that observed for free drug solutions in a MDR ovarian NCI-ADR-RES cell line which overexpressed P-gp. The inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump by some BOnEOmBOn copolymers, similar to that measured for the common P-gp inhibitor verapamil, favored the retention of DOXO inside the cell increasing its cytotoxic activity. Therefore, poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers offer interesting features as cell

  5. Surface compounds and the routes of formation of the reaction products in the interaction of propylene with zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, A.A.; Yefremov, A.A.; Mikhalchenko, V.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-06-15

    Temperature programed desorption of propylene and allyl bromide from zinc oxide in the absence and presence of oxygen and an IR spectroscopic study of the adsorbed allyl bromide showed that propylene chemisorbed reversibly as a m-allyl species which may undergo dimerization at higher pressures or temperatures but does not form acrolein because the necessary electron transfer does not proceed on the n-type zinc oxide; that propylene also forms carbon dioxide and water via carbonate/carboxylate intermediates; and that the allyl bromide, which forms cations on the zinc oxide surface, is oxidized to acrolein.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of Shape Memory Poly(γ-Benzyl-l-Glutamate-b-Poly(Propylene Glycol-b-Poly(γ-Benzyl-l-Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Gu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory polymers (SMPs have attracted much attention as an important class of stimuli-responsive materials for biomedical applications. For SMP-based biomaterials, in addition to suitable shape recovery performances, their mechanical properties, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and sterilizability needs to be considered. Polypeptides can satisfy the requirements outlined above. However, there are few reports on shape memory polypeptides. In this paper, shape memory poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate (PBLG-PPG-PBLG was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of γ-benzyl-l-glutamate-N-carboxyanhydrides (BLG-NCA with poly(propylene glycol bis(2-aminopropyl ether as the macroinitiator. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used to characterize the structure of the obtained PBLG-PPG-PBLG. The FTIR analysis showed that PBLG-PPG-PBLG has α-helical and β-sheet structures. PBLG-PPG-PBLG has good shape memory properties, its shape recovery time is less than 120 s, and its shape recovery rate is 100%. In this study, we reported a simple synthetic method to obtain intelligent polypeptide materials, which will be used in many biomedical applications.

  7. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers

    OpenAIRE

    VACHEETHASANEE, KATANCHALEE; WANG, SHUWU; QIU, YONGXING; MARCHANT, ROGER E.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly (ethyleneoxide) (PEO) were simultaneously att...

  8. Preparation and characterization of thermal-responsive non-woven poly (propylene) materials grafted with N-isopropylacrylamide/β-cyclodextrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Setareh; Zadhoush, Ali; Mallakpour, Shadpour

    2013-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive hydrogel was successfully grafted on the surface of non-woven poly(propylene) materials. This was carried out by the application of unmodified β-cyclodextrin and N-isopropylacrylamide monomer in order to develop new functional hydrogels for textile science and technology......(N-isopropylacrylamide) and β-cyclodextrin components on the surface of the textile. Unmodified β-cyclodextrin content was estimated by the use of elemental analysis to be 97 µg/cm2. The water uptake measurements and differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed that the hydrogel maintained its temperature...... of smart textiles which possess the temperature-sensitive property of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and the ability of inclusion complex formation with guest molecules due to the presence of unmodified β-cyclodextrin in the hydrogel network....

  9. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayabalan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  10. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  11. Copolymerization and terpolymerization of carbon dioxide/propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride using a (salenCo(III complex tethering four quaternary ammonium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeob Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The (salenCo(III complex 1 tethering four quaternary ammonium salts, which is a highly active catalyst in CO2/epoxide copolymerizations, shows high activity for propylene oxide/phthalic anhydride (PO/PA copolymerizations and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations. In the PO/PA copolymerizations, full conversion of PA was achieved within 5 h, and strictly alternating copolymers of poly(1,2-propylene phthalates were afforded without any formation of ether linkages. In the PO/CO2/PA terpolymerizations, full conversion of PA was also achieved within 4 h. The resulting polymers were gradient poly(1,2-propylene carbonate-co-phthalates because of the drift in the PA concentration during the terpolymerization. Both polymerizations showed immortal polymerization character; therefore, the molecular weights were determined by the activity (g/mol-1 and the number of chain-growing sites per 1 [anions in 1 (5 + water (present as impurity + ethanol (deliberately fed], and the molecular weight distributions were narrow (Mw/Mn, 1.05–1.5. Because of the extremely high activity of 1, high-molecular-weight polymers were generated (Mn up to 170,000 and 350,000 for the PO/PA copolymerization and PO/CO2/PA terpolymerization, respectively. The terpolymers bearing a substantial number of PA units (fPA, 0.23 showed a higher glass-transition temperature (48 °C than the CO2/PO alternating copolymer (40 °C.

  12. Poly(ethylene oxide) functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2014-04-08

    A simple procedure is provided by which the hydroxyl termini of poly(ethylene oxide) can be appended with functional groups to a useful extent by reaction and precipitation. The polymer is dissolved in warmed toluene, treated with an excess of organic base and somewhat less of an excess of a reactive acylating reagent, reacted for several hours, then precipitated in isopropanol so that the product can be isolated as a solid, and salt byproducts are washed away. This procedure enables functionalization of the polymer while not requiring laborious purification steps such as solvent-solvent extraction or dialysis to remove undesirable side products.

  13. Studies on biodegradable and crosslinkable poly(castor oil fumarate)/poly(propylene fumarate) composite adhesive as a potential injectable biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitha, M K; Jayabalan, M

    2009-12-01

    Biodegradable hydroxyl terminated-poly(castor oil fumarate) (HT-PCF) and poly(propylene fumarate) (HT-PPF) resins were synthesized as an injectable and in situ-cross linkable polyester resins for orthopedic applications. An injectable adhesive formulation containing this resin blend, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), hydroxy apatite, free radical initiator and accelerator was developed. The Composite adhesives containing the ratio of resin blend and NVP, 2.1:1.5, 2.1:1.2 and 2.1:1.0 set fast with tolerable exothermic temperature as a three dimensionally cross linked toughened material. Crosslink density and mechanical properties of the crosslinked composite increase with increase of NVP. The present crosslinked composite has hydrophilic character and cytocompatibility with L929 fibroblast cells.

  14. Differential substrate behaviours of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide towards human glutathione transferase theta hGSTT1-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, R; Wiebel, F A; Bolt, H M

    1999-11-01

    The transformation of ethylene oxide (EO), propylene oxide (PO) and 1-butylene oxide (1-BuO) by human glutathione transferase theta (hGSTT1-1) was studied comparatively using 'conjugator' (GSTT1 + individuals) erythrocyte lysates. The relative sequence of velocity of enzymic transformation was PO > EO > 1-BuO. The faster transformation of PO compared to EO was corroborated in studies with human and rat GSTT1-1 (hGSTT1-1 and rGSTT1-1, respectively) expressed by Salmonella typhimurium TA1535. This sequence of reactivities of homologous epoxides towards GSTT1-1 contrasts to the sequence observed in homologous alkyl halides (methyl bromide, MBr; ethyl bromide, EtBr; n-propyl bromide, PrBr) where the relative sequence MeBr > EtBr > PrBr is observed. The higher reactivity towards GSTT1-1 of propylene oxide compared to ethylene oxide is consistent with a higher chemical reactivity. This is corroborated by experimental data of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of a number of aliphatic epoxides, including ethylene oxide and propylene oxide and consistent with semi-empirical molecular orbital modelings.

  15. Solid-state drawing of post-consumer isotactic poly(propylene): effect of melt filtration and carbon black on structural and mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, B.J.; Jobse, P.S.; Spoelstra, A.B.; Goossens, J.G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Post-consumer plastic waste obtained via mechanical recycling is usually applied in thick-walled products, because of the low mechanical strength due to the presence of contaminants. In fact, sorted post-consumer isotactic poly(propylene) (i-PP) can be considered as a blend of 95% i-PP and 5%

  16. Composite TiO2/hydrocarbon plasma polymer films prepared by magnetron sputtering of TiO2 and poly(propylene)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Hanuš, J.; Kousal, J.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Macková, Anna; Pešička, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6 (2007), s. 654-663 ISSN 1612-8850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : composite thin films * magnetron * poly(propylene) (PP) Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.132, year: 2007

  17. Compositional analysis of nitrile terminated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, S; Mengerink, Y; Brackman, JC; de Brabander, EMM; Jeronimus-Stratingh, CM; Bruins, AP

    1998-01-01

    Separation methods for nitrile terminated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers were developed to monitor and optimize their large scale production. Detailed analyses of defects within a dendrimer generation were performed by HPLC at alkaline pH (sodium hydroxide) on a polymer-based column or at neutral

  18. Separation of Binary Mixtures of Propylene and Propane by Facilitated Transport through Silver Incorporated Poly(Ether-Block-Amide Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Murali R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The separation of propylene and propane is a challenging task in petroleum refineries due to the similar molecular sizes and physical properties of two gases. Composite Poly(ether-block-amide (Pebax-1657 membranes incorporated with silver tetra fluoroborate (AgBF4 in concentrations of 0-50% of the polymer weight were prepared by solution casting and solvent evaporation technique. The membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR and wide-angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD to study surface and cross-sectional morphologies, effect of incorporation on intermolecular interactions and degree of crystallinity, respectively. Experimental data was measured with an indigenously built high-pressure gas separation manifold having an effective membrane area of 42 cm2. Permeability and selectivity of membranes were determined for three different binary mixtures of propylene-propane at pressures varying in the range 2-6 bar. Selectivity of C3H6/C3H8 enhanced from 2.92 to 17.22 and 2.11 to 20.38 for 50/50 and 66/34 C3H6+C3H8 feed mixtures, respectively, with increasing loading of AgBF4. Pebax membranes incorporated with AgBF4 exhibit strong potential for the separation of C3H6/C3H8 mixtures in petroleum refineries.

  19. A novel poly(propylene-co-imidazole) based biofuel cell: System optimization and operation for energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Muhammet Samet [Department of Chemistry, Bulent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Korkut, Seyda, E-mail: s.korkut@beun.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Bulent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey); Hazer, Baki [Department of Chemistry, Bulent Ecevit University, 67100 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the construction of an enzymatic fuel cell comprised of novel gold nanoparticles embedded poly(propylene-co-imidazole) coated anode and cathode. Working electrode fabrication steps and operational conditions for the fuel cell have been optimized to get enhanced power output. Electrical generation capacity of the optimized cell was tested by using the municipal wastewater sample. The enzymatic fuel cell system reached to maximum power density with 1 μg and 8 μg of polymer quantity and bilirubin oxidase on electrode surface, respectively. The maximum power output was calculated to be 5 μW cm{sup −2} at + 0.56 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 100 mM, 20 °C) by the addition of 15 mM of glucose as a fuel source. The optimized enzymatic fuel cell generated a power density of 0.46 μW cm{sup −2} for the municipal wastewater sample. Poly(propylene-co-imidazole) was easily used for a fuel cell system owing to its metallic nanoparticle content. The developed fuel cell will play a significant role for energy conversion by using glucose readily found in wastewater and in vivo mediums. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles provided faster electron transfer in the circuit. • The maximum power density of 5 μW cm{sup −2} was generated at + 0.56 V cell potential. • The cell can be easily operated for in vivo mediums.

  20. Synthesis and protonation behavior of carboxylate-functionalized poly(propylene imine) dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenbode, van R.C.; Rajanayagam, A.; Koper, G.J.M.; Baars, M.W.P.L.; Waal, de B.F.M.; Meijer, E.W.; Borkovec, M.

    2000-01-01

    Five generations of carboxylate-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers have been synthesized starting from a double Michael addition of amine-functionalized poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers to methyl acrylate followed by basic hydrolysis using LiOH in a water/methanol mixture. The dendritic

  1. Kinetic study of the hydration of propylene oxide in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akyalcin Sema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of the hydration of propylene oxide was studied using a pressurized batch reactor for both uncatalyzed and heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. Lewatit MonoPlus M500/HCO3 - was used as heterogeneous catalyst, which showed better performance than Dowex Marathon A/HCO3 -. The effects of the parameters, namely internal and external diffusion resistances, temperature, catalyst loading and mole ratios of reactants, on the reaction rate were studied. The uncatalyzed and heterogeneously catalyzed reactions were proven to follow a series-parallel irreversible homogeneous mechanism. The temperature dependencies of the rate constants appearing in the rate expressions were determined.

  2. End-group characterisation of poly(propylene glycol)s by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anthony T; Slade, Susan E; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H

    2008-10-01

    The end-group functionalisation of a series of poly(propylene glycol)s has been characterised by means of electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). A series of peaks with mass-to-charge ratios that are close to that of the precursor ion were used to generate information on the end-group functionalities of the poly(propylene glycol)s. Fragment ions resulting from losses of both of the end groups were noted from some of the samples. An example is presented of how software can be used to significantly reduce the length of time involved in data interpretation (which is typically the most time-consuming part of the analysis).

  3. Quantifying Residues from Postharvest Propylene Oxide Fumigation of Almonds and Walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Leonel R; Hall, Wiley A; Rodriquez, Matthew S; Cooper, William J; Muhareb, Jeanette; Jones, Tom; Walse, Spencer S

    2015-01-01

    A novel analytical approach involving solvent extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) followed by GC was developed to quantify residues that result from the postharvest fumigation of almonds and walnuts with propylene oxide (PPO). Verification and quantification of PPO, propylene chlorohydrin (PCH) [1-chloropropan-2-ol (PCH-1) and 2-chloropropan-1-ol (PCH-2)], and propylene bromohydrin (PBH) [1-bromopropan-2-ol (PBH-1) and 2-bromopropan-1-ol (PBH-2)] was accomplished with a combination of electron impact ionization MS (EIMS), negative ion chemical ionization MS (NCIMS), and electron capture detection (ECD). Respective GC/EIMS LOQs for PPO, PCH-1, PCH-2, PBH-1, and PBH-2 in MTBE extracts were [ppm (μg/g nut)] 0.9, 2.1, 2.5, 30.3, and 50.0 for almonds and 0.8, 2.2, 2.02, 41.6, and 45.7 for walnuts. Relative to GC/EIMS, GC-ECD analyses resulted in no detection of PPO, similar detector responses for PCH isomers, and >100-fold more sensitive detection of PBH isomers. NCIMS did not enhance detection of PBH isomers relative to EIMS and was, respectively, approximately 20-, 5-, and 10-fold less sensitive to PPO, PCH-1, and PCH-2. MTBE extraction efficiencies were >90% for all analytes. The 10-fold concentration of MTBE extracts yielded recoveries of 85-105% for the PBH isomers and a concomitant decrease in LODs and LOQs across detector types. The recoveries of PCH isomers and PPO in the MTBE concentrate were relatively low (approximately 50 to 75%), which confound improvements in LODs and LOQs regardless of detector type.

  4. Systematic study on the influence of the morphology of α-MoO3 in the selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang; Høj, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A variety of morphologically different α-MoO3 samples were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and applied in the selective oxidation of propylene. Their catalytic performance was compared to α-MoO3 prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and a classical synthesis route. Hydrothermal synthesis from...... with nitric acid at 180°C. Particularly, if nitric acid was used during synthesis, the rod-like morphology of the samples could be stabilized during calcination at 550°C and the following catalytic activity tests, which was beneficial for the catalytic performance in propylene oxidation. Characterization...... studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy showed that those samples, which retained their rod-like morphology during the activity tests, yielded the highest propylene conversion....

  5. UV stabilization of wood by nano metal oxides dispersed in propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sreeja; Nagarajappa, Giridhar B; Pandey, Krishna K

    2018-06-01

    Nanoparticles of some of the metal oxides are known to have high UV protective efficiency. The UV filtering efficiency of nanoparticles invariably depends on their size and stability in the dispersion. In the present work, a stable dispersion of nanoparticles of three metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium oxide (CeO 2 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ), was prepared in propylene glycol (PG) using ultrasonication. The method is easy and useful as no additional surfactant or dispersant is needed. The particle size and its distribution was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering. The stability of dispersion was assessed by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The UV stability of wood surfaces of Wrightia tinctoria coated with nanodispersions of ZnO, CeO 2 and TiO 2 was evaluated under laboratory conditions in an accelerated weathering tester. Changes in the colour and FTIR spectra of exposed specimens were measured periodically. Rapid colour darkening (yellowing) was observed in uncoated and PG coated specimens. In contrast, nanodispersion coated specimens prevented photo-yellowing considerably with significant reduction in colour changes examined by CIE L*, a*, b* and ΔE*. Increase in concentration of nanoparticles in the dispersion imparted higher resistance to UV induced degradation. However, increased concentration of nanoparticles reduced the transparency of the coating. FTIR analysis indicated rapid degradation of lignin in uncoated and PG coated specimens due to UV exposure. Coating of wood surfaces with nanodispersions restricted lignin degradation. The study also demonstrates the potential of propylene glycol as a dispersant for developing stable and efficient UV protective nanodispersions for wood coating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Controlled drug release from a novel injectable biodegradable microsphere/scaffold composite based on poly(propylene fumarate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempen, Diederik H R; Lu, Lichun; Kim, Choll; Zhu, Xun; Dhert, Wouter J A; Currier, Bradford L; Yaszemski, Michael J

    2006-04-01

    The ideal biomaterial for the repair of bone defects is expected to have good mechanical properties, be fabricated easily into a desired shape, support cell attachment, allow controlled release of bioactive factors to induce bone formation, and biodegrade into nontoxic products to permit natural bone formation and remodeling. The synthetic polymer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) holds great promise as such a biomaterial. In previous work we developed poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PPF microspheres for the controlled delivery of bioactive molecules. This study presents an approach to incorporate these microspheres into an injectable, porous PPF scaffold. Model drug Texas red dextran (TRD) was encapsulated into biodegradable PLGA and PPF microspheres at 2 microg/mg microsphere. Five porous composite formulations were fabricated via a gas foaming technique by combining the injectable PPF paste with the PLGA or PPF microspheres at 100 or 250 mg microsphere per composite formulation, or a control aqueous TRD solution (200 microg per composite). All scaffolds had an interconnected pore network with an average porosity of 64.8 +/- 3.6%. The presence of microspheres in the composite scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The composite scaffolds exhibited a sustained release of the model drug for at least 28 days and had minimal burst release during the initial phase of release, as compared to drug release from microspheres alone. The compressive moduli of the scaffolds were between 2.4 and 26.2 MPa after fabrication, and between 14.9 and 62.8 MPa after 28 days in PBS. The scaffolds containing PPF microspheres exhibited a significantly higher initial compressive modulus than those containing PLGA microspheres. Increasing the amount of microspheres in the composites was found to significantly decrease the initial compressive modulus. The novel injectable PPF-based microsphere/scaffold composites developed in this study

  7. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  8. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  9. Mechanical and thermal properties of eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate)/cellulose acetate butyrate blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chenyang; Wang, Hengti; Hu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Fenfen; Cao, Xiaojun; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2013-02-15

    The eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)/cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) blends were prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer for the first time. PPC and CAB were partially miscible because of the drastically shifted glass transition temperatures of both PPC and CAB, which originated from the specific interactions between carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups. The incorporation of CAB into PPC matrix enhanced not only tensile strength and modulus of PPC dramatically, but also improved heat resistance and thermal stability of PPC significantly. The tensile strength and the modulus of PPC/CAB=50/50 blend are 27.7 MPa and 1.24 GPa, which are 21 times and 28 times higher than those of the unmodified PPC, respectively. Moreover, the elongation at break of PPC/CAB=50/50 blend is as high as 117%. In addition, the obtained blends exhibited good transparency, which is very important for the package materials. The results in this work pave new possibility for the massive application of eco-friendly polymer materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xueqiao; Wang Yun; Han Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan Yongsheng, E-mail: yys@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2011-02-14

    Based on the poly(propylene glycol){sub 400} (PPG{sub 400})-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG{sub 400}-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  11. Effects of organoclay to miscibility, mechanical and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid) and propylene-ethylene copolymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Ounyai, C.; Rassamee, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of propylene-ethylene copolymer (PEC or PEC3300) and clay surface modified with 25-30 wt% of trimethylstearyl ammonium (Clay-TSA) on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were investigated. The morphology analysis showed PLA/PEC3300 blends clearly demonstrated a two-phase separation of dispersed phase and the matrix phase and the addition of Clay-TSA could improve the miscibility of PLA and PEC3300 blends due to the decreased of the domain sizes of dispersed PEC3300 phase in the polymer matrix. From X-ray diffraction analysis showed the intercalation of PLA chains inside the Clay-TSA and this result implied that Clay-TSA platelets acted as an effective compatibilizer. The tensile properties showed the strain at break of PLA was improved after adding PEC3300 while Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus decreased. The addition of Clay-TSA could improve Young’s modulus of PLA/PEC3300 blends. The addition of Clay-TSA 7 phr showed the maximum of Young’s modulus of PLA/PEC3300/Clay-TSA composites. The thermal properties found that the addition of PEC3300 and Clay-TSA did not change significantly on the glass transition temperature and melting point temperature of PLA. The percent of crystallinity of PLA decreased with increasing PEC content. The thermal stability of PLA improved after adding PEC3300.

  12. Photocatalytic oxidation of propylene on La and N codoped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Li, Haiyan; Zong, Lanlan; Li, Qiuye, E-mail: lqybys@163.com; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Min; Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun@henu.edu.cn [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials (China)

    2015-02-15

    Lanthanum- and nitrogen-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts was synthesized using orthorhombic nanotubes titanic acid as the precursor by a simple impregnation and subsequent calcination method. The morphology, phase structure, and properties of La- and N-codoped TiO{sub 2} were well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The La-/N-codoped TiO{sub 2} showed excellent photoactivity of propylene oxidation compared with the single-doped TiO{sub 2} and La-/N-codoped P25 TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. The origin of the enhancement of the visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity was discussed in detail.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of poly(propylene imine)-dendrimer-grafted gold nanoparticles as nanocarriers of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Marzieh; Salami-Kalajahi, Mehdi; Mirshekarpour, Mina; Roghani-Mamaqani, Hossein; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    The aim of current work is synthesis 4th-generation-poly(propylene imine) (PPI)-dendrimer modified gold nanoparticles (Au-G4A) as nanocarriers for doxorubicin (DOX) and studying in vitro drug release kinetics from nanocarriers into different media. Accordingly, AuNPs were synthesized by reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl 4 ) aqueous solution with trisodium citrate and modified with cysteamine to obtain amine-functionalized (Au-NH 2 ) nanoparticles. Au-NH 2 nanoparticles were used as multifunctional cores and participated in Michael addition of acrylonitrile and reduction process by lithium aluminum hydride (LAH) to synthesize Au-G4A nanoparticles. Also, peripheral primary amine groups of Au-G4A were conjugated with folic acid (FA) (Au-G4F) to study the bioconjugation effect on drug release behavior of nanostructures. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV-vis), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to approve the synthesis of different nanostructures. Finally, Au-G4A and Au-G4F samples were loaded with DOX and exposed to environments with different pH values to examine the release properties of nanostructures. Also, drug release kinetics was investigated by fitting of experimental data with different release models. As a result, synthesized dendritic structures showed Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas models release behavior due to better solubility of drug in release media with respect to dendrimer cavities and drug release through polymeric matrix respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reaction of CO2 with propylene oxide and styrene oxide catalyzed by a chromium(III) amine-bis(phenolate) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca K; Devaine-Pressing, Katalin; Dawe, Louise N; Kozak, Christopher M

    2013-07-07

    A diamine-bis(phenolate) chromium(III) complex, {CrCl[O2NN'](BuBu)}2 catalyzes the copolymerization of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide. The synthesis of this metal complex is straightforward and it can be obtained in high yields. This catalyst incorporates a tripodal amine-bis(phenolate) ligand, which differs from the salen or salan ligands typically used with Cr and Co complexes that have been employed as catalysts for the synthesis of such polycarbonates. The catalyst reported herein yields low molecular weight polymers with narrow polydispersities when the reaction is performed at room temperature. Performing the reaction at elevated temperatures causes the selective synthesis of propylene carbonate. The copolymerization activity for propylene oxide and carbon dioxide, as well as the coupling of carbon dioxide and styrene oxide to give styrene carbonate are presented.

  15. Study of the properties of urethane-siloxane copolymers based on poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(propylene oxide) soft segments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stefanović, I. S.; Špírková, Milena; Poreba, Rafal; Steinhart, Miloš; Ostojić, S.; Tešević, V.; Pergal, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 14 (2016), s. 3960-3973 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : waterborne polyurethane adhesives * mechanical-properties * molecular-weight Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.843, year: 2016

  16. A 1,2-propylene oxide sensor utilizing cataluminescence on CeO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yantu; Zhen, Yanzhong; Ma, Yuan; Zuo, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive gas sensor was proposed for the determination of 1,2-propylene oxide (PO) based on its cataluminescence (CTL) by oxidation in the air on the surface of CeO2 nanoparticles. The luminescence characteristics and optimal conditions were investigated in detail. Under optimized conditions, the linear range of the CTL intensity versus the concentration of PO was 10-150 ppm, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9974 and a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.9 ppm. The relative standard deviation for 40 ppm PO was 1.2% (n = 7). There was no or only weak response to common foreign substances including acetone, formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, chloroform, propanol, carbon tetrachloride, ether and methanol. There was no significant change in the catalytic activity of the sensor for 100 h. The proposed method was simple and sensitive, with a potential of detecting PO in the environment and industry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. EMR searching of quantum behavior of magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated into poly(propylene imine dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorobeva V.E., Domracheva N.E., Gruzdev M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superparamagnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles (average diameter of 2.5 nm encapsulated in poly(propylene imine dendrimer have been investigated by electron magnetic resonance (EMR. EMR measurements have been recorded in perpendicular and parallel configurations in the wide temperature range (4.2-300 K. It has been shown that the model based on the spin value S = 30, corresponding to the total magnetic moment of the nanoparticle, can be used to interpret the experimental results and the proof of the quantum behavior of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

  18. Studies on chemically crosslinkable carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-acrylamide hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallukalam, B C; Jayabalan, M; Sankar, V

    2009-01-01

    Carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate)-co-ethylene glycol) (CT-PPF-co-PEG) was prepared and set into crosslinked hydrogel material with acrylamide. The setting studies reveal that this copolymer system can be used as an injectable material. The hydrogel material exhibits a higher degree of swelling, good mechanical strength and flexibility. The hydrogel favours adhesion of L929 fibroblast cells without proliferation on the surface. However, cardiac fibroblast cells (isolated from new born rat (Wistar) hearts) adhere and proliferate on the hydrogel due to the formation of synergistic hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface-by-surface reorganization.

  19. Studies on chemically crosslinkable carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol)-acrylamide hydrogel as an injectable biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallukalam, B C; Jayabalan, M [Polymer Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India); Sankar, V, E-mail: muthujayabalan@rediffmail.co [Division of Cellular and Molecular Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Carboxy terminated-poly(propylene fumarate)-co-ethylene glycol) (CT-PPF-co-PEG) was prepared and set into crosslinked hydrogel material with acrylamide. The setting studies reveal that this copolymer system can be used as an injectable material. The hydrogel material exhibits a higher degree of swelling, good mechanical strength and flexibility. The hydrogel favours adhesion of L929 fibroblast cells without proliferation on the surface. However, cardiac fibroblast cells (isolated from new born rat (Wistar) hearts) adhere and proliferate on the hydrogel due to the formation of synergistic hydrophilic-hydrophobic surface-by-surface reorganization.

  20. Poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheethasanee, Katanchalee; Wang, Shuwu; Qiu, Yongxing; Marchant, Roger E

    2004-01-01

    We report on a series of structurally well-defined surfactant polymers that undergo surface-induced self-assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces. The surfactant polymers consist of a poly(vinyl amine) backbone with poly(ethylene oxide) and hexanal pendant groups. The poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) was synthesized by hydrolysis of poly(N-vinyl formamide) following free radical polymerization of N-vinyl formamide. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were simultaneously attached to PVAm via reductive amination. Surfactant polymers with different PEO:hexanal ratios and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balances were prepared, and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and XPS spectroscopies. Surface active properties at the air/water interface were determined by surface tension measurements. Surface activity at a solid surface/water interface was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy, showing epitaxially molecular alignment for surfactant polymers adsorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The surfactant polymers described in this report can be adapted for simple non-covalent surface modification of biomaterials and hydrophobic surfaces to provide highly hydrated interfaces.

  1. Síntese e caracterização de dispersões aquosas de poliuretanos à base de copolímeros em bloco de poli(glicol etilênico e poli(glicol propilênico Synthesis and characterization of polyurethane aquous dispersions based on poly(ethylene glycol and poly(propylene glycol block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. B. Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-polluting polyurethane aqueous dispersions, with 40% of solids content, were synthesized based on block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol and poly(propylene glycol (PEG-b-PPG, with PEG hydrophilic segments content of 7 and 25%, poly(propylene glycol (PPG, dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA, isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, and hydrazine. Different formulations were synthesized by varying the equivalent-grams ratios between isocyanate and hydroxyl groups (NCO/OH and PPG and (PEG-b-PPG. The presence of high amounts of PEG in the formulations provoked the formation of gels. Average particle size and viscosity of the dispersions were determined. Mechanical properties and water absorption resistance of cast films were evaluated.

  2. Nucleophile-directed selectivity towards linear carbonates in the niobium pentaethoxide-catalysed cycloaddition of CO2 and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Barnali

    2014-01-01

    Homoleptic Nb-complexes combined with selected organic nucleophiles generate very active catalytic systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide and CO2 under ambient conditions. An unprecedented reaction pathway towards an acyclic organic carbonate is observed when extending the study to [Nb(OEt)5] in combination with 4-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP) or tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB). Mechanistic insights of the reaction are provided based on experimental and spectroscopic evidences. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  3. Life's First Handshake - Discovery of the Interstellar Chiral Molecule Propylene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Loomis, Ryan A.; Finneran, Ian A.; Jewell, Philip R.; Remijan, Anthony J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Life on Earth relies on chiral molecules, that is, species not superimposable on their mirror images. This manifests itself in the selection of a single molecular handedness, or homochirality, across the biosphere, and is perhaps most readily apparent in the large enhancement in biological activity of particular amino acid and sugar enantiomers. Yet, the ancestral origin of biological homochirality remains a mystery. The non-racemic ratios in some organics isolated from primitive meteorites hint at a primordial chiral seed, but even these samples have experienced substantial processing during planetary assembly, obscuring their complete histories. To determine the underlying origin of any enantiomeric excess, it is critical to understand the molecular gas from which these molecules originated. Here, we present the first extra-solar, astronomical detection of a chiral molecule, propylene oxide (CH3CHCH2O), in absorption toward the Galactic Center. We discuss the implications of the detection on observational searches to determine a primordial chiral excess, as well as the state of laboratory efforts in these areas.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of PHA-Producing Bacteria from Propylene Oxide Saponification Wastewater Residual Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruirui; Gu, Pengfei; Fan, Xiangyu; Shen, Junyu; Wu, Yulian; Huang, Lixuan; Li, Qiang

    2018-03-21

    A polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing strain was isolated from propylene oxide (PO) saponification wastewater activated sludge and was identified as Brevundimonas vesicularis UJN1 through 16S rDNA sequencing and Biolog microbiological identification. Single-factor and response surface methodology experiments were used to optimize the culture medium and conditions. The optimal C/N ratio was 100/1.04, and the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were sucrose (10 g/L) and NH 4 Cl (0.104 g/L) respectively. The optimal culture conditions consisted of initial pH of 6.7 and an incubation temperature of 33.4 °C for 48 h, with 15% inoculum and 100 mL medium at an agitation rate of 180 rpm. The PHA concentration reached 34.1% of the cell dry weight and increased three times compared with that before optimization. The only report of PHA-producing bacteria by Brevundimonas vesicularis showed that the conversion rate of PHAs using glucose as the optimal carbon source was 1.67%. In our research, the conversion rate of PHAs with sucrose as the optimal carbon source was 3.05%, and PHA production using sucrose as the carbon source was much cheaper than that using glucose as the carbon source.

  5. Mechanism of Propylene Oxide Polymerization Promoted by N-Heterocyclic Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ghamdi, Miasser

    2017-01-11

    We report a mechanistic DFT investigation of the organopolymerization of propylene oxide (PO) promoted by N-heterocyclic olefins (NHOs) in combination with benzylic alcohol (BnOH). Calculations support the experimentally based hypothesis of two competing pathways, namely, the anionic and zwitterionic pathways. The former is based on an acid–base cooperativity between BnOH and the NHO, promoting ring opening of PO by BnO–. The latter occurs through the formation of a zwitterionic adduct by nucleophilic attack of the exocyclic carbon atom of the NHO on the PO, with the concerted ring opening of PO. The two initiating species cannot interconvert, and chain elongation can proceed from both initiation adducts. Potential energy surfaces were computed for a set of NHOs to clarify the effects of the steric and electronic properties of the NHO on the system reactivity. The results achieved represent useful insight toward the synthesis of PPO with better properties with respect to the polymer obtained with the experimental tested systems because the computationally proposed NHO system is the only one that favors the mechanism leading to higher molecular weight.

  6. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F.; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A.; Pressly, Eric D.; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J.; Lynd, Nathaniel A.

    2012-01-01

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxi...

  7. Designing Multifunctionality into Single Phase and Multiphase Metal-Oxide-Selective Propylene Ammoxidation Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Brazdil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctionality is the hallmark of most modern commercial heterogeneous catalyst systems in use today, including those used for the selective ammoxidation of propylene to acrylonitrile. It is the quintessential principle underlying commercial catalyst design efforts since petrochemical process development is invariably driven by the need to reduce manufacturing costs. This is in large part achieved through new and improved catalysts that increase selectivity and productivity. In addition, the future feedstocks for chemical processes will be invariably more refractory than those currently in use (e.g., replacing alkenes with alkanes or using CO2, thus requiring a disparate combination of chemical functions in order to effect multiple chemical transformations with the fewest separate process steps. This review summarizes the key chemical phenomena behind achieving the successful integration of multiple functions into a mixed-metal-oxide-selective ammoxidation catalyst. An experiential and functional catalyst design model is presented that consists of one or both of the following components: (1 a mixed-metal-oxide–solid solution where the individual metal components serve separate and necessary functions in the reaction mechanism through their atomic level interaction in the context of a single crystallographic structure; (2 the required elemental components and their catalytic function existing in separate phases, where these phases are able to interact for the purposes of electron and lattice oxygen transfer through the formation of a structurally coherent interface (i.e., epitaxy between the separate crystal structures. Examples are provided from the literature and explained in the context of this catalyst design model. The extension of the model concepts to the design of heterogeneous catalysts in general is also discussed.

  8. Catalysis by Nanostructures: Methane, Ethylene Oxide, and Propylene Oxide Synthesis on Ag, Cu or Au Nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-07

    22 nm) were prepared by reducing a Au salt, and encapsulating the Au nanoparticles formed in a polymer33 . A variety of high area oxides (TiO 2, ZnO ...Morphologies Utilizing a Combinatorial Electrochemistry Methodology. Ph. D. dissertation, Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (2004

  9. UV-induced polymerization of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] hydrophobic catalyst beads in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, Jun; Li, Xiang; Song, Tong; Song, Zi Fan; Chang, Zhen Qi; Meng, Da Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic exchange of hydrogen isotopes between hydrogen and water has been known to be a very useful process for the separation of tritium from tritiated water. For the process, a highly active hydrophobic catalyst is needed. This study provides an effective fabrication method of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] [Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA)] hydrophobic catalyst beads with a narrow size distribution. Platinum nanoparticles were prepared by γ-ray-induced reduction in the aqueous phase first, and then uniformly dispersed in SDB-TPGDA comonomer after the hydrophobization of platinum nanoparticles with alkylamine stabilizers. The porous Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA) hydrophobic catalyst beads were synthesized by the UV-initiated polymerization of the mixture droplets prepared in a capillary-based microfluidic system. The size of as-prepared catalyst beads can be controlled in the range of 200-1,000 μm by adjusting the flow rate of dispersed and continuous phases, as well as the viscosity of the continuous phase. Sorbitan monooleate and cyclohexanol were used as coporogens to control the porosities of the catalyst beads

  10. UV-induced polymerization of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] hydrophobic catalyst beads in microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wi, Jun; Li, Xiang; Song, Tong; Song, Zi Fan; Chang, Zhen Qi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Meng, Da Qiao [Si Chuan Institute of Materials and Technology, Jiang You (China)

    2015-10-15

    The catalytic exchange of hydrogen isotopes between hydrogen and water has been known to be a very useful process for the separation of tritium from tritiated water. For the process, a highly active hydrophobic catalyst is needed. This study provides an effective fabrication method of size-controlled platinum/poly[styrene-divinylbenzene-tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate] [Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA)] hydrophobic catalyst beads with a narrow size distribution. Platinum nanoparticles were prepared by γ-ray-induced reduction in the aqueous phase first, and then uniformly dispersed in SDB-TPGDA comonomer after the hydrophobization of platinum nanoparticles with alkylamine stabilizers. The porous Pt/poly(SDB-TPGDA) hydrophobic catalyst beads were synthesized by the UV-initiated polymerization of the mixture droplets prepared in a capillary-based microfluidic system. The size of as-prepared catalyst beads can be controlled in the range of 200-1,000 μm by adjusting the flow rate of dispersed and continuous phases, as well as the viscosity of the continuous phase. Sorbitan monooleate and cyclohexanol were used as coporogens to control the porosities of the catalyst beads.

  11. Alberta propylene upgrading prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    A very significant byproduct recovery and purification scheme is at present being prepared by TransCanada Midstream (TCMS). Alberta Economic Development commissioned an independent study to identify propylene supply options while proceeding with the evaluation of various propylene derivatives with regard to their fit with the Alberta context. Identification of chemical companies with derivative interests was also accomplished. By 2005, it is estimated that 280 kilo-tonnes of propylene will be available on an annual basis from byproduct sources. Those sources are oil sands upgraders, ethylene plants and refineries. The ranges of impurities and supply costs vary between the different sources. An option being considered involves pipeline and rail receipt with a major central treating and distillation facility for the production of polymer grade (PG) propylene with propane and other smaller byproducts. Special consideration was given to three chemicals in this study, namely: polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile (ACN), and acrylic acid (AA). Above average growth rates were identified for these chemicals: demand is growing at 6 to 7 per cent a year for both PP and ACN, while demand for AA grows at 8 per cent annually. Two other possibilities were identified, propylene oxide (PO) and phenol. The study led to the conclusion that low capital and operating costs and shipping costs to the Pacific Rim represent advantages to the development of propylene derivatives in the future in Alberta. 4 refs., 87 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Study of ternary-component bismuth molybdate catalysts by 18O2 tracer in the oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, W.; Moro-oka, Y.; Ikawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    Participation of lattice oxide ions of ternary-component bismuth molybdate catalysts M-Bi-Mo-O (M = Ni, Co, Mg, Mn, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb) was investigated using the 18 O 2 tracer in the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. The participation of the lattice oxide ions in the oxidation is prominent on every catalyst but the extent of the participation varies significantly depending on the structure of the catalyst. Only lattice oxide ions in the bismuth molybdate phase are incorporated into the oxidized products on the catalysts (M = Ni, Co, Mg, and Mn) where M have smaller ionic radius than Bi 3+ ; catalyst particles are composed of a shell of bismuth molybdates and a core of MMoO 4 . On the other hand, whole oxide ions in the active particles are involved in the oxidation on catalysts having a scheelite-type structure (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb) where M has a comparable ionic radius to Bi 3+

  13. [Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2-chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. I. Carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide in comparison with 1,2-propylene oxide after subcutaneous administration in mice (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberg, H

    1981-12-01

    Ethylene oxide is an important initial product for a number of organic compounds and, in addition, is used in the medical field for sterilization. The aim of our experiments was to test ethylene oxide and, as a comparative substance, 1,2-propylene oxide in respect to their cancerogenic effectiveness in animal experiments. Ethylene oxide was administered subcutaneously in three dosages (1.0; 0.3 and 0.1 mg single dosage per mouse) once per week to groups of 100 female NMRI mice respectively. In the case of 1,2-propylene oxide, four dosages were used (2.5; 1.0; 0.3 and 0.1 mg single dosage per mouse). The vehicle was tricaprylin. Administrations were carried out over a period of 95 weeks. The mean total dosage per mouse in the case of ethylene oxide amounted to 64.4; 22.7, and 7.3 mg and, in the case of propylene oxide, to 165.4; 72.8; 21.7 and 6.8 mg. Both substances induced local tumours depending upon the dosage. There were mostly fibrosarcomas. In the case of the groups treated with ethylene oxide the frequency was between 11 and 5% and in the case of the groups treated with 1,2-propylene oxide this was between 16 and 2%. The cancerogenic effect of ethylene oxide and 1,2-propylene oxide determined in animal experiments could, therefore, be confirmed statistically. On the basis of the results presented in this paper, new aspects have arisen for the medical evaluation of ethylene oxide residues in the field of manufacturing and use and in respect to the TLV.

  14. Mechanism of propylene oxidation over bismuth molybdate revealed by transient response method--1. An intermediate in the complete oxidation of C/sub 3/H/sub 6/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Futaya, R.

    1979-01-01

    An intermediate in the complete oxidation of C/sub 3/H/sub 6/ and its nature were deduced from transient response studies of a flow reactor system with a 1:1 bismuth-molybdenum catalyst at temperatures below ordinary operating temperatures. The formation of a stable surface intermediate with a non-allylic structure resembling that of propylene on every site of the catalyst surface occurred at 310/sup 0/C in the presence of propylene/oxygen or acrolein/oxygen; under oxidative conditions at 310/sup 0/C about eight times more intermediate formed directly from propylene than from adsorbed acrolein. The intermediate reacted with weakly adsorbed oxygen from the gas phase, but not with lattice oxygen, to decompose into CO/sub 2/; in temperature programed desorption studies (2.3/sup 0/C/min) it desorbed as CO/sub 2/ into a stream of helium above 220/sup 0/C (peak at 420/sup 0/C), apparently by reaction with oxygen diffused from the bulk to the surface.

  15. Solubilization of docetaxel in poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(butylene/styrene oxide) micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Perron, Marie-Eve; Bertrand, Nicolas; Yu, Ga-Er; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-07-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene oxide) (PEO-b-PSO) and PEO-b-poly(butylene oxide) (PEO-b-PBO) of different chain lengths were synthesized and characterized for their self-assembling properties in water by dynamic/static light scattering, spectrofluorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting polymeric micelles were evaluated for their ability to solubilize and protect the anticancer drug docetaxel (DCTX) from degradation. The drug release kinetics as well as the cytotoxicity of the loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. All polymers formed micelles with a highly viscous core at low critical association concentrations (hydrolysis under accelerated stability testing conditions. Only PEO-b-PBO bearing 24 BO units afforded significant protection against degradation. In vitro, DCTX was released slower from the latter micelles, but all formulations possessed a similar cytotoxic effect against PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that PEO-b-P(SO/BO) micelles could be used as alternatives to conventional surfactants for the solubilization of taxanes.

  16. Solid-state drawing of post-consumer isotactic poly(propylene): Effect of melt filtration and carbon black on structural and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijsterburg, B J; Jobse, P S; Spoelstra, A B; Goossens, J G P

    2016-08-01

    Post-consumer plastic waste obtained via mechanical recycling is usually applied in thick-walled products, because of the low mechanical strength due to the presence of contaminants. In fact, sorted post-consumer isotactic poly(propylene) (i-PP) can be considered as a blend of 95% i-PP and 5% poly(ethylene), with traces of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). By applying a treatment such as solid-state drawing (SSD) after melt extrusion, the polymer chains can be oriented in one direction, thereby improving the stiffness and tensile strength. In this research, molecular processes such as crystal break-up and chain orientation of these complex blends were monitored as a function of draw ratio. The melt filter mesh size - used to exclude rigid PET particles - and the addition of carbon black (CB) - often added for coloration in the recycling industry - were varied to investigate their influence on the SSD process. This research shows that despite the blend complexity, the molecular processes during SSD compare to virgin i-PP and that similar draw ratios can be obtained (λmax=20), albeit at reduced stiffness and strength as a result of the foreign polymers present in post-consumer i-PP. It is observed that the process stability improves with decreasing mesh size and that higher draw ratios can be obtained. The addition of carbon black, which resides in the dispersed PE phase, also stabilizes the SSD process. Compared to isotropic post-consumer i-PP, the stiffness can be improved by a factor 10 to over 11GPa, while the tensile strength can be improved by a factor 15-385MPa, which is approx. 70% of the maximum tensile strength achieved for virgin i-PP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between the size and the magnetic properties of Ag2+ clusters loaded on ceria surface and their catalytic performance in the total oxidation of propylene. EPR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hany, Sara; Skaf, Mira; Aouad, Samer; Gennequin, Cédric; Labaki, Madona; Abi-Aad, Edmond; Aboukaïs, Antoine

    2018-03-01

    Three different types of Ag2+ ions ("a", "b", and "c") have been identified and examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) on 10% wt Ag/CeO2 prepared by impregnation method. One of them, Ag2+(b), behaves differently than the two others, Ag2+(a) and Ag2+(c), under redox atmospheres. The fact that, in reducing conditions (vacuum, propylene, hydrogen, and carbon black), Ag2+(a) and Ag2+(c) species were more easily reduced than Ag2+(b) ones, could not explain the catalytic performance and stability of this latter species compared to the first ones in the reaction of total oxidation of propylene. The EPR technique evidenced that Ag2+(b) species form, upon propene oxidation, a cluster. This cluster is composed of two parallel electron spins (dimer) and three nuclear spins (trimer). It seems that before propylene oxidation, Ag2+(b) clusters were ferromagnetic. This ferromagnetic character of Ag2+(b) species may explain their better catalytic performance, in propylene oxidation, than those of Ag2+(a) and Ag2+(c) ones.

  18. Gas-permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) poly(butylene terephthalate block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the gas-permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) segmented multiblock copolymers. These block copolymers allow a precise structural modification by the amount of PBT and the PEO segment length, enabling a systematic study of the

  19. Dynamics of the NbCl5-catalyzed cycloaddition of propylene oxide and CO2: Assessing the dual role of the nucleophilic co-catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2014-07-23

    A mechanistic study on the synthesis of propylene carbonate (PC) from CO2 and propylene oxide (PO) catalyzed by NbCl5 and organic nucleophiles such as 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) or tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (NBu4Br) is reported. A combination of in situ spectroscopic techniques and kinetic studies has been used to provide detailed insight into the reaction mechanism, the formation of intermediates, and interactions between the reaction partners. The results of DFT calculations support the experimental observations and allow us to propose a mechanism for this reaction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. [Complex formation between alpha-chymotrypsin and block copolymers based on ethylene and propylene oxide, induced by high pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchieva, I N; Sorokina, E M; Kurganov, B I; Zhulin, V M; Makarova, Z G

    1996-06-01

    A new method of formation of non-covalent adducts based on an amphiphilic diblock copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides with molecular mass of 2 kDa and alpha-chymotrypsin (ChT) under high pressure, has been developed. The composition of the complexes corresponds to seven polymer molecules per one ChT molecule in the pressure range of 1.1 to 400 MPa. The complexes fully retain the catalytic activity. Kinetic constants (Km and kcat) for enzymatic hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester catalyzed by the complexes are identical with the corresponding values for native ChT. Analysis of kinetics of thermal inactivation of the complexes revealed that the constant of the rate of the slow inactivation step is markedly lower than for ChT.

  1. Double photoionization of propylene oxide: A coincidence study of the ejection of a pair of valence-shell electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, Stefano; Vecchiocattivi, Franco; Alagia, Michele; Schio, Luca; Richter, Robert; Stranges, Stefano; Catone, Daniele; Arruda, Manuela S.; Mendes, Luiz A. V.; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Pirani, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    Propylene oxide, a favorite target of experimental and theoretical studies of circular dichroism, was recently discovered in interstellar space, further amplifying the attention to its role in the current debate on protobiological homochirality. In the present work, a photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, using an ion-imaging detector and tunable synchrotron radiation in the 18.0-37.0 eV energy range, permits us (i) to observe six double ionization fragmentation channels, their relative yields being accounted for about two-thirds by the couple (C2H4+, CH2O+) and one-fifth by (C2H3+, CH3O+); (ii) to measure thresholds for their openings as a function of photon energy; and (iii) to unravel a pronounced bimodality for a kinetic-energy-released distribution, fingerprint of competitive non-adiabatic mechanisms.

  2. Poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)]: A hydrolytically-degradable poly(ethylene oxide) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pontus; Lee, Bongjae F; van den Berg, Sebastiaan A; Pressly, Eric D; Lee, Annabelle; Hawker, Craig J; Lynd, Nathaniel A

    2012-11-20

    A facile method for imparting hydrolytic degradability to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), compatible with current PEGylation strategies, is presented. By incorporating methylene ethylene oxide (MEO) units into the parent PEO backbone, complete degradation was defined by the molar incorporation of MEO, and the structure of the degradation byproducts was consistent with an acid-catalyzed vinyl-ether hydrolysis mechanism. The hydrolytic degradation of poly[(ethylene oxide)-co-(methylene ethylene oxide)] was pH-sensitive, with degradation at pH 5 being significantly faster than at pH 7.4 at 37 °C in PBS buffer while long-term stability could be obtained in either the solid-state or at pH 7.4 at 6 °C.

  3. Diffusivities and Viscosities of Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomers †

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Escobedo, Fernando; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusivities and viscosities of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer melts with 1 to 12 repeat units have been obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TraPPE-UA force field. The simulations generated diffusion coefficients

  4. A proton-conducting composite membrane: Sn0.95Al0.05P2O7 and polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene/propylene)-b-polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yongcheng; Hibino, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    An anhydrous proton conductor, Sn 0.95 Al 0.05 P 2 O 7 (SAPO), composed of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene/propylene)-b-polystyrene (SEPS), was developed and characterized using morphological, structural, and electrochemical analyses. In the composite membrane with 20 wt% SEPS, a homogeneous distribution of SAPO particles in the matrix was obtained in the thickness range of 65-90 μm, yielding a proton conductivity of 3.4 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at 200 o C, tensile strength of 4.6 MPa and an elongation at break of 711.0% at room temperature. Fuel cell tests verified that the open-circuit voltage was maintained at a constant value of approximately 1 V between 100 and 250 o C. The peak power densities achieved with unhumidified H 2 and air were 77.0 mW cm -2 at 100 o C, 121.0 mW cm -2 at 150 o C, and 163.1 mW cm -2 at 225 o C.

  5. Differences in the adsorption behaviour of poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers onto model polystyrene nanoparticles assessed by isothermal titration microcalorimetry correspond to the biological differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolnik, S; Heald, C R; Garnett, M G; Illum, L; Davis, S S

    2005-01-01

    The adsorption behaviour of a tetrafunctional copolymer of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly (propylene oxide) ethylene diamine (commercially available as Poloxamine 908) and a diblock copolymer of poly (lactic acid)-poly (ethylene oxide) (PLA/PEG 2:5) onto a model colloidal drug carrier (156 nm sized polystyrene latex) is described. The adsorption isotherm, hydrodynamic thickness of the adsorbed layers and enthalpy of the adsorption were assessed. The close similarity in the conformation of the poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains (molecular weight 5,000 Da) in the adsorbed layers of these two copolymers was demonstrated by combining the adsorption data with the adsorbed layer thickness data. In contrast, the results from isothermal titration microcalorimetry indicated a distinct difference in the interaction of the copolymers with the polystyrene colloid surface. Poloxamine 908 adsorption to polystyrene nanoparticles is dominated by an endothermic heat effect, whereas, PLA/PEG 2:5 adsorption is entirely an exothermic process. This difference in adsorption behaviour could provide an explanation for differences in the biodistribution of Poloxamine 908 and PLA/PEG 2:5 coated polystyrene nanoparticles observed in previous studies. A comparison with the interaction enthalpy for several other PEO-containing copolymers onto the same polystyrene colloid was made. The results demonstrate the importance of the nature of the anchoring moiety on the interaction of the adsorbing copolymer with the colloid surface. An endothermic contribution is found when an adsorbing molecule contains a poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) moiety (e.g. Poloxamine 908), whilst the adsorption is exothermic (i.e. enthalpy driven) for PEO copolymers with polylactide (PLA/PEG 2:5) or alkyl moieties.

  6. SCC-TB, DFT/B3LYP, MP2, AM1, PM3 and RHF study of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide structures, VA and VCD spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Frimand, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    -binding method for equilibrium structures, VA and VCD spectra of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in the gas-phase. Comparison to conventional methods AM1, PM3, MP2, RHF and DFT/B3LYP is carried out. We report results over a wider range of frequencies than previous work. In particular, we find indications...... that the self-consistent-charge tight-binding method, combined with DFT/B3LYP atomic polar tensors and atomic axial tensors, compares favourably with competing methods tendency to overestimate the location of spectral peaks with respect to frequencies, the latter observation being most pronounced in the higher...... frequency regions. Our findings produce additional support for the self-consistent-charge tight-binding method as a fast computational method for small and larger molecules, however, also that improved parameterisations are needed to reach accuracies of MP2 and DFT/B3LYP. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All...

  7. Phase Separation and Elastic Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate)-block-poly(Ethylene Oxide) Copolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Piesowicz; Sandra Paszkiewicz; Anna Szymczyk

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PTT-b-PEOT) copolymers with different compositions of rigid PTT and flexible PEOT segments were synthesized via condensation in the melt. The influence of the block length and the block ratio on the micro-separated phase structure and elastic properties of the synthesized multiblock copolymers was studied. The PEOT segments in these copolymers were kept constant at 1130, 2130 or 3130 g/mol, whereas the PTT content varied...

  8. Synergy effects in mixed Bi2O3, MoO3 and V2O5 catalysts for selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tien The; Le, Thang Minh; Truong, Duc Duc

    2012-01-01

    % Bi2Mo3O12 and 78.57 mol% BiVO4), corresponding to the compound Bi1-x/3V1-xMoxO4 with x = 0.45 (Bi0.85V0.55Mo0.45O4), exhibited the highest activity for the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. The mixed sample prepared chemically by a sol–gel method possessed higher activity than...

  9. Poly(organo phosphazene) nanoparticles surface modified with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandorpe, J; Schacht, E; Stolnik, S; Garnett, M C; Davies, M C; Illum, L; Davis, S S

    1996-10-05

    The use of biodegradable derivatives of poly(organo phosphazenes) for the preparation of nanoparticles and their surface modification with the novel poly(ethylene oxide) derivative of poly(organo phosphazene) has been assessed using a range of in vitro characterization methods. The nanoparticles were produced by the precipitation solvent evaporation method from the derivative co-substituted with phenylalanine and glycine ethyl ester side groups. A reduction in particle size to less than 200 nm was achieved by an increase in pH of the preparation medium. The formation (and colloidal stability) of these nanoparticles seems to be controlled by two opposite effects: attractive hydrophobic interactions between phenylalanine ester groups and electrostatic repulsions arising from the carboxyl groups formed due to (partial) hydrolysis of the ester bond(s) at the high pH of the preparation medium. The poly[(glycine ethyl ester)phosphazene] derivative containing 5000-Da poly(ethylene oxide) as 5% of the side groups was used for the surface modification of nanoparticles. Adsorbed onto the particles, the polymer produced a thick coating layer of approximately 35 nm. The coated nanoparticles exhibited reduced surface negative potential and improved colloidal stability toward electrolyte-induced flocculation, relative to the uncoated system. However, the steric stabilization provided was less effective than that of a Poloxamine 908 coating. This difference in effectiveness of the steric stabilization might indicate that, although both the stabilizing polymers possess a 5000-Da poly(ethylene oxide) moiety, there is a difference in the arrangements of these poly(ethylene oxide) chains at the particle surface. (c) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Formation of gas-phase π-allyl radicals from propylene over bismuth oxide and γ-bismuth molybdate catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martir, W.; Lunsford, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Gas-phase π-allyl radicals were produced when propylene reacted over Bi 2 O 3 and γ-bismuth molybdate catalysts at 723 K. The pressure in the catalyst zone was varied between 5 x 10 -3 and 1 torr. The radicals were detected by EPR spectroscopy together with a matrix isolation technique in which argon was used as the diluent. The matrix was formed on a sapphire rod at 12 K which was located 33-cm downstream from the catalyst. Bismuth oxide was more effective in the production of gas-phase allyl radicals than γ-bismuth molybdate. By contrast α-bismuth molybdate was ineffective in forming allyl radicals and MoO 3 acted as a sink for radicals which were produced elsewhere in the system. Comparison of the π-allyl radical and the stable product concentrations over Bi 2 O 3 revealed that gas-phase radical recombination reactions served as a major pathway for the formation of 1,5-hexadiene. Addition of small amounts of gas-phase oxygen increased the concentration of allyl radicals, and at greater oxygen levels allyl peroxy radicals were detected. Because of the effect of temperature on the equilibrium between allyl and allyl peroxy radicals, the latter product must be formed in the cooler part of the system

  11. Caraterização composicional do AES - um copolímero de enxertia de poli(estireno-co-acrilonitrila em poli(etileno-co-propileno-co-dieno Compositional characterization of AES a graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile and poly(etyhlene-co-propylene-co-diene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Turchet

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é a caracterização do AES, um copolímero de enxertia de poli(estireno-co-acrilonitrila, SAN, em poli(etileno-co-propileno-co-dieno, EPDM. Para tanto, o AES foi submetido à extração seletiva de seus componentes: o SAN livre, o EDPM livre, e o copolímero de enxertia EPDM-g-SAN. O AES e suas frações foram caracterizados por espectroscopia de infravermelho, análise elementar, calorimetria diferencial de varredura e ressonância magnética nuclear, RMN¹H e RMN13C. O AES analisado apresenta a seguinte composição em massa: 65% de EPDM-g-SAN, 13% de EPDM livre e 22% de SAN livre. O EPDM apresenta 69,8% em massa de etileno, 26,5% em massa de propileno e 4,6% em massa do dieno, 2-etilideno-5-norboneno, ENB. O SAN apresenta razão em massa acrilonitrila/estireno de 28/72 e distribuição randômica de comonômeros de estireno e acrilonitrila. Estes resultados são concordantes com a composição do AES fornecida pelo fabricante, indicando que a metodologia proposta é adequada.This work aims the characterization of AES, a graft copolymer based on poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile, SAN, and poly(etyhlene-co-propylene-co-diene, EPDM. AES was submitted to selective extraction of its components: free SAN, EPDM chains and the graft copolymer EPDM-g-SAN. AES and its fractions were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, 13C and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance. The AES has 65 wt % of EPDM-g-SAN, 13 wt % of free EPDM and 22 wt % of free SAN. EPDM has 69.8 wt % of ethylene, 26.5 wt % of propylene and 4.6 wt % of diene, 2-ethylidene-5-norbonene ENB. SAN presents acrylonitrile/styrene mass ratio of 28/72 and a random distribution of acrylonitrile and styrene comonomers. These results are in agreement with the composition reported by the AES supplier, indicating that the proposed methodology is adequate.

  12. Niobium(v) chloride and imidazolium bromides as efficient dual catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wilhelm, Michael E.; Anthofer, Michael H.; Reich, Robert M.; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, Wolfgang A.; Cokoja, Mirza; Kü hn, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    The application of niobium(v) chloride and several imidazolium bromides as catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide to propylene carbonate (PC) is reported. A set of 31 different imidazolium bromides has been synthesized with varying substituents at all five imidazolium ring atoms, of which 17 have not been reported before. The impact of different substitution patterns (steric and electronic changes and solubility in PO) at the imidazolium ring on the catalytic activity was investigated. The optimisation of the catalyst structure allows for the valorisation of carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions with high reaction rates in very good yield and selectivity for PC. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  13. Niobium(v) chloride and imidazolium bromides as efficient dual catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Wilhelm, Michael E.

    2014-02-19

    The application of niobium(v) chloride and several imidazolium bromides as catalyst systems for the cycloaddition of propylene oxide (PO) with carbon dioxide to propylene carbonate (PC) is reported. A set of 31 different imidazolium bromides has been synthesized with varying substituents at all five imidazolium ring atoms, of which 17 have not been reported before. The impact of different substitution patterns (steric and electronic changes and solubility in PO) at the imidazolium ring on the catalytic activity was investigated. The optimisation of the catalyst structure allows for the valorisation of carbon dioxide under mild reaction conditions with high reaction rates in very good yield and selectivity for PC. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. Atomistic simulation of CO 2 solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations coupled with thermodynamic integration to obtain the excess chemical potential and pressure-composition phase diagrams for CO2 in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers. Poly(ethylene oxide

  15. Evaluation of miscibility of poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide) and poly(methylmethacrylate) blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchete, Renato; Felisberti, Maria Isabel

    1999-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of poly(methylmethacrylate), (PMMA) and poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide), (ECO) were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The ECO was fractionated using two different systems: a solvent-non solvent system and by cooling the solution in tetrahydrofuran in the temperature range from 20 to 0 deg C. The fractions with different composition and molecular weight were used to prepare the blends by casting from solution in tetrahydrofuran. The blends exhibit two glass transitions shifted in relation to the glass transitions of the pure polymers, indicating a partial miscibility. Blends containing copolymer richer in epichlorohydrin segments were more miscible than blends of non-fractionated ECO. (author)

  16. Lithium ion conductivity of molecularly compatibilized chitosan-poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-poly(ethylene oxide) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, S.; Retuert, P.J.; Gonzalez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Films of composites of chitosan/poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane)/poly(ethylene oxide) (CHI/pAPS/PEO) containing a fixed amount of lithium salt are studied. The ternary composition diagram of the composites, reporting information on the mechanic stability, the transparence and the electrical conductivity of the films, shows there is a window in which the molecular compatibility of the components is optimal. In this window, defined by the components ratios CHI/PEO 3:2, pAPS/PEO 2:3 and CHI/PEO 1:2, there is a particular composition Li x (CHI) 1 (PEO) 2 (pAPS) 1.2 for which the conductivity reaches a value of 1.7 x 10 -5 S cm -1 at near room temperature. Considering the balance between the Lewis acid and basic sites available in the component and the observed stoichiometry limits of formed polymer complexes, the conductivity values of these products may be understood by the formation of a layered structure in which the lithium ions, stabilized by the donors, poly(ethylene oxide) and/or poly(aminopropyltriethoxysilane), are intercalated in a chitosan matrix

  17. Graphene-poly aniline by oxidative electro polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pa-a, Jonathan E.; Enriquez, Erwin P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work , the photochemically synthesized NH 2 - graphene is doped with poly aniline through oxidative electro polymerization to form the NH 2 -graphene/poly aniline composites. These composites with varying amounts of NH 2 -graphene are investigated using Fourier Transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV)absorption spectroscopy , scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and electrochemical measurements. FTIR analysis strongly suggests incorporation of NH 2 -graphene sheets on poly aniline via imine (C=N) formation. UV/visible analysis of composites containing varying amounts of NH 2 -graphene in PANI shows different extent of modification on the oxidation state of the emeraldine base form to leuco emeraldine form of the PANI chain segments with possible formation of imine (C=N) units at other positions of the aniline ring in the composite, Time evolution UV/visible spectra by UV-irradiation of composites tend to proceed further with imine and phenazine-like microstructure formation. TEM and SEM images show patterns on aggregation of regular to deformed fibers surrounding planar surfaces which may indicate interior surface of NH 2 -graphene sheets not being grafted with polymers. Improved thermal stability of poly aniline in the presence of minimum amount of NH 2 -graphene sheets further confirms structural transformation within the microstructures. Electrochemical measurements by cyclic voltammetry show enhanced capacitive behavior relative to pure poly aniline. The route of synthesis using NH 2 -graphene and poly aniline offers a simple but controlled synthetic route for electrochemical doping and welding of N-containing heterocyclic structures onto pristine graphene sheets for possible use in sensing and energy storage applications. (author)

  18. Copolymerization of poly (ethylene oxide) and poly (methyl methacrylate) initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.S.; Ferreira, A.A.; Coutinho, F.M.B.; Marinho, J.R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerium (IV) salts such as the ceric ammonium nitrate and ceric ammonium sulfate in aqueous acid solution with reducing agents such as alcohols, thiols, glycols, aldehydes and amines are well known initiators of vinyl polymerization. In this work, the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by ceric ammonium nitrate/HNO 3 -poly(ethylene oxide) with hydroxyl end group system was studied in aqueous solution at 25 0 C to obtain block copolymers. (Author) [pt

  19. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Rui-Tao, E-mail: Ruitao.Wen@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-08-28

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li{sup +} in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO{sub 4} + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films.

  20. Electrochromic nickel oxide films and their compatibility with potassium hydroxide and lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate: Optical, electrochemical and stress-related properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Rui-Tao; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2014-01-01

    Porous nickel oxide films were deposited onto unheated indium tin oxide coated glass substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. These films had a cubic NiO structure. Electrochromic properties were evaluated in 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) and in 1 M lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate (Li–PC). Large optical modulation was obtained for ∼ 500-nm-thick films both in KOH and in Li–PC (∼ 70% and ∼ 50% at 550 nm, respectively). In KOH, tensile and compressive stresses, due to the expansion and contraction of the lattice, were found for films in their bleached and colored state, respectively. In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films. Durability tests with voltage sweeps between − 0.5 and 0.65 V vs Ag/AgCl in KOH showed good durability for 10,000 cycles, whereas voltage sweeps between 2.0 and 4.7 V vs Li/Li + in Li–PC yielded significant degradation after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • Ni oxide films were studied in KOH and in LiClO 4 + propylene carbonate (Li–PC). • Good electrochromism was found in both electrolytes. • In KOH, tensile/compressive stresses were seen in bleached/colored films. • In Li–PC, compressive stress was seen both in colored and bleached films

  1. Comparison studies of propylene oxide addition to phenyloctadecanol and phenyloctadecanoic acid and the surface activity studies of their sulphated products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. H.M.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenyloctadecanol and phenyloctadecanoic acid were produced via Lewis acid catalyzed reaction of benzene and oleyl alcohol (60 ºC or oleic acid at (80 ºC respectively. A comparison study was achieved for the addition of propylene oxide to both substrates in the presence of base (KOH and Lewis acid (SbCl5 catalysts. It was found that, the hydroxypropylation of both substrates at low temperature via Lewis acid catalyst is more preferable than via the base catalyst. The surface activity of the sulphated products was determined. The results revealed that, the samples produced from alcohol (phenyloctadecanol show a better surface activity than that from acid (phenyloctadecanoic acid. On the other hand the samples produced from both substrates using Lewis acid catalyst have a better surface activity than that produced with the base catalyst.Se ha obtenido feniloctadecanol y ácido feniloctadecanoico vía reacción catalizada ácido de Lewis a partir de benceno y alcohol oleílico (60º C o ácido oleico (80º C respectivamente. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo por adición de óxido de propileno a ambos sustratos en presencia de base (KOH y ácido de Lewis (SbCl5 como catalizadores. Se encontró que la hidroxipropilación de ambos sustratos a baja temperatura mediante catálisis ácido de Lewis es preferible a la catálisis básica. Se determinó la actividad superficial de los productos sulfatados. Los resultados mostraron que las muestras producidas a partir de alcohol (feniloctadecanol tenían una mejor actividad superficial que las producidas a partir de ácido (ácido feniloctadecanoico. Por otro lado, las muestras producidas a partir de ambos sustratos utilizando catalizador ácido de Lewis tuvieron una actividad superficial mejor que las producidas con catálisis básica.

  2. CO2-selective PEO–PBT (PolyActive™)/graphene oxide composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2015-07-31

    CO2-selective graphene oxide (GO) nano-composite membranes were prepared for the first time by embedding GO into a commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO–PBT) copolymer (PolyActive™). The as-prepared GO membrane shows high CO2 permeability (143 Barrer) and CO2/N2 selectivity (α = 73).

  3. CO2-selective PEO–PBT (PolyActive™)/graphene oxide composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan; Shevate, Rahul; Kumar, Mahendra; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-01

    CO2-selective graphene oxide (GO) nano-composite membranes were prepared for the first time by embedding GO into a commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO–PBT) copolymer (PolyActive™). The as-prepared GO membrane shows high CO2 permeability (143 Barrer) and CO2/N2 selectivity (α = 73).

  4. Poly(alkylene oxide) Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    Poly(alkylene oxide) Copolymers for Nucleic Acid Delivery Swati Mishra1,#, Lavanya Y. Peddada1,#, David I. Devore3,4, and Charles M. Roth1,2...Neil Raju for assistance with figures. Biographies Swati Mishra received her Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology from the University of...Kleiman N, Anderson RD, Gottlieb D, Karlsberg R, Snell J, Rocha- Singh K. Results from a phase II multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled study of Del

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2012-01-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene

  6. The Relationship Between Structural and Catalytic Activity of α and γ-Bismuth-Molybdate Catalysts for Partial Oxidation of Propylene to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansuri, H.; Pham, G. H.; Wibawanta, S.; Zhang, D. K.; French, David

    Bismuth-molybdate catalysts are known to be effective for catalytic partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Their properties and the kinetics and reaction mechanisms for acrolein production have been extensively studied, especially in their basic forms, such as α, β, and γ-bismuth-molybdate. Although the reaction mechanisms have been reported widely in the literature, a general agreement has not been reached, especially from a catalyst-structure point of view. The present contribution reports an effort to understand the structural changes of α and γ-bismuth-molybdate catalysts at varying temperatures as examined using high temperature XRD and to relate the catalyst performance (activity and selectivity) for propylene partial oxidation to acrolein. The XRD analysis was performed at temperature between 250 and 450°C in ambient atmosphere and the Rietveld refinement method was used to extract unit cell parameters. The results showed a distinct similarity between the shapes of the thermal expansion of the catalysts and their activity and selectivity curves, indicating a significant role that the catalyst interatomic structure plays in the overall reaction mechanism.

  7. Thermoresponsive behaviour of terpolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone) blocks in aqueous solutions: an NMR study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konefal, Rafal; Spěváček, Jiří; Jäger, Eliezer; Petrova, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 294, č. 11 (2016), s. 1717-1726 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-13853S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoresponsive polymer * terpolymer containing poly(ethylene oxide), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blocks * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  8. High molecular weight poly(L-lactide) and poly(ethylene oxide) blends : Thermal characterization and physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, AJ; Colstee, E; Grijpma, DW; Pennings, AJ

    1996-01-01

    The miscibility of high molecular weight poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) with high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEG) was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Ail blends containing up to 50 weight% PEO showed single glass transition temperatures. The PLLA and PEO melting temperatures were

  9. Synthesis and Functionalization of Poly(ethylene oxide-b-ethyloxazoline) Diblock Copolymers with Phosphonate Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alfred Yuen-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOX) are biocompatible polymers that act as hydrophilic "stealth" drug carriers. As block copolymers, the PEOX group offers a wider variety of functionalization. The goal of this project was to synthesize a poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEO-b-PEOX) block copolymer and functionalize pendent groups of PEOX with phosphonic acid. This was achieved through cationic ring opening polymerization (CROP) of 2-...

  10. Poly(ester amide-Poly(ethylene oxide Graft Copolymers: Towards Micellar Drug Delivery Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Zilinskas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micelles formed from amphiphilic copolymers are promising materials for the delivery of drug molecules, potentially leading to enhanced biological properties and efficacy. In this work, new poly(ester amide-poly(ethylene oxide (PEA-PEO graft copolymers were synthesized and their assembly into micelles in aqueous solution was investigated. It was possible to tune the sizes of the micelles by varying the PEO content of the polymers and the method of micelle preparation. Under optimized conditions, it was possible to obtain micelles with diameters less than 100 nm as measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. These micelles were demonstrated to encapsulate and release a model drug, Nile Red, and were nontoxic to HeLa cells as measured by an MTT assay. Overall, the properties of these micelles suggest that they are promising new materials for drug delivery systems.

  11. Thermodynamic characterization of poly(4-hydroxystyrene)-g-[poly(propyleneoxide-b-ethylene oxide)] thermoresponsive brush copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanassoulas, Angelos, E-mail: athanas@rrp.demokritos.gr [Biomolecuar Physics Laboratory, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Papadopoulos, Athanasios [Biomolecuar Physics Laboratory, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Pispas, Stergios [Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 11635 Athens (Greece); Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Guangzhao [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Nounesis, George [Biomolecuar Physics Laboratory, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • PPO-b-PEO core-shell brush copolymers exhibit thermoresponsive behavior in aqueous solutions. • Their thermal transitions strongly depend on their architecture and chemical composition. • These copolymer transitions follow a coil-to-globule mechanism. • It is possible to fine-tune their thermoresponsiveness to a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Thermoresponsive brush copolymers with poly(4-hydroxystyrene) backbones and poly(propyleneoxide-b-ethylene oxide) side chains were synthesized via a “grafting from” technique. The thermoresponsive behavior of four samples with different compositions has been investigated in dilute aqueous solutions by high-accuracy differential scanning calorimetry measurements. Thermal transitions involving both core contraction and intermolecular aggregation have been observed for all the copolymers in this study. The temperature where these thermal transitions occur is strongly associated to the architecture and chemical composition of the copolymers, allowing for fine-tuning of their thermoresponsiveness in a wide range of temperatures.

  12. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu 2 O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu + species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  13. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Düzenli, Derya [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Mineral Analysis and Technology, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Onal, Isik, E-mail: ional@metu.edu.tr [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu{sub 2}O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu{sup +} species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  14. Deformation of confined poly(ethylene oxide) in multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chuan-Yar; Hiltner, Anne; Baer, Eric; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2012-04-01

    The effect of confinement on the deformation behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied using melt processed coextruded poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (EAA) and PEO multilayer films with varying PEO layer thicknesses from 3600 to 25 nm. The deformation mechanism was found to shift as layer thickness was decreased between 510 and 125 nm, from typical axial alignment of the crystalline fraction, as seen in bulk materials, to nonuniform micronecking mechanisms found in solution-grown single crystals. This change was evaluated via tensile testing, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). With the commercially relevant method of melt coextrusion, we were able to overcome the limitations to the testing of solution-grown single crystals, and the artifacts that occur from their handling, and bridged the gap in knowledge between thick bulk materials and thin single crystals.

  15. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-11-01

    This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu2O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu2O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu+ species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  16. Effects of a base coating used for electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) on indium tin oxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.J.; Wong, K.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films on indium tin oxide (ITO), using a very thin PEDOT:poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film as a base coating, was carried out in a non-aqueous solution containing the monomer, an electrolyte and propylene carbonate by a two-electrode system. For comparison, PEDOT film electrodeposited on bare ITO substrate under the same condition was also presented. The PEDOT films deposited on these two substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the PEDOT film electrodeposited on bare ITO was not uniform, while the PEDOT film electrodeposited on PEDOT:PSS/ITO has better uniformity. The compositions of the different regions of PEDOT film electrodeposited on bare ITO and PEDOT:PSS/ITO were studied and discussed. Electrochromic devices (ECDs) based on PEDOT films electrodeposited on bare ITO and PEDOT:PSS/ITO were fabricated and characterized by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometric study. The results show that the display contrast of the ECD based on PEDOT film electrodeposited on PEDOT:PSS/ITO was improved over that on a bare ITO substrate

  17. Adsorption of Poly(ethylene oxide)-Poly(lactide) Copolymers. Effects of Composition and Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dries; Carlsson, Fredrik; Malmsten, Martin

    2001-04-01

    The effect of chemical degradation of two diblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (E) and poly(lactide) (L), E(39)L(5) and E(39)L(20), on their adsorption at silica and methylated silica was investigated with in situ ellipsometry. Steric stablization of polystyrene dispersions was investigated in relation to degradation. Hydrolysis of the poly(lactide) block of the copolymers was followed at different temperatures and pH by using HPLC to measure the occurrence of lactic acid in solution. The block copolymers were quite stable in pH-unadjusted solution at low temperature, whereas degradation was facilitated by increasing temperature or lowering of the pH. Lower degradation rates of E(39)L(20) where observed at low temperature in comparison with those of E(39)L(5), whereas the degradation rates of the copolymers were quantitatively similar at high temperature. The adsorption of the copolymers at methylated silica substrates decreased with increasing degree of degradation due to the reduction in the ability of hydrophobic block to anchor the copolymer layer at the surface. At silica the adsorption initially increased with increasing degradation, particularly for E(39)L(20) due to deposition of aggregates onto the surface. After extensive degradation the adsorption of the copolymers at both silica and methylated silica resembled that of the corresponding poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer. Overall, it was found that the eventual reduction in adsorption occurred at a lower degree of degradation for E(39)L(5) than for E(39)L(20). Mean-field calculations showed a reduced anchoring for the block copolymers with decreasing poly(lactide) block length at hydrophobic surfaces. In accordance with this finding, it was observed that polystyrene dispersions were stabilized by E(39)L(20) or E(39)L(5) in a way that depended on both the lactide block length and the degree of degradation. Upon degradation of the hydrophobic block, stabilization of the polystyrene dispersions was

  18. Ecological approach to graphene oxide reinforced poly (methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimune, Seira; Nishino, Takashi; Goto, Takuya

    2012-07-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) possesses the desirable characteristic of aqueous solution processability attributed to the oxygen-containing functional groups on the basal planes and edges of graphene. To provide an alternative to conventional procedures for fabricating poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/GO nanocomposites, which use organic solutions and/or surfactants, we have developed an environmentally friendly technique in which PMMA is polymerized by soap-free emulsion polymerization and incorporated with GO using water as a processing medium. Experimental results showed that the fabricated PMMA/GO nanocomposites had excellent mechanical, thermal, and O2 barrier properties with the nanodispersion of GO.

  19. Alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide with biorenewable terpene-based cyclic anhydrides: a sustainable route to aliphatic polyesters with high glass transition temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zee, Nathan J; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2015-02-23

    The alternating copolymerization of propylene oxide with terpene-based cyclic anhydrides catalyzed by chromium, cobalt, and aluminum salen complexes is reported. The use of the Diels-Alder adduct of α-terpinene and maleic anhydride as the cyclic anhydride comonomer results in amorphous polyesters that exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg ) of up to 109 °C. The polymerization conditions and choice of catalyst have a dramatic impact on the molecular weight distribution, the relative stereochemistry of the diester units along the polymer chain, and ultimately the Tg of the resulting polymer. The aluminum salen complex exhibits exceptional selectivity for copolymerization without transesterification or epimerization side reactions. The resulting polyesters are highly alternating and have high molecular weights and narrow polydispersities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Oxidation of Propylene on catalytic Pt-Cu/y alumina. (Part I) Characterization of catalysts of Pt-Cu/y alumina for chemisorption of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, Luis M; Zea, Hugo R

    1999-01-01

    In this work the effect of the composition of catalysts of Pt-Cu/y-alumina is analyzed on the superficial area it reactivates corresponding to the total oxidation of propylene. The experimental essays were also made in a differential reactor that was used so much for the characterization of the catalyst in situ by means of the measurement of the selective chemisorption of H 2 , the effects and the bimetallic interactions are discussed that frequently happen in the supported catalysts. Starting from the studies of chemical adsorption of H 2 on the supported catalysts of Pt-Cu was, by means of the application of the theory of the regular solution to the surface of the glasses and keeping in mind that the H 2 it adsorbs chemically only on the superficial atoms of Pt (it was observed that the hydrogen not it chemi-absorb on the Cu) that the Cu atoms are segregated to the surface of the bimetallic crystals

  1. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2017-06-12

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  2. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.; Barthel, Alexander; Maheu, Clement; Sodpiban, Ounjit; Dega, Frank-Blondel; Vummaleti, Sai V.C.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Pelletier, Jeremie; Cavallo, Luigi; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  3. Synthesis of poly(ethylene oxide)-silica hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak Manaf

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid material incorporating silica networks in poly (ethylene oxide) was produced using the sol-gel process from solution mixtures of poly (ethylene oxide) dissolved in water and partially polymerized tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with and without compatibilisation agent. These mixtures were converted into films by solvent evaporation and drying them in an air-circulating oven at 60 degree C. Depending on the alkoxysilane solution composition and several mixing parameters, different morphologies were obtained, varying from semi-interpenetrating networks of PEO within highly cross linked silica chains, to finely dispersed heterogeneous system exhibiting either co-continuous or particulate microstructure. The influence of pH, type of solvents, mixing temperatures and time, as well as the nature of compatibiliser was found to be extremely important in controlling the morphology and properties of the fine hybrid films. It was found that compatibilisation of PEO-SiO 2 hybrid system is achieved exclusively with the use of γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS) coupling agent. (Author)

  4. Electro-oxidation of chlorophenols on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulphonate) composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigani, L.; Musiani, M.; Pirvu, C.; Terzi, F.; Zanardi, C.; Seeber, R.

    2007-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of chlorinated phenols on Pt/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene,LiClO 4 and on Pt/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene,poly(sodium-4-styrenesulphonate) electrodes has been investigated in phosphate buffer solution. Poly(sodium-4-styrenesulphonate) exerts remarkable effect against the electrode fouling induced by oxidation of chlorophenols, allowing us to record the relevant anodic response even after repeated potential cycles. Hypotheses about the role exerted by poly(sodium 4-styrenesulphonate) are made, on the basis of evidences provided by several techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical microgravimetry and atomic force microscopy. Thanks to the fact that different chlorophenols show differences in the voltammetric responses, depending on number and position of the chloro substituents on the aromatic ring, applications of the modified electrode in the analysis of mixtures of chlorinated phenols are possible

  5. Self-assembly of Polystyrene- b -poly(2-vinylpyridine)- b -poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Sutisna, Burhannudin; Polymeropoulos, Georgios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Meneau, Florian; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) terpolymer is a versatile polymer to form isoporous films and membranes, due to the possibility of self-assembly control and the properties of the different blocks, such as the P2VP ability of complexation, and H-bond formation, and the PEO biocompatibility. Copolymers with different block ratios and sizes were synthesized. The correlation between their equilibrium bulk morphology, the self-assembly in dilute and semi-dilute solutions and the non-equilibrium porous structures of membranes, obtained by non-solvent induced phase separation, was investigated and discussed in detail. The characterization was performed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hexagonal, cubic and lamellar arrangements were observed. The preparation conditions were optimized and a regular, isoporous morphology, suitable for membrane application, was successfully obtained with PS80.5k-b-P2VP64.4k-b-PEO16.1k.

  6. Phase Separation and Elastic Properties of Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate-block-poly(Ethylene Oxide Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Piesowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(ethylene oxide (PTT-b-PEOT copolymers with different compositions of rigid PTT and flexible PEOT segments were synthesized via condensation in the melt. The influence of the block length and the block ratio on the micro-separated phase structure and elastic properties of the synthesized multiblock copolymers was studied. The PEOT segments in these copolymers were kept constant at 1130, 2130 or 3130 g/mol, whereas the PTT content varied from 30 up to 50 wt %. The phase separation was assessed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. The crystal structure of the synthesised block copolymers and their microstructure on the manometer scale was evaluated by using WAXS and SAXS analysis. Depending on the PTT/PEOT ratio, but also on the rigid and flexible segment length in PTT-b-PEO copolymers, four different domains were observed i.e.,: a crystalline PTT phase, a crystalline PEO phase (which exists for the whole series based on three types of PEOT segments, an amorphous PTT phase (only at 50 wt % content of PTT rigid segments and an amorphous PEO phase. Moreover, the elastic deformability and reversibility of PTT-b-PEOT block copolymers were studied during a cyclic tensile test. Determined values of permanent set resultant from maximum attained stain (100% and 200% for copolymers were used to evaluate their elastic properties.

  7. Self-assembly of Polystyrene- b -poly(2-vinylpyridine)- b -poly(ethylene oxide) Triblock Terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Musteata, Valentina-Elena

    2017-11-08

    Polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) terpolymer is a versatile polymer to form isoporous films and membranes, due to the possibility of self-assembly control and the properties of the different blocks, such as the P2VP ability of complexation, and H-bond formation, and the PEO biocompatibility. Copolymers with different block ratios and sizes were synthesized. The correlation between their equilibrium bulk morphology, the self-assembly in dilute and semi-dilute solutions and the non-equilibrium porous structures of membranes, obtained by non-solvent induced phase separation, was investigated and discussed in detail. The characterization was performed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hexagonal, cubic and lamellar arrangements were observed. The preparation conditions were optimized and a regular, isoporous morphology, suitable for membrane application, was successfully obtained with PS80.5k-b-P2VP64.4k-b-PEO16.1k.

  8. Diffusivities and Viscosities of Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomers †

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2010-10-14

    Diffusivities and viscosities of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) oligomer melts with 1 to 12 repeat units have been obtained from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TraPPE-UA force field. The simulations generated diffusion coefficients with high accuracy for all of the molar masses studied, but the statistical uncertainties in the viscosity calculations were significantly larger for longer chains. There is good agreement of the calculated viscosities and densities with available experimental data, and thus, the simulations can be used to bridge gaps in the data and for extrapolations with respect to chain length, temperature, and pressure. We explored the convergence characteristics of the Green-Kubo formulas for different chain lengths and propose minimal production times required for convergence of the transport properties. The chain-length dependence of the transport properties suggests that neither Rouse nor reptation models are applicable in the short-chain regime investigated. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Interaction between poly(vinyl pyridine) and poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) : A copolymer blend miscibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Joost; van Ekenstein, Gert Alberda; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    The phase behavior of blends of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) with random copolymers of styrene and 2-vinyl pyridine, Poly(S-co-2VP), as well as with random copolymers of styrene and 4-vinyl pyridine, Poly(S-co-4VP), has been investigated in order to estimate the values of the

  10. Tuning thin-film electrolyte for lithium battery by grafting cyclic carbonate and combed poly(ethylene oxide) on polysiloxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Lin, Yue; Yao, Hehua; Yuan, Changfu; Liu, Jin

    2014-07-01

    A tunable polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries was developed. The polysiloxane was synthesized by hydrosilylation of polymethylhydrosiloxane with cyclic [(allyloxy)methyl]ethylene ester carbonic acid and vinyl tris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane. (1) H NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the bifunctional groups of the cyclic propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were well grafted on the polysiloxane. At PC/PEO=6:4, the polysiloxane-based electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 1.55 × 10(-4) and 1.50 × 10(-3)  S cm(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. The LiFePO4 /Li batteries fabricated with the thin-film electrolyte presented excellent cycling performance in the temperature range from 25 to 100 °C with an initial discharge capacity at a rate of 1 C of 88.2 and 140 mA h g(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Propylene epoxydation with hydrogen peroxide in acidic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kertalli, E.; Rijnsoever, L.S.; Paunovic, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Neira d'Angelo, M.F.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the epoxidation of propylene with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of acids and halides is studied. The presence of acids and halides is indispensable for increasing the selectivity of the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide, the first step of the direct propylene oxide

  12. A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Formation of Interstellar Propylene Oxide (CH3CHCH2O)—A Chiral Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergantini, Alexandre; Abplanalp, Matthew J.; Pokhilko, Pavel; Krylov, Anna I.; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Herbst, Eric; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2018-06-01

    This work reveals via a combined experimental, computational, and astrochemical modeling study that racemic propylene oxide (c-C3H6O)—the first chiral molecule detected outside Earth toward the high-mass star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N)—can be synthesized by non-equilibrium reactions initiated by the effects of secondary electrons generated in the track of cosmic rays interacting with ice-coated interstellar grains through excited-state and spin-forbidden reaction pathways operating within low-temperature interstellar ices at 10 K. Our findings confront traditional hypotheses that thermal chemistries followed by processing of interstellar grains dictate the formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) in molecular clouds. Instead, we reveal a hitherto poorly quantified reaction class involving excited-state and spin-forbidden chemistry leading to racemic mixtures of COMs inside interstellar ices prior to their sublimation in star-forming regions. This fundamental production mechanism is of essential consequence in aiding our understanding of the origin and evolution of chiral molecules in the universe.

  13. Antibacterial effects of electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) nanofibrous membranes loaded with chlorhexidine and silver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, J.; Remmers, S.J.; Shao, J.; Kolwijck, E.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.; Yang, F.

    2016-01-01

    To prevent percutaneous device associated infections (PDAIs), we prepared electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofibrous membrane containing silver nanoparticles as an implantable delivery vehicle for the dual release of chlorhexidine and silver ions. We observed that the silver

  14. Polymer brush hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) modified poly (propylene-g-styrene sulphonic acid) fiber (ZB-1): CTAB/ZB-1 as a promising strategy for improving the dissolution and physical stability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinxu; Yang, Baixue; Wang, Yumei; Wei, Chen; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Sanming

    2017-11-01

    The feasibility of polymer brush as drug delivery vehicle was demonstrated with the goal of improving the dissolution and physical stability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Polymer brush CTAB/ZB-1 was synthesized by electrostatic interaction using a physical modification method with anionic poly (propylene-g-styrene sulphonic acid) fiber (ZB-1) as the substrate and cationic hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the modifier. The polymer brush structure of CTAB/ZB-1 was validated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the channels of brush provided the drug loading sites. Flurbiprofen (FP), a BCS class II representative drug, was selected as the model poorly water-soluble drug to be loaded into this polymer brush. Then the drug loading and release were systematically investigated. Besides, the transformation from crystalline FP to amorphous state was observed by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In vitro dissolution in pure water and pH1.2 HCl media with/without 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was tested. Moreover, the optimal formulations (namely carrier/drug ratios) were determined. The results demonstrated prominent improvement of dissolution when FP was released from CTAB/ZB-1. After a long time storage, FP remained amorphous in CTAB/ZB-1 according to DSC determinations and performed an approximately equivalent dissolution compared with fresh samples, suggesting the advantage of CTAB/ZB-1 as carrier in enhancing the physical stability of drugs. The study introduced the versatile easily formulated polymer brush CTAB/ZB-1 and demonstrated the potential of polymer brush as an alternative approach for improving the dissolution and physical stability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/TiO2/graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogels for pH-sensitive photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Young-E; Jung, Gowun; Yun, Jumi; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic removal of pollutants was improved by the two-step mechanism based on the adsorption of pollutants by hydrogel and the effective decomposition by combination of TiO 2 and graphene oxide. -- Highlights: • pH sensitive PVA/PAAc hydrogels were prepared by radical polymerization and condensation reaction. • PVA/PAAc/TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogels were used for treatment of basic waste water. • Photocatalytic acitivity of TiO 2 was improved by incorporation of graphene oxide. • Photocatalytic decomposition by nanocomposite hydrogel was improved by increasing pH. -- Abstract: Poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogels were prepared using radical polymerization and condensation reaction for the photocatalytic treatment of waste water. Graphene oxide was used as an additive to improve the photocatalytic activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/TiO 2 nanocomposite hydrogels. Both TiO 2 and graphene oxide were immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel matrix for an easier recovery after the waste water treatment. The photocatalytic activity of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogels was evaluated on the base of the degradation of pollutants by using UV spectrometer. The improved removal of pollutants was due to the two-step mechanism based on the adsorption of pollutants by nanocomposite hydrogel and the effective decomposition of pollutants by TiO 2 and graphene oxide. The highest swelling of nanocomposite hydrogel was observed at pH 10 indicating that poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid)/TiO 2 /graphene oxide nanocomposite hydrogels were suitable as a promising system for the treatment of basic waste water

  16. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri; Rusdiana, Dadi; Nugroho, A. A.; Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer’s method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  17. Preparation of graphene oxide/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxytriophene): Poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrospun nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efelina, Vita; Widianto, Eri [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Rusdiana, Dadi [Department of Physical Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung (Indonesia); Nugroho, A. A. [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Kusumaatmaja, Ahmad; Triyana, Kuwat; Santoso, Iman, E-mail: iman.santoso@ugm.ac.id [Department of Physics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara BLS.21 Yogyakarta, 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Nanomaterials Research Group, Universitas Gadjah Mada,, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Graphene oxide (GO)/Poly (3,4-Ethylenedioxytriophene):Poly (styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by a simple electrospinning technique to develop conductive nanofibers with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) act as a carrier solution. Graphene oxide has been synthesized by Hummer’s method and has been confirmed by Raman Spectroscopy, FTIR and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. GO/PEDOT:PSS composite nanofibers. The structural and morphological properties were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of SEM show that GO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers has a relatively uniform morphology nanofiber with diameter between 180 nm - 340 nm with smooth nanofiber surface. The produced nanofibers from this study can be utilized for various applications such as flexible, conductive and transparent electrode.

  18. Chemical modification of biodegradable polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by poly(ethylene oxide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Lilian L.; Rocha, Gisele A.; Hui, Wang S.

    2009-01-01

    Catalyzed transesterification in the melt was used to produce triblock copolymers from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEG), in a simplified process. PHB of high molecular weight was depolymerized by pyrolysis and transesterification with dihydroxy terminated PEG occurred through consecutive and partly simultaneous reactions. The effectiveness of the process was verified by the characterization of the formed copolymers by Hydrogen and Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopies (NMR) and solubility analysis in a series of solvents. (author)

  19. The radiation chemistry of poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.T.; Hopewell, J.L.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Pomery, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electron spin resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the radicals which are formed on the gamma radiolysis of selected poly(arylene ether phosphene oxide)s which have been irradiated either at 77 or 303 K. At 77 K both neutral and anionic radicals are formed, but the anionic radicals are unstable above 200 K. Two types of neutral radicals were observed. They were the phenyl and phenoxyl radicals formed by homolytic scission of the backbone ether bonds. 31 P NMR spectroscopy showed that no new structures involving phosphorus were formed, but there was an indication that crosslinking may take place at aromatic rings adjacent to phosphorus atoms. Solution viscosity measurements indicated that the polymers undergo nett chain scission on irradiation, but the nett scission yield is very small. (author)

  20. Interaction of propylene with reduced surface of chromium molybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalova, N.D.; Belokopytov, Yu.V.

    1978-01-01

    It has been found that reduction of oxidated chromium molybdate sample by propylene at 450 deg C does not change the form of energy surface heterogeneity and also practically does not effect activation desorption energy of C 3 H 6 . It is shown that oxygen of this catalyst volume is movable and is responsible for formation of products of C 3 H 6 partial oxidation (acetic aldehyde and acrolein) in the sample reduction by propylene

  1. Self-degradation of tissue adhesive based on oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Naoki; Sugai, Hajime; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2014-11-26

    We have developed a low-toxicity bioadhesive based on oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine. Here, we report that the mechanical properties and degradation of this novel hydrogel bioadhesive can be controlled by changing the extent of oxidation of the dextran and the type or concentration of the anhydride species in the acylated poly-L-lysine. The dynamic moduli of the hydrogels can be controlled from 120 Pa to 20 kPa, suggesting that they would have mechanical compatibility with various tissues, and could have applications as tissue adhesives. Development of the hydrogel color from clear to brown indicates that the reaction between the dextran aldehyde groups and the poly-L-lysine amino groups may be induced by a Maillard reaction via Schiff base formation. Degradation of the aldehyde dextran may begin by reaction of the amino groups in the poly-L-lysine. The gel degradation can be ascribed to degradation of the aldehyde dextran in the hydrogel, although the aldehyde dextran itself is relatively stable in water. The oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine, and the degraded hydrogel showed low cytotoxicities. These findings indicate that a hydrogel consisting of oxidized dextran and poly-L-lysine has low toxicity and a well-controlled degradation rate, and has potential clinical applications as a bioadhesive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bismuth molybdate catalysts prepared by mild hydrothermal synthesis: Influence of pH on the selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang; Høj, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A series of bismuth molybdate catalysts with relatively high surface area was prepared via mild hydrothermal synthesis. Variation of the pH value and Bi/Mo ratio during the synthesis allowed tuning of the crystalline Bi-Mo oxide phases, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman...... spectroscopy. The pH value during synthesis had a strong influence on the catalytic performance. Synthesis using a Bi/Mo ratio of 1/1 at pH ≥ 6 resulted in γ-Bi2MoO6, which exhibited a better catalytic performance than phase mixtures obtained at lower pH values. However, a significantly lower catalytic...

  3. Ni-Si oxide as an inducing crystallization source for making poly-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Zhiguo; Liu, Zhaojun; Li, Juan; Wu, Chunya; Xiong, Shaozhen [Institute of Photo-electronics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhao, Shuyun; Wong, Man; Kwok, Hoi Sing [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-04-15

    Nickel silicon oxide mixture was sputtered on a-Si with Ni-Si alloy target with Ni:Si weight ratio of 1:9 and used as a new inducing source for metal induced lateral crystallization (MILC). The characteristics of the resulted poly-Si materials induced by Ni-Si oxide with different thickness were nearly the same. This means the metal induced crystallization with this new inducing source has wide processing tolerance to make MILC poly-Si. Besides, it reduced the residual Ni content in the resulted poly-Si film. The transfer characteristic curve of poly-Si TFT and a TFT-OLED display demo made with this kind of new inducing source were also presented in this paper. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-Polycaprolactone Worm Micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by poly...

  5. Mesomorphic structure of poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) with oligo(ethylene oxide)sulfonic acid side chains as a model for molecularly reinforced polymer electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosonen, H; Valkama, S; Hartikainen, J; Eerikainen, H; Torkkeli, M; Jokela, K; Serimaa, R; Sundholm, F; ten Brinke, G; Ikkala, O; Eerikäinen, Hannele

    2002-01-01

    We report self-organized polymer electrolytes based on poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-block-P4VP). Liquidlike ethylene oxide (EO) oligomers with sulfonic acid end groups are bonded to the P4VP block, leading to comb-shaped supramolecules with the PS-block-P4VP backbone. Lithium

  6. Hybrid nanospheres formed by intermixed double-hydrophilic block copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(2-ethyloxazoline) with high content of metallacarboranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďorďovič, V.; Uchman, M.; Procházka, K.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Pleštil, Josef; Nykänen, A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Matějíček, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 17 (2013), s. 6881-6890 ISSN 0024-9297 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(2-ethyloxazoline) * metallacarboranes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.927, year: 2013

  7. Observations of crystallization and melting in poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends by hot-stage atomic-force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, R.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    1998-01-01

    The binary blend of poly(ethylene oxide)/atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) is examined using hot-stage atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry and optical microscopy. It was found possible to follow in real time the melting process, which reveals itself to

  8. Poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(butylene terephthalate) segmented block copolymers: the effect of copolymer composition on physical properties and degradation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, A.A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the influence of copolymer composition on the physical properties and the degradation behavior of thermoplastic elastomers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) segments is investigated. These materials are intended to be used in medical

  9. Nanosized amorphous calcium carbonate stabilized by poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(acrylic acid) block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Baptiste; Faatz, Michael; Gröhn, Franziska; Wegner, Gerhard; Gnanou, Yves

    2006-02-14

    Particles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), formed in situ from calcium chloride by the slow release of carbon dioxide by alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl carbonate in water, are stabilized against coalescence in the presence of very small amounts of double hydrophilic block copolymers (DHBCs) composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) blocks. Under optimized conditions, spherical particles of ACC with diameters less than 100 nm and narrow size distribution are obtained at a concentration of only 3 ppm of PEO-b-PAA as additive. Equivalent triblock or star DHBCs are compared to diblock copolymers. The results are interpreted assuming an interaction of the PAA blocks with the surface of the liquid droplets of the concentrated CaCO3 phase, formed by phase separation from the initially homogeneous reaction mixture. The adsorption layer of the block copolymer protects the liquid precursor of ACC from coalescence and/or coagulation.

  10. Effect of graphite loading on the electrical and mechanical properties of Poly (Ethylene Oxide)/Poly (Vinyl Chloride) polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, M. D. S.; Supri, A. G.; Hanif, M. P. M.; Yazid, M. I. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, films consisting of a blend of poly (ethylene oxide)/poly (vinyl chloride) (PEO/PVC) and a conductive filler, graphite were prepared and characterized for their mechanical and electrical properties. Solid polymer blend films based on PEO/PVC (50/50 wt%/wt%) with different graphite loading were prepared by using solution casting technique. Electrical conductivity results discovered the conductivity increased with increasing of filler loading. However, increasing amount of graphite loading led to a decreased in tensile strength and young’s modulus of PEO/PVC/Graphite polymer films. The dispersion of graphite and mechanism of conductive path in the polymer films were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of the PEO/PVC/Graphite polymer films shows that agglomeration occurred to complete the connection of conductive path, thus improving the conductivity behavior of the polymer films.

  11. Biological compatibility test on films of added SEO [poly(dimethyl siloxane)-co-poly(ethylene oxide)] PVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Souza-Bazzi, Aurea de; Higa, Olga Z.

    1999-01-01

    Membranes composed by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), agar and water crosslinked by ionizing radiation, can have the mechanical properties improved by the addition of copolymers. Due to the hydrophilic property also by the medical grade as it is supplied, the copolymer poly(dimethyl siloxane)-co-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) was added to the PVP membranes. Varied concentrations of SEO were used in the preparation of PVP membranes by electron beam irradiation at dose rate of 25 kGy. For testing the bicompatibility of the SEO composed membrane the in vitro assay of cytotoxicity, with Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), was carried out. However, the membranes showed a cytotoxic characteristic in cell culture, which was stronger as the amount of SEO increased in the composition. (author)

  12. Novel poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide) blends for battery separators in lithium-ion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, C.M.; Nunes-Pereira, J.; Rodrigues, L.C.; Silva, M.M.; Ribelles, J.L. Gomez; Lanceros-Méndez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► New P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO polymer blends were prepared for battery separator. ► The porosity and hydrophilicity degree are tailored within this blend. ► Ionic conductivity depends on PEO presence and is stable with temperature. ► High ionic conductivity of 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 blend. -- Abstract: Polymer blends based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/poly(ethylene oxide), P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO for Li-ion battery separator applications have been prepared through solvent casting technique. The microstructure, hydrophilicity and electrolyte uptake strongly depend on PEO content within the blend. The best value of ionic conductivity at room temperature was 0.25 mS cm −1 for the 60/40 membrane. The membranes are electrochemically stable

  13. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(glutamic acid) coated maghemite nanoparticles: in vitro characterization and in vivo behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufner, L; Cartier, R; Wuestneck, R; Fichtner, I; Pietschmann, S; Bruhn, H; Schuett, D; Thuenemann, A F; Pison, U

    2007-01-01

    Positively charged superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles of maghemite were prepared in aqueous solution and subsequently stabilized with poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(glutamic acid) (PEO-PGA) at a hydrodynamic diameter of 60 nm. Depending on the amount of PEO-PGA used, this is accompanied by a switching of their zeta potentials from positive to negative charge (-33 mV). As a prerequisite for in vivo testing, the PEO-PGA coated maghemite nanoparticles were evaluated to be colloidally stable in water and in physiological salt solution for longer than six months as well in various buffer systems under physiological pH and salt conditions (AFM, dynamic light scattering). We excluded toxic effects of the PEO-PGA coated maghemite nanoparticles. We demonstrated by in vivo MR-imaging and 111 In measurements a biodistribution of the nanoparticles into the liver comparable to carboxydextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Resovist[reg]) as a reference nanoscaled MRI contrast medium. This was enforced by a detailed visualization of our nanoparticles by electron microscopy of liver tissue sections. Furthermore, our results indicate that 15% of the injected PEO-PGA coated maghemite nanoparticles circulate in the blood compartment for at least 60 min after i.v. application

  14. pH responsiveness of dendrimer-like poly(ethylene oxide)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoshuang; Taton, Daniel; Borsali, Redouane; Chaikof, Elliot L; Gnanou, Yves

    2006-09-06

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), two polymers known to form pH-sensitive aggregates through noncovalent interactions, were assembled in purposely designed architecture -a dendrimer-like PEO scaffold carrying short inner PAA chains-to produce unimolecular systems that exhibit pH responsiveness. Because of the particular placement of the PAA chains within the dendrimer-like structure, intermolecular complexation between acrylic acid (AA) and ethylene oxide (EO) units-and thus macroscopic aggregation or even mesoscopic micellization-could be avoided in favor of the sole intramolecular complexation. The sensitivity of such interactions to pH was exploited to generate dendrimer-like PEOs that reversibly shrink and expand with the pH. Such PAA-carrying dendrimer-like PEOs were synthesized in two main steps. First, a fifth-generation dendrimer-like PEO was obtained by combining anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP) of ethylene oxide from a tris-hydroxylated core and selective branching reactions of PEO chain ends. To this end, an AB(2)C-type branching agent was designed: the latter includes a chloromethyl (A) group for its covalent attachment to the arm ends, two geminal hydroxyls (B(2)) protected in the form of a ketal ring for the growth of subsequent PEO generations by AROP, and a vinylic (C) double bonds for further functionalization of the interior of dendrimer-like PEOs. Reiteration of AROP and derivatization of PEO branches allowed us to prepare a dendrimer-like PEO of fourth generation with a total molar mass of 52,000 g x mol(-1), containing 24 external hydroxyl functions and 21 inner vinylic groups in the interior. A fifth generation of PEO chains was generated from this parent dendrimer-like PEO of fourth generation using a "conventional" AB(2)-type branching agent, and 48 PEO branches could be grown by AROP. The 48 outer hydroxy-end groups of the fifth-generation dendrimer-like PEO obtained were subsequently quantitatively

  15. Radiation treated propylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.A. III; Baum, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for imparting improved strength and discoloration resistance to a stabilized propylene polymer that is to be exposed to a sterilizing dose of radiation. From 200 to 400 ppm of a phenolic antioxidant containing an isocyanurate group in its molecular structure, and a thiosynergist in an amount at least 6 times the weight of the antioxidant, are incorporated into the polymer before irradiation

  16. Effect of hydrogen and propylene on the hydrogen peroxide decomposition over Pt, PtO and Au catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kertalli, E.; Schouten, J.C.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on Pt, PtO and Au catalysts has been investigated in the presence of nitrogen, propylene and hydrogen. H2O2 formation on the catalyst is known to be a key intermediate step for the direct synthesis of propylene oxide (PO) from hydrogen, propylene and

  17. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Degradation of poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) and poly(phenylene sulfide) by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.T.; Hunter, D.S.; Lewis, D.A.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Pomery, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and volatile product analysis have been used to examine the degradation of poly[oxy(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene)], PPO, and poly(thio-1,4-phenylene), PPS, by γ-radiation. Radiation chemical yields (G-values) for trapped radicals were 0.60 and 0.16 after irradiation at 77 K, and 0.33 and 0.04 after irradiation at 300 K, for PPO and PPS, respectively. The ESR spectra of PPO can be analyzed in terms of PhO·, PhCH 2 · and cyclohexadienyl radicals, whereas PPS contained predominantly photobleachable radical ions. G(H 2 ) = 0.08 and G(CH 4 ) = 0.015 for PPO irradiated at 300 K: G(H 2 ) = 0.03 for PPS. The radicals in PPO indicate main-chain scission of the Ph-O bond and loss of H from CH 3 in equal amounts. The radical ions in PPS decayed without the formation of neutral radicals indicating little bond scission and extremely high radiation resistance, which is confirmed by the low G(R) and G(H 2 ) values. (author)

  19. CO2 permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide)-based segmented block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, D.; Visser, Tymen; Wessling, Matthias; Gaymans, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the gas permeation properties of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based segmented block copolymers containing monodisperse amide segments. These monodisperse segments give rise to a well phase-separated morphology, comprising a continuous PEO phase with dispersed crystallised amide

  20. On the structure of polymeric composite of metallacarborane with poly(ethylene oxide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, P.; Brus, Jiří; Jigounov, Alexander; Pleštil, Josef; Uchman, M.; Procházka, K.; Gradzielski, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 10 (2011), s. 3847-3855 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer * metallacarborane * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 5.167, year: 2011

  1. Synthesis and characterization of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulić, I.; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.; Feijen, Jan

    1988-01-01

    A procedure for the preparation of new block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic spacer-block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of heparin was investigated. Polystyrene with one amino group per chain was synthesized by free radical oligomerization of

  2. Improved synthesis of polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide)-heparin block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulic, I.; Loman, A.J.B.; Feijen, Jan; Okano, T.; Kim, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel procedure for the synthesis of block copolymers composed of a hydrophobic block of polystyrene, a hydrophilic block of poly(ethylene oxide) and a bioactive block of nitrous acid-degraded heparin was developed. Amino-semitelechelic polystyrene was prepared by anionic polymerization of styrene

  3. Electrochemical stability and transformations of fluorinated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pud, A.A.; Rogalsky, S.P.; Ghapoval, G.S.; Kharitonov, A.P.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluorination of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) leads to narrowing of its window of electrochemical stability in a cathodic range of potentials. It is found this is connected with appearance of both perfluorinated and incompletely fluorinated units in the polymer. The former units are

  4. Nanofibrous web quality in dependence on the preparation of poly(ethylene oxide) aqueous solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peer, Petra; Filip, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 12 (2017), s. 2021-2026 ISSN 0040-5000 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-26808S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : nanofibrous web * poly(ethylene oxide) solution * magnetic stirring * vibrational shaking Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.007, year: 2016

  5. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as dispersing agent for cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of selected poly(vinylpyrrolidone) grades to act as dispersant for ethanol-based ceriumgadolinium oxide suspensions was investigated and related to the molecular weight characteristics. The number, weight, and z-average molecular weights Mn, Mw, and Mz were determined by gel...

  6. Hydrophilic segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) and monodisperse amide segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, D.; Feijen, Jan; Gaymans, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Segmented block copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) flexible segments and monodisperse crystallizable bisester tetra-amide segments were made via a polycondensation reaction. The molecular weight of the PEO segments varied from 600 to 4600 g/mol and a bisester tetra-amide segment (T6T6T)

  7. Annealing effect of hybrid solar cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) and zinc-oxide nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Motaung, DE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The structural growth and optical and photovoltaic properties of the organic–inorganic hybrid structures of zinc oxide (ZnO)-nanorods/poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and two variations of organic polymer blends of ZnO/P3HT:C(sub60) fullerene and ZnO/P3...

  8. Stability and effectiveness against bacterial adhesion of poly(ethylene oxide) coatings in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, Astrid; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, HC; Norde, W; Busscher, HJ

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coatings have been shown to reduce the adhesion of different microbial strains and species and thus are promising as coatings to prevent biomaterial-centered infection of medical implants. Clinically, however, PEO coatings are not yet applied, as little is known about

  9. Stability and effectiveness against bacterial adhesion of poly(ethylene oxide) coatings in biological fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, A.; Vries, de J.; Mei, van der H.C.; Norde, W.; Busscher, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coatings have been shown to reduce the adhesion of different microbial strains and species and thus are promising as coatings to prevent biomaterial-centered infection of medical implants. Clinically, however, PEO coatings are not yet applied, as little is known about

  10. Crystallization and unusual rheological behavior in poly(ethylene oxide)–clay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Kelarakis, Antonios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    We report a systematic study of the crystallization and rheological behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-clay nanocomposites. To that end a series of nanocomposites based on PEOs of different molecular weight (103 < MW < 105 g/mol) and clay

  11. Boltorn-Modified Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4,phenylene oxide) Gas Separation Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterescu, D.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Mendes, Eduardo; Kruse, Jan; Rätzke, Klaus; Faupel, Franz; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation, characterization and the permeation properties of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) dense polymer films containing aliphatic hyperbranched polyesters, Boltorn (H20, H30, and H40). The Boltorn are dispersed in PPO at various concentrations. The gas

  12. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Pawelec, Iwona; Lisiecki, Slawomir; Jotko, Marek; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Mosnácek, Jaroslav; Roslaniec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt%) of graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for ...

  13. Electrical and mechanical properties of poly(ethylene oxide)/intercalated clay polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Mabel; Quijada, Raúl; Santa Ana, María A.; Benavente, Eglantina; Gomez-Romero, Pedro; González, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Poly(ethylene oxide)/intercalated clay nanocomposite as filler in solid poly(ethylene oxide) electrolytes. ► Nanocomposite filler improves mechanical properties, transparency, and conductivity of poly(ethylene oxide) electrolyte films. ► Nanocomposite is more effective than unmodified clay in improving polymer electrolyte properties. ► Low Li/polymer ratio avoids crystalline Li complexes, so effects mainly arise from the polymer. ► High nanocomposite/poly(ethylene oxide)-matrix affinity enhances microhomogeneity in the polyelectrolyte. - Abstract: Solvent-free solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on two different poly(ethylene oxide), PEO Mw 600,000 and 4,000,000 and intercalated clays are reported. The inorganic additives used were lithiated bentonite and the nanocomposite PEO-bentonite with the same polymer used as matrix. SPE films, obtained in the scale of grams by mixing the components in a Brabender-type batch mixer and molding at 130 °C, were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, UV–vis spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. During the preparation of the films, the unmodified clay got intercalated in situ. Comparative analysis of ionic conductivity and mechanical properties of the films show that the conductivity increases with the inclusion of fillers, especially for the polymer with low molecular weight. This effect is more pronounced when using PEO-bentonite as additive. Under selected work conditions, avoiding the presence of crystalline lithium complexes, observed effects are mainly centered on the polymer. An explanation, considering the higher affinity between the modified clay and PEO matrix which leads to differences in the micro homogeneity degree between both types of polymer electrolytes is proposed.

  14. Synthesis of Poly aniline-Montmorillonite Nano composites Using H2O2 as the Oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binitha, N.; Binitha, N.; Suraja, V.; Zahira Yaakob; Sugunan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Poly aniline montmorillonite nano composite was prepared using H 2 O 2 as the oxidant. The catalytic environment of montmorillonite favours polymerization. Intercalation and composite formation was proven from various techniques such as XRD, FTIR, DRS and thermal analysis. XRD patterns give the dimension of the intercalated PANI, from the shift of 2θ values, which is in the nano range. FTIR showed that PANI composite formation occurred without affecting the basic clay layer structure. Thus the successful development of an alternative cheap route for poly aniline-montmorillonite nano composite was well established. (author)

  15. Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-poly (n-butyl acrylate)-blockpoly (acrylic acid) triblock terpolymers with highly asymmetric hydrophilic blocks: synthesis and aqueous solution properties

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, P. (Petar); Yoncheva, K. (Krassimira); Mokreva, P. (Pavlina); Konstantinov, S. (Spiro); Irache, J.M. (Juan Manuel); Müller, A.H.E. (Axel H.E.)

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and aggregation behaviour in aqueous media of novel amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)- block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PEO–PnBA–PAA) triblock terpolymers were studied. Terpolymers composed of two highly asymmetric hydrophilic PEO (113 monomer units) and PAA (10–17 units) blocks, and a longer soft hydrophobic PnBA block (163 or 223 units) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate and tert-butyl acrylate ...

  16. New Linear and Star-Shaped Thermogelling Poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouti, Ghislaine; Liow, Sing Shy; Dou, Qingqing; Ye, Hongye; Orione, Clément; Guillaume, Sophie M; Loh, Xian Jun

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis of multi-arm poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)-based triblock copolymers (poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate)-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-b-[[poly(methyl ether methacrylate)-g-poly(ethylene glycol)]-co-[poly(methacrylate)-g-poly(propylene glycol)

  17. Phase behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic block and graft copolymers in compressed carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoychev, Ivan; Peters, Felix; Kleiner, Matthias; Sadowski, Gabriele; Clerc, Sebastien; Ganachaud, Francois; Chirat, Mathieu; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Fournel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The phase behavior of triblock and graft-type poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) copolymer surfactants has been investigated in compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). For this purpose, cloud-point pressures have been measured in the pressure and temperature range from P=10 to 40 MPa and from T= 293 to 338 K. The Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EoS) has been applied to model the experimental data in order to better understand the influence of the structure of the copolymers on the phase behavior of the system. The pure-component parameters for PDMS have been fitted originally to PDMS/n-pentane system. These parameters are successfully applied for PDMS in CO 2 by adjusting a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter. The phase behavior of the triblock copolymers was successfully predicted by PC-SAFT. In contrast, the phase behavior of the graft copolymers was difficult to predict accurately at this stage. (authors)

  18. Simultaneous determination of mercapturic acids derived from ethylene oxide (HEMA), propylene oxide (2-HPMA), acrolein (3-HPMA), acrylamide (AAMA) and N,N-dimethylformamide (AMCC) in human urine using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettgen, Thomas; Musiol, Anita; Kraus, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Mercapturic acids are highly important and specific biomarkers of exposure to carcinogenic substances in occupational and environmental medicine. We have developed and validated a reliable, specific and very sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of five mercapturic acids derived from several high-production chemicals used in industry, namely ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, acrylamide, acrolein and N,N-dimethylformamide. Analytes are enriched and cleaned up from urinary matrix by offline solid-phase extraction. The mercapturic acids are subsequently separated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography on a Luna C8 (2) column and specifically quantified by tandem mass spectrometric detection using isotopically labelled analytes as internal standards. The limits of detection (LODs) for N-acetyl-S-2-carbamoylethylcysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-2-hydroxyethylcysteine (HEMA) were 2.5 microg/L and 0.5 microg/L urine, while for N-acetyl-S-3-hydroxypropylcysteine (3-HPMA), N-acetyl-S-2-hydroxypropylcysteine (2-HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)cysteine (AMCC) it was 5 microg/L. These LODs were sufficient to detect the background exposure of the general population. We applied the method on spot urine samples of 28 subjects of the general population with no known occupational exposure to these substances. Median levels for AAMA, HEMA, 3-HPMA, 2-HPMA and AMCC in non-smokers (n = 14) were 52.6, 2.0, 155, 7.1 and 113.6 microg/L, respectively. In smokers (n = 14), median levels for AAMA, HEMA, 3-HPMA, 2-HPMA and AMCC were 243, 5.3, 1681, 41.7 and 822 microg/L, respectively. Due to the simultaneous quantification of these mercapturic acids, our method is well suited for the screening of workers with multiple chemical exposures as well as the determination of the background excretion of the general population.

  19. In vitro degradation of nanoparticles prepared from polymers based on DL-lactide, glycolide and poly(ethylene oxide)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, M.L.T.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Nanoparticles of poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA), poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene oxide)–PLGA diblock copolymer (PEO–PLGA) were prepared by the salting-out method. The in vitro degradation of PDLLA, PLGA and PEO–PLGA nanoparticles in PBS (pH 7.4) at 37 °C was studied. The

  20. Photoinduced Cross-Linking of Dynamic Poly(disulfide) Films via Thiol Oxidative Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillée, Noémi; Chemtob, Abraham; Ley, Christian; Croutxé-Barghorn, Céline; Allonas, Xavier; Ponche, Arnaud; Le Nouen, Didier; Majjad, Hicham; Jacomine, Léandro

    2016-01-01

    Initially developed as an elastomer with an excellent record of barrier and chemical resistance properties, poly(disulfide) has experienced a revival linked to the dynamic nature of the S-S covalent bond. A novel photobase-catalyzed oxidative polymerization of multifunctional thiols to poly(disulfide) network is reported. Based solely on air oxidation, the single-step process is triggered by the photodecarboxylation of a xanthone acetic acid liberating a strong bicyclic guanidine base. Starting with a 1 μm thick film based on trithiol poly(ethylene oxide) oligomer, the UV-mediated oxidation of thiols to disulfides occurs in a matter of minutes both selectively, i.e., without overoxidation, and quantitatively as assessed by a range of spectroscopic techniques. Thiolate formation and film thickness determine the reaction rates and yield. Spatial control of the photopolymerization serves to generate robust micropatterns, while the reductive cleavage of S-S bridges allows the recycling of 40% of the initial thiol groups. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Surface grafting of cellulose nanocrystals with poly(ethylene oxide) in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloser, Elisabeth; Gray, Derek G

    2010-08-17

    Aqueous suspensions of poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted nanocrystalline cellulose (PEO-grafted NCC) were prepared in order to achieve steric instead of electrostatic stabilization. A two-step process was employed: in the first step NCC suspensions prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis were desulfated with sodium hydroxide, and in the second step the surfaces of the crystals were functionalized with epoxy-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO epoxide) under alkaline conditions. The PEO-grafted samples were analyzed by conductometric titration, ATR-IR, solid-state NMR, MALDI-TOF MS, SEC MALLS, and AFM. The covalent nature of the linkage was confirmed by weight increase and MALDI-TOF analysis. The PEO-grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) formed a stable colloidal suspension that remained well dispersed, while the desulfated nanoparticles aggregated and precipitated. Upon concentration of the PEO-grafted aqueous NCC suspension, a chiral nematic phase was observed.

  2. The influence of sonication of poly(ethylene oxide) solutions to the quality of resulting electrospun nanofibrous mats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peer, Petra; Filip, Petr; Polášková, M.; Kucharczyk, P.; Pavlínek, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 126, April (2016), s. 101-106 ISSN 0141-3910 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : electrospinning * nanofibres * poly(ethylene oxide) * sonication * degradation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2016

  3. Magnetorheological behaviour and electrospinning of poly(ethylene oxide) suspensions with magnetic nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peer, Petra; Stěnička, M.; Sedlačík, M.; Filip, Petr; Pavlínek, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2016), s. 898-903 ISSN 1045-389X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/11/2342 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : magnetorheological * electrospinning * poly(ethylene oxide) * nanofibres * sedimentation * rheology Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.255, year: 2016

  4. Unique Crystal Orientation of Poly(ethylene oxide) Thin Films by Crystallization Using a Thermal Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbabode, Gabin; Delvaux, Maxime; Schweicher, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide), (PEO), thin films of different thicknesses (220, 450, and 1500 nm) and molecular masses (4000, 8000, and 20000 g/mol) have been fabricated by spin-coating of methanol solutions onto glass substrates. All these samples have been recrystallized from the melt using a directional......, to significantly decrease the distribution of crystal orientation obtained after crystallization using the thermal gradient technique....

  5. Nonfouling poly(ethylene oxide) layers end-tethered to polydopamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Verreault, D.; Diesner, M. O.; Proks, Vladimír; Heissler, S.; Rypáček, František; Koelsch, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 40 (2012), s. 14273-14283 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR GPP108/12/P624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(ethylene oxide) * polydopamine * biomaterials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  6. Self-assembling of poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers in aqueous solution and at the silica-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyh, B.; Vangeyte, P.; Heinrich, M.; Auvray, L.; De Clercq, C.; Jerome, R.

    2004-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering is used to investigate the self-assembling behaviour of poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers with various block lengths (i) in aqueous solution, (ii) in aqueous solution with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and (iii) at the silica-water interface. Micelles are observed under our experimental conditions due to the very small critical micellar concentration of these copolymers (0.01 g/l). The poly(ε-caprolactone) core is surrounded by a poly(ethylene oxide) corona. The micellar form factors have been measured at low copolymer concentrations (0.2 wt%) under selected contrast matching conditions. The data have been fitted to various analytical models to extract the micellar core and corona sizes. SDS is shown to induce partial micelle disruption together with an increase of the poly(ethylene oxide) corona extension from 25% (without SDS) to 70% (with SDS) of a completely extended PEO 114 chain. Our data at the silica-water interface are compatible with the adsorption of micelles

  7. Self-assembly in poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer template directed synthesis of Linde type A zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Lucio; Calandra, Pietro; Kiselev, Mikhail A; Amenitsch, Heinz; Proverbio, Edoardo; Lombardo, Domenico

    2013-06-11

    We describe the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Linde type A (LTA) submicrometer particles using a water-soluble amphiphilic block copolymer of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) as a template. The formation and growth of the intermediate aggregates in the presence of the diblock copolymer have been monitored by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) above the critical micellar concentration at a constant temperature of 45 °C. The early stage of the growth process was characterized by the incorporation of the zeolite LTA components into the surface of the block copolymer micellar aggregates with the formation of primary units of 4.8 nm with a core-shell morphology. During this period, restricted to an initial time of 1-3 h, the core-shell structure of the particles does not show significant changes, while a subsequent aggregation process among these primary units takes place. A shape transition of the SAXS profile at the late stage of the synthesis has been connected with an aggregation process among primary units that leads to the formation of large clusters with fractal characteristics. The formation of large supramolecular assemblies was finally verified by scanning electron microscopy, which evidenced the presence of submicrometer aggregates with size ranging between 100 and 300 nm, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zeolite LTA. The main finding of our results gives novel insight into the mechanism of formation of organic-inorganic mesoporous materials based on the use of a soft interacting nanotemplate as well as stimulates the investigation of alternative protocols for the synthesis of novel hybrid materials with new characteristics and properties.

  8. Radiation-induced oxidative degradation of poly(vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, E.S.A.; Seguchi, T.; Machi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Gas evolution and oxygen consumption in the γ-irradiation of PVC were studied. The gas evolution and the oxidative degradation are retarded by the presence of plasticizers and stabilizers. The G(HCl) and G(H 2 ) are 8 and 0.24 for the irradiation of pure PVC under vacuum and 0.02 and 0.14 for that of plasticized PVC, respectively. Gas evolution increases in the presence of oxygen, specially for the pure PVC. The G(-O 2 ) values for the pure and plasticized PVC are 30 and 12, respectively. The dependence of gas evolution and oxygen consumption on the oxygen pressure is more pronounced for the plasticized PVC than pure PVC because the oxygen diffusion is controlled

  9. Release of Bacteriocins from Nanofibers Prepared with Combinations of Poly(D,L-lactide (PDLLA and Poly(Ethylene Oxide (PEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Dicks

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plantaricin 423, produced by Lactobacillus plantarum, and bacteriocin ST4SA produced by Enterococcus mundtii, were electrospun into nanofibers prepared from different combinations of poly(D,L-lactide (PDLLA and poly(ethylene oxide (PEO dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF. Both peptides were released from the nanofibers with a high initial burst and retained 88% of their original antimicrobial activity at 37 °C. Nanofibers have the potential to serve as carrier matrix for bacteriocins and open a new field in developing controlled antimicrobial delivery systems for various applications.

  10. Poly(Ethylene Oxide)-block-Polysulfone-block-Poly(Ethylene Oxide) / Poly(etherblock-amide) Composite Membrane for Carbon Dioxide Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Omoniyi, Adekunle

    2012-07-01

    This research study describes the gas separation performance of different sets of Polyethyleneoxide-block-Polysulfone-block-Polyethyleneoxide/poly(ether-block-amide) (PEO-b-PSU-b-PEO/Pebax) composite membranes for CO2 separation from N2 and CH4. Gas permeation properties of the membranes prepared were studied at ambient temperature (21oC) and 8bar. The dependence of gas flux and selectivity on pressure was explored for different pressures from 2.5 bar up to 19 bar also at ambient temperature. Pebax/PAN composite membranes have a range of CO2 permeance of 4467±274 GPU, 365±64 GPU for CH4 and 152±17 GPU for N2 with CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4selectivities ranges of 30 and 13 respectively. Improved CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities coupled with flux reduction were obtained from the introduction of PEO-b-PSU-b-PEO films on Pebax/PAN composite membranes. The gas flux reduced to about one-tenth of Pebax/PAN membrane’s while the selectivities obtained for all the PEO-b-PSU-b- PEO/Pebax/PAN membrane range from 33 to 60 for CO2/N2 and 17 to 33 for CO2/CH4 as the thickness of PEO-b-PSU-b-PEO top layer increases.

  11. Application of reactive siloxane prepolymers for the synthesis of thermoplastic poly(ester–siloxanes and poly(ester–ether–siloxanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA V. ANTIC

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic poly(ester–siloxanes (TPES and poly(ester–ether–siloxane s, (TPEES, based on poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT as the hard segment and different siloxane-prepolymers as the soft segments, were prepared. The TPES and TPEES were synthesized by catalyzed two-step transesterification from dimethyl terephthalate, (DMT, 1,4-butanediol, (BD and a siloxane-prepolymer. Incorporation of dicarboxypropyl- or disilanol-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxanes (PDMS into the polar poly(butylene terephthalate chains resulted in rather inhomogeneous TPES copolymers, which was a consequence of a prononuced phase separation of the polar and non-polar reactants during synthesis. Two concepts were employed to avoid or reduce phase separation: 1 the use of siloxane-containing triblock prepolymers with hydrophilic terminal blocks, such as ethylene oxide (EO, poly(propylene oxide (PPO or poly(caprolactone (PLC when the terminal blocks serve as a compatibilizer between the extremely non-polar PDMS and the polar DMT and BD, and 2 the use of a high-boiling solvent (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene during the first phase of the reaction. Homogeneity was significantly improved in the case of copolymers based on PCL–PDMS–PCL.

  12. Effects of oxidation potential and retention time on electrochromic stability of poly (3-hexyl thiophene) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Hyun Song, Seok; Kim, Hyo-Jae; Oh, Seong-Hyeon; Han, Song-Yi; Kim, Goung; Nah, Yoon-Chae

    2018-06-01

    Herein, we report the effects of applied voltage on the electrochromic (EC) stability of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films during EC reactions. The transmittance difference and cycling stability of these films were monitored to optimize the oxidation voltage, and their chemical compositions were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy after long-term electrochemical cycling. High oxidation voltages increased the color contrast of P3HT films but decreased their cycling stability due to facilitating chemical degradation. Furthermore, at an optimized oxidation voltage, the retention time during potential pulsing was adjusted utilizing the optical memory of P3HT, revealing that the decreased voltage application time reduced power consumption by 9.6% and enhanced EC stability without loss of color contrast.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation in graphene/poly (ethylene oxide) nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braz, Elton P.; Goncalves, Natercia Antunes; Araujo, Patricia L.B.; Araujo, Elmo S.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter in dimensions between 1 and 100nm. In such small matter portions, improved or even new properties may arise, as a direct consequence of reduced size. Thus, the development of multifunctional nanomaterials is nowadays one of the main goals of the materials research field. In this context, we produced graphene sheets through ultrasound exfoliation of graphite oxide, followed by chemical reduction. Composite nanofibers of these graphene sheets with biocompatible polymer poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) were obtained by electrospinning technique, and irradiated up to 75kGy dose to assess the effects of gamma irradiation in the molecular structure of these composite nanomaterial. Our findings showed that PEO is quite resistant to radiation damage and that the incorporation of graphene oxide has no significant influence on its radiostability. (author)

  14. Revealing the Cytotoxicity of Residues of Phosphazene Catalysts Used for Synthesis of Poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Yening

    2017-08-24

    We herein report a case study on the toxicity of residual catalyst in metal-free polymer. Eight-arm star-like poly(ethylene oxide)s were successfully synthesized via phosphazene-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide using sucrose as an octahydroxy initiator. The products were subjected to MTT assay using human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and A2780). Comparison between the crude and purified products clearly revealed that the residual phosphazenium salts were considerably cytotoxic regardless of the anionic species, and that the cytotoxicity of more bulky t-BuP4 salt was higher than that of t-BuP2 salt. Such results have therefore put forward the necessity for removal of the catalyst residues from PEO-based polymers synthesized through phosphazene catalysis for bio-related applications, and for the development of less or non-toxic organocatalysts for such polymers.

  15. Revealing the Cytotoxicity of Residues of Phosphazene Catalysts Used for Synthesis of Poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Yening; Shen, Jizhou; Alamri, Haleema; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Zhao, Junpeng; Wang, Yucai; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case study on the toxicity of residual catalyst in metal-free polymer. Eight-arm star-like poly(ethylene oxide)s were successfully synthesized via phosphazene-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide using sucrose as an octahydroxy initiator. The products were subjected to MTT assay using human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and A2780). Comparison between the crude and purified products clearly revealed that the residual phosphazenium salts were considerably cytotoxic regardless of the anionic species, and that the cytotoxicity of more bulky t-BuP4 salt was higher than that of t-BuP2 salt. Such results have therefore put forward the necessity for removal of the catalyst residues from PEO-based polymers synthesized through phosphazene catalysis for bio-related applications, and for the development of less or non-toxic organocatalysts for such polymers.

  16. Conformal coverage of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films with tunable nanoporosity via oxidative chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, S.G.; Kusters, D.J.N.; Choi, W.; Baxamusa, S.H.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Gleason, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Novel nanoporous poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films with basalt-like surface morphology are successfully obtained via a one-step, vapor phase process of oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) by introducing a new oxidant, CuCl2, The substrate temperature of the oCVD process is a

  17. V2O5 xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid material: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Elidia M.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Oliveira, Herenilton P.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hybrid materials obtained by varying the average molecular weight of the organic component as well as the components' ratios. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet/visible and infrared spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and cyclic voltammetry. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved, with increase in the interplanar spacing, giving evidence of a low-crystalline structure. We found that the electrochemical behaviour of the hybrid materials is quite similar to that found for the V 2 O 5 xerogel alone, and we verified that PEO leads to stabilization and reproducibility of the Li + electrochemical insertion/de-insertion into the V 2 O 5 xerogel structure, which makes these materials potential components of lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide xerogel-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid materials have been described. Despite the presence of broad and low intensity peaks, the X-ray diffractograms indicate that the lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel is preserved. The cyclic voltammetry technique demonstrated that PEO intercalation provides an improvement in the electrochemical properties, mainly with respect to the lithium electroinsertion process into the oxide matrix

  18. Graphene Oxide/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanocomposite Thin-Film Phototransistor for Logic Circuit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, S.; Coskun, B.; El Mir, L.; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is a sheet-structured material that lacks a forbidden band, being a good candidate for use in radiofrequency applications. We have elaborated graphene-oxide-doped poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanocomposite to increase the interlayer distance and thereby open a large bandgap for use in the field of logic circuits. Graphene oxide/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (GO/P3HT) nanocomposite thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on silicon oxide substrate by spin coating method. The current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics of TFTs with various P3HT compositions were studied in the dark and under light illumination. The photocurrent, charge carrier mobility, subthreshold voltage, density of interface states, density of occupied states, and I ON/ I OFF ratio of the devices strongly depended on the P3HT weight ratio in the composite. The effects of white-light illumination on the electrical parameters of the transistors were investigated. The results indicated that GO/P3HT nanocomposite thin-film transistors have high potential for use in radiofrequency applications, and their feasibility for use in digital applications has been demonstrated.

  19. Extrusion of polysaccharide nanocrystal reinforced polymer nanocomposites through compatibilization with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Mariana; El Kissi, Nadia; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-06-25

    Polysaccharide nanocrystals with a rodlike shape but with different dimensions and specific surface area were prepared from cotton and capim dourado cellulose, and with a plateletlike morphology from waxy maize starch granules. The rheological behavior of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with different molecular weights when adding these nanoparticles was investigated evidencing specific interactions between PEO chains and nanocrystals. Because PEO also bears hydrophobic moieties, it was employed as a compatibilizing agent for the melt processing of polymer nanocomposites. The freeze-dried mixtures were used to prepare nanocomposite materials with a low density polyethylene matrix by extrusion. The thermal and mechanical behavior of ensuing nanocomposites was studied.

  20. Hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone worm micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E

    2005-09-21

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation-induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by polycaprolactone hydrolysis, with distinct mechanism and kinetics from that which occurs in bulk material.

  1. Preparation and properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride nanocomposites blended with graphene oxide coated silica hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Fu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide coated silica hybirds (SiO2-GO were fabricated through electrostatic assembly in this work, then blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF by solution mixing to make PVDF nanocomposites. The interfacial interaction was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized optical microscopy (POM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results showed that the interfacial interaction was enhanced by adding of SiO2-GO and strong hydrogen bonds were observed. The as-made nanocomposites were investigated using standard tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA measurements, mechanical properties of PVDF with SiO2-GO hybrids showed limited improvement.

  2. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J

    2013-02-04

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  3. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J; Akbarzadeh, Johanna; Peterlik, Herwig; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2013-01-01

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  4. Dielectric property study of poly(4-vinylphenol)-graphene oxide nanocomposite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti

    2018-05-01

    Thin film capacitor device having a sandwich structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass/polymer or polymer nanocomposite /silver has been fabricated and their dielectric and leakage current properties has been studied. The dielectric properties of the capacitors were characterized for frequencies ranging from 1 KHz to 1 MHz. 5 wt% Poly(4-vinylphenol)(PVPh)-Graphene (GO) nanocomposite exhibited an increase in dielectric constant to 5.6 and small rise in dielectric loss to around˜0.05 at 10 KHz w.r.t polymer. The DC conductivity measurements reveal rise of leakage current in nanocomposite.

  5. Adhesion mapping of chemically modified and poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted glass surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jogikalmath, G.; Stuart, J.K.; Pungor, A.; Hlady, V.

    1999-01-01

    Two-dimensional mapping of the adhesion pull-off forces was used to study the origin of surface heterogeneity in the grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer. The variance of the pull-off forces measured over the μm-sized regions after each chemical step of modifying glass surfaces was taken to be a measure of the surface chemical heterogeneity. The attachment of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPS) to glass decreased the pull-off forces relative to the clean glass and made the surface mo...

  6. New Aptes Cross-linked Polymers from Poly(ethylene oxide)s and Cyanuric Chloride for Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.

    2005-01-01

    A new series of polymer electrolytes for use as membranes for lithium batteries are described. Electrolytes were made by polymerization between cyanuric chloride and diamino-terminated poly(ethylene oxide)s, followed by cross-linking via a sol-gel process. Thermal analysis and lithium conductivity of freestanding polymer films were studied. The effects of several variables on conductivity were investigated, such as length of backbone PEO chain, length of branching PEO chain, extent of branching, extent of cross-linking, salt content, and salt counterion. Polymer films with the highest percentage of PEO were found to be the most conductive, with a maximum lithium conductivity of 3.9 x 10(exp -5) S/cm at 25 C. Addition of plasticizer to the dry polymers increased conductivity by an order of magnitude.

  7. Synthesis and properties of hexafluoroisopropylidene-containing sulfonated poly(arylene thioether phosphine oxide)s for proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, Longyong; Zhang, Chunjie; Kang, Sen; Tan, Ning; Xiao, Guyu; Yan, Deyue [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(arylene thioether phosphine oxide)s with hexafluoroisopropylidene moieties (sPTPOF) were prepared by polycondensation of sulfonated bis(4-fluorophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide and bis(4-fluorophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide with 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphenthiol. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropylidene moieties to the resulting polymers is effective to increase the hydrophobicity of non-sulfonated segments and to decrease the swelling while maintaining high proton conductivity. For instance, sPTPOF-100 showed a proton conductivity of 0.090 S/cm as well as a swelling of 5.3% at 80 C. In addition, the sPTPOF polymers exhibited excellent thermal properties and oxidative stability. AFM phase images illustrated that the sPTPOF membranes show a special nanophase-separated morphology, namely, the connectivity of ionic channels increased obviously but their width only slightly increased with increasing sulfonation degree. This special microstructure is favorable for promoting proton transport and restraining the swelling. The sPTPOF polymers are a promising material for proton exchange membranes. (author)

  8. Carbonate-linked poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolytes towards high performance solid state lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weisheng; Cui, Zili; Liu, Xiaochen; Cui, Yanyan; Chai, Jingchao; Zhou, Xinhong; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-01-01

    The classic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) based solid polymer electrolyte suffers from poor ionic conductivity of ambient temperature, low lithium ion transference number and relatively narrow electrochemical window (<4.0 V vs. Li + /Li). Herein, the carbonate-linked PEO solid polymer such as poly(diethylene glycol carbonate) (PDEC) and poly(triethylene glycol carbonate) (PTEC) were explored to find out the feasibility of resolving above issues. It was proven that the optimized ionic conductivity of PTEC based electrolyte reached up to 1.12 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 25 °C with a decent lithium ion transference number of 0.39 and a wide electrochemical window about 4.5 V vs. Li + /Li. In addition, the PTEC based Li/LiFePO 4 cell could be reversibly charged and discharged at 0.05 C-rates at ambient temperature. Moreover, the higher voltage Li/LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 cell (cutoff voltage 4.35 V) possessed considerable rate capability and excellent cycling performance even at ambient temperature. Therefore, these carbonate-linked PEO electrolytes were demonstrated to be fascinating candidates for the next generation solid state lithium batteries simultaneously with high energy and high safety.

  9. Enhanced performance of biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X W; Zhang, C-A; Wang, P L; Zhao, J; Zhang, W; Ji, J H; Hua, K; Zhou, J; Yang, X B; Li, X P

    2012-05-08

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites were facilely prepared via in situ polymerization. The properties of the nanocomposites were studied using FTIR, XRD, and (1)H NMR, and the state of dispersion of GO in the PBS matrix was examined by SEM. The crystallization and melting behavior of the PBS matrix in the presence of dispersed GO nanosheets have been studied by DSC and polarized optical microscopy. Through the mechnical testing machine and DMA, PBS/GO nanocomposites with 3% GO have shown a 43% increase in tensile strength and a 45% improvement in storage modulus. This high performance of the nanocomposites is mainly attributed to the high strength of graphene oxide combined with the strong interfacial interactions in the uniformly dispersed PBS/GO nanocomposites.

  10. Low cytotoxic tissue adhesive based on oxidized dextran and epsilon-poly-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Nakajima, Naoki; Sugai, Hajime; Matsumura, Kazuaki

    2014-08-01

    A novel adhesive hydrogel consisting of dextran and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) (dextran-PL) with multiple biomedical applications was developed. Periodate oxidation in aqueous media almost stoichiometrically introduces aldehyde groups in dextran molecules, and aldehyde dextran can react with the primary amino groups in epsilon-PL (ɛ-PL) at neutral pH to form a hydrogel. The gelation time of the hydrogel can be easily controlled by the extent of oxidation in dextran and of the acylation in ɛ-PL by anhydrides. The shear adhesion strength of dextran-PL was 10 times higher than that of fibrin glue, when wet collagen sheets were selected as test specimens. The cytotoxicity of aldehyde dextran and ɛ-PL were 1000 times lower than that of glutaraldehyde and poly(allylamine). The considerably low cytotoxicity of aldehyde dextran could be ascribed to its low reactivity with amine species when compared with glutaraldehyde. In contrast, a high reactivity of amino groups in ɛ-PL was observed when compared with glycine, L-lysine, and gelatin, which could be explained by their poor dissociation at neutral pH, thus leading to low cytotoxicity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Atomistic simulation of CO 2 solubility in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2013-10-02

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations coupled with thermodynamic integration to obtain the excess chemical potential and pressure-composition phase diagrams for CO2 in poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers. Poly(ethylene oxide) dimethyl ether, CH3O(CH 2CH2O)nCH3 (PEO for short) is a widely applied physical solvent that forms the major organic constituent of a class of novel nanoparticle-based absorbents. Good predictions were obtained for pressure-composition-density relations for CO2 + PEO oligomers (2 ≤ n ≤ 12), using the Potoff force field for PEO [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044514 (2012)] together with the TraPPE model for CO2 [AIChE J. 47, 1676 (2001)]. Water effects on Henrys constant of CO2 in PEO have also been investigated. Addition of modest amounts of water in PEO produces a relatively small increase in Henrys constant. Dependence of the calculated Henrys constant on the weight percentage of water falls on a temperature-dependent master curve, irrespective of PEO chain length. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  12. Structure and conductive properties of poly(ethylene oxide)/layered double hydroxide nanocomposite polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-S.; Ye, W.-B.

    2004-01-01

    The oligo(ethylene oxide) modified layered double hydroxide (LDH) prepared by template method was added as a nanoscale nucleating agent into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form PEO/OLDH nanocomposite electrolytes. The effects of OLDH addition on morphology and conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffractometer, polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and ionic conductivity measurement. The results show that the exfoliated morphology of nanocomposites is formed due to the surface modification of LDH layers with PEO matrix compatible oligo(ethylene oxide)s. The nanoscale dispersed OLDH layers inhibit the crystal growth of PEO crystallites and result in a plenty amount of intercrystalline grain boundary within PEO/OLDH nanocomposites. The ionic conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes are enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared to the pure PEO polymer electrolytes at ambient temperature. It can be attributed to the ease transport of Li + along intercrystalline amorphous phase. This novel nanocomposite electrolytes system with high conductivities will be benefited to fabricate the thin-film type of Li-polymer secondary battery

  13. Pd-Cu/poly(o-Anisidine) nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for formaldehyde oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Sayed Reza, E-mail: r.hosseini@umz.ac.ir [Nanochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, Shahram; Gholami, Zahra [Nanochemistry Research Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, 47416-95447 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • o-Anisidine monomer was electro-polymerized at the pCPE surface in acid medium. • Palladium/copper NPs were prepared by galvanic replacement method at the POA/pCPE. • Pd-Cu NPs showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards formaldehyde oxidation. • The bimetallic Pd-Cu NPs/POA nanocomposite showed satisfactory long-term stability. - Abstract: In this work, for the first time, the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution at spherical bimetallic palladium-copper nanoparticles (Pd-Cu NPs) deposited on the poly (o-Anisidine) film modified electrochemically pretreated carbon paste electrode (POA/pCPE) has been investigated. Highly porous POA film prepared by electropolymerization onto the pCPE was used as a potent support for deposition of the Pd-Cu NPs. The Pd-Cu NPs were prepared through spontaneous and irreversible reaction via galvanic replacement between Pd{sup II} ions and the Cu{sup 0} particles. The prepared Pd-Cu NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and electrochemical methods. The obtained results showed that the utilization of Cu nanoparticles and pretreatment technique enhances the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode towards formaldehyde oxidation. The influence of several parameters on formaldehyde oxidation as well as stability of the Pd-Cu/POA/pCPE has been investigated.

  14. Morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of graphene oxide/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Woo; Choi, Hyun Muk

    2016-01-01

    To improve the physical and gas barrier properties of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film, two graphene nanosheets of highly functionalized graphene oxide (0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%) and low-functionalized graphene oxide (0.5 wt%) were incorporated into PLA resin via solution blending method. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of material parameters such as loading level and degree of functionalization for the graphene nanosheets on the morphology and properties of the resultant nanocomposites. The highly functionalized graphene oxide (GO) caused more exfoliation and homogeneous dispersion in PLA matrix as well as more sustainable suspensions in THF, compared to low-functionalized graphene oxide (LFGO). When loaded with GO from 0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%, the glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, tensile strength and modulus increased steadily. The GO gave rise to more pronounced effect in the thermal and mechanical reinforcement, relative to LFGO. In addition, the preparation of fairly transparent PLA-based nanocomposite film with noticeably improved barrier performance achieved only when incorporated with GO up to 0.7wt%. As a result, GO may be more compatible with hydrophilic PLA resin, compared to LFGO, resulting in more prominent enhancement of nanocomposites properties.

  15. The effect of virtual cross linking on the oxidative stability and lipid uptake of aliphatic poly(urethane urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vinoy; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2002-01-01

    In vitro oxidative degradation and lipid sorption of aliphatic, low elastic modulus and virtually cross-linked poly(urethane urea)s based on 4,4' methylene bis(cyclohexyl isocyanate), hydroxy terminated poly butadiene and hexamethylene diamine were evaluated. The aged samples revealed no weight loss in the oxidation medium. The IR spectral analyses revealed the stability of unsaturated double bonds at 964 cm(-1) (characteristic for polybutadiene soft segment) with no change in peak intensity. The poly(tetramethylene glycol) (PTMG)-added poly(ether urethane urea) polymer also revealed no disappearance of IR peaks for ether and unsaturated double bonds in samples aged in vitro oxidation medium. All the polymers have shown increase in weight due to lipid up take in lipid-rich medium (palm oil) but it was rather low in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) cholesterol. The slight change in mechanical properties of the present polymers in oxidation and DMEM is due to the rearrangement of molecular structure with virtual cross links of hydrogen bonding (physical cross linking) without degradation and plasticization effect of lipid. The influence of these media on the rearrangement of virtual cross links has been observed. Higher the virtual cross-link density, lesser is the loss of tensile properties of poly(urethane urea)s in the oxidation medium and vice versa. On the other hand, higher the virtual cross-link density of poly(urethane urea), higher is the loss of ultimate tensile strength and stress at 100% strain and vice versa in DMEM medium.

  16. Controlled Release of Damascone from Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride-based Bioconjugates in Functional Perfumery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Herrmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydrides were modified with poly(propylene oxide (PO-co-ethylene oxide (EO side chains (Jeffamine® with different EO/PO molar ratios, varying between 0.11 and 3.60. These copolymers were then further functionalized with a β-mercapto ketone of δ-damascone. The obtained poly(maleic acid monoamide-based β-mercapto ketones were then studied as delivery systems for the controlled release of δ-damascone by retro 1,4-addition. The release of δ-damascone, a volatile, bioactive molecule of the family of rose ketones, was studied by dynamic headspace analysis above a cotton surface after deposition of a cationic surfactant containing fabric softening formulation, as a function of the ethylene oxide (EO/propylene oxide (PO molar ratio of the grafted copolymer side chains. The polarity of the EO/PO side chain influenced the release efficiency of the damascone in a typical fabric softening application. PO-rich copolymers and the corresponding poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride without Jeffamine® side chains were found to be less efficient for the desired fragrance release than the corresponding bioconjugate with a EO/PO ratio of 3.60 in the side chain. This copolymer conjugate seemed to represent a suitable balance between hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity to favor the release of the δ-damascone and to improve the deposition of the conjugate from an aqueous environment onto a cotton surface.

  17. Effect of succinonitrile on electrical, structural, optical, and thermal properties of [poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile]/LiI–I2 redox-couple solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Effect of succinonitrile on electrical, structural, optical, and thermal properties of [poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile]/LiI–I 2 redox-couple solid polymer electrolyte is reported for the first time. For the poly(ethylene oxide)-succinonitrile blend-based electrolyte electrical conductivity was noted as high as ∼3 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 25 °C, which is an order of magnitude higher than that of pure poly(ethylene oxide)-based electrolyte. It also exhibited relatively better pseudo-activation energy (∼0.08 eV). X-ray diffractometry, polarized optical microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that succinonitrile is helpful in reducing the poly(ethylene oxide) crystallinity due to its plasticizing property. FT-IR study showed significant modification of the poly(ethylene oxide) chain conformation due to the succinonitrile.

  18. Formyl-ended heterobifunctional poly(ethylene oxide): synthesis of poly(ethylene oxide) with a formyl group at one end and a hydroxyl group at the other end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Y; Kutsuna, T; Iijima, M; Kato, M; Kataoka, K; Kitano, S; Kadoma, Y

    1995-01-01

    Well-defined poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with a formyl group at one end and a hydroxyl group at the other terminus was synthesized by the anionic ring opening polymerization of ethylene oxide (EO) with a new organometallic initiator possessing an acetal moiety, potassium 3,3-diethoxypropyl alkoxide. Hydrolysis of the acetal moiety produced a formyl group-terminated heterobifunctional PEO with a hydroxyl group at the other end.

  19. Poly herbal formulation with anti-elastase and anti-oxidant properties for skin anti-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyana Sundaram, Induja; Sarangi, Deepika Deeptirekha; Sundararajan, Vignesh; George, Shinomol; Sheik Mohideen, Sahabudeen

    2018-01-29

    Skin forms an important part of human innate immune system. Wrinkles, thinning and roughening of skin are some of the symptoms that affect the skin as it ages. Reactive oxygen species induced oxidative stress plays a major role in skin aging by modulating the elastase enzyme level in the skin. Extrinsic factors that affect skin aging such as UV radiation can also cause malignant melanoma. Here we selected four medicinal plant materials, namely, leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe Aegle marmelos fruit pulp and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower and investigated their anti-aging properties and cytotoxicity in vitro individually as well as in a poly herbal formulation containing the four plant extracts in different ratios. The phytochemical contents of the plant extracts were investigated for radical scavenging activity and total reducing power. Based upon its anti-oxidant properties, a poly herbal formulation containing leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, unripe and ripe fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos, and the terminal meristem of Musa paradisiaca flower in the ratio 6:2:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 1) and 1:1:1:1 (Poly Herbal Formulation 2), respectively were formulated. It has been observed that the Poly Herbal Formulation 1 was more potent than Poly Herbal Formulation 2 due to better anti-oxidant and anti-elastase activities in NIH3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition Poly Herbal formulation 1 also had better anti-cancer activity in human malignant melanoma cells. Based on these results these beneficial plant extracts were identified for its potential application as an anti-aging agent in skin creams as well as an anti-proliferation compound against cancer cells.

  20. Nanostructures and surface hydrophobicity of self-assembled thermosets involving epoxy resin and poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic diblock copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fangping; Zheng, Sixun; Liu, Tianxi

    2009-02-19

    Poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl acrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PTFEA-b-PEO) amphiphilic diblock copolymer was synthesized via the reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization of 2,2,2-triffluroethyl acrylate with dithiobenzoyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) as a chain-transfer agent. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer was incorporated into epoxy resin to prepare the nanostructured epoxy thermosets. The nanostructures were investigated by means of atomic force microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, and dynamic mechanical analysis. In terms of the miscibility of the subchains of the block copolymer with epoxy after and before curing reaction, it is judged that the formation of the nanostructures follows the mechanism of self-assembly. The static contact angle measurements indicate that the nanostructured thermosets containing PTFEA-b-PEO diblock copolymer displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as a reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface properties was ascribed to the enrichment of the fluorine-containing subchain (i.e., PTFEA block) of the amphiphilic diblock copolymer on the surface of the nanostructured thermosets, which was evidenced by surface atomic force microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  1. Reinforcement of poly ether sulphones (PES) with exfoliated graphene oxide for aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials have been used for aerospace for some time now and have gained virtually 100% acceptance as the materials of choice. Speciality polymers like poly ether sulphones (PES), poly ether ether ketones(PEEK), poly ether imides (PEI) are highly preferred materials as plastic matrix due to their superior temperature performance, excellent wear and friction resistance, excellent dimensional accuracy, high tensile strength, high modulus, precise machinability and chemical resistance. In recent years nanoadditives like single and multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphenes and graphene oxides(GO) are finding huge market potential in aerospace and automobile industries. But manufacture related factors such as particle/ matrix interphases, surface activation, mixing process, particle agglomeration, particle size and shape may lead to different property effects. In this research GO/PES composites were prepared by high shear melt blending technique. GO monolayers were exfoliated from natural graphite flake and dispersed homogeneously in PES matrix for the GO content ranging between 0.5 to 2.0 volume percentage with a high shear twin screw batch mixer. These melt blended nanocomposites were injection moulded for mechanical property validation of tensile strength, flexural modulus and impact resistance. Addition of 0.5 volume percentage of GO enhanced the tensile strength and flexural modulus by 40% and 90% respectively. The results show that addition of GO to PES increase mechanical properties due to the formation of continuous network, good dispersion and strong interfacial interactions. The strong interfacial interactions were accounted for the increase in glass transition temperature. Also there was a significant improvement in the impact resistance of the PES/ GO nanocomposite. The injection moulded samples were tested for stealth performance by measuring the electromagnetic shielding property.

  2. A study on optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte with different alkali metal iodides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. Narasimha; Suvarna, R. Padma

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by adding poly (ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), TiO2 (nano filler), different alkali metal iodide salts RI (R+=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and I2 into Acetonitrile gelated with Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes were studied by FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FTIR spectrum reveals that the alkali metal cations were coordinated to ether oxygen of PEO. The optical absorption studies were made in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. It is observed that the optical absorption increases with increase in the radius of alkali metal cation. The optical band gap for allowed direct transitions was evaluated using Urbach-edges method. The optical properties such as optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The studied polymer materials are useful for solar cells, super capacitors, fuel cells, gas sensors etc.

  3. Synthesis and characterisation of sulphonated poly(arylene sulphone) terpolymers with triphenylphosphine oxide moieties for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titvinidze, G.; Kaltbeitzel, A.; Manhart, A.; Meyer, W.H. [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    For application in fuel cells, a series of sulphonated poly(phenylene sulphone) terpolymers with triphenylphosphine oxide moieties as constitutional units in the polymer backbone have been prepared. The synthesis of the terpolymers represents a two-step process including: (i) an aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensation of three difluoro monomers with varying ratios, i.e. 3,3'-disulphonate-4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulphone, 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulphone and bis(4-fluorophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide (BFPPO), with 4,4'-thiobisbenzenethiol yielding sulphonated poly(phenylene sulphide) terpolymers (sPPSPO) and (ii) their following oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in acidic solution to yield sulphonated poly(phenylene sulphone) terpolymers (sPPSO2PO). The structures and molecular compositions were confirmed by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was adjusted at will choosing the appropriate ratio of sulphonated and unsulphonated monomers. Terpolymers with 1.72 {<=} IEC {<=} 2.32 have been obtained. Sulphonated poly(arylene) ionomers containing only sulphone (-SO{sub 2}-) linkages and phosphine oxide (-PO-) units rather than ether or sulphide in the backbone reveal a high thermal and oxidative stability. Membranes were cast either from dimethylformamide (DMF) or from dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions. For all terpolymers some general characteristic trends were observed, such as an increase of the proton conductivity with increasing IEC, water uptake and temperature. The series of sPPSO2PO membranes offered high conductivities at high humidification, however, their performance strongly depends on the relative humidity. The mechanical properties of sulphonated poly(phenylene sulphone)s have been considerably improved by means of terpolymerisation with phenylene oxide moieties. Even under high humidification the terpolymers form clear, flexible membranes the stress at break of some membranes exceeds that of

  4. Studies on the properties of poly (ethylene oxide) R-150 hydrogel films formed by irradiation graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanshan; Zhu Nankang; Yang Shuqin; Qiang Yizhong

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the mechanical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrogel film was used as wound dressing. The chemical and physical properties of the PEO R-150 graft hydrogel film formed by blends of electron beam irradiated-PEO R-150 and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were studied. The experimental results showed that the crosslinking densities of the PEO R-150 graft hydrogel increased along with the increasing of the irradiation doses and decreased with the increasing of the blend concentrations. While the PVA graft proportions did not produce obvious effects on the crosslinking density of the graft hydrogel. The crosslinking density of the graft hydrogel were obviously lower than that of the pure PVA hydrogel. The equilibrium water content of the graft hydrogel decrease as the irradiation dose and the PVA graft proportion increased; but they increased as the blend concentration increased. The equilibrium water content of the graft hydrogel was obviously higher than those of the pure PVA hydrogel. The hardness of the PVA hydrogel film increased with the irradiation dose. The hardness of the graft hydrogel decreased with the blend concentration, whereas it increased with the PVA graft proportion. The results suggest the PVA produces a main effect on the crosslinking density of the graft hydrogel, the PEO R-150 produces a main effect on the equilibrium water content of the graft hydrogel, and the both polymers have double effects on the hardness of the graft hydrogel

  5. Adhesion mapping of chemically modified and poly(ethylene oxide)-grafted glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogikalmath, G; Stuart, J K; Pungor, A; Hlady, V

    1999-08-01

    Two-dimensional mapping of the adhesion pull-off forces was used to study the origin of surface heterogeneity in the grafted poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) layer. The variance of the pull-off forces measured over the μm-sized regions after each chemical step of modifying glass surfaces was taken to be a measure of the surface chemical heterogeneity. The attachment of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPS) to glass decreased the pull-off forces relative to the clean glass and made the surface more uniform. The subsequent hydrolysis of the terminal epoxide groups resulted in a larger surface heterogeneity which was modeled by two populations of the terminal hydroxyl groups, each with its own distribution of adhesion forces and force variance. The activation of the hydroxyls with carbonyldiimmidazole (CDI) healed the surface and lowered its adhesion, however, the force variance remained rather large. Finally, the grafting of the α,ω-diamino poly(ethyleneoxide) chains to the CDI-activated glass largely eliminated adhesion except at a few discrete regions. The adhesion on the PEO grafted layer followed the Poisson distribution of the pull-off forces. With the exception of the glass surface, a correlation between the water contact angles and the mean pull-off forces measured with the Si(3)N(4) tip surfaces was found for all modified glass surfaces.

  6. Gas transport properties of polybenzimidazole and poly(phenylene oxide) mixed matrix membranes incorporated with PDA-functionalised titanate nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giel, Verena; Perchacz, Magdalena; Kredatusová, Jana; Pientka, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku 3. ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polybenzimidazole * poly(phenylene oxide) * titanate nanotubes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  7. High-efficiency synthesis of dendrimer-like poly(ethylene oxide) via “arm-first” approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Saisai; Xia, Ru; Chen, Peng; Yang, Bin; Miao, Jibin; Zheng, Zhengzhi; Su, Lifeng; Qian, Jiasheng; Cao, Ming; Feng, Xiaoshuang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a dendrimer-like polymer based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was synthesized through a combination of anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP) and click reaction via arm-first method. Firstly, the polymeric arm, a linear PEO

  8. Synthesis of α-hydroxy-ω-amino poly(ethylene oxide) and its use in reaction injection moulding (RIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loontjens, Ton J.A.; Scholtens, Boudewijn J.R.; Belt, Wil J.W.; Frisch, Kurt C.; Wong, Shaio-wen

    1993-01-01

    Computer simulations show that oligomers with two different terminal groups with dissimilar reactivities for isoeyanates give a delayed viscosity rise in polyurethanes. This is a desired behaviour for RIM processes. Therefore, an α-hydroxy-ω-amino poly(ethylene oxide) (HAPEO) has been prepared. The

  9. New Flame-Retardant Poly(ester-imide)s Containing Phosphine Oxide Moieties in the Main Chain: Synthesis and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    FAGHIHI, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Six new flame-retardant poly(ester-imide)s (9a-f) with high inherent viscosity and containing phosphine oxide moieties in the main chain were synthesized from the polycondensation reaction of N,N-(3,3-diphenylphenyl phosphine oxide) bistrimellitimide diacid chloride (7) with 6 aromatic diols (8a-f) by 2 different methods:--solution and microwave-assisted polycondensation. The results showed that compared to solution polycondensation, the microwave-assisted polycondensation reaction us...

  10. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications.

  11. Effects of Silica Nanostructures in Poly(ethylene oxide)-Based Composite Polymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Jagdeep; Anwar, Shahid; Si, Satyabrata

    2016-06-01

    The present work describes the synthesis of some poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte films using various silica nanostructures as the inorganic filler by simple solution mixing technique, in which the nature of the silica nanostructures play a vital role in modulating their electrochemical performances at room temperature. The silica nanostructures are prepared by ammonical hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate following the modified St6ber method. The resulting films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter to study their crystallinity. Room temperature AC impedance spectroscopy is utilized to determine the Li+ ion conductivity of the resulting films. The observed conductivity values of various NCPE films depend on the nature of silica filling as well as on their surface characteristics and also on the varying PEO-Li+ ratio, which is observed to be in the order of 10(-7)-10(-6) S cm(-1).

  12. Adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide) on smectite: Effect of layer charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chia-Chi; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2009-04-01

    The adsorption of polymers on clay is important in many applications. However the mechanisms of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) adsorption on smectite is not well elucidated at present. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of layer charge density on the adsorption of PEO by smectite. The results indicated that both the hydrophobic interaction (between CH(2)CH(2) groups and siloxane surface) and the hydrogen bonding (between ether oxygen of PEO and structure OH of smectite) lead to PEO preferential adsorption on the surface of low-charge smectite. In addition, the delamination of low-charge smectite in water is enhanced upon PEO adsorption presumably due to the hydrophilic ether oxygen of adsorbed PEO.

  13. Free volume dependence on electrical properties of Poly (styrene co-acrylonitrile)/Nickel oxide polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningaraju, S.; Hegde, Vinayakaprasanna N.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites of Poly (styrene co-acrylonitrile)/Nickel Oxide (PSAN/NiO) have been prepared. The increased free volume sizes up to 0.4 wt% of NiO loading indicates overall reduction in packing density of polymer network. The decreased o-Ps lifetime (τ3) at higher concentration of NiO indicates improved interfacial interaction between the surface of NiO nanoparticles and side chain of PSAN polymer matrix. The increased AC/DC conductivity at lower wt% of NiO loading demonstrates increased number of electric charge carriers/mobile ions and their mobility. The increased dielectric constant and dielectric loss up to 0.4 wt% of NiO loading suggests the increased dipoles polarization.

  14. PREPARATION OF ZINC OXIDE AND POLY-ETHYLENE OXIDE COMPOSITE MEMBRANES AND THEIR PHASE RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS FABIAN JURADO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El compuesto polimérico tipo membrana de oxido de zinc con el polímero orgánico poly(ethelyneoxide, fue manufacturado para estudiar la correlación de fases. Difracción de rayos-X (XRD, Dispersión Raman (RS calorimetría diferencial de barrido (DSC y espectroscopia de impedancia (EI mostraron que las nano-partículas de ZnO están inmersas homogéneamente en la matriz de PEO dándole un cierto orden cristalino. Las posiciones de los picos de los registros XRD y RS del composito evidenciaron la separación de la fase semi-cristalina de PEO con la fase cristalina del ZnO para todo el rango del contenido. La variación de la conductividad eléctrica dc con la temperatura es tipo Arrhenius para el composito. La conductividad eléctrica dc del PEO (¿10-6 Scm-1 se incremente en cerca de dos órdenes de magnitud con la presencia 30% wt. de ZnO (¿10-4 Scm-1.

  15. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Silica Nanoparticles Grafted with Poly(ethylene oxide) Oligomer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2012-03-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers were also simulated to clarify the effect of grafting on the dynamics of nanoparticles and chains. The model approximates nanoparticles as solid spheres and uses a united-atom representation for chains, including torsional and bond-bending interactions. The calculated viscosities from Green-Kubo relationships and temperature extrapolation are of the same order of magnitude as experimental data but show a smaller activation energy relative to real NOHMs systems. Grafted systems have higher viscosities, smaller diffusion coefficients, and slower chain dynamics than the ungrafted ones at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, grafted systems exhibit faster dynamics for both nanoparticles and chains relative to ungrafted systems, because of lower aggregation of particles and enhanced correlations between nanoparticles and chains. This agrees with the experimental observation that NOHMs have liquidlike behavior in the absence of a solvent. For both grafted and ungrafted systems at low temperatures, increasing chain length reduces the volume fraction of nanoparticles and accelerates the dynamics. However, at high temperatures, longer chains slow down nanoparticle diffusion. From the Stokes-Einstein relationship, it was determined that the coarse-grained treatment of nanoparticles leads to slip on the nanoparticle surfaces. Grafted systems obey the Stokes-Einstein relationship over the temperature range simulated, but ungrafted systems display deviations from it. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Aligned poly(ε-caprolactone)/graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite nanofibers: Morphological, mechanical and structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Soghra; Karimi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the mechanical properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds are enhanced with the incorporation of graphene and its derivatives, thus developing their applications in hard tissue engineering. However, our understanding of the relationship between the microstructure and properties of these fibrous scaffolds and how they are influenced by graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) loading is much more limited. Thus, in this paper, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/GO and RGO nanocomposite nanofibers containing 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1wt.% GO and RGO were prepared using an electrospinning technique. With the addition of 0.1wt.% of GO and RGO nanosheets in PCL, the tensile strength of PCL scaffolds increased over ~160 and 304% respectively and elastic modulus increased over 103 and 163% due to the good dispersion of the nanosheets and their interaction with the molecular chains of PCL. These were supported by the parallel increase in relaxation time and molecular orientation of PCL chains at the presence of nanosheets with a loading of 0.1wt.%. The enhancement effect of the nanosheets was weakened with an increase in GO and RGO loading up to 1wt.% in which it is connected to a partial exfoliation of the nanosheets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamically formed hydrous zirconium (IV) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. III: Poly(acrylic acid) and substituted poly(acrylic acid) homo, co and terpolymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Reenen, A.J.; Sanderson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A series of acrylic acid and substituted acrylic acid homo, co and terpolymers was synthesised. These polymers were used as polyelectrolytes in dynamically formed hydrous zirconium (iv) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. Substitution of the acrylic acid α-hydrogen was done to increase the number of carboxylic acid groups per monomer unit and to change the acid strength of acrylic acid carboxylic acid group. None of these changes improved the salt rejection of these membranes over that of commercially used poly(acrylic acid). Improvement in rejection was found when a hydrophobic comonomer, vinyl acetate, was used in conjunction with acrylic acid in a copolymer dynamic membrane. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. In-situ synthesis and performance of titanium oxide/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandugula, Uttam C; Clayton, L M; Harmon, J P; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have elicited extensive research efforts due to their potential to exhibit spectacular properties. They have immense potential and are befitting materials to serve as an ideal and futuristic alternative for varied applications. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and titanium oxide (TiO2) nanocomposites used in this study were fabricated by an in-situ free radical polymerization process. Three point bend tests were conducted with a modified universal microtribometer to evaluate fracture toughness. The results indicated that the stress intensity values increase as the concentration of titanium oxide increases up to 1 vol% and subsequently decrease at higher concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fracture surfaces afforded clues as to the possible deformation mechanism. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) evaluated the degree of transparency of the nanocomposites. It was observed that samples became opaque as the concentration was increased beyond 0.01% volume fraction. X-ray diffraction characterized the TiO2 crystalline phase and Scherrer's equation was used to calculate the crystallite size. Among the concentrations considered the 3% volume fraction sample had the largest crystallite size. Finally, microhardness measurements further characterized the mechanical properties of the composites.

  19. Characterization and electrochemical application of carbon materials based on poly(phenylene oxide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Hunter

    Carbon materials possess excellent electrical and surface properties for the next generation of energy storage devices. Polymers provide a carbon rich and tailorable precursor for the production of carbon materials. Therefore, activated carbons were prepared from poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) via a three step process: thermal oxidation, carbonization, and activation with KOH. The activated carbons are predominately microporous with BET specific surface areas up to 2638 m2/g. Impedance spectroscopy revealed these carbons possess electrical conductivities comparable to commercial carbon blacks and consequently were employed in thin-film composite electrodes in electrochemical double-layer capacitors. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed maximum specific capacitances of 13.23 F/g and 2.848 F/g for aqueous and organic electrolyte systems, respectively. Additionally, carbon nanotubes were synthesized from PPO and other polymers with a nickel catalyst via chemical vapor deposition as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report of carbon nanotubes produced from PPO.

  20. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt% of graphene oxide (GO have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for PET nanocomposite films over the neat PET is approximately factors of 2–3.3. DSC study on the nonisothermal crystallization behaviors proves that GO acts as a nucleating agent to accelerate the crystallization of PET matrix. The evolution of the lamellar nanostructure of nanocomposite and neat PET was monitored by SAXS during nonisothermal crystallization from the melt. It was found that unfilled PET and nanocomposite with the highest concentration of GO (0.5 wt% showed almost similar values of the long period (L=11.4 nm for neat PET and L=11.5 nm for PET/0.5GO.

  1. Electromechanical properties of indium–tin–oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): Poly(styrenesulfonate) hybrid electrodes for flexible transparent electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Lim, Kyounga; Kang, Jae-Wook; Kim, Jong-Kuk; Oh, Se-In; Eun, Kyoungtae; Kim, Do-Geun; Choa, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated an indium–tin–oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid electrode as a potential flexible and transparent electrode. In particular, the mechanical integrity of an ITO/PEDOT:PSS hybrid electrode deposited onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate was investigated via outer/inner bending, twisting, stretching, and adhesion tests. A PEDOT:PSS layer was inserted between ITO and PET substrate as a buffer layer to improve the flexibility and electrical properties. When a PEDOT:PSS layer was inserted, the sheet resistance of the 20 nm-thick ITO film decreased from 270 Ω/square to 57 Ω/square. Notably, the ITO/PEDOT:PSS hybrid electrode had a constant resistance change (ΔR/R 0 ) within an outer and inner bending radius of 3 mm. The bending fatigue test showed that the ITO/PEDOT:PSS hybrid electrode can withstand 10,000 bending cycles. Furthermore, the stretched ITO/PEDOT:PSS hybrid electrode showed a fairly constant resistance change up to 4%, which is more stable than the resistance change of the ITO electrode. The ITO/PEDOT:PSS electrode also shows good adhesion strength. The superior flexibility of the ITO/PEDOT:PSS hybrid electrode is attributed to the existence of a flexible PEDOT:PSS layer. This indicates that the hybridization of an ITO and PEDOT:PSS layer is a promising electrode scheme for next-generation flexible transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • We propose a hybrid electrode for flexible electronics. • Electrode made from In 2 O 3 :SnO 2 /poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) • PEDOT:PSS as a buffer layer increases flexibility and electrical conductivity. • Hybrid electrode has a superior flexibility. • Hybrid electrode can be a promising flexible transparent electrode scheme

  2. Synthesis of Diblock copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate -block-poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate [PHB-b-PHHx] by a β-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida KT2442.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Chen, Jinchun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-04-05

    Block polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) were reported to be resistant against polymer aging that negatively affects polymer properties. Recently, more and more attempts have been directed to make PHA block copolymers. Diblock copolymers PHB-b-PHHx consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) block covalently bonded with poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate (PHHx) block were for the first time produced successfully by a recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2442 with its β-oxidation cycle deleted to its maximum. The chloroform extracted polymers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermo- and mechanical analysis. NMR confirmed the existence of diblock copolymers consisting of 58 mol% PHB as the short chain length block with 42 mol% PHHx as the medium chain length block. The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 2.7°C and -16.4°C, one melting temperature (Tm) at 172.1°C and one cool crystallization temperature (Tc) at 69.1°C as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. This is the first microbial short-chain-length (scl) and medium-chain-length (mcl) PHA block copolymer reported. It is possible to produce PHA block copolymers of various kinds using the recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2442 with its β-oxidation cycle deleted to its maximum. In comparison to a random copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate (P(HB-co-HHx)) and a blend sample of PHB and PHHx, the PHB-b-PHHx showed improved structural related mechanical properties.

  3. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Cardenas, Walter Humberto; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel; Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi; Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Oliveira, Daniela Mara de

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  4. Enhancement of the interface in poly(L-lactide) and poly(propylidene carbonate) blends by introducing of poly(L-lactide)-grafted graphene oxide to improve mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Qin, Shengxue; Tian, Xiujuan; Chen, Xueyang; Chen, Yunlei; Niu, Yanhua; Zhao, Lifen

    2018-03-01

    Enhancement of the interfacial structure has great significances in achieving polymer blends with high mechanical performance. To improve the mechanical properties of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA)/poly(propylidene carbonate) (PPC) blends, the covalent functionalized graphene oxide by PLLA chains (PLLA-g-GO) was synthesized by a two-step strategy. It could migrate from the thermally preferred PPC phase to the interfaces of PLLA and PPC and promote the formation of a network-like structure. As a consequence, the tensile strength and elongation at break were both improved. Furthermore, the PLLA-g-GO located at the interface could induce the crystallization at the boundary, which brought the significant improvement of the tensile strength and elongation at break. This result may be beneficial for designing high-performance PLLA materials.

  5. Poly(zwitterionic liquids) functionalized polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanosheets for electrochemically detecting dopamine at low concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Hui; Liang, Jiachen; Ji, Chunguang; Zhang, Haifeng; Pei, Qi; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhang, Yu [Liaoning Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Hisaeda, Yoshio [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Song, Xi-Ming, E-mail: songlab@lnu.edu.cn [Liaoning Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-08-01

    Poly(3-(1-vinylimidazolium-3-yl)propane-1-sulfonate) (PVIPS), a novel kind of poly(zwitterionic liquids) (PZILs) containing both imidazolium cation and sulfonate anion, was successfully modified on the surface of polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanosheets (PPy/GO) by covalent bonding. The obtained novel PZILs functionalized PPy/GO nanosheets (PVIPS/PPy/GO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) presented the excellent electrochemical catalytic activity towards dopamine (DA) with high stability, sensitivity, selectivity and wide linear range (40–1220 nM), especially having a lower detection limit (17.3 nM). The excellent analytical performance is attributed to the strongly negative charges on the surface of modified GCE in aqueous solution, which is different from conventional poly(ionic liquids) modified GCE. DA cations could be quickly enriched on the electrode surface by electrostatic interaction in solution due to the existence of −SO{sub 3}{sup −} groups with negative charge at the end of pendant groups in zwitterionic PVIPS, resulting in a change of the electrons transmission mode in the oxidation of DA, that is, from a typical diffusion-controlled process at conventional poly(1-vinyl-3-ethylimidazole bromide) (PVEIB)/PPy/GO modified GCE to a typical surface-controlled process. - Graphical Abstract: Novel poly(zwitterionic liquids) functionalized polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanosheets were successfully synthesized and presented an excellent performance for determination to DA. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zwitterionic PVIPS functionalized PPy/GO nanosheets were successfully synthesized. • Their surface charge property has been obviously changed to electronegativity. • The excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards DA were achieved. • −SO{sub 3}{sup −} groups with negative charge changed the transmission mode of electrons. • PVIPS/PPy/GO can act as an electrode material for detecting DA at low concentration.

  6. Oxidation of monolayers of partly converted dimethoxy-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene) precursor polymers at the air-water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagting, J.G.; Schouten, A.J.; Hagting, A

    2000-01-01

    We observed that the poly(p-phenylenevinylene) units in Langmuir monolayers of partly converted dimethoxy-substituted poly(p-phenylenevinylene) precursor polymers oxidize at the air-water interface. This reaction even happened in the dark and therefore can not be attributed to a photooxygenation

  7. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  8. Propylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emami

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the study of high melt flow, highly isotactic polypropylene homopolymer synthesized in liquid monomer using a fifth generation Ziegler-Natta catalytic system. At highest catalyst productivity, the response of thecatalyst to hydrogen as chain transfer is studied. Melt flow rate is controlled by hydrogen as chain transfer from 0.4 to 300 g/10min with changing the amount of hydrogen from 0 to 1400 ppm. Results show that the melt flow rate of homopolymer is increased linearly with increasing the amount of hydrogen in polymerization. The effect of external electron donor on catalyst productivity and stereoregularity of the final product has been studied. The external electron donor on the catalyst caused an increase in polymer isotacticity, but led to decrease in catalyst productivity andits response to hydrogen (i.e., requiring relatively more hydrogen for molecular weight control. This new generation of Z-N catalyst system containing 1,3-diether as internal electron donor has the ability to produce very high MFR polymers (for thin wall parts in combination with narrow molecular weight distribution. These reactor grades of polypropylene have many advantages compared to visbroken (controlled rheology grades such as lower cost and better processability. These resins can be used as homopolymer matrix in sequential polymerization to obtain impactcopolymers (heterophasic copolymers.

  9. Synthesis of novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents: Evaluation of their performance by crosslinking of poly(ethylene oxide)

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim

    2011-11-01

    Novel bis(perfluorophenyl azides) coupling agents, containing spacer arms from ethylene or ethylene glycol subunits, were successfully synthesized. Nitrenes photogenerated from these novel bis(PFPA) coupling agents were applied successfully to the cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO10,000) in either aqueous medium or at the solid state, thus, we demonstrated the potential of these bis(PFPA) molecules as promising coupling agents in surface engineering. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Poly(ethylene oxide) layers grafted to dopamine-melanin anchoring layer: stability and resistance to protein adsorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Popelka, Štěpán; Houska, Milan; Chvostová, Dagmar; Proks, Vladimír; Rypáček, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2011), s. 3232-3242 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400500904; GA ČR GAP108/11/1857; GA ČR GPP207/10/P569 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : dopamine -melanin * polydopamine * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.479, year: 2011

  11. Crystallinity and order of poly(ethylene oxide)/lithium triflate complex confined in nanoporous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Christina; Teeters, Dale

    2009-01-01

    The confinement of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, electrolyte in pores of 13, 35, 55 and 100 nm in diameter in nanoporous alumina membranes was seen to have effects on the ionic conduction properties. Specific conductivity values for the PEO/lithium triflate complex in the 13 and 35 nm pores, for temperatures below the melt temperatures, were increased by a factor of four compared to the non-confined polymer and the 55 and 100 nm pore systems. Thermal analysis data indicate the melting temperature for the PEO electrolyte in the pores is directly proportional to the pore size such that as the pore size of confinement is decreased, the T m decreases as well. The same behavior is seen for the amount of crystallinity, with less crystallinity being observed as the pores become smaller. Perhaps the observed conduction behavior could be attributed to less crystallinity. However, it is known that confinement of polyethers in pores results in stretching and ordering of the backbone and that such ordering can increase ion conduction. This ordering would seem to be the major factor involved in these results. The enhanced conduction only being seen in the 13 and 35 nm pores and not the 55 and 100 nm pores is attributed to the larger size for the latter which allows a more bulk-like behavior with less ordering.

  12. Reduced graphene oxide filled poly(dimethyl siloxane) based transparent stretchable, and touch-responsive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Cabibihan, John-John; Yoon, W. Jong; Kumar, Bijandra

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing revolution in touch panel technology and electronics demands the need for thin films, which are flexible, stretchable, conductive, and highly touch responsive. In this regard, conductive elastomer nanocomposites offer potential solutions for these stipulations; however, viability is limited to the poor dispersion of conductive nanomaterials such as graphene into the matrix. Here, we fabricated a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer based transparent and flexible conductive touch responsive film by dispersing rGO honeycombs uniformly into PDMS elastomer through an ionic liquid (IL) modification. Pursuing a simple, scalable, and safe method of solution casting, this provides a versatile and creative design of a transparent and stretchable rGO/IL-PDMS capacitive touch responsive, where rGO acts as a sensing element. This transparent film with ∼70% transmittance exhibits approximately a five times faster response in comparison to rGO/PDMS film, with negligible degradation over time. The performance of this touch screen film is expected to have applications in the emerging field of foldable electronics.

  13. Poly(ethylene oxide)/clay nanaocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejder-Korucu, Mehtap; Gürses, Ahmet; Karaca, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PEO/clay nanocomposites were prepared via solution intercalation. Complete exfoliation occurs in samples of 0.5 and 2.0 CEC. • The impaired helical structure of PEO in nanocomposite structures had been verified based on the results of FTIR studies. • The crystallization temperature of PEO/OMMT nanocomposites is low compared to raw polymer. • The increase of melting temperatures indicates the increase of the stability of PEO in case of availability of clay. • The tensile strength, yield strength, % stretching of nanocomposite samples increase compared to raw polymer at all CEC rates. - Abstract: Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by a solution intercalation method using chloroform as a solvent. The nanocomposites were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and also investigation of some mechanical properties of the composites. Formation of nanocomposite was confirmed by XRD analysis. The increasing tendency of exfoliation degree with an increase in clay content may be attributed to easier diffusion of PEO chains to interlayer regions. An increase in PEO crystallinity in case of nanocomposite, was confirmed by an increase in the heat of melting as indicated by DSC. Improvement in tensile properties in all respect was observed for nanocomposites with clay content.

  14. Resistance of poly(ethylene oxide)-silane monolayers to the growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buron, Cédric C; Callegari, Vincent; Nysten, Bernard; Jonas, Alain M

    2007-09-11

    The ability of poly(ethylene oxide)-silane (PEO-silane) monolayers grafted onto silicon surfaces to resist the growth of polyelectrolyte multilayers under various pH conditions is assessed for different pairs of polyelectrolytes of varying molar mass. For acidic conditions (pH 3), the PEO-silane monolayers exhibit good polyelectrolyte repellency provided the polyelectrolytes bear no moieties that are able to form hydrogen bonds with the ether groups of the PEO chains. At basic pH, PEO-silane monolayers undergo substantial hydrolysis leading to the formation of negatively charged defects in the monolayers, which then play the role of adsorption sites for the polycation. Once the polycation is adsorbed, multilayer growth ensues. Because this is defect-driven growth, the multilayer is not continuous and is made of blobs or an open network of adsorbed strands. For such conditions, the molar mass of the polyelectrolyte plays a key role, with polyelectrolyte chains of larger molar mass adsorbing on a larger number of defects, resulting in stronger anchoring of the polyelectrolyte complex on the surfaces and faster subsequent growth of the multilayer. For polyelectrolytes of sufficiently low molar mass at pH 9, the growth of the multilayer can nevertheless be prevented for as much as five cycles of deposition.

  15. Crystallization and unusual rheological behavior in poly(ethylene oxide)–clay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Kelarakis, Antonios

    2011-05-01

    We report a systematic study of the crystallization and rheological behavior of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-clay nanocomposites. To that end a series of nanocomposites based on PEOs of different molecular weight (103 < MW < 105 g/mol) and clay surface modifier was synthesized and characterized. Incorporation of organoclays with polar (MMT-OH) or aromatic groups (MMT-Ar) suppresses the crystallization of polymer chains in low MW PEO, but does not significantly affect the crystallization of high MW matrices. In addition, the relative complex viscosity of the nanocomposites based on low MW PEO increases significantly, but the effect is less pronounced at higher MWs. The viscosity increases in the series MMT-Alk < MMT-OH < MMT-Ar. In contrast to the neat PEO which exhibits a monotonic decrease of viscosity with temperature, all nanocomposites show an increase after a certain temperature. This is the first report of such dramatic enhancements in the viscoelasticity of nanocomposites, which are reversible, are based on a simple polymer matrix and are true in a wide temperature range. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SHI induced modification in structural, optical, dielectric and thermal properties of poly ethylene oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Gnansagar B.; Bhavsar, Shilpa [Department of Physics, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002 (India); Singh, N.L., E-mail: nl.singh-phy@msubaroda.ac.in [Department of Physics, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002 (India); Singh, F.; Kulriya, P.K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-07-15

    Poly ethylene oxide (PEO) films were synthesized by solution cast method. These self-standing films were exposed with 60 MeV C{sup +5} ion and 100 MeV Ni{sup +7} ion at different fluences. SHI induced effect was investigated by employing various techniques. The crystalline size decreased upon irradiation as observed from XRD analysis. FTIR analysis reveals the decrement in the peak intensity upon irradiation. Tauc’s method was used to determine the optical band gap (E{sub g}), which shows decreasing trends with increase of fluence. The dielectric properties were investigated in the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz for unirradiated and irradiated films. The dielectric constant remains same for the broad-spectrum of frequency and increases at lower frequency. The dielectric loss also moderately influence as a function of frequency due to irradiation. DSC analysis validated the results of XRD. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that there is significant change in the surface morphology due to irradiation.

  17. Electrospinning of chitosan solutions in acetic acid with poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Dong, Cunhai; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Yao, Kangde

    2004-01-01

    Electrospinning of chitosan solutions with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in an aqueous solution of 2 wt% acetic acid was studied. The properties of the chitosan/PEO solutions, including conductivity, surface tension and viscosity, were measured. Morphology of the electrospun chitosan/PEO was observed by using scanning electron micrographs. Results showed that the ultrafine fibers could be generated after addition of PEO in 2:1 or 1:1 mass ratios of chitosan to PEO from 4-6 wt% chitosan/PEO solutions at 15 kV voltage, 20 cm capillary-collector distance and flow rate 0.1 ml/h. During electrospinning of the chitosan/PEO solutions, ultrafine fibers with diameters from 80 nm to 180 nm were obtained, while microfibers with visually thicker diameters could be formed as well. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter exhibited the larger electrospun microfibers were almost entirely made from PEO, while the electrospun ultrafine fibers mainly contained chitosan.

  18. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan; Suo Jinping; Luo Tianzhi

    2010-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 ± 3 deg. to 30 ± 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K 0.27 MnO 2 .0.54H 2 O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  19. Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene oxide) in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jiadong; Zhou, Shenglin; Yang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2018-03-27

    We investigate the effect of the presence of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the orientation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) lamellae and PEO crystallinity. The high alignment of carbon nanotubes acting as templates probably governs the orientation of PEO lamellae. This templating effect might result in the lamella planes of PEO crystals oriented along a direction parallel to the long axis of the nanotubes. The presence of aligned carbon nanotubes also gives rise to the decreases in PEO crystallinity, crystallization temperature, and melting temperature due to the perturbation of carbon nanotubes to the crystallization of PEO. These effects have significant implications for controlling the orientation of PEO lamellae and decreasing the crystallinity of PEO and thickness of PEO lamellae, which have significant impacts on ion transport in PEO/CNT composite and the capacitive performance of PEO/CNT composite. Both the decreased PEO crystallinity and the orientation of PEO lamellae along the long axes of vertically aligned CNTs give rise to the decrease in the charge transfer resistance, which is associated with the improvements in the ion transport and capacitive performance of PEO/CNT composite.

  20. Thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Sunil G.; Bhajantri, R. F.; Ravindrachary, V.; Pujari, P. K.; Sheela, T.; Naik, Jagadish

    2014-04-01

    In this work the composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) doped with functionalized Graphene Oxide (GO) were prepared by solution casting method. The films were characterized using FT-IR, DSC, XRD, mechanical properties and dielectric studies at room temperature. FTIR spectra shows the formation of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups of PVA and the hydroxy groups of GO. The DSC thermograms shows the addition of GO to PVA greatly improves the thermal stability of the composites. XRD patterns shows that the GO exfoliated and uniformly dispersed in PVA matrix. Mechanical properties are significantly improved in PVA/GO composites. The tensile strength increased from 8.2 to 13.7 MPa and the Young's modulus increased from 7.5 to 24.8 MPa for 5 wt% GO doped sample. Dielectric spectroscopy showed a highest dielectric constant for the 5 wt% GO doped PVA films. This work provides a potential design strategy on PVA/GO composite, which would lead to higher-performance, flexible dielectric materials, high charge-storage devices.

  1. Incipient microphase separation in short chain perfluoropolyether-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Timachova, Ksenia; Olson, Kevin R; Banaszak, Michał; Thelen, Jacob L; Mecham, Sue J; DeSimone, Joseph M; Balsara, Nitash P

    2017-06-07

    Incipient microphase separation is observed by wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) in short chain multiblock copolymers consisting of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. Two PFPE-PEO block copolymers were studied; one with dihydroxyl end groups and one with dimethyl carbonate end groups. Despite having a low degree of polymerization (N ∼ 10), these materials exhibited significant scattering intensity, due to disordered concentration fluctuations between their PFPE-rich and PEO-rich domains. The disordered scattering intensity was fit to a model based on a multicomponent random phase approximation to determine the value of the interaction parameter, χ, and the radius of gyration, R g . Over the temperature range 30-90 °C, the values of χ were determined to be very large (∼2-2.5), indicating a high degree of immiscibility between the PFPE and PEO blocks. In PFPE-PEO, due to the large electron density contrast between the fluorinated and non-fluorinated block and the high value of χ, disordered scattering was detected at intermediate scattering angles, (q ∼ 2 nm -1 ) for relatively small polymer chains. Our ability to detect concentration fluctuations was enabled by both a relatively large value of χ and significant scattering contrast.

  2. Modification of nylon-6 with semi-rigid poly (p-diphenyl oxide terephthalamide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.F.; Wang, H.H.; Shu, Y.C.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the flexible nylon-6 was reinforced by the semi-rigid aromatic polyamide, poly (p-diphenyl oxide terephthalamide) (POA), through physical polybending and chemical copolymerization using p-aminophenylacetic acid (P-APA) as a coupling agent. From the DSC measurements, it was shown that Tg of the polyblends was increased with the increase of POA content. The Tg and Tm of multiblock copolyamides were found to be higher than those of polyblends and triblock copolyamides. From the Rheovibron measurements, it was shown that the POA with nylon-6 poy-blends exhibited higher E' and Tg value than that of nylon-6, which increased with the increase of POA content. The Tg and E' values of multiblock copolyamides were higher than those of polyblends triblock copolyamides. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the polyblends were a dispersed phase structure, although the multiblock copolyamides exhibited a homogeneous texture rather than an aggregated one. From the wide-angle x-ray diffraction pattern, the triblock copolyamides and polyblends had two diffraction peaks, i.e., 2 θ = 20.5 degrees and 24 degrees. However, the multiblock had only one at 2 θ = 20 degrees, which indicates that a different crystal structure of multiblock copolyamides. For the mechanical properties, it was found that the multiblock copolyamides had a more significant reinforcing effect than those of polyblends and triblock copolyamides. 21 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Study of Polydiacetylene-Poly (Ethylene Oxide Electrospun Fibers Used as Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K M Mashud Alam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Polydiacetylene (PDA is an attractive conjugated material for use in biosensors due to its unique characteristic of undergoing a blue-to-red color change in response to external stimuli. 10,12-Pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA and poly (ethylene oxide (PEO were used in this study to develop fiber composites via an electrospinning method at various mass ratios of PEO to PCDA, solution concentrations, and injection speeds. The PEO-PDA fibers in blue phase were obtained via photo-polymerization upon UV-light irritation. High mass ratios of PEO to PCDA, low polymer concentrations of spinning solution, and low injection speeds promoted fine fibers with small diameters and smooth surfaces. The colorimetric transition of the fibers was investigated when the fibers were heated at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 120 °C. A color switch from blue to red in the fibers was observed when the fibers were heated at temperatures greater than 60 °C. The color transition was more sensitive in the fibers made with a low mass ratio of PEO to PCDA due to high fraction of PDA in the fibers. The large diameter fibers also promoted the color switch due to high reflectance area in the fibers. All of the fibers were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and compared before and after the color change occurred. The colorimetric transitional mechanism is proposed to occur due to conformational changes in the PDA macromolecules.

  4. Stability and effectiveness against bacterial adhesion of poly(ethylene oxide) coatings in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosjen, Astrid; de Vries, Joop; van der Mei, Henny C; Norde, Willem; Busscher, Henk J

    2005-05-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coatings have been shown to reduce the adhesion of different microbial strains and species and thus are promising as coatings to prevent biomaterial-centered infection of medical implants. Clinically, however, PEO coatings are not yet applied, as little is known about their stability and effectiveness in biological fluids. In this study, PEO coatings coupled to a glass substratum through silyl ether bonds were exposed for different time intervals to saliva, urine, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a reference at 37 degrees C. After exposure, the effectiveness of the coatings against bacterial adhesion was assessed in a parallel plate flow chamber. The coatings appeared effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion for 24, 48, and 0.5 h in PBS, urine, and saliva, respectively. Using XPS and contact-angle measurements, the variations in effectiveness could be attributed to conditioning film formation. The overall short stability results from hydrolysis of the coupling of the PEO chains to the substratum. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Surface modification of chitin and chitosan with poly(3-hexylthiophene) via oxidative polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Thien An Phung; Sugimoto, Ryuichi

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the modification of biomaterials such as chitin and chitosan were successfully prepared by directly grafting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to their surfaces using simple oxidative polymerization with FeCl3. The thermal stability and crystallinity of grafted chitin and chitosan changed upon grafting with P3HT. The build-up of π-π* structure from the P3HT on the surface of chitin and chitosan resulted in the appearance of UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission peaks in the range from 500 to 600 nm. Introducing P3HT to the surface of chitin and chitosan improved significantly the electrical property of chitin and chitosan with the increase in conductivity from 10-9 to 10-7 S/cm. Furthermore, the usual behavior of hydrophilic surface of chitin and chitosan that turned to hydrophobic with water contact angle of 97.7° and 107.0°, respectively in the presence of P3HT. The mechanism for graft reaction of P3HT to chitin and chitosan was also proposed and discussed.

  6. Preparation and proton conductivity of composite membranes based on sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide) and benzimidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yifeng; Yu Qinchun; Wu Yihua

    2007-01-01

    The Bronsted acid-base composite membrane was prepared by entrapping benzimidazole in sulfonated poly(phenylene oxide) by tuning the doping ratios. Their thermal stability, dynamic mechanical properties and proton conductivity were investigated under the conditions for intermediate temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operation. In addition, investigation of activation energies of the SPPO-xBnIm at different relative humidity was also performed. TG-DTA curves reveal these SPPO-xBnIm composite materials had the high thermal stability. The proton conductivity of SPPO-xBnIm composite material increased with the temperature, and the highest proton conductivity of SPPO-xBnIm composite materials was found to be 8.93 x 10 -4 S/cm at 200 deg. C under 35% relative humidity (RH) with a 'doping rate' where x = 2. The SPPO-2BnIm composite membrane show higher storage moduli and loss moduli than SPPO. Tests in a hydrogen-air laboratory cell demonstrate the applicability of SPPO-2BnIm in PEMFCs at intermediate temperature under non-humidified conditions

  7. Surface modification of porous poly(tetrafluoraethylene) film by a simple chemical oxidation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shifang; Li Juan [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Suo Jinping, E-mail: jpsuo@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Luo Tianzhi [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luo-Yu Road 1037, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A simple, inexpensive and environmental chemical treatment process, i.e., treating porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films by a mixture of potassium permanganate solution and nitric acid, was proposed to improve the hydrophilicity of PTFE. To evaluate the effectiveness of this strong oxidation treatment, contact angle measurement was performed. The effects of treatment time and temperature on the contact angle of PTFE were studied as well. The results showed that the chemical modification decreased contact angle of as-received PTFE film from 133 {+-} 3 deg. to 30 {+-} 4 deg. treated at 100 deg. C for 3 h, effectively converting the hydrophobic PTFE to a hydrophilic PTFE matrix. The changes in chemical structure, surface compositions and crystal structure of PTFE were examined by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It was found that the F/C atomic ratio decreased from untreated 1.65-0.10 treated by the mixture at 100 deg. C for 3 h. Hydrophilic groups such as carbonyl (C=O) and hydroxyl (-OH) were introduced on the surface of PTFE after treatment. Furthermore, hydrophilic compounds K{sub 0.27}MnO{sub 2}.0.54H{sub 2}O was absorbed on the surface of porous PTFE film. Both the introduction of hydrophilic groups and absorption of hydrophilic compounds contribute to the significantly decreased contact angle of PTFE.

  8. Reduced graphene oxide filled poly(dimethyl siloxane) based transparent stretchable, and touch-responsive sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P. O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Cabibihan, John-John [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Yoon, W. Jong [School of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, University of Washington, Bothell, Washington 98011 (United States); Kumar, Bijandra, E-mail: bijandra.kumar@louisville.edu [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Research and Development Centre in Pharmaceutical Science and Applied Chemistry, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Erandawane, Pune 411038 (India)

    2016-04-25

    The ongoing revolution in touch panel technology and electronics demands the need for thin films, which are flexible, stretchable, conductive, and highly touch responsive. In this regard, conductive elastomer nanocomposites offer potential solutions for these stipulations; however, viability is limited to the poor dispersion of conductive nanomaterials such as graphene into the matrix. Here, we fabricated a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer based transparent and flexible conductive touch responsive film by dispersing rGO honeycombs uniformly into PDMS elastomer through an ionic liquid (IL) modification. Pursuing a simple, scalable, and safe method of solution casting, this provides a versatile and creative design of a transparent and stretchable rGO/IL-PDMS capacitive touch responsive, where rGO acts as a sensing element. This transparent film with ∼70% transmittance exhibits approximately a five times faster response in comparison to rGO/PDMS film, with negligible degradation over time. The performance of this touch screen film is expected to have applications in the emerging field of foldable electronics.

  9. Nanostructure of propylammonium nitrate in the presence of poly(ethylene oxide) and halide salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Ryan; Webber, Grant B.; Page, Alister J.

    2018-05-01

    Nanoscale structure of protic ionic liquids is critical to their utility as molecular electrochemical solvents since it determines the capacity to dissolve salts and polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Here we use quantum chemical molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the impact of dissolved halide anions on the nanostructure of an archetypal nanostructured protic ionic liquid, propylammonium nitrate (PAN), and how this impacts the solvation of a model PEO polymer. At the molecular level, PAN is nanostructured, consisting of charged/polar and uncharged/nonpolar domains. The charged domain consists of the cation/anion charge groups, and is formed by their electrostatic interaction. This domain solvophobically excludes the propyl chains on the cation, which form a distinct, self-assembled nonpolar domain within the liquid. Our simulations demonstrate that the addition of Cl- and Br- anions to PAN disrupts the structure within the PAN charged domain due to competition between nitrate and halide anions for the ammonium charge centre. This disruption increases with halide concentration (up to 10 mol. %). However, at these concentrations, halide addition has little effect on the structure of the PAN nonpolar domain. Addition of PEO to pure PAN also disrupts the structure within the charged domain of the liquid due to hydrogen bonding between the charge groups and the terminal PEO hydroxyl groups. There is little other association between the PEO structure and the surrounding ionic liquid solvent, with strong PEO self-interaction yielding a compact, coiled polymer morphology. Halide addition results in greater association between the ionic liquid charge centres and the ethylene oxide components of the PEO structure, resulting in reduced conformational flexibility, compared to that observed in pure PAN. Similarly, PEO self-interactions increase in the presence of Cl- and Br- anions, compared to PAN, indicating that the addition of halide salts to PAN

  10. Microwave absorption properties of reduced graphene oxide strontium hexaferrite/poly(methyl methacrylate) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sanghamitra; Ray, J.; Patro, T. U.; Alegaonkar, Prashant; Datar, Suwarna

    2018-03-01

    The key factors to consider when designing microwave absorber materials for eradication of electromagnetic (EM) pollution are absorption of incident EM waves and good impedance matching. By keeping these things in mind, flexible microwave absorber composite films can be fabricated by simple gel casting techniques using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and strontium ferrite (SF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. SF nanoparticles are synthesized by the well known sol-gel method. Subsequently, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and SF nanocomposite (RGOSF) are prepared through a chemical reduction method using hydrazine. The structure, morphology, chemical composition, thermal stability and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite are characterized in detail by various techniques. The SF particles are found to be nearly 500 nm and decorated on RGO sheets as revealed by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Fourier transform infrared and and Raman spectroscopy clearly show the presence of SF in the graphene sheet by the lower peak positions. Finally, ternary polymer composites of RGO/SF/PMMA are prepared by an in situ polymerization method. Magnetic and dielectric studies of the composite reveal that the presence of RGO/SF/PMMA lead to polarization effects contributing to dielectric loss. Also, RGO surrounding SF provides a conductive network in the polymer matrix which is in turn responsible for the magnetic loss in the composite. Thus, the permittivity as well as the permeability of the composite can be controlled by an appropriate combination of RGO and SF in PMMA. More than 99% absorption efficiency is achieved by a suitable combination of magneto-dielectric coupling in the X-band frequency range by incorporating 9 wt% of RGO and 1 wt% of SF in the polymer matrix.

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol) dicarboxylate/poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel film co-crosslinked by electron beam irradiation as an anti-adhesion barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryanto,; Singh, Deepti; Han, Sung Soo; Son, Jun Hyuk; Kim, Seong Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) dicarboxylate (PEGDC)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA)/(PEO) hydrogels were developed for possible biomedical applications such as an anti-adhesion barrier. Various contents of PEGDC/PEO film were irradiated using an electron beam with various beam intensities in order to obtain various degrees of crosslinked hydrogels. The optimum dose (300 kGy) and total crosslinker content of 10% were used to prepare crosslinked hydrogel films with three different compositions (10% PEGDC, 10% PEGDMA, 5% PEGDC–5% PEGDMA). Among them, 10% PEGDC hydrogel film exhibited the highest elongation at break (69.33 ± 6.87%) with high mechanical strength. 10% PEGDC hydrogel film showed the lowest hemolysis activity (6.03 ± 0.01%) and the highest tissue adherence (75.67 ± 1.15 cN). The result also indicated that the carboxyl groups in PEGDC affect the tissue adherence of hydrogel films via H-bonding interactions. In animal studies, 10% PEGDC anti-adhesion hydrogel film degraded within 3 weeks and demonstrated better anti-adhesive effect compared to Guardix-SG®. - Highlights: • The crosslinked PEGDC/PEO hydrogel was developed by e-beam irradiation. • 10% PEGDC hydrogel film showed the highest elongation at break and tissue adhesion. • The COOH group enhanced the tissue adherence of hydrogel films on the intestine. • 10% PEGDC hydrogel film demonstrated a good anti-adhesive effect in animal study. • All of the hydrogel films with 10% PEGDC degraded in vivo within three weeks

  12. Probing Structural Changes in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) During Electrochemical Oxidation with In Situ X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Jacob L.; Patel, Shrayesh N.; Javier, Anna E.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2014-03-01

    Mixtures of poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3HT-b-PEO) block copolymer and lithium bis(trifluromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt can microphase separate into electron (P3HT) and ion (PEO/LiTFSI) conducting domains. P3HT is a semicrystalline polymer with intrinsically semiconducting electronic properties. Electrochemical oxidation (doping) of the P3HT block provides the P3HT-b-PEO/LiTFSI mixtures with electronic conductivity suitable for lithium battery operation. Due to the presence of the solid-state electrolyte (PEO/LiTFSI) in intimate contact with the microphase separated P3HT domains, electrochemical oxidation of P3HT can be performed entirely in the solid state; therefore, P3HT-b-PEO/LiTFSI provides a unique opportunity to study the structural changes in P3HT induced by oxidation. We use in situ x-ray scattering techniques to probe structural changes in P3HT during electrochemical oxidation and correlate these changes with previously observed enhancements in electron mobility. Supported by the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR).

  13. Novel differential refractometry study of the enzymatic degradation kinetics of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) particles dispersed in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, HiuFung; Gong, Xiangjun; Wu, Chi

    2007-02-22

    A poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) diblock copolymer was micronized into small micelle-like particles (approximately 80 nm) via dialysis-induced microphase inversion. The enzymatic biodegradation of the PCL portion of these particles in water was in situ investigated inside a recently developed novel differential refractometer. Using this refractometry method, we were able to monitor the real-time biodegradation via the refractive index change (Deltan) of the dispersion because Deltan is directly proportional to the particle mass concentration. We found that the degradation rate is proportional to either the polymer or enzyme concentration. Our results directly support previous speculation on the basis of the light-scattering data that the biodegradation follows the first-order kinetics for a given enzyme concentration. This study not only leads to a better understanding of the enzymatic biodegradation of PCL, but also demonstrates a novel, rapid, noninvasive, and convenient way to test the degradability of polymers.

  14. Poly(ethyl glyoxylate)-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoparticles: Stimuli-Responsive Drug Release via End-to-End Polyglyoxylate Depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2017-08-07

    The ability to disrupt polymer assemblies in response to specific stimuli provides the potential to release drugs selectively at certain sites or conditions in vivo. However, most stimuli-responsive delivery systems require many stimuli-initiated events to release drugs. "Self-immolative polymers" offer the potential to provide amplified responses to stimuli as they undergo complete end-to-end depolymerization following the cleavage of a single end-cap. Herein, linker end-caps were developed to conjugate self-immolative poly(ethyl glyoxylate) (PEtG) with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form amphiphilic block copolymers. These copolymers were self-assembled to form nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Cleavage of the linker end-caps were triggered by a thiol reducing agent, UV light, H 2 O 2 , and combinations of these stimuli, resulting in nanoparticle disintegration. Low stimuli concentrations were effective in rapidly disrupting the nanoparticles. Nile red, doxorubin, and curcumin were encapsulated into the nanoparticles and were selectively released upon application of the appropriate stimulus. The ability to tune the stimuli-responsiveness simply by changing the linker end-cap makes this new platform highly attractive for applications in drug delivery.

  15. Synthesis and shape control of uniform polymer microparticles by tailored adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-Poly(ε-caprolactone) copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acter, Shahinur; Cho, Jang Woo; Kim, Jeong Won; Byun, Aram; Park, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Jin Woong [Hanyang University, Ahnsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This paper introduces a straightforward and robust polymerization method for the synthesis of uniform polymer microparticles having controlled surface chemistry as well as tailored particle shapes. Uniform polystyrene (PS) microparticles are produced by dispersion polymerization, in which amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) copolymers anchor on to the growing polymer particles and stabilize them by steric repulsion. We have observed that, when PEO-b-PCL copolymers are incorporated at the proper concentration range, the total number of particles remains unchanged after the formation of primary particles, which is essential for maintaining size uniformity. Otherwise, nonuniform PS microparticles are produced mainly as a result of the coagulation or secondary formation of particles. To show the diversity of our particle synthesis technology, shape-controlled microparticles, such as dimples and Janus particles, are also produced by using temperature-mediated swelling and phase separation. Finally, we show that PEO-b-PCL copolymers play a key role in regulating the surface wettability of the seed particles, thereby facilitating the formation of anisotropic microparticles.

  16. Nanofiber mats composed of a chitosan-poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene oxide) blend as a postoperative anti-adhesion agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Eok; Ko, Young-Gwang; Kim, Won Il; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Kwon, Oh Hyeong

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative tissue adhesion causes serious complications and suffering in 90% of patients after peritoneum surgery, while commercial anti-adhesion agents cannot completely prevent postoperative peritoneal adhesions. This study demonstrates electrospining of a blended solution of chitosan, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to fabricate a chitosan-based nanofibrous mat as a postoperative anti-adhesion agent. Rheological studies combined with scanning electron microscopy reveal that the spinnability of the chitosan-PLGA solution could be controlled by adjusting the blend ratio and concentration with average fiber diameter from 634 to 913 nm. Biodegradation of the nanofiber specimens showed accelerated hydrolysis by chitosan. Proliferation of fibroblasts and antimicrobial activity of nanofibers containing chitosan was analyzed. Abdominal defects with cecum adhesion in rats demonstrated that the blend nanofiber mats were effective in preventing tissue adhesion as a barrier (4 weeks after abdominal surgery) by coverage of exfoliated peritoneum and insufficient wound sites at the beginning of the wound healing process. Chitosan-PLGA-PEO blend nanofiber mats will provide a promising key as a postoperative anti-adhesion agent. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1906-1915, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru alloy electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Esteban A. [Grupo de Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Planes, Gabriel A. [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Agencia Postal No 3, 5800, Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica-Fisica, INQUIMAE CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Soler-Illia, Galo J.A.A. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Corti, Horacio R. [Grupo de Celdas de Combustible, Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, CNEA. Av. General Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica-Fisica, INQUIMAE CONICET, Facultad Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-15

    Mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts with 2D-hexagonal mesostructure were synthesized using a triblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer (Pluronic F127 {sup registered}) template, on a gold support. Large electrochemical surface areas were observed for the catalysts prepared at high overpotentials. Compared to the Pt catalyst, the Pt/Ru alloy containing 3 at% of Ru exhibited lower onset potential and more than three times the limit mass activity for methanol oxidation. This behavior is assigned to the larger pore size of the mesoporous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts obtained with this template that seems to improve the methanol accessibility to the active sites compared to those obtained using lyotropic liquid crystals. (author)

  18. Development of CO2 Selective Poly(Ethylene Oxide-Based Membranes: From Laboratory to Pilot Plant Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Brinkmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Membrane gas separation is one of the most promising technologies for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2 from various gas streams. One application of this technology is the treatment of flue gases from combustion processes for the purpose of carbon capture and storage. For this application, poly(ethylene oxide-containing block copolymers such as Pebax® or PolyActive™ polymer are well suited. The thin-film composite membrane that is considered in this overview employs PolyActive™ polymer as a selective layer material. The membrane shows excellent CO2 permeances of up to 4 m3(STP·(m2·h·bar−1 (1 bar = 105 Pa at a carbon dioxide/nitrogen (CO2/N2 selectivity exceeding 55 at ambient temperature. The membrane can be manufactured reproducibly on a pilot scale and mounted into flat-sheet membrane modules of different designs. The operating performance of these modules can be accurately predicted by specifically developed simulation tools, which employ single-gas permeation data as the only experimental input. The performance of membranes and modules was investigated in different pilot plant studies, in which flue gas and biogas were used as the feed gas streams. The investigated processes showed a stable separation performance, indicating the applicability of PolyActive™ polymer as a membrane material for industrial-scale gas processing.

  19. Adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) polymers on zinc, zinc oxide, iron, and iron oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Susan; Simon, Frank; Baumann, Giesela; Hietschold, Michael; Seifert, Andreas; Spange, Stefan

    2011-12-06

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl formamide) (PVFA) and the statistic copolymers poly(vinyl formamide-co-vinyl amine) (PVFA-co-PVAm) onto zinc and iron metal particles as well as their oxides was investigated. The adsorbates were characterized by means of XPS, DRIFT spectroscopy, wet chemical analysis, and solvatochromic probes. Dicyano-bis-(1,10-phenanthroline)-iron(II) (1), 3-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-7-phenyl-benzo-[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran-2,6-dione (2), and 4-tert-butyl-2-(dicyano-methylene)-5-[4-(diethylamino)-benzylidene]-Δ(3)-thiazoline (3) as solvatochromic probes were coadsorbed onto zinc oxide to measure various effects of surface polarity. The experimental findings showed that the adsorption mechanism of PVFA and PVFA-co-PVAm strongly depends on the degree of hydrolysis of PVFA and pH values and also on the kind of metal or metal oxide surfaces that were employed as adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc oxide and iron oxide surfaces is mainly affected by electrostatic interactions. Particularly in the region of pH 5, the adsorption of PVFA/PVFA-co-PVAm onto zinc and iron metal particles is additionally influenced by redox processes, dissolution, and complexation reactions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Hybrid phototransistors based on bulk heterojunction films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and zinc oxide nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sungho; Seo, Jooyeok; Park, Soohyeong; Lee, Sooyong; Jeong, Jaehoon; Lee, Hyena; Kim, Hwajeong; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2013-02-01

    Hybrid phototransistors (HPTRs) were fabricated on glass substrates using organic/inorganic hybrid bulk heterojunction films of p-type poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and n-type zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO(NP)). The content of ZnO(NP) was varied up to 50 wt % in order to understand the composition effect of ZnO(NP) on the performance of HPTRs. The morphology and nanostructure of the P3HT:ZnO(NP) films was examined by employing high resolution electron microscopes and synchrotron radiation grazing angle X-ray diffraction system. The incident light intensity (P(IN)) was varied up to 43.6 μW/cm², whereas three major wavelengths (525 nm, 555 nm, 605 nm) corresponded to the optical absorption of P3HT were applied. Results showed that the present HPTRs showed typical p-type transistor performance even though the n-type ZnO(NP) content increased up to 50 wt %. The highest transistor performance was obtained at 50 wt %, whereas the lowest performance was measured at 23 wt % because of the immature bulk heterojunction morphology. The drain current (I(D)) was proportionally increased with P(IN) due to the photocurrent generation in addition to the field-effect current. The highest apparent and corrected responsivities (R(A) = 4.7 A/W and R(C) = 2.07 A/W) were achieved for the HPTR with the P3HT:ZnO(NP) film (50 wt % ZnO(NP)) at P(IN) = 0.27 μW/cm² (555 nm).

  1. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of graphene oxide-reinforced poly (acrylic acid)/gelatin composite hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Shahab; Gheysour, Mahsa; Karimi, Alireza; Salarian, Reza

    2014-02-01

    Hydrogels have found many practical uses in drug release, wound dressing, and tissue engineering. However, their applications are restricted due to their weak mechanical properties. The role of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONS) as reinforcement agent in poly (acrylic acid) (PAA)/Gelatin (Gel) composite hydrogels is investigated. Composite hydrogels are synthesized by thermal initiated redox polymerization method. Samples are then prepared with 20 and 40 wt. % of PAA, an increasing amount of GONS (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 wt. %), and a constant amount of Gel. Subsequently, cylindrical hydrogel samples are subjected to a series of compression tests in order to measure their elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain. The results exhibit that the addition of GONS increases the Young's modulus and maximum stress of hydrogels significantly as compared with control (0.0 wt. % GONS). The highest Young's modulus is observed for hydrogel with GO (0.2 wt. %)/PAA (20 wt. %), whereas the highest maximum stress is detected for GO (0.2 wt. %)/PAA (40 wt. %) specimen. The addition of higher amounts of GONS leads to a decrease in the maximum stress of the hydrogel GO (0.3 wt. %)/PAA (40 wt. %). No significant differences are detected for the maximum strain among the hydrogel samples, as the amount of GONS increased. These results suggest that the application of GONS could be used to improve mechanical properties of hydrogel materials. This study may provide an alternative for the fabrication of low-cost graphene/polymer composites with enhanced mechanical properties beneficial for tissue engineering applications.

  2. Ionic conductivity in polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide)/lithium perchlorate solid polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilherme, L.A.; Borges, R.S.; Moraes, E. Mara S.; Silva, G. Goulart; Pimenta, M.A.; Marletta, A.; Silva, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    The ionic conductivity and phase arrangement of solid polymeric electrolytes based on the block copolymer polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PE-b-PEO) and LiClO 4 have been investigated. One set of electrolytes was prepared from copolymers with 75% of PEO units and another set was based on a blend of copolymer with 50% PEO units and homopolymers. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, for electrolytes based on the copolymer with 75% of PEO units, were dominated by the PEO phase. The PEO block crystallinity dropped and the glass transition increased with salt addition due to the coordination of the cation by PEO oxygen. The conductivity for copolymers 75% PEO-based electrolyte with 15 wt% of salt was higher than 10 -5 S/cm at room temperature and reached to 10 -3 S/cm at 100 deg. C on a heating measurement. The blend of PE-b-PEO (50% PEO)/PEO/PE showed a complex thermal behavior with decoupled melting of the blocks and the homopolymers. Upon salt addition the endotherms associated with PEO domains disappeared and the PE crystals remained untouched. The conductivity results were limited at 100 deg. C to values close to 10 -4 S/cm and at room temperature values close to 3 x 10 -6 S/cm were obtained for the 15 wt% salt electrolyte. Raman study showed that the ionic association of the highly concentrated blend electrolytes at room temperature is not significant. Therefore, the lower values of conductivity in the case of the blend with 50% PEO can be assigned to the higher content of PE domains leading to a morphology with lower connectivity for ionic conduction both in the crystalline and melted state of the PE domains

  3. Polyanionic pH-responsive polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinyl pyridine-N-oxide) isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Shevate, Rahul

    2015-12-01

    Recently isoporous block copolymer (BCP) membranes obtained by non-solvent induced phase separation gained a lot of attention due to their highly ordered surface layer, high flux and superior separation properties. These polystyrene-b-poly-4-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P4VP) based membranes showed a strong flux dependence of pH; pores closed at low pH and opened at high pH. The pH-response could now be reversed by a simple post modification; pores are now opening at low pH and closing at high pH. The original membrane was transformed into a polyanionic pH responsive membrane in a one step chemical modification without affecting the isoporous surface morphology. A polystyrene-b-poly-4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide (PS-b-P4VPN-oxide) membrane is obtained by selective oxidation of the PS-b-P4VP membrane. The in situ generated peracid obtained by reacting acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide is employed for oxidation. Surprisingly not only the asymmetric membrane structure with the isoporous skin was retained, but also the mechanical and chemical membrane stability was improved significantly. The modified membranes are insoluble in solvents like DMF, NMP and DMSO. Two kinds of PS-b-P4VP based isoporous membranes are available now with reverse flux response to pH. This opens the door to new interesting charge based fractionations.

  4. Flow injection analysis of sulphide based on its photoelectrocatalytic oxidation at poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilgin, Yusuf; Canarslan, Seda; Ayyildiz, Onder; Ertek, Bensu; Nişli, Gürel

    2012-01-01

    A new approach for photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was studied using a poly-methylene blue modified glassy carbon electrode (poly-MB/GCE). Results from electrochemical measurements have revealed that poly-MB/GCE is capable of signalling electrocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity towards sulphide oxidation. When the surface of poly-MB/GCE was irradiated with a light source (250 W Halogen lamp), the electrocatalytic current increased substantially. A homemade flow electrochemical cell with a suitable transparent window for the irradiation of the electrode surface was used to perform the photoelectrocatalytic determination of sulphide in FIA system. The currents obtained from the photoamperometric measurements in the FIA system at optimum conditions (carrier solution: pH 9.0 Britton Robinson buffer solution containing 0.1 M KCl; flow rate: 1.3 mL min −1 ; transmission tubing length: 10 cm; injection volume: 100 μL; and constant applied potential: +150 mV vs. Ag/AgCl/KCl sat ) were linearly correlated with the sulphide concentration. The calibration curves were obtained for sulphide concentrations in a range of 0.5–500 μM. The detection limits were found to be 0.27 and 0.15 μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to different wastewaters such as municipal sewage or tannery wastewater. Finally, results from the sulphide measurements by poly-MB/GCE were in good agreement with those attained using spectrophotometric method.

  5. High-efficiency synthesis of dendrimer-like poly(ethylene oxide) via “arm-first” approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Saisai

    2017-04-14

    In this study, a dendrimer-like polymer based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was synthesized through a combination of anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP) and click reaction via arm-first method. Firstly, the polymeric arm, a linear PEO with one alkynyl group and two bromo groups, was synthesized by AROP of ethylene oxide followed by functionalization with propargyl bromide and esterified with 2-bromopropionic bromide. Second, a star PEO carrying three azide groups was synthesized though AROP of ethylene oxide used 1,1,1-tris(hydrosymethyl) ethane as initiator followed esterificated with 2-bromopropionic acid and azidation. By azide–alkyne click reactions between the azide-terminated PEO star polymer and linear PEO with functionalization alkynyl group, a three generation dendrimer-like PEO, G3-PEO-24Br, was successfully synthesized. The resulting polymers were observed to have precisely controlled molecular weights and compositions with narrow molecular weight distributions.

  6. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  7. Dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide) in a blend with poly(methyl methacrylate): A quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genix, A.-C.; Arbe, A.; Alvarez, F.; Colmenero, J.; Willner, L.; Richter, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we have addressed the question of the dynamic miscibility in a blend characterized by very different glass-transition temperatures, T g , for the components: poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PMMA). The combination of quasielastic neutron scattering with isotopic labeling and fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations has allowed us to selectively investigate the dynamics of the two components in the picosecond--10 nanoseconds scale at temperatures close and above the T g of the blend. The main focus was on the PEO component, i.e., that of the lowest T g , but first we have characterized the dynamics of the other component in the blend and of the pure PEO homopolymer as reference. In the region investigated, the dynamics of PMMA in the blend is strongly affected by the α-methyl rotation; an additional process detected in the experimental window 65 K above the blend-T g can be identified as the merged αβ process of this component that shows strong deviations from Gaussian behavior. On the other hand, pure PEO displays entropy driven dynamics up to very large momentum transfers. Such kind of motion seems to freeze when the PEO chains are in the blend. There, we have directly observed a very heterogeneous and moreover confined dynamics for the PEO component. The presence of the hardly moving PMMA matrix leads to the creation of little pockets of mobility where PEO can move. The characteristic size of such confined islands of mobility might be estimated to be of ≅1 nm. These findings are corroborated by the simulation study, which has been an essential support and guide in our data analysis procedure

  8. Conformational sensitivity of conjugated poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(amidoamine) molecules to cations adducted upon electrospray ionization – A mass spectrometry, ion mobility and molecular modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintaru, Aura [Aix-Marseille Université – CNRS, UMR 7273, Institut de Chimie Radicalaire, Marseille (France); Chendo, Christophe [Aix-Marseille Université – CNRS, FR 1739, Fédération des Sciences Chimiques de Marseille, Spectropole, Marseille (France); Wang, Qi [Aix-Marseille Université – CNRS, UMR 6114, Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanosciences de Marseille, Marseille (France); Viel, Stéphane [Aix-Marseille Université – CNRS, UMR 7273, Institut de Chimie Radicalaire, Marseille (France); Quéléver, Gilles; Peng, Ling [Aix-Marseille Université – CNRS, UMR 6114, Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanosciences de Marseille, Marseille (France); Posocco, Paola [University of Trieste, Molecular Simulation Engineering (MOSE) Laboratory, Department of Engineering and Architecture (DEA), Trieste (Italy); National Interuniversity Consortium for Material Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit MOSE-DEA, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Pricl, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.pricl@di3.units.it [University of Trieste, Molecular Simulation Engineering (MOSE) Laboratory, Department of Engineering and Architecture (DEA), Trieste (Italy); National Interuniversity Consortium for Material Science and Technology (INSTM), Research Unit MOSE-DEA, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Charles, Laurence, E-mail: laurence.charles@univ-amu.fr [Aix-Marseille Université – CNRS, UMR 7273, Institut de Chimie Radicalaire, Marseille (France)

    2014-01-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •ESI-MS/MS, IMS and molecular modeling were combined to study PEO-PAMAM conformation. •Protonated and lithiated molecules were studied, with charge states from 2 to 4. •Protonation mostly occurred on PAMAM, with PEO units enclosing the protonated group. •Lithium adduction on PEO units lead to more expanded conformations. •Charge location strongly influenced PEO-PAMAM dissociation behavior. -- Abstract: Tandem mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry experiments were performed on multiply charged molecules formed upon conjugation of a poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linear polymer to evidence any conformational modification as a function of their charge state (2+ to 4+) and of the adducted cation (H{sup +}vs Li{sup +}). Experimental findings were rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations. The G0 PAMAM head-group could accommodate up to three protons, with protonated terminal amine group enclosed in a pseudo 18-crown-6 ring formed by the PEO segment. This particular conformation enabled a hydrogen bond network which allowed long-range proton transfer to occur during collisionally activated dissociation. In contrast, lithium adduction was found to mainly occur onto oxygen atoms of the polyether, each Li{sup +} cation being coordinated by a 12-crown-4 pseudo structure. As a result, for the studied polymeric segment (M{sub n} = 1500 g mol{sup −1}), PEO-PAMAM hybrid molecules exhibited a more expanded shape when adducted to lithium as compared to proton.

  9. Novel self-associating poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) based drug conjugates and nano-containers for paclitaxel delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Mostafa; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2010-04-15

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) copolymers bearing paclitaxel (PTX) side groups on PCL (PEO-b-P(CL-PTX) were synthesized and assembled to particles of 123 nm average diameter. At 20% (w/w) PTX to polymer conjugation, PEO-b-P(CL-PTX) demonstrated only 5.0 and 6.7% PTX release after 72 h incubation at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, but revealed signs of chain cleavage at pH 5.0. The cytotoxicity of PEO-b-P(CL-PTX) against MDA-MB-435 cancer cells increased as incubation time was raised from 72 to 96 h (IC(50) of 680 and 475 ng/mL, respectively), but it was still significantly lower than the cytotoxicity of free PTX (IC(50) of 3.5 ng/mL at 72 h). In further studies, micelles of PEO-b-PCL and those bearing benzyl or PTX on PCL were used for physical encapsulation of PTX, where maximum level of loading was achieved by PEO-b-P(CL-PTX) (2.22%, w/w). The release of PTX from this carrier was rapid; however. The in vitro cytotoxicity of physically loaded PTX was independent of carrier and similar to that of free PTX. This was attributed to the low concentration of polymers which fell below their critical micellar concentration in the cytotoxicity study. The results point to the potential of chemically tailored PEO-b-PCL for optimum PTX solubilization and delivery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity evaluation of methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) polymeric micelles following multiple oral and intraperitoneal administration to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkhathlan, Ziyad; Qamar, Wajhul; Ali, Raisuddin; Kfoury, Hala; Alghonaim, Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)- block -poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEO- b -PCL) copolymers are amphiphilic and biodegradable copolymers designed to deliver a variety of drugs and diagnostic agents. The aim of this study was to synthesize PEO- b -PCL block copolymers and assess the toxic effects of drug-free PEO- b -PCL micelles after multiple-dose administrations via oral or intraperitoneal (ip) administration in rats. Assembly of block copolymers was achieved by co-solvent evaporation method. To investigate the toxicity profile of PEO- b -PCL micelles, sixty animals were divided into two major groups: The first group received PEO- b -PCL micelles (100 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for seven days, while the other group received the same dose of micelles by ip injections daily for seven days. Twenty-four hours following the last dose, half of the animals from each group were sacrificed and blood and organs (lung, liver, kidneys, heart and spleen) were collected. Remaining animals were observed for further 14 days and was sacrificed at the end of the third week, and blood and organs were collected. None of the polymeric micelles administered caused any significant effects on relative organ weight, animal body weight, leucocytes count, % lymphocytes, liver and kidney toxicity markers and organs histology. Although the dose of copolymers used in this study is much higher than those used for drug delivery, it did not cause any significant toxic effects in rats. Histological examination of all the organs confirmed the nontoxic nature of the micelles.

  11. Toxicity evaluation of methoxy poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(ε-caprolactone polymeric micelles following multiple oral and intraperitoneal administration to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad Binkhathlan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methoxy poly(ethylene oxide-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone (PEO-b-PCL copolymers are amphiphilic and biodegradable copolymers designed to deliver a variety of drugs and diagnostic agents. The aim of this study was to synthesize PEO-b-PCL block copolymers and assess the toxic effects of drug-free PEO-b-PCL micelles after multiple-dose administrations via oral or intraperitoneal (ip administration in rats. Assembly of block copolymers was achieved by co-solvent evaporation method. To investigate the toxicity profile of PEO-b-PCL micelles, sixty animals were divided into two major groups: The first group received PEO-b-PCL micelles (100 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for seven days, while the other group received the same dose of micelles by ip injections daily for seven days. Twenty-four hours following the last dose, half of the animals from each group were sacrificed and blood and organs (lung, liver, kidneys, heart and spleen were collected. Remaining animals were observed for further 14 days and was sacrificed at the end of the third week, and blood and organs were collected. None of the polymeric micelles administered caused any significant effects on relative organ weight, animal body weight, leucocytes count, % lymphocytes, liver and kidney toxicity markers and organs histology. Although the dose of copolymers used in this study is much higher than those used for drug delivery, it did not cause any significant toxic effects in rats. Histological examination of all the organs confirmed the nontoxic nature of the micelles.

  12. Development of Iron-Chelating Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Packaging for Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R; Tian, Fang; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-05-27

    Foods such as bulk oils, salad dressings, and nutritionally fortified beverages that are susceptible to oxidative degradation are often packaged in poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles with metal chelators added to the food to maintain product quality. In the present work, a metal-chelating active packaging material is designed and characterized, in which poly(hydroxamic acid) (PHA) metal-chelating moieties were grafted from the surface of PET. Biomimetic PHA groups were grafted in a two-step UV-initiated process without the use of a photoinitiator. Surface characterization of the films by attenuated total reflective Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested successful grafting and conversion of poly(hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA) to PHA chelating moieties from the surface of PET. Colorimetric (ferrozine) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) assays demonstrated the ability of PET-g-PHA to chelate iron in a low-pH (3.0) environment containing a competitive metal chelator (citric acid). Lipid oxidation studies demonstrated the antioxidant activity of PET-g-PHA films in inhibiting iron-promoted oxidation in an acidified oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion model system (pH 3.0). Particle size and ζ-potential analysis indicated that the addition of PET-g-PHA films did not affect the physical stability of the emulsion system. This work suggests that biomimetic chelating moieties can be grafted from PET and effectively inhibit iron-promoted degradation reactions, enabling removal of metal-chelating additives from product formulations.

  13. Oxygen optical gas sensing by reversible fluorescence quenching in photo-oxidized poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anni, M; Rella, R

    2010-02-04

    We investigated the fluorescence (FL) dependence on the environment oxygen content of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PF8) thin films. We show that the PF8 interactions with oxygen are not limited to the known irreversible photo-oxidation, resulting in the formation of Keto defects, but also reversible FL quenching is observed. This effect, which is stronger for the Keto defects than for the PF8, has been exploited for the realization of a prototype oxygen sensor based on FL quenching. The sensing sensitivity of Keto defects is comparable with the state of the art organic oxygen sensors based on phosphorescence quenching.

  14. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1996-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  15. A fixed cations and low Tg polymer: the poly(4-vinyl-pyridine) quaternized by poly(ethylene oxide) links. Conductivity study; Un electrolyte polymere a cations fixes et bas Tg: les poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternisees par des chainons de poly(oxyde d`ethylene). Etude de la conductivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramain, Ph [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Montpellier, 34 (France); Frere, Y [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Institut Charles Sadron

    1997-12-31

    The spontaneous ionic polymerization of 4-vinyl-pyridine in presence of mono-tosylated or bromated short chains of poly(ethylene oxide)-(PEO) is used to prepare amorphous comb-like poly-cations with low Tg. The polymer electrolyte properties of these new structures have been studied without any addition of salts. The ionic conductivity of these fixed cation poly-electrolytes depends on the length of the grafted PEO and varies from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -4} S/cm between 25 and 80 deg. C. It is only weakly dependent on the nature of the cation but it is controlled by the movements of the pyridinium cation which are facilitated by the plastifying effect of the POE chains which do not directly participate to the ionic transport. (J.S.) 17 refs.

  16. Supramolecular Nanostructures Based on Cyclodextrin and Poly(ethylene oxide: Syntheses, Structural Characterizations and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrins (CDs have been extensively studied as drug delivery carriers through host–guest interactions. CD-based poly(pseudorotaxanes, which are composed of one or more CD rings threading on the polymer chain with or without bulky groups (or stoppers, have attracted great interest in the development of supramolecular biomaterials. Poly(ethylene oxide (PEO is a water-soluble, biocompatible polymer. Depending on the molecular weight, PEO can be used as a plasticizer or as a toughening agent. Moreover, the hydrogels of PEO are also extensively studied because of their outstanding characteristics in biological drug delivery systems. These biomaterials based on CD and PEO for controlled drug delivery have received increasing attention in recent years. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in supramolecular architectures, focusing on poly(pseudorotaxanes, vesicles and supramolecular hydrogels based on CDs and PEO for drug delivery. Particular focus will be devoted to the structures and properties of supramolecular copolymers based on these materials as well as their use for the design and synthesis of supramolecular hydrogels. Moreover, the various applications of drug delivery techniques such as drug absorption, controlled release and drug targeting based CD/PEO supramolecular complexes, are also discussed.

  17. Enhancement of stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of poly(ethylene oxide) using phenoxy-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bingxing; Shi Jiahua; Pramoda, K P; Goh, Suat Hong

    2007-01-01

    Phenoxy (poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol-A), also known as poly(bisphenol-A-co-epichlorohydrin)) was grafted onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by a reactive blending process. Reactions between terminal glycidyl groups of phenoxy and carboxylic acid groups of acidified MWNTs resulted in the grafting of phenoxy chains onto MWNTs. The mechanical properties of composites of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and phenoxy-grafted MWNTs were studied. The miscibility between PEO and phenoxy enabled the good dispersion of nanotubes in the PEO matrix as evidenced by polarized optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The spherulite size of PEO progressively decreased with increasing amount of phenoxy-grafted MWNTs added. At an optimal MWNT content of 1.5 wt%, the addition of phenoxy-grafted MWNTs led to increases of storage modulus, Young's modulus, yield stress, tensile strength, ultimate strain, and toughness of PEO by 113, 228, 166, 442, 1240, and 4080%, respectively. Such simultaneous increases in stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness of a polymer by an additive are rather uncommon

  18. Electrical and optical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) and AuCl3-doped reduced graphene oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube films for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Ryong; Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Heon; Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Tae Geun

    2014-12-01

    We report the effects of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) oxidized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and gold chloride (AuCl) co-doping on the electrical and optical properties of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) films fabricated by dipcoating methods. The RGO/SWNT films were doped with both AuCl3 dissolved in nitromethane and PSS hole injection layers by spin coating to improve their electrical properties by increasing the work function of the RGO/SWNT films, thereby reducing the Schottky barrier height between the RGO/SWNT and p-GaN films. As a result, we obtained a reduced sheet resistance of 851.9 Ω/Ω and a contact resistance of 1.97 x 10(-1) Ω x cm2, together with a high transmittance of 84.1% at 380 nm. The contact resistance of these films should be further reduced to fully utilize the feature of the electrode scheme proposed in this work, but the current result suggests its potential use as a transparent conductive electrode for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

  19. In situ chemical oxidative polymerization preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/graphene nanocomposites with enhanced thermoelectric performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kongli; Chen, Guangming; Qiu, Dong

    2015-05-01

    Three different in situ chemical oxidative polymerization routes, that is, (A) spin-coating and subsequent liquid layer polymerization, (B) spin-coating followed by vapor phase polymerization, and (C) in situ polymerization and then post-treatment by immersion in ethylene glycol (EG), have been developed to achieve poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide (PEDOT/rGO) nanocomposites. As demonstrated by scanning electron microscopic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic techniques, PEDOT has been successfully coated on the surface of the rGO nanosheets by each of the three preparation routes. Importantly, all of the nanocomposites display a greatly enhanced thermoelectric performance (power factors) relative to those of the corresponding neat PEDOT. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Reduced Graphene Oxide on Poly(lactic acid and Plasticized Poly(lactic acid: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The superlative mechanical properties of graphene-based materials make them the ideal filler materials for polymer composites reinforcement. Two types of graphene-based materials, graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, were used as nanofiller in poly(lactic acid (PLA polymer matrix, as well as plasticized PLA. The addition of rGO into PLA or plasticized PLA substantially enhanced the tensile strength without deteriorating elasticity, compared to xGnP nanocomposites. In addition, the investigation of the thermal properties has found that the presence of rGO in the system is very beneficial for improving thermal stability of the PLA or plasticized PLA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the rGO nanocomposites display homogenous and good uniformity morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the rGO remained intact as graphene sheet layers and were dispersed well into the polymer matrix, and it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD results, which shows no graphitic peak in the XRD pattern.

  1. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Sixun

    2012-01-01

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and α,ω-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic–inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic–inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: ► POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. ► The organic–inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. ► The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. ► The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.

  2. Comblike poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers as anti-infection surface modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-ngam, Katanchalee

    2006-05-01

    A series of structurally well-defined poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers that undergo surface induced self assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces were synthesized and characterized. The surfactant polymers consist of low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan backbone with hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic hexyl pendant groups. Chitosan was depolymerized by nitrous acid deaminative cleavage. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated PEO chains were simultaneously attached to low Mw chitosan hydrochloride via reductive amination. The surfactant polymers were prepared with various ratios of the two side chains. The molecular composition of the surfactant polymers was determined by FT-IR and 1H NMR. Surface active properties at the air-water interface were determined by Langmuir film balance measurements. The surfactant polymers with PEO/hexyl ratios of 1:3.0 and 1:14.4 were used as surface modifying agents to investigate their anti-infection properties. E. coli adhesion on Silastic surface was decreased significantly by the surfactant polymer with PEO/hexyl 1:3.0. Surface growth of adherent E. coli was effectively suppressed by both tested surfactant polymers.

  3. Highly Controlled Diffusion Drug Release from Ureasil-Poly(ethylene oxide)-Na+-Montmorillonite Hybrid Hydrogel Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Celso R N; Molina, Eduardo F; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V

    2018-06-06

    In this work, we report the effects of incorporation of variable amounts (1-20 wt %) of sodium montmorillonite (MMT) into a siloxane-poly(ethylene oxide) hybrid hydrogel prepared by the sol-gel route. The aim was to control the nanostructural features of the nanocomposite, improve the release profile of the sodium diclofenac (SDCF) drug, and optimize the swelling behavior of the hydrophilic matrix. The nanoscopic characteristics of the siloxane-cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) network, the semicrystallinity of the hybrid, and the intercalated or exfoliated structure of the clay were investigated by X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and differential scanning calorimetry. The correlation between the nanoscopic features of nanocomposites containing different amounts of MMT and the swelling behavior revealed the key role of exfoliated silicate in controlling the water uptake by means of a flow barrier effect. The release of the drug from the nanocomposite displayed a stepped pattern kinetically controlled by the diffusion of SDCF molecules through the mass transport barrier created by the exfoliated silicate. The sustained SDCF release provided by the hybrid hydrogel nanocomposite could be useful for the prolonged treatment of painful conditions, such as arthritis, sprains and strains, gout, migraine, and pain after surgical procedures.

  4. Membranes of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) Modified by Poly(ethylene glycol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Gisela; Neumann, Silvio; Filiz, Volkan

    2017-06-05

    Until now, the leading polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 has become quite famous for its high membrane permeability for many gases in gas separation, linked, however, to a rather moderate selectivity. The combination with the hydrophilic and low permeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxides) (PEO) should on the one hand reduce permeability, while on the other hand enhance selectivity, especially for the polar gas CO₂ by improving the hydrophilicity of the membranes. Four different paths to combine PIM-1 with PEG or poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were studied: physically blending, quenching of polycondensation, synthesis of multiblock copolymers and synthesis of copolymers with PEO/PPO side chain. Blends and new, chemically linked polymers were successfully formed into free standing dense membranes and measured in single gas permeation of N₂, O₂, CO₂ and CH₄ by time lag method. As expected, permeability was lowered by any substantial addition of PEG/PEO/PPO regardless the manufacturing process and proportionally to the added amount. About 6 to 7 wt % of PEG/PEO/PPO added to PIM-1 halved permeability compared to PIM-1 membrane prepared under similar conditions. Consequently, selectivity from single gas measurements increased up to values of about 30 for CO₂/N₂ gas pair, a maximum of 18 for CO₂/CH₄ and 3.5 for O₂/N₂.

  5. A poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) device for sustained release of an anti-glaucoma drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natu, Madalina V; De Sousa, HermInio C; Gil, M H [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290, Coimbra (Portugal); Gaspar, Manuel N; Fontes Ribeiro, Carlos A [Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas, 3000-354, Coimbra (Portugal); Correia, IlIdio J; Silva, Daniela, E-mail: hgil@eq.uc.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2011-04-15

    Implantable dorzolamide-loaded discs were prepared by blending poly({epsilon}-caprolactone), PCL, with poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide), Lu. By blending, crystallinity, water uptake and mass loss were modified relative to the pure polymers. Burst was diminished by coating the discs with a PCL shell. All samples presented burst release except PCL-coated samples that showed controlled release during 18 days. For PCL-coated samples, barrier control of diffusion coupled with partition control from the core slowed down the release, while for 50/50 Lu/PCL-coated samples, the enhancement in the porosity of the core diminished partition control of drug release. Nonlinear regression analysis suggested that a degradation model fully describes the release curve considering a triphasic release mechanism: the instantaneous diffusion (burst), diffusion and polymer degradation stages. The MTT test indicated that the materials are not cytotoxic for corneal endothelial cells. A good in vitro-in vivo correlation was obtained, with similar amounts of drug released in vitro and in vivo. The discs decreased intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbit eyes by 13.0% during 10 days for PCL-coated and by 13.0% during 4 days for 50/50 Lu/PCL-coated samples. The percentages of IOP decrease are similar to those obtained by dorzolamide eyedrop instillation (11.0%).

  6. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt Particles Supported on Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene RGO/PEDOT Composite towards Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Raphael F. Foronda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts in fuel cells are normally platinum based because platinum exhibits high electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in acidic medium. However, bulk Pt is expensive and rare in nature. To reduce the consumption of Pt, a support material or matrix is needed to disperse Pt on its surface as micro- or nanoparticles with potential application as anode material in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs. In this study, a composite material consisting of platinum particles dispersed on reduced graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (RGO/PEDOT support was electrochemically prepared for ethanol oxidation in sulfuric acid electrolyte. PEDOT, a conductive polymer, was potentiodynamically polymerized from the corresponding monomer, 0.10 M EDOT in 0.10 M HClO4 electrolyte. The PEDOT-modified electrode was used as a substrate for exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO which was prepared by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite from carbon rod of spent batteries and subsequently reduced to form RGO. The Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite gave the highest electrocatalytic activity with an anodic current density of 2688.7 mA·cm−2 at E = 0.70 V (versus Ag/AgCl towards ethanol oxidation compared to bare Pt electrode and other composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed the surface morphology of the hybrid composites while energy dispersive X-ray (EDX confirmed the presence of all the elements for the Pt/RGO/PEDOT composite.

  7. Cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel in biodegradable self-assembled core-shell poly(lactide-co-glycolide ethylene oxide fumarate) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuezhong; Ma, Junyu; Mercado, Angel E; Xu, Weijie; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2008-07-01

    Biodegradable core-shell polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic shell, are developed for surfactant-free encapsulation and delivery of Paclitaxel to tumor cells. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide fumarate) (PLGF) and Poly (lactide-fumarate) (PLAF) were synthesized by condensation polymerization of ultra-low molecular weight poly(L: -lactide-co-glycolide) (ULMW PLGA) with fumaryl chloride (FuCl). Similarly, poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) macromer was synthesized by reacting ultra-low molecular weight poly(L: -lactide) (ULMW PLA) and PEG with FuCl. The blend PLGF/PLEOF and PLAF/PLEOF macromers were self-assembled into NPs by dialysis. The NPs were characterized with respect to particle size distribution, morphology, and loading efficiency. The physical state and miscibility of Paclitaxel in NPs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Tumor cell uptake and cytotoxicity of Paclitaxel loaded NPs were measured by incubation with HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. The distribution of NPs in vivo was assessed with Apc(Min/+)mouse using infrared imaging. PLEOF macromer, due to its amphiphilic nature, acted as a surface active agent in the process of self-assembly which produced core-shell NPs with PLGF/PLAF and PLEOF macromers as the core and shell, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 70 to 56% and it was independent of the macromer but decreased with increasing concentration of Paclitaxel. Most of the PLGF and PLAF NPs degraded in 15 and 28 days, respectively, which demonstrated that the release was dominated by hydrolytic degradation and erosion of the matrix. As the concentration of Paclitaxel was increased from 0 to 10, and 40 mug/ml, the viability of HCT116 cells incubated with free Paclitaxel decreased from 100 to 65 and 40%, respectively, while those encapsulated in PLGF/PLEOF NPs decreased from 93 to 54 and 28%. Groups with Paclitaxel loaded NPs had higher cytotoxicity compared to

  8. International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state propylene (propene)

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S; De Reuck, K M

    2013-01-01

    International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State - 7 Propylene (Propene) is a compilation of internationally agreed values of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of propylene. This book is composed of three chapters, and begins with the presentation of experimental result of thermodynamic studies compared with the equations used to generate the tables. The succeeding chapter deals with correlating equations for thermodynamic property determination of propylene. The last chapter provides the tabulations of the propylene's thermodynamic properties and constants. This book will prove

  9. Kinetic modelling of radiochemical ageing of ethylene-propylene copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, Xavier; Richaud, Emmanuel; Verdu, Jacques; Monchy-Leroy, Carole

    2010-01-01

    A non-empirical kinetic model has been built for describing the general trends of radiooxidation kinetics of ethylene-propylene copolymers (EPR) at low γ dose rate and low temperature. It is derived from a radical chain oxidation mechanism composed of 30 elementary reactions: 19 relative to oxidation of methylene and methyne units plus 11 relative to their eventual cooxidation. The validity of this model has been already checked successfully elsewhere for one homopolymer: polyethylene (PE) (; ). In the present study, it is now checked for polypropylene (PP) and a series of three EPR differing essentially by their mole fraction of ethylene (37%, 73% and 86%) and their crystallinity degree (0%, 5% and 26%). Predicted values of radiation-chemical yields are in good agreement with experimental ones published in the last half past century.

  10. Engineering a multi-biofunctional composite using poly(ethylenimine) decorated graphene oxide for bone tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Raj, Shammy; Sarkar, Kishor; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2016-03-01

    Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble osteoinductive factors. Increased adsorption of osteogenic factors due to the amine and oxygen containing functional groups on GO_PEI augment stem cell differentiation. GO_PEI was also highly efficient in imparting bactericidal activity with 85% reduction in counts of E. coli colonies compared to neat PCL at 5% filler content and was more than twice as efficient as GO. This may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the sharp edges of the particles along with the presence of the different chemical moieties. Thus, GO_PEI based polymer composites can be utilized to prepare bioactive resorbable biomaterials as an alternative to using labile biomolecules for fabricating orthopedic devices for fracture fixation and tissue engineering.Toward preparing strong multi-biofunctional materials, poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) conjugated graphene oxide (GO_PEI) was synthesized using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a spacer and incorporated in poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) at different fractions. GO_PEI significantly promoted the proliferation and formation of focal adhesions in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on PCL. GO_PEI was highly potent in inducing stem cell osteogenesis leading to near doubling of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization over neat PCL with 5% filler content and was ~50% better than GO. Remarkably, 5% GO_PEI was as potent as soluble

  11. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun

    2017-02-01

    An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young's modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler-matrix interface, in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification was a good choice to prepare graphene/PVA nanocomposite with excellent mechanical properties.

  12. A novel nitric oxide-based anticancer therapeutics by macrophage-targeted poly(l-arginine)-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Shinpei; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2015-11-10

    In the immune system, macrophages in tumor tissue generate nitric oxide (NO), producing versatile effects including apoptosis of tumor cells, because inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the cytoplasm of a macrophage produces NO using l-arginine as a substrate. Here, we propose novel NO-triggered immune therapeutics based on our newly designed nanoparticle system. We designed a poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-arginine) (i.e., PEG-b-P(l-Arg)) block copolymer and prepared polyion complex micelles (PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m) composed of PEG-b-P(l-Arg) and chondroitin sulfate for systemic anticancer immunotherapy. iNOS treatment of PEG-b-P(l-Arg) did not generate NO, but NO molecules were detected after trypsin pretreatment, indicating that hydrolysis of P(l-Arg) to monomeric arginine was taking place in vitro. RAW264.7 macrophages abundantly generated NO from the PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m in comparison with control micelles; this finding is indicative of robustness of the proposed method. It is interesting to note that systemic administration of PEG-b-P(l-Arg)/m had no noticeable adverse effects and suppressed the tumor growth rate in C26 tumor-bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner. Our newly designed nanoparticle-assisted arginine delivery system seems to hold promise as an NO-mediated anticancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4 phenylene oxide). II. Differential scanning calorimetry of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The phase-separation phenomena observed in solutions of poly(2,6 dimethyl-1,4 phenylene oxide) in toluene have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. These measurements supplement the experimental evidence in favor of the concept that the phase transitions observed are

  14. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). III. Pulse-induced critical scattering of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Gordon, M.

    1977-01-01

    For the polymer-solvent system poly(phenylene oxide) in toluene the mechanism and kinetics of crystallization have been studied with the Pulse Induced Critical Scattering technique. It was found that after a delay-time the growth mechanism was diffusion controlled. The delay-time is thought to be

  15. Phase-separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). I. Thermodynamic parameters of solutions in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    New experimental data have been collected on thermodynamic properties of solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) in toluene. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameters g have been determined from light scattering measurements. These values are in agreement with values obtained by

  16. Chemical synthesis, characterization and electro-oxidation of hydrazine via a carbon paste electrode modified with poly (P-phenylendiamine/Al2O3) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamgholizadeh, Abbas; Omrani, Abdollah; Rostami, Abbas Ali

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel nanocomposite based on poly (P-phenylendiamine)/alumina was synthesized. ► It was observed that the nanocomposite increased the surface catalytic activity of CPE toward oxidation of hydrazine. ► The EIS measurements showed that the values of R ct decreases by the nanoalumina presence. - Abstract: In this article, the chemical synthesis and characterization of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersed into poly (P-phenylendiamine) (PpDP) was reported. The morphology, conductivity and structure of the nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), four probe testing and XRD experiment, respectively. Catalytic activity and stability for the oxidation of hydrazine were studied by using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the nanocomposite significantly enhances the effective surface area and the catalytic activity of the CPE (carbon paste electrode) for oxidation of hydrazine. The results obtained confirmed that the dispersion of the Al 2 O 3 particles is connected with catalytic response to a higher activity. The nanotubular morphology of poly (P-phenylendiamine) helps in the effective dispersion of Al 2 O 3 particles facilitating the easier access of hydrazine to the catalytic sites. The poly (P-phenylendiamine) nanotubes modified with Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles cause a great increase in electroactivity and the electro-catalytic properties of CPE for hydrazine oxidation.

  17. Anionic catalyst binders based on trimethylamine-quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) for alkaline electrolyzers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Hnát, J.; Brožová, Libuše; Žitka, Jan; Bouzek, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 473, 1 January (2015), s. 267-273 ISSN 0376-7388 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) * bromination * trimethylamine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.557, year: 2015

  18. Comparison between Cellulose Nanocrystal and Cellulose Nanofibril Reinforced Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanofibers and Their Novel Shish-Kebab-Like Crystalline Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuezhu Xu; Haoran Wang; Long Jiang; Xinnan Wang; Scott A. Payne; J.Y. Zhu; Ruipeng Li

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanofiber mats were produced by electrospinning. Biobased cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) as reinforcement nanofillers were also added to the polymer to produce composite nanofiber mats. The effects of the two cellulose nanofillers on the rheological properties of the PEO solutions and the microstructure,...

  19. Water-soluble building blocks for terpyridine-containing supramolecular polymers : synthesis, complexation, and pH stability studies of poly(ethylene oxide) moieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeijer, B.G.G.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) of various molecular weights ([bar M ]n = 3 000, 5 200, 10 000, 16 500 g · mol-1) has been modified with terpyridine end groups as building blocks for water-soluble metallo-supramolecular polymers. Metallo-supramolecular A-A homopolymers have been prepared and characterized by

  20. Electrocatalytic oxidations of pyridine derivatives using Ru(IV) poly pyridine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.M. de.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation reactions electro catalysed by bi pyridine oxo tri pyridine ruthenium perchlorate metallic complex from selected organic substrates are studied. The obtained results are compared with forecasting results showing the coherence of suggested mechanism. The substrates 2-, 2- and 4- picolines with its respective 1-oxides and 1,2 -; 1,3 - and 1,4 - dimethyl pyridine chloride salts were analysed. The oxidation of toluene as reference substrate was also studied and the mass spectra of oxidation products were interpreted. (M.C.K.)

  1. Effects of UV Aging on the Cracking of Titanium Oxide Layer on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrate: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Gray, Matthew H.; Tirawat, Robert; Larsen, Ross E.; Chen, Fangliang

    2016-04-18

    Thin oxide and metal films deposited on polymer substrates is an emerging technology for advanced reflectors for concentrated solar power applications, due to their unique combination of light weight, flexibility and inexpensive manufacture. Thus far, there is little knowledge on the mechanical integrity or structural persistence of such multi-layer thin film systems under long-term environmental aging. In this paper, the cracking of a brittle titanium dioxide layer deposited onto elasto-plastic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate is studied through a combination of experiment and modeling. In-situ fragmentation tests have been conducted to monitor the onset and evolution of cracks both on pristine and on samples aged with ultraviolet (UV) light. An analytical model is presented to simulate the cracking behavior and to predict the effects of UV aging. Based on preliminary experimental observation, the effect of aging is divided into three aspects and analyzed independently: mechanical property degradation of the polymer substrate; degradation of the interlayer between substrate and oxide coating; and internal stress-induced cracks on the oxide coating.

  2. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial electrospun chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide composite nanofibrous membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Lei, Peng; Shan, Yujuan; Zhang, Dawei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, chitosan (CS)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/graphene oxide (GO) composite nanofibrous membranes were prepared via electrospinning. Such nanofibrous membranes have been characterized and investigated for their morphological, structural, thermal stability, hydrophilic and antibacterial properties. SEM images showed that the uniform and defect-free nanofibers were obtained and GO sheets, shaping spindle and spherical, were partially embedded into nanofibers. FTIR, XRD, DSC and TGA indicated the good compatibility between CS and PVA. There were strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the chitosan and PVA molecules. Contact angle measurement indicated that while increasing the content of GO, the distance between fibers increased and water drop showed wetting state on the surface of nanofibrous membranes. As a result, the contact angle decreased significantly. Meanwhile, good antibacterial activity of the prepared nanofibrous membranes were exhibited against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Functionalization of Graphene Oxide and its Composite with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as Electrode Material for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minchao; Jamal, Ruxangul; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Abdiryim, Tursun

    2015-09-01

    In this study, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/thiophene-grafted graphene oxide (PEDOT/Th-GO) composites from covalently linking of Th-GO with PEDOT chains were prepared via in situ chemical polymerization with different weight percentage of Th-GO ranging between 40 and 70 % in reaction medium. The resulting composite materials were characterized using a various analytical techniques. The structural analysis showed that the composites displayed a higher degree of conjugation and thermal stability than pure PEDOT, and the weight percentage of Th-GO could affect the doping level, amount of undesired conjugated segments, and porous structure of composites. Electrochemical analysis suggested that the highest specific capacitance of 320 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 with good cycling stability (capacitance retention of 80 % at 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles) was achieved for the composite prepared from 50 wt% Th-GO content in reaction medium.

  4. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  5. Electrospun Poly(L-Lactide-co-ε-Caprolactone/Polyethylene Oxide/Hydroxyapaite Nanofibrous Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone/polyethylene oxide/hydroxyapaite (PLCL/PEO/HA composite fibrous membranes were prepared by elecrospinning technology for guided bone regeneration. The morphology, water permeability and mechanical properties of the membranes were investigated. The HA nanocrystals can be well distributed in the PLCL/PEO matrix. And the diameter of composite nanofiber is larger than that of pure PLCL. The fibers with uniform size and large diameter were obtained when the contents of PEO and HA were 0.4% and 0.03%, respectively. In this condition, the obtained membrane presents the best water permeability. Furthermore, the nanofibrous membrane with largest tensile strength was obtained when the contents of PEO and HA were 0.5% and 0.03%, respectively.

  6. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-01-01

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO x thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm 2 , exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively

  7. Fabrication and Super-Antibacterial Property of Nanosilver/Sericin/Poly(ethylene oxide Nanofibers through Electrospinning-Combined Postdeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver particle has been used in the nanofiber mats by mixing the nanosilver with the spinning solution for improving the antibacterial property. Although studies have shown that the antibacterial property of nanofiber mats gets increasing, the higher silver content and the larger released resistance of nanosilver from nanofiber mats are obvious. Here, the electrospinning-combined postdeposition method was used to prepare the nanosilver/sericin/poly(ethylene oxide (Ag/SS/PEO nanofiber mats and the bacterial reduction rates against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli were analyzed. We found that the Ag/SS/PEO nanofiber mats were excellent antibacterial properties at the lower silver content and the bacterial reduction rates against S. aureus and E. coli all reached above 99.99%. Our data suggests that the antibacterial property can be improved by introducing the electrospinning-combined postdeposition method.

  8. Production of the oxidation-resistant polypropylene track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, L.I.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Apel, P.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes results of the method of manufacturing the polypropylene track membranes produced by physicochemical treatment under irradiation of accelerated heavy ions of polymer films. The developed method allows to produce membranes 0.1 - 0.2 μm in diameter and more with an improved structural and physicochemical properties. Poly-propylene track membranes of a novel sample are characterized by high homogeneity of pore sizes in magnitude, considerable mechanical strength, advanced thermal stability and resistance to oxidation in aggressive media. It opens new fields for their usage

  9. Absolute rate constants for the reaction of O(3P) atoms with ethylene, propylene, and propylene-d6 over the temperature range 258--861 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of O( 3 P) with ethylene, propylene, and propylene-d6 were determined over the temperature range 258--861 K using a laser photolysis-chemiluminescence technique. The following empirical expressions are the best fits to the data: k/sub ethylene/ = 2.12 x 10 -13 T -63 e -1370 /sup ///sup R//sup T/, k/sub propylene/ = 3.40 x 10 -19 T/sup 2.56/e/sup 1130/RT/, and k/sub propylene-d/6 = 3.40 x 10 -19 T/sup 2.53/ e/sup 1210/R/T cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . A simple transition state theory model is shown to provide a reasonable explanation for non-Arrhenius temperature behavior

  10. Platinum-decorated reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) hybrid paste for flexible dipole tag-antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Choonghyeon; Cho, Sunghun; Oh, Jungkyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-02-01

    With recent developments in technology, tremendous effort has been devoted to producing materials for flexible device systems. As a promising approach, solution-processed conducting polymers (CPs) have been extensively studied owing to their facile synthesis, high electrical conductivity, and various morphologies with diverse substrates. Here, we report the demonstration of platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide intercalated polyanililne:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS) hybrid paste for flexible electric devices. First, platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) was fabricated through the chemical reduction of platinum cations and subsequent heat reduction of GO sheets. Then, the Pt_rGO was mixed with PANI:PSS solution dispersed in diethylene glycol (DEG) using sonication to form a hybrid PANI-based paste (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS). The Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS was printed as a micropattern and exhibited high electrical conductivity (245.3 S cm-1) with flexible stability. Moreover, it was used in a dipole tag antenna application, where it displayed 0.15 GHz bandwidth and high transmitted power efficiency (99.6%).With recent developments in technology, tremendous effort has been devoted to producing materials for flexible device systems. As a promising approach, solution-processed conducting polymers (CPs) have been extensively studied owing to their facile synthesis, high electrical conductivity, and various morphologies with diverse substrates. Here, we report the demonstration of platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide intercalated polyanililne:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS) hybrid paste for flexible electric devices. First, platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) was fabricated through the chemical reduction of platinum cations and subsequent heat reduction of GO sheets. Then, the Pt_rGO was mixed with PANI:PSS solution dispersed in diethylene glycol (DEG) using sonication to form a hybrid PANI-based paste (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS). The Pt

  11. Evaluation of poly (vinyl alcohol) based cryogel–zinc oxide nanocomposites for possible applications as wound dressing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Archana [Bose Memorial Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Government Autonomous Science College Jabalpur (India); Bajpai, Anil K., E-mail: akbmrl@yahoo.co.in [Bose Memorial Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Government Autonomous Science College Jabalpur (India); Bajpai, Jaya [Bose Memorial Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Government Autonomous Science College Jabalpur (India); Singh, Sunil K. [Department of Chemistry, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur, CG (India)

    2016-08-01

    In this investigation cryogels composed of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by repeated freeze thaw method followed by in situ precipitation of zinc oxide nanoparticles within the cryogel networks. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to characterize the nanocomposites. The morphologies of native PVA cryogels and PVA cryogel-ZnO nanocomposites were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The SEM analysis suggested that cryogels show a well-defined porous morphology whereas TEM micrographs revealed the presence of nearly spherical and well separated zinc oxide nanoparticles with diameter < 100 nm. XRD results showed all relevant Bragg's reflections for crystal structure of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) was conducted to evaluate thermal stability of the nanocomposites. Mechanical properties of nanocomposites were determined in terms of tensile strength and percent elongation. Biocompatible nature was ascertained by anti-haemolytic activity, bovine serum albumin (blood protein) adsorption and in vitro cytotoxicity tests. The prepared nanocomposites were also investigated for swelling and deswelling behaviours. The results revealed that both the swelling and deswelling process depend on the chemical composition of the nanocomposites, number of freeze-thaw cycles, pH and temperature of the swelling medium. The developed biocompatible PVA cryogel-ZnO nanocomposites were also tested for antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. - Highlights: • PVA–zinc oxide nanocomposites have been prepared with no chemical crosslinking. • The nanocomposites are completely biocompatible. • They also show antibacterial property. • The nanocomposites

  12. Effect of Zinc Oxide Addition on Antibacterial Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Abotalebi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infection after the surgery is one of the problems of bone scaffolds implants which is normally treated by systemic administration of antibiotics. But due to the poor blood circulation in bone tissue, large antibiotic doses are needed which lead to further drawbacks to renal and hepatic systems. Material and method: In this study, the effect of zinc oxide addition on antibacterial behavior of hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold was evaluated. The synthesized composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra. In order to determine the antibacterial activity of the fabricated scaffold, Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC 25922 and Escherichia coli (ATTC 25923 were used as test microorganisms. Results: The results showed that Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold did not make inhibition zone in culture medium but the modification of Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold’s surface by zinc oxide particles caused Hydroxyapatite- Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid- zinc oxide scaffold to have antibacterial inhibition zone of 12 and 20 mm for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: This study revealed that the addition of antibacterial agent to applicable bone tissue engineering scaffolds could be considered as an appropriate way to prevent the growth of infection at the scaffold site.

  13. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Manganese oxide electrochemical capacitor with potassium poly(acrylate) hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin; Wu, Nae-Lih

    An aqueous gel electrolyte has for the first time been successfully applied to the MnO 2· nH 2O-based pseudocapacitive electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The gel electrolyte is made of potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) polymer and aqueous solution of KCl. With the selected composition, PAAK:KCl:H 2O = 9.0%:6.7%:84.3% by weight, the gel shows no fluidity, possessing an ionic conductivity in the order of 10 -1 S cm -1. The gel electrolyte has been found to give substantially higher specific capacitances than those in the liquid electrolyte with the same salt (KCl) composition (1 M) and high power capability (>10 kW/kg).

  15. Manganese oxide electrochemical capacitor with potassium poly(acrylate) hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kuang-Tsin; Wu, Nae-Lih [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106 (China)

    2008-04-15

    An aqueous gel electrolyte has for the first time been successfully applied to the MnO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O-based pseudocapacitive electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The gel electrolyte is made of potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) polymer and aqueous solution of KCl. With the selected composition, PAAK:KCl:H{sub 2}O = 9.0%:6.7%:84.3% by weight, the gel shows no fluidity, possessing an ionic conductivity in the order of 10{sup -1} S cm{sup -1}. The gel electrolyte has been found to give substantially higher specific capacitances than those in the liquid electrolyte with the same salt (KCl) composition (1 M) and high power capability (>10 kW/kg). (author)

  16. Influence of the covalent immobilization of graphene oxide in poly(vinyl alcohol) on human osteoblast response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Javier; Matesanz, María Concepción; Feito, María José; Salavagione, Horacio Javier; Martínez, Gerardo; Gómez-Fatou, Marián; Portolés, María Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The differences in the response of human Saos-2 osteoblasts to nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and 1.5wt.% graphene oxide (GO) prepared by covalent linking (PVA/GO-c) and simple blending (PVA/GO-m) have been evaluated through different biocompatibility parameters. The effects produced on osteoblasts by these two nanocomposites were analysed in parallel and compared with the direct action of GO and with the effect of PVA films without GO. The intracellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured to evaluate oxidative stress induction and protective response, respectively. The results demonstrate that the combination of GO with PVA reduces both the proliferation delay and the internal cell complexity alterations induced by GO on human osteoblasts. Moreover, the covalent attachment of GO to the PVA chains increases both cell viability and IL-6 levels, reducing both apoptosis and intracellular ROS content when compared to simple blending of both materials. The use of this strategy to modulate the biointerface reduces the toxic effects of graphene while preserving the reinforcement characteristics for application in tissue engineering scaffolds, and has enormous interest for polymer/graphene biomaterials development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel layered manganese oxide/poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine) nanocomposite and its application for electrochemical supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaofeng; Wang Gengchao; Wang Ruiyu; Li Xingwei

    2010-01-01

    A novel layered manganese oxide/poly(aniline-co-o-anisidine) nanocomposite [MnO 2 /P(An-co-oAs)] was successfully synthesized by a delamination/reassembling process using P(An-co-oAs) ionomer and layered manganese oxide in aqueous solution. This nanocomposite obtained was then characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. X-ray diffraction and electron microscope analysis showed that the MnO 2 /P(An-co-oAs) nanocomposite had a lamellar structure with increasing interlayer spacing. The MnO 2 /P(An-co-oAs) nanocomposite exhibited substantially improved conductivity, which was near 100 times greater than that of its pristine MnO 2 (3.5 x 10 -7 S cm -1 ). The specific capacitance of the MnO 2 /P(An-co-oAs) nanocomposite reached 262 F g -1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 at a current density of 1 A g -1 , which was significantly higher than that of either of its two pristine materials [MnO 2 (182 F g -1 ) or P(An-co-oAs) (127 F g -1 )] owing to the synergic effect between the two pristine components. The fabrication mechanism of the nanocomposite was also proposed and discussed in this paper.

  18. Oxidation of Phenol by Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Metal-Containing Poly(amidoxime Grafted Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany El-Hamshary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyamidoxime chelating resin was obtained from polyacrylonitrile (PAN grafted starch. The nitrile groups of the starch-grafted polyacrylonitrile (St-g-PAN were converted into amidoximes by reaction with hydroxylamine under basic conditions. The synthesized graft copolymer and polyamidoxime were characterized by FTIR, TGA and elemental microanalysis. Metal chelation of the polyamidoxime resin with iron, copper and zinc has been studied. The produced metal-polyamidoxime polymer complexes were used as catalysts for the oxidation of phenol using H2O2 as oxidizing agent. The oxidation of phenol depends on the central metal ion present in the polyamidoxime complex. Reuse of M-polyamidoxime catalyst/H2O2 system showed a slight decrease in catalytic activities for all M-polyamidoxime catalysts.

  19. Antibacterial and wound healing properties of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/zinc oxide beads (CS/PVA/ZnO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Yuvaraja; Pathak, Janak L; Zhang, Weijiang; Zhang, Yaping; Jiao, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Treatment against bacterial infection is crucial for wound healing. Development of cost-effective antibacterial agent with wound healing properties is still in high demand. In this study we aimed to design chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/zinc oxide (CS/PVA/ZnO) beads as novel antibacterial agent with wound healing properties. CS/PVA/ZnO beads were synthesized, and characterized by using XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM analysis. Pure chitosan exhibits two peaks at 2θ=10 and 20 and the CS/PVA polymer matrix exhibit the peaks at 2θ=19.7° and another of low intensity at 2θ=11.5°. Pure ZnO shows the characteristic peaks at (100), (002), (101), (102), (110), (103), (200), and (112) that were in good agreement with wurtzite ore having hexagonal lattice structure. The antibacterial activity of CS/PVA/ZnO against Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated with the zone of inhibition method. Antibacterial activity of CS/PVA/ZnO was higher than that of chitosan (CS) and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA). Hemocompatibility and biocompatibility of CS/PVA/ZnO were tested in in vitro. Wound healing properties of CS/PVA/ZnO were tested in mice skin wound. CS/PVA/ZnO showed strong antimicrobial, wound healing effect, hemocompatibility and biocompatibility. Hence the results strongly support the possibility of using this novel CS/PVA/ZnO material for the anti bacterial and wound healing application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of oxidation on the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolytic biodegradation of poly(urethane)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labow, Rosalind S; Tang, Yiwen; McCloskey, Christopher B; Santerre, J Paul

    2002-01-01

    Although the biodegradation of polyurethanes (PU) by oxidative and hydrolytic agents has been studied extensively, few investigations have reported on the combination of their effects. Since neutrophils (PMN) arrive at an implanted device first and release HOCl, followed by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) which have potent esterase activities and oxidants of their own, the combined effect of oxidative and hydrolytic degradation on radiolabeled polycarbonate-polyurethanes (PCNU)s was investigated and compared to that of a polyester-PU (PESU) and a polyether-PU (PEU). The PCNUs were synthesized with PCN (MW = 1,000), and butanediol (14C-BD) and one of two diisocyanates, hexane-1,6-diisocyanate (14C-HDI) or methylene bis-p-phenyl diisocyanate (MDI). The PESU and PEU were synthesized using toluene-diisocyanate (14C-TDI), with polycaprolactone and polytetramethylene oxide as soft segments respectively, and ethylene diamine as the chain extender. The effect of pre-treatment with 0.1 mM HOC1 for 1 week on the HDI-based PCNUs and both TDI-based PUs resulted in a significant inhibition of radiolabel release (RR) elicited by cholesterol esterase (CE), when compared to buffer alone, whereas the MDI-based PCNU showed a small but significant increase. When PMN were activated on the HDI-based PCNU surface with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), HOCl was released for 3 h, and was almost completely abolished by sodium azide (AZ). Simultaneously, the PMN-elicited RR, shown previously to be due to the esterolytic cleavage by serine proteases, was inhibited approximately 75% by PMA-activation of the cells, but significantly increased relative to the latter when AZ was added. Both in vitro oxidation by HOCl and the release of HOCI by PMN were associated with the inhibition of RR and suggest perturbations between oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms of biodegradation.

  1. Preparation and properties of poly(ethylene oxide) gel filled polypropylene separators and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hao; Ma Xiaoting; Shi Junli; Yao Zhikan; Zhu Baoku; Zhu Liping

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) filled polypropylene separators (GFPSs) are designed by means of thermal cross-linking of entrapped poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as gel constituents. The intrinsic properties of GFPS and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) are characterized by DSC, SEM, contact angle and electrochemical methods. It is found the stability of liquid electrolyte uptake in GPE could be improved obviously. For the GPE prepared from GFPS with filled polyether content of 14.3 wt%, the ionic conductivity could reach 1.12 x 10 -3 S cm -1 while the electrochemically stable window reach 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li + ). These primary results show great promise of this simple method to prepare GPE for practical application in lithium ion batteries.

  2. Preparation and properties of poly(ethylene oxide) gel filled polypropylene separators and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao; Ma Xiaoting; Shi Junli; Yao Zhikan [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Center of Membrane and Water Treatment, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization (EMC), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhu Baoku, E-mail: zhubk@zju.edu.c [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Center of Membrane and Water Treatment, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization (EMC), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhu Liping [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Engineering Center of Membrane and Water Treatment, Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization (EMC), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) filled polypropylene separators (GFPSs) are designed by means of thermal cross-linking of entrapped poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) as gel constituents. The intrinsic properties of GFPS and their corresponding gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) are characterized by DSC, SEM, contact angle and electrochemical methods. It is found the stability of liquid electrolyte uptake in GPE could be improved obviously. For the GPE prepared from GFPS with filled polyether content of 14.3 wt%, the ionic conductivity could reach 1.12 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} while the electrochemically stable window reach 5.0 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}). These primary results show great promise of this simple method to prepare GPE for practical application in lithium ion batteries.

  3. Evaluation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells labeling with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed with Poly-L-Lysine; Avaliacao da marcacao de celulas-tronco mesenquimais de cordao umbilical com nanoparticulas superparamagneticas de oxido de ferro recobertas com Dextran e complexadas a Poli-L-Lisina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Cardenas, Walter Humberto; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel, E-mail: tatianats@einstein.br [Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi [Faculdade de Enfermagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marti, Luciana Cavalheiro; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto [Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Daniela Mara de [Universidade de Brasilia - UnB, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the labeling of umbilical cord vein derived mesenchymal stem cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran and complexed to a non-viral transfector agent transfector poly-L-lysine. Methods: The labeling of mesenchymal stem cells was performed using the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran complexed and not complexed to poly-L-lysine. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran was incubated with poly-L-lysine in an ultrasonic sonicator at 37 deg C for 10 minutes for complex formation superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine by electrostatic interaction. Then, the mesenchymal stem cells were incubated overnight with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/poly-L-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran. After the incubation period the mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated by internalization of the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran by Prussian Blue stain. Cellular viability of labeled mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated by cellular proliferation assay using 5,6-carboxyfluorescein-succinimidyl ester method and apoptosis detection by Annexin V- Propidium Iodide assay. Results: mesenchymal stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/ dextran without poly-L-lysine not internalized efficiently the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to its low presence detected within cells. Mesenchymal stem cells labeled with the complex superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles/dextran/polyL-lysine efficiently internalized the superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles due to greater presence in the cells interior. The viability and apoptosis assays demonstrated that the mesenchymal stem cells labeled and not labeled respectively with the superparamagnetic iron oxide

  4. The influence of manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Gong, Xinglong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids are synthesized by a two-stage liquid phase method. • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS/PBT composites were prepared via a masterbatch-melt blending method. • Fire hazards are monitored and evaluated by cone calorimeter and TG-IR. • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids decrease thermal hazards and smoke hazards of PBT composites. • MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids perform better catalytic oxidation of CO and organic volatile. - Abstract: By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co 3 O 4 ) nano-particles, manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co 3 O 4 –GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo 2 O 4 –GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O 4 for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide

  5. Stabilization of aqueous dispersions of poly(methacrylic acid)-coated iron oxide nanoparticles by double hydrophilic block polyelectrolyte poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(N-methyl-2-vinylpyridinium iodide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wozniak, E.; Špírková, Milena; Šlouf, Miroslav; Garamus, V. M.; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo; Štěpánek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 514, 5 February (2017), s. 32-37 ISSN 0927-7757 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles * polyelectrolytes * SAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.714, year: 2016

  6. Synergistic Enhancement of Ternary Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/Graphene Oxide/Manganese Oxide Composite as a Symmetrical Electrode for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hawa Nabilah Azman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel facile preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/graphene oxide/manganese oxide (PEDOT/GO/MnO2 ternary composite as an electrode material for a supercapacitor was evaluated. The ternary composite was sandwiched together and separated by filter paper soaked in 1 M KCl in order to investigate the supercapacitive properties. The ternary composite exhibits a higher specific capacitance (239.4 F/g compared to PEDOT/GO (73.3 F/g at 25 mV/s. The incorporation of MnO2 which act as a spacer in the PEDOT/GO helps to improve the supercapacitive performance by maximizing the utilization of electrode materials by the electrolyte ions. The PEDOT/GO/MnO2 ternary composite displays a specific energy and specific power of 7.9 Wh/kg and 489.0 W/kg, respectively. The cycling stability test revealed that the ternary composite is able to achieve 95% capacitance retention even after 1000 cycles due to the synergistic effect between the PEDOT, GO, and MnO2 that helps to enhance the performance of the ternary composite for supercapacitor application.

  7. Highly antifouling and antibacterial performance of poly (vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes blending with copper oxide and graphene oxide nanofillers for effective wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanqi; Lv, Jinling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Guoquan; Yang, Yuesuo; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-11-01

    Innovation and effective wastewater treatment technology is still in great demand given the emerging contaminants frequently spotted from the aqueous environment. By blending with poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the strong hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) and antibacterial copper oxide (Cu x O) were used as nanofillers to develop the novel, highly antifouling composite membranes via phase inversion process in our latest work. The existence and dispersion of GO and Cu x O posed a significant role on morphologies, structures, surface composition and hydrophilicity of the developed composite membranes, confirmed by SEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS in depth characterization. The SEM images showed that the modified membranes presented a lower resistant structure with developed finger-like macrovoids and thin-walled even interconnected sponge-like pores after adding nanofillers, much encouraging membrane permeation. The XPS results revealed that Cu x O contained Cu 2 O and CuO in the developed membrane and the Cu 2 O nanoparticles were dominant accounting for about 79.3%; thus the modified membrane specifically exhibited an efficient antibacterial capacity. Due to the hydrophilic and bactericidal membrane surface, the composite membranes demonstrated an excellent antifouling performance, including higher flux recovery rate, more resistant against accumulated contaminants and lower filtration resistance, especially lower irreversible resistance. The antifouling property, especially anti-irreversible fouling, was significantly improved, showing a significant engineering potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Poly (3, 4-ethylendioxithiophene) (PEDOT) oxidation: activation energy and conformational energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, T F; Romero, M C

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of films of the conducting polymer PEDOT-C1O4 after electrochemical reduction by polarization at increasing cathodic potential was studied by potential steps. The response i/t presents a maximum at intermediate oxidation times. At the maximum the reaction occurs under chemical kinetic control following the expected current variations from the Chemical and Electrochemical Kinetics, when reactant concentrations or temperatures are changed. The obtained activation energy of the oxidation present two ranges as a function of the cathodic potential of prepolarization: constant values after prepolarization at low cathodic potentials and a lineal variation after prepolarization at increasing high cathodic potentials. According with the conformational relaxation model during electrochemical reduction the polymer shrinks, closes and packs the conformational structure. The activation energy for the subsequent oxidation includes two terms: the constant chemical activation energy and the conformational energy required to relax the packed polymeric structure. The conformational energy only appears after prepolarization at more cathodic potentials than the closing potential where more packed conformations were obtained. The conformational activation energy accounts the energetic requirements to relax and unfold the polymeric chains generating the required free volume to lodge balancing counterions; meanwhile the chemical activation energy accounts the energetic requirements for the electrochemical reaction to occur.

  9. Synthesis, electropolymerization and oxidation kinetics of an anthraquinone-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias-Pardilla, J.; Otero, T.F.; Blanco, R.; Segura, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of an EDOT derivative endowed with an electron acceptor anthraquinone moiety (AQ-EDOT) is described. The electrochemical polymerization of the monomer has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The monomer oxidation-polymerization takes places on platinum at potentials more positive than 1.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The polymer film presents a stable redox process with E 0 = 0.22 V, that can be assigned to the characteristic exchange process of the parent unsubstituted PEDOT polymer. An unstable redox process at E 0 = -1.00 V, present decreasing charges on the consecutive cycles despite that the lost reduction charge is recovered by two irreversible oxidation processes taking place at high anodic potentials 0.00 and 0.16 V. A structural charge trapping effects occurring by reduction at -1.1 V and re-oxidation at 0.16 V of the anthraquinone moiety is suggested. The stable redox process is not affected by cycling allowing the obtention of the oxidation empirical kinetics, kinetic coefficients and reaction orders. Different initial states attained by reduction at different cathodic potentials for a constant time were explored for the kinetic study.

  10. Synthesis, electropolymerization and oxidation kinetics of an anthraquinone-functionalized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias-Pardilla, J. [Centre for Electrochemistry and Intelligent Materials (CEMI), Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, ETSII, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Otero, T.F., E-mail: toribio.fotero@uptc.e [Centre for Electrochemistry and Intelligent Materials (CEMI), Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, ETSII, E-30203 Cartagena (Spain); Blanco, R.; Segura, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-01

    The chemical synthesis of an EDOT derivative endowed with an electron acceptor anthraquinone moiety (AQ-EDOT) is described. The electrochemical polymerization of the monomer has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The monomer oxidation-polymerization takes places on platinum at potentials more positive than 1.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The polymer film presents a stable redox process with E{sup 0} = 0.22 V, that can be assigned to the characteristic exchange process of the parent unsubstituted PEDOT polymer. An unstable redox process at E{sup 0} = -1.00 V, present decreasing charges on the consecutive cycles despite that the lost reduction charge is recovered by two irreversible oxidation processes taking place at high anodic potentials 0.00 and 0.16 V. A structural charge trapping effects occurring by reduction at -1.1 V and re-oxidation at 0.16 V of the anthraquinone moiety is suggested. The stable redox process is not affected by cycling allowing the obtention of the oxidation empirical kinetics, kinetic coefficients and reaction orders. Different initial states attained by reduction at different cathodic potentials for a constant time were explored for the kinetic study.

  11. Polymeric film of 6-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) amine graphene oxide with poly (ε-caprolactone): Adherence and growth of adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells culture on rat bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Marcela; Durán, Nelson; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Volpe, Bruno B.; Ceragioli, Helder J.; Andrade, Patricia F.; De Souza, Joel G.; Fávaro, Wagner J.

    2017-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been more present in different fields related to health. The need to find a durable material, of easy use, and which does not interfere significantly in the growth and differentiation of stem cells for the construction of a scaffold for use in urologic surgery, with the purpose of reducing infections, regeneration times and even graft rejection during reconstitution in patients with urethral stricture was conducted a broad survey of information about this and came to the consensus of this project: using graphene oxide, a widely studied nanomaterials which has been presenting numerous beneficial results when in contact with the adipose-derived stem cells. Advanced techniques for the growth, differentiation and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells were used, as well as the characterization of graphene oxide sheets. For this study, it was prepared the graphene oxide/6 ARM-Poly (ethylene glycol) amine films with poly (ε-caprolactone). The graphene suspension in organic solvent was prepared by using an ultrasonicator bath and subsequently, the film was formed by solvent evaporation. Total characterization of graphene oxide/6 ARM-PEG-amine/ poly (ε-caprolactone) film was carried out. It was tested growth and adhesion of adipose-derived stem cells on the film, as well as, were verified the histopathological effects of this scaffold when implanted in the urinary bladder to repair the lesion. Our results demonstrated that this scaffold with adipose-derived stem cells enhanced the repair in rat urinary bladder defect model, resulting in a regular bladder. Improved organized muscle bundles and urothelial layer were observed in animals treated with this scaffold with adipose-derived stem cells compared with those treated only suture thread or scaffold. Thus, our biomaterial could be suitable for tissue engineered urinary tract reconstruction.

  12. Polymeric film of 6-arm-poly(ethylene glycol) amine graphene oxide with poly (ε-caprolactone): Adherence and growth of adipose derived mesenchymal stromal cells culture on rat bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán, Marcela; Durán, Nelson; Fávaro, Wagner J.; Luzo, Angela C.M.; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Volpe, Bruno B.; Ceragioli, Helder J.; Andrade, Patricia F.; De Souza, Joel G.

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been more present in different fields related to health. The need to find a durable material, of easy use, and which does not interfere significantly in the growth and differentiation of stem cells for the construction of a scaffold for use in urologic surgery, with the purpose of reducing infections, regeneration times and even graft rejection during reconstitution in patients with urethral stricture was conducted a broad survey of information about this and came to the consensus of this project: using graphene oxide, a widely studied nanomaterials which has been presenting numerous beneficial results when in contact with the adipose-derived stem cells. Advanced techniques for the growth, differentiation and proliferation of adipose-derived stem cells were used, as well as the characterization of graphene oxide sheets. For this study, it was prepared the graphene oxide/6 ARM-Poly (ethylene glycol) amine films with poly (ε-caprolactone). The graphene suspension in organic solvent was prepared by using an ultrasonicator bath and subsequently, the film was formed by solvent evaporation. Total characterization of graphene oxide/6 ARM-PEG-amine/ poly (ε-caprolactone) film was carried out. It was tested growth and adhesion of adipose-derived stem cells on the film, as well as, were verified the histopathological effects of this scaffold when implanted in the urinary bladder to repair the lesion. Our results demonstrated that this scaffold with adipose-derived stem cells enhanced the repair in rat urinary bladder defect model, resulting in a regular bladder. Improved organized muscle bundles and urothelial layer were observed in animals treated with this scaffold with adipose-derived stem cells compared with those treated only suture thread or scaffold. Thus, our biomaterial could be suitable for tissue engineered urinary tract reconstruction. (paper)

  13. Polyol mediated nano size zinc oxide and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Organophilic nano ZnO particles have been synthesized in various diols (ethylene glycol – EG, 1,2 propane diol – PD, 1,4 butane diol – BD and tetra(ethylene glycol – TEG in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, p-TsOH, as an end capping agent. The addition of p-TsOH reduces the ZnO particle size and increases its crystallite size. With increasing diol main chain length the ZnO particle size increases (EG (32 nm < PD (33 nm < BD (72 nm < TEG (86 nm. Using the assynthesized and unmodified ZnO nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate, PMMA, matrix have been prepared by the in-situ bulk polymerization of methyl methacrylate, MMA. The addition of surface modifiers is avoided which is an advantage for the application since they can influence other properties of the material. ZnO particles, especially those with smaller particle sizes (EG – 32 nm, PD – 33 nm showed enhanced effect on the thermal stability of PMMA, ultraviolet, UV, absorption and transparency for visible light. Transparent materials with high UV absorption and with enhanced resistance to sunlight were obtained by optimizing the nanocomposite preparation procedure using ZnO particles of about 30 nm size in concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1 wt%. The reported nanocomposite preparation procedure is compatible with the industrial process of PMMA sheet production.

  14. Non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydoxybutyrate) filled with zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Andreas, E-mail: ries750@yahoo.com.br [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900 (Brazil); Canedo, Eduardo L. [Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB 58429-900 (Brazil); Souto, Cícero R. [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900 (Brazil); Wellen, Renate M.R. [Materials Engineering Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB 58051-900 (Brazil)

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • Non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of PHB filled with ZnO is presented. • Pseudo-Avrami model is best for describing an individual crystallization condition. • Mo model is allows to judge the kinetics of a condition untested in this work. • ZnO affects the kinetics irregularly. - Abstract: The non-isothermal cold crystallization kinetics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and PHB-ZnO composites, with ZnO content of 1%, 5% and 10% per weight, was investigated at different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 °C/min) using differential scanning calorimetry. Both, Kissinger and Friedman activation energies predict correctly the slowest and fastest crystallizing composition. It was further found, that ZnO can neither be classified as a crystallization accelerator, nor as a crystallization inhibitor; its action is strongly concentration dependent. The empirical Pseudo-Avrami model has the best overall capability for fitting the experimental kinetic data. However, since the Pseudo-Avrami exponent was found to vary irregularly with heating rate and filler content, this model should not be applied for kinetic predictions of an arbitrary composition or an untested heating rate. In such cases, Mo's model should be used.

  15. Application of graphene oxide-poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer nanocomposite for memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Jyoti; Kaur, Ravneet; Sharma, Jadab; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Significant attention has been gained by polymer nanocomposites because of their possible demands in future electronic memory devices. In the present work, device based on Graphene Oxide (GO) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been made and examined for the memory device application. The prepared Graphene oxide (GO) and GO-PVA nanocomposite (NC) has been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). GO nanosheets show the diffraction peak at 2θ = 11.60° and the interlayer spacing of 0.761 nm. The XRD of GO-PVA NC shows the diffraction peak at 2θ =18.56°. The fabricated device shows bipolar switching behavior having ON/OFF current ratio ˜102. The Write-Read-Erase-Read (WRER) cycles test shows that the Al/GO-PVA/Ag device has good stability and repeatability.

  16. In vivo monitoring of rat macrophages labeled with poly(l-lysine)-iron oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babič, Michal; Schmiedtová, M.; Poledne, R.; Herynek, Vít; Horák, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2015), s. 1141-1148 ISSN 1552-4973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1370 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378041 Keywords : iron oxide * nanoparaticles * labeling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; FH - Neurology (UEM-P) Impact factor: 2.881, year: 2015

  17. Synthesis of polymer electrolyte membranes from cellulose acetate/poly(ethylene oxide)/LiClO{sub 4} for lithium ion battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurhadini,, E-mail: nur-chem@yahoo.co.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institiut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of cellulose acetate on poly(ethylene oxide)-LiClO{sub 4} membranes as the polymer electrolyte. Cellulose acetate is used as an additive to increase ionic conductivity and mechanical property of polymer electrolyte membranes. The increase the percentage of cellulose acetate in membranes do not directly effect on the ionic conductivity, and the highest ionic conductivity of membranes about 5,7 × 10{sup −4} S/cm was observed in SA/PEO/LiClO{sub 4} membrane with cellulose ratio of 10-25% (w/w). Cellulose acetate in membranes increases mechanical strength of polymer electrolyte membranes. Based on TGA analysis, this polymer electrolyte thermally is stable until 270 °C. The polymer electrolyte membrane prepared by blending the cellulose acetate, poly(ethylene oxide), and lithium chlorate could be potentially used as a polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery application.

  18. Poly(N-4-vinylbenzyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane Copper Complex Grafted Solid Catalyst for Oxidative Polymerization of 2,6-Dimethylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Saito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new solid phase catalyst, poly(N-4-vinylbenzyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane copper(I complex, grafted onto polystyrene particles, has been employed for the oxidative polymerization of 2,6-dimethylphenol using an aqueous biphasic (water/toluene solvent system. The solid catalyst was synthesized by first grafting N-(4-vinylbenzyl-1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane onto polystyrene particles using a radical mediated polymerization method and next by creating the polymer-metal complex of copper-triazacyclononane with these modified particles. Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide was successfully obtained from the polymerization of 2,6-dimethylphenol using this new metal-organic solid phase catalyst.

  19. Enhanced propylene production in FCC by novel catalytic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, C.P.; Harris, D.; Xu, M.; Fu, J. [BASF Catalyst LLC, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking is expected to increasingly supply the additional incremental requirements for propylene. The most efficient route to increase propylene yield from an FCC unit is through the use of medium pore zeolites such as ZSM-5. ZSM-5 zeolite cracks near linear olefins in the gasoline range to LPG olefins such as propylene and butylenes. This paper will describe catalytic approaches to increase gasoline range olefins and the chemistry of ZSM-5 to crack those olefins. The paper will also describe novel catalytic materials designed to increase propylene. (orig.)

  20. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhenjun; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2014-10-09

    The adsorption of 1,3-propylene glycol (1,3-PG) on partially reduced TiO2(110) and its conversion to products have been studied by a combination of molecular beam dosing and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). When the Ti surface sites are saturated by 1,3-PG, ~80% of the molecules undergo further reactions to yield products that are liberated during the TPD ramp. In contrast to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2- propylene glycol (1,2-PG) that yield only alkenes and water at very low coverages (< 0.05 ML), two additional products, HCHO and C2H4, along with propylene (CH3CHCH2) and water are observed for 1,3-PG. Identical TPD line shapes and desorption yields for HCHO and C2H4 suggest that these products result from C-C bond cleavage and are coupled. At higher 1,3-PG coverages (> 0.1 ML), propanal (CH3CH2CHO) and two additional products, 1-propanol (CH3CH2CH2OH) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), are observed. The desorption of 1-propanol is found to be coupled with the desorption of acrolein, suggesting that these products are formed by the disproportionation of two 1,3-PG molecules. The coverage dependent TPD results further show that propylene formation dominates at low coverages (< 0.3 ML), while the decomposition and disproportionation channels increase rapidly at higher coverages and reach yields comparable to that of propylene at the 1,3-PG saturation coverage of 0.5 ML. The observed surface chemistry clearly shows how the molecular structure of glycols influences their reaction pathways on oxide surfaces.

  1. Impressive nonlinear optical response exhibited by Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabira, K.; Saheeda, P.; Divyasree, M. C.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, the nonlinear optical properties of free-standing films of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposite are investigated to assess their suitability as efficient optical limiters. The PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films are generated by mixing different concentrations of RGO as the filler, with PVDF, using solution casting method. The XRD and FTIR data of these nanocomposite films confirm the enhancement in the β phase of PVDF when RGO is added to PVDF, which is one of the prime factors, enhancing the nonlinear response of the nanocomposite. The open aperture and closed aperture Z-scan technique under nanosecond excitation (532 nm, 7 ns) is used to investigate the nonlinear optical characteristics of the PVDF/RGO nanocomposite films. These films are found to exhibit two photon absorption assisted optical non linearity in the nanosecond regime. The highlight of the present work is the observation of quite low values of the normalized transmittance and low optical limiting threshold power in free standing films of PVDF/RGO nanocomposite. These flexible, free-standing and stable nanocomposite films offer high application prospects in the design of efficient optical limiting devices of any desired size or shape.

  2. Preparation of reinforced poly(ethylene oxide) blend hydrogel films containing a drug and assessment of their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhanshan; Zhu Nankang; Yang Shuqin

    1999-01-01

    Reinforced poly(ethylene oxide) blend hydrogen films containing mafenide acetate were prepared by using two freezing-thawing cycles and the irradiation crosslinking technique, and their properties and the drug release were assessed. The results showed that the tensile strength of the reinforced PEO blend hydrogel films increased significantly (p < 0.01), the gel fraction and the elongation at break of the films increased slightly as compared with those formed by the irradiation without the freezing-thawing treatment, indicating that the mechanical properties of the PEO blend hydrogel films can be improved by the freezing-thawing cycles. The reinforced films possessed an ideal flexibility, crosslinking density and elasticity as wound dressings. Swelling studies showed that the equilibrium water content of the hydrogel films expressed in the degree of swelling decreased significantly (p < 0.01), suggesting that a significant structural rearrangement of the films occurred during the freezing process. The structural densification resulted in the increase of the mechanical strength of the hydrogel films. The hydrogels formed by the irradiation at doses of 40 kGy were comparatively stronger. Release studies were run on the reinforced hydrogels with mafenide acetate which was incorporated before the freezing-thawing treatment. Release was followed over seven days. The drug transport was controlled by a regular diffusion model

  3. Effect of polyethyleneglycol on CH{sub 4} permeation through poly(amide-b-ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, Morteza, E-mail: asghari@kashanu.ac.ir [Separation Processes Research Group (SPRG), University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Energy Research Institute, University of Kashan, Ghotb-e-Ravandi Avenue, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmudi, Amir; Zargar, Vida [Separation Processes Research Group (SPRG), University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A three-phase polymer/liquid/solid (PEBA/PEG/zeolite X) membrane was fabricated. • Nanocrystalline zeolite X was used as filler to stabilize membrane polymeric matrix. • Introducing zeolite to PEBA matrix caused its total free volume to decrease. • A gradual decrease with pressure was observed in CH{sub 4} permeability for the membranes. • In all the experiments, operating pressures varied from 2 to 8 bar. - Abstract: A three-phase polymer/liquid/solid poly(amide-b-ethylene oxide) (PEBA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG)/zeolite X was fabricated and its gas permeability was investigated. CH{sub 4} permeability of neat PEBA, two-phase PEBA/NaX and three-phase PEBA/PEG/NaX were compared for different pressures within the range of 2–8 bar. The fabricated membranes were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). SEM images showed that the zeolite grain size was homogeneously smaller than 2 μm. They also revealed the dense structures of the membranes and no pores were observed at these magnifications. AFM surface images indicated that the membranes surface roughness increased significantly with increasing zeolite loading. CH{sub 4} permeability for single-, two- and three-phase membranes decreased from 3.13 to 2.81, from 3.96 to 2.31 and from 2.67 to 2.14 barrer, respectively.

  4. Application of poly (p-phenylene oxide) as blocking layer to reduce self-discharge in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevi, Tete; Yaghoubi, Houman; Wang, Jing; Takshi, Arash

    2013-11-01

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power density. However, application of supercapacitors is limited mainly due to their high leakage current. In this work, application of an ultra-thin layer of electrodeposited poly (p-phenylene oxide) (PPO) has been investigated as a blocking layer to reduce the leakage current. The polymer was first deposited on a glassy carbon electrode. The morphology of the film was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the film thickness was estimated to be ˜1.5 nm by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The same deposition method was applied to coat the surface of the activated carbon electrodes of a supercapacitor with PPO. The specific capacitance, the leakage current, and the series resistance were measured in two devices with and without the blocking layer. The results demonstrate that the application of the PPO layer reduced the leakage current by ˜78%. However, the specific capacitance was decreased by ˜56%, when the blocking layer was applied. Due to the lower rate of self-discharge, the suggested approach can be applied to fabricate devices with longer charge storage time.

  5. The effect of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates degradation rate on nitrous oxide production in a denitrifying phosphorus removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan; Wang, Shuying; Ma, Bin; Li, Xiyao; Yuan, Zhiguo; He, Yuelan; Peng, Yongzhen

    2014-10-01

    Poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and free nitrous acid (FNA) have been revealed as significant factors causing nitrous oxide (N2O) production in denitrifying phosphorus removal systems. In this study, the effect of PHA degradation rate on N2O production was studied at low FNA levels. N2O production always maintained at approximately 40% of the amount of nitrite reduced independent of the PHA degradation rate. The electrons distributed to nitrite reduction were 1.6 times that to N2O reduction. This indicated that electron competition between these two steps was not affected by the PHA degradation rate. Continuous feed of nitrate was proposed, and demonstrated to reduce N2O accumulation by 75%. While being kept low, a possible compounding effect of a low-level FNA could not be ruled out. The sludge used likely contained both polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms, and the results could not be simply attributed to either group of organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide/starch/silver nanocomposites films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Adil; Hussain, Zakir; Riaz, Asim; Khan, Ahmad Nawaz

    2016-11-20

    In the present work, synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene oxide/starch/silver (PVA/GO/Starch/Ag) nanocomposites films is reported. Such films have been characterized and investigated for their mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties. The exfoliation of GO in the PVA matrix occurs owing to the non-covalent interactions of the polymer chains of PVA and hydrophilic surface of the GO layers. Presence of GO in PVA and PVA/starch blends were found to enhance the tensile strength of the nanocomposites system. It was found that the thermal stability of PVA as well as PVA/starch blend systems increased by the incorporation of GO where strong physical bonding between GO layers and PVA/starch blends is assumed to cause thermal barrier effects. Antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show enhanced antimicrobial properties of the prepared films where PVA-GO, PVA-Ag, PVA-GO-Ag and PVA-GO-Ag-Starch showed antimicrobial activity in ascending order. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of protein- and cell-resistant surfaces by hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking of poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduelle, Colin V; Lau, Woon M; Gillies, Elizabeth R

    2011-05-01

    The functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is an effective means of imparting resistance to the adsorption of proteins and the attachment and growth of cells, properties that are critical for many biomedical applications. In this work, a new hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking (HHIC) method was explored as a simple one-step approach for attaching PEO to surfaces through the selective cleavage of C-H bonds and subsequent cross-linking of the resulting carbon radicals. In order to study the effects of the process on the polymer, PEO-coated silicon wafers were prepared and the effects of different treatment times were investigated. Subsequently, using an optimized treatment time and a modified butyl polymer with increased affinity for PEO, the technique was applied to butyl rubber surfaces. All of the treated surfaces exhibited significantly reduced protein adsorption and cell growth relative to control surfaces and compared favorably with surfaces that were functionalized with PEO using conventional chemical methods. Thus HHIC is a simple and effective means of attaching PEO to non-functional polymer surfaces.

  8. Characterization of poly methyl methaacrylate and reduced graphene oxide composite for application as electrolyte in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivatsav, Roshan; Mahalingam, Vignesh; Lakshmi Narayanan, E. R.; Naveen Balaji, N.; Balu, Murali; Krishna Prasad, R.; Kumaresan, Duraisamy

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-solid state iodide/triiodide redox electrolyte containing reduced graphene oxide and poly (methyl methaacrylate) (RGO-PMMA) composites for the fabrication of more durable, high performance dye sensitized solar cells are prepared. The morphological analysis of prepared RGO-PMMA composites showed formation of spherical like morphologies of RGO dispersed PMMA particles with their macroscopic inter-particle networks having voids. The x ray diffraction and electrical conductivity studies showed the addition of 1 wt% of filler RGO into amorphous PMMA matrix increased the electrical conductivity of the polymer composite about three orders of magnitude from 10‑7 and 10‑4 S cm‑1. Further, the photovoltaic current-voltage analysis of DSSCs with different RGO-PMMA composite based iodide/triiodide redox electrolytes showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 5.38% and the fill factor 0.63 for 2% RGO-PMMA electrolyte. The EIS analysis showed an increased recombination resistance (Rct2) at TiO2 electrode/dye/electrolyte interface due to the better electrical conductivity of RGO with good ionic conductivity in 2% RGO-PMMA composite based redox electrolyte boosted the generation of a high current density and fill factor in their DSSCs.

  9. Adsorption energies of poly(ethylene oxide)-based surfactants and nanoparticles on an air-water surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Zachary A; Isa, Lucio; Ilg, Patrick; Leal, L Gary; Squires, Todd M

    2014-01-14

    The self-assembly of polymer-based surfactants and nanoparticles on fluid-fluid interfaces is central to many applications, including dispersion stabilization, creation of novel 2D materials, and surface patterning. Very often these processes involve compressing interfacial monolayers of particles or polymers to obtain a desired material microstructure. At high surface pressures, however, even highly interfacially active objects can desorb from the interface. Methods of directly measuring the energy which keeps the polymer or particles bound to the interface (adsorption/desorption energies) are therefore of high interest for these processes. Moreover, though a geometric description linking adsorption energy and wetting properties through the definition of a contact angle can be established for rigid nano- or microparticles, such a description breaks down for deformable or aggregating objects. Here, we demonstrate a technique to quantify desorption energies directly, by comparing surface pressure-density compression measurements using a Wilhelmy plate and a custom-microfabricated deflection tensiometer. We focus on poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymers and nanoparticles. For PEO-based homo- and copolymers, the adsorption energy of PEO chains scales linearly with molecular weight and can be tuned by changing the subphase composition. Moreover, the desorption surface pressure of PEO-stabilized nanoparticles corresponds to the saturation surface pressure for spontaneously adsorbed monolayers, yielding trapping energies of ∼10(3) k(B)T.

  10. Bioinspired Hierarchical Alumina-Graphene Oxide-Poly(vinyl alcohol) Artificial Nacre with Optimized Strength and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinrong; Qiao, Jinliang; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Ying; Jiang, Lei

    2015-05-06

    Due to hierarchical organization of micro- and nanostructures, natural nacre exhibits extraordinary strength and toughness, and thus provides a superior model for the design and fabrication of high-performance artificial composite materials. Although great progress has been made in constructing layered composites by alternately stacking hard inorganic platelets and soft polymers, the real issue is that the excellent strength of these composites was obtained at the sacrifice of toughness. In this work, inspired by the layered aragonite microplatelets/chitin nanofibers-protein structure of natural nacre, alumina microplatelets-graphene oxide nanosheets-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Al2O3/GO-PVA) artificial nacre is successfully constructed through layer-by-layer bottom-up assembly, in which Al2O3 and GO-PVA act as "bricks" and "mortar", respectively. The artificial nacre has hierarchical "brick-and-mortar" structure and exhibits excellent strength (143 ± 13 MPa) and toughness (9.2 ± 2.7 MJ/m(3)), which are superior to those of natural nacre (80-135 MPa, 1.8 MJ/m(3)). It was demonstrated that the multiscale hierarchical structure of ultrathin GO nanosheets and submicrometer-thick Al2O3 platelets can deal with the conflict between strength and toughness, thus leading to the excellent mechanical properties that cannot be obtained using only one size of platelet. We strongly believe that the work presented here provides a creative strategy for designing and developing new composites with excellent strength and toughness.

  11. Studies on the Electrical Properties of Graphene Oxide-Reinforced Poly (4-Styrene Sulfonic Acid) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Kalim; Sankaran, Sowmya; Basheer Ahamed, M.; Khadheer Pasha, S. K.; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Ali Almaadeed, Mariam; Chidambaram, K.

    In the present study, graphene oxide (GO)-reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend composite films were prepared using colloidal blending technique at various concentrations of GO (0-3wt.%). The morphological investigations of the prepared composites were carried out using polarized optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of composites were evaluated using an impedance analyzer in the frequency range 50Hz to 20MHz and temperature in the range 40-150∘C. Morphological studies infer that GO was homogeneously dispersed in the PSSA/PVA blend matrix. Investigations of electrical property indicate that the incorporation of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix resulted in the enhancement of the impedance (Z) and the quality factor (Q-factor) values. A maximum impedance of about 4.32×106Ω was observed at 50Hz and 90∘C for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. The Q-factor also increased from 8.37 for PSSA/PVA blend to 59.8 for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3wt.% GO loading. These results indicate that PSSA/PVA/GO composites can be used for high-Q capacitor applications.

  12. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1-100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10-8 M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  13. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon, E-mail: swjeon3380@naver.com

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via {sup 1}H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1–100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10{sup −8} M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  14. Electrical transport properties of nanoplates shaped tungsten oxide embedded poly(vinyl-alcohol) film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amit Kumar; Chatterjee, Piyali; Meikap, Ajit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoplates have been synthesized via hydrothermal method. The average crystallite size of the nanoplates is 28.9 ± 0.5 nm. The direct and indirect band gap of WO3 is observed. The AC conductivity of PVA-WO3 composite film has been observed and carrier transport mechanism follows correlated barrier hopping model. The maximum barrier height of the composite film is 0.1 eV. The electric modulus reflects the non-Debye type behaviour of relaxation time which is simulated by Kohlrausch-Willims-Watts (KWW) function.

  15. Poly(L-lysine)-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for stem cell labeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Trchová, Miroslava; Jendelová, Pavla; Růžičková, Kateřina; Lesný, Petr; Herynek, V.; Hájek, M.; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2008), s. 740-750 ISSN 1043-1802 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200200651; GA AV ČR KAN201110651; GA ČR GA203/05/2256; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/1594; GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : iron oxide * magnetic * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.584, year: 2008

  16. One-pot synthesis of star-shaped macromolecules containing polyglycidol and poly(ethylene oxide) arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapienis, Grzegorz; Penczek, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of fully hydrophilic star-shaped macromolecules with different kinds of arms (A(x)B(y)C(z)) based on polyglycidol (PGL, A(x)) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, C(z)) arms and diepoxy compounds (diglycidyl ethers of ethylene glycol (DGEG) or neopentyl glycol (DGNG) in the core, B(y)) forming the core is described. Precursors of arms were prepared by polymerization of glycidol with protected -OH groups. The first-generation stars were formed in the series of consecutive-parallel reactions of arms A(x) with diepoxy compounds (B). These first-generation stars (A(x)B(y)), having approximately O-, Mt+ groups on the cores, were used as multianionic initiators for the second generation of arms (C(z)) built by polymerization of ethylene oxide. The products with M(n) up to 10(5) and having up to approximately 40 arms were obtained. The number of arms (f) was determined by direct measurements of M(n) of the first-generation stars (M(n) of arms A(x) is known), compared with f calculated from the branching index g, determined from R(g) measured with size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) triple detection with TriSEC software. The progress of the star formation was monitored by 1H NMR and SEC. These novel water-soluble stars, having a large number of hydroxyl groups, both at the ends of PEO arms as well as within the PGL arms, can be functionalized and further used for attaching compounds of interest. This approach opens, therefore, a new way of "multiPEGylation".

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) via direct oxidation with FeCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicho, M.E., E-mail: menicho@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia-Escobar, C.H.; Hernandez-Martinez, D. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (UAEM), Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Linzaga-Elizalde, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas (CIQ) de la UAEM (Mexico); Cadenas-Pliego, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    In this work, CoolMate microwave synthesis system was employed to synthesize soluble poly(3-hexylthiophene) by direct oxidation of 3-hexylthiophene monomer with FeCl{sub 3} as oxidant. P3HT was synthesized varying reaction time by 2 h, 1 h and 0.5 h. According to the results optimal microwave radiation time for synthesis was 1 h. On the other hand, P3HT was synthesized in two different solvents: chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The obtained yields depend on the solvent and the reaction time used in the synthesis, microwave-assisted synthesis leads to outstanding increase in yield (with dichloromethane solvent). Homogeneous thin films were prepared by spin-coating technique from toluene. Physicochemical characterization of P3HT polymers was carried out: changes in weight molecular distribution and polydispersity were obtained by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography); dyads and triads percent were analyzed by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Surface topographical changes were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images revealed that the surface morphology depends on synthesis method, reaction time and solvent used. Finally the samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and ultraviolet-visible analysis (UV-vis). Compared with the traditional method (without microwave), this method provided considerable decrease in the reaction time, both lower polydispersity and molecular weight, less volume of solvents for the synthesis, as well as more alternatives for solvent choice. The results confirmed the versatility of the procedure by microwave, which yields polymeric materials in 1 h and has no adverse effects on the polymers quality.

  18. EFFECTS OF ω-ACRYLOYL POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) MACROMONOMER ON EMULSIFIER-FREE EMULSION COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE AND n-BUTYL ACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Well-defined nonionic hydrophilic ω-acryloyl poly(ethylene oxide) macromonomer (PEO-A) has been prepared by living anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide with diphenyl methyl potassium as the initiator and acryloyl chloride as the reaction terminating agent. The polymer was characterized by FTIR and SEC. The emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (BA) containing various concentrations of PEO-A was studied. In all cases stable emulsion coplymerizations of MMA and BA were obtained. The stabilizing effect was found to be dependent on the molecular weight and the feed amount of the macromonomer.

  19. Methanol to propylene. From development to commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, S.; Rothaemel, M. [Air Liquide Forschung und Entwicklung GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pohl, S.; Gorny, M. [Lurgie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions

    2012-07-01

    In the late 1990s the development of the so-called MTP {sup registered} (methanol-to-propylene) process, a Lurgi Technology (by Air Liquide Global E and C Solutions) started. This constitutes a novel route to a valuable product that would not rely on crude oil as feedstock (as conventional propylene production does), but instead utilizes coal or natural gas and potentially biomass. These alternative feedstocks are first converted to synthesis gas, cleaned, and then converted to methanol. The development of the methanol-to-propylene conversion was achieved in a close collaboration between R and D and engineering. Two pilot plants at the R and D center in Frankfurt and a demonstration plant in Norway have been used to demonstrate the yields, catalyst lifetime and product quality and to support the engineering team in plant design and scale-up. Especially the last item is important as it was clear from the very beginning that the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant would already be world-scale, actually one of the largest propylene producing plants in the world. This required a safe and diligent scale-up as the MTP {sup registered} reactors in the commercial plant receive about 7,000 times the feed of the demo unit and as much as 100,000 times the feed of the pilot plant. The catalyst used is a zeolite ZSM-5 that was developed by our long-term cooperation partner Sued-Chemie (now Clariant). At the end of 2010, the first commercial MTP {sup registered} plant in Ningdong in the Chinese province of Ningxia was started up as part of a coal-to-chemicals complex owned by the Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group. In this complex the complete chain starting from coal through to the final polypropylene product is realized. The customer successful started the polymer-grade propylene production in April 2011 and then announced in May 2011 that he sold the first 1000 tons of polypropylene made with propylene coming from the MTP {sup registered} unit. Following this

  20. Gold nanoparticle/nickel oxide/poly(pyrrole-N-propionic acid hybrid multilayer film: Electrochemical study and its application in biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Karazehir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the fabrication of Indium Tin Oxide /gold nanoparticles/nickel oxide/poly(Pyrrole-N-propionic acid (ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA multilayered film, and its modification with Tyrosinase (Ty. The ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA electrode was fabricated by sequential electrochemical assembly onto ITO substrate which electrochemical deposition provides a facile, inexpensive technique for synthesis of multilayered film within the adherent morphology with controllable film thickness. Cyclic voltammetry (CV, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microcopy (SEM, and atomic force microcopy (AFM were used to characterize the film assembly processes. The properties of a semiconductor/electrolyte interface were investigated based on the Mott–Schottky (M-S approach for the modified electrodes, with the flat band potential (EFB according to the potential intercept and the carrier density (ND according to the linear slopes. The ND and EFB of ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA were obtained as 2.48·1021 cm–3 and 0.26 V, respectively. Tyrosinase was immobilized using carbodiimide coupling reaction. The bioelectrode was characterized by FTIR-ATR, SEM, AFM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. A Randles equivalent circuit was introduced for modeling the performance of impedimetric biosensing for the detection of the dopamine (DP and the interface of bioelectrode/electrolyte. The EIS of the ITO/GNPs/NiO/poly(PPA-Ty exhibited significant changes in the charge transfer resistance (RCT value toward the detection of dopamine over a linear range of 80 µM to 0.2 mM with a limit of detection (LOD of 5.46 µM.

  1. Graphenated tantalum(IV) oxide and poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid)-doped polyaniline nanocomposite as cathode material in an electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njomo, Njagi; Waryo, Tesfaye; Masikini, Milua; Ikpo, Chinwe O.; Mailu, Stephen; Tovide, Oluwakemi; Ross, Natasha; Williams, Avril; Matinise, Nolubabalo; Sunday, Christopher E.; Mayedwa, Noluthando; Baker, Priscilla G.L.; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid) and tantalum (IV) oxide-doped polyaniline nanocomposite were synthesised and their electro-conductive properties were determined. The oxide was synthesized using a modified sol-gel method and then dispersed in acidic media through sonication and entrapped in-situ into the polymeric matrix during the oxidative chemical polymerization of aniline doped with poly(4-styrene sulphonic acid). The oxides and novel polymeric nanocomposite were characterised with TEM, SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, UV-visible to ascertain elemental and phase composition, successful polymerization, doping, morphology and entrapment of the metal oxide nanoparticles. The electro-conductivity of the nanomaterial was interrogated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The material was then anchored on activated graphitic carbon and used in the design of an asymmetric supercapacitor cell using 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. Characteristically high specific capacitance values of 318.4 F/g with a corresponding energy and power densities of 1.57 kWh/kg and 0.435 kW/kg, respectively, were demonstrated. The cell also showed high coulombic efficiency of 94.9% with a long cycle life and good cycle stability making the nanomaterial suitable for constructing supercapacitor cell electrodes

  2. A preparation of homogeneous distribution of palladium nanoparticle on poly (acrylic acid)-functionalized graphene oxide modified electrode for formalin oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongkaew, Supatinee; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Limbut, Warakorn

    2017-01-01

    An excellent electrocatalytic activity, repeatability and stability of electrochemical sensor for formalin detection was fabricated based on a homogeneous distribution of ellipsoidal palladium nanoparticle (PdNPs) on poly (acrylic acid)-functionalized graphene oxide (PAA-GO) modified on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (PdNPs-PAA-GO/GCE) with incorporated flow injection amperometry (FI-Amp). Homogeneous distribution of ellipsoidal palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were dispersed on PAA-GO via an electroless deposition method. The surface morphology and electrochemical behavior of the PdNPs-PAA-GO/GCE were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The PdNPs-PAA-GO/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward formalin oxidation. Then this modified electrode was incorporated with FI-Amp for formalin sensor development. In order to obtain good analytical performances, many parameters such as the amount of PdNPs-PAA-GO, applied potential, flow rate and sample volume were optimized. Under optimal conditions, this sensor provided a wide linear range, 50-50,000 μmol L −1 , with high sensitivity (320 μA mmol L −1 cm −2 ). The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 16 μmol L −1 and 53 μmol L −1 , respectively. This proposed sensor exhibited good repeatability (RSD < 3.5%), excellence stability (RSD = 1.5%, n = 500) and high sample throughput (60 samples h −1 ). This method was applied to the determination of formalin in soaked fresh food samples with satisfactory recovery.

  3. The influence of manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); USTC-CityU Joint Advanced Research Centre, Suzhou Key Laboratory of Urban Public Safety, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren’ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Gong, Xinglong, E-mail: gongxl@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behaviour and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids are synthesized by a two-stage liquid phase method. • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS/PBT composites were prepared via a masterbatch-melt blending method. • Fire hazards are monitored and evaluated by cone calorimeter and TG-IR. • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids decrease thermal hazards and smoke hazards of PBT composites. • MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids perform better catalytic oxidation of CO and organic volatile. - Abstract: By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nano-particles, manganese–cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}–GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}–GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O{sub 4} for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide.

  4. Titanate nanotubes for reinforcement of a poly(ethylene oxide)/chitosan polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, R.; Bavykin, D. V.; Zekonyte, J.; Walsh, F. C.; Wood, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Soft polyethylene oxide (PEO)/chitosan mixtures, reinforced with hard titanate nanotubes (TiNTs) by co-precipitation from aqueous solution, have been used to produce compact coatings by the ‘drop-cast’ method, using water soluble PEO polymer and stable, aqueous colloidal solutions of TiNTs. The effects of the nanotube concentration and their length on the hardness and modulus of the prepared composite have been studied using nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. The uniformity of TiNT dispersion within the polymer matrix has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A remarkable increase in hardness and reduced Young’s modulus of the composites, compared to pure polymer blends, has been observed at a TiNT concentration of 25 wt %. The short (up to 30 min) ultrasound treatment of aqueous solutions containing polymers and a colloidal TiNT mixture prior to drop casting has resulted in some improvements in both hardness and reduced Young’s modulus of dry composite films, probably due to a better dispersion of ceramic nanotubes within the matrix. However, further (more than 1 h) treatment of the mixture with ultrasound resulted in a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the composite accompanied by a shortening of the nanotubes, as observed by the TEM.

  5. Polypseudorotaxanes between .alpha.-cyclodextrin and poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol) copolymers studied by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horský, Jiří; Walterová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 74, January (2016), s. 256-263 ISSN 0014-3057 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24504 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypseudorotaxanes * reverse pluronics * cyclodextrin Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  6. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium oxide nanocomposite film synthesized by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization for electrochromic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinlin; Song, Hua; Li, Suning; Wang, Lin; Han, Lu; Ling, Han; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report the facile synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium dioxide (PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 ) nanocomposite film by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization. The structure, morphology and composition of the films were investigated by different techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film was applied for electrochromic application. The results indicate that the PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film exhibits a higher optical contrast and a much better stability as compared to PEDOT:PSS film. The significant performance enhancement can be attributed to the nanoscale particle size and uniform size distribution of PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 and the synergistic effect between the inorganic nano-TiO 2 and organic PEDOT:PSS material. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 nanocomposite film by electropolymerization • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film shows nano-scaled particle sizes and uniform size distribution. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film shows higher optical contrasts and faster switching speed. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO 2 film displays a good stability for electrochromic application

  7. A poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium oxide nanocomposite film synthesized by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization for electrochromic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinlin, E-mail: jinlinlu@hotmail.com [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology, Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Song, Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, University of Science and Technology, Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Li, Suning; Wang, Lin; Han, Lu [School of Materials and Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology, Liaoning, Anshan 114051 (China); Ling, Han; Lu, Xuehong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we report the facile synthesis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid)/titanium dioxide (PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite film by sol–gel assisted electropolymerization. The structure, morphology and composition of the films were investigated by different techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film was applied for electrochromic application. The results indicate that the PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film exhibits a higher optical contrast and a much better stability as compared to PEDOT:PSS film. The significant performance enhancement can be attributed to the nanoscale particle size and uniform size distribution of PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} and the synergistic effect between the inorganic nano-TiO{sub 2} and organic PEDOT:PSS material. - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film by electropolymerization • PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} film shows nano-scaled particle sizes and uniform size distribution. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} film shows higher optical contrasts and faster switching speed. • PEDOT:PSS/TiO{sub 2} film displays a good stability for electrochromic application.

  8. Progress in Characterizing Thermal Degradation of Ethylene-Propylene Rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Childers, Matthew I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Correa, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shin, Yongsoon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zwoster, Andy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-26

    Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is one of the two most common nuclear cable insulation materials. A large fraction of EPR-insulated cables in use in the nuclear industry were manufactured by The Okonite Company. Okoguard® is the name of the medium voltage thermoset EPR manufactured by The Okonite Company. Okoguard® has been produced with silane-treated clay filler and the characteristic pink color since the 1970’s. EPR is complex material that undergoes simultaneous reactions during thermal aging including oxidative and thermal cleavage and oxidative and thermal crosslinking. This reaction complexity makes precise EPR service life prediction from accelerated aging using approaches designed for single discreet reactions such as the Arrhenius approach problematic. Performance data and activation energies for EPR aged at conditions closer to service conditions will improve EPR lifetime prediction. In this report pink Okoguard® EPR insulation material has been thermally aged at elevated temperatures. A variety of characterization techniques have been employed to track material changes with aging. It was noted that EPR aged significant departure in aging behavior seemed to occur at accelerated aging temperatures between 140°C and 150°C at around 20 days of exposure. This may be due to alternative degradation mechanisms being accessed at this higher temperature and reinforces the need to perform accelerated aging for Okoguard® EPR service life prediction at temperatures below 150°C.

  9. High-transparency and low-resistivity poly (methylmethacrylate) films containing silver nanowires and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Yo Han; Choo, Dong Chul; Kim, Tae Whan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PMMA films containing both Ag-NWs and GONPs were formed by using a transfer method. • Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the Ag-NWs on the PMMA film were partially covered with the GONPs. • Transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PMMA films were approximately 90% at 550 nm and 24 Ω/sq, respectively. • Uniformity of the sheet resistance was significantly improved due to the GONP treatment. • XPS spectra showed that the enhancement in the sheet resistance originated from the quaternary nitrogen in the GONPs. - Abstract: Nanocomposite films containing silver nanowires (Ag NWs) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) were formed on glass, and the nanocomposite films were then transferred to poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Ag NWs with a length of 20 μm and a width of 80 nm, together with GONPs with a size of 15 μm, had been formed on the PMMA film and that the Ag NWs on the PMMA film were partially covered with the GONPs. While the transmittance of the PMMA film with the Ag NWs and the GONPs was almost the same as that of the PMMA film with the Ag NWs alone, the corresponding sheet resistance was decreased due to the generation of quaternary nitrogen in the GONPs, which the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PMMA film containing Ag NWs and GONPs were approximately 90% at 550 nm and 24 Ohm/sq, respectively.

  10. Graphene Oxide-Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Lab-on-a-Chip Platform for Heavy-Metals Preconcentration and Electrochemical Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałupniak, Andrzej; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-12-27

    Herein, we present the application of a novel graphene oxide-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (GO-PDMS) composite in reversible adsorption/desorption, including detection of heavy metals. GO-PDMS was fabricated by simple blending of GO with silicon monomer in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, followed by polymerization initiated upon the addition of curing agent. We found GO concentration, curing agent concentration, pH, and contact time among the most important factors affecting the adsorption of Pb(II) used as a model heavy metal. The mechanism of adsorption is based on surface complexation, where oxygen active groups of negative charge can bind with bivalent metal ions Me(II). To demonstrate a practical application of this material, we fabricated microfluidic lab-on-a-chip platform for heavy-metals preconcentration and detection. This device consists of a screen-printed carbon electrode, a PDMS chip, and a GO-PDMS chip. The use of GO-PDMS preconcentration platform significantly improves the sensitivity of electrochemical detection of heavy metals (an increase of current up to 30× was observed), without the need of modifying electrodes or special reagents addition. Therefore, samples being so far below the limit of detection (0.5 ppb) were successfully detected. This approach is compatible also with real samples (seawater) as ionic strength was found as indifferent for the adsorption process. To the best of our knowledge, GO-PDMS was used for the first time in sensing application. Moreover, due to mechanical resistance and outstanding durability, it can be used multiple times unlike other GO-based platforms for heavy-metals adsorption.

  11. The dual role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in modulating parthanatos and autophagy under oxidative stress in rat cochlear marginal cells of the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Yan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Xie, Zhen; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Sun, Yu; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress is reported to regulate several apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways in auditory tissues. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) can be activated under oxidative stress, which is the hallmark of parthanatos. Autophagy, which serves either a pro-survival or pro-death function, can also be stimulated by oxidative stress, but the role of autophagy and its relationship with parthanatos underlying this activation in the inner ear remains unknown. In this study, we established an oxidative stress model in vitro by glucose oxidase/glucose (GO/G), which could continuously generate low concentrations of H 2 O 2 to mimic continuous exposure to H 2 O 2 in physiological conditions, for investigation of oxidative stress-induced cell death mechanisms and the regulatory role of PARP-1 in this process. We observed that GO/G induced stria marginal cells (MCs) death via upregulation of PARP-1 expression, accumulation of polyADP-ribose (PAR) polymers, decline of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), which all are biochemical features of parthanatos. PARP-1 knockdown rescued GO/G-induced MCs death, as well as abrogated downstream molecular events of PARP-1 activation. In addition, we demonstrated that GO/G stimulated autophagy and PARP-1 knockdown suppressed GO/G-induced autophagy in MCs. Interestingly, autophagy suppression by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) accelerated GO/G-induced parthanatos, indicating a pro-survival function of autophagy in GO/G-induced MCs death. Taken together, these data suggested that PARP-1 played dual roles by modulating parthanatos and autophagy in oxidative stress-induced MCs death, which may be considered as a promising therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-related hearing disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport in Al/Poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor by Sol-Gel Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şadan Özden

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of poly(4-vinyl phenol insulator layer is carried out by applying the spin coating technique onto p-type GaAs substrate so as to create Al/poly(4-vinyl phenol/p-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structure. Temperature was set to 80–320 K while the current-voltage (I-V characteristics of the structure were examined in the study. Ideality factor (n and barrier height (ϕb values found in the experiment ranged from 3.13 and 0.616 eV (320 K to 11.56 and 0.147 eV (80 K. Comparing the thermionic field emission theory and thermionic emission theory, the temperature dependent ideality factor behavior displayed that thermionic field emission theory is more valid than the latter. The calculated tunneling energy was 96 meV.

  13. Synthesis and Properties of High Strength Thin Film Composites of Poly(ethylene Oxide and PEO-PMMA Blend with Cetylpyridinium Chloride Modified Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion-conducting thin film composites of polymer electrolytes were prepared by mixing high MW poly(ethylene oxide (PEO, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA as a polymer matrix, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC modified MMT as filler, and different content of LiClO4 by using solution cast method. The crystallinity, ionic conductivity (σ, and mechanical properties of the composite electrolytes and blend composites were evaluated by using XRD, AC impedance, and UTM studies, respectively. The modification of clay by CPC showed enhancement in the d-spacing. The loading of clay has effect on crystallinity of PEO systems. Blend composites showed better mechanical properties. Young’s modulus and elongation at break values showed increase with salt and clay incorporation in pure PEO. The optimum composition composite of PEO with 3.5 wt% of salt and 3.3 wt% of CPMMT exhibited better performance.

  14. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction is a good method to prepare GO/PVA nanocomposites. • Surface chemical grafting modification of GO with PVA chains was also carried out during the in-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction. • The surface chemical grafting modification of GO by in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis reaction could not only improve the dispersion of fillers in matrix, but also the interfacial interactions between fillers and matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocompistes were also studied. - Abstract: An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young’s modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler

  15. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites via in-situ low-temperature emulsion polymerization and their thermal and mechanical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shengchang; Liu, Pengqing, E-mail: liupq@scu.edu.cn; Zhao, Xiangsen; Xu, Jianjun, E-mail: xujj@scu.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • In-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction is a good method to prepare GO/PVA nanocomposites. • Surface chemical grafting modification of GO with PVA chains was also carried out during the in-situ emulsion polymerization and alcoholysis reaction. • The surface chemical grafting modification of GO by in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis reaction could not only improve the dispersion of fillers in matrix, but also the interfacial interactions between fillers and matrix. • The thermal and mechanical properties of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocompistes were also studied. - Abstract: An in-situ polymerization combined with chemical grafting modification method for preparing Poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA-g-GO/PVA) nanocomposites was reported. Firstly, Poly(vinyl acetate)-grafted graphene oxide/Poly(vinyl acetate) nanocomposites were prepared, and then the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites could be obtained through alcoholysis reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fourier-transform infrared spectrometer confirmed that the PVAc or PVA chains were successfully grafted to GO sheets during in-situ polymerization and alcoholysis. And the results from transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the well compatibility and homogenous dispersion of PVA-g-GO in PVA matrix could be achieved. Differential scanning calorimetric, thermogravimetry analysis and tensile test were employed to study the thermal and mechanical properties of the PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites. The results indicated that a 53% improvement of tensile strength and a 36% improvement of Young’s modulus were achieved by addition of 0.5 wt% of GO sheets. And the glass transition temperature of PVA-g-GO/PVA nanocomposites was increased, and their thermal stability and crystallization degree were both decreased. Due to well dispersion of fillers and strong interfacial interactions at the filler

  16. Synthesis of Diblock copolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate -block-poly-3-hydroxyhexanoate [PHB-b-PHHx] by a β-oxidation weakened Pseudomonas putida KT2442

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Wu, Lin-Ping; Chen, Jinchun

    2012-01-01

    ), thermo- and mechanical analysis. NMR confirmed the existence of diblock copolymers consisting of 58 mol% PHB as the short chain length block with 42 mol% PHHx as the medium chain length block. The block copolymers had two glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 2.7°C and -16.4°C, one melting temperature...... (Tm) at 172.1°C and one cool crystallization temperature (Tc) at 69.1°C as revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. This is the first microbial short-chain-length (scl) and medium-chain-length (mcl) PHA block copolymer reported. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to produce PHA......BACKGROUND: Block polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) were reported to be resistant against polymer aging that negatively affects polymer properties. Recently, more and more attempts have been directed to make PHA block copolymers. Diblock copolymers PHB-b-PHHx consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB...

  17. Fluid phase equilibria during propylene carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide in carbon dioxide medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharnati, Loubna; Musko, Nikolai; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    -cyclic guanidinium bromide on SBA-15 (HEPCGBr/SBA-15) as catalyst in the absence of any co-catalyst. It was found that the yield was strongly dependent on the amount of CO2 added to the system and that the phase behavior strongly changes along the reaction pathway. The Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state...... was used to predict the phase behavior during the reaction and the number and composition of coexisting phases in the multicomponent reaction system were determined. In accordance with the experimental data, the maximum conversion was achieved in the transition region between the two- and the one-phase...... region where a CO2-expanded reactant/product phase (larger volume due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase) is present. Optimal conditions for performing the reaction have been derived which requires consideration not only of the phase behavior of the starting phase but also...

  18. Differentiation-Associated Downregulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose Polymerase-1 Expression in Myoblasts Serves to Increase Their Resistance to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Oláh

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1, the major isoform of the poly (ADP-ribose polymerase family, is a constitutive nuclear and mitochondrial protein with well-recognized roles in various essential cellular functions such as DNA repair, signal transduction, apoptosis, as well as in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including sepsis, diabetes and cancer. Activation of PARP-1 in response to oxidative stress catalyzes the covalent attachment of the poly (ADP-ribose (PAR groups on itself and other acceptor proteins, utilizing NAD+ as a substrate. Overactivation of PARP-1 depletes intracellular NAD+ influencing mitochondrial electron transport, cellular ATP generation and, if persistent, can result in necrotic cell death. Due to their high metabolic activity, skeletal muscle cells are particularly exposed to constant oxidative stress insults. In this study, we investigated the role of PARP-1 in a well-defined model of murine skeletal muscle differentiation (C2C12 and compare the responses to oxidative stress of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. We observed a marked reduction of PARP-1 expression as myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. This alteration correlated with an increased resistance to oxidative stress of the myotubes, as measured by MTT and LDH assays. Mitochondrial function, assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential, was preserved under oxidative stress in myotubes compared to myoblasts. Moreover, basal respiration, ATP synthesis, and the maximal respiratory capacity of mitochondria were higher in myotubes than in myoblasts. Inhibition of the catalytic activity of PARP-1 by PJ34 (a phenanthridinone PARP inhibitor exerted greater protective effects in undifferentiated myoblasts than in differentiated myotubes. The above observations in C2C12 cells were also confirmed in a rat-derived skeletal muscle cell line (L6. Forced overexpression of PARP1 in C2C12 myotubes sensitized the cells to oxidant

  19. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong; Ding, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • GO-doped PLGA–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofibers with diameter of about 130 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. • Incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk to the PLGA nanofibers accelerates osteoblast differentiation and formation of new bone. • Mechanical properties of composite nanofiber mats had been significantly improved after embedding with GO nanosheets. • Nanostructured composite scaffolds effectively accelerate mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and formation of new bone.

  20. Composite films of oxidized multiwall carbon nanotube and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as a contact electrode for transistor and inverter devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-02-01

    Composite films of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polymerized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) were prepared by spin-coating a mixture solution. The effect of the MWNT loading and the MWNT oxidation, with acid solution or ultraviolet (UV)-ozone treatment, on the film properties such as surface roughness, work function, surface energy, optical transparency and conductivity were studied. Also pentacene thin film transistors and inverters were made with these composite films as a contact metal and the device characteristics were measured. The oxidation of MWNT reduced the conductivity of MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film but increased the work function and transparency. UV-ozone treated MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film showed higher conductivity (14000 Ω/□) and work function (4.9 eV) than acid-oxidized MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film and showed better performance as a source/drain electrode in organic thin film transistor (OTFT) than other types of MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite films. Hole injection barrier of the UV-ozone treated MWNT/PEDOT:PSS composite film with pentacene was significantly lower than any other films because of the higher work function.

  1. Enhanced bone formation in electrospun poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofiber scaffolds incorporated with graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Weili [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); He, Jianxin, E-mail: hejianxin771117@163.com [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Sang, Feng [Department of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Treatment and Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wang, Qian [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Chen, Li [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cui, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites (Ministry of Education), Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Ding, Bin [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Textile Materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201600 (China)

    2016-05-01

    To engineer bone tissue, it is necessary to provide a biocompatible, mechanically robust scaffold. In this study, we fabricated an ultrafine nanofiber scaffold by electrospinning a blend of poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid), tussah silk fibroin, and graphene oxide (GO) and characterized its morphology, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and biological activity. The data indicate that incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk and 1 wt.% graphene oxide into poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofibers significantly decreased the fiber diameter from 280 to 130 nm. Furthermore, tussah silk and graphene oxide boosted the Young's modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4-fold and 3-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and functionally promoted biomineralization-relevant alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineral deposition. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • GO-doped PLGA–tussah silk fibroin ultrafine nanofibers with diameter of about 130 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. • Incorporation of 10 wt.% tussah silk to the PLGA nanofibers accelerates osteoblast differentiation and formation of new bone. • Mechanical properties of composite nanofiber mats had been significantly improved after embedding with GO nanosheets. • Nanostructured composite scaffolds effectively accelerate mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and formation of new bone.

  2. Characterization of thermal reaction of aluminum/copper (II) oxide/poly(tetrafluoroethene) nanocomposite by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiangyu; Yang, Hongtao; Li, Yan-chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal reaction properties of the Al/CuO/PTFE nanocomposite were investigated. • The Al/PTFE and CuO/PTFE nanocomposites were prepared and tested for comparison. • TG/DSC–MS and XRD analysis were performed. • PTFE is oxidizing Al and reducing CuO during the thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The application of fluoropolymers as reactive agent in energetic materials have attracted significant interest recently. In this study, the thermal reaction properties of the aluminum nanoparticles/copper (II) oxide nanoparticles/poly(tetrafluoroethene) (Al-NPs/CuO-NPs/PTFE) nanocomposite (mass ratio of Al-NPs/CuO-NPs/PTFE = 20/60/20) were investigated by means of thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry–mass spectrometry (TG/DSC–MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The Al-NPs/PTFE (mass ratio of Al-NPs/PTFE = 50/50) and CuO-NPs/PTFE (mass ratio of CuO-NPs/PTFE = 75/25) nanocomposites were also prepared and tested for comparison. It is observed that PTFE is acting as both oxidizer and reducer during the thermal decomposition process of Al-NPs/CuO-NPs/PTFE nanocomposites. Before 615 °C, PTFE is oxidized by CuO-NPs and oxidizing Al-NPs, resulting mass reduction. After 615 °C, the excessive aluminum and copper (I)/copper (II) oxide will proceed the exothermic condensed phase reaction.

  3. A highly sensitive NADH sensor based on a mycelium-like nanocomposite using graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes to co-immobilize poly(luminol) and poly(neutral red) hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang Lin, Kuo; Yu Lai, Szu; Ming Chen, Shen

    2014-08-21

    Hybridization of poly(luminol) (PLM) and poly(neutral red) (PNR) has been successfully performed and further enhanced by a conductive and steric hybrid nanotemplate using graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The morphology of the PLM-PNR-MWCNT-GO mycelium-like nanocomposite is studied by SEM and AFM and it is found to be electroactive, pH-dependent, and stable in the electrochemical system. It shows electrocatalytic activity towards NADH with a high current response and low overpotential. Using amperometry, it has been shown to have a high sensitivity of 288.9 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) to NADH (Eapp. = +0.1 V). Linearity is estimated in a concentration range of 1.33 × 10(-8) to 1.95 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.33 × 10(-8) M (S/N = 3). Particularly, it also shows another linear range of 2.08 × 10(-4) to 5.81 × 10(-4) M with a sensitivity of 151.3 μA mM(-1) cm(-2). The hybridization and activity of PLM and PNR can be effectively enhanced by MWCNTs and GO, resulting in an active hybrid nanocomposite for determination of NADH.

  4. Development of graphene oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) thin film-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detection of human immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothipor, Chammari; Lertvachirapaiboon, Chutiparn; Shinbo, Kazunari; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao; Ounnunkad, Kontad; Baba, Akira

    2018-02-01

    An electrochemically synthesized graphene oxide (GO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) thin film-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (EC-SPR) sensor chip was developed and employed for the detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). GO introduced the carboxylic group on the film surface, which also allowed electrochemical control, for the immobilization of the anti-IgG antibody via covalent bonding through amide coupling reaction. The SPR sensitivity of the detection was improved under the control by applying an electrochemical potential, by which the sensitivity was increased by the increment in applied potential. Among the open-circuit and different applied potentials in the range of -1.0 to 0.50 V, the EC-SPR immunosensor at an applied potential of 0.50 V exhibited the highest sensitivity of 6.08 × 10-3 mL µg-1 cm-2 and linearity in the human IgG concentration range of 1.0 to 10 µg mL-1 with a relatively low detection limit of 0.35 µg mL-1. The proposed sensor chip is promising for immunosensing at the physiological level.

  5. High-performance free-standing capacitor electrodes of multilayered Co9S8 plates wrapped by carbonized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tinghui; Li, Yali; Liu, Dequan; Gu, Yipeng; Qin, Shengchun; Guo, Xin; Guo, Hui; Ding, Yongqiang; Liu, Qiming; Chen, Qiang; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a free-standing electrode structure composed of multilayered Co9S8 plates wrapped by carbonized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate)/reduced graphene oxide (PEDOT:PSS/rGO) layers is introduced. Excellent supercapacitive behaviors, especially long cycling stability at high current densities are delivered owing to the synergetic effects of stable electrical contact between the active material and carbonized PEDOT:PSS/rGO due to the wrapped configuration, efficient charge exchange between the multilayered Co9S8 plates and electrolyte, improved electrical conductance by rGO, and plenty of voids for accommodating volume changes. For the optimized electrode (starting materials: 0.5 mL PEDOT:PSS, 1.0 mL GO (6.0 mg mL-1) and 10.0 mg Co(OH)2), a specific capacitance of about 788.9 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 and good cycling stability of over 100% of the initial capacitance (∼488.6 F g-1) after 10000 cycles at a current density of 15.0 A g-1 can be achieved. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor based on the optimized electrode//active carbon exhibits an energy density of ∼19.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 400.9 W kg-1.

  6. Study of chemical interaction induced by ionizing radiation poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) in the poly(n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) and agar membrane; Estudo da interacao quimica do poli(dimetilsiloxano-g-oxido de etileno) na membrana de poli(n-vinil-2-pirrolidona) e agar induzida com radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzi, Aurea de Souza

    1999-07-01

    Membrane composed by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and agar was formulated with and without poly(dimethylsiloxane-g-ethylene oxide) (SEO) irradiated with electron beam with doses between 10-50 kGy. The radiolytic behaviour of each component, PVP, agar and SEO, was studied when irradiated by gamma ray, in the absence and presence of air and water, by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 77 K. The chemical interaction of SEO with PVP/agar membrane was investigated by: infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, dynamic-mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, gel and swelling analysis. The cytotoxicity of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane was evaluated by cellular suppression. The membrane radicals from PVP ({phi}NC.) and from water (H., OH. and H{sub 2}O) was observed by EPR at 77K. The agar radicals formed by hydrogen abstraction of C{sub 1} and C{sub 3} of {beta}-D-galactose and/or C{sub 1} and C{sub 4} of {alpha}-L-galactose, reacted primarily with water radicals in despite of they also took part in the membrane by chemical bond. The radicals from SEO (.CH{sub 2}{approx}, .Si{approx}, .O{approx}) participated in the inter and intramolecular crosslinking as co-crosslinker by polymeric bridge. The co-crosslinked action depended on its concentration associated to PVP concentration. The presence op acrylates increases the tensile break of the PVP/agar/SEO membrane significantly. (author)

  7. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl sulfone)- and poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, H.S.; Giaccai, J.; Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A novel group of polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl sulfone) (PVS) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) polymers, plasticized with highly conductive solutions of LiClO{sub 4}, LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2} or LiAsF{sub 6} dissolved in ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, sulfolane, or mixtures thereof, was prepared via in situ photopolymerization and solution casting, respectively. The polymer electrolytes were characterized from conductivity and cyclic voltammetry data. It was found that solutions of Li salts in the vinyl sulfone monomer were highly conductive at room temperature with conductivities of 0.6 to 1.3 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} at 30{sup o}C, but the conductivities decreased by about 10{sup 3} times on polymerizing. Conversely, the conductivities increased by about 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} times on incorporating plasticizing solvents into the solid polymer electrolytes, suggesting that ionic mobility is the primary factor affecting the conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes. The highest conductivity exhibited by PVS-based electrolyte was 3.74 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1} and that by PVdF-based electrolyte was 1.74 x 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}cm{sup -1}, at 30{sup o}C. The PVS-based electrolytes were found to be stable to oxidation up to potentials ranging between 4.5 and 4.8 V, while the stable potential limits for PVdF-based electrolytes were between 3.9 and 4.3 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. (author)

  8. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) without any pretreatment. - Highlights: • A poly(RhB)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite was synthesized. • The composite film was characterized by SEM, XRD, EIS and Raman spectroscopy. • The simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP was realized. • The electrode showed high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and good stability. • The electrode was used to determine 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples. - Abstract: In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10"−"9 to 1.0 × 10"−"7 M and 1.0 × 10"−"7 to 1.0 × 10"−"4 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10"−"1"0 M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10"−"9 to 1.0 × 10"−"7 M and 1.0 × 10"−"7 to 9.0 × 10"−"5 M with the detection limit of 5.0 × 10"−"1"0 M

  9. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing, E-mail: yuanx@nenu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: A poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) without any pretreatment. - Highlights: • A poly(RhB)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite was synthesized. • The composite film was characterized by SEM, XRD, EIS and Raman spectroscopy. • The simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP was realized. • The electrode showed high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and good stability. • The electrode was used to determine 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples. - Abstract: In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10{sup −10} M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 9.0 × 10{sup −5} M with the

  10. Stealth properties of poly(ethylene oxide)-based triblock copolymer micelles: a prerequisite for a pH-triggered targeting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Butsele, K; Morille, M; Passirani, C; Legras, P; Benoit, J P; Varshney, S K; Jérôme, R; Jérôme, C

    2011-10-01

    Evaluation of the biocompatibility of pH-triggered targeting micelles was performed with the goal of studying the effect of a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) coating on micelle stealth properties. Upon protonation under acidic conditions, pH-sensitive poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) blocks were stretched, exhibiting positive charges at the periphery of the micelles as well as being a model targeting unit. The polymer micelles were based on two different macromolecular architectures, an ABC miktoarm star terpolymer and an ABC linear triblock copolymer, which combined three different polymer blocks, i.e. hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone), PEO and P2VP. Neutral polymer micelles were formed at physiological pH. These systems were tested for their ability to avoid macrophage uptake, their complement activation and their pharmacological behavior after systemic injection in mice, as a function of their conformation (neutral or protonated). After protonation, complement activation and macrophage uptake were up to twofold higher than for neutral systems. By contrast, when P2VP blocks and the targeting unit were buried by the PEO shell at physiological pH, micelle stealth properties were improved, allowing their future systemic injection with an expected long circulation in blood. Smart systems responsive to pH were thus developed which therefore hold great promise for targeted drug delivery to an acidic tumoral environment. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical optimization of a transcritical CO2/propylene cascaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    transcritical CO2/propylene cascade system with parallel compression ... specific volumes, low solidification temperature, low operating pressure of the ...... Kim M, Pettersen J and Bullard C W 2004 Fundamental process and system design ...

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on (Pb) lead modified by Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn microparticles dispersed into poly(o-phenylenediamine) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Irannejad, Leila [Jaber Ibn Hayan Research Lab., Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran); Golabi, Seyed Mehdi [Electroanalytical Chemistry Lab., Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran)

    2005-08-18

    The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol at a (Pb) lead electrode modified by Pt, Pt-Ru and Pt-Sn microparticles dispersed into poly(o-phenylenediamine) (PoPD) film has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry as analytical technique and 0.5M sulfuric acid as supporting electrolyte. It has been shown that the presence of PoPD film increases considerably the efficiency of deposited Pt and Pt alloys microparticles toward the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol. The catalytic activity of Pt particles is further enhanced when Ru and especially Sn, is co-deposited in the polymer film. The effects of various parameters such as concentration of methanol, medium temperature as well as the long term stability of modified electrodes have also been investigated. (author)

  13. Facile synthesis of glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (GFRGO)/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites for improving thermal and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mallakpour, Shadpour; Karshenas, Azam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • GFRGO composites were synthesized and used for fabrication of PVA/GFRGO NCs. • Attached glucose on RGO enhances RGO interaction with PVA hydroxyl groups. • PVA/GFRGO NCs exhibited enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. • FE-SEM and TEM micrographs prove good dispersion of GFRGO into PVA matrix. - Abstract: In this work, we provided a facile pathway to the modification of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by glucose as a biologically active molecule through covalent functionalization. Then, flexible and smooth poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PVA/GFRGO) nanocomposite (NC) films were fabricated using 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% concentrations of RGO-glucose in water. As a reducing sugar, glucose can reduce graphene oxide. Thus, graphene oxide was converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by hydrazine hydrate. Then, RGO was functionalized with glucose to achieve good dispersion in the polymer matrix. Due to the increased interfacial interaction between GFRGO and PVA matrix, the prepared PVA/GFRGO NCs showed a 52% increase in tensile strength and a 47% improvement in Young’s modulus by adding of only 5 wt% of GFRGO. Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal stability of the PVA/GFRGO NCs increased compared to the neat PVA film.

  14. Facile synthesis of glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (GFRGO)/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites for improving thermal and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdolmaleki, Amir, E-mail: abdolmaleki@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Sensors and Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mallakpour, Shadpour, E-mail: mallak@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Institute, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence in Sensors and Green Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karshenas, Azam [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • GFRGO composites were synthesized and used for fabrication of PVA/GFRGO NCs. • Attached glucose on RGO enhances RGO interaction with PVA hydroxyl groups. • PVA/GFRGO NCs exhibited enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. • FE-SEM and TEM micrographs prove good dispersion of GFRGO into PVA matrix. - Abstract: In this work, we provided a facile pathway to the modification of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by glucose as a biologically active molecule through covalent functionalization. Then, flexible and smooth poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/glucose-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (PVA/GFRGO) nanocomposite (NC) films were fabricated using 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% concentrations of RGO-glucose in water. As a reducing sugar, glucose can reduce graphene oxide. Thus, graphene oxide was converted to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by hydrazine hydrate. Then, RGO was functionalized with glucose to achieve good dispersion in the polymer matrix. Due to the increased interfacial interaction between GFRGO and PVA matrix, the prepared PVA/GFRGO NCs showed a 52% increase in tensile strength and a 47% improvement in Young’s modulus by adding of only 5 wt% of GFRGO. Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal stability of the PVA/GFRGO NCs increased compared to the neat PVA film.

  15. A novel electrochemical sensor for the analysis of β-agonists: The poly(acid chrome blue K)/graphene oxide-nafion/glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Ni, Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kokot, Serge, E-mail: s.kokot@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: A new modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of acid chrome blue K (ACBK) at a graphene-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The novel electrode was successfully employed for the analysis of eight β-agonist analytes with high sensitivity. -- Highlights: • Construction of the poly-ACBK/graphene-nafion/GCE. •The modified electrode showed high sensitivity for the analysis of the β-agonists. • A novel method was successfully developed for the analysis of clenbuterol in pork. • Research provided a new method of constructing electrodes for biological analysis. -- Abstract: A novel modified electrode was constructed by the electro-polymerization of 4,5-dihydroxy-3-[(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt (acid chrome blue K (ACBK)) at a graphene oxide (GO)-nafion modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The characterization of an electrochemically synthesized poly-ACBK/GO-nafion film was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and the results were interpreted and compared at each stage of the electrode construction. Electrochemical oxidation of eight β-agonists – clenbuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, ractopamine, dopamine, dobutamine, adrenaline, and isoprenaline, was investigated by CV at the different electrodes. At the poly-ACBK/GO-nafion/GCE, the linear sweep voltammetry peak currents of the eight β-agonists increased linearly with their concentrations in the range of 1.0–36.0 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively, and their corresponding limits of detection (LODs) were within the 0.58–1.46 ng mL{sup −1} range. This electrode showed satisfactory reproducibility and stability, and was used successfully for the quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in pork samples.

  16. The Evonik-Uhde HPPO process for proplene oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, B.; Baerz, M. [Evonik Industries, Hanau (Germany); Schemel, J.; Kolbe, B. [Uhde GmbH, Dortmund/Bad Soden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2008 the HPPO technology has shown up as an economically and environmentally friendly alternative for manufacturing of propylene oxide. The HPPO technology offers the advantage of an on purpose process for manufacturing of propylene oxide without dependency on disposal or marketing of coupling products. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Organomontmorillonite Content on Morphology and Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide/Polyamide-66 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunxiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocomposites consisting of polymer matrix and nanofiller have attracted great attention because of the improved physical properties. In this paper, organomontmorillonite (OMMT was introduced into poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide grafted maleic anhydride (PPO-g-MA compatibilized poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide/polyamide-66 (PPO/PA66 blends by melt extrusion. The morphology of PPO/PA66 nanocomposites with different amounts of OMMT was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The OMMT platelets exhibited an exfoliated structure in the PA66 matrix and an intercalated structure on the surface of PPO domains at low OMMT loading (2 phr. However, the exfoliated platelets in matrix were found to transform into intercalated stacks by adding 6 phr of OMMT. The mechanical properties and thermal stability were significantly improved with the coexistence of exfoliated and intercalated OMMT at low OMMT loading (2–4 phr. The exfoliated OMMT platelets imposed a confinement effect on the macromolecular chains and thereby increased the storage modulus and complex viscosity of nanocomposites.

  18. Effects of Modified Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Poly(vinyl alcohol Blend Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effect of modified iron oxide nanoparticles (MINP and cellulose nanocrystals (NCC on magnetic, thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol based nanocomposites. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation route. Nanocomposite films were developed by solvent casting method and their properties were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of nanoparticles, the glass transition temperature increase slightly to higher temperatures; however, the degree of crystallinity and the values of the melting temperature are found to decrease. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of nanoparticles was even more noticeable. Addition of nanoparticles resulted in increased thermal stability of PVA due to the reduction in mobility of matrix molecules by strong hydrogen bonds between nanocomposite components. Results indicated that, MINP and NCC have synergistic effect on improving of poly(vinyl alcohol properties. The VSM findings showed that the saturation magnetization of iron oxide nanoparticles reduced after modification. This can be attributed to formation of hydroxyapatite on nanoparticles surface. The saturation magnetization (Ms of PVA- MINP films was higher than PVA-MINP- NCC film. This result probably is related to more amount of magnetic nanoparticles in PVA-MINP films.

  19. A directional entrapment modification on the polyethylene surface by the amphiphilic modifier of stearyl-alcohol poly(ethylene oxide) ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Chen, Yi; Huang, Juexin; Huang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Jiaying

    2018-05-01

    A novel entrapment modification method involving directional implantation of the amphiphilic modifier of stearyl-alcohol poly(ethylene oxide) ether (AEO) into the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) surface is proposed. This modification technique allows the AEO modifier to be able to spontaneously attain and subsequently penetrate into the swollen HDPE surface with its hydrophobic stearyl segment, while its hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segment spontaneously points to water. The AEO modifier with a HLB number below 8.7 was proved appropriate for the directional entrapment, Nevertheless, AEOs with larger HLB numbers were also effective modifiers in the presence of salt additives. In addition, a larger and hydrophobic micelle, induced respectively by the AEO concentration above 1.3 × 10-2 mol/L and the entrapping temperature above the cloud point of AEO, could lead to a sharp contact angle decline of the modified surface. Finally, a hydrophilic HDPE surface with the modifier coverage of 38.9% was reached by the directional entrapment method, which is far larger than that of 19.2% by the traditional entrapment method.

  20. Gamma radiation effects on an amine antioxidant added in an ethylene-propylene copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anelli, P.; Baccaro, S.; Casadio, C.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the gamma radiation induced effects on samples of an ethylene-propylene copolymer antioxidant free with samples loaded with an antioxidant characterised by the presence of an -NH functional group. The employed techniques were Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Stable radicals R-NO degree sign due to the interaction of free radicals produced in the irradiated polymer with the antioxidant have been observed by ESR at room temperature. The time evolution of the ESR signals following the irradiation was examined at different doses. The amount of antioxidant not involved in the oxidation reactions has been determined using HPLC

  1. The Optical Properties of Thin Film Reduced Graphene Oxide/Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxtriophene):Poly (Styrene Sulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) Fabricated by Spin Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokmana, Arinta W.; Asriani, A.; Suhendar, H.; Triyana, K.; Kusumaatmaja, A.; Santoso, I.

    2018-04-01

    Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) has been successfully synthesized from Graphite powder through chemical process using modified Hummers method by removing NaNO3 from reaction formula. Hydrazine hydrate 80 wt% has been chosen as reductor to eliminate the epoxy group in GO. FTIR and Uv-Vis spectroscopy result showed that Graphene Oxide (GO) and rGO were formed. Our produced rGO then used to fabricated the composite thin film rGO/PEDOT:PSS by spin coating at room temperature. The optical constant of thin film rGO/PEDOT:PSS were calculated from the absorbance spectrum of Uv-Visible spectra. The result showed that the value of coefficient absorbance of rGO dropped from 4.7×106 m-1 to 1.3×106 m-1 after doped with 0.02 mL PEDOT:PSS, then increase with the addition volume concentration of PEDOT:PSS. The value of extinction coefficient decrease from 0.31 to 0.08 after rGO doped with 0.02 ml PEDOT:PSS and then increase with the addition concentration of PEDOT:PSS. Our result show that thin film rGO/PEDOT:PSS was more transparent than that of thin film rGO.

  2. Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy of propylene carbonate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalini, R.; Roland, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear dielectric measurements were carried out on two strongly polar liquids, 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (VPC) and 4-ethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one (EPC), having chemical structures differing from propylene carbonate (PC) only by the presence of a pendant group. Despite their polarity, the compounds are all non-associated, "simple" liquids. From the linear component of the dielectric response, the α relaxation peak breadth was found to be invariant at a fixed value of the relaxation time, τα. From spectra from the nonlinear component, the number of dynamically correlated molecules was determined; it was also constant at fixed τα. Thus, two manifestations of dynamic heterogeneity depend only on the time constant for structural reorientation. More broadly, the cooperativity of molecular motions for non-associated glass-forming materials is connected to (i.e., reciprocally governs) the time scale. The equation of state for the two liquids was also obtained from density measurements made over a broad range of pressures and temperatures. Using these data, it was determined that the relaxation times of both liquids conform to density scaling. The effect of density, relative to thermal effects, on the α relaxation increases going from PC < VPC < EPC.

  3. Sensor for volatile organic compounds using an interdigitated gold electrode modified with a nanocomposite made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) and ultra-large graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, Amirhossein; Salehi, Alireza; Dehsari, Hamed Sharifi; Gavgani, Jaber Nasrollah; Shalamzari, Elham Khodabakhshi; Taromi, Farmarz Afshar; Mahyari, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    A highly efficient gas sensor is described based on the use of a nanocomposite fabricated from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) and ultra-large graphene oxide (UL-GO). The nanocomposite was placed by drop casting in high uniformity on interdigitated gold electrodes over a large area of silicon substrate and investigated for its response to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at room temperature. Monolayers of UL-GOs were synthesized based on a novel solution-phase method involving pre-exfoliation of graphite flakes. The nanocomposite was optimized in terms of composition, and the resulting vapor sensor (containing 0.04 wt% of UL-GO) exhibits strong response to various VOC vapors. The improved gas-sensing performance is attributed to several effects, viz. (a) an enhanced transport of charge carriers, probably a result of the weakening of columbic attraction between PEDOT and PSS by the functional groups on the UL-GO sheets; (b) the increase in the specific surface area on adding UL-GO sheets; and (c) enhanced interactions between the sensing film and VOC molecules via the network of π-electrons. The sensitivity, response and recovery times of the PEDOT-PSS/UL-GO nanocomposite gas sensor with 0.04 wt% of UL-GO are 11.3 %, 3.2 s, and 16 s, respectively. At a methanol vapor concentration as low as 35 ppm, this is an improvement by factors of 110, 10, and 6 respectively, compared to a PEDOT-PSS reference gas sensor without UL-GO. (author)

  4. The release characteristics of a model protein from self-assembled succinimide-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide ethylene oxide fumarate) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, Angel E; He Xuezhong; Xu Weijie; Jabbari, Esmaiel [Biomimetic Materials and Tissue Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, SC 29208, Columbia (United States)], E-mail: jabbari@engr.sc.edu

    2008-08-13

    Lactide-co-glycolide-based functionalized nanoparticles (NPs), because of their high surface areas for conjugation and biodegradability, are attractive as carriers for stabilization and sustained delivery of therapeutic agents and protein drugs. The objective of this work was to compare the release characteristics of model molecules encapsulated in NPs produced from poly(lactide-co-glycolide fumarate) (PLGF) macromer with those of model molecules conjugated to NPs produced from succinimide (NHS)-terminated PLGF-NHS macromer. Poly(lactide fumarate) (PLAF), PLGF and poly(lactide-co-ethylene oxide fumarate) (PLEOF) macromers were synthesized by condensation polymerization. The hydroxyl end-groups of PLAF and PLGF macromers were reacted with N,N{sup '}-disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC) to produce succinimide-terminated PLAF-NHS and PLGF-NHS macromers. The macromers were self-assembled by dialysis to form NPs. The amphiphilic PLEOF macromer was used as the surfactant to stabilize the NPs in the process of self-assembly. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) was used as a model small molecule for encapsulation in PLAF or PLGF NPs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein for conjugation to PLAF-NHS and PLGF-NHS NPs. The profile of release of the encapsulated PAN from PLAF and PLGF NPs was non-linear and consisted of a burst release followed by a period of sustained release. The release profile for BSA, conjugated to PLAF-NHS and PLGF-NHS NPs, was linear up to complete degradation of the NPs. PLGF and PLAF NPs degraded in 15 and 28 days, respectively, while PLGF-NHS and PLAF-NHS NPs degraded in 25 and 38 days, which demonstrated that the release was dominated by erosion of the matrix. PLAF-NHS and PLGF-NHS NPs are potentially useful as carriers for sustained in situ release of protein drugs.

  5. 40 CFR 180.491 - Propylene oxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Commodity Parts per million Basil, dried leaves 6000 Cacao bean, dried bean 20.0 Cacao bean, cocoa powder 20.0 Fig 3.0 Garlic, dried 6000 Grape, raisin 4.0 Herbs and spices, group 19, dried, except basil 1500...

  6. Phase separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). IV. Thermodynamic parameters for solutions in a series of homologous solvents: Toluene to hexylbenzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Bakker, A.; Broens, L.; van den Berg, J.W.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Melting-point curves for solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) in a series of homologous solvents (toluene to n-hexylbenzene) have been obtained from visual and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The measured melting points were used to calculate thermodynamic

  7. Actinic radiation-curable formulations from the reaction product of organic isocyanate, poly(alkylene oxide) polyol and an unsaturated addition-polymerizable monomeric compound having a single isocyanate-reactive hydrogen group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Energy-curable compositions which can be cured in the presence of air by exposure to actinic radiation contain at least one unsaturated urethane oligomer. The oligomer comprises the reaction product of at least one poly(alkylene oxide) polyol, at least one polyisocyanate, and at least one unsaturated active hydrogen-containing compound

  8. Development of the sulphonated poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide) membranes for proton exchange membranes fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrasu, Daniela; Petreanu, Irina; Iordache, Ioan; Stefanescu, Ioan; Gaspar, Costinela-Laura; Militaru, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fuel cells have the potential to become an important energy conversion technology. Research efforts directed toward the widespread commercialization of fuel cells have accelerated the developing of new types of Proton Exchange Membranes (also termed 'polymer electrolyte membranes') (PEM). Common issues critical to all high performance proton exchange membranes include: - high protonic conductivity; - low electronic conductivity; - low permeability to fuel and oxidant; - low water transport through diffusion and electro-osmosis; - oxidative and hydrolytic stability; - good mechanical properties in both the dry and hydrated states; - cost; and capability for fabrication into Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs). In this sense we choose to use poly(2,6-Dimethyl-1,4-Phenylene Oxide) (PPO) as basis for development of new PEM membranes. The membranes were prepared by lamination from solution (Doctor Balde) method in controlled atmosphere (preliminary vacuum 0.003 Torr and/or nitrogen). FTIR spectra of the sulphonated polymers prove the sulphonic groups presence according the literature. Ionic exchange capacity (IEC) have the values 1.15-3.6 meq/g. TGA-DSC analysis put in evidence the thermal degradation of the sulphonated polymers at about 120 deg. C. These properties of the sulphonated PPO are in accordance of the requirements for PEM membranes and indicate that this polymer is suitable for PEM Fuel cells. (authors)

  9. Inorganic-organic hybrids based on poly (ε-Caprolactone and silica oxide and characterization by relaxometry applying low-field NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sato de Souza de Bustamante Monteiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL based hybrids containing different amounts of modified (Aerosil® R972 and unmodified (Aerosil® A200 silica oxide were prepared employing the solution method, using chloroform. The relationships of the amount of nanofillers, organic coating, molecular structure and intermolecular interaction of the hybrid materials were investigated mainly using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The NMR analyses involved the hydrogen spin-lattice relaxation time (T1H and hydrogen spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T1ρH. The spin-lattice relaxation time measurements revealed that the PCL/silica oxide hybrids were heterogeneous, meaning their components were well dispersed. X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were also employed. The DSC data showed that all the materials had lower crystallization temperature (Tc and melting temperature (Tm, so the crystallinity degree of the PCL decreased in the hybrids. The TGA analysis demonstrated that the addition of modified and unmodified silica oxide does not cause considerable changes to PCL's thermal stability, since no significant variations in the maximum temperature (Tmax were observed in relation to the neat polymer.

  10. Influence of Thermo-Oxidative Ageing on the Thermal and Dynamical Mechanical Properties of Long Glass Fibre-Reinforced Poly(Butylene Terephthalate) Composites Filled with DOPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daohai; He, Min; He, Weidi; Zhou, Ying; Qin, Shuhao; Yu, Jie

    2017-05-04

    In this work, the long glass fibre-reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) composites filled with 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) were prepared by melt blending, and the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing on the static and dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behaviours and morphology of composites with different ageing time at 120 °C were investigated and analysed. The results showed that the mechanical properties decreased in the primary stage of ageing, while embrittlement occurs in the later period, and the crystallinity of PBT decreases first, and then recovers to some extent. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photos of the samples indicated that the obvious crack appeared on the sample surface and a deeper, broader crack occurred with a longer ageing time. The results of energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) proved the DOPO filler diffused to the sample surface by measuring the content of phosphorus. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) curves showed that the thermal stabilities of composites increased with longer ageing time, as did the values of the limited oxygen index (LOI). Meanwhile, the results of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the glass transition temperature shifted to a higher temperature after ageing due to the effect of crosslinking, and both the crosslinking and degradation of PBT molecular chains act as the main factors in the whole process of thermo-oxidative ageing.

  11. Random laser based on Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available Random laser based on Rh6G doped PMMA thin films coating on ZnO nanorods synthesized by a simple hydrothermal oxidation method has been demonstrated. This kind of random laser medium is based on waveguide structure consisting of ZnO nanorods, Rh6G doped PMMA film and air. By controlling the time of hydrothermal oxidation reaction, wheat-like and hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods have been successfully fabricated. The emission spectra of these gain mediums based on different ZnO nanorods are different. The one based on wheat-like ZnO nanorods mainly exhibits amplified spontaneous emission, and the other one based on hexagonal prism ZnO nanorods shows random laser emission. The threshold of the random laser medium is about 73.8 μJ/pulse, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM is around 2.1 nm. The emission spectra measured at different detecting angles reveal that the output direction is strongly confined in ±30° by the waveguide effect. Our experiments demonstrate a promising method to achieve organic random laser medium. Keywords: Random laser, ZnO nanorods, Hydrothermal oxidation, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G, Poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA

  12. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide composites as counter electrodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinfu; Yuan, Shenghua; Yang, Shaolin; Lu, Hui; Li, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    A facile, low cost, easy-controllable method to prepare Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites by electrochemical deposition onto fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) as counter electrodes (CEs) in high performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. The electro-deposition process was accomplished by electro-polymerization of graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT composites onto FTO substrates followed by electrochemical reduction of the GO component. Electrochemical measurements show that the I-/I3- catalytic activity of the as-prepared PEDOT/rGO CE is improved compared with that of the pure PEDOT and PEDOT/GO electrode. Through the analysis of photoelectric properties, the performance of the electrodes fabricated with different polymerization times are compared, and the optimal preparation condition is determined. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC assembled with PEDOT/rGO electrode reaches 7.79%, close to 8.33% of the cell with Platinum (Pt) electrode, and increases by 13.2% compared with 6.88% of the device with the PEDOT electrode.

  13. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  14. Unusual kinetics of poly(ethylene glycol) oxidation with cerium(IV) ions in sulfuric acid medium and implications for copolymer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Jan K; Temprano-Coleto, Fernando; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2015-03-14

    The cerium(IV)-alcohol couple in an acidic medium is an example of a redox system capable of initiating free radical polymerization. When the alcohol has a polymeric nature, the outcome of such a process is a block copolymer, a member of a class of compounds possessing many useful properties. The most common polymer with a terminal -OH group is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG); however, the detailed mechanism of its reaction with cerium(IV) remains underexplored. In this paper, we report our findings for this reaction based on spectrophotometric measurements and kinetic modeling. We find that both the reaction order and the net rate constant for the oxidation process depend strongly on the nature of the acidic medium used. In order to account for the experimental observations, we postulate that protonation of PEG decreases its affinity for some of the cerium(IV)-sulfate complexes formed in the system.

  15. Increased charge transfer of Poly (ethylene oxide) based electrolyte by addition of small molecule and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuraaman, B.; Will, Geoffrey; Wang, Hongxia; Moonie, Paul; Bell, John

    2013-01-01

    A Poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte impregnated with 2-Mercapto benzimidazole was comprehensively characterized by XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the crystallization of PEO was dramatically reduced and the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte was increased 4.5 fold by addition of 2-Mercapto benzimidazole. UV–visible and FTIR spectroscopes indicated the formation of charge transfer complex between 2-Mercapto benzimidazole and iodine of the electrolyte. Dye-sensitized solar cells with the polymer electrolytes were assembled. It was found that both the photocurrent density and photovoltage were enhanced with respect to the DSC without 2-Mercapto benzimidazole, leading to a 60% increase of the performance of the cell.

  16. A new strategy for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene adsorption and electrochemical reduction on poly(melamine)/graphene oxide modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotchim, Suparat; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Limbut, Warakorn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication strategy of a poly(melamine)/graphene oxide (PM/GO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) (PM/GO/GCE) for the detection of ultra-traces of TNT is proposed. • The PM/GO/GCE exhibits excellent adsorption and electrochemical reduction of TNT via the AdCSV technique. • The PM/GO/GCE provides for a high sensitivity, good repeatability and selectivity. • This strategy opens new opportunities for the sensitive detection of TNT aiming at protection of the environmental and homeland securities. - Abstract: A poly(melamine)/graphene oxide (PM/GO) layer modified on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was used for the adsorption and electrochemical detection of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT). The surface morphology and electrochemical behaviour of the PM/GO/GCE were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (AdCSV). The PM/GO/GCE exhibited excellent adsorption and electrochemical reduction of TNT via the AdCSV technique with two linear ranges, 1–90 μg L −1 and 100–1000 μg L −1 , a detection limit of 0.34 μg L −1 and a quantitation limit of 1.14 μg L −1 . The PM/GO/GCE provided for a high sensitivity, good repeatability and selectivity. This modified electrode was successfully applied to detect TNT in soil samples with good recoveries that ranged from 93 to 99%.

  17. Magnetically recoverable magnetite/gold catalyst stabilized by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) for aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao Wei; Murugadoss, Arumugam; Hor, T S Andy; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2010-12-29

    Fe(3)O(4):PVP/Au nanocomposite synthesized via a two-step procedure was tested as a quasi-homogenous alcohol oxidation catalyst. It was found that the nanocomposite was able to carry out aerobic oxidation of alcohols in water at room temperature. Studies show rapid magnetic recoverability and reusability characteristics.

  18. Infrared cross-sections and integrated band intensities of propylene: Temperature-dependent studies

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Alrefae, Majed; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    intensities of propylene are essential for quantitative measurements and atmospheric modeling. We measured absolute IR cross-sections of propylene using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 400-6500cm-1 and at gas

  19. Study of Propylene Glycol, Dimethylformamide and Formaldehyde Vapors Sensors Based on MWCNTs/SnO2 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaven Adamyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results of our research works related to the study of thick-film multiwall carbon nanotube/tin oxide nanocomposite sensors of propylene glycol (PG, dimethylformamide (DMF and formaldehyde (FA vapors derived using hydrothermal synthesis and sol-gel methods. Investigations of response/recovery characteristics in the 50-300 oC operating temperature range reveal that the optimal operating temperature for PG, DMF and FA vapor sensors, taking into account both high response and acceptable response and recovery times, are about 200 and 220 oC, respectively. A sensor response dependence on gas concentration in all cases is linear. The minimal propylene glycol and dimethylformamide gas concentrations at which the perceptible signal was registered by us were 13 ppm and 5 ppm, respectively.

  20. Single-ion triblock copolymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) and methacrylic sulfonamide blocks for lithium metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Aboudzadeh, M. Ali; Rubatat, Laurent; Nair, Jijeesh R.; Shaplov, Alexander S.; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Mecerreyes, David

    2017-10-01

    Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes represent the ideal solution to reduce concentration polarization in lithium metal batteries (LMBs). This paper reports on the synthesis and characterization of single-ion ABA triblock copolymer electrolytes comprising PEO and poly(lithium 1-[3-(methacryloyloxy)propylsulfonyl]-1-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) blocks, poly(LiMTFSI). Block copolymers are prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, showing low glass transition temperature (-55 to 7 °C) and degree of crystallinity (51-0%). Comparatively high values of ionic conductivity are obtained (up to ≈ 10-4 S cm-1 at 70 °C), combined with a lithium-ion transference number close to unity (tLi+ ≈ 0.91) and a 4 V electrochemical stability window. In addition to these promising features, solid polymer electrolytes are successfully tested in lithium metal cells at 70 °C providing long lifetime up to 300 cycles, and stable charge/discharge cycling at C/2 (≈100 mAh g-1).