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Sample records for polluted soils caracterisation

  1. Characterization of the potential mobilization of inorganic pollutants in polluted soils; Caracterisation de la mobilisation potentielle des polluants inorganiques dans les sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, C

    2000-03-01

    This work is made of 5 parts. The first chapter presents the regulatory aspects relative to the polluted sites and soils in France and in Europe in order to allow a better understanding of the stakes of this study. Chapter 2 proposes, first, a bibliographic synthesis of the hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical mechanisms controlling the transfer of pollutants in soils, and then, and exhaustive review of the laboratory tests that allow to evaluate the mobility of pollutants in soils. Chapter 3 is devoted to the experimental study of the interaction between a natural soil and 4 metals (As, Cr, Pb, Zn). It comprises the study of the adsorption-desorption kinetics and the implementation of adsorption-desorption isotherms. This chapter also introduces the notion of speciation (sequential extractions) and shows off the role played by the various constituents of the soil. An experiment of lead-humic acid equilibrium setting-up is proposed to evaluate the phenomenon of complexation on organic matter. Chapter 4 proposes to apply the selected laboratory tests to the previous natural soil artificially polluted in order to characterize the parameters necessary to obtain a mobility scale. The procedures are performed first, on a recently polluted soil and on the same soil after several months of aging. Chapter 5 applies the previously tested procedures to an industrial polluted soil (arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc) in order to propose an elaborated methodology for the evaluation of the mobility of inorganic pollutants. (J.S.)

  2. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  3. Geostatistical characterization of soil pollution at industrial sites Case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at former coking plants; Caracterisation geostatistique de pollutions industrielles de sols cas des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques sur d'anciens sites de cokeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N.

    2001-05-15

    Estimating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in soil at former industrial sites poses several practical problems on account of the properties of the contaminants and the history of site: 1)collection and preparation of samples from highly heterogeneous material, 2) high short scale variability, particularly in presence of backfill, 3) highly contrasted grades making the vario-gram inference complicated. The sampling strategy generally adopted for contaminated sites is based on the historical information. Systematic sampling recommended for geostatistical estimation is often considered to be excessive and unnecessary. Two former coking plants are used as test cases for comparing several geostatistical methods for estimating (i) in situ concentrations and (ii) the probability that they are above a pollution threshold. Several practical and methodological questions are considered: 1) the properties of various estimators of the experimental vario-gram and the validity of the results; 2) the use of soft data, such as historical information, organoleptic observations and semi-quantitative methods, with a view to improve the precision of the estimates; 3) the comparison of standard sampling strategies, taking into account vertical repartition of grades and the history of the site. Multiple analyses of the same sample give an approximation of the sampling error. Short scale sampling shows the difficulty of selecting soils in the absence of a spatial structure. Sensitivity studies are carried out to assess how densely sampled soft data can improve estimates. By using mainly existing models, this work aims at giving practical recommendations for the characterization of soil pollution. (author)

  4. Industrial water pollution: characterization, classification, measurements; Pollution industrielle de l`eau: caracterisation, classification, mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, J.C. [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, IRH-environnement, 54 - Nancy (France)]|[Institut de Promotion Industrielle, IPI-environnement indistriel, 68 - Colmar (France)]|[Centre International de l`eau de Nancy, 54 (France)

    1999-01-01

    In this work is described: 1)the characterization of the industrial wastes pollution and the study of their harmfulness and effects on the environment 2)a classification of the pollution for the different industries 3)the measurements and control of the industrial pollution. (authors) 5 refs.

  5. Soil pollution and soil protection

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, de, F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international Training Centre (PHLO) of Wageningen Agricultural University.Of the three environmental compartments air, water and soil, it is soil that varies most in composition under natural conditions. The effects o...

  6. Soil pollution and soil protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  7. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  8. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtfouse , Eric

    1997-01-01

    This article is written both in English and French; International audience; This preface of the special issue entitled "Soil Pollutants" (Analusis Magazine 25, M16-M72, 1997) highlights major basic and applied issues about the sources and fate of organic, mineral and radioactive pollutants in soils. Soils have long been considered as a closed and inert medium where wastes can be dumped without impact on living organisms. This is false and we know now that soils play a vital role in ecosystems...

  9. Soil, a sponge for pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtfouse, E.

    1997-01-01

    Soil has been regarded for a long time as an inert and closed medium where it was possible to dump any kind of hazardous wastes without implications on living organisms. But all pollutants entering the soil system can be stocked, transformed (often into more hazardous compounds) and transferred towards the atmosphere, groundwater and rivers. Obviously, the building up of toxic wastes into the soil system is a risk for all living beings. Pollution sources are numerous and diverse. They are given here into details. To follow the path of pollutants into the soil puzzle, with emphasis on the determination of bound residues, analytical experiments using labelled elements are by far the most efficient. But as a matter of fact, real toxicity can only be measured with biological tests, where living organisms such as light-emitting bacteria or plants are grown in contact with the toxic media. In order to minimize the diffusion of pollutants toward other natural media, a wide panel of remediation techniques are under development. Incineration and thermal desorption, for instance, are fast. Alternatively, the spreading of detergents onto the soil surface solubilizes pollutants that are later water-washed toward other media. Nonetheless, it is rarely complete and favors the migration of the pollutants toward groundwater, rivers and other ecosystems. On the other hand, mild, low-cost and efficient biological methods are now developing rapidly. Their principle lies on the natural ability of living organisms to extract and degrade toxic molecules. Lastly, plants may be used to remedy polluted soils, a process called ''phyto-remediation''. Its principles lies on two main phenomena. Firstly, some plant species are able to selectively extract large amounts of heavy metals from the ground then store them. Secondly, plants activate strongly the microbial biomass by injection of exudate enriched in organic nutriments in the root zone called ''rhizosphere''. Thus, the microbes, well

  10. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D; Bastiaens, L; Carpels, M; Mergaey, M; Diels, L

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  11. Speciation of Pb in industrially polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the importance of original Pb-speciation versus soil-characteristics to mobility and distribution of Pb in industrially polluted soils. Ten industrially polluted Danish surface soils were characterized and Pb speciation was evaluated through SEM-EDX studies...

  12. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    OpenAIRE

    V. Doležel; P. Procházka; V. Křístek

    2008-01-01

    The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines we...

  13. Characterization of polluted sites. Assessment of pollutant behaviour and transfer in mediums; Caracterisation des sites pollues. L`evaluation du comportement et du transfert des polluants dans les milieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubier, R. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Chassagnac, T. [CSD Azur (France); Schlegel, T. [ATE, (France); Coste, B. [ANTEA, (France)

    1996-12-31

    After a presentation of methods and tools for the basic and extensive characterization of polluted sites and the study of evolution and transfer of current organic pollutants in the ground, the example of the rehabilitation of an old Rhone-Poulenc site (at Chauny, France) polluted with metals and arsenic, is described: soil and aquifer diagnosis, risk analysis and determination of migration schemes

  14. Characterization of polluted sites. Assessment of pollutant behaviour and transfer in mediums; Caracterisation des sites pollues. L`evaluation du comportement et du transfert des polluants dans les milieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubier, R [Agence de l` Environnement et de la Maitrise de l` Energie, 75 - Paris (France); Chassagnac, T [CSD Azur (France); Schlegel, T [ATE, (France); Coste, B [ANTEA, (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a presentation of methods and tools for the basic and extensive characterization of polluted sites and the study of evolution and transfer of current organic pollutants in the ground, the example of the rehabilitation of an old Rhone-Poulenc site (at Chauny, France) polluted with metals and arsenic, is described: soil and aquifer diagnosis, risk analysis and determination of migration schemes

  15. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed.

  16. Modeling Water Pollution of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Doležel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The government of the Czech Republic decided that in the location to the west of Prague, capital city of the Czech Republic, some deep mines should be closed because of their low efficiency of coal mined i.e. small amounts and low quality of the coal extracted in the final stage of mining. The locations near Prague influenced the decision to do maintenance on the abandoned mines, as the thread of soil pollution was unacceptably high in the neighborhood of the capital city. Before the mines were closed it was necessary to separate existed extensive horizontal location of salt water below a clay layer in order not to deteriorate the upper fresh water. The salt water could not be allowed to pollute the upper layer with the fresh water, as many wells in villages in the neighborhood of the former mines would be contaminated. Two horizontal clay layers (an insulator and a semi-insulator separated the two horizons containing salt water and fresh water. Before starting deep mining, vertical shafts had to be constructed with concrete linings to enable the miners to access the depths. The salt water was draining away throughout the existence of the mine. The drainage was designed very carefully to avoid possible infiltration of salt water into the upper horizon. Before the mines were abandoned it was necessary to prevent contact between the two kinds of waters in the shafts. Several options were put forward, the most efficient of which appeared to be one that proposed filling the shafts with spoil soil and creating a joint seal made of disparate material at the interface between the salt water and fresh water to create a reliable stopper. The material for the spoil soil was delivered from deposits located not far from the shafts. This material consisted of a variety of grains of sand, big boulders of slate, slaty clay, sandstone, etc.. Chemical admixtures were considered to improve the flocculation of the filling material. The stopper was positioned at a

  17. Electrodialytic decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method, which combines the electrokinetic mevement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialytis. The method has been proven to work in laboratory scale and at present two types of pilot plant tests are made....

  18. Effects of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil and Organic Amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil and Organic Amendment on Soil ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... of using organic fertilizer as bioremediant for spent engine oil polluted soils.

  19. Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Inputs of heavy metals to soils have increased recently and there is much concern that they may be toxic at various stages along the food chain and ultimately to man. Cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead move from geochemical sources to plants and then to animals and man; they then are returned in various forms to soil to complete the cycle. The ways in which heavy metals may be added to soils are reviewed. They include: aerial inputs by air pollution, fertilizers, pesticides, farm slurries and sewage sludge. Possibly the source of contamination which is to have the most impact on soils used for the production of crops is sewage sludge. The fate of heavy metal added to soils is discussed in relation to form, mobility, uptake by plants, effect of soil conditions on availability to plants, and toxicity to animals. 56 references.

  20. Vulnerability to diffuse pollution of European soils and groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinardi CR; Beusen AHW; Bollen MJS; Klepper O; LBG; CWM

    1994-01-01

    From the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, European soils and groundwater are threatened by diffuse pollution derived from various chemicals used in modern agriculture and by increased atmospheric deposition of pollutants. The investigated vulnerability of soils (including groundwater) to

  1. SOIL DEGRADATION PROCESSES FROM POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Leonid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigations found HCH and DDT residuals in bottom sediments from several reservoirs and lakes as well as the main rivers, Nistru and Prut (concentrations ranged between 0.2 and 15.8 ppb. The concentration of PCBs in the topsoil collected beneath the capacitors battery at the Vulcănesti substation reached a level of 7100 ppm which is exceeding the MAC by five orders of magnitude (!. With no exception, allowable concentrations of PCBs in soil were exceeded also on the territory of other investigated substations, with peaks registered at the Briceni substation (2545 ppm and the Orhei substation (1959 ppm.

  2. Microorganisms as bioindicators of pollutants in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the predominant portion of the soil's biological phase and they are indicators of soil health and quality. Soil microorganisms a take part in degradation of organic and inorganic compounds, b their activity, number and diversity may serve as bioindicators of toxic effects on soil biological activity, c some microbial species may be used for soil bioremediation and d some sensitive microbes are used in eco-toxicity tests. The primary microbial population starts to decompose herbicides several days after their arrival into the soil. The secondary population produces induced enzymes and decomposes herbicides after a period of adaptation. Certain microbial groups are indifferent to the applied herbicides. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity depends on the element, their concentration, microbial species, as well as physical and chemical soil properties. Toxic level of individual pollutants depends on their origin and composition. However, combined application of chemicals makes room for the occurrence of synergistic toxic effects detrimental for the ecosystem and human health. .

  3. Heavy metal pollution and soil enzymatic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, G

    1974-01-01

    The activity of hydrolytic soil enzymes was studied on spruce mor, polluted with Cu and Zn from a brass foundry in Sweden. Approximately straight regression lines were obtained between enzymatic activity or respiration rate and log Cu + Zn concentration, with highly significant negative regression coefficients for urease and acid phosphatase activity as well as respiration rate, whereas US -glucosidase activity was not measurably lower at high concentrations of Cu + Zn. 17 references, 5 figures.

  4. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. U. Chibuike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for the bioremediation of polluted soils. Using plants for the treatment of polluted soils is a more common approach in the bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. Combining both microorganisms and plants is an approach to bioremediation that ensures a more efficient clean-up of heavy metal polluted soils. However, success of this approach largely depends on the species of organisms involved in the process.

  5. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    OpenAIRE

    XU Qiu-tong; GU Guo-ping; ZHANG Ming-kui

    2016-01-01

    To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was character...

  6. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment.

  7. Bioremediation of textile effluent polluted soil using kenaf (Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR BADA

    Bioremediation of textile effluent polluted soil using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus Linn.) and composted ... Lead, Cadmium, Chromium and Zinc levels in plants and soil were determined using Atomic ..... Contaminated land in the EC: Report of ...

  8. Bioremediation of textile effluent polluted soil using kenaf ( Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation of textile effluent polluted soil using kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus Linn.) and composted ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home ... Twelve-litre plastic pots were filled with 10 kg soil.

  9. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on Plants and Bioremediation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuike, G. U.; Obiora, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Soils polluted with heavy metals have become common across the globe due to increase in geologic and anthropogenic activities. Plants growing on these soils show a reduction in growth, performance, and yield. Bioremediation is an effective method of treating heavy metal polluted soils. It is a widely accepted method that is mostly carried out in situ; hence it is suitable for the establishment/reestablishment of crops on treated soils. Microorganisms and plants employ different mechanisms for...

  10. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Cu-Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action......Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action...

  11. Electrodialytic Remediation of Soil Polluted with Copper from Wood Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Laursen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil......The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil...

  12. Soil nitrogen as fertilizer or pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of 22 studies and surveys are reported on a global scale on N fertilizer applications and the fate of 15 N-labelled fertilizer in various soils, water and nitrate movement, residues, soil-N transformations in relation to leaching, nitrate pollution, nitrogen balance and related aspects under a variety of climatic conditions and crop cultivation are described. Some studies did not contain actual isotope applications, and have therefore not been entered in INIS as individual items. A 13-page report on research coordination includes background information, common methodology, field lysimeter experiments and their results, and the collection and evaluation of data. In conclusion, variations in the fate and behaviour of N residues are considered as are water pollution, the critical role of models and the need for behaviour prediction, the fate of agricultural N residues, the conservation of useful N residues, and future programmes. The report concludes with 7 recommendations, 20 references, and 3 annexes. Annex 1 lists programme participants by country, chief investigator, basis of collaboration and subject area, Annex 2 the titles and authors of working papers; Annex 3 gives guidelines for 15 N-residue experiment objectives, data presentation, etc. All participants in the Coordination Meeting are listed

  13. Analytical, microbiological and eco-toxicological characterization of former polluted gas-work sites; Caracterisation analytique, microbiologique et ecotoxicologique de terres polluees d'anciennes usines a gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeseler, F.

    1999-12-17

    The present work was done on representative soil samples originating from different former gas-work sites and contaminated with poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Because of their genotoxicity these compounds are considered as the major pollutants. A detailed analytical characterization of the polluting organic matter present in these soils shows that the 16 PAH of the US-EPA priority pollutants list (3 to 6 %) are systematically associated to other PAH (7 to 10 %) and to an organic matter extractable with organic solvents (10 to 15%), but also to a non-extractable heavy organic matter (60 to 75 %). The results show that these soils are polluted with PAH-containing coal tars generated by the industrial coal pyrolysis process of gas manufacturing. All the studied soils present a microflora able to degrade all the PAH from the US-EPA list. The main factor limiting the biodegradation rates obtained by biological soil treatment is the lack of accessibility of PAH. This is due to the presence of heavy organic matter of coal tar acting like a trap for the associated PAH. The soils which have not undergone natural attenuation present an important leaching capacity for PAH. This leaching capacity is strongly reduced after even a limited biological treatment. Bacterial tests performed on leachates of biologically treated soils show that they no longer present any detectable acute toxicity or genotoxicity. (author)

  14. Polluted soil leaching: unsaturated conditions and flow rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chourouk Mathlouthi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples are extracted from a polluted site at different depths. Soils texture and pollutant presence are different with depth. Preliminary analyzes showed pollution by heavy metals. To simulate soil leaching operation in static condition, a series of leaching tests are conducted in laboratory column under conditions of upflow unsaturated soil. Electrical conductivity and pH measurements on the recovered leachate are performed. Different flow rates are tested. Comparison of different profiles shows that the dissolved pollutants are concentrated in the upper soil levels and disperse weakly in the lower parts which confirm the nature of anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals. Water mobilizes a high amount of dissolved ionic substances up to 80% of the initial concentration. The increase in flow rate requires more pore volume injected to achieve the maximum clearance rate. The down flow condition extracts a small amount of dissolved substances.

  15. Laws of the electrochemical soils remediation from petroleum pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The man-caused petroleum pollution of humus and soils in places of oil production, and also the pollution of geological environment by petroleum is carried out in growing scales. Very much frequently of ground and soils become soiled by petroleum at failures during transportation of petroleum. The humus and clay soils polluted by petroleum causes destruction ecosystems and landscapes. Therefore finding - out of the nature and mechanisms of interaction water-saturated dispersed soils with the liquid hydrocarbons becomes one of priority problems in the field of ecological geology. The development of methods of electrochemical clearing soils from the liquid hydrocarbons pollution is the important task too. Therefore, the study of dependences of a double electrical layer (DEL) parameters of the water-petroleum-saturated caolinite clay and electrochemical migration in it of petroleum was the purpose of the present work. (orig.)

  16. Ecological evaluation of polluted soils from Sasa mine

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents various strategies developed to evaluate the quality of soils and sites correspond to three possible objectives: to establish references or criteria of soil quality, on chemical and/or ecotoxicological bases (to define thresholds), to develop methods of ranking to classify polluted sites for the purpose of their decontamination (to establish a classification), and to develop methods of risk evaluation. The paper presents result of ecological evaluation of polluted soils fro...

  17. Causes and distribution of soil pollution in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delang Claudio O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China is the most populated country in the world, but has relatively little fertile land, and even less water. Maintaining the quality of its agricultural land is of paramount importance if China wants to feed its very large and growing population. Yet, China is one of the countries with the largest amount of polluted soil. This paper looks at the causes and distribution of soil pollution in China. It first looks at the amount of organic and inorganic soil pollutants and their geographic distribution. It then looks at the causes of soil pollution, making the distinction between agricultural activities, industrial activities, and urbanization. Pollution from agricultural activities stems primarily from the excessive amounts of pesticides and fertilizers used on farmland, and is mainly located in the south, where most of the food is produced. Pollution from industrial activities is due to airborne industrial pollutants that fall on to the land, and is mainly located in the west of the country, where most manufacturing activities take place. Pollution from urbanization is mainly due to the very large amount of solid, liquid and gaseous waste generated in a small area with insufficient treatment facilities, and exhaust fumes from vehicles, and is located around the largest cities, or roads. The result is that one fifth of China’s farmland is polluted, and an area the size of Taiwan is so polluted that farming should not be allowed there at all.

  18. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  19. [Research advances in eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Teng, Hong-Hui; Ren, Bai-Xiang; Shi, Shu-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Soil eco-toxicology provides a theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soils and soil pollution control. Research on eco-toxicological effects and molecular mechanisms of toxic substances in soil environment is the central content of the soil eco-toxicology. Eco-toxicological diagnosis not only gathers all the information of soil pollution, but also provides the overall toxic effects of soil. Therefore, research on the eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution has important theoretical and practical significance. Based on the research of eco-toxicological diagnosis of soil pollution, this paper introduced some common toxicological methods and indicators, with the advantages and disadvantages of various methods discussed. However, conventional biomarkers can only indicate the class of stress, but fail to explain the molecular mechanism of damage or response happened. Biomarkers and molecular diagnostic techniques, which are used to evaluate toxicity of contaminated soil, can explore deeply detoxification mechanisms of organisms under exogenous stress. In this paper, these biomarkers and techniques were introduced systematically, and the future research trends were prospected.

  20. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant reduction in their diversity, respectively with the predominantspecies that degrade hydrocarbons to simpler compounds, determining their gradualdisappearance.

  1. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  2. Screening of anthropogenic compounds in polluted sediments and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Leer, E.W.B. de; Schuyl, P.J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of flash evaporation and pyrolysis gas chromatography- mass spectrometry as a fast screening procedure for anthropogenic substances In environmental samples is demonstrated by the analysis of polluted soil and sediment samples. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, haloorganics,

  3. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  4. Study of soil pollution by cadmium in Qatina region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargouth, G.; Johar, Y.; Ashkar, I.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy metals such as cadmium are specify to form complex compounds in soils make it difficulty to be absorbed from plants, but if prevailing circumstances changeability in soil and make these elements in absorbed actionable case to the plants, direct threatening upon of polluted soil with such elements will begin, and appears on plants, animals and humans. Holding comprehensive environmental evaluation on the agricultural soil field according to the prevailing circumstances in the transplanting zone, considered as important environmental practical stage in reducing environmental cadmium problems risk. Accordingly, we look to terming and controlling environment either to manage a soil pollution problem existed, or prophecy with circumstances lowers upon cadmium concentrations in the environment system (soil-plant) in order not to occurs environmental cadmium problems in the field soil futurity. (author)

  5. Pollutants impact bioassay from waters and soils in Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Laura Mosneang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of water and soil samples by chemical methods identified the quantities of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates by comparison with the maximum limits of law. Acute toxicity tests on zebra fish embryos is an alternative test of water samples around swine farms in Banat region, because embryos are not subject to animal protection legislation during experiments. The use of Eisenia fetida earthworms as pollution indicators allowed assessment of avoidance behavior of potentially polluting soils collected from different distances from farms.

  6. Phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soils using soybean varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco; Balabanova, Biljana; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Wei, Shuhe

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization and extraction of natural resources have resulted in large scale environmental contamination and pollution. Soil pollution with cadmium is due to strengthened industrial development, especially in the areas of drilling, exploitation and processing of mineral raw materials. On the territory of the Republic of Macedonia there are several areas with significant higher content of cadmium in the soil, including the vicinity of the mine lead and zinc “Zletovo” near the...

  7. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution on roadside soil along highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    Highway traffic is the main source of heavy metal pollution. Due to limited cropland, it is very common to plant crops along the highways. So, in view of agricultural products safety, heavy metal pollution by highway traffic to soils along highway is widely concerned. Therefore, to study distribution traits, accumulative laws and influence factors of heavy metals in agricultural soils could provide scientific evidence and theoretical basis for environmental protection along express way.

  8. Soil pollution in Central district of Saint-Petersburg (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhina, Natalia; Ufimtseva, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of soil samples of upper horizon for the content of chemical elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Cd, Ba, Sr) was carried out by atomic emission with inductively coupled plasma. A relative indicator of soil contamination degree is a concentration coefficient, representing the ratio of metal content in tested soil samples to the local background value of the corresponding element. Total pollution index is calculated by the concentration coefficients, which are greater than 1, taking into account the hazard class of metals (1 class - Zn, Pb ,Cd; 2 - class Cr, Ni, Cu ,Со; 3 class - Fe, Mn, Sr, Ba). Analysis of trace element of urban soils demonstrated mosaic patterns of pollution for Central district. The method of correlation sets constructing and factor analysis revealed three groups of chemical elements having a strong and significant association with each other: Pb-Cu-Cd-Zn-Ba, Ni-Cr-Co, Fe-Mn. Elements of the first group are characterized by high values of concentration coefficient and are the main pollutants - their average content is 3-11 times higher than background values. Strontium does not have strong correlation with the other elements, and its lowest concentration coefficient indicates that the element can not be regarded as a pollutant. The spatial distribution of the total pollution index identified several sources of pollution, the origin of which may be different. The main reason is probably the impact of vehicle emissions, although local pollution of soil is possible (the soils, contaminated during reconstruction of lawns, dumping of construction materials, etc.). Differentiated assessment of database shows that 48% of samples refer to dangerous pollution category, 37% - to moderately dangerous category, 15% - to allowable category. Thus, almost half of the district is characterized as dangerous in terms of soil contamination. Solution of the problem of soil contamination is recommended in three ways: reducing the intensity of

  9. Electrodialytic Remediation of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil. An Innovative Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1997-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediationof heavy metal polluted soil is a newly developed method which combines the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The method has prowen to work in laboratorscale and at presnet two types of pilot plants are build....

  10. Effect of Organic Pollutants on Migration of Radionuclides in Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, R.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the effect of organic pollutants on the mobility of selected heavy metal (pb 2+ ) and radionuclide ( 60 Co) in an Egyptian agricultural soil and in a clay fraction separated from the soil. The effect of presence of natural organic compounds such as humic acid is also studied

  11. Remediation of biochar on heavy metal polluted soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Zhan

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable mining and smelting of mineral resources, solid waste disposal, sewage irrigation, utilization of pesticides and fertilizers would result in a large number of heavy metal pollutants into the water and soil environment, causing serious damage to public health and ecological safety. In recent years, a majority of scholars tried to use biochar to absorb heavy metal pollutants, which has some advantages of extensive raw material sources, low-cost and high environmental stability. This paper reviewed the definition, properties of biochar, the mechanism of heavy metal sorption by biochar and some related problems and prospects, to provide some technical support for the application of biochar into heavy metal polluted soils.

  12. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina; Kubal, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic...... remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially...... polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown...

  13. Assessment on urban soil pollution by biocides from building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a monitoring study of stormwater runoff from a residential catchment as well as direct façade runoff analysis, the present study was assessing the pollution of urban soil to biocides from building material. The stormwater runoff of a residential catchment in Silkeborg (Denmark) was monitored...... from a freshly painted or rendered house, it is obvious that a huge part is actually draining directly to the soil and not to the sewer system. Consequently, the soil in urban areas is exposed to stormwater highly polluted by biocides which might affect the microbial community there....

  14. Sanitation of overburden dumps containing organic pollutants. Soil pollution obstructs removal of overburden dumps at Ronneburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, R.; Fischer, D.

    1999-01-01

    Contamination of mineral oil hydrocarbons is a common problem in soil sanitation, and classic methods are employed as a rule. In one case, radioactivity of the polluted rock material, a wide spectrum of pollutants and a high pollutant level necessitated adapted solutions. The task was tackled in a joint effort by builder-owners, authorities, sanitation experts and scientific experts in consideration of economic and ecological aspects [de

  15. Facilitating the afforestation of Mediterranean polluted soils by nurse shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, María T; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Murillo, José M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-09-15

    The revegetation of polluted sites and abandoned agricultural soils is critical to reduce soil losses and to control the spread of soil pollution in the Mediterranean region, which is currently exposed to the greatest soil erosion risk in Europe. However, events of massive plant mortality usually occur during the first years after planting, mainly due to the adverse conditions of high irradiance and drought stress. Here, we evaluated the usefulness of considering the positive plant-plant interactions (facilitation effect) in the afforestation of polluted agricultural sites, using pre-existing shrubs as nurse plants. We used nurse shrubs as planting microsites for acorns of Quercus ilex (Holm oak) along a gradient of soil pollution in southwestern Spain, and monitored seedling growth, survival, and chemical composition during three consecutive years. Seedling survival greatly increased (from 20% to more than 50%) when acorns were sown under shrub, in comparison to the open, unprotected matrix. Facilitation of seedling growth by shrubs increased along the gradient of soil pollution, in agreement with the stress gradient hypothesis that predicts higher intensity of the facilitation effects with increasing abiotic stress. Although the accumulation of trace elements in seedling leaves was higher underneath shrub, the shading conditions provided by the shrub canopy allowed seedlings to cope with the toxicity provoked by the concurrence of low pH and high trace element concentrations in the most polluted sites. Our results show that the use of shrubs as nurse plants is a promising tool for the cost-effective afforestation of polluted lands under Mediterranean conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indices of soil contamination by heavy metals - methodology of calculation for pollution assessment (minireview).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmannová, Helena Doležalová; Pavlovský, Jiří

    2017-11-07

    This article provides the assessment of heavy metal soil pollution with using the calculation of various pollution indices and contains also summarization of the sources of heavy metal soil pollution. Twenty described indices of the assessment of soil pollution consist of two groups: single indices and total complex indices of pollution or contamination with relevant classes of pollution. This minireview provides also the classification of pollution indices in terms of the complex assessment of soil quality. In addition, based on the comparison of metal concentrations in soil-selected sites of the world and used indices of pollution or contamination in soils, the concentration of heavy metal in contaminated soils varied widely, and pollution indices confirmed the significant contribution of soil pollution from anthropogenic activities mainly in urban and industrial areas.

  17. Distribution of Escherichia Coli as Soil Pollutant around Antang Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiningsih, Andi; Zubair, Hazairin; Imran, A. M.; Widodo, Sri

    2018-03-01

    Tamangapa Antang Landfill locates around the residential area and faces an air and water pollution due to an open dumping system in its operation. The system arises a potential pollution in air, water and soil. Sampling was done surround the landfill in two parts, parallel and perpendicular to the ground water flow. This study shows the abundance of E. coli bacteria in soil around the Antang Landfills at depth of 10 to 20 cm (93x105 cfu/gr of soil) in the direction of groundwater flow. While in other locations the E. coli bacteria is not detected. The abundance of E. coli bacteria is a conjunction factor from landfill and human activities surround the area. The absence of E. coli bacteria in other location highly interpreted that the landfill is the major contributor of pollutant.

  18. Sediment exchange to mitigate pollutant exposure in urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Glass, Katherine; Morris, Samantha; Zhang, Horace; McRae, Isabel; Anderson, Noel; Alfieri, Alysha; Egendorf, Sara Perl; Holberton, Shana; Owrang, Shahandeh; Cheng, Zhongqi

    2018-05-15

    Urban soil is an ongoing source for lead (Pb) and other pollutant exposure. Sources of clean soil that are locally-available, abundant and inexpensive are needed to place a protective cover layer over degraded urban soil to eliminate direct and indirect pollutant exposures. This study evaluates a novel sediment exchange program recently established in New York City (NYC Clean Soil Bank, CSB) and found that direct exchange of surplus sediment extracted from urban construction projects satisfies these criteria. The CSB has high total yield with 4.2 × 10 5  t of sediment exchanged in five years. Average annual yield (8.5 × 10 4  t yr -1 ) would be sufficient to place a 15-cm (6-in.) sediment cover layer over 3.2 × 10 5  m 2 (80 acres) of impacted urban soil or 1380 community gardens. In a case study of sediment exchange to mitigate community garden soil contamination, Pb content in sediment ranged from 2 to 5 mg kg -1 . This sediment would reduce surface Pb concentrations more than 98% if it was used to encapsulate soil with Pb content exceeding USEPA residential soil standards (400 mg kg -1 ). The maximum observed sediment Pb content is a factor of 42 and 71 lower than median surface soil and garden soil in NYC, respectively. All costs (transportation, chemical testing, etc.) in the CSB are paid by the donor indicating that urban sediment exchange could be an ultra-low-cost source for urban soil mitigation. Urban-scale sediment exchange has advantages over existing national- or provincial-scale sediment exchanges because it can retain and upcycle local sediment resources to attain their highest and best use (e.g. lowering pollutant exposure), achieve circular urban materials metabolism, improve livability and maximize urban sustainability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Impact of Acidification on Pollutants Fate and Soil Filtration Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Makovniková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of simulated acid load on the fate of inorganic pollutants (Cd, Pb, soil sorption potential, soil filtration func-tion. We made use of a short-term acidification pot experiment with grown plant of spring barley cultivated at 4 different soil types (Fluvisol, Cambisol, Stagnosol, Podzol. The potential of soil filtration was evaluated according to the Eq.: [Soil filtration function]=[Potential of soil sorbents]+[Potential of total content of inor-ganic pollutants]. Potential of soil sorbents (PSS is defined by qualitative (pH, or-ganic matter quality - A400/600 and quantitative factors (carbon content-Cox, humus layer thickness-H according to the Eq.:[PSS]=F(pH+F(A465/665+F(Cox*F(H. Acid load significantly influenced soil sorption potential and thus affected increase in Cd and Pb mobility what was reflected in their transfer into the plants. Results of soil filtration function showed significant change of filtration function in Cambisol.

  20. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (Příbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  2. Transformation of a petroleum pollutant during soil bioremediation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. JOVANCICEVIC

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment of ex situ soil bioremediation was performed at the locality of the Oil Refinery in Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River, Serbia polluted with an oil type pollutant. The experiments of biostimulation, bioventilation and reinoculation of an autochthonous microbial consortium were performed during the six-month period (May–November 2006. The changes in the quantity and composition of the pollutant, or the bioremediation effect, were monitored by analysis of the samples of the polluted soil taken in time spans of two weeks. In this way, from the beginning until the end of the experiment, 12 samples were collected and marked as P1–P12 (Pančevo 1–Pančevo 12. The results obtained showed that more significant changes in the composition of the oil pollutant occurred only during the last phases of the experiment (P8–P12. The activity of microorganisms was reflected in the increase of the quantity of polar oil fractions, mainly fatty acid fractions. In this way, the quantity of total eluate increased, and the quantity of the insoluble residue was reduced to a minimum, whereby the oil pollutant was transformed to a form that could be removed more efficiently and more completely from the soil, as a segment of the environment.

  3. Organic pollutants in Bavarian soils. Investigations in the framework of the 'Bavarian soil cadastre'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joneck, M.; Prinz, R.; Schmidt, R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the Bavarian soil cadastre, 260 soils from 90 sites throughout Bavaria were sampled for organic pollutants between 1986 and mid-1989. From the material class of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), first results were introduced. The PCB total concentrations depend very strongly on soil utilization. Forest sites occupy a special position. The comparison of agricultural and forest soils with regard to pollutant concentrations is possible only with volume specific concentrations and/or a site-specific material balance. (orig.) [de

  4. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  5. Pollution of soils in urban areas in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Gordana; Crnkovic, Dragan; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Soil pollution is a world-wide problems that affect rural and urban areas of all the continents (Hu et al., 2015; Mao et al., 2016; Trujillo-González et al., 2016; Elkhatib et al., 2016; Roy and McDonad, 2015; Mahmoud and Abd El-Kader, 2015; Adamcová et al., 2016). There is a need to develop a program to achieve the sustainability of the soil system as the soils offers goods, services and resources to the humankind (Keesstra et al., 2012; Brevik et al., 2015; Keesstra et al., 2016). The program of systematic monitoring of soil pollution in Belgrade is aimed at testing the concentration of hazardous and harmful substances in soil at urban areas, interpretation of the results in accordance with current legislation, soil characteristics and geology and terrain, proposal of preventive and remedial measures in the wider territory of Belgrade. The paper gives an overview of the results of systematic monitoring of soil pollution in Belgrade in the period from 2009 to 2013. In accordance with the objectives of the investigation during the period from 2009-2013, while having in mind the purpose and manner of land use, the program of monitoring of soil pollution in the territory of Belgrade is oriented to the following areas: 1 - Land in the zone of the sanitary protection of the Belgrade water supply system, 2- Land in zone nearby the main roads, 3 - Land within the communal areas (public areas and agricultural land in the wider vicinity of Belgrade). On the basis of the conducted soil monitoring in the wider area of Belgrade, a large number of sites is contaminated with higher concentrations of hazardous and harmful substances that are exceeding the maximum allowed prescribed legal norms. The causes of soil contamination are both, anthropogenic and natural. Taking into account the all results, the most common deviation is referred to the increased nickel content in soil. A number of soil samples showed increase in concentrations of pollutants including Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As

  6. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Leka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat, fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fungi was determined during four growing seasons by an indirect method of dilution addition on the Czapek agar. The study results indicate that the fungi belong to the group of microorganisms that, after an initial sensible response to the presence of pesticides in the soil, very rapidly establish normal metabolism enabling them even to increase their number. The fungicides and insecticides applied were found to be particularly effective in that respect.

  7. Characterization of the atmospheric pollution level in Sfax (Tunisia): influence of sources and meteorological factors; Caracterisation du niveau de pollution atmospherique dans la ville de Sfax (Tunisie): influence des sources et des facteurs meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azri, Ch.; Maalej, A.; Medhioub, K. [Ecole Nationale d' ingenieurs de Sfax, Unite de Recherche Etude et Gestion des Environnements Cotiers et Urbains (Tunisia); Tlili, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Dept. de Geologie (Tunisia)

    2002-01-01

    This study held in Sfax City (Tunisia), showed that the atmospheric pollution level is strongly influenced by industrial sources, obstacles and meteorological factors. The factory of phosphate treatment 'SIAPE' displayed the main polluting source in the City. It is the principal issuing of SO{sub x} and toxic metals. The phosphogypsum deposit displayed an obstacle to the atmospheric diffusion of pollutants. Their stagnation is accentuated under smoky conditions. Several episodes of SO{sub 2} and dust are attributed to the effect of marked thermal inversions and the sirocco wind. The limited influence of traffic was proved by the registration of NO{sub x}, which showed low concentrations. It is conditioned by the change of fashion life of people and their customs of work (Ramadan month, agricultural activities). As a result, the adequate treatment of atmospheric industrial emanations (notably those of SIAPE) and the evacuation of artificial obstacles have to be considered. (authors)

  8. Method of degrading pollutants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Terry C.; Lopez-De-Victoria, Geralyne

    1994-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the motility of microorganisms by placing an effective amount of chlorinated hydrocarbons, preferably chlorinated alkenes, and most preferably trichloroethylene in spaced relation to the microbes so that the surprisingly strong, monomodal, chemotactic response of the chlorinated hydrocarbon on subsurface microbes can draw the microbes away from or towards and into a substance, as desired. In remediation of groundwater pollution, for example, TCE can be injected into the plume to increase the population of microbes at the plume whereby the plume can be more quickly degraded. A TCE-degrading microbe, such as Welchia alkenophilia, can be used to degrade the TCE following the degradation of the original pollutant.

  9. Method of degrading pollutants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T.C.; Lopez-De-Victoria, G.

    1994-07-05

    Disclosed are a method and system for enhancing the motility of microorganisms. This is accomplished by placing an effective amount of chlorinated hydrocarbons, preferably chlorinated alkenes, and most preferably trichloroethylene in spaced relation to the microbes so that the surprisingly strong, monomodal, chemotactic response of the chlorinated hydrocarbon on subsurface microbes can draw the microbes away from or towards and into a substance, as desired. In remediation of groundwater pollution, for example, TCE can be injected into the plume to increase the population of microbes at the plume whereby the plume can be more quickly degraded. A TCE-degrading microbe, such as Welchia alkenophilia, can be used to degrade the TCE following the degradation of the original pollutant. 5 figures.

  10. Interspecific Relationships Among Soil Invertebrates Influence Pollutant Effects of Phenanthrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortet, J.; Joffre, R.; Elmholt, S.

    2006-01-01

    , nitrogen concentration). The effects of each community on the fate of phenanthrene were also assessed. We hypothesize that phenanthrene affects the population dynamics of mesofauna and soil biological functioning depending on exposure duration, type of community, or both. Results show that phenanthrene...... toxic effects of organic pollutants on mesofauna species and soil biological functioning....... exerted an effect on mesofauna and that the effects on some species, like Folsomia fimetaria, were influenced by the species composition in the mesocosms, the soil layer, and the sampling date. However, the effects of phenanthrene on ergosterol content and organic matter decomposition were...

  11. Biological activity of soils strongly polluted with sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krol, M; Maliszewska, W; Siuta, J

    1972-01-01

    Studies were carried out on soils strongly polluted with sulfur and acidified (to pH 1.4). The soils were subjected to an intensive liming. In field and pot experiments, the authors determined: the total quantity of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, azotobacter, nitrifiers, proteolytic activity of microorganisms, activity of ammonifiers and the number of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria. It was found that intensive liming of sulfur-affected soils restored their biological activity. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  13. Utility of pollution indices in assessment of soil quality around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of soil in the vicinity of Madaka mining sites were investigated in this study using Environmental Pollution Indices. Geological mapping of the study area indicated that the area was dominated by schist and granite. The static water level measurement revealed a westward groundwater flow direction which also ...

  14. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that Biostimulation with tilling (nutrient enhanced in-situ bioremediation) and or the combination ofBiostimulation and Bioaugumentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizers would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted tropical soils. Key Words: Bioremediation, Bioaugumentation, ...

  15. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... aiding the activities of the large numbers of microbes ... math of crude oil pollution of agricultural soils to forestall the adverse effects induced .... International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A) manual series. No. 1, Ibadan ...

  16. Seedling growth of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seedling growth performance of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of different railway tracks viz. Karachi Cantt. Station, Malir Halt, Malir 15, Landhi Junction and University Campus (control) was studied under in pots under natural field conditions. The results showed that the root, shoot and seedling size, number ...

  17. Pollution impact of cement production on air, soil and water in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution impact of cement production on air, soil and water in a production location in Nigeria. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... location from the pollution source, which served as control for particulate and soil sampling.

  18. What's in our soil?: how soil pollution affects earthworm movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, T.

    2017-12-01

    Earthworms are an important member of many ecosystems because they contribute to soil quality and are a major food source for many organisms. In this project, we assessed the impacts soil pollution has on the burrowing patterns of earthworms. In each experiment, we introduced 10 earthworms to a unique pollutant and let them equilibrate for up to a week. The results indicated that earthworms migrate towards the introduced liquid regardless of its impact on them. The liquid pollutants introduced seemed to attract the earthworms. This can have harmful consequences, especially in the case of the motor oil, which killed multiple worms.

  19. Sphingomonads in Microbe-Assisted Phytoremediation: Tackling Soil Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatheru Waigi, Michael; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-09-01

    Soil pollution has become a major concern in various terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. One in situ soil bioremediation strategy that has gained popularity recently is microbe-assisted phytoremediation, which is promising for remediating pollutants. Sphingomonads, a versatile bacteria group comprising four well-known genera, are ubiquitous in vegetation grown in contaminated soils. These Gram-negative microbes have been investigated for their ability to induce innate plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits, including the formation of phytohormones, siderophores, and chelators, in addition to their evolutionary adaptations enabling biodegradation and microbe-assisted removal of contaminants. However, their capacity for bacterial-assisted phytoremediation has to date been undervalued. Here, we highlight the specific features, roles, advantages, and challenges associated with using sphingomonads in plant-microbe interactions, from the perspective of future phytotechnologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remediation of soils polluted with lindane using surfactant-aided soil washing and electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Morales, M; Braojos, M; Sáez, C; Cañizares, P; Rodrigo, M A

    2017-10-05

    In this work the complete treatment of soil spiked with lindane is studied using surfactant-aided soil-washing (SASW) to exhaust lindane from soil and electrolysis with diamond anodes to mineralize lindane from the soil washing fluid (SWF) waste. Results demonstrated that this technological approach is efficient and allow to remove this hazardous pollutant from soil. They also pointed out the significance of the ratio surfactant/soil in the efficiency of the SASW process and in the performance of the later electrolysis used to mineralize the pollutant. Larger values of this parameter lead to effluents that undergo a very efficient treatment which allows the depletion of lindane for applied charges lower than 15AhL -1 and the recovery of more than 70% of the surfactant for the regeneration of the SWF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The grey areas in soil pollution risk mapping : The distinction between cases of soil pollution and increased background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaast, N. van der; Leenaers, H.; Zegwaard, J.

    1998-01-01

    The progress of soil clean up in the Netherlands is severely hindered by the lack of common agreement on how to describe the grey areas of increased background levels of pollutants. In this study practical methods are proposed in which background levels are described as distribution functions within

  2. Analysis and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metal in Soil, Perlis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Siti Norbaya Mat Ripin; Sharizal Hasan; Mohd Lias Kamal; NorShahrizan Mohd Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Concentration of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb) were studied in the soils around Perlis, to assess heavy metals contamination distribution due to industrialization, urbanization and agricultural activities. Soil samples were collected at depth of 0-15 cm in eighteen station around Perlis. The soil samples (2 mm) were obtained duplicates and subjected to hot block digestion and the concentration of total metal was determined via ICP-MS. Overall concentrations of Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb in the soil samples ranged from 0.38-240.59, 0.642-3.921, 0.689-2.398, 0-0.63 and 0.39-27.47 mg/ kg respectively. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil display the following decreasing trend: Cu> Pb> Cr> Ni> Cd. From this result, found that level of heavy metal in soil near centralized Chuping industrial areas give maximum value compared with other location in Perlis. The Pollution index revealed that only 11 % of Cu and 6 % of Cd were classes as heavily contaminated. Meanwhile, Cu and Pb showed 6 % from all samples result a moderately contaminated and the others element give low contamination. Results of combined heavy metal concentration and heavy metal assessment indicate that industrial activities and traffic emission represent most important sources for Cu, Cd and Pb whereas Cr, Ni mainly from natural sources. Increasing anthropogenic influences on the environment, especially pollution loadings, have caused negative changes in natural ecosystems and decreased biodiversity. (author)

  3. Soil bioremediation approaches for petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Koshlaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing industrialisation, continued population growth and heavy demand and reliance on petrochemical products have led to unprecedented economic growth and development. However, inevitably this dependence on fossil fuels has resulted in serious environmental issues over recent decades. The eco-toxicity and the potential health implications that petroleum hydrocarbons pose for both environmental and human health have led to increased interest in developing environmental biotechnology-based methodologies to detoxify environments impacted by petrogenic compounds. Different approaches have been applied for remediating polluted sites with petroleum derivatives. Bioremediation represents an environmentally sustainable and economical emerging technology for maximizing the metabolism of organic pollutants and minimizing the ecological effects of oil spills. Bioremediation relies on microbial metabolic activities in the presence of optimal ecological factors and necessary nutrients to transform organic pollutants such as petrogenic hydrocarbons. Although, biodegradation often takes longer than traditional remediation methods, the complete degradation of the contaminant is often accomplished. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil is determined by a number of environmental and biological factors varying from site to site such as the pH of the soil, temperature, oxygen availability and nutrient content, the growth and survival of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes and bioavailability of pollutants to microbial attack. In this review we have attempted to broaden the perspectives of scientists working in bioremediation. We focus on the most common bioremediation technologies currently used for soil remediation and the mechanisms underlying the degradation of petrogenic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.

  4. Soil fungi for mycoremediation of arsenic pollution in agriculture soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Srivastava, P K; Verma, P C; Kharwar, R N; Singh, N; Tripathi, R D

    2015-11-01

    Soil arsenic (As) contamination of food-chains and public health can be mitigated through fungal bioremediation. To enumerate culturable soil fungi, soils were collected from the As-contaminated paddy fields (3-35 mg kg(-1) ) of the middle Indo-Gangetic Plains. Total 54 fungal strains were obtained and identified at their molecular level. All strains were tested for As tolerance (from 100 to 10,000 mg l(-1) arsenate). Fifteen fungal strains, tolerant to 10,000 mg l(-1) arsenate, were studied for As removal in-vivo for 21 days by cultivating them individually in potato dextrose broth enriched with 10 mg l(-1) As. The bioaccumulation of As in fungal biomass ranged from 0·023 to 0·259 g kg(-1). The biovolatilized As ranged from 0·23 to 6·4 mg kg(-1). Higher As bioaccumulation and biovolatilization observed in the seven fungal strains, Aspergillus oryzae FNBR_L35; Fusarium sp. FNBR_B7, FNBR_LK5 and FNBR_B3; Aspergillus nidulans FNBR_LK1; Rhizomucor variabilis sp. FNBR_B9; and Emericella sp. FNBR_BA5. These fungal strains were also tested and found suitable for significant plant growth promotion in the calendula, withania and oat plants in a greenhouse based pot experiment. These fungal strains can be used for As remediation in As-contaminated agricultural soils. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTED SOIL ON THE SEEDLING GROWTH OF PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L. R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SHAFIQ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution by crude oil is an important environmental issue all around the world. Increase in oil pollution level in the environment produce toxic effects on flora and fauna of the region. The effects of different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of crude oil polluted soil on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum were studied. The polluted soil affected the root, shoot length, seedling size, number of leaves and leaf area of P. glaucum. The significant (p<0.05 effects of polluted soil on fresh and dry weight of root, stem, leaves, and seedling of P. glaucum were also recorded. Leaf area, leaf number and total seedling dry weight were noticeably reduced in 10 and 15% polluted soil than control soil treatment. Principally, 20% crude oil polluted soil treatment exhibited highest percentage of decrease in most of the seedling growth parameters of P. glaucum than control. Hence, the effects on seedling growth parameters were increased with increasing levels of polluted soil. For most of the growth parameters, the mean values obtained were found higher for the control soil and progressively decreased from 5-20% crude oil polluted soils. The seedlings of P. glaucum were also tested for tolerance to polluted soil treatment. The results showed that the seedlings of P. glaucum showed high percentage of tolerance to low concentration (5% of polluted soil treatment as compared to control soil treatment (0%.

  6. Microbial decontamination of polluted soil in a slurry process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerdink, M.J.; Kleijntjens, R.H.; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Luyben, K.C.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Oil-contaminated soil (2.3--17 g/kg), even soil with high clay and silt content, was remediated microbiologically in a slurry reactor. The presence of soil, however, limits the degradation rate of oil. In contrast with results form experiments using oil dispersed in water, the relative composition of the oil components in a soil slurry after degradation was about the same as that of the original oil. Thus the composition of the degraded oil is the same as that of the original oil, which is indicative for a physical, rather than a (bio)chemical, limitation on the oil degradation rate. About 70% of the contaminant was readily available and was degraded in less than eight days. The dual injected turbulent suspension (DITS) reactor is able to combine remediation of part of the contaminated (polydisperse) soil with separation of the soil into a heavily and a lightly polluted fraction. In continuous operation, lowering the overall soil residence time from 200 to 100 h did not significantly increase the oil concentration in the effluent soil. Therefore a soil residence time of less than 100 h is feasible. With a residence time of 100 h, overall oil degradation rates at the steady state were more than 70 times faster than in a comparable land farm. After treatment in a DITS reactor, the remaining oil in the contaminated soil fraction is slowly released from the soil. From a batch experiment it was found that another 10 weeks were needed to reach the Dutch reference level of 50 mg/kg. This can be done in a process with a low energy input, such as a landfarm

  7. Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management. 1. Zn and Pb distributions in soil profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, C.; Labanowski, J.; Cambier, P.; Jongmans, A.G.; Oort, van F.

    2007-01-01

    The fate of airborne metal pollutants in soils is still relatively unknown. We studied the incorporation of such airborne metal pollution in two soils under long-term permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable land (CA). Both soils were located at an almost equal distance from a former zinc

  8. Using biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Wang, Hailong; He, Lizhi; Lu, Kouping; Sarmah, Ajit; Li, Jianwu; Bolan, Nanthi S; Pei, Jianchuan; Huang, Huagang

    2013-12-01

    Soil contamination with heavy metals and organic pollutants has increasingly become a serious global environmental issue in recent years. Considerable efforts have been made to remediate contaminated soils. Biochar has a large surface area, and high capacity to adsorb heavy metals and organic pollutants. Biochar can potentially be used to reduce the bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils through adsorption and other physicochemical reactions. Biochar is typically an alkaline material which can increase soil pH and contribute to stabilization of heavy metals. Application of biochar for remediation of contaminated soils may provide a new solution to the soil pollution problem. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the environmental fate and mobility of heavy metals and organic pollutants in contaminated soils and its implication for remediation of contaminated soils. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of contaminated soils.

  9. Feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno; Clause, Lauge

    2014-01-01

    This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose was appl......This report is the D eliverable D 4.3 and was done within the Timbre project WP4. It introduces into the various clean - up techniques that apply plants, evaluates the feasibility of phytoremediation of common soil and groundwater pollutants, and the knowle dge collected for this purpose...... was applied to the two Timbre sites : Hunedoara (Romania) and Szprotawa (Poland). Phytoremediation is the technique to clean up (remediate) contaminated sites using plants, typically trees. The principles of the data were deta iled, with focus on obstacles (phytotoxicity) and factors stimulating success...

  10. Urban soil pollution and the playfields of small children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jartun, M.; Ottesen, R. T.; Steinnes, E.

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of urban surface soil in Tromsø, northern Norway has been mapped to describe the environmental load of toxic elements in different parts of the city. Surface soil samples were collected from 275 locations throughout the city center and nearby suburban areas. Natural background concentrations were determined in samples of the local bedrock. Surface soil in younger, suburban parts of the city shows low concentrations of heavy metals, reflecting the local geochemistry. The inner and older parts of the city are generally polluted with lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and tin (Sn). The most important sources of this urban soil pollution are probably city fires, industrial and domestic waste, traffic, and shipyards. In this paper two different approaches have been used. First, as a result of the general mapping, 852 soil and sand samples from kindergartens and playgrounds were analyzed. In this study concentrations of arsenic (As) up to 1800ppm were found, most likely due to the extensive use of CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) impregnated wood in sandboxes and other playground equipment. This may represent a significant health risk especially to children having a high oral intake of contaminated sand and soil. Secondly a pattern of tin (Sn) concentrations was found in Tromsøcity with especially high values near shipyards. Further investigation indicated that this pattern most probably reflected the use of the highty toxic tributyltin (TBT). Thus détermination of total Sn in surface soils could be a cost-effective way to localize sources of TBT contamination in the environment.

  11. Controlled experimental soil organic matter modification for study of organic pollutant interactions in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ashour A.; Kühn, Oliver; Leinweber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Interactions of organic pollutants with soil organic matter can be studied by adsorption of the pollutants on well-characterized soil samples with constant mineralogy but different organic matter compositions. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are establishing a set of different, well-characterized soil samples by systematic modifications of their organic matter content and molecular composition and prove these modifications by advanced complementary analytical techniques. Modifications were done by off-line pyrolysis and removal/addition of hot-water extracted organic fraction (HWE) from/to the original soil sample. Both pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based C- and N- X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) were applied to investigate the composition of the soil organic matter. These complementary analytical methods in addition to elemental analysis agreed in showing the following order of organic matter contents: pyrolyzed soil < soil residue < original soil < soil + 3 HWE < soil + 6 HWE < HWE. The addition of HWE to the soil sample increases the relative proportions of carbohydrates, N-containing heterocyclic compounds and peptides, and decreases the relative proportions of phenols, lignin monomers and dimers, and lipids. The most abundant organic compound classes in the pyrolyzed sample are aromatics, aliphatic nitriles, aldehydes, five- and six-membered N-containing heterocyclic compounds, and aliphatic carboxylic acids. It can be expected that removal or addition of HWE, that mimic biomass inputs to soil or soil amendments, change the binding capacity for organic pollutants less intensively than heat impact, e.g. from vegetation burning. It will be possible to interpret kinetic data on the pollutants adsorption by these original and modified soil samples on the basis of the bond- and element-specific speciation data through C-XANES and N-XANES and the molecular-level characterization

  12. Bioremediation and detoxification of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao Ping.

    1991-01-01

    As a cleanup alterative, the bioremediation potential of soil, contaminated by spills of three medium petroleum distillates, jet fuel heating oil (No. 2 fuel oil) and diesel fuel was evaluated in controlled-temperature laboratory soil columns and in outdoor lysimeters. Solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography (GC) was used routinely for analysis of fuel residues. Occasionally, class separation and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also used in residue characterization. The decrease in toxic residues was evaluated by Microtox and Ames tests. Seed germination and plant growth bioassays were also performed. Persistence and toxicity of the fuels increased in the order of jet fuel < heating oil < diesel fuel. Bioremediation consisting of liming, fertilization and tilling decreased the half-lives of the pollutants in soil by a factor of 2-3. Biodegradation was faster at 27C than at 17 or 37C, but hydrocarbon concentration and soil quality had only modest influence on biodegradation rates and did not preclude successful bioremediation of these contaminated soils within one growing season. Microbial activity measurements by the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis assay confirmed that microbial activity was the principal force in hydrocarbon elimination. Bioremediation was highly effective in eliminating also the polycyclic aromatic components of diesel fuel. The bioremediation and detoxification of fuel-contaminated soil was corroborated by Microtox, Ames and plant growth bioassays

  13. Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Soil Samples in China: A Graphical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiannan; Lee, Jianchao; Liu, Yansong; Chen, Han; Hu, Huanyu

    2016-09-01

    Soil pollution in China is one of most wide and severe in the world. Although environmental researchers are well aware of the acuteness of soil pollution in China, a precise and comprehensive mapping system of soil pollution has never been released. By compiling, integrating and processing nearly a decade of soil pollution data, we have created cornerstone maps that illustrate the distribution and concentration of cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and chromium in surficial soil across the nation. These summarized maps and the integrated data provide precise geographic coordinates and heavy metal concentrations; they are also the first ones to provide such thorough and comprehensive details about heavy metal soil pollution in China. In this study, we focus on some of the most polluted areas to illustrate the severity of this pressing environmental problem and demonstrate that most developed and populous areas have been subjected to heavy metal pollution.

  14. Identifying sources of soil inorganic pollutants on a regional scale using a multivariate statistical approach: Role of pollutant migration and soil physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changbo; Wu Longhua; Luo Yongming; Zhang Haibo; Christie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were used to estimate the contribution of four components related to pollutant sources on the total variation in concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Se, Hg, Fe and Mn in surface soil samples from a valley in east China with numerous copper and zinc smelters. Results indicate that when carrying out source identification of inorganic pollutants their tendency to migrate in soils may result in differences between the pollutant composition of the source and the receptor soil, potentially leading to errors in the characterization of pollutants using multivariate statistics. The stability and potential migration or movement of pollutants in soils must therefore be taken into account. Soil physicochemical properties may offer additional useful information. Two different mechanisms have been hypothesized for correlations between soil heavy metal concentrations and soil organic matter content and these may be helpful in interpreting the statistical analysis. - Principal components analysis with Varimax rotation can help identify sources of soil inorganic pollutants but pollutant migration and soil properties can exert important effects

  15. PILLARED ZEOLITES AMENDMENTS INFLUENCE FROM POLLUTED SOIL ON HEAVY METALS BIOACCUMULATION IN TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMARANDA MASU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to anthropic activities, the presence of metals in polluted soils has effects on plants development and metals bioaccumulation into trophic levels. In this paper, were followed experiments regarding the tomatoes development into polluted soils with 43.4 – 58.4 mg Cd/kg d.s. and 500- 633 mg Pb/kg d.s. Nickel, zinc and copper content in soils are in the range of diffuse pollution values. Comparatively, an experiment was realized with polluted soils and amended with pillared zeolites. Pillared zeolites change metals distribution in soil fractions and their solubility. Tomato plants grew onto polluted soils, but did not present fruits. Tomatoes from polluted and amended soils presented fruits and metals in tissues (Zn  Cu  Ni. Zinc concentration was five times greater then Ni. Fruits do not accumulate cadmium and lead.

  16. Myco-Flora of a Kerosene-Polluted Soil in Nigeria | WEMEDO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The myco-flora of a Kerosene-polluted soil was investigated. Soil samples collected from a fallow patch of land were polluted with 90 ml, 180 ml, and 270 ml concentrations of kerosene. The 0 ml (untreated soil) served as control. Cultivation of the organisms was done on potato dextrose agar (PDA) after 2 days, 7 days and ...

  17. Soil pollution from motor car emissions in the highest region of the Tauern mountains autobahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperowski, E.; Frank, E.

    1990-01-01

    In a pilot study, pollutant loads from motor traffic were investigated and quantified in soils and grassland near the autobahn. Near the motorway, increased concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants were found, depending on distance, both in soil and in grassland. The decreased soil life is also attributed to this. (orig.) [de

  18. Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Criste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has received a great deal of attention, and bacteria isolated from polluted soil can be usedin that process. In this study, we performed an evaluation of the physiological groups of microorganisms fromsoil contaminated with petroleum. Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil using the selectiveenrichment technique. Minimal Salt Media was used for serial dilutions to determine viable cell count. Thenumber of total viable cells and different types of microorganisms in the original sample was determined by serialdilution, agar plating procedure using selective media. The plates were incubated at 300C for 24-72 hours. Distinctcolonies growing on each plate were selected, and stored at freezing temperatures. The bacterial colonies werethen identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. Following our research, it was observed that although thetotal microbial load of soil is relatively close in value, there are differences regarding the physiological group ofmicroorganisms. In the oil contaminated soil sample the largest group of microorganisms was the nitrous nitrifyingbacteria followed by nitrate bacteria. All bacterial strains that were isolated from soil samples contaminated withhydrocarbons but also the Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtillis strains can use diesel fuel as a food source.With the increase of diesel fuel concentration from culture medium, the majority of the bacterial strains that wereused in our experiments showed an increased value of absorbance. This fact suggests that these strains can be usedin bioremediation processes.

  19. Buffering capacity: its relevance in soil and water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stigliani, W.M. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Buffering capacities in soils are essential for neutralizing or immobilizing inputs of acids and heavy metals. There are four major buffering regimes, each of which operates in a defined pH range. When the rate of pollutant inputs exceeds the rate of natural replenishment of the buffer in a specific regime, the supply of buffer will be exhausted over time, and the soil may switch to a regime at lower pH. As the pH of the soil declines, so does its capacity to immobilize heavy metals. If the soil initially has a moderately high buffering capacity, the time scale before exhaustion is on the order of decades to a century. Over this time there may be no observable environmental effects. When the effects do become obvious, it may be too late to reverse the damage. The importance of buffering capacity as a valued environmental resource must be recognized, and its preservation must be a major component of long-term soil protection policies. (Author). 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Bioremediation of a pesticide polluted soil: Case DDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancur Corredor, Bibiana; Pino, Nancy; Penuela, Gustavo A; Cardona Gallo, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2 bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) has been used since the Second World War to control insect-borne diseases in humans and domestic animals. The use of these organochlorine insecticides has been banned in most countries because of its persistence in the environment, biomagnification and potential susceptibility to toxicity to higher animals. Bioremediation involves the use of microorganisms to degrade organic contaminants in the environment, transforming them into simpler and less dangerous, even harmless compounds. This decontamination strategy has low costs, and wide public acceptance, also it can take place on the site. Compared to other methods, bioremediation is a more promising and less expensive to eliminate contaminants in soil and water. In soil, compounds such as DDT, chlorinated biphenyls can be partially biodegraded by a group of aerobic bacteria that cometabolize the contaminant. The bioavailability of pollutants may be enhanced by treating the soil in the presence of contaminant mobilizing agents such as surfactants. In this review we discuss the different strategies for bioremediation of soil contaminated with DDT, including mechanisms and degradation pathways. The application of these techniques in contaminated soil is also described. This review also discusses which is the best strategy for bioremediation of DDT.

  1. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  2. Heavy Metal Soil Content as an Indicator of Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Rusu

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Two soil sample series were collected from 7 contaminated sites situated along a transect from the pollutant source, Zlatna copper ore-processing plant, and analyzed using different analytical methods. The soils collected in 1998 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES after extraction with DTPA for trace metals and those collected in 1999 were analyzed with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS following two acid digestion procedures. The DTPA extraction procedure produced lower results than the acid digestions. Also, the pH values for all samples was measured and the results obtained during autumn compared with those in spring after a long winter with heavy snow falls. The correlation between Cu, Pb, Zn (for samples collected in May 1999 and pH was investigated. The pattern of chemical abundance of contaminants (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd and Ni was determined in soil at 0-50 cm depth. This study indicates that Pb is the most polluting element up to 25 km downwind from Zlatna town.

  3. About petroleum-chemical soil pollution and their ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizov, K.Sh; Asanbaev, I.K.

    1997-01-01

    It is reported, that in Kazakhstan 20-25 million t of petroleum have mined every year, 90 % of them are in desert areas of Atyrau and Mangistau regions. There are 160 petroleum and gas deposits on different rate of mastering. In near-time outlook the mastering of richest petroleum stocks in the Caspian Sea shelf zone (3.5 billion t) and the Perm oils is planned, area of petroleum-gas regions will be increased up to 1,7 million km 2 , petroleum production will be increased to up 70 million t in 2010. Influence of pollution by petroleum on genetic properties of soils and its ecological consequences as well as issues of rehabilitation of polluted soils with help carbon-oxidation microorganisms are considered. It is reported, that there are cultures of microbes-destructors for hydrocarbon raw materials are able effectively to utilize raw petroleum, gasoline and diesel fuel (up 94-98 %) recommended by Kazakhstan microbiologists. The Munajbak microbe preparation for water and soil purification is able to utilize petroleum on 31-36 %

  4. Development of methods for remediation of artificial polluted soils and improvement of soils for ecologically clean agricultural production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachev, V.; Adrianova, G.; Zaitzev, V.; Kalinin, V.; Kovalenko, E.; Makeev, A.; Malikova, L.; Popov, Yu.; Savenkov, A.; Shnyakina, V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the research: Development of methods for the remediation of artificial polluted soils and the improvement of polluted lands to ecologically clean agricultural production.The following tasks will be implemented in this project to achieve viable practical solutions: - To determine the priority pollutants, their ecological pathways, and sources of origin. - To form a supervised environmental monitoring data bank throughout the various geo system conditions. - To evaluate the degree of the bio geo system pollution and the influence on the health of the local human populations. - To establish agricultural plant tolerance levels to the priority pollutants. - To calculate the standard concentrations of the priority pollutants for main agricultural plant groups. - To develop a soil remediation methodology incorporating the structural, functional geo system features. - To establish a territory zone division methodology in consideration of the degree of component pollution, plant tolerance to pollutants, plant production conditions, and human health. - Scientific grounding of the soil remediation proposals and agricultural plant material introductions with soil pollution levels and relative plant tolerances to pollutants. Technological Means, Methods, and Approaches Final proposed solutions will be based upon geo system and ecosystem approaches and methodologies. The complex ecological valuation methods of the polluted territories will be used in this investigation. Also, laboratory culture in vitro, application work, and multi-factor field experiments will be conducted. The results will be statistically analyzed using appropriate methods. Expected Results Complex biogeochemical artificial province assessment according to primary pollutant concentrations. Development of agricultural plant tolerance levels relative to the priority pollutants. Assessment of newly introduced plant materials that may possess variable levels of pollution tolerance. Remediation

  5. Immobilization of leachable toxic soil pollutants by using oxidative enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.J.R.; Bartha, R.

    1988-01-01

    Screening of leachable toxic chemicals in a horseradish peroxidase-H 2 O 2 immobilization system established that immobilization was promising for most phenolic pollutants but not for benzoic acid, 2,6-dinitrocresol, or dibutyl phthalate. The treatment did not mobilize inherently nonmobile pollutants such as anilines and benzo[a]pyrene. In a separate study, an extracellular laccase in the culture filtrate of Geotrichum candidum was selected from five fungal enzymes evaluated as a cost-effective substitute for horseradish peroxidase. This enzyme was used in demonstrating the immobilization and subsequent fate of 14 C-labeled 4-methylphenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil columns. When applied to Lakewood sand, 98.1% of 4-methylpheno was leached through with distilled water. Two days after immobilization treatment with the G. candidum culture filtrate, only 9.1% of the added 4-methylphenol was leached with the same volume of water. Of the more refractory test pollutant 2,4-dichlorophenol, 91.6% had leached at time zero and 48.5% had leached 1 day after the immobilization treatment. However, 2 weeks after immobilization, only 12.0% of the 2,4-dichlorophenol was leached compared with 61.7% from the control column that received no immobilization treatment. No remobilization of the bound pollutants was detected during 3- and 4-week incubation periods

  6. Decontamination of polluted soils in the new Federal States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, K.

    1993-01-01

    In the course of the privatisation of companies by the Treuhandanstalt (THA), there is a financial risk involved for the property user which is hard to estimate, should the suspicion arise that the property is contaminated with soil pollutants of older origin. Both the Federal Government and the States are prepared to meet some of the costs of the required decontamination treatment in the new Federal States if certain conditions are fulfilled. The necessary inspection and decontamination measures must, in many cases, be cleared with the Treuhandanstalt beforehand. The experiences of the Thuga AG in the inspection and decontamination of pollutants of older origin, especially in the new Federal States, is introduced here. (orig.) [de

  7. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations

  8. Air pollution: Household soiling and consumer welfare losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, W.D.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper uses demand and supply functions for cleanliness to estimate household benefits from reduced particulate matter soiling. A demand curve for household cleanliness is estimated, based upon the assumption that households prefer more cleanliness to less. Empirical coefficients, related to particulate pollution levels, for shifting the cleanliness supply curve, are taken from available studies. Consumer welfare gains, aggregated across 123 SMSAs, from achieving the Federal primary particulate standard, are estimated to range from $0.9 to $3.2 million per year (1971 dollars). ?? 1982.

  9. Natural attenuation of hydrocarbon polluted soils in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Linares, L.; Rojas-Avelizapa, N.; Roldan-Carrillo, T.; Islas-Ramirez, M.

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil and hydrocarbon by-proudcts are the most common pollutants in Mexico. In the last years, the two terms, contamination and remediation have being re-defined; also, based on both the scientific advancement and the human risk, the sustentability of remediation technologies and the definition of cleaning levels has been taking place. In this context, the Natural Attenuation of soils is a viable and low cost remediation choice, defined as the degradation of organic compounds without artificial stimulation, through microbial activity including physical processes, such as volatilization, dilution, sorption, and hydraulic dispersion. (Author)

  10. The possible use of soluble humic substances for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2008-01-01

    Polluted soil is a common and serious environmental problem. While reliable methods exist for cleaning soil contaminated by organic compounds through degradation, remediation of heavy metal polluted soils awaits an appropriate solution. This is because heavy metals are nondegradable and generally....... Therefore, the potential of soluble natural humic substances (HS) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils is tested as an environmental friendly substitute for EDTA. A strongly polluted urban soil and a moderately polluted agricultural soil were extracted at neutral pH in batch mode by three HS...... extraction. Heavy metal extraction with dissolved HS is compared with EDTA at the same concentration and sequential extraction has been performed to identify extracted pools. The results indicate a clear potential of using HS solutions for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils, which is fortunate...

  11. Ecological risk evaluation of polluted soils from Sasa mineral processing concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    The idea that the earth is a closed system and that soil, like other mediums, is polluted by human activities, is very recent, hardly thirty years old. The chief preoccupation has been with water pollution, a conviction that, sooner or later, all the pollutants found in water were the principal cause of the emergence of aquatic ecotoxicology. Yet, the existence of polluted soils has been cited since ancient times. Greek and Roman writers remarked that the contamination of water and air near m...

  12. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  13. Characteristics of current roadside pollution of soils in Upper Silesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, M.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was qualitative recognition of contemporary roadside pollutants deposited on topsoils in areas located in close vicinity to roads with high traffic volume (main roads, ring roads). So far, the determination of pollutant content in soil samples has shown only the amount of pollutants deposited on soils over long time period, without the possibility to assess the quality changes in type of deposition and to determine the present structure of roadside pollution. Moreover, in many cases, it is difficult to distinguish roadside pollution from other industrial sources. In order to avoid this issue and recognize currently emergent threats of road traffic origin, three monitoring plots filled with quartz sand had been installed in Zabrze, Gliwice and Opole (Poland) close to arteries with high traffic volume. For installation of monitoring plots 7 cm of topsoil had been removed and replaced by boxes filled with clean quartz sand with known chemical composition and neutral magnetic properties (diamagnetic). This sand was treated as neutral matrix for the accumulation of traffic pollution. Results of chemical analyses of heavy metal contents and magnetic susceptibility measurements of removed topsoils have shown that the highest content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni were observed in Zabrze. Amount of Zn and Pb exceeded threshold values. Magnetic susceptibility values were also the highest in Zabrze. In all investigated areas magnetic susceptibility values and heavy metal contents decreased with the distance from the road. Measurements of sand from monitoring plots which were executed after 3, 6 and 12 months of exposure have shown that values of magnetic susceptibility have increased during these time periods. It is visible especially in surface layer of sand. Initially magnetic susceptibility value of quartz sand which was used as matrix after first year of exposure increased from 0,25 - 10-8 m3kg-1 to 300 in Zabrze, 50 in Gliwice and 30- 10-8 m3kg-1

  14. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  15. Investigation of transformation of radionuclides in soils oil polluted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbatov, F.Y.; Ahmedov, M.M.; Ibadov, N.A.; Balayev, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Despite of constant improvement in view of last achievement of a science and technique the technological processes of oil production are accompanied by coming in environment a number of chemical substances - oil products, poly aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, salts of heavy metals, including soluble and insoluble compound of stable and radioactive isotopes of metals, various gases etc. Technological processes of production, transportation of crude oil and its complex processing is followed with essential pollution of soil by oil products, radioactive substances because of crude oil and grounds waters spillage. The problem of radioactive pollution of environment in oil-extracting sites and especially in old deposits of Apsheron peninsula, in particular, in oil fields of Surakhani and Balakhani by the various factors is rather urgent in Azerbaijan. On a whole, radioactive-ecological situation is defined by the quantitative contents of natural radionuclides, chemical structure of grounds waters and oil, and also accumulation of radioactive substances in pipelines and modular items as crystals radiobarits or calcium and magnesium salts. Systemic and complex research on this direction will allow creating the mechanism of radionuclides transformation in oil-contaminated soils. The condition of radioactive background of soil cover of oil field in Surakhani was studied in our researches. The soil samples taken from various depths of deposit are investigated. The quantities of total oil components, aliphatic and poly aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals and natural radionuclides are determined. The attempt is made to explain dependence of various meanings of carried out analyses on the depth of taken samples. In summary it is necessary to note, that the researches on more detailed study of influence of the factors on processes of accumulation and transformation natural radionuclides proceed. The systemic researches on this direction will allow securing of

  16. Peach leaf responses to soil and cement dust pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsika, Persefoni A; Nanos, George D; Stavroulakis, George G

    2015-10-01

    Dust pollution can negatively affect plant productivity in hot, dry and with high irradiance areas during summer. Soil or cement dust were applied on peach trees growing in a Mediterranean area with the above climatic characteristics. Soil and cement dust accumulation onto the leaves decreased the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available to the leaves without causing any shade effect. Soil and mainly cement dust deposition onto the leaves decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and water use efficiency due possibly to stomatal blockage and other leaf cellular effects. In early autumn, rain events removed soil dust and leaf functions partly recovered, while cement dust created a crust partially remaining onto the leaves and causing more permanent stress. Leaf characteristics were differentially affected by the two dusts studied due to their different hydraulic properties. Leaf total chlorophyll decreased and total phenol content increased with dust accumulation late in the summer compared to control leaves due to intense oxidative stress. The two dusts did not cause serious metal imbalances to the leaves, except of lower leaf K content.

  17. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epelde, L.; Becerril, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Garbisu, C.

    2010-01-01

    been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses to metal phytoextraction using hyperaccumulators, a microcosm experiment was carried out to study the impacts

  18. Investigation and Evaluation of Heavy Metals Pollution of Agricultural Soils Near a Steel Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tuan-hui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of heavy metals in farmland around a steel plant in the west of Fujian Province was investigated. The pollution index method, principal component analysis and factor analysis on the pollution of Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and As in the soils were carried out to clarify the pollution status, the main source, the degree, and the distribution of the heavy metals pollution in the soil. The secondary standards for acidic agricultural soils of "soil environmental quality standard"(GB 15618-1995were used as the evaluation criterion. The single factor evaluation results showed that the pollution of soil by Cd and Zn in the investigated area was widespread and serious and the points over standard rate was 100% and 95.5% respectively, while the pollution by Pb, Cu and As was slight and the points over standard rate was 29.6%,15.9% and 6.8% respectively. The soils were not polluted by Cr and Ni. The principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that the correlation between Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and As was significant and homologous. Therefore, the pollution of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and As of the soils should be mainly attributed to the pollutants emitted from the steel plant. The correlation between Cr and Ni was also significant and homologous. It was deduced that Cr and Ni in the soils were largely originated from the soils themselves. The comprehensive pollution degree of the heavy metals in the soils decreased as the distance between the steel plant and farmland increasing. The soils of the fields near the entrance of irrigation water from the waste water of the steel plant were more seriously polluted.

  19. Pollution and restoration of soils; Consideraciones generales sobre la contaminacion y restauracion de suelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D.; Plaza, C.; Polo, A.

    2002-07-01

    Soil contamination has received increasing attention because of its potential consequences for environmental and human health. Soil has a considerable storage and buffering capacity, which protects environment against pollutants. However, it can be exceeded so that remediation technologies are required. This paper approaches soil response to pollutants and available restoration techniques, as well as the legal regime of contaminated soils in Spain. (Author) 20 refs.

  20. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  2. Impact of metal pollution and Thlaspi caerulescens growth on soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epelde, L.; Becerril, J.M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Deng, Y.; Zhou, J.N.; Garbisu, C.

    2010-01-01

    Soil microorganisms drive critical functions in plant-soil systems. As such, various microbial properties have been proposed as indicators of soil functioning, making them potentially useful in evaluating the recovery of polluted soils via phytoremediation strategies. To evaluate microbial responses

  3. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil pollution in the railway junction Niš (Serbia) and possibility of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Larisa; Aleksic, Gorica; Radosavljevic, Milan; Onjia, Antonije

    2015-04-01

    Mineral oil leaking from vehicles or released during accidents is an important source of soil and ground water pollution. In the railway junction Niš (Serbia) total 90 soil samples polluted with mineral oil derivatives were investigated. Field work at the railway Niš sites included the opening of soil profiles and soil sampling. The aim of this work is the determination of petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in the soil samples and the investigation of the bioremediation technique for treatment heavily contaminated soil. For determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil samples method of gas-chromatography was carried out. On the basis of measured concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil it can be concluded that: Obtained concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in 60% of soil samples exceed the permissible values (5000 mg/kg). The heavily contaminated soils, according the Regulation on the program of systematic monitoring of soil quality indicators for assessing the risk of soil degradation and methodology for development of remediation programs, Annex 3 (Official Gazette of RS, No.88 / 2010), must be treated using some of remediation technologies. Between many types of phytoremediation of soil contaminated with mineral oils and their derivatives, the most suitable are phytovolatalisation and phytostimulation. During phytovolatalisation plants (poplar, willow, aspen, sorgum, and rye) absorb organic pollutants through the root, and then transported them to the leaves where the reduced pollutants are released into the atmosphere. In the case of phytostimulation plants (mulberry, apple, rye, Bermuda) secrete from the roots enzymes that stimulates the growth of bacteria in the soil. The increase in microbial activity in soil promotes the degradation of pollutants. Bioremediation is performed by composting the contaminated soil with addition of composting materials (straw, manure, sawdust, and shavings), moisture components, oligotrophs and

  5. Estimating the Pollution Risk of Cadmium in Soil Using a Composite Soil Environmental Quality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2014-01-01

    Estimating standard-exceeding probabilities of toxic metals in soil is crucial for environmental evaluation. Because soil pH and land use types have strong effects on the bioavailability of trace metals in soil, they were taken into account by some environmental protection agencies in making composite soil environmental quality standards (SEQSs) that contain multiple metal thresholds under different pH and land use conditions. This study proposed a method for estimating the standard-exceeding probability map of soil cadmium using a composite SEQS. The spatial variability and uncertainty of soil pH and site-specific land use type were incorporated through simulated realizations by sequential Gaussian simulation. A case study was conducted using a sample data set from a 150 km2 area in Wuhan City and the composite SEQS for cadmium, recently set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China. The method may be useful for evaluating the pollution risks of trace metals in soil with composite SEQSs. PMID:24672364

  6. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and

  7. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grobelak

    Full Text Available Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1. A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the

  8. ARSENIC AND COPPER UPTAKE BY CABBAGES GROWN ON POLLUTED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cabbages (Brassica Juncea (L. Czern were grown in pot experiments on typical unpolluted and polluted soils with concentration changing from 20.50 - 50.00 mg As/kg and 156.00 - 413.00 mg Cu/kg dry soil. The results demonstrate the elevation of As and Cu in soil may lead to increased uptake by these cabbages subsequent entry into human food chain. It was found 11.84- 32.12 mg As/kg and 46.86 - 94.47 mg Cu/kg dry leaves. It has tendency increase uptake and accumulation of Cu in cabbage tissue with increasing cultivated time, whereas, it was found accumulation of As in cabbages tissue decreased with time prolonging. The quantity of As and Cu in these cabbages, were significant higher than 0.2 mg As/kg and 5.0 mg Cu/kg fresh vegetable, the permissible limit concentration in fresh vegetable. This indicated that human may As and Cu exposure occur through eating these vegetables.

  9. Migration properties of radionuclides in the polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechdieva, R.N.; Suleymanov, B.A.; Abaszade, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Due to the fact of long-term oil production some local polluted zones exist on Absheron peninsula. The reasons of this pollution vary depending upon the place of pollution. The territory of Romani Iodine plant was selected as the object of investigation. This area was polluted as a result of iodine production process as well as of the influence of stratal water coming with extracted oil. Iodine element is accumulated as other radionuclides in composition of stratal water extracted with oil from ground substratum. During the process of iodine separation from water for its usage in production, water is run through coal. After absorption process coal is placed in the open air. Being in the open air under the influence of rain and other external action coal looses its sorption ability and changes the natural radioactive background of the given territory. The task of the investigation is to determine the changed radioactive background and to set the reasons of this change. It has been observed that the radioactive background at this territory in the source differs from that one at the distance from the source. From the first stage of the investigation the territory was studied and numbered being previously subdivided to small areas. In numbered areas the radioactive background was measured at the distance 1 m above the ground surface by means of SRP - 88 dosimeter, the strength of exposure dose was determined and marked. After that the soil samples were taken at the depth of 10-20 m in the noted point by means of the dosimeter. It should be noted that in above mentioned areas firm soil existed together with the soft one. The samples are collected in special packets with their number, the place of taking and EDG. The natural radioactive background of the territory was measured in different points and so according to these measurements the radiological map of the territory was drawn up. Radionuclide content and activity of the samples were identified by gamma

  10. Effects of Modifiers on Physiological Metabolism of Lolium perenne Seedlings in Diesel-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiment for single-factor with diesel oil polluted soil and the pot experiment for three-factor orthogonal with sawdust-ammonium nitrate-monopotassium phosphate under diesel oil polluted soil with salt stress, were performed to analyze the activity of antioxidant enzymes and chlorophyll content in Lolium perenne seedlings, and to explore the physiological response of L. perenne seedlings under diesel oil polluted soil and its regulations. The results showed that, soil diesel pollution significantly decreased the biomass. Compared with control, activity of superoxide dismutases(SOD in leaf decreased significantly at 0.3% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, peroxidases (POD and catalase(CAT in leaf decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution, the root SOD activity increased significantly at 0.9% diesel concentration while the root POD activity decreased significantly at 0.6% and 0.9% soil diesel pollution. As for the salinity soil polluted by diesel oil, the activity of POD and CAT in leaf increased significantly at 10% volume fraction of sawdust, and the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b increased significantly as well. Meanwhile, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content increased significantly at 0.3 g·kg-1 amount of ammonium nitrate. Thereby, sawdust and ammonium nitrate addition could effectively improve physiological metabolic of L. perenne seedlings.

  11. Simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - State-of-the-art. State-of-the-art of the simulation of pollutants transfer in soils - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, J.; Vaillant, Herve; Moszkowicz, P.; Alimi Ichola, Ibrahim; Foret, Suzanne

    1997-02-01

    Industrial companies use and produce numerous substances which can induce a pollution of our environment and especially of soil and groundwater. Thus, it's necessary to estimate the risk of an environmental impact from an accidental or chronic, real or potential pollution. Modelling, which allow the simulation of pollutant migration, can be used as a decision support system, either for the pollution control and prevention of the resource, or for the monitoring of the remediation of polluted sites. In the first part of this study, we established a state of the art on modelling of pollutant migration in soils. In the second part, we focused on the main simulation tools currently available on the market, and on the main agencies or laboratories working on this subject, especially in France. At the end of this study, we drew some conclusions concerning modelling of pollutant migration in soils and the main points which will form the subject of further studies: - sensitivity analysis of model to input parameters and ranking of the main parameters, - achievement of a database on the state of the art of the results on modelling realized on case studies, - development of a mobility indicator of pollutant in soil, - application field and relevance of the models. (authors)

  12. Modelling an environmental pollutant transport from the stacks to and through the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushdi M.M. El-Kilani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model is presented for predicting the transport of an environmental pollutant from the source to and through the soil. The model can predict the deposition of an environmental pollutant on the soil surface due to the pollutant being loaded on dust particles, which are later deposited on the soil surface. The model is a coupling of three models: a model for predicting the cumulative dust deposition from near and far field sources on a certain area; a canopy microclimate model for solving the energy partition within the canopy elements and so predicting the water convection stream for pollutant transport through the soil; and coupling the deposition of these pollutants on the soil surface to a model for its transport through the soil. The air pollution model uses the Gaussian model approach, superimposed for multiple emission sources, to elucidate the deposition of pollutant laden airborne particulates on the soil surface. A complete canopy layer model is used to calculate within the canopy energy fluxes. The retardation factor for the pollutant is calculated from an adsorption batch experiment. The model was used to predict the deposition of lead laden dust particles on the soil surface and lead's transport through the soil layers inside a metropolitan region for: (1 three large cement factories and (2 a large number of smelters. The results show that, due to the very high retardation values for lead movement through the soil, i.e. ranging from 4371 to 53,793 from previous data and 234 from the adsorption experiment in this paper, lead is immobile and all the lead added to the soil surface via deposited dust or otherwise, even if it is totally soluble, will remain mostly on the soil surface and not move downwards due to high affinity with the soil.

  13. Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

    2012-04-01

    the landscape - Modonkul river flood plain, were transferred by its waters and redeposited in an estuary, forming a cone of carrying out with capacity of up to 2 meters or more. The presence of large number of private houses with garden plots, in which the population grew potatoes, vegetables and fruit-berry trees cultures for food purposes, is the feature of many Siberian towns, including Zakamensk. The biogeochemical assessment of the town territory current status has shown a high level of contamination of soils and plants by heavy metals that poses a threat to the health of townsmen. In this connection search of effective ways of clearing up of the polluted soils by phytoextraction and selection of plants, capable to extract high quantities of heavy metals from soil in concrete ecological conditions, is actual. For this purpose we had been made experiments with 8 species of plants. Modeling of various conditions of pollution carried out by addition of following quantities of TS (%): 0; 25; 33; 50; 67; 75 and 100. In the report results of the experiments and the recommendations on using of plants as extractors on soils polluted by technogenic sand will be presented.

  14. Effect of long-term zinc pollution on soil microbial community resistance to repeated contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg(-1) soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg(-1) soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g(-1) soil dw each) were added. There was a highly significant effect of soil type, copper treatment and oxytetracycline/captan treatment. The initial respiration rate of chronically zinc-polluted soil was higher than that of unpolluted soil, but in the copper treatment it showed a greater decline. Microorganisms in copper-treated soil were more susceptible to oxytetracycline/captan contamination. After the successive soil contamination trials the decline of soil respiration was greater in zinc-polluted soil than in unpolluted soil.

  15. Recent Trend on Bioremediation of Polluted Salty Soils and Waters Using Haloarchaea

    OpenAIRE

    Aracil-Gisbert, Sonia; Torregrosa-Crespo, Javier; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2018-01-01

    Pollution of soils, sediments, and groundwater is a matter of concern at global level. Industrial waste effluents have damaged several environments; thus, pollutant removal has become a priority worldwide. Currently, bioremediation has emerged as an effective solution for these problems, and, indeed, the use of haloarchaea in bioremediation has been tested successfully. A bibliographic review is here presented to show the recent advances in bioremediation of polluted soil and wastewater using...

  16. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamans, Anna C.; Boluda, Rafael; Picazo, Antonio; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Tejedo, Pablo; Pertierra, Luis R.; Benayas, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins’ faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa dominance in the

  17. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Santamans

    Full Text Available The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica. This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins' faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa

  18. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial responses of forest soil to moderate anthropogenic air pollution - a large scale field survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhala, P.; Kiikkila, O.; Fritze, H.

    1996-01-01

    There is a need to introduce soil microbiological methods into long term ecological monitoring programs. For this purpose we studied the impact of moderate anthropogenic air pollution in polluted and less polluted area districts, forest site types Calluna (CT), Vaccinium (VT) and Myrtillus (MT) and the amount of organic matter, measured as carbon content on the soil respiration activity and the ATP content. The main sources of local air pollutants (SO 2 and NO x ) in the polluted area district were from the capital region and an oil refinery. Humus (F/H-layer) and the underlying 0 to 5 cm mineral soil samples were collected from 193 study plots located in the 5300 km 2 study area. We found that the soil respiration rate in humus layer samples was lower in the polluted area district compared to the less polluted one (16.0 and 19.5μL CO 2 h -1 g -1 dw, respectively), but the difference occurred only in the dry, coarse-textured CT forest site type. The mineral soil respiration rate and the mineral soil and humus layer ATP content were not affected by the air pollution. Most of the variations of the biological variables were explained primarily by the soil carbon content, secondly by the forest site type and thirdly by the area division. 38 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  20. Concentrations and geographic distribution of selected organic pollutants in Scottish surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhind, S.M.; Kyle, C.E.; Kerr, C.; Osprey, M.; Zhang, Z.L.; Duff, E.I.; Lilly, A.; Nolan, A.; Hudson, G.; Towers, W.; Bell, J.; Coull, M.; McKenzie, C.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) representing three chemical classes (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and the organic pollutant diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), were determined in surface soil samples (0–5 cm) collected at 20 km grid intersects throughout Scotland over a three-year period. Detectable amounts of all chemical classes and most individual congeners were present in all samples. There were no consistent effects of soil or vegetation type, soil carbon content, pH, altitude or distance from centres of population on concentrations which exhibited extreme variation, even in adjacent samples. It is concluded that soil POPs and DEHP concentrations and associated rates of animal and human exposure were highly variable, influenced by multiple, interacting factors, and not clearly related to local sources but possibly related to wet atmospheric deposition and the organic carbon content of the soil. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of selected organic pollutants in Scottish soils were determined. •Concentrations were highly variable. •There were few effects of soil or vegetation type, soil carbon, pH or altitude. •Distance from cities was not an important determinant of concentrations. •Atmospheric deposition and soil organic carbon content may affect concentrations. -- Soil concentrations of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants are not clearly related to soil type or pH, vegetation, altitude, or distance from pollutant sources

  1. Soil fertility and plant diversity enhance microbial performance in metal-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Anna M; Kapusta, Paweł; Szarek-Łukaszewska, Grażyna; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Niklińska, Maria; Vogt, Rolf D

    2012-11-15

    This study examined the effects of soil physicochemical properties (including heavy metal pollution) and vegetation parameters on soil basal respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity and functional richness of culturable soil bacteria and fungi. In a zinc and lead mining area (S Poland), 49 sites were selected to represent all common plant communities and comprise the area's diverse soil types. Numerous variables describing habitat properties were reduced by PCA to 7 independent factors, mainly representing subsoil type (metal-rich mining waste vs. sand), soil fertility (exchangeable Ca, Mg and K, total C and N, organic C), plant species richness, phosphorus content, water-soluble heavy metals (Zn, Cd and Pb), clay content and plant functional diversity (based on graminoids, legumes and non-leguminous forbs). Multiple regression analysis including these factors explained much of the variation in most microbial parameters; in the case of microbial respiration and biomass, it was 86% and 71%, respectively. The activity of soil microbes was positively affected mainly by soil fertility and, apparently, by the presence of mining waste in the subsoil. The mining waste contained vast amounts of trace metals (total Zn, Cd and Pb), but it promoted microbial performance due to its inherently high content of macronutrients (total Ca, Mg, K and C). Plant species richness had a relatively strong positive effect on all microbial parameters, except for the fungal component. In contrast, plant functional diversity was practically negligible in its effect on microbes. Other explanatory variables had only a minor positive effect (clay content) or no significant influence (phosphorus content) on microbial communities. The main conclusion from this study is that high nutrient availability and plant species richness positively affected the soil microbes and that this apparently counteracted the toxic effects of metal contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Filamentous fungi remove weathered hydrocarbons from polluted soil of tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    PÉREZ-ARMENDÁRIZ, Beatriz; MARTÍNEZ-CARRERA, Daniel; CALIXTO-MOSQUEDA, María; ALBA, Joel; RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ, Refugio

    2010-01-01

    Weathered hydrocarbons from worldwide petrolic activities become more recalcitrant over time. The removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from a polluted soil [65,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)/kg soil], which had been exposed to tropical environmental conditions for more than 20 years in southeast Mexico, was studied using filamentous fungi. Experiments were carried out in batch reactors (60 mL) containing a substrate consisting of polluted soil and sugar cane bagasse pith as bulk agent...

  3. Pollution load index for heavy metals in Mian-Ab plain soil, Khuzestan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jorfi, Sahand; Maleki, Rohangiz; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Soil pollution by heavy metals is a major concern in agricultural area. Potential impact of heavy metals in agricultural soil on human health by accumulating in food chain demonstrated elsewhere.In this regard Mian-Ab plain as a major agricultural site of Khuzestan province considered for Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentration as the main potential toxic pollutants in soil. 50 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Also Contamina...

  4. Bioremediation Potential of Native Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria in Crude Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil is an effective process to clean petroleum pollutants from the environment. Crude oil bioremediation of soils is limited by the bacteria activity in degrading the spills hydrocarbons. Native crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different crude oil polluted soils. The isolated bacteria belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Bacillus. A natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum were used for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from an artificial polluted soil. For soil polluted with 5% crude oil, the bacterial top, including those placed in the soil by inoculation was 30 days after impact, respectively 7 days after inoculum application, while in soil polluted with 10% crude oil,  multiplication top of bacteria was observed in the determination made at 45 days after impact and 21 days after inoculum application, showing once again how necessary is for microorganisms habituation and adaptation to environment being a function of pollutant concentration. The microorganisms inoculated showed a slight adaptability in soil polluted with 5% crude oil, but complete inhibition in the first 30 days of experiment at 10% crude oil.

  5. Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level.

  6. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from industrial and agricultural regions in China: Pollution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianqi; Li, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xiaoning; Duan, Qiannan; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2018-06-14

    Soil heavy metal pollution has been becoming serious and widespread in China. To date, there are few studies assessing the nationwide soil heavy metal pollution induced by industrial and agricultural activities in China. This review obtained heavy metal concentrations in soils of 402 industrial sites and 1041 agricultural sites in China throughout the document retrieval. Based on the database, this review assessed soil heavy metal concentration and estimated the ecological and health risks on a national scale. The results revealed that heavy metal pollution and associated risks posed by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are more serious. Besides, heavy metal pollution and associated risks in industrial regions are severer than those in agricultural regions, meanwhile, those in southeast China are severer than those in northwest China. It is worth noting that children are more likely to be affected by heavy metal pollution than adults. Based on the assessment results, Cd, Pb and As are determined as the priority control heavy metals; mining areas are the priority control areas compared to other areas in industrial regions; food crop plantations are the priority control areas in agricultural regions; and children are determined as the priority protection population group. This paper provides a comprehensive ecological and health risk assessment on the heavy metals in soils in Chinese industrial and agricultural regions and thus provides insights for the policymakers regarding exposure reduction and management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A simplified in-situ electrochemical decontamination of lead from polluted soil (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, T.M.; Ahmad, I.; Khan, Q.M.; Chaudhry, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a simplified In-Situ electrochemical method for remediation of field soil contaminated with lead. A series of electrochemical decontamination experiments including variable conditions such as operating duration and application of enhancement reagent were performed to demonstrate the efficiency of lead removal from spiked and polluted soil samples collected from Lahore, Pakistan. The results showed that the efficiency of lead removal from the contaminated soil increased with increasing the operating duration under a set of experimental conditions. The reagent used as complexing and solubilizing agent i.e. EDTA was found to be efficient in removing lead from the polluted soil. After 15 days duration, 85 % lead removal efficiency was observed in spiked soil under enhanced conditions , however, 63 % lead removal was achieved from the polluted soil samples by the simplified In-situ electrochemical decontamination method. The method is simple, rapid, cheaper and suitable for soil remediation purposes. (author)

  8. The CO2 emission in urbanic soils in the conditions of intensive technogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    Massive industrial pollution of the environment including soils leads to drastic changes in the vital activity of microorganisms, plants and animals. As objects of research was selected soils of the industrial and residential zones, farmland soils, forest soils. Comparative analysis showed that the emission of CO2 urbanizable increase compared to the suburban soils in recreational areas is 1.5 times, in the residential and industrial zones - in 3-5 times. In addition, identified a local point located in the vicinity of chemical plants, where soil CO2 emission increased up to 40 times compared to the suburban soils. Air technogenic pollution of soils by industrial emissions and transport enhances the mineralization of soil organic matter, increases its lability. These trends are associated with nonspecific adaptive reactions of the soil microbial complex in terms of pollution. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization may be due to the increase in the proportion of fungi in the microbial community. According to numerous reports they are more resistant to pollution compared to bacteria and actinomycetes. Admission to the soil organic matter of anthropogenic origin also increases the process of mineralization. According to the findings, low concentrations of petroleum products lead to increased "breathing" of the soil. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization and, consequently, of CO2 emissions, in the conditions of technogenic pollution of the soils identified in our studies, confirmed by numerous studies by other authors. According to reports in Russia the emission of CO2 from soils is 4.5 times higher than the industrial receipt of its atmosphere. The contribution of local anthropogenic CO2 emissions is not so significant compared to the indirect influence of soil pollution on increased CO2 emissions. Consequently, the expansion of technogenic contaminated soil is becoming a more significant factor adversely affecting the state of the atmosphere

  9. Decontamination of electronic waste-polluted soil by ultrasound-assisted soil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Yang, Baodan; Ma, Jing; Qu, Junfeng; Liu, Gangjun

    2016-10-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of a washing process using the combination of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) and tea saponin (TS) for simultaneous desorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and heavy metals from an electronic waste (e-waste) site. Ultrasonically aided mixing of the field contaminated soil with a combination of MCD and TS solutions simultaneously mobilizes most of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the analyte metal (Pb, Cu, and Ni) burdens. It is found that 15 g/L MCD and 10 g/L TS is an efficient reagent combination reconciling extraction performance and reagent costs. Under these conditions, the removal efficiencies of HOCs and heavy metals are 93.5 and 91.2 %, respectively, after 2 cycles of 60-min ultrasound-assisted washing cycles. By contrast, 86.3 % of HOCs and 88.4 % of metals are removed from the soil in the absence of ultrasound after 3 cycles of 120-min washing. The ultrasound-assisted soil washing could generate high removal efficiency and decrease the operating time significantly. Finally, the feasibility of regenerating and reusing the spent washing solution in extracting pollutants from the soil is also demonstrated. By application of this integrated technology, it is possible to recycle the washing solution for a purpose to reduce the consumption of surfactant solutions. Collectively, it has provided an effective and economic treatment of e-waste-polluted soil.

  10. Challenges of E-Waste pollution to soil environments in Nigeria - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of E-Waste pollution to soil environments in Nigeria - A Review. ... of ewaste on the environment (including the soil fauna and flora) especially in Nigeria. ... Possible e-waste management strategies will also be highlighted on soil ...

  11. The remediation of the lead-polluted garden soil by natural zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Shi, Wei-yu; Shao, Hong-bo; Shao, Ming-an

    2009-09-30

    The current study investigated the remediation effect of lead-polluted garden soil by natural zeolite in terms of soil properties, Pb fraction of sequential extraction in soil and distribution of Pb in different parts of rape. Natural zeolite was added to artificially polluted garden soil to immobilize and limit the uptake of lead by rape through changing soil physical and chemical properties in the pot experiment under greenhouse conditions. Results indicated that the addition of natural zeolite could increase soil pH, CEC, content of soil organic matter and promote formation of soil aggregate. The application of zeolite decreased the available fraction of Pb in the garden soil by adjusting soil pH rather than CEC, and restrained the Pb uptake by rape. Data obtained suggested that the application of a dose of zeolite was adequate (>or=10 g kg(-1)) to reduce soluble lead significantly, even if lead pollution is severe in garden soil (>or=1000 mg kg(-1)). An appropriate dose of zeolite (20 g kg(-1)) could reduce the Pb concentration in the edible part (shoots) of rape up to 30% of Pb in the seriously polluted soil (2000 mg kg(-1)).

  12. Improvement of the soil nitrogen content and maize growth by earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils polluted by oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Chong; Ji, Dingge

    2016-11-15

    Interactions between earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices, AM fungi) have been suggested to improve the maize nitrogen (N) content and biomass and were studied in soils polluted by oxytetracycline (OTC). Maize was planted and amended with AMF and/or earthworms (E) in the soil with low (1mgkg(-1) soil DM) or high (100mgkg(-1) soil DM) amounts of OTC pollution in comparison to soil without OTC. The root colonization, shoot and root biomass, shoot and root N contents, soil nitrogen forms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were measured at harvest. The results indicated that OTC decreased maize shoot and root biomass (psoil urease activity and AOB and AOA abundance, which resulted in a lower N availability for maize roots and shoots. There was a significant interaction between earthworms and AM fungi on the urease activity in soil polluted by OTC (ppolluted soil by increasing the urease activity and relieving the stress from OTC on the soil N cycle. AM fungi and earthworms interactively increased maize shoot and root biomass (ppolluted soils through their regulation of the urease activity and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers, resulting in different soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents, which may contribute to the N content of maize shoots and roots. Earthworms and AM fungi could be used as an efficient method to relieve the OTC stress in agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal variability in Cu speciation, phytotoxicity, and soil microbial activity of Cu-polluted soils as affected by elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing-Long; Weng, Nanyan; Fujii, Manabu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study. Soil physicochemical properties were observed to be significantly altered by elevated temperature with the degree of temperature effect varying in soil types and incubation time. The Biolog and enzymatic tests demonstrated that soil microbial activities were mainly controlled and decreased with increasing incubation temperature. Moreover, plant assays confirmed that the phytotoxicity and Cu uptake by wheat roots were highly dependent on soil types but less affected by incubation temperature. Overall, the findings in this study have highlighted the importance of soil types to better understand the temperature-dependent alternation of soil properties, Cu speciation and bioavailability, as well as phytotoxicity of Cu-polluted soils under global warming scenario. The present study also suggests the necessary of investigating effects of soil types on the transport and accumulation of toxic elements in soil-crop systems under global warming scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Use of Adsorbent Materials of Improving the Characteristics of Polluted Soils, Part 1 Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Oil Products, Cultivated with Technical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study are presented in pot experimental variants regarding alternatives to improve the characteristics of soils polluted with 74.12 ± 3.50 g·kg-1 D.M. total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in order to apply the phytoremediation process using technical plants from the common flax (Linum usitatissimum. The harmful effects of TPH polluted soils to plants was reduced by using fly ash from thermal plant as temporary adsorbent of non-polar pollutants, petroleum products. The increase of water retention capacity of the soil was achieved by treatments with indigenous volcanic tuff. The lack of nutrients, based on N and P in soils contaminated with TPH rich in C compounds are completed using sewage sludge anaerobically stabilized. The use of appropriate amounts of fly ash and fertilizer agents in the presence of volcanic tuff caused the formation of strong networks of roots and rich harvests of plants, stems and seeds from the treated soil. The TPH reduction efficiency of TPH polluted soils treated with fly ash (TPH soil: fly ash ratio 12:1 wt. / wt. and anaerobically stabilized sewage sludge respectively indigenous volcanic tuff during one vegetative cycle of crops was in the range of 56.2 - 63.25 %.

  15. Organic pollutants and heavy metals in rainwater runoff and their fate in the unsaturated soil zone. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotehusmann, D.; Rohlfing, R.; Weyer, G.; Dittrich, D.; Gowik, P.; Pernak, P.

    1991-01-01

    This bibliographic study is part of the BMFT intergrated project ''Possibilitiis and limits of [ drainage in consederation of the soil and groundwater protection''. Subjects: Environmental relevance and general distribution of organic pollutants; organic pollutants in rain water, soil, and groundwater; fate of organic pollutants in soil; environmental relevance of heavy metals in soil, rain water, and runof; fate of heavy metals in the unsaturated soil rare. (orig./BBR) [de

  16. Soil quality changes in response to their pollution by heavy metals, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchavariani, Lia; Kalandadze, Besik; Lagidze, Lamzira; Gokhelashvili, Nino; Sulkhanishvili, Nino; Paichadze, Nino; Dvalashvili, Giorgi

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the composition, migration and accumulation of heavy metals in irrigated soils, plants and partially natural waters; and also, establishing the possible sources of pollution and their impact on environmental situation. The content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining and processing enterprise were studied. Content of toxic elements in the irrigated soils adjacent to ore mining, showed that more than half of territory was seriously polluted by copper and zinc. Some part of the area were considered catastrophically polluted. Expressed technogenesis taking place influenced irrigation. Heavy metals like copper, zinc and manganese negative by effected the properties of soil, thus composition and soil-forming processes taking place in the soil. It was especially well represented in the deterioration of hydro-physical potential of the soil. Irrigation of agricultural land plots by water, polluted with heavy metals changed the pH. Balanced correlation among solid, liquid and gas phases was disrupted. In highly polluted soil, the cementing processes took place that sharply increased the bulk density of the soil, deteriorated the porosity of soil and reduced water permeability critically.

  17. Copper Pollution Increases the Resistance of Soil Archaeal Community to Changes in Water Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yu-Rong; Cui, Li-Juan; Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Increasing efforts have been devoted to exploring the impact of environmental stresses on soil bacterial communities, but the work on the archaeal community is seldom. Here, we constructed microcosm experiments to investigate the responses of archaeal communities to the subsequent dry-rewetting (DW) disturbance in two contrasting soils (fluvo-aquic and red soil) after 6 years of copper pollution. Ten DW cycles were exerted on the two soils with different copper levels, followed by a 6-week recovery period. In both soils, archaeal diversity (Shannon index) in the high copper-level treatments increased over the incubation period, and archaeal community structure changed remarkably as revealed by the non-metric multidimensional scaling ordinations. In both soils, copper pollution altered the response of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the DW disturbance. Throughout the incubation and recovery period, the resistance of archaeal abundance to the DW disturbance was higher in the copper-polluted soils than soils without pollution. Taken together, copper pollution altered the response of soil archaeal diversity and community composition to the DW disturbance and increased the resistance of the archaeal abundance. These findings have important implications for understanding soil microbial responses to ongoing environmental change.

  18. Effect of oil pollution on pattern and functions of soil microbiosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talibli, A.K.; Mamedova, I.S.; Mamedyarov, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The soil polluted by oil and petroleum creates severe social and ecological problem. The solution of indicated problem is requires the development and intrusion of modern progressive technology. Most perspective in this sense can be clearing the oil-polluted soils with usage of activity of microorganisms. The modern level of learning of microorganisms oxidizing oil hydrocarbon testifies to a capability of creation of the non-polluting, economically effective biotechnological schemes. It was established by our researches that in oil polluted soils of Absheron peninsula alongside with hydrocarbon oxidizing bacteria it is finding everywhere lithotrophic bacteria of cycle of sulfur - representatives of sulfate-reducing and bacteria of genus Thiobacillus. It was established that the soil polluted by heavy tarry oil renders negative influencing on development of microorganisms

  19. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav; Shukurov, Nosir; Steinberger, Yosef

    2008-01-01

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution

  20. Current research trends on plastic pollution and ecological impacts on the soil ecosystem: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; An, Youn-Joo

    2018-05-09

    Plastic pollution in the environment is currently receiving worldwide attention. Improper dumping of disused or abandoned plastic wastes leads to contamination of the environment. In particular, the disposal of municipal wastewater effluent, sewage sludge landfill, and plastic mulch from agricultural activities is a serious issue and of major concern regarding soil pollution. Compared to plastic pollution in the marine and freshwater ecosystems, that in the soil ecosystem has been relatively neglected. In this study, we discussed plastic pollution in the soil environment and investigated research on the effects of plastic wastes, especially microplastics, on the soil ecosystem. We found that earthworms have been predominantly used as the test species in investigating the effects of soil plastic pollution on organisms. Therefore, further research investigating the effects of plastic on other species models (invertebrates, plants, microorganisms, and insects) are required to understand the effects of plastic pollution on the overall soil ecosystem. In addition, we suggest other perspectives for future studies on plastic pollution and soil ecotoxicity of plastics wastes, providing a direction for such research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Soil organic pollution characteristics and microbial properties in coal mining areas of Mentougou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jian-Li; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chen; Li, Dong; Liu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Le; Yang, Si-Qi

    2011-03-01

    Soil micro-ecosystem including organic pollution characteristics, basic physicochemical parameters, and microbial properties was analyzed which contaminated with organic pollutants in coal mining area. Results showed that the organic pollution level in coal mining area soils distributed from 0.4 to 1.5 mg/g dry soil, which was 1. 5-6 times as much as the background sample. Furthermore, the column chromatography and GC-MS analysis revealed that content of lightly components including saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons exceeded 40%, specifically was alkenes (> C15), hydrocarbon derivatives, and a small amount aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally, the components of organic pollutants extracted in soils were similar to which in coal gangue samples, illustrating the source of soil pollution to a certain extent in coal mining areas. The physicochemical factors such as nutrient level and moisture contents were not conducive to the growth and reproduction of microbe except pH level, which might show inhibition to microbial activities. Microbial density of pollutant soils in coal mining areas was totally low, with specific amount 10(4)-10(5) cell/g dry soil and FDA activity 2.0-2.9 mg/(g x min). Generally, the microbial density and activity were decreased as the enhancing pollution level. However, in-depth analysis was needed urgently because of the complex impact of environmental conditions like pH, moisture, and nutrition.

  2. Influence of industrial heavy metal pollution on soil free-living nematode population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pen-Mouratov, Stanislav [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Shukurov, Nosir [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Academy of Sciences, Tashkent 700041 (Uzbekistan); Steinberger, Yosef [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)], E-mail: steinby@mail.biu.ac.il

    2008-03-15

    The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community (trophic structure, sex structure, and taxa composition) was investigated along a 15-km transect originating at the Almalyk Industrial Complex, Uzbekistan (pollution source). The soil nematode community was exposed to heavy metal influence both directly and through soil properties changes. Pollution effect on the density and biomass of soil free-living nematodes was found to be highest at pollution source, with fungivores and plant parasites dominating at the upper and deeper soil layers next to the pollution source. These groups decreased along the transect, yielding domination to bacteria- and fungi-feeders. The sex ratio of nematode communities was found to be dependent on heavy metal pollution levels, with the juveniles being the most sensitive nematode group. The Maturity and modified Maturity Indices, reflecting the degree of disturbance of the soil ecosystem, were found to be the most sensitive indices. - Trophic structure and sex ratio of soil nematode population are sensitive tools for monitoring industrial pollution.

  3. Abundance, composition and activity of denitrifier communities in metal polluted paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yongzhuo; Zhou, Huimin; Li, Lianqing; Zheng, Jinwei; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jufeng; Pan, Genxing

    2016-01-01

    Denitrification is one of the most important soil microbial processes leading to the production of nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential changes with metal pollution in soil microbial community for N2O production and reduction are not well addressed. In this study, topsoil samples were collected both from polluted and non-polluted rice paddy fields and denitrifier communities were characterized with molecular fingerprinting procedures. All the retrieved nirK sequences could be grouped into neither α- nor β- proteobacteria, while most of the nosZ sequences were affiliated with α-proteobacteria. The abundances of the nirK and nosZ genes were reduced significantly in the two polluted soils. Thus, metal pollution markedly affected composition of both nirK and nosZ denitrifiers. While the total denitrifying activity and N2O production rate were both reduced under heavy metal pollution of the two sites, the N2O reduction rate showed no significant change. These findings suggest that N2O production activity could be sensitive to heavy metal pollution, which could potentially lead to a decrease in N2O emission in polluted paddies. Therefore, metal pollution could have potential impacts on soil N transformation and thus on N2O emission from paddy soils. PMID:26739424

  4. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of “loading capacity” (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale. PMID:26675587

  5. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-17

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of "loading capacity" (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  6. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  7. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Zhang

    Full Text Available Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995 in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China.

  8. Impact of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution on Food Safety in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Liu, Lei; Ouyang, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is a major concern for the Chinese public. This study collected 465 published papers on heavy metal pollution rates (the ratio of the samples exceeding the Grade II limits for Chinese soils, the Soil Environmental Quality Standard-1995) in farmland soil throughout China. The results showed that Cd had the highest pollution rate of 7.75%, followed by Hg, Cu, Ni and Zn, Pb and Cr had the lowest pollution rates at lower than 1%. The total pollution rate in Chinese farmland soil was 10.18%, mainly from Cd, Hg, Cu, and Ni. The human activities of mining and smelting, industry, irrigation by sewage, urban development, and fertilizer application released certain amounts of heavy metals into soil, which resulted in the farmland soil being polluted. Considering the spatial variations of grain production, about 13.86% of grain production was affected due to the heavy metal pollution in farmland soil. These results many provide valuable information for agricultural soil management and protection in China. PMID:26252956

  9. Effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activities in railway cut slope soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaoyi; Ai, Yingwei; Li, Ruirui; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2018-03-07

    Railway transportation is an important transportation mode. However, railway transportation causes heavy metal pollution in surrounding soils. Heavy metal pollution has a serious negative impact on the natural environment, including a decrease of enzyme activities in soil and degradation of sensitive ecosystems. Some studies investigated the heavy metal pollution at railway stations or certain transportation hubs. However, the pollution accumulated in artificial cut slope soil all along the rails is still questioned. The interest on non-point source pollution from railways is increasing in an effort to protect the soil quality along the line. In this study, we studied spatial distributions of heavy metals and five enzyme activities, i.e., urease (UA), saccharase (SAC), protease (PRO), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (POA) in the soil, and the correlation among them beside three different railways in Sichuan Province, China, as well. Soil samples were respectively collected from 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 m away from the rails (depth of 0-8 cm). Results showed that Mn, Cd, Cu, and Zn were influenced by railway transportation in different degrees while Pb was not. Heavy metal pollution was due to the abrasion of the gravel bed as well as the tracks and freight transportation which caused more heavy metal pollution than passenger transportation. Enzymatic activities were significantly negatively correlated with heavy metals in soils, especially Zn and Cu. Finally, it is proposed that combined use of PRO and POA activities could be an indicator of the heavy metal pollution in cut slope soils. The protective measures aimed at heavy metal pollution caused by railway transportation in cut slope soils are urgent.

  10. Microbial degradation of street dust polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in microcosms simulating diffuse pollution of urban soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anders R; de Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of topsoil in urban regions has caused increasing concerns in recent years. We simulated diffuse pollution of soil in microcosms by spiking sandy topsoil (A-horizon) and coarse, mineral subsoil (C-horizon) with street dust (PM63...... for the persistence and low bioaccessibility of 5- and 6-ring PAHs in diffusely polluted soil.......) isolated from municipal street sweepings from central Copenhagen. The microbial communities adapted to PAH degradation in microcosms spiked with street dust in both A-horizon and C-horizon soils, in spite of low PAH-concentrations. The increased potential for PAH degradation was demonstrated on several...

  11. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gurbanov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district,Baku were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc. pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may be used in biopurification of the soils polluted with oil products. Sowing of the fodder crops followed by the technical remediation forms the clean areas of higher productivity.

  12. Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution. Lectures; Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerfler, U; Schulte-Hostede, S [eds.

    1998-12-31

    This lecture event dealt with the following subjects: Deposition, transport and interactions of organic pollutants in soil, such as pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biological availability of pollutants, influence of other substances on the biological availability of pollutants, quantitative and qualitative analyses of pollutants in soil, toxicity. (SR) [Deutsch] Themen dieser Vortragsveranstaltung waren: Deposition, Transport und Wechselwirkungen organischer Schadstoffe im Boden, wie Pestizide und polycyclische Aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe. Bioverfuegbarkeit der Schadstoffe, Einfluss anderer Substanzen auf die Bioverfuegbarkeit der Schadstoffe, quantitative und qualitative Analyse von Schadstoffen im Boden, Toxizitaet. (SR)

  13. Locational evaluation of chemical soil pollution. Lectures; Standortgerechte Bewertung chemischer Bodenbelastungen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerfler, U.; Schulte-Hostede, S. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This lecture event dealt with the following subjects: Deposition, transport and interactions of organic pollutants in soil, such as pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biological availability of pollutants, influence of other substances on the biological availability of pollutants, quantitative and qualitative analyses of pollutants in soil, toxicity. (SR) [Deutsch] Themen dieser Vortragsveranstaltung waren: Deposition, Transport und Wechselwirkungen organischer Schadstoffe im Boden, wie Pestizide und polycyclische Aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe. Bioverfuegbarkeit der Schadstoffe, Einfluss anderer Substanzen auf die Bioverfuegbarkeit der Schadstoffe, quantitative und qualitative Analyse von Schadstoffen im Boden, Toxizitaet. (SR)

  14. Effect of cement dust pollution on certain physical parameters of maize crop and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, S; Arunachalam, N; Natarajan, K; Oblisami, G; Rangaswami, G

    1975-04-01

    A study was undertaken in the fields near a cement factory where the cement dust is the prime pollutant to the field crops and soils. Cement dust deposit varied with the distance from the kiln and fourth and fifth leaves of maize had comparatively more dust than the first three leaves from the top. The cement dust deposited plants showed a suppression in most of the characters like leaf size, number and size of cobs and plant height when compared to plants in non-polluted fields. On comparison with the physical characters of the soils from the control field the soil from cement dust polluted field showed a decrease in water holding capacity and pore space while thermal conductivity and specific heat were more. Artificial mixtures of red and black soils with cement dust showed similar trend as those of the field sample, the black soil being affected more seriously than the red soil.

  15. Phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted soils: application of Polygonum aviculare and its root-associated (penetrated) fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Fariba; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Zafari, Doustmorad; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Chehregani, Abdolkarim

    2010-05-01

    Petroleum-polluted soils are a common disaster in many countries. Bioremediation of oil contamination in soils is based on the stimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading fungal and microbial communities. A field study was conducted in a petroleum-contaminated site to find petroleum-resistant plants and their root-associated fungal strains for use in bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. Results and observations showed that the amounts of petroleum pollution in nonvegetated soils were several times higher than in vegetated soils. Plants collected from petroleum-polluted areas were identified using morphological characters. Results indicated that seven plant species were growing on the contaminated sites: Alhaji cameleron L. (Fabaceae), Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. retroflexus (Amaranthaceae), Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae), Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreg. (Euphorbiaceae), Noea mucronata L. (Boraginaceae), Poa sp. (Poaceae), and Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae). The root-associated fungi of each plant were determined and results showed the presence of 11 species that associated with and also penetrated the roots of plants growing in the polluted areas. Altenaria sp. was common to all of the plants and the others had species-specific distribution within the plants. The largest numbers of fungal species (six) were determined for P. aviculare and Poa sp. in polluted areas. However, the variation of fungal strains in the plants collected from petroleum-polluted areas was greater than for nonpolluted ones. Culture of fungi in oil-contaminated media showed that all the studied fungi were resistant to low petroleum pollution (1% v/v) and a few species, especially Fusarium species, showed resistance to higher petroleum pollution (10% v/v) and may be suitable for bioremediation in highly polluted areas. Bioremediation tests with P. aviculare, with and without fungal strains, showed that application of both the plant and its root-associated fungal

  16. A brief review and evaluation of earthworm biomarkers in soil pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Congying

    2017-05-01

    Earthworm biomarker response to pollutants has been widely investigated in the assessment of soil pollution. However, whether and how the earthworm biomarker-approach can be actually applied to soil pollution assessment is still a controversial issue. This review is concerned about the following points: 1. Despite much debate, biomarker is valuable to ecotoxicology and biomarker approach has been properly used in different fields. Earthworm biomarker might be used in different scenarios such as large-scale soil pollution survey and soil pollution risk assessment. Compared with physicochemical analysis, they can provide more comprehensive and straightforward information about soil pollution at low cost. 2. Although many earthworm species from different ecological categories have been tested, Eisenia fetida/andrei is commonly used. Many earthworm biomarkers have been screened from the molecular to the individual level, while only a few biomarkers, such as avoidance behavior and lysosomal membrane stability, have been focused on. Other aspects of the experimental design were critically reviewed. 3. More studies should focus on determining the reliability of various earthworm biomarkers in soil pollution assessment in future research. Besides, establishing a database of a basal level of each biomarker, exploring biomarker response in different region/section/part of earthworm, and other issues are also proposed. 4. A set of research guideline for earthworm biomarker studies was recommended, and the suitability of several earthworm biomarkers was briefly evaluated with respect to their application in soil pollution assessment. This review will help to promote further studies and practical application of earthworm biomarker in soil pollution assessment.

  17. Ecological, morphological, and histological studies on Blaps polycresta (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as biomonitors of cadmium soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.

  18. [Effects of heavy metals pollution on soil microbial communities metabolism and soil enzyme activities in coal mining area of Tongchuan, Shaanxi Province of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing-Liang; Gu, Jie; Chen, Zhi-Xue; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qing-Jun; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Juan

    2012-03-01

    This paper studied the metabolism of soil microbes, functions of soil microbial communities, and activities of soil enzymes in a coal mining area of Tongchuan. In the coal mining area, the concentrations of soil Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were significantly higher than those in the non-mining area, of which, Cd contributed most to the heavy metals pollution. By adopting Biolog method combining with principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, it was found that the metabolic characteristics of different soil microbial communities varied significantly with increasing soil heavy metals pollution, and the variation was mainly manifested in the metabolic patterns of carbon sources such as saccharides and amino acids. In slightly and moderately polluted soils, the utilization of carbon sources by soil microbial communities was activated; while in heavily polluted soils, the carbon sources utilization was inhibited. The activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase all tended to decline with intensifying soil heavy metals pollution. The soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase activities in the coal mining area were 50.5%-65.1%, 19.1%-57.1%, 87.2%-97.5%, and 77.3%-86.0% higher than those in the non-mining area, respectively. The activities of soil sucrase and cellulase were activated in slightly and moderately polluted soils, but inhibited in heavily polluted soils.

  19. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soil - Improvement of in situ bioremediation by bioaugmentation with endogenous and exogenous strains

    OpenAIRE

    Tarayre, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum pollution has now become a real problem because hydrocarbons are persistent contaminants in soils and water. Contamination problems increase when ages of relevant facilities, such as oil storage tanks and pipelines, increase over time. The evolution of Legislation concerning soil pollution has led to the need of efficient techniques able to restore the polluted ground. Unfortunately, these techniques are expensive. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted soils has been recognized as...

  20. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Heavy Metal-Polluted Soils in Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2013-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil faces different challenges in relation to implementation. One challenge is to cope with the nonlinear and transient geochemical changes in the soil and another is to increase the remediation rate. Both these challenges are met when treating...... the soil in a suspension in an electrodialytic cell. The soil suspension is stirred and uniform during treatment. Previously, it has been shown that a faster remediation can be obtained when remediating a stirred soil suspension compared to a stationary water saturated soil (all other parameters the same...

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in the Tibetan surface soil: Spatial distribution, air–soil exchange and implications for global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoping; Sheng Jiujiang; Gong Ping; Xue Yonggang; Yao Tandong; Jones, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the soils of the Tibetan Plateau. This paper presents data from a survey of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 40 background surface (0–5 cm) soils of the Tibetan Plateau. Soil concentrations (pg/g, dw) ranged as follows: DDTs, 13-7700; HCHs, 64-847; HCB, 24-564; sum of 15 PCBs, 75-1021; and sum of 9 PBDEs, below detection limit −27. Soil DDT, HCB, PCB and PBDE concentrations were strongly influenced by soil organic carbon content. HCH concentrations were clearly associated with the proximity to source regions in south Asia. The air–soil equilibrium status of POPs suggested the Tibetan soils may be partial “secondary sources” of HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs and will likely continue to be “sinks” for the less volatile DDE and DDT. - Highlights: ► Soil organic carbon content influence the spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants. ► The Tibetan soil acts as “secondary sources” for HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs. ► The Tibetan soil will continue to be “sinks” for DDE and DDT. - Tibetan soils may be potential “secondary sources” of the HCB, low molecular weight PCBs and HCHs that are observed in air.

  2. Are Soil Pollution Risks Established by Governments the Same as Actual Risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2010-01-01

    Though soil pollution policies in North America and the European Union increasingly use risk-based standards, the construction and application of such standards are often deficient in taking account of actual risks. Standards refer to total concentrations of substances and not to the biologically available amount. A number of countries neglect -background exposure, and assumptions regarding routes of exposure to soil pollution can be very different and at variance with empirical data. Recent dose-effect studies are neglected in a number of cases. The application of standards does not take account of the overall risk of soil pollution but rather leads to the decision whether or not there is violation of at least one standard for a specified (group of) substance(s). Standards for soil pollutants are often based on the assumption that only effect addition can occur, whereas dose addition, antagonism and synergism, and indirect effects may in fact apply. Several remedies for current shortcomings are proposed

  3. Effect of crude oil pollution on maize growth and soil properties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil pollution on maize growth and soil properties in Ihiagwa, Imo State, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  4. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de, P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 lg L-1, respective...

  5. Avoidance bio-assays may help to test the ecological significance of soil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Lors, Christine; Salmon, Sandrine; Ponge, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    We measured the short-term (100 min) avoidance of a soil heavily polluted by hydrocarbons by the soil springtail Folsomia candida, at six rates of dilution in a control, unpolluted soil. We compared the results with those of long-term (40-day) population tests. Five strains were compared, of varying geographical and ecological origin. When pure, the polluted soil was lethal in the long-term and avoided in the short-term by all strains. Avoidance tests, but not population tests, were able to discriminate between strains. Avoidance thresholds differed among strains. Two ecological consequences of the results were discussed: (i) toxic compounds may kill soil animals or deprive them from food, resulting in death of populations, (ii) pollution spots can be locally deprived of fauna because of escape movements of soil animals. Advantages and limitations of the method have been listed, together with proposals for their wider use in soil ecology and ecotoxicology. - Polluted soils are avoided by soil animals, a phenomenon which can be used as a cheap, sensitive tool for the early detection of environmental risk

  6. A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japenga, J; Koopmans, G F; Song, J; Römkens, P F A M

    2007-01-01

    The practical applicability of heavy metal (HM) phytoextraction depends heavily on its duration. Phytoextraction duration is the main cost factorfor phytoextraction, both referring to recurring economic costs during phytoextraction and to the cost of the soil having no economic value during phytoextraction. An experiment is described here, which is meant as a preliminary feasibility test before starting a phytoextraction scheme in practice, to obtain a more realistic estimate of the phytoextraction duration of a specific HM-polluted soil. In the experiment, HM-polluted soil is mixed at different ratios with unpolluted soil of comparable composition to mimic the gradual decrease of the HM content in the target HM-polluted soil during phytoextraction. After equilibrating the soil mixtures, one cropping cycle is carried out with the plant species of interest. At harvest, the adsorbed HM contents in the soil and the HM contents in the plant shoots are determined. The adsorbed HM contents in the soil are then related to the HM contents in the plant shoots by a log-log linear relationship that can then be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a specific HM-polluted soil. This article describes and evaluates the merits of such a feasibility experiment. Potential drawbacks regarding the accuracy of the described approach are discussed and a greenhouse-field extrapolation procedure is proposed.

  7. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2016-11-01

    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PI sum ), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PI Nemerow ) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting for soil as pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Pengwei; Lei, Mei; Yang, Sucai; Yang, Jun; Guo, Guanghui; Zhou, Xiaoyong

    2018-06-01

    Spatial interpolation method is the basis of soil heavy metal pollution assessment and remediation. The existing evaluation index for interpolation accuracy did not combine with actual situation. The selection of interpolation methods needs to be based on specific research purposes and research object characteristics. In this paper, As pollution in soils of Beijing was taken as an example. The prediction accuracy of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) were evaluated based on the cross validation results and spatial distribution characteristics of influencing factors. The results showed that, under the condition of specific spatial correlation, the cross validation results of OK and IDW for every soil point and the prediction accuracy of spatial distribution trend are similar. But the prediction accuracy of OK for the maximum and minimum is less than IDW, while the number of high pollution areas identified by OK are less than IDW. It is difficult to identify the high pollution areas fully by OK, which shows that the smoothing effect of OK is obvious. In addition, with increasing of the spatial correlation of As concentration, the cross validation error of OK and IDW decreases, and the high pollution area identified by OK is approaching the result of IDW, which can identify the high pollution areas more comprehensively. However, because the semivariogram constructed by OK interpolation method is more subjective and requires larger number of soil samples, IDW is more suitable for spatial prediction of heavy metal pollution in soils.

  9. Research of Organic Pollutants Detection in the Roadside Soil at the Suburb of the North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X Y; Li, C; Mao, G C; Dai, C L; Zhu, Q Y; Sun, J X; Li, Y L

    2006-01-01

    With the development of society and economy, more and more automobile and vehicle run in the various roads. Car tail gas can not only pollute the air, but also can still result in the pollution of soil and ground water even underground water. Soil pollution coming from car tail gas is investigated in detail by experimental detection by Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM) made in Norway in this paper. Experiment samples are collected from thruway and highway side, and the organic pollutants of the samples are analyzed by the GHM instrument. Experiment shows that various kinds of organic pollutants are found in the samples, such as 14 species normal alkanes, 25 species aromatics, 13 species heteocycle compounds and 9 species phenols and so on. The characteristics of organic pollution resulted from car tail gas in the soil are obtained by detection analysis. The soil pollution caused by car tail gas has heavy toxicity to human being and the natural entironment. Consequently, organic contamination in the soil by the tail gas can't be neglected. The relevant investigation should be made so that some precautionary and cure measures may be proposed as soon as possible

  10. Analysis of organic pollutants in the soils of the disused gas plants. Experimental evaluation and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, S.; Carmant, S.

    1997-01-01

    In France, environmental investigations are at the moment carried out on numerous disused gas plants sites, which soils can have been polluted by the by-products generated during the fabrication of the gas (most of the time coal tar). Within the context of those investigations, diagnosis of the pollution of soils by the analytical way is an essential operation on the basis of which the risks are evaluated and the treatments are decided. Moreover, the evolution of the pollution level during the cleaning up of the soils and the efficiency of the treatment can only be measured by the analytical way. Until today, analytical aspects, relative to the study of polluted soils can be discussed. Indeed, in consideration of the heterogeneity of the soils, there are difficulties, on the first hand on sites during the sampling of the soils, on the other hand in the laboratory during the chemical analysis of the organic pollutants. After having evoked this problematic, the paper accounts for the evaluation, done by GDF, of varied analytical methods, used and even recommended by reference oragnizations (included: preparatation of the samples, extraction of the organic pollutants, analysis of the extract and interpretation). Finally, on the basis of the accumulated experinece, some advice are given on how to optimize the number and the kind of samples as well as the combined analysis. (au)

  11. Soil pollution by a pyrite mine spill in Spain: evolution in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, J.; Dorronsoro, C.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez, J.; Garcia, I.; Martin, F.; Simon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Soil pollution was studied after the spill of the Aznalcollar pyrite mine between 1998 and 2001, analyzing As, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb both in total concentrations as well as in soluble and bioavailable forms. The main remediation measures were: clean-up of the tailings and polluted soils, plus application of amendment materials (liming). The results indicate that, after three years, 50-70% of the acidic soils and 25-30% of the basic soils are still highly polluted in total arsenic. The limit of 0.04 mg kg -1 for water-soluble arsenic is exceeded in 15-20% of all soils. The EDTA-extractable arsenic (bioavailable) exceeds the limit of 2 mg kg -1 only in the acidic sectors. After clean-up, the homogenization of the upper 20-25 cm of the soils appears to be the most recommended measure in the reduction of pollution. - Capsule: Remediation measures carried out after the Aznalcollar pyrite mine spill were effective in the reduction of the pollution, although three years after the accident many areas are still polluted by As

  12. Prospects of using leguminous species in phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the plant species to grow on aged petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils is an important factor for a successful phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a green technology that can become a promising solution for decontaminating polluted soils and ecological restoration of the landscape. Our comparative studies evaluate the effect of oil hydrocarbon pollution with high initial concentration on the growth leguminous plant species: Vicia sativa and Glycine max. The experimental block contains control variants, polluted soil unfertilized / fertilized with municipal sludge anaerobically stabilized in absence/presence of modified volcanic tuff amendment. After period of time the experiment’s soil in which plant species had grown well was sampled and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons removal. Both species showed promising efficiency in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon highly polluted soils but a reduced growth of the surveyed plants was noticed. The efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons diminution is increased in the case of the addition of fertilizer 16.6 % for Vicia sativa and 30 % for Glycine max vs. the initial quantity. In the case of the phytoremediation of polluted soils treated with fertilizer and volcanic tuff, the efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons reduction was 72.9 % for Vicia sativa and 53.7 % for Glycine max.

  13. Water organic pollution and eutrophication influence soil microbial processes, increasing soil respiration of estuarine wetlands: site study in jiuduansha wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent.

  14. Microbial community composition and functions are resilient to metal pollution along two forest soil gradients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarbad, H.; Niklinska, M.; Laskowski, R.; van Straalen, N.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Zhou, J.; He, Z.; Wen, C.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long-term metal pollution. Studying 12 sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that functional

  15. Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuber-regium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White-rot fungi have been used in various parts of the world for bioremediation of polluted sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium was noted to have the ability to increase nutrient contents in soils polluted with 1 - 40% engine-oil concentration after six months of incubation. P. tuber-regium increased organic matter, carbon and ...

  16. Bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soil by Pleurotus tuber-regium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... White-rot fungi have been used in various parts of the world for bioremediation of polluted sites. Pleurotus tuber-regium was noted to have the ability to increase nutrient contents in soils polluted with. 1 - 40% engine-oil concentration after six months of incubation. P. tuber-regium increased organic matter ...

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  18. Soil-water salinity pollution: extent, management and potential impacts on agricultural sustain ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, M.A.; Ali, K.; Javed, M.; Mahmood, A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the significant environmental hazards of irrigated agriculture is the accumulation of salts in the soil. The presence of large quantities of certain soluble salts badly affects the physical, chemical, biological and fertility characteristics of the soils. This pollution of soil salinity and its toxic degradation directly affects plants, hence impacting the air filters of nature. The soil and water salinity has adversely reduced the yield of our major agricultural crops to an extent that agricultural sustainability is being threatened. Salinity has also dwindled the survival of marine life, livestock, in addition to damaging of construction works. The problem can be estimated from the fact that out of 16.2 m.ha of irrigated land of Pakistan, 6.3 . ha are salt affected in the Indus Plain. The state of water pollution can further be assessed from the fact that presently about 106 MAF of water is diverted from the rivers into the canals of the Indus Plain which contains 28 MT of salts. Due to soil and water pollution more than 40,000 ha of good irrigated land goes out of cultivation every year. This it has drastically reduced the potential of our agricultural lands. Hence, an estimated annual loss of Rs. 14,000 million has been reported due to this soil-water salinity pollution in Pakistan. Some management options to mitigate the soil - water salinity pollution are proposed. (author)

  19. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Effect of biochar or activated carbon amendment on the volatilisation and biodegradation of organic soil pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, David; Meynet, Paola; Bushnaf, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biochar or activated carbon added to contaminated soil may temporarily reduce the volatilisation of organic pollutants by enhanced sorption. The long-term effect of sorbent amendments on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures (VPHs) will depend on the responses of the soil bacterial community members, especially those which may utilize VPHs as carbon substrates. We investigated the volatilisation and biodegradation of VPHs emanating from NAPL sources and migrating through one meter long columns containing unsaturated sandy soil with and without 2% biochar or activated carbon amendment. After 420 days, VPH volatilisation from AC amended soil was less than 10 percent of the cumulative VPH volatilisation flux from unamended soil. The cumulative CO2 volatilisation flux increased more slowly in AC amended soil, but was comparable to the untreated soil after 420 days. This indicated that the pollution attenuation over a 1 meter distance was improved by the AC amendment. Biochar was a weaker VPH sorbent than AC and had a lesser effect on the cumulative VPH and CO2 fluxes. We also investgated the predominant bacterial community responses in sandy soil to biochar and/or VPH addition with a factorially designed batch study, and by analyzing preserved soil samples. Biochar addition alone had only weak effects on soil bacterial communities, while VPH addition was a strong community structure shaping factor. The bacterial community effects of biochar-enhanced VPH sorption were moderated by the limited biomass carrying capacity of the sandy soil investigated which contained only low amounts of inorganic nitrogen. Several Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas putida strains, became dominant in VPH polluted soil with and without biochar. The ability of these versatile VPH degraders to effectively regulate their metabolic pathways according to substrate availabilities may additionally have moderated bacterial community structure responses to the presence of biochar

  1. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Que Ramos, F.; Bastidas-Bastidas, de P.J.; Díaz-González, G.; Bello-Mendoza, R.; Huerta-Lwanga, E.; Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn— bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha-1week-1 for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the

  3. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  4. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayumbu, P.; Phiri, L.K.; Mambo, A.; Sokotela, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  5. Availability of Selected (Pollutant Elements and their Influence on Soil Composition in Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Zeiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in growing fruits and vegetables in private gardens is rising due to nowadays ecological awareness. Avoiding artificial fertilizers and plant protection products does not guarantee the absence of toxic substances, especially heavy metals in the soil and thus in the fruits harvested. Due to either geological bedrock weathering or environmental pollution, garden soils may be rich in certain potentially toxic elements. In the present study ten garden soils from central Croatia have been analysed by the BCR method for the contents and bioavailability of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. The total amounts of the elements are in the concentration range as reported for agricultural soils in different geographical regions. Only two soils of the capital Zagreb have higher concentrations of pollutant metals, such as chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese and zinc. Regarding nutrients, all soils have met the needs of common garden plants.

  6. On the recovery of oil-polluted soils with mineral zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, Z.Q.; Huseynzade, G.A.; Hajiyeva, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this study - ecological analysis of soil invertebrates in the oil-polluted soils and testing adsorbent for purificatication of such soils. In the study cenoses of Absheron 48 species of soil invertebrates belonging to 5 families, 13 orders, 24 families were revealed. For these purposes the local mineral -zeolite was applied. The results of experiments showed that refinement with zeolite makes positive impact on development of fauna of soil invertebrates. The studies were conducted in 2011-2013 in locally contaminated areas of oilfields of Absheron Peninsula. Radiation background in the studied areas ranges from 50-600 mR/hr

  7. Relationship between microbial diversity and xenobiotic pollution in soils from a municipal solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Leblic, M.I.; Turmero, A.; Hernandez, M.; Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Arias, M. E.

    2009-07-01

    In the last few years the interest to known the soil health has remarkably increased because this approach could contribute to predict the ability of such soil to be recovered fro disturbances, such as drought, climate change, human exploitation and pollution. The concept of soil health refers to different attributes of the soil related to functionality aspects such as mineralogy, chemical-physical characteristics, and organic material, including the microorganisms, which play an important role in the capacity of soils to function as vital living systems. (Author)

  8. Relationship between microbial diversity and xenobiotic pollution in soils from a municipal solid waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Leblic, M.I.; Turmero, A.; Hernandez, M.; Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Arias, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years the interest to known the soil health has remarkably increased because this approach could contribute to predict the ability of such soil to be recovered fro disturbances, such as drought, climate change, human exploitation and pollution. The concept of soil health refers to different attributes of the soil related to functionality aspects such as mineralogy, chemical-physical characteristics, and organic material, including the microorganisms, which play an important role in the capacity of soils to function as vital living systems. (Author)

  9. Predicting Soil Physical Parameters and Copper Transport in a Polluted Field From X Ray CT-Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per

    2013-01-01

    in soils is strongly controlled by the soil structure, the capabilities of these visualization techniques could be used to predict the risk of pollutants leaching. This work was carried out using soils from a field site (Hygum) in Jutland, Denmark, a historical copper (Cu) polluted field cultivated for 80...

  10. Environmental impact of hazardous inorganic materials. Pollution and remediation of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hakuta, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan); Barrington, S.; Wasay, S. [McGill University, (Canada)

    1998-02-10

    Recently, soil pollution has become a grave social problem. This paper reviews history, laws and regulations, current status and measures related to soil pollution, centered by those of Japan. Soil pollution problems in Japan date back to around 1880, when pollution of the Watarase River basin started by waste water exhausted from Asio Mine. Various grave problems have been recorded since then, including the Itai-itai and Minamata Diseases caused by Cd and methyl mercury, respectively, which started in 1945 and 1956, with the result that the government has amended laws/regulations related to treatment and cleaning of industrial wastes. Later, the related laws/regulations have been frequently amended, and the environmental standards related to soil pollution was established in 1991. Treatment for remediation of polluted soils has been effected with the aid of inorganic acids, organic solvents, chelating agents, natural organic acids (such as acetic and formic acids) and biological surface active agents. They must be carefully planned to take into consideration various aspects, such as pH level and other conditions, cost and environmental safety, before being actually used. One of the recommended measures is on-the-site treatment in an enclosed space while regenerating and recycling the agent. 66 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Microorganisms -indicators of the level of soil pollution with lead

    OpenAIRE

    Stavreva Veselinovska, Snezana

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution with heavy metals present a real threat to wildlife because the metals cannot be naturally decomposed as is the case with organic pollutants, and as such they can survive in the environment while accumulating the heavy metals in different parts. Pollution with metals can affect different organisms in the environment, such as microorganisms, plants and animals, but the degree of toxicity depends on the species. Microorganisms have different mechanisms of coping with...

  12. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.

  13. Pollution load index for heavy metals in Mian-Ab plain soil, Khuzestan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Maleki, Rohangiz; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    Soil pollution by heavy metals is a major concern in agricultural area. Potential impact of heavy metals in agricultural soil on human health by accumulating in food chain demonstrated elsewhere. In this regard Mian-Ab plain as a major agricultural site of Khuzestan province considered for Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentration as the main potential toxic pollutants in soil. 50 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Also Contamination level of selected heavy metals in Mian-Ab Plain, was assessed by single factor contaminant index (PI) and pollution load index (PLI). Results show mean concentration of arsenic, cadmium and lead were 2.52, 0.30 and 7.21 mg kg -1 . Base on PLI results 12 point (24%) of the studied area show moderately polluted and 38 point (76%) show unpolluted area.

  14. Critical level of radionuclides pollution estimation for different soil type of Ukrainian Polessye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravets, A.; Pavlenko, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The successive development and adaptation of general algorithm of calculation of doses from intake 137 Cs and 90 Sr as a function of pollution level and a type of soil as a source of the human trophycal chains and its use in solution of reverse problem, namely- estimation of the critical level of radionuclides pollution for the main type of soil of Ukrainian Polessye has been proposed. Calculation was realized as a combination of dynamic model of migration of radionuclides in soil and spreadsheet form with Quattro Pro, version 4.0. (author)

  15. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Julie K.; Holm, Peter E.; Nejrup, Jens; Larsen, Morten B.; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber uptakes. Despite high concentrations of cadmium (≥80 mg/kg) and zinc (≥3000 mg/kg) in leaves of willow grown on strongly polluted soil with up to 18 mg Cd/kg, 1400 mg Cu/kg, 500 mg Pb/kg and 3300 mg Zn/kg, it is unsuited on strongly polluted soils because of poor growth. However, willow proved promising on moderately polluted soils (2.5 mg Cd/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg), where it extracted 0.13% of total Cd and 0.29% of the total Zn per year probably representing the most mobile fraction. Cu and Pb are strongly fixed in calcareous soils. - Willow is suited for remediation of moderately heavy metal polluted calcareous soils

  16. Electrokinetic-Fenton remediation of organochlorine pesticides from historically polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Maofei; Tian, Shulei; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yanmei

    2018-04-01

    Soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) poses a great threat to historically polluted soil worldwide. In this study, soils were characterized, and organochlorine pesticides contained in the soils were identified and quantified. Individual electrokinetic (IE), EK-Fenton-coupled technologies (EF), and enhanced EK-Fenton treatment (E-1, E-2, and E-3) were applied to remediate soils contaminated with hexachloro-cyclohexane soprocide (HCH) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). Variation of pH, electrical conductivity, and electroosmotic flow was evaluated during the EK-Fenton process. The IE treatment showed low removal efficiency for HCHs (30.5%) and DDTs (25.9%). In the EF treatment, the highest removal level (60.9%) was obtained for α-HCH, whereas P,P-DDT was the lowest (40.0%). Low solubility of pollutants impeded the HCH and DDT removal. After enhanced EK-Fenton treatment, final removal of pollutants decreased as follows: β-HCH (82.6%) > γ-HCH (81.6%) > α-HCH (81.2%) > δ-HCH (80.0%) > P,P-DDD (73.8%) > P,P-DDE (73.1%) > P,P-DDT (72.6%) > O,P-DDT (71.5%). The results demonstrate that EK-Fenton is a promising technology for POP removal in historically polluted soil.

  17. Fertility Evaluation of Limed Brazilian Soil Polluted with Scrap Metal Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Almeida Gabos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the main inorganic contaminants and evaluate the effect of lime addition, combined with soil dilution with uncontaminated soil, as a strategy for mitigation of these contaminants present in a soil polluted with auto scrap. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse at Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil in plastic pots (3 dm−3. Five soil mixtures, obtained by mixing an uncontaminated soil sample with contaminated soil (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated soil, were evaluated for soil fertility, availability of inorganic contaminants, and corn development. In addition to the expected changes in soil chemistry due to the addition of lime, only the availability of Fe and Mn in the soil mixtures was affected, while the available contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb increased to some extent in the soil mixtures with higher proportion of contaminated soil. Liming of 10 t ha−1 followed by soil dilution at any proportion studied was not successful for mitigation of the inorganic contaminants to a desired level of soil fertility, as demonstrated by the available amounts extracted by the DTPA method (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd and hot water (B still present in the soil. This fact was also proved by the phytotoxicity observed and caused by high amounts of B and Zn accumulating in the plant tissue.

  18. Enrichment of marsh soils with heavy metals by effect of anthropic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Flora A.; Covelo, Emma F.; Cerqueira, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The impact of waste disposal on marsh soils was assessed in topsoil samples collected at eight randomly selected points in the salt marsh in Ramallosa (Pontevedra, Spain) at 4-month intervals for 2 years. Polluted soil samples were characterized in physico-chemical terms and their heavy metal contents determined by comparison with control, unpolluted samples. The results revealed a marked effect of waste discharges on the soils in the area, which have low contents in heavy metals under normal environmental conditions. In fact, the studied soils were found to contain substantial amounts of total and DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Based on the relationship of the redox potential with the DTPA-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents of the soils, strongly reductive conditions raised the total contents in these elements by effect of their remaining in the soils as precipitated sulphides. Such contents, however, decreased as oxidative conditions gradually prevailed. The contents in DTPA-extractable metals increased with increasing Eh through the release of the metals in ionic form to the soil solution under oxidative conditions. The contents in heavy metals concentrating in the polluted soils were several times higher than those in the control soils (viz. 2 vs. 6 for Cd, 4 vs. 6 for Cu, 4 vs. 20 for Pb, and 2 vs. 15 for Zn, all in mg kg -1 ). This can be expected to influence the amounts of available heavy metals present in the soils, and hence the environmental quality of the area, in the near future. Based on its geoaccumulation index (Class ≥3 for Cd and Cu, and 1-4 for Pb and Zn), the Ramallosa marsh is highly polluted with Cd and moderately to highly polluted with Cu, Pb and Zn. The enrichment factors obtained confirm that the salt marsh is highly polluted (especially with Cd) as the primary result of anthropic activity.

  19. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution.

  20. Application of portable XRF and VNIR sensors for rapid assessment of soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Chen, Songchao; Hu, Jie; Xia, Fang; Xu, Junfeng; Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Rapid heavy metal soil surveys at large scale with high sampling density could not be conducted with traditional laboratory physical and chemical analyses because of the high cost, low efficiency and heavy workload involved. This study explored a rapid approach to assess heavy metals contamination in 301 farmland soils from Fuyang in Zhejiang Province, in the southern Yangtze River Delta, China, using portable proximal soil sensors. Portable X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (PXRF) was used to determine soil heavy metals total concentrations while soil pH was predicted by portable visible-near infrared spectroscopy (PVNIR). Zn, Cu and Pb were successfully predicted by PXRF (R2 >0.90 and RPD >2.50) while As and Ni were predicted with less accuracy (R2 heavy metals contamination grades in farmland soils was conducted based on previous results; the Kappa coefficient was 0.87, which showed that the combination of PXRF and PVNIR was an effective and rapid method to determine the degree of pollution with soil heavy metals. This study provides a new approach to assess soil heavy metals pollution; this method will facilitate large-scale surveys of soil heavy metal pollution. PMID:28234944

  1. Application of zinc isotope tracer technology in tracing soil heavy metal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbu, Namkha; Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Jianqiang; Liu, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Recent years the soil heavy metal pollution has become increasingly serious, especially the zinc pollution. Due to the complexity of this problem, in order to prevent and treat the soil pollution, it's crucial to accurately and quickly find out the pollution sources and control them. With the development of stable isotope tracer technology, it's able to determine the composition of zinc isotope. Based on the theory of zinc isotope tracer technique, and by means of doing some latest domestic and overseas literature research about the zinc isotope multi-receiving cups of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) testing technology, this paper summarized the latest research results about the pollution tracer of zinc isotope, and according to the deficiencies and existing problems of previous research, made outlooks of zinc isotope fractionation mechanism, repository establishment and tracer multiple solutions.

  2. Understanding Plant-Microbe Interactions for Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Polluted Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ming; Wang, Yijing; Yu, Jiayi; Xiao, Ming; Jiang, Lifen; Yang, Ji; Fang, Changming; Chen, Jiakuan; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions are considered to be important processes determining the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum pollution, however relatively little is known about how these interactions are influenced by petroleum pollution. In this experimental study using a microcosm approach, we examined how plant ecophysiological traits, soil nutrients and microbial activities were influenced by petroleum pollution in Phragmites australis, a phytoremediating species. Generally, petroleum pollution reduced plant performance, especially at early stages of plant growth. Petroleum had negative effects on the net accumulation of inorganic nitrogen from its organic forms (net nitrogen mineralization (NNM)) most likely by decreasing the inorganic nitrogen available to the plants in petroleum-polluted soils. However, abundant dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was found in petroleum-polluted soil. In order to overcome initial deficiency of inorganic nitrogen, plants by dint of high colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might absorb some DON for their growth in petroleum-polluted soils. In addition, through using a real-time polymerase chain reaction method, we quantified hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial traits based on their catabolic genes (i.e. alkB (alkane monooxygenase), nah (naphthalene dioxygenase) and tol (xylene monooxygenase) genes). This enumeration of target genes suggests that different hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria experienced different dynamic changes during phytoremediation and a greater abundance of alkB was detected during vegetative growth stages. Because phytoremediation of different components of petroleum is performed by different hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, plants’ ability of phytoremediating different components might therefore vary during the plant life cycle. Phytoremediation might be most effective during the vegetative growth stages as greater abundances of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria containing alkB and tol genes were observed

  3. Effect of Long-Term Zinc Pollution on Soil Microbial Community Resistance to Repeated Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Klimek, Beata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of stress (contamination trials) on the microorganisms in zinc-polluted soil (5,018 mg Zn kg−1 soil dry weight) and unpolluted soil (141 mg Zn kg−1 soil dw), measured as soil respiration rate. In the laboratory, soils were subjected to copper contamination (0, 500, 1,500 and 4,500 mg kg−1 soil dw), and then a bactericide (oxytetracycline) combined with a fungicide (captan) along with glucose (10 mg g−1 soil dw each) were added. There was a highl...

  4. Total and Available Heavy Metal Concentrations and Assessment of Soil Pollution Indices in Selected Soils of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil is a hardly renewable natural resource. Although soil degradation, caused by either human activities and natural processes is a relatively slow procedure, but its effects are long lasting and most often, irreversible in the time scale of man's life. Among the most significant soil contaminants resulting from both natural and human sources, heavy metals are more important due to their long- term toxicity effects. For evaluating soil's enrichment rate by heavy metals, a wide and full study of soils background values, including total and available fractions of heavy metal contents should be done. Zanjan province has some great mines and concentrating industries of lead and zinc especially in Angoran, Mahneshan. Unfortunately produced waste materials of these industries spread over the adjacent areas. Investigations showed that accumulation of some heavy metals in vegetables and crops planted in this region had occurred. Therefore, performing some investigations in these polluted areas and assessing pollution rate and heavy metals distribution in arable lands had prime importance. Our goals were: 1 determining the total and available amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the soils of arable lands in polluted areas of Zanjan city, 2 producing the distribution map for the metals mentioned above and 3 calculating pollution indices in the soils. Materials and Methods: The study area was in south west of Zanjan city. For soil sampling, a 1 Km by 1 Km grid defined in ArcGIS software on landuse layer and totally 144 points that placed on agricultural lands, due to our goals, were sampled. For sampling, in a 5m radius around the point we collected some subsamples from depth of 0 - 15 cm, and after mixing the subsamples, finally a 1Kg soil sample prepared and sent to the laboratory. Sampled soils were air dried and were passed through a 2mm sieve. Soils organic matter (OM content and texture were determined by Walkely-Black and Bouyoucos

  5. Fluoride concentrations in soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna in the direct vicinity of a pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G.; Breimer, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fluoride analyses CF t = total F; F w = water soluble F and F HCI HCI-extractable F) of different soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna (Helix pomatia, Lumbricus spp., arthropodes) in a locally polluted area (for nearly 65 years) clearly revealed an F-accumulation in top soil, vegetation and animals. Based on 1N HCI-extractable fluoride, two contamination zones around the emitting industry could be identified. In the calcareous soils, leaching of fluoride seems to be insignificant because of a strong immobilization as CaF 2 . A highly significant correlation between the F HCI content of soils and Lumbricus spp. (with and without gut content) or Helix pomatia shells was found. Fluoride concentrations in washed leaves of Hedera helix and in decaying grass reached levels of 306 and 997 μgF/g respectively. Saprophagous soil arthropods contained high fluoride levels, up to 732 μgF/g in Armadillidium vulgare. (orig.)

  6. Tin dioxide: synthesis, characterization and study of the interactions with different polluting gases - application to DeNOx catalysis; Dioxyde d'etain: synthese, caracterisation et etude des interactions avec differents gaz polluants - application a la catalyse DeNOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergent, N

    2003-01-01

    Two high specific surface area tin dioxides after calcination at 600 degrees C under O{sub 2} have been synthesized: SnO{sub 2}-HNO{sub 3} (24 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} (101 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The surface of the 600 degrees C - calcined SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} sample was found to be more hydroxylated than the 600 degrees C - calcined SnO{sub 2}-HNO{sub 3} one. The thermal treatment under O{sub 2} involves the formation of mono-ionized oxygen vacancies, leading to non-stoichiometric tin dioxides. A specific treatment like outgassing at temperatures above 300-400 degrees C, was found to be necessary to extract surface oxygen atoms. The CO adsorption at liquid N{sub 2} temperature on the SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} sample has shown the existence of two cationic Sn{sup 4+} sites, having different Lewis acidities. Concerning the surface OH groups, it has been observed: i) hydroxyl which are inaccessible to CO, ii) weakly acidic surface hydroxyl and iii) surface hydroxyl having a weak Broensted acidity. Then, a study of the interactions between the 600 degrees C - calcined SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} sample and various pollutant gases has been carried out by transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Carbon dioxide interacts with SnO{sub 2} surface, leading to CO{sub 2} species adsorbed on cationic sites together with carbonates and bicarbonates ad-species. Carbon monoxide involves the partial reduction of SnO{sub 2} surface by reaction of CO with surface oxygens to form carbonate species and CO{sub 2}. Interactions of SnO{sub 2} surface with NO{sub 2} have shown the formation of NO{sup +}, nitrite and nitrate ad-species. The NO adsorption on SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} have shown the formation of electron donor species (nitrite and nitrate species) together with electron acceptor species (nitrosyl species). Finally, in the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by propene in oxygen excess, SnO{sub 2} was found to be active at high

  7. X-ray CT Scanning Reveals Long-Term Copper Pollution Effects on Functional Soil Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Homstrup, Martin

    Soil structure plays the main role in the ability of the soil to fulfill essential soil functions such as the root growth, rate of water infiltration and retention, transport of gaseous and chemicals/pollutants through the soil. Soil structure is a dynamic soil property and affected by various...... factors such as soil type, land use, and soil contamination. In this study, we quantified the soil structure using X-ray CT scanning and revealed the effect of a long history of Copper (Cu) pollution on it. A fallow field at Hygum Denmark provides this opportunity as it had a long history of Copper...... sulphate contamination in a gradient with Cu content varies from 21 mg kg-1 to 3837 mg kg-1. Total 20 intact soil columns (diameter of 10 cm and height of 8 cm) were sampled at five locations along the Cu-gradient from a depth of 5 to 15 cm below surface level. The soil columns were scanned at a voxel...

  8. Pollution in the urban soils of Lianyungang, China, evaluated using a pollution index, mobility of heavy metals, and enzymatic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Li, Hong-Guan; Liu, Fu-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Soil samples from 16 urban sites in Lianyungang, China were collected and analyzed. A pollution index was used to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and a sequential extraction procedure was used to evaluate the relative distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in exchangeable, carbonate, Fe/Mn oxide, organic/sulfide, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals and urease (URE) activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and invertase (INV) activity of soils was determined. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As in Lianyungang soils were much higher than those in the coastal city soil background values of Jiangsu and China. Among the five studied regions (utilities, commercial, industrial, tourism, and roadside), the industrial region had the highest metal concentrations demonstrating that land use had a significant impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils. Compared to the other metals, Cd showed the highest ecological risk. According to chemical partitioning, Cu was associated with the organic/sulfides and Pb and Zn were mainly in the carbonate and the Fe/Mn oxide phase. The greatest amounts of Cd were found in exchangeable and carbonate fractions, while Cr and As were mainly in the residual fraction. Cd had the highest mobility of all metals, and the order of mobility (highest to lowest) of heavy metals in Lianyungang soils was Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > As > Cr. Soil urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity varied considerably in different pollution degree sites. Soil enzyme activities had the lowest levels in roadside and industrial regions. Across all the soil data in the five regions, the total Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and As level was negatively correlated with urease activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and invertase activity, but the relationship was not significant. In the industrial region, alkaline phosphatase activity had

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notten, M.J.M. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: martje.notten@ecology.falw.vu.nl; Oosthoek, A.J.P. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rozema, J. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aerts, R. [Institute of Ecological Science, Department of Systems Ecology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations were 4-20 times higher than those in the reference locations. Positive relationships between the generally low leaf concentrations and the soil concentrations were found for Zn only (r {sup 2} = 0.20). Bioaccumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd was observed in the snail tissues. We found positive relationships between the snail and leaf concentrations for all metals (range r {sup 2} = 0.19-0.46). The relationships between soil and snail concentrations were also positive, except for Cu (range r {sup 2} = 0.15-0.33). These results suggest transfer of metals to C. nemoralis snails from U. dioica leaves and from the soil. Metal transfer from polluted leaves to C. nemoralis is more important than transfer from the soil. - Bioaccumulation and positive snail-leaf relationships suggest metal transfer from Urtica dioica leaves to Cepaea nemoralis snails.

  10. Heavy metal concentrations in a soil-plant-snail food chain along a terrestrial soil pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, M.J.M.; Oosthoek, A.J.P.; Rozema, J.; Aerts, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the compartments of a soil-plant (Urtica dioica)-snail (Cepaea nemoralis) food chain in four polluted locations in the Biesbosch floodplains, the Netherlands, and two reference locations. Total soil metal concentrations in the polluted locations were 4-20 times higher than those in the reference locations. Positive relationships between the generally low leaf concentrations and the soil concentrations were found for Zn only (r 2 = 0.20). Bioaccumulation of Zn, Cu and Cd was observed in the snail tissues. We found positive relationships between the snail and leaf concentrations for all metals (range r 2 = 0.19-0.46). The relationships between soil and snail concentrations were also positive, except for Cu (range r 2 = 0.15-0.33). These results suggest transfer of metals to C. nemoralis snails from U. dioica leaves and from the soil. Metal transfer from polluted leaves to C. nemoralis is more important than transfer from the soil. - Bioaccumulation and positive snail-leaf relationships suggest metal transfer from Urtica dioica leaves to Cepaea nemoralis snails

  11. Pollution and pollution tolerance as regards the sorption of organic chemicals in urban soils; Sorption organischer Chemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, H.P.; Wu Qinglan; Strehl, M. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung und Bodenkunde; Abend, S. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Rexilius, L. [Pflanzenschutzamt des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Schleuss, U. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Oekologie-Zentrum]|[Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung Muencheberg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The behaviour of pollutants in soils concerning, for example, their immobilisation, transport, biodegradation, or uptake by useful plants is to large degree determined by the sorption properties of the soil in question. The degree of sorption is an all-important parameter in any model description of the behaviour of pollutants in soils. The aim of the present part-project was to estimate by means of simple field methods the binding capacity of anthropogenic urban soils for environmentally consequential organic chemicals and to assess the results with regard to soil and water protection. [Deutsch] Das Verhalten von Schadstoffen in Boeden, wie z.B. Immobilisierung, Transport, biologischer Abbau, Aufnahme durch Kulturpflanzen, wird von den Sorptionseigenschaften im Boden wesentlich beeinflusst. Bei allen Modellbeschreibungen ueber das Verhalten von Schadstoffen in Boeden ist die Staerke der Sorption ein unersetzbarer Parameter. Ziel dieses Teilprojektes war es, das Bindungsvermoegen der anthropogenen Stadtboeden fuer umweltrelevante organische Chemikalien mittels einfacher Feldmethoden abzuschaetzen und im Hinblick auf Boden- und Gewaesserschutz zu bewerten. (orig./SR)

  12. The effect of Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb Load on Soil and its enrichment factor ratios in different soil grain size fractions as an Indicator for soil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, F.H.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    An industrial area north of greater Cairo was selected to investigate the impact of intensive industrial activities on soil characteristics and Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb total content. The studied area was divided to six sectors according to its source of irrigation water and/or probability of pollution. Sixteen soil profiles were dug and soil samples were taken, air dried, fractionated to different grain size fractions, then total heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) were determined using ICP technique. The enrichment factor for each metal for each soil fraction/soil layer was estimated and discussed. The highest EF ratios in the clay fraction was mainly with Pb which indicated the industrial impact on the soil. In case of sand fraction, Mn was the highest always compared to other studied metals. Concerning silt fraction, a varied accumulation of Fe, Mn, and Pb was observed with soil depth and different soil profiles

  13. Characterisation of actinomycetes community from the heavy metals polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of actinomycetes was performed from soil samples influenced by car-traffic. The acute toxicity of soil leaches was tested by the help of Microtox® bioassay testing system which uses freeze dried luminescent bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum as the test organisms. The content of heavy metals in biomass of soil microorganisms and in whole soil samples was determinate. 115 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and their total numbers in soil samples were estimated. The acute toxicity of soil influenced the total numbers of actinomycetes. By the help of DNA-DNA reassociation procedure the generic diversity of bacteria was estimated. The identification and differentiation of streptomycetes from the total isolated actinomycetes was made using specific morphological criteria and the gas chromatography-fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME analysis. FAME method is adequate only for differentiation of members of genus Streptomyces from other actinomycetes because of their characteristical profile of fatty acids.

  14. A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calace, N.; Maggi, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Petronio, B. M.; Pietroletti, M.

    1998-01-01

    A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metal has been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing heavy metal mobility. Sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by zinc and lead can modify their speciation, immobilizing a portion of metal present in mobile forms. In this way environmental hazards due to heavy metal presence can be reduced, because these derive essentially from the amount of metal present in mobile chemical forms. The results obtained show that sludge addition increases the fraction of metal sorbed from the soil; the characterization of the sludge before and after the treatment with the soil point out that this behaviour can be ascribed both to organic substances present in the sludge with the creation of new adsorbing sites, and to an increase of the ph value of the soil, due to the organic and inorganic compounds in the sludge [it

  15. Earthworms as biomarkers for detecting soil pollution around swine farms in Timiș County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina L. Moșneang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By using several samples collected from different farms distances it can be determined the degree of farms pollution and their effects on ecosystems. In order to avoid any error the soil samples were tested in comparison with a control soil sample, used as a reference, considered animal waste pollution free. The registration of survival rate for each testing recipient and for each soil along five repeats was a critical control point of testing. The 11 identified soil types were tested in comparison with a clean reference soil, by using 275 test earthworms and 55 control earthworms. According to normality Kolmogorov- Smirnov test the mortality was analyzed and results were significant (p=0.046.

  16. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    water and can be used as a soil amendment to decrease the mobility of CCA in contaminated soil. Stabilization with Fe-WTR was tested at the Collstrop site in Hillerød, Denmark. The site has been polluted with a wide range of wood impregnation agents including CCA during 40 years of wood impregnating...... of contaminants. Arsenic, chromium and copper cannot be degraded and existing methods for cleaning the soil are rarely used as they are expensive and technically demanding. Chemical stabilization of polluted soil is an alternative method for soil remediation, especially metal contamination, and consists in adding...... or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...

  17. Chemical fluxes in time through forest ecosystems in the UK - Soil response to pollution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanguelova, E.I.; Benham, S.; Pitman, R.; Moffat, A.J.; Broadmeadow, M.; Nisbet, T.; Durrant, D.; Barsoum, N.; Wilkinson, M.; Bochereau, F.; Hutchings, T.; Broadmeadow, S.; Crow, P.; Taylor, P.; Durrant Houston, T.

    2010-01-01

    Long term trend analysis of bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution elemental fluxes from 12 years monitoring at 10 ICP Level II forest sites in the UK reveal coherent national chemical trends indicating recovery from sulphur deposition and acidification. Soil solution pH increased and sulphate and aluminium decreased at most sites. Trends in nitrogen were variable and dependant on its form. Dissolved organic nitrogen increased in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution at most sites. Nitrate in soil solution declined at sites receiving high nitrogen deposition. Increase in soil dissolved organic carbon was detected - a response to pollution recovery, changes in soil temperature and/or increased microbial activity. An increase of sodium and chloride was evident - a possible result of more frequent storm events at exposed sites. The intensive and integrated nature of monitoring enables the relationships between climate/pollutant exposure and chemical/biological response in forestry to be explored. - Forest soils are recovering from acid and sulphur pollution in the UK, but soil responses to nitrogen deposition and climatic changes are still uncertain.

  18. Chemical fluxes in time through forest ecosystems in the UK - Soil response to pollution recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanguelova, E.I., E-mail: elena.vanguelova@forestry.gsi.gov.u [Centre of Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Benham, S.; Pitman, R.; Moffat, A.J. [Centre of Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Broadmeadow, M. [Forestry Commission, England, Alice Holt, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Nisbet, T.; Durrant, D.; Barsoum, N.; Wilkinson, M.; Bochereau, F.; Hutchings, T.; Broadmeadow, S.; Crow, P.; Taylor, P. [Centre of Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Durrant Houston, T. [DG Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit - TP 261, Ispra, I-21027 (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Long term trend analysis of bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution elemental fluxes from 12 years monitoring at 10 ICP Level II forest sites in the UK reveal coherent national chemical trends indicating recovery from sulphur deposition and acidification. Soil solution pH increased and sulphate and aluminium decreased at most sites. Trends in nitrogen were variable and dependant on its form. Dissolved organic nitrogen increased in bulk precipitation, throughfall and soil solution at most sites. Nitrate in soil solution declined at sites receiving high nitrogen deposition. Increase in soil dissolved organic carbon was detected - a response to pollution recovery, changes in soil temperature and/or increased microbial activity. An increase of sodium and chloride was evident - a possible result of more frequent storm events at exposed sites. The intensive and integrated nature of monitoring enables the relationships between climate/pollutant exposure and chemical/biological response in forestry to be explored. - Forest soils are recovering from acid and sulphur pollution in the UK, but soil responses to nitrogen deposition and climatic changes are still uncertain.

  19. Elevated tropospheric CO2 and O3 concentrations impair organic pollutant removal from grassland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Fuxun; Eisenhauer, Nico; Jousset, Alexandre; Butenschoen, Olaf; Ji, Rong; Guo, Hongyan

    2018-04-03

    The concentrations of tropospheric CO 2 and O 3 have been rising due to human activities. These rising concentrations may have strong impacts on soil functions as changes in plant physiology may lead to altered plant-soil interactions. Here, the effects of eCO 2 and eO 3 on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants in grassland soil were studied. Both elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations decreased PAH removal with lowest removal rates at elevated CO 2 and elevated O 3 concentrations. This effect was linked to a shift in soil microbial community structure by structural equation modeling. Elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations reduced the abundance of gram-positive bacteria, which were tightly linked to soil enzyme production and PAH degradation. Although plant diversity did not buffer CO 2 and O 3 effects, certain soil microbial communities and functions were affected by plant communities, indicating the potential for longer-term phytoremediation approaches. Results of this study show that elevated CO 2 and O 3 concentrations may compromise the ability of soils to degrade organic pollutants. On the other hand, the present study also indicates that the targeted assembly of plant communities may be a promising tool to shape soil microbial communities for the degradation of organic pollutants in a changing world.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of some parameters for the efficiency of electrodialytic soil remediation are evaluated. The parameters investigated are pH, the limiting current density and the adding of desorbing agents to the soil. Three parameters are found to be of greatest importance. Results...... show that the electrodialytic soil remediation can be optimized by understanding and adjusting of these parameters. For scaling up of the remediation method these parameters are of crucial importance....

  1. Assessment of soil pollution through trace element contamination in a coal mine environment of Jharia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Shrivastava, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining environment is associated with liberation of several trace elements. Soils in such regions particularly have been polluted with these trace elements from a wide range of sources. Trace elements such as lead, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, etc. have caused major human health problems in several parts of the world. Concern over such incidents has prompted numerous investigations into the metabolism and toxic effects of these elements. The trace element contamination of soils (e.g. roadside, overburden dump, residential area etc.) in a part of the Jharia coal field running through a large industrial zone was studied. Representative soil samples from several highly polluted spots of the mining areas were collected and analysed. Results of the investigation revealed that the soils are polluted with trace elements to an appreciable level. Pollution index for soil was developed on the basis of observed concentration levels of trace elements of the study area which may help in better understanding of pollution analysis in coal mining areas. (author)

  2. Soil TPH Concentration Estimation Using Vegetation Indices in an Oil Polluted Area of Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m−2 to 5.3 g m−2 with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg−1 to 652 mg kg−1. The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R 2 = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg−1). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R2 and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg−1 to 106.8 mg kg−1 respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R 2 = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg−1) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  3. Influence of the soil sealing on the geoaccumulation index of heavy metals and various pollution factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyński, Przemysław; Plak, Andrzej; Hanaka, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    Soil sealing belongs to the most destructive and damaging processes to the soil environment. Soil sealing interrupts or greatly restricts the exchange of matter and energy between the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere and the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the content of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) of Ekranic Technosols by applying indicators such as geoaccumulation index (I geo ), enrichment factor (EF), and pollution load index (PLI), which allowed to determine quantitatively the impact of the soil sealing degree on the content of heavy metals and to distinguish natural from anthropogenic sources of origin of heavy metals. In general, 42 soils from different parts of the city of Toruń (NW Poland) were sampled and divided into three groups according to the degree of soil sealing: completely sealed with asphalt or concrete (A), semi-permeable (partially sealed with cobblestones and concrete paving slabs (B)), and reference (non-sealed) (C). The results indicate that the artificial sealing in urban areas slightly affects the content of heavy metals in soils. However, based on PLI, I geo , and EF, it was found that the sealing has influence on soil properties and unsealed soil is the most exposed to the accumulation of pollutants.

  4. Soil microbial activity, mycelial lengths and physiological groups of bacteria in a heavy metal polluted area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgren, A; Kauri, T; Baeaeth, E; Soederstroem, B

    1986-01-01

    The biological effects of heavy metal contamination of coniferous forest soils were studied in the A/sub 01//A/sub 02/ layer around a primary smelter in Northern Sweden. Soil concentrations of 17 elements were determined. Smelter-emitted heavy metals were 5 to 75 times higher in the plot closest to the smelter compared with background levels. Despite emission of sulfur no decrease in pH was found. Bacteria producing acid from maltose, cellobiose, arabinose or xylose and bacteria hydrolyzing starch, pectin, xyland or cellulose decreased 8- to 11-fold due to the soil contamination. Chitin hydrolyzers were 5 times less abundant at the most polluted site compared with background levels. Soil respiration rate and urease activity decreased by about a factor of 4, but phosphatase activity and mycelial lengths were unaffected by the soil contamination. Soil bacteria showed a sigmoidal response to the log of metal concentration in the soil and were affected at a lower pollution level than the other biological variables in the study. A multivariate analysis (partial least squares) showed that soil metal contamination and soil pH were the two environmental factors influencing the soil microorganisms.

  5. [Distribution of Urban Soil Heavy Metal and Pollution Evaluation in Different Functional Zones of Yinchuan City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You-qi; Bai, Yi-ru; Wang, Jian-yu

    2016-02-15

    Surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight different functional areas in Yinchuan city were collected. There were 10 samples respectively in each functional area. The urban soil heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr) pollution characteristics and sources in eight different functional areas were evaluated by mathematical statistics and geostatistical analysis method. Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of heavy metals based on the geography information system (GIS) were plotted. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Cr were 74.87, 0.15, 29.02, 553.55, 40.37 and 80.79 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The results showed that the average value of soil heavy metals was higher than the soil background value of Ningxia, which indicated accumulation of the heavy metals in urban soil. The single factor pollution index of soil heavy metals was in the sequence of Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cd > Mn. The average values of total Zn, Cd, Pb and Cr were higher in north east, south west and central city, while the average values of Mn and Cu were higher in north east and central city. There was moderate pollution in road and industrial area of Yinchuan, while the other functional areas showed slight pollution according to Nemoro synthesis index. The pollution degree of different functional areas was as follows: road > industrial area > business district > medical treatment area > residential area > public park > development zone > science and education area. The results indicated that the soil heavy metal pollution condition in Yinchuan City has been affected by human activities with the development of economy.

  6. Pollution assessment and source apportionment of heavy metals in contaminated site soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Ma, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Pollution characteristics of heavy metals in soil were analyzed with a typical contaminated site as the case area. The pollution degree of the element was evaluated by indexes of geoaccumulation (Igeo). The potential ecological risk of heavy metals was assessed with potential ecological risk index model. Principal component analysis (PCA) model was simultaneously carried out to identify the main sources of heavy metals in topsoils. The results indicated that: 1. Mean values of 11 kinds of metals in topsoils were greater than respective soil background values, following the order: Zn>Pb>V>Cr>Cu>Ni>Co>As>Sb>Cd>Hg. Heavy metals with a certain accumulation in the research area were significantly affected by external factors. 2. Igeo results showed that Cd and Zn reached strongly polluted degree, while Pb with moderately to strongly polluted, Sb and Hg with moderately polluted, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr with unpolluted to moderately polluted, V and As with un-polluted. 3. Potential ecological risk assessment showed the degree of ecological risk with Cd at very high risk, Hg at high risk, Pb at moderate risk and others at low risk. The comprehensive risk of all the metals was very high. 4. PCA got three main sources with contributions, including industrial activities (44.18%), traffic and burning dust (26.68%) and soil parent materials (12.20%).

  7. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  8. Geostatistical approach for assessing soil volumes requiring remediation: validation using lead-polluted soils underlying a former smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demougeot-Renard, Helene; De Fouquet, Chantal

    2004-10-01

    Assessing the volume of soil requiring remediation and the accuracy of this assessment constitutes an essential step in polluted site management. If this remediation volume is not properly assessed, misclassification may lead both to environmental risks (polluted soils may not be remediated) and financial risks (unexpected discovery of polluted soils may generate additional remediation costs). To minimize such risks, this paper proposes a geostatistical methodology based on stochastic simulations that allows the remediation volume and the uncertainty to be assessed using investigation data. The methodology thoroughly reproduces the conditions in which the soils are classified and extracted at the remediation stage. The validity of the approach is tested by applying it on the data collected during the investigation phase of a former lead smelting works and by comparing the results with the volume that has actually been remediated. This real remediated volume was composed of all the remediation units that were classified as polluted after systematic sampling and analysis during clean-up stage. The volume estimated from the 75 samples collected during site investigation slightly overestimates (5.3% relative error) the remediated volume deduced from 212 remediation units. Furthermore, the real volume falls within the range of uncertainty predicted using the proposed methodology.

  9. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria). Dept. of Soil Science and Technology

    2010-04-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Phytomass change in natural phytocenosis as an indicator of technogenic pollution of soils with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana A; Alkhutova, Ekaterina Y

    2016-12-01

    This study considered the possibility of using plant community phytomass for the assessment of soil pollution with heavy metals (HM) from industrial wastes. The three-year-long field experiment was run under the regional natural meadow vegetation; the polymetallic galvanic slime was used as an industrial waste contaminant. It is shown that soil contamination primarily causes decrease of phytomass in the growing phytocenosis. The vegetation experiments determined nonlinear dependence of cultivated and wild plant biomass on the level of soil contamination; it is described by the equations of logistic and Gaussian regression. In the absence of permanent contaminants, the soil is self-cleaned over time. It reproduces phytomass mainly due to the productivity increase of the most pollution-tolerant species in the remaining phytocenosis. This phenomenon is defined as environmental hysteresis. Soil pollution by industrial waste leads to the loss of plant biodiversity. The research shows that the study of the HM impact on ecosystems is expedient given the consideration of the "soil-phytocenosis-pollutant" complex in the "dose-response" aspect. The reaction of phytocenosis on HM showing decline in phytomass leads to serious limitations in the choice of accumulating plants, because the adsorbed HM are rejected through phytomass.

  12. A methodological approach for the identification of arsenic bearing phases in polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matera, V.; Le Hecho, I.; Laboudigue, A.; Thomas, P.; Tellier, S.; Astruc, M.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic in the three polluted soils is mainly associated with neoformed amorphous iron (hydr)oxides. - A methodological approach is used to characterize arsenic pollution in three soils and to determine arsenic speciation and association with solid phases in three polluted soils. HPLC-ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation analysis, SEM-EDS and XRD for physical characterization of arsenic pollution, and sequential chemical extractions to identify arsenic distribution. Arsenic was concentrated in the finest size fractions also enriched in iron and aluminium. Total arsenic concentrations in soils are close to 1%. Arsenic was mainly present as arsenate, representing more than 90% of total arsenic. No crystallised arsenic minerals were detected by XRD analysis. SEM-EDS observations indicated arsenic/iron associations. Modified Tessier's procedure showed that arsenic was mainly extracted from amorphous iron oxide phase. The results of this methodological approach lead to predict the formation of iron arsenates in the case of one of the studied soils while arsenic sorption on iron amorphous (hydr)oxides seemed to be the determinant in the two other soils

  13. Research on visible and near infrared spectral-polarimetric properties of soil polluted by crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-yan; Zhou, Pu-cheng; Pan, Bang-long

    2017-10-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soil can impose detrimental effects on forest health and quality of agricultural products. To manage such consequences, oil leak indicators should be detected quickly by monitoring systems. Remote sensing is one of the most suitable techniques for monitoring systems, especially for areas which are uninhabitable and difficulty to access. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. During the course of reflecting light-wave, the surface of soil polluted by crude oil will cause polarimetric properties which are related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the spectralpolarimetric properties for soil polluted by crude oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain multi-angle visible and near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of soil polluted by crude oil. And then, the change rule between polarimetric properties with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle, waveband of the detector as well as different grain size of soil were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for soil polluted by crude oil.

  14. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE DEGREE OF POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS OF SOILS OF TIMISOARA TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela URUIOC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Timisoara town as other urban centres is exposed to some possible dangers that soil and plant contamination with heavy metals can produce. The our studies has been realised on ten soil samples and three plant samples gathered from important areas regarding pollution with heavy metals of Timisoara city. The samples have been analyzed through atomic absorption spectrometry with a device type Varian 2, that has a double beam. The content in cobalt, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium, nickel, lead, magnesium and iron from soil is changeable under maximum admission. The content in iron, manganese, copper, lead, cadmium from Tilia cordata leaves is situated in normal limits, but higher than in soil.

  16. Copper pollution decreases the resistance of soil microbial community to subsequent dry-rewetting disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Hu, Hang-Wei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dry-rewetting (DW) disturbance frequently occurs in soils due to rainfall and irrigation, and the frequency of DW cycles might exert significant influences on soil microbial communities and their mediated functions. However, how microorganisms respond to DW alternations in soils with a history of heavy metal pollution remains largely unknown. Here, soil laboratory microcosms were constructed to explore the impacts of ten DW cycles on the soil microbial communities in two contrasting soils (fluvo-aquic soil and red soil) under three copper concentrations (zero, medium and high). Results showed that the fluctuations of substrate induced respiration (SIR) decreased with repeated cycles of DW alternation. Furthermore, the resistance values of substrate induced respiration (RS-SIR) were highest in non-copper-stressed (zero) soils. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial communities determined the changes of RS-SIR in both soils. The rate of bacterial community variance was significantly lower in non-copper-stressed soil compared to the other two copper-stressed (medium and high) soils, which might lead to the higher RS-SIR in the fluvo-aquic soil. As for the red soil, the substantial increase of the dominant group WPS-2 after DW disturbance might result in the low RS-SIR in the high copper-stressed soil. Moreover, in both soils, the bacterial diversity was highest in non-copper-stressed soils. Our results revealed that initial copper stress could decrease the resistance of soil microbial community structure and function to subsequent DW disturbance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  18. Environmental pollution with soil-transmitted helminths in Sanliurfa, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulukanligil Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil transmitted helminth (STH infection are endemic in developing countries. A study was carried out of sewage farms, streams and vegetables to determine the sources and routes of STH infection in Sanliurfa, Turkey. Stool samples from farmhouse inhabitants as well as soil and vegetable samples from the gardens were collected and examined. In addition, water samples from streams and vegetable samples from the city market were collected and examined. One hundred and eighty-seven (59.5% of a total of 314 samples, including 88.4% of the stool samples, 60.8% of the water samples, 84.4% of the soil samples and 14% of the vegetable samples, were found to be positive for STH eggs. These results indicate that the water, soil and vegetables are heavily contaminated, and suggest a vicious circle between humans and the environment. Improving environmental sanitation is imperative for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sanliurfa.

  19. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  20. The cleaning of the soils polluted by oil and radionuclides by natural sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farajov, M.F.; Shamilov, E.N.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Huseynov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Problem of environmental pollution in oil extracting areas of Absheron peninsula became the very important discussion object lately. It this areas for many years oil and well waters were flowed to environmental areas caused a lot of pools in that areas and at the result the soil and plants were polluted with oil and radionuclides. By last years researches it was revealed that amount of radium 226 oil well water contains 10 - 500 Bq/l. Sometimes amount of radium 226 in polluted soils is increasing to 2000--5000 Bq/l and at the result it is raising probability of entering radionuclides by the way of migration from ground to plants into the nutrition chain cycle. Thus the polluted areas with oil and radionuclides and also when oil spills from oil-pipes by an accident the deactivation of soils is one of the main and most actual problems. In researches for cleaning of polluted soils with radionuclides for the first time were used the phyto sorbent modified breccias forms taken from Chaildag, Gobu, and Lokbatan mud volcano areas. The mineral contain of volcano mud generally consists of clay rocks -(kaolinit, montmorillonit, zeolite, chlorite, biotit) pyrite, and i.e.[2]. The polluted soil samples were taken in Surakhani region from area with the 150 mikroroentgen per hour radiation background. The contain and amount of radionuclides were determined with the radio spectrometer P rogress - Beta - Gamma . Polluted soil samples firstly are washed by hot water and HCl solution by mixing for 3-5 hours. At the next level by adding pieced sorbent into the solution is intensively mixing by mixer and putting for sedimentation for 24 hours. After sedimentation the stiring process is repeated by adding HCl on the sediment again. The soil is stirred by water for last time. Decomposed solutions from soil are adhering and are maked with sorbent again. Thus the soil is quite cleaned from oil and radionuclides by the sorbents we offer. At the same time this sorbents may be

  1. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  2. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-13

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  3. Coal mining activities change plant community structure due to air pollution and soil degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bhanu; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Singh, Siddharth

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of coal mining activities on the community structures of woody and herbaceous plants. The response of individual plants of community to defilement caused by coal mining was also assessed. Air monitoring, soil physico-chemical and phytosociological analyses were carried around Jharia coalfield (JCF) and Raniganj coalfield. The importance value index of sensitive species minified and those of tolerant species enhanced with increasing pollution load and altered soil quality around coal mining areas. Although the species richness of woody and herbaceous plants decreased with higher pollution load, a large number of species acclimatized to the stress caused by the coal mining activities. Woody plant community at JCF was more affected by coal mining than herbaceous community. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that structure of herbaceous community was mainly driven by soil total organic carbon, soil nitrogen, whereas woody layer community was influenced by sulphur dioxide in ambient air, soil sulphate and soil phosphorus. The changes in species diversity observed at mining areas indicated an increase in the proportion of resistant herbs and grasses showing a tendency towards a definite selection strategy of ecosystem in response to air pollution and altered soil characteristics.

  4. Remediation of mercury-polluted soils using artificial wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mercadoa, Héctor Daniel; Fernándezb, Georgina; Garzón-Zúñigac, Marco Antonio; Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúaa, María Del Carmen

    2017-01-02

    Mexico's mercury mining industry is important for economic development, but has unfortunately contaminated soils due to open-air disposal. This case was seen at two sites in the municipality of Pinal de Amoles, State of Queretaro, Mexico. This paper presents an evaluation of mercury dynamics and biogeochemistry in two soils (mining waste soil) using ex-situ wetlands over 36 weeks. In soils sampled in two former mines of Pinal de Amoles, initial mercury concentrations were 424 ± 29 and 433 ± 12 mg kg -1 in La Lorena and San Jose, former mines, respectively. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis were used and 20 reactors were constructed (with and without plants). The reactors were weekly amended with a nutrient solution (NPK), for each plant, at a pH of 5.0. For remediation using soils from San Jose 70-78% of mercury was removed in T. latifolia reactors and 76-82% in P. australis reactors, and for remediation of soils from La Lorena, mercury content was reduced by 55-71% using T. latifolia and 58-66% in P. australis reactors. Mercury emissions into the atmosphere were estimated to be 2-4 mg m -2 h -1 for both soils.

  5. The potential impact on the biodegradation of organic pollutants from composting technology for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Wang, Jiajia; Deng, Yaocheng; Liu, Yani; Peng, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Large numbers of organic pollutants (OPs), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and petroleum, are discharged into soil, posing a huge threat to natural environment. Traditional chemical and physical remediation technologies are either incompetent or expensive, and may cause secondary pollution. The technology of soil composting or use of compost as soil amendment can utilize quantities of active microbes to degrade OPs with the help of available nutrients in the compost matrix. It is highly cost-effective for soil remediation. On the one hand, compost incorporated into contaminated soil is capable of increasing the organic matter content, which improves the soil environment and stimulates the metabolically activity of microbial community. On the other hand, the organic matter in composts would increase the adsorption of OPs and affect their bioavailability, leading to decreased fraction available for microorganism-mediated degradation. Some advanced instrumental analytical approaches developed in recent years may be adopted to expound this process. Therefore, the study on bioavailability of OPs in soil is extremely important for the application of composting technology. This work will discuss the changes of physical and chemical properties of contaminated soils and the bioavailability of OPs by the adsorption of composting matrix. The characteristics of OPs, types and compositions of compost amendments, soil/compost ratio and compost distribution influence the bioavailability of OPs. In addition, the impact of composting factors (composting temperature, co-substrates and exogenous microorganisms) on the removal and bioavailability of OPs is also studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-08-01

    Biochars have attracted tremendous attention due to their effects on soil improvement; they enhance carbon storage, soil fertility and quality, and contaminant (organic and heavy metal) immobilization and transformation. These effects could be achieved by modifying soil microbial habitats and (or) directly influencing microbial metabolisms, which together induce changes in microbial activity and microbial community structures. This review links microbial responses, including microbial activity, community structures and soil enzyme activities, with changes in soil properties caused by biochars. In particular, we summarized possible mechanisms that are involved in the effects that biochar-microbe interactions have on soil carbon sequestration and pollution remediation. Special attention has been paid to biochar effects on the formation and protection of soil aggregates, biochar adsorption of contaminants, biochar-mediated transformation of soil contaminants by microorganisms, and biochar-facilitated electron transfer between microbial cells and contaminants and soil organic matter. Certain reactive organic compounds and heavy metals in biochar may induce toxicity to soil microorganisms. Adsorption and hydrolysis of signaling molecules by biochar interrupts microbial interspecific communications, potentially altering soil microbial community structures. Further research is urged to verify the proposed mechanisms involved in biochar-microbiota interactions for soil remediation and improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interaction of soil heavy metal pollution with industrialisation and the landscape pattern in Taiyuan city, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Su, Chao; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xiaoting; Pei, Jingfei

    2014-01-01

    Many studies indicated that industrialization and urbanization caused serious soil heavy metal pollution from industrialized age. However, fewer previous studies have conducted a combined analysis of the landscape pattern, urbanization, industrialization, and heavy metal pollution. This paper was aimed at exploring the relationships of heavy metals in the soil (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn) with landscape pattern, industrialisation, urbanisation in Taiyuan city using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis included correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent-sample T test, and principal component analysis (PCA). Geographic information system (GIS) was also applied to determine the spatial distribution of the heavy metals. The spatial distribution maps showed that the heavy metal pollution of the soil was more serious in the centre of the study area. The results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the correlations among heavy metals were significant, and industrialisation could significantly affect the concentrations of some heavy metals. Landscape diversity showed a significant negative correlation with the heavy metal concentrations. The PCA showed that a two-factor model for heavy metal pollution, industrialisation, and the landscape pattern could effectively demonstrate the relationships between these variables. The model explained 86.71% of the total variance of the data. Moreover, the first factor was mainly loaded with the comprehensive pollution index (P), and the second factor was primarily loaded with landscape diversity and dominance (H and D). An ordination of 80 samples could show the pollution pattern of all the samples. The results revealed that local industrialisation caused heavy metal pollution of the soil, but such pollution could respond negatively to the landscape pattern. The results of the study could provide a basis for agricultural, suburban, and urban planning.

  8. Phylogenetic diversity of dominant bacterial communities during bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thomas Cloete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants is advantageous owing to the cost-effectiveness of the technology and the ubiquity of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in the soil. Soil microbial diversity is affected by hydrocarbon perturbation thus selective enrichment of hydrocarbon utilizers occurs. Hydrocarbons interact with the soil matrix and soil microorganisms determining the fate of the contaminants relative to their chemical nature and microbial degradative capabilities respectively. Bacterial dynamics in crude oil-polluted soil microcosms undergoing bioremediation were investigated over a 42-day period. Four out of the five microcosms containing 4kg of pristine soil each were contaminated with 4% Arabian light crude oil. Three microcosms were amended with either 25g of NPK fertilizer, calcium ammonium nitrate or poultry droppings respectively while the fourth designated oil-contaminated control was unamended. The fifth microcosm had only pristine soil and was set up to ascertain indigenous bacterial community structure pre-contamination. Biostimulated soils were periodically tilled and watered. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured throughout the experimental period by gas chromatography. Gas chromatographic tracing of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second (day 14 till the sixth (day 42 week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks was seen in the oil contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities involved in aerobic biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils and controls were generated with DGGE using PCR-amplification of 16S rRNA gene obtained from extracted total soil community DNA. DGGE fingerprints demonstrated that NPK, calcium ammonium nitrate and poultry droppings selected different bacterial populations during the active phase of oil

  9. Meta-analysis of biochar potential for pollutant immobilization and stabilization in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Marsz, Aleksandra; Fristak, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is the pyrolysis product of biomass, preferably from agricultural and forestry residues and waste materials. Characterized by a polyaromatic structure rich in carbon, it offers a microporous structure with a high specific surface area and active functional groups as binding sites. Because of the high sorption capacity for organic and inorganic soil pollutants biochar is an interesting tool for in-situ soil remediation. Especially if the reduction of contaminant bioavailability and the protection of groundwater from pollutants in the vadose zone are the most relevant issues for remediating a polluted site without excavation and removal of the soil, an in-situ application of biochar may offer a promising remediation strategy. The resulting interest of deploying biochar as sorbent for soil contaminants has stimulated a wealth of studies to develop successful applications for environmental technology. However, the existing studies do not always agree on the efficacy for different pollutants and on the most relevant char and soil characteristics that determine the rate of success when using biochar as sorbent. This makes it necessary to apply advanced literature assessment techniques to allow for the recognition of the extent and the significance of the efficacy of a given pollutant treatment technique. A meta-analysis is a study assessment technique that allows extracting a harmonized answer to a specific research question that has been studied more often than one time, even if the results are partially conflicting. Such a technique also allows getting an overview about the degree of consensus or contradiction in the answers to the question if biochar can be applied successfully for immobilizing certain soil contaminants. The meta-analysis results can also be used to quantify the average extent of effects of a certain treatment, depending on the characteristics of the sorbent and on the application rate. By checking 104 published papers in the peer

  10. Effects of Chemical Applications to Metal Polluted Soils on Cadmium Uptake by Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment using metal polluted soils was conducted to investigate the effects of lime, iron and sulfur on changes in Cd availability and uptake by rice plant. Drainage and irrigation of water were performed to develop redox changes like field cultivation. Iron chloride and sodium sulfate solutions were applied to the pots in the middle of growth period of rice plant. Reactive metal pool in heavily polluted soils was slightly decreased after treatments with lime, iron chloride, sodium sulfate and combination of these chemicals. However, cadmium uptake by rice plant was significantly different across the treatments and the extent of Cd pollution. For highly polluted soils, more Cd reduction was observed in iron chloride treatments. Cd content in polished rice for iron chloride and (iron chloride+organic matter treatments was only 16-23% and 25-37% compared to control and liming, respectively. Treatment of (iron chloride+sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice. For moderately polluted soils, Cd reduction rate was the order of (OM+iron chloride > iron chloride > lime. Other treatments including sulfate rather increased Cd content in rice maximum 3 times than control. It was proposed to determine the optimum application rate of iron for minimizing hazardous effect on rice plant.

  11. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3′)-IIa/nptII and aph(3′)-IIIa/nptIII – frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides – was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31–856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13–61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0–3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0–0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. - Highlights: • ARM genes may act as environmental pollutants under certain conditions. • Vital criteria for rating are low endemic presence and anthropogenic ARG immission. • Agricultural soils were rarely positive for nptII with few gene copy numbers. • Most fields were nptIII positive with variable but also increased allele frequency. • NptII/III qualify as pollutants in the tested settings with low endemic abundances. - ARM genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic activities raise their abundance above naturally occurring background levels in exposed ecosystems.

  12. Potential of cold-adapted microorganisms for bioremediation of oil-polluted Alpine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margesin, R.

    2000-01-01

    The environmental contamination by organic pollutants is a widespread problem in all climates. The most widely distributed pollution can be attributed to oil contamination. Bioremediation methods can provide efficient, inexpensive and environmentally safe cleanup tools. The role of cold-adapted microorganisms for the bioremediation of experimentally and chronically oil-contaminated Alpine soils was evaluated in the studies described. The results demonstrated that there is a considerable potential for oil bioremediation in Alpine soils. Oil biodegradation can be significantly enhanced by biostimulation (inorganic nutrient supply), but a complete oil elimination is not possible by employing biological decontamination alone. (Author)

  13. Research on weed species for phytoremediation of boron polluted soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... There are many geothermal fields and thermal springs in the Small and Big Meander ..... toxicity in kiwifruit plants (Actinidia deliciosa), treated with nitrate, ammonium, and a mixture of both. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 166(4):.

  14. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  15. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils along major roadside ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(3), pp ... of Agricultural Engineering and Land Planning, Botswana College of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027, .... Collected soil samples were air-dried to constant weight and then ...

  16. Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Petroleum Pollutants in Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2004-08-02

    During bioremediation, petroleum hydrocarbons are converted by naturally occurring or indigenous soil microorganisms to carbon dioxide, water, bacterial cells (biomass), and humic materials. Numerous factors are known to affect both the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation in contaminated soils. These include soil properties such as moisture content, aeration, nutrient status, pH, and temperature as well as waste characteristics such as the concentration and molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds or classes, the presence of inhibitors and cometabolic substrates, and the degree of contaminant sequestration which often leads to serious bioavailability limitations, particularly in aged soils. It is the objective of this chapter to outline a strategy for optimizing the hydrocarbon bioremediation process by adjusting the various operational parameters so that none of them become a limiting factor during treatment.

  17. Cryptogamic community structure as a bioindicator of soil condition along a pollution gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine changes in the structure of cryptogamic vegetation of poor psammophilous grassland along a pollution gradient near a zinc smelter to evaluate the potential of species assemblages as bioindicators of soil condition. Lichens and bryophytes were examined in study plots along six transects in four distance zones, and the physicochemical properties of corresponding soil samples were analysed. Four different responses of species to substrate contamination were identified, with a distinct group of species resistant to and favoured by metal contamination. Although species richness decreases as one approaches the smelter, the gradual replacement of certain sensitive species by resistant ones was observed along the pollution gradient. The results enabled us to develop a useful tool to diagnose strongly polluted sites. Two different cryptogamic assemblages of well-recognised key species characteristic for strongly polluted and lightly polluted sites were distinguished. We conclude that cryptogamic community structure clearly corresponds to the degree of soil contamination, thus demonstrating high bioindicative value. The study confirmed the high relevance of the community approach in metal pollution biomonitoring.

  18. Soil-biological, soil-chemical and soil-physical parameters along a pollutant gradient on grassland sites in the vicinity o Brixlegg (Tyrol) - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohla, H.; Palzenberger, M.; Krassnigg, F.; Kandeler, E.; Schwarz, S.; Kasperowski, E.

    1992-01-01

    It was the main aim of this pilot project to check the indicator value of soil organisms by means of distinct pollutant gradients - heavy metals, organic compounds (PCB, dioxins) -. On the basis of available results (1/2/3/), 4 grassland sites at increasing distances from a local emission source (copper production from scrap metal) were selected. Physical and chemical analyses as well as the quantification of habitat structures were used for the characterization of the sites. The following analyses were carried out accompanyingly: The performances of soil microorganisms under pollutant load, the accumulation of pollutants, and the structures of plants and animal communities (macro, meso and microfauna). The investigation area and the examined parameters are introduced, as well as first result on soil chemistry and enzymatics as well as for the accumulation of heavy metals in an earthworm species are introduced. (orig.) [de

  19. Modern approaches to remediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-07-01

    The main principles and approaches to remediation of in situ polluted soils aimed at the removal or control of heavy metals (washing, stabilization, phytoremediation, and natural restoration) are analyzed. The prospects of gentle methods of stabilization oriented at the reduction of the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals due to the processes of adsorption, ionic exchange, and precipitation are emphasized. The use of sorbents and the traditional application of liming and phosphates to fix metal pollutants in soils is considered. The necessary conditions for successful soil remediation are the assessment of its economic efficiency, the analysis of the ecological risks, and confirming the achievement of the planned purposes related to the content of available metals in the soils.

  20. Earthworms as bio-indicators of chemical pollution in soils with drilling waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujawska Justyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deposited drilling waste may alter the functioning of soil ecosystems by disrupting the soil fauna. The wastes contain toxic compounds such as metals or hydrocarbons, which tend to accumulate in the living. In the research, earthworms were used u as bio-indicators of soil pollution resulting from the presence of pollution contained in drilling waste. The aim of this study is to evaluation of toxicity of the waste of spent oil and water drilling cuttings to earthworm Eisenia fetida. Oil-based and water-based drilling cuttings were added to soil, used six doses of drilling wastes (5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, 30%, 50%. The results showed that the 45 days LC50 of oil-based drilling cuttings ranged 18%, LC50 of water-based drilling cuttings ranged 33%. In general, mortality increases with increasing dosage waste.

  1. Multiple evaluations of the removal of pollutants in road runoff by soil infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Sato, Nobuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Nakada, Norihide; Harada, Arata; Komatsu, Toshiya; Takada, Hideshige; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Ono, Yoshiro; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2008-05-01

    Groundwater replenishment by infiltration of road runoff is expected to be a promising option for ensuring a sustainable urban water cycle. In this study, we performed a soil infiltration column test using artificial road runoff equivalent to approximately 11-12 years of rainfall to evaluate the removal of pollutants by using various chemical analyses and bioassay tests. These results indicated that soil infiltration treatment works effectively to remove most of the pollutants such as organic matter (chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), P species, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), numerous heavy metals and oestrogenic activities. Bioassay tests, including algal growth inhibition test, Microtox and mutagen formation potential (MFP) test, also revealed effective removal of toxicities by the soils. However, limited amounts of NO3, Mn, Ni, alkaline earth metals, perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (FOSA) were removed by the soils and they possibly reach the groundwater and cause contamination.

  2. Problems and prospects concerning the phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G. N.

    2014-09-01

    The current state, problems, and prospects of phymoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils are analyzed. The main attention is paid to the phytoextraction and phytostabilization as the most widespread and alternative methods of soil phytoremediation. The efficiency of phymoremediation is related to the natural capability of plants for the accumulation and translocation of metals, their tolerance to a high content of metals, the plant biomass, and the amendments applied. The advantages and disadvantages of phytoremediation as compared to other methods of remediation of polluted soils in situ are considered. Examples of successful phytoextraction and phytomining for cleaning up of contaminated soils in Rasteburg (South Africa) and the phytostabilization of technogenic barrens nearby the copper-nickel plants in Sudbury (Ontario, Canada) and in the Kola Subarctic (Russia) are presented.

  3. Phytoremediation of soil polluted with Iraqi crude oil using grass plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidy Abdul Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remediation technology is a promising technique that decreases pollutants like hydrocarbons from the environment. An experimental work was done at green house of University of Technology in order to study the effect of crude oil on the plant growth and to measure the decrement which happened on shoot height, germination rate and the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, which resulted by this phytoremediation technique. The samples of soil were measured for TPH reduction and removal by Horiba model OCMA - 350. Five doses were used in this experiment (0 control, 10x103, 30 x103, 50 x103, 75 x103 (mg crude oil / kg soil or (ppm. The greater efficiency was obtained in the treatment 50 x103 ppm seeded with cotton, in which cotton removed 50.66% of the primary TPHs from soil. Results showed that the employed vegetate species were promising and effective in reducing and removing TPHs from freshly polluted soil.

  4. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  5. Organic and inorganic amendment application on mercury-polluted soils: effects on soil chemical and biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Klouza, Martin; Holečková, Zlata; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2016-07-01

    digestate may determine its use as a suitable amendment for the assisted-natural attenuation of mercury-polluted soils.

  6. Soybean varieties as effective tool for phytoremediation of cadmium polluted soil

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlov, Ljupco; Balabanova, Biljana; Zajkova-Paneva, Vesna; Wei, Shuhe

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important toxic heavy metal and the warning of health risks from Cd pollution were issued initially in the ‘70s. Increased concentrations of Cd in agricultural soils are known to come from human activities, such as the application of phosphate fertilizer, sewage sludge, wastewater, pesticides, mining and smelting of metalliferous ores with high Cd content, and traffic. Although there are many reports on Cd contamination in agricultural soils, most of the investigations are ...

  7. Biological permeable reactive barriers coupled with electrokinetic soil flushing for the treatment of diesel-polluted clay soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Clara; Villaseñor, José; Rodrigo, Manuel A; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Removal of diesel from spiked kaolin has been studied in the laboratory using coupled electrokinetic soil flushing (EKSF) and bioremediation through an innovative biological permeable reactive barriers (Bio-PRBs) positioned between electrode wells. The results show that this technology is efficient in the removal of pollutants and allows the soil to maintain the appropriate conditions for microorganism growth in terms of pH, temperature, and nutrients. At the same time, EKSF was demonstrated to be a very interesting technology for transporting pollutants, microorganisms and nutrients, although results indicate that careful management is necessary to avoid the depletion of nutrients, which are effectively transported by electro-migration. After two weeks of operation, 30% of pollutants are removed and energy consumption is under 70 kWh m(-3). Main fluxes (electroosmosis and evaporation) and changes in the most relevant parameters (nutrients, diesel, microorganisms, surfactants, moisture conductivity and pH) during treatment and in a complete post-study analysis are studied to give a comprehensive description of the most relevant processes occurring in the soil (pollutant transport and biodegradation). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater for 72 chemical substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Soonyoung; Hwang, Sang-Il; Yun, Seong-Taek; Chae, Gitak; Lee, Dongsu; Kim, Ki-Eun

    2017-11-01

    Fate and transport of 72 chemicals in soil and groundwater were assessed by using a multiphase compositional model (CompFlow Bio) because some of the chemicals are non-aqueous phase liquids or solids in the original form. One metric ton of chemicals were assumed to leak in a stylized facility. Scenarios of both surface spills and subsurface leaks were considered. Simulation results showed that the fate and transport of chemicals above the water table affected the fate and transport of chemicals below the water table, and vice versa. Surface spill scenarios caused much less concentrations than subsurface leak scenarios because leaching amounts into the subsurface environment were small (at most 6% of the 1 t spill for methylamine). Then, simulation results were applied to assess point-source pollutant loadings to soil and groundwater above and below the water table, respectively, by multiplying concentrations, impact areas, and durations. These three components correspond to the intensity of contamination, mobility, and persistency in the assessment of pollutant loading, respectively. Assessment results showed that the pollutant loadings in soil and groundwater were linearly related (r 2  = 0.64). The pollutant loadings were negatively related with zero-order and first-order decay rates in both soil (r = - 0.5 and - 0.6, respectively) and groundwater (- 1.0 and - 0.8, respectively). In addition, this study scientifically defended that the soil partitioning coefficient (K d ) significantly affected the pollutant loadings in soil (r = 0.6) and the maximum masses in groundwater (r = - 0.9). However, K d was not a representative factor for chemical transportability unlike the expectation in chemical ranking systems of soil and groundwater pollutants. The pollutant loadings estimated using a physics-based hydrogeological model provided a more rational ranking for exposure assessment, compared to the summation of persistency and transportability scores in

  9. Differential responses of freshwater wetland soils to sulphate pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Dolle, ten G.E.; Berg, van den S.T.G.; Delft, van S.P.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate (SO42-) reduction rates are generally low in freshwater wetlands and are regulated by the scarce availability of the ion. Increased concentrations of this electron acceptor due to sulphur (S) pollution of groundwater and surface water may, however, lead to high sulphate reduction rates now

  10. Soil acidification by atmospheric pollution and forest growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengt Jonsson

    1976-01-01

    In recent years concern has been expressed about the danger of harmful pollution deposits which affect areas at great distances from the emission sources. The investigation was so designed that a possible reaction in growth resulting from a supposed acidification could be observed as far as possible. A poorer growth development was observed in regions, which are...

  11. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  13. Assessment of the pollution and ecological risk of lead and cadmium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jerzy; Baran, Agnieszka; Urbański, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Ryszard; Klimowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-03-27

    The aim of the study was to assess the content, distribution, soil binding capacity, and ecological risk of cadmium and lead in the soils of Malopolska (South Poland). The investigation of 320 soil samples from differently used land (grassland, arable land, forest, wasteland) revealed a very high variation in the metal content in the soils. The pollution of soils with cadmium and lead is moderate. Generally, a point source of lead and cadmium pollution was noted in the study area. The highest content of cadmium and lead was found in the northwestern part of the area-the industrial zones (mining and metallurgical activity). These findings are confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. Among the different types of land use, forest soils had by far the highest mean content of bioavailable forms of both metals. The results showed a higher soil binding capacity for lead than for cadmium. However, for both metals, extremely high (class 5) accumulation capacities were dominant. Based on the results, the investigated soils had a low (Pb) and moderate (Cd) ecological risk on living components. Soil properties, such as organic C, pH, sand, silt, and clay content, correlated with the content of total and bioavailable forms of metals in the soils. The correlations, despite being statistically significant, were characterized by very low values of correlation coefficient (r = 0.12-0.20, at p ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the obtained data do not allow to define any conclusions as to the relationships between these soil properties. However, it must be highlighted that there was a very strong positive correlation between the total content of cadmium and lead and their bioavailable forms in the soils.

  14. Recalcitrance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contributes to background pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio

    2011-01-01

    The microbial accessibility of native phenanthrene and pyrene was determined in soils representing background scenarios for pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils were selected to cover a wide range of concentrations of organic matter (1.7-10.0%) and total PAHs (85-952 μg/kg). The experiments included radiorespirometry determinations of biodegradation with 14 C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene and chemical analyses to determine the residual concentrations of the native compounds. Part of the tests relied on the spontaneous biodegradation of the chemicals by native microorganisms; another part also involved inoculation with PAH-degrading bacteria. The results showed the recalcitrance of PAHs already present in the soils. Even after extensive mineralization of the added 14 C-PAHs, the concentrations of native phenanthrene and pyrene did not significantly decrease. We suggest that aging processes operating at background concentrations may contribute to recalcitrance and, therefore, to ubiquitous pollution by PAHs in soils. - Highlights: → Background PAHs in soils are highly resistant to biodegradation. → Recalcitrance occurs even after inoculation with specialized microorganisms. → Recalcitrance is caused by a low bioaccessibility and aging. → Time (aging) seems a relevant factor causing recalcitrance. → Recalcitrance can explain ubiquitous PAH background pollution. - Background soil PAHs are highly resistant to biodegradation.

  15. Recalcitrance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contributes to background pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada-Baquero, Rosa [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain); Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio, E-mail: jjortega@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    The microbial accessibility of native phenanthrene and pyrene was determined in soils representing background scenarios for pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils were selected to cover a wide range of concentrations of organic matter (1.7-10.0%) and total PAHs (85-952 {mu}g/kg). The experiments included radiorespirometry determinations of biodegradation with {sup 14}C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene and chemical analyses to determine the residual concentrations of the native compounds. Part of the tests relied on the spontaneous biodegradation of the chemicals by native microorganisms; another part also involved inoculation with PAH-degrading bacteria. The results showed the recalcitrance of PAHs already present in the soils. Even after extensive mineralization of the added {sup 14}C-PAHs, the concentrations of native phenanthrene and pyrene did not significantly decrease. We suggest that aging processes operating at background concentrations may contribute to recalcitrance and, therefore, to ubiquitous pollution by PAHs in soils. - Highlights: > Background PAHs in soils are highly resistant to biodegradation. > Recalcitrance occurs even after inoculation with specialized microorganisms. > Recalcitrance is caused by a low bioaccessibility and aging. > Time (aging) seems a relevant factor causing recalcitrance. > Recalcitrance can explain ubiquitous PAH background pollution. - Background soil PAHs are highly resistant to biodegradation.

  16. Effects of climate change on the toxicity of soils polluted by metal mine wastes to Enchytraeus crypticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; Tsitsiou, E.; Wieldraaijer, R.; Verweij, R.A.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effects of climate change on the toxicity of metal-polluted soils. Bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus were performed in soils polluted by mine wastes (mine tailing, forest, and watercourse) and under different combinations of temperature (20°C and 25°C) and

  17. Miniaturized test system for soil respiration induced by volatile pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Karin; Chapman, Stephen J.; Campbell, Colin D.; Harms, Hauke; Hoehener, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized method based on 96-well microtitre plates was developed and used to study respiration in pristine and contaminated soils following addition of volatile substrates. Small soil samples were exposed to fuel components, which were volatilized from spatially separate reservoirs of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as an organic carrier. Respiration was determined as CO 2 production by means of a pH-indicator and bicarbonate-containing agar, or as 14 CO 2 evolution from 14 C-labelled substrates. Substrate concentrations inducing maximum microbial activity or inhibition were determined and CO 2 production profiles examined by multivariate analysis. When high concentrations of fuel components were applied, distinction of hydrocarbon exposed soils from unexposed soil was achieved within 6 h of incubation. With low concentrations, adequate distinction was achieved after 24 h, probably as a result of community adaptation. Nutrient limitation was identified with the 14 C method for toluene, and the optimal N and P amendment determined. Further potential applications of this rapid and inexpensive method are outlined. - A new method to study soil respiration is used when volatile organic contaminants are added

  18. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescent Analysis of Soil in the Vicinity of Industrial Areas and Heavy Metal Pollution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V.; Joshi, G. C.; Bisht, D.

    2017-05-01

    The soil of two agricultural sites near an industrial area was investigated for heavy metal pollution using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The concentration values for 17 elements were determined in the soil samples including eight heavy metal elements, i.e., Fe, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Cr, Cu, and Zn. The soil near a pulp and paper mill was found to be highly polluted by the heavy metals. The concentration data obtained by EDXRF were further examined by calculating the pollution index and Nemerow integrated pollution index.

  20. Determine the Efficacy of Salinity on Bioremediation of Polluted Soil by Phenanthrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ravanipour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenanthrene is one of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs that are formed during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, oil pollution and different process of oil and gas plants. PAHs-contaminated area have increased a health risk to humans and environments due to toxicity, carcinogenicity, hydrophobicity and their tendency to accumulation in soil and sediment and their entrance to food chain. Bioremediation is an effective method for removing toxic pollutants from soils such as Phenanthrene. The main object of this study is the assessment of the effects of salinity on the efficacy of the process of bioremediation on polluted soils by Phenanthrene. Methods: The bare soil of any organic and microbial pollution was first polluted artificially to the phenanthrene then a nutrient solution with two minimum and maximum concentrations of salinity were added to it in order to have the proportion of 10% w:v (soil: water. After that a microbial mixture which was enable degradation the phenanthrene added to the slurry and aerated. After the extraction of phenanthrene by ultrasonic, the residual concentration in the soil was analyzed by GC. Results: In the conditions that salinity concentration was maximum, the microbial growth has a longer lag phase than the minimum salinity. The findings from extraction process by GC depict the removal percentage of maximum and minimum salinity in 56th %70.5 day and %71.8, respectively. Conclusion: In In spite of the longer log phase of maximum concentration of salinity and according to GC results, there was just a little difference between two solutions. Therefore it reveals that salinity can increase the lag phase but haven't any inhibitory effect on Phenanthrene removal.

  1. Pollution distribution of heavy metals in surface soil at an informal electronic-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2014-02-01

    We studied distribution of heavy metals [lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn)] in surface soil at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling workshop near Metro Manila in the Philippines to evaluate the pollution size (spot size, small area or the entire workshop), as well as to assess heavy metal transport into the surrounding soil environment. On-site length-of-stride-scale (~70 cm) measurements were performed at each surface soil point using field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF). The surface soil at the e-waste recycling workshop was polluted with Cu, Zn and Pb, which were distributed discretely in surface soil. The site was divided into five areas based on the distance from an entrance gate (y-axis) of the e-waste recycling workshop. The three heavy metals showed similar concentration gradients in the y-axis direction. Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations were estimated to decrease to half of their maximum concentrations at ~3, 7 and 7 m from the pollution spot, respectively, inside the informal e-waste recycling workshop. Distance from an entrance may play an important role in heavy metal transport at the soil surface. Using on-site FP-XRF, we evaluated the metal ratio to characterise pollution features of the solid surface. Variability analysis of heavy metals revealed vanishing surficial autocorrelation over metre ranges. Also, the possibility of concentration prediction at unmeasured points using geostatistical kriging was evaluated, and heavy metals had a relative "small" pollution scales and remained inside the original workshop compared with toxic organohalogen compounds. Thus, exposure to heavy metals may directly influence the health of e-waste workers at the original site rather than the surrounding habitat and environmental media.

  2. Characterization of the tensile behaviour of argillaceous soils for the barriers of waste disposal facilities; Caracterisation du comportement en traction des sols argileux pour les barrieres de centres de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madjoudj Guessasma, N

    2001-12-01

    Compacted clay beds are traditionally used for the covering of radioactive waste repositories. Their implementation is a delicate task which requires to take into consideration the type of waste and the environment properties: climate, hydrology, topography and sociology. Several works have been performed on the mechanical behaviour of such soils with respect to their elastic or compression rupture properties. However, their sensibility with respect to the cracking generated by an hydric change or by a flexural strength (differential compaction of the wastes) remains badly known. The aim of this work is to propose a laboratory test for the characterization of the suitability of these materials with respect to their tensile extensibility. This test has been performed on two types of argillaceous materials. The document is structured as follows: after a synthesis of the main causes of alteration of cover materials, a characterization of two natural fine soils which could be used as cover material is presented. Their tensile properties is analyzed, in particular their deformation during cracking and rupture. Different direct or indirect tensile tests are analyzed in order to define a simple test for the characterization of the tensile properties of soils. The influence of the compacting mode on the cracking and rupture is also studied. Finally, a real scale experiment simulating the bending of an argillaceous cover above a cavity has been performed in-situ. The results are compared with those obtained at the laboratory in order to validate the choices proposed for an application to waste repository covers. (J.S.)

  3. Remediation mechanisms of mercapto-grafted palygorskite for cadmium pollutant in paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuefeng; Qin, Xu; Huang, Qingqing; Huang, Rong; Yin, Xiuling; Cai, Yanming; Wang, Lin; Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yingming

    2017-10-01

    The immobilization agent was the key factor that determined the success of remediation of heavy metal polluted soil. In this study, mercapto-grafted palygorskite (MP) as a novel and efficient immobilization agent was utilized for the remediation of Cd-polluted paddy soil in pot trials, and the remediation mechanisms were investigated in the aspect of soil chemistry and plant physiology with different rice cultivars as model plants. Mercapto-grafted palygorskite at applied doses of 0.1-0.3% could reduce Cd contents of brown rice and straws of different cultivars significantly. Both reduced DTPA-extractable Cd contents in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil and decreasing Cd contents in iron plaques on rice root surfaces confirmed that MP was an efficient immobilization agent for Cd pollutant in paddy soil. In the aspect of soil chemistry, the pH values of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils had no statistical changes in the MP treatment groups, but their zeta potentials decreased obviously, indicating that MP could enhance the fixation or sorption of Cd on soil compositions. In the aspect of antioxidant system, MP could increase POD activity of rice roots significantly to alleviate the stress of Cd to roots, and resulted in the decrease of T-AOC, SOD, and CAT activities of rice roots of the selected cultivars. MP had no inhabitation or enhancement effects on TSH of rice roots but enhance the contents of MTs and NPT to binding Cd to complete detoxification process. MP as a novel and efficient immobilization agent could complete the remediation effects through soil chemistry and plant physiological mechanisms.

  4. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  5. Streptomyces communities in soils polluted with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. N.; Syshchikova, O. V.

    2009-02-01

    The contents of differently mobile heavy metal compounds and their influence on the formation of microbial cenoses (particularly, streptomyces communities) in technogenically disturbed soils are considered. Elevated concentrations of mobile Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Fe compounds are shown to determine structural-functional changes in microbial cenoses that are displayed in a decreasing number of microorganisms and a narrower spectrum of the streptomyces species. Some specific features of the formation of streptomyces communities in technogenic soils were revealed on the basis of the analysis of their species structure with the use of the Margalef, Berger-Parker, and Sorensen indices of biodiversity.

  6. [Temporal-spatial distribution of agricultural diffuse nitrogen pollution and relationship with soil respiration and nitrification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ouyang; Cai, Guan-Qing; Huang, Hao-Bo; Geng, Xiao-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification processes play an important role on soil nitrogen transformation and diffuse nitrogen loading. These processes are also the chains for soil circle. In this study, the Zhegao watershed located north of Chaohu Lake was selected to explore the interactions of these processes with diffuse nitrogen pollution. The BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was applied to analyze the soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification processes in farmland and forest. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) simulated the temporal and spatial pattern of diffuse nitrogen loading. As the expanding of farmland and higher level of fertilization, the yearly mean loading of diffuse nitrogen increased sustainably from 1980-1995 to 1996-2012. The monthly loading in 1996-2012 was also higher than that in the period of 1980-1995, which closely related to the precipitation. The statistical analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between two periods. The yearly averaged loading of the whole watershed in 1996-2012 was 10.40 kg x hm(-2), which was 8.10 kg x hm(-2) in 1980-1995. The variance analysis demonstrated that there was also a big difference between the spatial distributions of two periods. The forest soil had much higher soil respiration than the farmland soil. But the farmland had higher nitrification and denitrification rates. The more intensive nitrogen transformation in the farmland contributed to the less diffuse nitrogen loading. As the nitrification rate of farmland was higher than denitrification rate, agricultural diffuse nitrate nitrogen loading would increase and organic nitrogen loading would reduce. The analysis of soil respiration, nitrification and denitrification is helpful for the study of soil nitrogen circle form the aspect of soil biology, which also benefits the control of agricultural diffuse nitrogen pollution.

  7. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-12-22

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg(-)¹, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  8. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouping Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM. This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety.

  9. Heavy Metal Pollution in a Soil-Rice System in the Yangtze River Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhouping; Zhang, Qiaofen; Han, Tiqian; Ding, Yanfei; Sun, Junwei; Wang, Feijuan; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are regarded as toxic trace elements in the environment. Heavy metal pollution in soil or rice grains is of increasing concern. In this study, 101 pairs of soil and rice samples were collected from the major rice-producing areas along the Yangtze River in China. The soil properties and heavy metal (i.e., Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr) concentrations in the soil and rice grains were analyzed to evaluate the heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the soil-rice systems. The results showed that the Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr concentrations in the soil ranged from 0.10 to 4.64, 0.01 to 1.46, 7.64 to 127.56, and 13.52 to 231.02 mg·kg−1, respectively. Approximately 37%, 16%, 60% and 70% of the rice grain samples were polluted by Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr, respectively. The degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil-rice systems exhibited a regional variation. The interactions among the heavy metal elements may also influence the migration and accumulation of heavy metals in soil or paddy rice. The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and rice grains is related to a certain extent to the pH and soil organic matter (SOM). This study provides useful information regarding heavy metal accumulation in soil to support the safe production of rice in China. The findings from this study also provide a robust scientific basis for risk assessments regarding ecological protection and food safety. PMID:26703698

  10. Experiences with a new soil gas technique for detecting petroleum pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazac, O.; Landa, I.; Rohde, J.R.; Kelly, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents field experiences obtained with a new technology for detecting petroleum pollution in soil and ground water based on in situ determination of hydrocarbon concentrations in soil air. Ecoprobe is a new soil gas device from RS-Dynamics in the Czech Republic. The rugged waterproof device is equipped with a built-in computer-controlled semiconductor sensor. Three case histories are presented that demonstrate the use of the equipment under typical conditions. Two case histories present the use of the device under typical field conditions; the third case history compares results from the Ecoprobe and a commercial photoionization detector (PID) device

  11. Lead pollution of soil and groundwater in clay-pigeon shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the framework of the exemplary investigation of soil and groundwater pollution with lead on clay-pigeon shooting ranges, three facilities were sampled. The analyses for depth distribution in the main area of the ammunition deposition showed that the dissolved lead amounts are as a rule smaller than the limiting value of the Sewage Sludge Regulation (100 mg/kg). In two groundwater samples, no lead could be found. Considerable amounts of small lead balls are found on the soil surface, but only a very small part appears to be washed out and adsorbed by the soil matrix. (orig.) [de

  12. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface soils and plant material in the post-industrial city of Katowice, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindor, Karolina A; Franiel, Izabella J; Bierza, Wojciech M; Pawlak, Beata; Palowski, Bernard F

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to assess the level of environment pollution by biological monitoring. The leaves and bark of popular ornamental trees Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer platanoides L. and soil from the sampling sites were used to perform heavy metals pollution monitoring in urban areas with different pollution sources, as well to investigate the suitability of the leaves and bark as bioindicators of Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu pollution. Plant samples were collected at nine locations classified into three pollution groups based on metal content in the soils. The chosen pollution indices were used to assess the level of contamination according to background values. Soils in the Katowice area are found to be relatively heavily contaminated with Pb, Zn and Cd. Both of the maple tree species did not statistically differ in terms of the investigated elements' concentration in leaves or bark. Only bark samples reflected the pollution level, showing differences between the sampling points, and therefore are recommended for biomonitoring purposes.

  13. Ecotoxicological effects of copper and selenium combined pollution on soil enzyme activities in planted and unplanted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Liang, Dongli; Liu, Juanjuan; Xie, Junyu

    2013-04-01

    The present study explored the joint effects of Cu and Se pollution mechanisms on soil enzymes to provide references for the phytoremediation of contaminated areas and agricultural environmental protection. Pot experiments and laboratory analyses were carried out to study the individual and combined influences of Cu and Se on soil enzyme activities. The activities of four soil enzymes (urease, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, and nitrate reductase) were chosen. All soil enzyme activities tested were inhibited by Cu and Se pollution, either individually or combined, in varying degrees, following the order nitrate reductase>urease>catalase>alkaline phosphatase. Growing plants stimulated soil enzyme activity in a similar trend compared with treatments without plants. The joint effects of Cu and Se on catalase activity showed synergism at low concentrations and antagonism at high concentrations, whereas the opposite was observed for urease activity. However, nitrate reductase activity showed synergism both with and without plant treatments. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of exchangeable fractions had a similar trend with the EC50 of total content and was lower than that of total content. The EC50 values of nitrate reductase and urease activities were significantly lower for both Se and Cu (p<0.05), which indicated that they were more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weilin; Ma, Xiying

    2017-12-23

    Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  15. Utilization of air pollution control residues for the stabilization/solidification of trace element contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travar, I; Kihl, A; Kumpiene, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stabilization/solidification (S/S) of trace element-contaminated soil using air pollution control residues (APCRs) prior to disposal in landfill sites. Two soil samples (with low and moderate concentrations of organic matter) were stabilized using three APCRs that originated from the incineration of municipal solid waste, bio-fuels and a mixture of coal and crushed olive kernels. Two APCR/soil mixtures were tested: 30% APCR/70% soil and 50% APCR/50% soil. A batch leaching test was used to study immobilization of As and co-occurring metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Solidification was evaluated by measuring the unconfined compression strength (UCS). Leaching of As was reduced by 39-93% in APCR/soil mixtures and decreased with increased amounts of added APCR. Immobilization of As positively correlated with the amount of Ca in the APCR and negatively with the amount of soil organic matter. According to geochemical modelling, the precipitation of calcium arsenate (Ca3(AsO4)2/4H2O) and incorporation of As in ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O) in soil/APCR mixtures might explain the reduced leaching of As. A negative effect of the treatment was an increased leaching of Cu, Cr and dissolved organic carbon. Solidification of APCR/soil was considerably weakened by soil organic matter.

  16. Effects of heavy metal Cd pollution on microbial activities in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal contamination of soil occurs when heavy metals are introduced to soil through human activities, leading to the gradual deterioration of the ecology and environment. Microorganism activity reflects the intensity of various biochemical reactions in soil, and changes in it reflect the level of heavy metal pollution affecting the soil. The effects were studied of heavy metal Cd on the microbial activity of soil at different concentrations by investigating the respiratory intensity, urease activity, and catalase activity in forest soil and garden soil. The results showed that the respiratory intensity, urease and catalase activities in the garden soil were all higher than in the forest soil. Cd has obvious inhibitory effects on microbial activities. The three parameters exhibited a downward trend with increasing concentrations of Cd. Catalase activity increased when the mass concentration of Cd reached 1.0 mg/kg, indicating that low concentrations of Cd can promote the activity of some microorganisms. Respiratory intensity and urease activity also increased when the concentration reached 10.0 mg/kg, showing that respiratory intensity and urease activity have strong response mechanisms to adverse conditions. The effective state of Cd in soil, as well as inhibition of microbial activity, decreased with incubation time.

  17. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil around Haining electroplating industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong-Hui; Weng, Shan; Fang, Jing; Huang, Jia-Lei; Lu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Yu-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The pollution status and potential ecological risks of heavy metal in soils around Haining electroplating industrial park were studied. Hakanson index approach was used to assess the ecological hazards of heavy metals in soils. Results showed that average concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) in the soils were lower than the secondary criteria of environmental quality standard for soils, indicating limited harmful effects on the plants and the environment in general. Though the average soil concentrations were low, heavy metal concentrations in six sampling points located at the side of road still exceeded the criteria, with excessive rate of 13%. Statistic analysis showed that concentrations of Cu and Cd in roadside soils were significantly higher than those in non-roadside soils, indicating that the excessive heavy metal accumulations in the soil closely related with traffic transport. The average potential ecological hazard index of soils around Haining electroplating industrial park was 46.6, suggesting a slightly ecological harm. However, the potential ecological hazard index of soils with excessive heavy metals was 220-278, suggesting the medium ecological hazards. Cd was the most seriously ecological hazard factor.

  18. Heavy metal pollution of surface soil in Thrace region (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goskun, Mahmut; Goskun, Munevver; Steinnes, E.; Eidhammer Sjobakk, T.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Demkina, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of surface soil were collected at 73 sites in the Thrace region, northwest part of Turkey. Two complementary analytical techniques, epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame and graphite furnace atomization were used to determine 37 elements in the soil samples. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Co, Pb, and As were determined using AAS and GF AAS and ENAA was used for the remaining 29 elements. Results for As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, In, K, La, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, and V are reported for the first time for soils from this region. The results show that concentrations of the most elements were little affected by the industrial and other anthropogenic activities performed in the region. Except for distinctly higher levels of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in Istanbul district than the median values for the Thrace region, the observed distributions seem to be mainly associated with lithogenic variations. Spatial distributions of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and As were plotted in relation to the concentration values in soil using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology

  19. Seedling growth of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    The tree produces large quantities of red seeds which are used as .... Plants are excellent indicators of the state of the soil. (SBB 2001). ... Washington D.C: U.S.D.A. ... in north-eastern Poland. ... deciduous Quercus species subjected to two.

  20. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  1. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Ray, Sharmila; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Kim, Yoon Shin; Cho, Yong-Sung; Yun, Seong-Taek; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution. PMID:22645468

  2. Are soil pollution risks established by governments the same as actual risks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Though soil pollution policies in North America and the European Union increasingly use risk-based standards, the construction and application of such standards are often deficient in taking account of actual risks. Standards refer to total concentrations of substances and not to the biologically

  3. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil.

  4. Role of forestry in mitigating global soil pollution from toxic heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the challenges confronting environmental management is the pollution of land, air and water resources by toxic heavy metals.This review seeks to identify the plant species and their potentials for remediation, less cost effective methods to remediate contaminated soils, and the remediation capability of woody plants.

  5. Bioremediation of soil and water: application to chemical and nuclear pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavasseur, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Bioremediation is a branch of biotechnology that uses natural or diverted biological mechanisms to address environmental problems. The biological agents can be simple organic molecules, such as DNA or antibodies, or live or dead organisms (bacteria, microalgae, fungi, higher algae and plants). Phyto-remediation refers more specifically to using plants to decontaminate polluted soil, water, or air. Unlike organic pollutants such as PCBs1, TNT2, TCE3, which can be metabolized by soil microorganisms and plant roots, radionuclides - like most heavy metals - cannot be degraded. Thus, bioremediation strategies for radionuclides will consist into: - stabilization/mineralization to reduce their bioavailability through a change in their redox state; - for soil, their extraction using the plant nutrition mechanisms; - for polluted solutions, their extraction using the 'cation traps' properties of plant cell walls. Compared to physicochemical methods conventionally used to decontaminate soils but which lead to a sharp decline in fertility and productivity, bioremediation is considered a friendly environmental technology. An important advantage of this technique is its cost, much lower than traditional remediation techniques. By cons, bioremediation cannot be applied in an emergency, because processing times are spread over several years - even decades - depending on the degree of pollution. Therefore current research focuses on optimizing the processing time. We present in this paper several examples of in situ bioremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides, and we discuss in conclusion the negative and positive aspects of this technique. (author)

  6. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  7. Bacterial diversity in a tropical crude oil-polluted soil undergoing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial diversity in a tropical soil experimentally polluted with crude oil during a 57 days bioremediation was investigated in five 1 m2 plots using total culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria and gas chromatographic analyses. Four out of the five experimental plots received each 4 L of Bonny ...

  8. Current Status of Trace Metal Pollution in Soils Affected by Industrial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsanul Kabir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing public concern over the potential accumulation of heavy metals in soil, owing to rapid industrial development. In an effort to describe the status of the pollutions of soil by industrial activities, relevant data sets reported by many studies were surveyed and reviewed. The results of our analysis indicate that soils were polluted most significantly by metals such as lead, zinc, copper, and cadmium. If the dominant species are evaluated by the highest mean concentration observed for different industry types, the results were grouped into Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Fe, and As in smelting and metal production industries, Mn and Cd in the textile industry, and Cr in the leather industry. In most cases, metal levels in the studied areas were found to exceed the common regulation guideline levels enforced by many countries. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo, calculated to estimate the enrichment of metal concentrations in soil, showed that the level of metal pollution in most surveyed areas is significant, especially for Pb and Cd. It is thus important to keep systematic and continuous monitoring of heavy metals and their derivatives to manage and suppress such pollution.

  9. Diversity of Penicillium species isolated from heavy metal polluted soil in Guizhou Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qing-Xin, Zhou; Houbraken, J.; Li, Qi-Rui; Hyde, K.D.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Seven Penicillium strains were isolated from soil samples polluted by heavy metals in different zones of Guizhou Province, China. Phenotypic identification proved to be difficult and this data was therefore supplemented with ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and partial β-tubulin

  10. Soil pollution by oxidation of tailings from toxic spill of a pyrite mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Martin, F.; Ortiz, I.; Garcia, I.; Fernandez, J.; Fernandez, E.; Dorronsoro, C.; Aguilar, J.

    2001-01-01

    On the 25th April 1998, toxic water and tailings from a pyrite mine of Aznalcollar (southern Spain) spilled into the Agrio and Guadiamar River Basin affecting some 40 km 2 . In five sectors throughout the basin, we monitored the physical and chemical properties of the tailings as well as the degree of pollution in the soils on four different sampling dates: 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 22 July 1998. The characteristics of the tailings deposited on the soils are shown to be related to distance from the spill. The oxidation rate of the tailings and the solubilization of the pollutant elements were more pronounced in the middle and lower sectors of the basin, where the particle size was finer, the sulfur content higher and the bulk density less. The increases in water-soluble sulfates, Zn, Cd and Cu were very rapid (the highest values being reached 25 days after the spill) and intense (reaching 45% of the total Cu, 65% of the total Zn and Cd). Meanwhile, the increases in water-soluble As, Bi, Sb, Pb and Tl were far lower (ranging between 0.002% of the total Tl and 2.5% of the total As) and less rapid in the case of As, Bi and Pb (the highest values for these elements being reached 40 days after the spill). These soluble elements infiltrated the soils with the rainwater, swiftly augmenting the soil pollution. Twenty-five days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 45 and 63 mm, the first 10-cm of the soils in the middle and lower sectors of the basin exceeded the maximum concentration permitted for agricultural soils in Zn, Cu and Tl. At 40 days after the spill, when the rainfall ranged between 60 and 89 mm, all the soils reached or exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations for As and Tl. Nevertheless, the pollutants tended to concentrate in the first 10 cm of the soils without seriously contaminating either the subsoil or the groundwaters. Consequently, a rapid removal of the tailings and the ploughing of the first 25-30 cm of the soils would be urgent

  11. Source and Assessment of Metal Pollution at Khetri Copper Mine Tailings and Neighboring Soils, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punia, Anita; Siddaiah, N Siva; Singh, Saurabh K

    2017-11-01

    We present here the results of the study on metal pollution by identifying source, abundance and distribution in soil and tailings of Khetri copper complex (KCC) mines, Rajasthan India. The region is highly contaminated by copper (Cu) with higher values in the soil near overburden material (1224 mg/kg) and tailings (111 mg/kg). The average Cu (231 mg/kg) concentration of soil is ~9, 5 and 32 times higher than upper crust, world average shale (WAS) and local background soil (LS), respectively. However this reaches to ~82, 46 and 280 times higher in case of tailing when compared. The correlation and principal component analysis for soil reveals that the source of Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Mn and Fe is mining and Pb and Cd could be result of weathering of parent rocks and other anthropogenic activities. The source for Cr in soil is both mining activities and weathering of parent rocks. The values of index of geo-accumulation (I geo ) and pollution load index for soil using LS as background are higher compared to values calculated using WAS. The metal rich sulphide bearing overburden material as well as tailings present in the open environment at KCC mines region warrants a proper management to minimize their impact on the environment.

  12. Is there sufficient ‘sink’ in current bioaccessibility determinations of organic pollutants in soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.D.; Mosquera-Vazquez, M.; Gomez-Eyles, J.L.; Mayer, P.; Gouliarmou, V.; Blum, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccessibility tests can be used to improve contaminated land risk assessments. For organic pollutants a ‘sink’ is required within these tests to better mimic their desorption under the physiological conditions prevailing in the intestinal tract, where a steep diffusion gradient for the removal of organic pollutants from the soil matrix would exist. This is currently ignored in most PBET systems. By combining the CEPBET bioaccessibility test with an infinite sink, the removal of PAH from spiked solutions was monitored. Less than 10% of spiked PAH remained in the stomach media after 1 h, 10% by 4 h in the small intestine compartment and c.15% after 16 h in the colon. The addition of the infinite sink increased bioaccessibility estimates for field soils by a factor of 1.2–2.8, confirming its importance for robust PBET tests. TOC or BC were not the only factors controlling desorption of the PAH from the soils. -- Highlights: •Inclusion of a ‘contaminant trap’ significantly increases bioaccessibility estimates of PAH in contaminated soils. •The ‘contaminant trap’ operated within realistic physiological timescales. •The inclusion of a colon compartment is important as it increases bioaccessibility of the high molecular weight PAH. •Soil carbon content as TOC or BC was not the only control on the desorption of PAH from field soils. -- The inclusion of a ‘contaminant trap’ within physiologically based extraction tests significantly increases the bioaccessibility estimates of PAHs in contaminated soils

  13. Ion activity and distribution of heavy metals in acid mine drainage polluted subtropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongtao; Becquer, Thierry; Dai Jun; Quantin, Cecile; Benedetti, Marc F.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative dissolution of mine wastes gives rise to acidic, metal-enriched mine drainage (AMD) and has typically posed an additional risk to the environment. The poly-metallic mine Dabaoshan in South China is an excellent test site to understand the processes affecting the surrounding polluted agricultural fields. Our objectives were firstly to investigate metal ion activity in soil solution, distribution in solid constituents, and spatial distribution in samples, secondly to determine dominant environment factors controlling metal activity in the long-term AMD-polluted subtropical soils. Soil Column Donnan Membrane Technology (SC-DMT) combined with sequential extraction shows that unusually large proportion of the metal ions are present as free ion in the soil solutions. The narrow range of low pH values prevents any pH effects during the binding onto oxides or organic matter. The differences in speciation of the soil solutions may explain the different soil degradation observed between paddy and non-paddy soils. - First evidence of the real free metal ion concentrations in acid mine drainage context in tropical systems

  14. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20 °C vs. 25 °C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus

  15. Mercury pollution in the lake sediments and catchment soils of anthropogenically-disturbed sites across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon; Rose, Neil L

    2016-12-01

    Sediment cores and soil samples were taken from nine lakes and their catchments across England with varying degrees of direct human disturbance. Mercury (Hg) analysis demonstrated a range of impacts, many from local sources, resulting from differing historical and contemporary site usage and management. Lakes located in industrially important areas showed clear evidence for early Hg pollution with concentrations in sediments reaching 400-1600 ng g -1 prior to the mid-19th century. Control of inputs resulting from local management practices and a greater than 90% reduction in UK Hg emissions since 1970 were reflected by reduced Hg pollution in some lakes. However, having been a sink for Hg deposition for centuries, polluted catchment soils are now the major Hg source for most lakes and consequently recovery from reduced Hg deposition is being delayed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Soil and water pollution in a banana production region in tropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissen, Violette; Ramos, Franzisco Que; de J Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Díaz-González, Gilberto; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Huerta-Lwanga, Esperanza; Ruiz-Suárez, Luz E

    2010-10-01

    The effects of abundant Mancozeb (Mn, Zn-bisdithiocarbamate) applications (2.5 kg ha⁻¹week⁻¹ for 10 years) on soil and surface-, subsurface- and groundwater pollution were monitored in a banana production region of tropical Mexico. In soils, severe manganese accumulation was observed, wheras the main metabolite ethylenethiourea was near the detection limit. Surface and subsurface water was highly polluted with ethylenethiourea, the main metabolite of Mancozeb (22.5 and 4.3 μg L⁻¹, respectively), but not with manganese. In deep ground water, no ethylenethiourea was detected. The level of pollution in the region presents a worrisome risk for aquatic life and for human health.

  17. Microbial community composition and functions are resilient to metal pollution along two forest soil gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbad, Hamed; Niklińska, Maria; Laskowski, Ryszard; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili; Wen, Chongqing; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global importance of forests, it is virtually unknown how their soil microbial communities adapt at the phylogenetic and functional level to long-term metal pollution. Studying 12 sites located along two distinct gradients of metal pollution in Southern Poland revealed that functional potential and diversity (assessed using GeoChip 4.2) were highly similar across the gradients despite drastically diverging metal contamination levels. Metal pollution level did, however, significantly impact bacterial community structure (as shown by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes), but not bacterial taxon richness and community composition. Metal pollution caused changes in the relative abundance of specific bacterial taxa, including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria. Also, a group of metal-resistance genes showed significant correlations with metal concentrations in soil. Our study showed that microbial communities are resilient to metal pollution; despite differences in community structure, no clear impact of metal pollution levels on overall functional diversity was observed. While screens of phylogenetic marker genes, such as 16S rRNA genes, provide only limited insight into resilience mechanisms, analysis of specific functional genes, e.g. involved in metal resistance, appears to be a more promising strategy. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of crushed mussel shell addition on bacterial growth in acid polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Garrido-Rodríguez, B.; Arias-Estévez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We applied three different doses of crushed mussel shell (CMS) on two Cu-polluted acid soils to study the effect of these amendments on the growth of the bacterial community during 730 days. Soil pH increased in the short and medium term due to CMS addition. In a first stage, bacterial growth...... was lower in the CMS-amended than in the un-amended samples. Thereafter, bacterial growth increased slowly. The soil having the highest initial pH value (4.5) showed the first significant increase in bacterial growth 95 days after the CMS amendment. However, in the soil with the lowest initial pH value (3...... as an agronomic sound practice for strongly acid soils (pH

  19. The Effect of Long Term Mercury Pollution on the Soil Microbial Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, A.K.; Westergaard, K.; Christensen, Søren

    2001-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure to mercury on the soil microbial community was investigated in soil from three different sites along a pollution gradient. The amount of total and bioavailable mercury was negatively correlated to the distance from the center of contamination. The size...... of the bacterial and protozoan populations was reduced in the most contaminated soil, whereas there was no significant difference in fungal biomass measured as chitinase activity. Based on the number of colony morphotypes, moreover, the culturable bacterial population was structurally less diverse and contained...... of the number and abundance of bands. The functional potential of the microbial population measured as sole carbon source utilization by Ecoplates® differed between the soils, but there was no change in the number of substrates utilized. The observed changes in the different soil microbial populations...

  20. Relating Bioavailability Parameters to the Sorbent Characteristics of PAH Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolome, N.; Hilber, I.; Schulin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants (HOC) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil is still based on total concentrations. However, many studies have demonstrated that not all of a pollutant’s content in soil is equally available to organisms (Reichenberg & Mayer 2006...... to several sorbent characteristics including organic and black carbon content. The results will provide a better understanding of bioavailability of PAHs in soils. Moreover, the outcomes will be discussed regarding to the potential application of chemical proxies in soil pollution risk assessment......). Over the last decade, intensive effort has been made to incorporate bioavailability into risk assessment (Cachada et al. 2014). Here, we compare total concentrations of PAH with two bioavailability parameters in 30 different soil samples from the archive of the standardized National and Zurich Cantonal...

  1. Interrelationships of metal transfer factor under wastewater reuse and soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, D; Kalavrouziotis, I K; Koukoulakis, P H; Papadopoulos, F; Psoma, P

    2018-06-15

    The transfer of heavy metals under soil pollution wastewater reuse was studied in a Greenhouse experiment using a randomized block design, including 6 treatments of heavy metals mixtures composed of Zn, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, where each metal was taking part in the mixture with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 mg/kg respectively, in four replications. The Beta vulgaris L (beet) was used as a test plant. It was found that the metal transfer factors were statistically significantly related to the: (i) DTPA extractable soil metals, (ii) the soil pollution level as assessed by the pollution indices, (iii) the soil pH, (iv) the beet dry matter yield and (v) the interactions between the heavy metals in the soil. It was concluded that the Transfer Factor is subjected to multifactor effects and its real nature is complex, and there is a strong need for further study for the understanding of its role in metal-plant relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pollution potential of oil-contaminated soil on groundwater resources in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literathy, P.; Quinn, M.; Al-Rashed, M.

    2003-01-01

    The only natural freshwater resource of Kuwait occurs as lenses floating on the saline groundwater in the northern part of the country, near to the oil fields. Rainwater is the only means of recharge of this limited groundwater resource. This groundwater is used as bottled drinking water and the fresh groundwater aquifer is considered as a strategic drinking water reserve for Kuwait. As a result of the 1991 Gulf War, the upper soil layer has been widely contaminated with crude oil and crude oil combustion products, which are potential pollutants likely affecting the groundwater resources. Significant efforts have been made to assess this pollution. These included: (a) a soil survey for assessing the soil contamination, and (b) leaching experiments to characterise the mobilization of the soil-associated pollutants. Fluorescence measurement techniques were used during field surveys as well as for laboratory testing. In addition, determination of the total extractable matter (TEM), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and GC/MS measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were performed for the assessments. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement, having good correlation with the other laboratory measurements, was proved to provide necessary information for the assessment of the oil-contamination level in the desert soil. The subsequent leaching test with water demonstrated the mobilization of the fluorescing compounds (e.g. PAHs), and the alteration in the leaching characteristics of the contamination during the long term environmental weathering of the oil. (author)

  3. On-site investigations of hydrocarbon contaminated soil by the Pollut-Eval methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Y.; Prigent, S.; Haeseler, F.

    2005-01-01

    The Pollut-Eval method is based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis method, founded on an IFP patent that has been used for decades for oil prospecting in sedimentary basins all over the world. This equipment provides data on the quantity and the quality of organic matter in sedimentary rocks. With the increasing demand for cost effective and rapid contaminated site diagnosis, it became obvious that the field of application of the Rock-Eval technology should be enlarged to environmental problematic. The Pollut-Eval methodology was developed since 1996 and firstly qualified through the design of a laboratory version. Compared to the previous apparatus dedicated to the geochemistry, innovations allow acquisition of data for accurate quantification of complex organic pollutants and mineral carbon distribution. New methods were developed especially for the characterisation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil. Compared to kerogen analysis, the characterisation of light petroleum cuts entrapped in soil as pollutants was available by the design of an adapted refrigerated auto-sampler. The prevention of the loss of the high vapour tension pollutants couldn't be avoided for the new environmental field of applications. Site after site, the various experiments involving the 'laboratory' version of the Pollut-Eval analyser extended the application field of the methodology. The efficiency of the thermal extraction applied directly on the soil showed useful advantages compared to conventional solvent extraction techniques, especially for pollutants originating from former gas plants. The method was especially suitable for the determination of the complete carbon mass balance in the case of non-extractable organic pollutant such as coal tar or for heavy petroleum cut such as heavy fuel, vacuum distillation residue and bitumen. By the way, the Pollut-Eval method became rapidly complementary to more conventional GC quantification dedicated to complex organic pollution characterisation. By the

  4. [Evaluation and source analysis of the mercury pollution in soils and vegetables around a large-scale zinc smelting plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Shu-Xiao; Wu, Qing-Ru; Lin, Hai

    2013-02-01

    The farming soil and vegetable samples around a large-scale zinc smelter were collected for mercury content analyses, and the single pollution index method with relevant regulations was used to evaluate the pollution status of sampled soils and vegetables. The results indicated that the surface soil and vegetables were polluted with mercury to different extent. Of the soil samples, 78% exceeded the national standard. The mercury concentration in the most severely contaminated area was 29 times higher than the background concentration, reaching the severe pollution degree. The mercury concentration in all vegetable samples exceeded the standard of non-pollution vegetables. Mercury concentration, in the most severely polluted vegetables were 64.5 times of the standard, and averagely the mercury concentration in the vegetable samples was 25.4 times of the standard. For 85% of the vegetable samples, the mercury concentration, of leaves were significantly higher than that of roots, which implies that the mercury in leaves mainly came from the atmosphere. The mercury concentrations in vegetable roots were significantly correlated with that in soils, indicating the mercury in roots was mainly from soil. The mercury emissions from the zinc smelter have obvious impacts on the surrounding soils and vegetables. Key words:zinc smelting; mercury pollution; soil; vegetable; mercury content

  5. Irrigation model of bleached Kraft mill wastewater through volcanic soil as a pollutants attenuation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, R; Inostroza, X; Diez, M C; Lorber, K E

    2006-05-01

    An irrigation process through volcanic soil columns was evaluated for bleached Kraft mill effluent pollutants retention. The system was designed to remove color and phenolic compounds and a simple kinetic model for determining the global mass transfer coefficient and the adsorption rate constant was used. The results clearly indicate that the global mass transfer coefficient values (K(c)a) and the adsorption rate constants are higher for the irrigation processes onto acidified soil. This means that the pretreatment of washing the volcanic soil with an acid solution has a positive effect on the adsorption rate for both pollutant groups. The enhanced adsorption capacity is partially explained by the activation of the metal oxides present in the soil matrix during the acid washing process. Increasing the flow rate from 1.5 to 2.5 ml/min yielded higher (K(c)a) values and adsorption rate constants for both pollutant groups. For instance, regarding color adsorption onto acidified soil, there is an increment of 43% in the (K(c)a) value for the experiment with a flow rate of 2.5 ml/min. Increasing the porosity of the column from 0.55 to 0.59, yielded a decrease in the (K(c)a) values for color and phenolic compounds adsorption processes. Onto natural soil for example, these decreases reached 21% and 24%, respectively. Therefore, the (K(c)a) value is dependent on both the liquid-phase velocity (external resistance) and the soil fraction in the column (internal resistance); making forced convection and diffusion to be the main transport mechanisms involved in the adsorption process. Analyzing the adsorption rate constants (K(c)a)/m, phenolic compounds and color adsorption rates onto acidified soil of 2.25 x 10(-6) and 2.62 x 10(-6) l/mg min were achieved for experiment 1. These adsorption rates are comparable with other adsorption systems and adsorbent materials.

  6. Decontamination of soils polluted with heavy metals using plants as determined by nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfy, S.M

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this work were three folds. First, to study the mobility and fate of heavy metals in two polluted sites (Mostorud soil, irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years and El-Gabal EL-Asfar soil, subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 50 years) utilizing a modified tessier's sequential extraction procedure to evaluate the effect of total metal concentrations on metal partitioning into different fractions. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of some plant species (sunflower, cotton, penakium, Napier grass, and Squash) to extract heavy metals out of polluted soils. Third, to enhance the phyto-extraction of heavy metals by sunflower plant using some chemical chelators (citric acids, EDTA, and Ammonium nitrate) in order to improve the remediation of pollutants as well as to protect soil quality.It was observed that the distribution of heavy metals in various chemical fractions depends on the total heavy metals content. The distribution of heavy metals forms in the studied soils was in the following decreasing order: residual > Fe-Mn oxides > carbonates > organic > exchangeable > water soluble.Either higher metal accumulation in shoots or enhanced metal accumulation in roots was mainly due to improved phyto-extraction or rhizo-filtration efficiency, respectively. Heavy metals accumulation in shoots and roots of the investigated plant species was as follow: sunflower > cotton > penakium > Napier grass > Squash with a lower order of magnitude. Sunflower showed superiority for heavy metals extraction.Application of chemical chelators (soil amendments) enhanced the phyto-extraction efficiency of heavy metals by sunflower in both Mostorud and El-Gabal El-Asfar soils. Citric acid enhanced metals accumulation in shoots and roots more than EDTA and ammonium nitrate. Citric acid with rate of 20 m mole/kg soil was the best chelators to enhance phyto- extraction of heavy metals by sunflower.

  7. Application of Monte-Carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M.; Valibeyova, G.; Jafarov, Y.D.; Musaeva, Sh.Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capacities of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution upon corresponding sizes of exposition doses capacities. This procedure repeats for many times using computer and results of each round of calculations create universal density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities. The analysis using Monte Carlo method can be carried out at the level of radiation polluted soil categories. The analysis by Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainty in reports. Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report. Relative uncertainty of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of a confidential interval are asymmetric. It is important to determine key categories of radiation polluted soil to establish priorities to use reports of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources. Usage of the notion u ncertainty i n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it is necessary, for exact reflection of 90 percent uncertainty in reports. According to radiation safety norms level of radiation background exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous. By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of

  8. Application of Monte-Carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmudov, H M; Valibeyova, G; Jafarov, Y D; Musaeva, Sh Z [Institute of Radiation Problems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2006-11-15

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capacities of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution upon corresponding sizes of exposition doses capacities. This procedure repeats for many times using computer and results of each round of calculations create universal density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities. The analysis using Monte Carlo method can be carried out at the level of radiation polluted soil categories. The analysis by Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainty in reports. Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report. Relative uncertainty of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of a confidential interval are asymmetric. It is important to determine key categories of radiation polluted soil to establish priorities to use reports of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources. Usage of the notion {sup u}ncertainty{sup i}n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it is necessary, for exact reflection of 90 percent uncertainty in reports. According to radiation safety norms level of radiation background exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous. By calted Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of

  9. The harm of petroleum-polluted soil and its remediation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuguang; Xu, Yan; Lin, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Jishi; Norbu, Namkha; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Land resources are the foundation of human's survival and development, and it's one of the most valuable natural resources of each country. In view of the serious problems of petroleum pollution to soil caused during the exploration and development processes, this article based on a large number of literature researches, firstly discussed the compositions and properties of petroleum contaminants, secondly investigated some restoration methods for the current situation of petroleum polluted soil, compared and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of three kinds of bioremediation technologies. Finally, according to the deficiencies of previous research and existing problems, made an outlook of the physical and chemical remediation, bioremediation, and microbe-plant remediation, to provide some enlightenments for petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

  10. Mechanisms of pollution induced community tolerance in a soil microbial community exposed to Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, Steven; Gerard, Emily; Black, Amanda; Hamonts, Kelly; Condron, Leo; Yuan, Tong; Nostrand, Joy van; Zhou, Jizhong; O'Callaghan, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu 2+ , and co-tolerance to nanoparticulate Cu, ionic silver (Ag + ), and vancomycin were measured in field soils treated with Cu 2+ 15 years previously. EC 50 values were determined using substrate induced respiration and correlations made against soil physicochemical properties, microbial community structure, physiological status (qCO 2 ; metabolic quotient), and abundances of genes associated with metal and antibiotic resistance. Previous level of exposure to copper was directly (P  2+ , and also of nanoparticle Cu. However, Cu-exposed communities had no co-tolerance to Ag + and had increased susceptibly to vancomycin. Increased tolerance to both Cu correlated (P  + or vancomycin. • Tolerance not due to shifts in community composition or resistance genes. - Pollution induced community tolerance to Cu was linked with increased metabolic quotient but not changes in community composition or abundance of metal resistance genes in a field soil

  11. Feasibility of phytoremediation for common soil and groundwater pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard

    During the past two to three decades numerous studies reporting highly efficient remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater by plants have been published. The promises of phytoremediation has been great but till now the technology has not been widely applied and recognized, commercially...... and in a regulatory context, on par with other conventional soil and groundwater remediation technologies. This thesis elucidates the field of phytoremediation and addresses the lack of recognition of the technology. It aims to assesses the overall feasibility of phytoremediation and identify obstacles within...... the field. Further, it provides examples and suggestions of how to overcome these obstacles. The first part of the thesis scrutinizes the literature for data and experiences regarding application of phytoremediation and uncovers potential barriers and where the existing knowledge is insufficient. Further...

  12. Heavy Metal Pollution of Surface Soil in Thrace Region (Turkey)

    CERN Document Server

    Cocskun, M; Frontasyeva, M V; Munevver, C; Eidhammer Sjobakk, T; Demkina, S V

    2004-01-01

    Samples of surface soil were collected at 73 sites in the Thrace region, northwest part of Turkey. Two complementary analytical techniques, epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with flame and graphite furnace atomization were used to determine 37 elements in the soil samples. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Co, Pb, and As were determined using AAS and GF AAS and ENAA was used for the remaining 29 elements. Results for As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, I, In, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, and V are reported for the first time for soils from this region. The results show that concentrations of the most elements were little affected by the industrial and other anthropogenic activities performed in the region. Except for distinctly higher levels of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn in Istanbul district than the median values for the Thrace region, the observed distributions seem to be mainly associated with lithogenic variations. S...

  13. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  14. Rapid identification of soil cadmium pollution risk at regional scale based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tao; Chang, Qingrui; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution due to long-term sewage irrigation is a serious environmental problem in many irrigation areas in northern China. Quickly identifying its pollution status is an important basis for remediation. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) provides a useful tool. In a case study, 76 soil samples were collected and their reflectance spectra were used to estimate cadmium (Cd) concentration by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN). To reduce noise, six pre-treatments were compared, in which orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was first used in soil Cd estimation. Spectral analysis and geostatistics were combined to identify Cd pollution hotspots. Results showed that Cd was accumulated in topsoil at the study area. OSC can effectively remove irrelevant information to improve prediction accuracy. More accurate estimation was achieved by applying a BPNN. Soil Cd pollution hotspots could be identified by interpolating the predicted values obtained from spectral estimates. - Highlights: • Soil reflectance spectroscopy provides a promising tool for detecting soil contaminants. • Orthogonal signal correction efficiently extracted information from noisy spectra. • Back propagation neural network achieved a more accurate estimation for soil Cd. • Soil Cd pollution hotspots could be identified by interpolating the predicted Cd. - Combining spectral analysis and geostatistics can provide a rapid method for identifying the pollution hotspot of soil heavy metal at regional scale.

  15. [Distribution characteristic and assessment of soil heavy metal pollution in the iron mining of Baotou in Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ren-Xin; Zhang, Jun; Bao, Yu-Ying; Wang, Hong; Yang, Ming; Sun, Xiao-Li; Jin, Fan

    2011-10-01

    The pollution status and total concentration of soil heavy metals were analyzed around tailing reservoir of Baotou and iron mining of Bayan Obo located in Inner Mongolia grassland ecosystem. Aim of the study is to control soil heavy metal pollution of grassland mining area and provide the basic information. The results indicated that the soils from different directions of the tailing reservoir were contaminated by Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn. According to the single factor pollution index, the pollution degree was Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu. According to Nemerow integrated pollution index, the indexes of the northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest of the tailing reservoir, were 2.43, 10.2, 1.88, 1.64. Soils from the southeast had the most serious heavy metal contamination because of the dominant wind of northwest. Within 50 m from the edge of tailing reservoir, heavy metal contamination was most serious except Cu. With regard to Bayan Obo iron mining, the single factor pollution index indicated that the soils from the six surveyed regions were contaminated by Pb, Cu, Zn and Mn. The integrated pollution index indicated that the indexes of the six regions, such as the mining area, the dump, outside the dump, outside the urban area, east region of the railway, and west region of the railway, were 14.3, 4.30, 2.69, 3.41, 2.88, and 2.20, respectively. The soil pollution degree of the mining area was the highest. Additionally, the transport of ore resulted in soil heavy metal pollution along railway. In general, soils of the two studied areas had the similar pollution characteristic, and the elements of heavy metal contamination were corresponding with the concentrations of tailings. The health and stabilization of grassland ecosystem are being threatened by soil heavy metals.

  16. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  17. Ecotoxicological assessment of soils of former manufactured gas plant sites: Bioremediation potential and pollutant mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeseler, F.; Blanchet, D.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Analytically well-characterized soils from four different former manufactured gas plants (MGP) sites contaminated by coal tars were used in tests of extensive biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in stirred reactors. In all cases, the extent of biodegradation was limited to 80--100% for 2- and 3-ring PAHs, 40--70% for 4-ring PAHs, and below 20% for 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The capacities to transfer pollutants to water were compared for leachates from soils that had or had not undergone biological treatment. Leachate analysis involved determination of PAHs and bacterial tests of acute toxicity (Microtox) and genotoxicity (SOS Chromotest). For some untreated soils, PAH leaching was observed, and positive responses to the Microtox test were well correlated to the concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene. Biologically treated soils had lost all capacities for leaching as concluded from PAH determinations and responses to the Microtox test. All soil leachates were devoid of genotoxic effect, in accordance with the low concentrations observed of mutagenic PAHs. The results of this risk-based approach for assessment of MGP soils showed that pollutants remaining after biological treatment were unavailable for further biodegradation and that the extent of leaching had been reduced to the level that it did not represent a significant threat to groundwater

  18. Electrokinetic enhancement of phenanthrene biodegradation in creosote-polluted clay soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niqui-Arroyo, Jose-Luis; Bueno-Montes, Marisa; Posada-Baquero, Rosa; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio

    2006-01-01

    Given the difficulties caused by low-permeable soils in bioremediation, a new electrokinetic technology is proposed, based on laboratory results with phenanthrene, to afford bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in clay soils. Microbial activity in a clay soil historically polluted with creosote was promoted using a specially designed electrokinetic cell with a permanent anode-to-cathode flow and controlled pH. The rates of phenanthrene losses during treatment were tenfold higher in soil treated with an electric field than in the control cells without current or microbial activity. Results from experiments with Tenax-assisted desorption and mineralization of 14 C-labeled phenanthrene indicated that phenanthrene biodegradation was limited by mass-transfer of the chemical. We suggest that the enhancement effect of the applied electric field on phenanthrene biodegradation resulted from mobilization of the PAH and nutrients dissolved in the soil fluids. - Electrokinetic bioremediation is a potentially effective technology to treat PAH-polluted, clay-rich soils

  19. The analysis of soil cores polluted with certain metals using the Box-Cox transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloun, Milan; Sanka, Milan; Nemec, Pavel; Kritkova, Sona; Kupka, Karel

    2005-01-01

    To define the soil properties for a given area or country including the level of pollution, soil survey and inventory programs are essential tools. Soil data transformations enable the expression of the original data on a new scale, more suitable for data analysis. In the computer-aided interactive analysis of large data files of soil characteristics containing outliers, the diagnostic plots of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) often find that the sample distribution is systematically skewed or reject sample homogeneity. Under such circumstances the original data should be transformed. The Box-Cox transformation improves sample symmetry and stabilizes spread. The logarithmic plot of a profile likelihood function enables the optimum transformation parameter to be found. Here, a proposed procedure for data transformation in univariate data analysis is illustrated on a determination of cadmium content in the plough zone of agricultural soils. A typical soil pollution survey concerns the determination of the elements Be (16 544 values available), Cd (40 317 values), Co (22 176 values), Cr (40 318 values), Hg (32 344 values), Ni (34 989 values), Pb (40 344 values), V (20 373 values) and Zn (36 123 values) in large samples. - A new procedure of statistical analysis, with exploratory data diagnostics and Box-Cox transformation was used

  20. The analysis of soil cores polluted with certain metals using the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloun, Milan; Sánka, Milan; Nemec, Pavel; Krítková, Sona; Kupka, Karel

    2005-09-01

    To define the soil properties for a given area or country including the level of pollution, soil survey and inventory programs are essential tools. Soil data transformations enable the expression of the original data on a new scale, more suitable for data analysis. In the computer-aided interactive analysis of large data files of soil characteristics containing outliers, the diagnostic plots of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) often find that the sample distribution is systematically skewed or reject sample homogeneity. Under such circumstances the original data should be transformed. The Box-Cox transformation improves sample symmetry and stabilizes spread. The logarithmic plot of a profile likelihood function enables the optimum transformation parameter to be found. Here, a proposed procedure for data transformation in univariate data analysis is illustrated on a determination of cadmium content in the plough zone of agricultural soils. A typical soil pollution survey concerns the determination of the elements Be (16 544 values available), Cd (40 317 values), Co (22 176 values), Cr (40 318 values), Hg (32 344 values), Ni (34 989 values), Pb (40 344 values), V (20 373 values) and Zn (36 123 values) in large samples.

  1. Enrichment of degrading microbes and bioremediation of petrochemical contaminants in polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G.; Huang, W.; Zhang, X.; Lerner, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    Soil at a site near Zibo City, China, is polluted with hydrocarbons at concentrations up to 200 g kg -1 dry soil. Samples contained 10 7 microbial cells g -1 dry soil, and the concentration of aerobic degradation bacteria is 10 7 cells g -1 dry soil. The most active species were Xanthomonas, Bacillus and Hyphomicrobium. The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the polluted soil are typically 0.1 %, and are sufficient to sustain natural or enhanced biodegradation. The BAC (Biological Activated Carbon) system was used to enrich indigenous microbes to enhance bioremediation rates in the laboratory. The BAC used the large surface area and sorption characteristics to fix bacteria and media, and effectively culture and enrich the microbes. Effluent from the BAC system contained up to 4 x 10 11 cells ml -1 , and was introduced to the contaminated soil to enhance biodegradation. The results indicated that the natural biodegradation rate of the petroleum hydrocarbons is lower than the BAC enhanced bioremediation rate, 1.7% as opposed to 42% in 32 days. (Author)

  2. Antibiotic resistance marker genes as environmental pollutants in GMO-pristine agricultural soils in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woegerbauer, Markus; Zeinzinger, Josef; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Pascher, Kathrin; Hufnagl, Peter; Indra, Alexander; Fuchs, Reinhard; Hofrichter, Johannes; Kopacka, Ian; Korschineck, Irina; Schleicher, Corina; Schwarz, Michael; Steinwider, Johann; Springer, Burkhard; Allerberger, Franz; Nielsen, Kaare M; Fuchs, Klemens

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes may be considered as environmental pollutants if anthropogenic emission and manipulations increase their prevalence above usually occurring background levels. The prevalence of aph(3')-IIa/nptII and aph(3')-IIIa/nptIII - frequent marker genes in plant biotechnology conferring resistance to certain aminoglycosides - was determined in Austrian soils from 100 maize and potato fields not yet exposed to but eligible for GMO crop cultivation. Total soil DNA extracts were analysed by nptII/nptIII-specific TaqMan real time PCR. Of all fields 6% were positive for nptII (median: 150 copies/g soil; range: 31-856) and 85% for nptIII (1190 copies/g soil; 13-61600). The copy-number deduced prevalence of nptIII carriers was 14-fold higher compared to nptII. Of the cultivable kanamycin-resistant soil bacteria 1.8% (95% confidence interval: 0-3.3%) were positive for nptIII, none for nptII (0-0.8%). The nptII-load of the studied soils was low rendering nptII a typical candidate as environmental pollutant upon anthropogenic release into these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The analysis of soil cores polluted with certain metals using the Box-Cox transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloun, Milan [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, CZ532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: milan.meloun@upce.cz; Sanka, Milan [Central Institute for Supervisiting and Testing in Agriculture Division of Agrochemistry, Soil and Plant Nutrition, Hroznova 2, CZ656 06 Brno - Pisarky (Czech Republic); Nemec, Pavel [Central Institute for Supervisiting and Testing in Agriculture Division of Agrochemistry, Soil and Plant Nutrition, Hroznova 2, CZ656 06 Brno - Pisarky (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: pavel.nemec@ukzuz.cz; Kritkova, Sona [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Pardubice, CZ532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Kupka, Karel [Trilobyte Statistical Software Ltd., CZ530 02 Pardubice (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: kupka@trilobyte.cz

    2005-09-15

    To define the soil properties for a given area or country including the level of pollution, soil survey and inventory programs are essential tools. Soil data transformations enable the expression of the original data on a new scale, more suitable for data analysis. In the computer-aided interactive analysis of large data files of soil characteristics containing outliers, the diagnostic plots of the exploratory data analysis (EDA) often find that the sample distribution is systematically skewed or reject sample homogeneity. Under such circumstances the original data should be transformed. The Box-Cox transformation improves sample symmetry and stabilizes spread. The logarithmic plot of a profile likelihood function enables the optimum transformation parameter to be found. Here, a proposed procedure for data transformation in univariate data analysis is illustrated on a determination of cadmium content in the plough zone of agricultural soils. A typical soil pollution survey concerns the determination of the elements Be (16 544 values available), Cd (40 317 values), Co (22 176 values), Cr (40 318 values), Hg (32 344 values), Ni (34 989 values), Pb (40 344 values), V (20 373 values) and Zn (36 123 values) in large samples. - A new procedure of statistical analysis, with exploratory data diagnostics and Box-Cox transformation was used.

  4. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  5. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida were performed to assess toxicity of the soils, using survival, reproduction and growth as the endpoints. Metal bioaccumulation in the animals was also measured. The properties and metal concentrations of the soils strongly differed. Metal bioaccumulation was related with total metal concentrations in soil and was highest in E. crypticus, which was more sensitive than E. andrei and F. candida. Responses of the three species to the investigated soils seemed due to both metal contamination and soil properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-hui; Zhou, Chang-hai; Zang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-qiang; Chen, Ying-dan

    2014-06-01

    To understand the status of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodiasis, so as to provide the evidence for making countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Ten households were selected from each of the 22 national monitoring spots annually according to the National Surveillance Program of Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (Trial), and the soil samples from vegetable gardens, toilet periphery, courtyards and kitchens were collected and examined by using the modified floatation test with saturated sodium nitrate. Fertilized or unfertilized eggs as well as live or dead fertilized eggs were discriminated and identified. In addition, a SWOT analysis of monitoring of Ascaris eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%, and the detection rates of fertilized, unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%, 26.42% and 20.28%, respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden, toilet periphery, courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%, 13.49%, 14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages, and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots, and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool, improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  7. Integral biostimulation of soil polluted by 60000 ppm of motor waste oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Martínez Blanca Celeste

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste motor oil (WMO is a mixture of hydrocarbons (HICO soil pollutants. An alternative solution for its elimination is the biostimulation (BIS, secuancial, complementary and accumulative or integral which requires at first BIS by detergents to emulsify WMO, the second one following by enrichment by mineral solution, H2O2 as a O2 source for oxidation of WMO and controlling moisture soil content at 80% field capacity for exchange gases in soil to stimulate WMO mineralization The aim of the work was: i analyze in the integral BIS of contaminated soil by 60000 ppm of WMO. The first BIS was applying detergents to emulsify the WMO, the second BIS by mineral solution, then by H2O2, under humidity control at 80% of field capacity, for the best oxidation of WMO. Additionally bacterial population oxidant WMO was meas-ured, to select those which synthetized detergent related to WMO degradation, finally the type of bacteria were molecular identify. Results showed than integral BIS by an anionic / nonionic detergent, then en-richment with mineral solution, and 0.5% H2O2, reduced WMO from 60000 ppm to 27200 ppm in 23 days. Density of bacterial WMO oxidant population was 268 X 106 CFU/g dry soil, from which the domi-nant ones were selected and identified 47 bacterial genera divided into: Actinomycetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. These results showed that soil pollution by high concentration level of WMO demanded at integrated BIS, also was found some bacterial genus which synthetized detergent with potential used in soil polluted by WMO.

  8. [Heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk analysis for soil in Phyllostachys praecox stands of Lin'an].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-bo; Shi, Han; Liao, Xin-feng; Lou, Zhong; Zhou, Lyu-yan; Yu, Hai-xia; Yao, Lin; Sun, Li-ping

    2015-06-01

    An investigation was carried out in an attempt to reveal the characteristics of heavy metals contamination in the soils of Phyllostachys praecox forest in Lin' an. Based on the concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in 160 topsoil samples, the pollution status and ecological risks of heavy metals in the soils were assessed by single factor pollution index, Nemerow integrated pollution index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. The spatial variability of heavy metal concentrations in the soils closely related to the distribution of traffic, industrial and livestock pollution sources. The average concentrations of Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in the soils were 0.16, 7.41, 34.36, 87.98, 103.98, 0.26, 59.12, 29.56, 11.44 and 350.26 mg · kg(-1), respectively. Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations were as 2.89, 1.70, 1.12 and 1.12 times as the background values of soil in Zhejiang Province, respectively. But their concentrations were all lower than the threshold values of the National Environmental Quality Standard for Soil (GB 15618-1995). The average single factor pollution index revealed that the level of heavy metal pollution in the soils was in order of Pb>Cd>Cu= Zn>Hg>As>Ni>Co>Cr>Mn. Pb pollution was of moderate level while Cd, Cu and Zn pollutions were slight. There was no soil pollution caused by the other heavy metals. However, the Nemerow integrated pollution index showed that all the 160 soil samples were contaminated by heavy metals to a certain extent. Among total 160 soil samples, slight pollution level, moderate pollution level and heavy pollution level accounted for 55.6%, 29.4% and 15.0%, respectively. The average single factor potential ecological risk index (Er(i)) implied that the potential ecological risk related to Cd reached moderate level, while the others were of slight level. Furthermore, Cd and Hg showed higher potential ecological risk indices which reached up to 256.82 and 187.33 respectively

  9. The impact of environmental Pollution on soil and climate change, and how to deal with.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaadan, M. Ihsan

    2010-05-01

    introduction: Every person on Earth contributes to the state of our planet, because we all use natural resources and produce waste materials. The more people there are, the more damage they do through pollution. results: Pollution can kill or sicken plants, animals, and people. Pollution can change the environment. Pollution can get into the air. Pollution can also get into soil and water. From there, pollutants can get into the food chain. methods: Laws can stop factories from dumping poisonous chemicals in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. Engineers can build cars that burn less gasoline. Scientists are looking for fuels to replace coal and oil. They are looking for ways to use the power in wind and in rays from the Sun. We can help cut down on the amount of garbage we make. We can recycle paper, plastic, glass bottles, and metal cans. Recycled material gets used over again. Recycling helps cut down on pollution. Discussion: Humans are very inventive and intelligent, as well as very destructive and careless. If we understand that our environment is fragile, then we can all help to save it, and the precious and life-giving resources that it provides.

  10. Distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in Arctic soil profiles polluted by heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhakainen, M.; Heikkinen, T.; Steinnes, E.; Thorring, H.; Outola, I.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of industrial pollution on the behaviour of radionuclides in spruce forest ecosystems were studied along a gradient from of a copper-nickel smelter in Monchegorsk, NW Russia. A reference site was situated in Lapland, Finland, 152 km west of Monchegorsk. Most of the total 137 Cs activity in soil was in mineral (E and B) horizons, except at the reference site where the major part was still in the organic surface layer. Most of the total 90 Sr activity still remaining in the soil profile was found in the surface layer, but the relative amount decreased with increasing level of industrial pollution. Pollutants from the smelter clearly affected the chemical speciation of radionuclides. Smaller amounts of exchangeable radionuclides were present in the organic surface layer at the most polluted sites. The decline of 137 Cs with decreasing distance from the smelter correlated strongly with a similar depletion in exchangeable K and Mg. Total concentrations of 137 Cs and 90 Sr showed high correlations with exchangeable cations, particularly in the E and upper B horizon. A sudden change in behaviour of 137 Cs in the lower B horizon may be associated with changes in clay mineralogy along the soil profile caused by weathering

  11. Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Moraleda-Cibrián, Núria; Cartró-Sabaté, Mar; Colomer-Ventura, Ferran; Mayor, Pedro; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2018-01-01

    Oil has been extracted from the Northern Peruvian Amazon for over four decades. However, few scientific studies have assessed the impacts of such activities in the environment and health of indigenous communities in the region. We have investigated the occurrence of petrogenic hydrocarbon pollution in soils and sediments from areas favoured as hunting or fishing grounds by local indigenous inhabitants. The study was conducted in one of the most productive oil blocks in Peru, located in the headwaters of the Amazon river. Soils and river sediments, in the vicinity of oil extraction and processing infrastructure, contained an oil pollution signature as attested by the occurrence of hopanes and steranes. Given the lack of any other significant source of oil pollution in the region, the sources of hydrocarbons are likely to be the activities of the oil industry in the oil block, from voluntary discharges or accidental spills. Spillage of produced water was commonplace until 2009. Moreover, petrogenic compounds were absent in control samples in sites far removed from any oil infrastructure in the oil block. Our findings suggest that wildlife and indigenous populations in this region of the Amazon are exposed to the ingestion of oil polluted soils and sediments. The data obtained supports previous claims that the local spillage of oil and produced waters in the water courses in the Corrientes and Pastaza basins could have eventually reached the main water course of the Amazon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution effect on soil biological activity in the anthropogenic contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Antonenko, Elena; Salamova, Anzhelika; Gimp, Alina; Deryabkina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most significant environmental contaminants with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties to all living organisms. The changes in microbial community structure in technogenic polluted soil may be used as tools for predicting and monitoring natural degradation and for search the most effective and appropriate pathways of bioremediation. The present study is aimed to research the biological activity of the soil in the emission zone of Novocherkassk Power station (NPs) (Russia) polluted by PAHs in 2015. The NPs is one of the largest thermal power stations in the south of Russia burning low-quality coal appurtenant the enterprises of I hazardous class. Monitoring plots were located on virgin or no-till fallow areas and not subject to the sanitary-protection zone of the NPs. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 0- to 20-cm, because the major part of PAHs are accumulated in the surface soil layer. The soils of the plots mainly include Chernozems Calcic (plots 1, 4, 5, 7, 9 and 10), Phaeozems Haplic (plots 3, 6, 8 and 11) Fluvisols Umbric (plots 2 and 12). In the soil of 12 monitoring plots located around NPs there were determined the main enzymes, abundance of soil bacteria and 17 priority PAHs. PAHs extraction from soil was performed by new developed ecologically clean method of subcritical water extraction without organic solvents (Sushkova et al., 2015). The level of PAHs around NPs is high at the nearest to factory monitoring plots situated at distance 1,0-1,2 km and reaches from 1600,1±14,7 up to 373,6±7,1 mkg/kg in the 20-cm soil layer. Gradually decrease of PAHs contamination is observed while increasing the distance from the NPs. The level of highmolecular PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings) exceeds the level of lowmolecular (2-3 aromatic rings) PAHs in all monitoring plots situated though the prevailing wind direction from NPs. The close correlations were found between PAHs content and biological activity parameters

  13. Mobility of pollutants in the soil-water-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Algader, S.; Gottwald, B.; Schaffer, K.; Mueck, K.; Streit, S.; Urbanich, E.

    1995-01-01

    The present report describes the first results obtained from lysimeter experiments started in 1990. The lysimeter plant consists of twelf soil monoliths from four different sites (three replicates each). Since 1990 the following agricultural crops were grown: endive, corn, winterwheat, mustard, sugar beet and potato. The mean yields of corn and sugar beet were distinctly above average. Gravitational water ranged from 3.9 % to 18.3 % of precipitation plus irrigation water, calculated as half years average values excluding the first six months of operation. The two brown earths on sediments exhibited a mean percentage of app. 10 %. The brown earth on silicate rock and the gleysol showed average values of 20 %. In 1990 the top layers (20 cm) were contaminated with three radionuclides. The leaching of the artificial contaminants 60 Co, 137 Cs and 226 Ra differed distinctly between the elements. The lowest leaching rates were observed for 137 Cs, followed by 60 Co. The 226 Ra-concentrations in the gravitational water were clearly higher than that of the other nuclides. However, it has to be proved, if the measured radium originates from the contaminated top layers or comes from natural 226 Ra from the bottom layer of the soil profile. (author)

  14. Heavy metal pollution in surface soils of Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinmei, Bai; Xueping, Liu

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is an increasing environmental problem in Chinese regions undergoing rapid economic and industrial development, such as the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. We determined heavy metal concentrations in surface soils from the PRD. The soils were polluted with heavy metals, as defined by the Chinese soil quality standard grade II criteria. The degree of pollution decreased in the order Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn > As > Cr > Hg > Pb. The degree of heavy metal pollution by land use decreased in the order waste treatment plants (WP) > urban land (UL) > manufacturing industries (MI) > agricultural land (AL) > woodland (WL) > water sources (WS). Pollution with some of the metals, including Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, was attributed to the recent rapid development of the electronics and electroplating industries. Cd, Hg, and Pb (especially Cd) pose high potential ecological risks in all of the zones studied. The soils posing significantly high and high potential ecological risks from Cd covered 73.3 % of UL, 50 % of MI and WP land, and 48.5 % of AL. The potential ecological risks from heavy metals by land use decreased in the order UL > MI > AL > WP > WL > WS. The control of Cd, Hg, and Pb should be prioritized in the PRD, and emissions in wastewater, residue, and gas discharges from the electronics and electroplating industry should be decreased urgently. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides should also be decreased.

  15. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  16. Remediation of electronic waste polluted soil using a combination of persulfate oxidation and chemical washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Luo, Zhanbin; Liu, Gangjun; Yang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shaoliang; Ma, Jing

    2017-12-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of a simultaneous chemical extraction and oxidation for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals from an actual soil polluted by the recycling activity of electronic waste. Various chemicals, including hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), citric acid (CA) and sodium persulfate (SP) were applied synchronously with Fe 2+ activated oxidation to enhance the co-removal of both types of pollutants. It is found that the addition of HPCD can enhance POPs removal through solubilization of POPs and iron chelation; while the CA-chelated Fe 2+ activation process is effective for extracting metals and degrading residual POPs. Under the optimized reagent conditions, 69.4% Cu, 78.1% Pb, 74.6% Ni, 97.1% polychlorinated biphenyls, 93.8% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 96.4% polybrominated diphenylethers were removed after the sequential application of SP-HPCD-Fe 2+ and SP-CA-Fe 2+ processes with a duration of 180 and 240 min, respectively. A high dehalogenation efficiency (84.8% bromine and 86.2% chlorine) is observed, suggesting the low accumulation of halogen-containing organic intermediates. The remediated soil can satisfy the national soil quality standard of China. Collectively, co-contaminated soil can be remediated with reasonable time and capital costs through simultaneous application of persulfate oxidation and chemical extraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Risk Assessment in Shenyang Industrial District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  18. Assessment of Metal Pollution in Soils from urban area: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Garcia, S.; Gelen, A.; Diaz Rizo, O.; D'Alessandro, K.; Saborit Sanchez, I.

    2015-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) were determined by X-ray fluorescence in the top-soils (0-10 cm) from backyard of housing near to factory. In this housing lives a person that suffers of health problems which can be related with intoxication by heavy metals. The mean Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in the topsoil samples (4.3 ± 2.6; 32.2 ± 5.2; 86.3 ± 50; 451 ± 102; 162 ± 60 mg/kg -1 , respectively) were compared with mean concentrations for other cities around the world. The comparison with Dutch soil quality guidelines showed a median pollution with Co, Zn and Pb; however, other index: Integrated pollution index, Enrichment index and Enrichment factor showed soils are severely enriched with Pb and two stations are highly polluted and the enrichment index values shows that metal concentrations on the studied locations are above the permissible levels for urban agriculture. It is corroborated that the intoxication for heavy metals is one of the possible causes of the illness. It is recommended to make a deeper study of the soils around the factory. (Author)

  19. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  20. Decontamination of Heavy Metals in Polluted Soil by Phytoremediation Using Bryophyllum Pinnatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwumemgbo P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is the use of specially selected or engineered living green plants for in situ risk reduction and/or removal of pollutants from contaminated media. This process is one of the most rapidly developing components of environmentally friendly (green and cost-effective technology to abate environmental pollution. The risk reduction could be through the process of removal, degradation, containment of a contaminant or a combination of any of these factors. Bryophyllum pinnatum a herbally-accepted plant in some parts of the world was cultivated in ten different plastic buckets containing heavy metal polluted soil and nurtured for 20 months. The plants were left in ambient conditions and watered periodically. After the first 2 weeks, the plant and soil samples were collected and analysed for total concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb V and Zn. Subsequently, the plant and soil samples were collected monthly and analysed for the total concentrations of these heavy metals, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Maximum extracted heavy metals from soil by plant were Cd (3.12±1.03 mg/kg, Cr (32.48±3.21 mg/kg, Cu (81.01±2.3 mg/kg Ni (11.91±2.32 mg/kg, Pb (399.90 ±4.32 mg/kg V (5.81±0.08 mg/kg and Zn (150.51± 0.33 and this occurred in the 4th month of study. This study confirms B. pinnatum as one of the plants that could be employed in phytoremediation of soil polluted by heavy metals.

  1. Influence of climate change on the multi-generation toxicity to Enchytraeus crypticus of soils polluted by metal/metalloid mining wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barmentlo, S.H.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Alvarez-Rogel, J.; Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of increased air temperature and reduced soil moisture content on the multi-generation toxicity of a soil polluted by metal/metalloid mining wastes. Enchytraeus crypticus was exposed to dilution series of the polluted soil in Lufa 2.2 soil under different

  2. Elemental composition of Tibetan Plateau top soils and its effect on evaluating atmospheric pollution transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaoliu; Kang Shichang; Zhang Qianggong

    2009-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is an ideal place for monitoring the atmospheric environment of low to mid latitudes. In total 54 soil samples from the western TP were analyzed for major and trace elements. Results indicate that concentrations of some typical 'pollution' elements (such as As) are naturally high here, which may cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements, especially when upper continental crust values are used to calculate enrichment factors. Because only particles <20 μm are transportable as long distances, elemental concentrations of this fraction of the TP soils are more reliable for the future aerosol related studies over the TP. In addition, REE compositions of the TP soils are unusual, highly characteristic and can be used as an effective index for identifying dust aerosol from the TP. - High concentrations of some elements of the Tibetan soils can cause incorrect evaluation for the source region of these elements during aerosol related study.

  3. Simultaneous cleanup of soil polluted with crude oil and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groudeva, V.; Doycheva, A.; Groudev, S.

    2005-01-01

    Some soils in a site located in the Northwestern part of Bulgaria were heavily polluted with crude oil and some heavy metals (copper, zinc, cadmium, lead). The oil was light, with a specific gravity of about 0.8 g/cm 3 , rich in paraffins and with a very low content of asphaltene-resinous substances. The heavy metals were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals but products from the oxidation of sulphides were also present. The oil and the above-mentioned heavy metals were present mainly in the upper soil layers (mainly in the horizon A). Preliminary laboratory experiments in reactors and lysimeters revealed that it was possible to remove most of the contaminants in the soil by using the activity of the indigenous soil microflora. This activity was enhanced by suitable changes in the levels of some essential environmental factors such as pH and water, oxygen and nutrient contents of the soil. It was also found that the inoculation of the soil with active oil-degrading and metal-solubilizing microorganisms caused a considerable positive effect on the soil clean up. A pilot-scale operation for a simultaneous biological removal of the oil and heavy metals from the soil was carried out using the heap technique. Some data about this pilot-scale operation are presented in this paper. At the end of the treatment, the contents of pollutants in the soil were decreased below the permissible levels for soil of such type. At the same time, the chemical composition, structure and main physical and water properties of the soil were altered to a small extent, regardless of the fact that its pH was decreased to about 3.5. The addition of lime to the treated soil increased this pH to about 5.5 and in this way prevented the further acidification of the soil and the generation of acid drainage after rainfall. It must be noted that the removal of contaminants from the control heap was negligible, even after a period of about three years

  4. Detection and monitoring of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil through different sensing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    Pollutants in environments are more and more threatening the maintenance of health of habitats and their inhabitants. A proper evaluation of the impact of contaminants from several different potential sources on soil quality and health and then on organisms living therein, and the possible and sometime probable related risk of transfer of pollutants, with their toxic effects, to organisms living in different environmental compartments, through the trophic chain up to humans is strongly required by decision makers, in order to promptly take adequate actions to prevent environmental and health damages and monitor the exposure rate of individuals to toxicants. Then, a reliable detection of pollutants in environments and the monitoring of dynamics and fate of contaminants therein are of utmost importance to achieve this goal. In soil, chemical and physical techniques to detect pollutants have been well known for decades, but can often drive to both over- and underestimations of the actual bioavailable (and then toxic) fraction of contaminants, and then of the real risk for organisms, deriving from their presence therein. The use of bioindicators (both living organisms and enzyme activities somehow derived from them) can supply more reliable information about the quantification of the bioavailable fraction of soil pollutants. In the last decades, a physicochemical technique, such as SPME (solid phase microextraction) followed by GC-MS analysis, has been demonstrated to provide similar results to those obtained from some pedofaunal populations, used as bioindicators, as concerns the bioavailable pollutant quantification in soil. More recently, we have applied a sensing technology, namely electronic nose (EN), which comprises several unspecific sensors arranged in an array and that is capable of providing more qualitative than quantitative information about complex air samples, to the study of soils contaminated with semivolatile (SVOCs) pollutants, such as polycyclic

  5. Role of Streptomyces pactum in phytoremediation of trace elements by Brassica juncea in mine polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amjad; Guo, Di; Mahar, Amanullah; Wang, Zhen; Muhammad, Dost; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Ping; Shen, Feng; Xue, Quanhong; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-10-01

    The industrial expansion, smelting, mining and agricultural practices have increased the release of toxic trace elements (TEs) in the environment and threaten living organisms. The microbe-assisted phytoremediation is environmentally safe and provide an effective approach to remediate TEs contaminated soils. A pot experiment was conducted to test the potential of an Actinomycete, subspecies Streptomyces pactum (Act12) along with medical stone compost (MSC) by growing Brassica juncea in smelter and mines polluted soils of Feng County (FC) and Tongguan (TG, China), respectively. Results showed that Zn (7, 28%), Pb (54, 21%), Cd (16, 17%) and Cu (8, 10%) uptake in shoot and root of Brassica juncea was pronounced in FC soil. Meanwhile, the Zn (40, 14%) and Pb (82, 15%) uptake in the shoot and root were also increased in TG soil. Shoot Cd uptake remained below detection, while Cu decreased by 52% in TG soil. The Cd and Cu root uptake were increased by 17% and 33%, respectively. Results showed that TEs uptake in shoot increased with increasing Act12 dose. Shoot/root dry biomass, chlorophyll and carotenoid content in Brassica juncea were significantly influenced by the application of Act12 in FC and TG soil. The antioxidant enzymatic activities (POD, PAL, PPO and CAT) in Brassica juncea implicated enhancement in the plant defense mechanism against the TEs induced stress in contaminated soils. The extraction potential of Brasssica was further evaluated by TF (translocation factor) and MEA (metal extraction amount). Based on our findings, further investigation of Act12 assisted phytoremediation of TEs in the smelter and mines polluted soil and hyperaccumulator species are suggested for future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Capability of selected crop plants for shoot mercury accumulation from polluted soils: phytoremediation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis; Rincón, Jesusa; Asencio, Isaac; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2007-01-01

    High-biomass crops can be considered as an alternative to hyperaccumulator plants to phytoremediate soils contaminated by heavy metals. In order to assess their practical capability for the absorption and accumulation of Hg in shoots, barley, white lupine, lentil, and chickpea were tested in pot experiments using several growth substrates. In the first experimental series, plants were grown in a mixture of vermiculite and perlite spiked with 8.35 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg. The mercury concentration of the plants' aerial tissues ranged from 1.51 to 5.13 microg g(-1) d.w. with lentil and lupine showing the highest values. In a second experiment carried out using a Hg-polluted soil (32.16 microg g(-1) d.w.) collected from a historical mining area (Almadén, Spain), the crop plants tested only reached shoot Hg concentration up to 1.13 microg g(-1) d.w. In the third experimental series, the Almadén soil was spiked with 1 microg g(-1) d.w. of soluble Hg; as a result, mercury concentrations in the plant shoots increased approximately 6 times for lupine, 5 times for chickpea, and 3.5 times for barley and lentil, with respect to those obtained with the original soil without Hg added. This marked difference was attributed to the low availability of Hg in the original Almadin soil and its subsequent increase in the Hg-spiked soil. The low mercury accumulation yields obtained for all plants do not make a successful decontamination of the Almadén soils possible byphytoremediation using crop plants. However, since the crops tested can effectively decrease the plant-available Hg level in this soil, their use could, to some extent, reduce the environmental risk of Hg pollution in the area.

  7. A Study on the Simultaneous Multi-Components Analysis of Soil Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Kun-Han; Choi, Byung-In [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Dissolution properties for the several inorganic pollutants in soils have been studied and simultaneous multi-components analytical method has been established with using ICP/MS and LA-ICP/MS for 14 monitoring elements in order to protect water and soil environments. And addition, more effective new analytical methods have been studied for BTEX, TPH(total petroleum hydrocarbon) and organophosphorus compounds, PCBs in soils. Several inorganic pollutants were spiked to 3 kinds of fresh soils which were sand, clay, loam. The dissolution properties of the prepared samples were investigated under the various extracting conditions such as extracting time, acid concentration, particle size, etc. in order to take basic information about the process of extraction test and improvement of related analytical methods. As the results, dissolution properties were affected mainly by acid concentration in extracting procedure and mineral composition of soils. On the other hand, extracting time, sort of acids and particle size of soils had a little influence on the dissolution properties. Cd revealed very high dissolving efficiency and As was very low in whole extracting test. Current analytical methods for the determination of oils are based on the purge and trap for volatiles such as gasoline and solvent extraction for semivolatiles such as kerosene and diesel oils. These methods are not proper in cost and time. In addition to, there are potential for analyte contamination and some problems in pretreatment procedure. In this study, we have discussed simultaneous determination of TPH containing gasoline, kerosene, diesel oils and etc.. And determination of Organophosphorus compounds in soils has studied. In this procedure, the application of ultrasonication methods and several extraction methods were compared. In the results of this study, we could take very low practical detection limit and good precision. Approved methods were suitable for the determination of oils and pesticides

  8. Metal pollution (Cd, Pb, Zn, and As) in agricultural soils and soybean, Glycine max, in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunyun; Fang, Xiaolong; Mu, Yinghui; Cheng, Yanbo; Ma, Qibin; Nian, Hai; Yang, Cunyi

    2014-04-01

    Crops produced on metal-polluted agricultural soils may lead to chronic toxicity to humans via the food chain. To assess metal pollution in agricultural soils and soybean in southern China, 30 soybean grain samples and 17 soybean-field soil samples were collected from 17 sites in southern China, and metal concentrations of samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The integrated pollution index was used to evaluate if the samples were contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn and As. Results showed that Cd concentration of 12 samples, Pb concentration of 2 samples, Zn concentration of 2 samples, and As concentrations of 2 samples were above the maximum permissible levels in soils. The integrated pollution index indicated that 11 of 17 soil samples were polluted by metals. Metal concentrations in soybean grain samples ranged from 0.11 to 0.91 mg kg(-1) for Cd; 0.34 to 2.83 mg kg(-1) for Pb; 42 to 88 mg kg(-1) for Zn; and 0.26 to 5.07 mg kg(-1) for As, which means all 30 soybean grain samples were polluted by Pb, Pb/Cd, Cd/Pb/As or Pb/As. Taken together, our study provides evidence that metal pollution is an important concern in agricultural soils and soybeans in southern China.

  9. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  10. [Investigation and analysis of heavy metal pollution related to soil-Panax notoginseng system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Mi, Yan-Hua; Lin, Xin; Liu, Da-Hui; Zeng, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2014-07-01

    In this study, five heavy metals contamination of soil and different parts of Panax notoginseng in the plantation area was investigated. Analysis of heavy metals correlation between the planting soil and P. notoginseng; and the absorption and accumulation characteristics and translocation of soil heavy metals by P. notoginseng plants was revealed. Through field investigation and laboratory analytical methods, analysis of China's 30 different soil P. notoginseng origin and content of heavy metals in five different parts of the P. notoginseng plant content of heavy metals. The results revealed that the soil heavy metals should not be neglected in the plantation area Referring to the national soil quality standards (GB15608-1995), the excessive degree of soil heavy metals pollution showed Hg > As > Cd > Cr in the plantation area, and Pb content of soil was in the scope of the standard. Refer to 'Green Industry Standards for Import and Export of Medical Plants and Preparations', the excessive degree of heavy metals content of P. notoginseng plants showed As > Pb > Cr > Cd, and Hg content of plants was in the scope of the standard. Concentrations of five heavy metals of underground parts of P. notoginseng plants are higher than aboveground, and heavy metals elements are more concentrated in the root, followed by the rhizome of P. notoginseng plants. Heavy metal accumulation characteristics of the different parts of the P. notoginseng of the overall performance is the root > the rhizome > the root tuber > leaves > stems. From the point of view BCF value analysis of various parts of the P. notoginseng plants to absorb heavy metals in soil, BCF values of all samples were less than 1, description P. notoginseng not belong Hyperaccumulator. From the view of transportation and related analysis of the soil-P. notoginseng systems, the rhizome of P. notoginseng and the content of As and Cr in soil was significantly correlated, the root of P. notoginseng and the content of Cd in

  11. Ecotoxicological assessment of metal-polluted urban soils using bioassays with three soil invertebrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santarufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the quality of urban soils by integrating chemical and ecotoxicological approaches. Soils from five sites in downtown Naples, Italy, were sampled and characterized for physical-chemical properties and total and water-extractable metal concentrations. Bioassays with

  12. Material dynamics in polluted soils with different structures - comparative investigations of general soil and aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taubner, H.

    1992-01-01

    In structured soils, a small-scale heterogeneity of physical and chemical properties will develop which results in a reduced availability of the reaction sites of the soil matrix. In view of the lack of knowledge on the conditions within the individual aggregates were carried out for characterizing the aggregates and comparing them with the soil in, general soil samples were taken from natural structure of a podzolic soil and a podazolic brown earth from two sites in the Fichtelgebirge mountains as well as a parabraun earth from East Holstein. The horizons differed with regard to their texture and structure; silty material tends to have a subpolyhedral structure and calyey material a polyhedral structure. The general soil samples and aggregate samples from the three B horizons were subjected, with comparable experimental conditions, to percolation experiments inducing a multiple acid load. The soil solution from the secondary pore system and aggregate pore system is more heterogeneus for the higher-structured subpolyhedral texture of the perdzolic soil than for the less strongly aggregated subpolyhedral structured of the podzolic brown earth. (orig.) [de

  13. Trace metals bioaccumulation potentials of three indigenous grasses grown on polluted soils collected around mining areas in Pretoria, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lion, G. N.; Olowoyo, J. O.; Modise, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of industries may have increased the levels of trace metals in the soil. Phyto remediation of these polluted soils using indigenous grasses is now considered an alternative method in re mediating these polluted soils. The present study investigated and compared the ability of three indigenous grasses as bioaccumulators of trace metals from polluted soils. Seeds of these grasses were introduced into pots containing polluted soil samples after the addition of organic manure. The seeds of the grasses were allowed to germinate and grow to maturity before harvesting. The harvested grasses were later separated into shoots and roots and the trace metal contents were determined using ICP –MS. From all the grasses, the concentrations of trace metals in the roots were more than those recorded in the shoot with a significant difference (P Themeda trianda > Cynodon dactylon. The study concluded that the three grasses used were all able to bioaccumulate trace metals in a similar proportion from the polluted soils. However, since livestock feed on these grasses, they should not be allowed to feed on the grasses used in this study especially when harvested from a polluted soil due to their bioaccumulative potentials. (au)

  14. Air born soil pollution assessment and mitigation in the south of ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarenko, Olga; Kharytonov, Mykola; Moschner, Christin; Khlopova, Valentina M.

    2016-04-01

    different. Summary torch formed over each industrial city from the merger of numerous enterprises emissions, under the influence of wind can spread in the long distances.The main sources of soil pollution in Pavlograd city and suburban territories are mine tailings, heat supply companies, operating in Western Donbass coal, other industrial enterprises and transport. The coal and mine rocks contain significant amounts of heavy metals and rare earth elements, lead, zinc, vanadium, manganese, cobalt, chromium, germanium, cerium and others. Settling on the earth's surface, they form insoluble compounds and accumulate in the upper parts of the soil cover. The detection of acid rain impact for the vast number of analyzed soil samples (95 %) were weakly acidic pH (6.3 - 6.8). As a result of consistent mapping of pollution in the city of Pavlograd six heavy metals was obtained corresponding GIS map. Follow to the analysis of the GIS map, it becomes possible to select multiple halos increased density of total soil contamination with heavy metals. The total pollution index of multipollution level of soil contamination was calculated for generalization of the obtained results. For most of the analyzed samples, according to the above gradation, the environmental situation of the contamination of soils by heavy metals is changed from "moderately threatening" to "threatening". The conception of step by step integrated approach using phytostabilization and phytoremediation measures has been completed. Some rocks as sorbents for detoxification of contaminated soils with heavy metals were studied. The coefficients of heavy metals accumulation for some crops were established in model experiments.

  15. Assessing soil pollution from a municipal waste dump in Islamabad, Pakistan. A study by INAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.

    2010-01-01

    INAA and AAS techniques have been employed to determine 40 elements in soil of a municipal waste dump in sector H-11, Islamabad. Background soil was also analyzed to study the extent of contamination of the dump site soil. Most of the major elements in these soils represented the geochemical composition of the soil in this area. The enrichment factors for quantified elements identified high Sb and Mg contents that could be attributed to the presence of PET and food materials in the waste. Geo-accumulation Index (I geo ), Pollution Index (PI) and the Integrated Pollution Index (IPI) have also been calculated for all elements. The values for these indices show that municipal waste has distorted the soil ambiance and the soil of waste dump site is slightly to moderately polluted as compared to the background soil. The dump soil was found to be moderately polluted by the elements Ba, Br, Ga, Rb, Zn, Ni and Pb. Significantly high Cu, Mg and Sb contamination was observed for the waste soil that is likely to pose an environmental issue if current waste disposal procedures are continuously employed. (author)

  16. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%–49.6% and 4.0%–32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%–84.1% and 22.8%–61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. - Highlights: • Sepiolite has reliability and stability for remediation of contaminated Cd. • Sepiolite significantly decreases Cd bioavailability in soil and uptake in plant. • The treatment of sepiolite improves soil quality. - Sepiolite not only decreased soil Cd bioavailability and plant Cd uptake, but also improved soil quality.

  17. [Effect of Recycled Water Irrieation on Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-qi; Liu, Yun-xia; Fu, Hui-min

    2016-01-15

    With acceleration of urbanization, water shortages will become a serious problem. Usage of reclaimed water for flushing and watering of the green areas will be common in the future. To study the heavy metal contamination of soils after green area irrigation using recycled wastewater from special industries, we selected sewage and laboratory wastewater as water source for integrated oxidation ditch treatment, and the effluent was used as irrigation water of the green area. The irrigation units included broad-leaved forest, bush and lawn. Six samples sites were selected, and 0-20 cm soil of them were collected. Analysis of the heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the soil showed no significant differences with heavy metals concentration in soil irrigated with tap water. The heavy metals in the soil irrigated with recycled water were mainly enriched in the surface layer, among which the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were below the soil background values of Beijing. A slight pollution of As and Cd was found in the soil irrigated by recycled water, which needs to be noticed.

  18. evaluation of different remediation methods of polluted soils using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, I.E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated has become a considerable task to introduce such marginal or waste lands into productive systems. Various techniques, i.e. chemical and organic agents, bio- and Phyto remediation including microorganisms and/or phyto plants are used to remediate such contaminated soils. The contamination of the soil with metals has become a widespread environmental problem in many industrialized countries. The fact that the Earth's surface is becoming increasingly polluted by human activities challenges society to develop strategies for sustainability that conserve nonrenewable natural resources such as soil. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of (I) some chemical and organic amendments in remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil. At the same time, a follow up the effects of interaction between amendment concentration and incubation time intervals on bioavailability of tested heavy metals was taken into consideration. (II) Fungi inoculation in remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. (III) Calcium carbonate on the potentiality of panikum and sudan grass (as hyper accumulators) in remediation of heavy metals contaminated soil. To fulfill this task, it was suggested to conduct three experiments, namely; (1) Chemical remediation of Contaminated Soils experiment (2) Bioremediation experiment (3) Phyto remediation Experiment

  19. Expression of mtc in Folsomia candida indicative of metal pollution in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nota, Benjamin; Vooijs, Riet; Straalen, Nico M. van; Roelofs, Dick

    2011-01-01

    The soil-living springtail Folsomia candida is frequently used in reproduction bioassays to assess soil contamination. Alternatively, the response of genes to contamination is assessed. In this study the expression of F. candida's gene encoding the deduced metallothionein-like motif containing protein (MTC) was assessed, using quantitative PCR, in response to six different metals, each at two concentrations in soil. The expression of mtc was induced after exposure to all metals, except for one chromium concentration. Exposure to soil originating from metal-contaminated field sites also induced mtc, while the expression did not change in response to a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Since this transcript is induced by most of the tested metals, it may potentially be a good indicator of metal contamination. The presented gene expression assay might become a useful tool to screen potentially polluted sites, in order to identify the ones that need further ecotoxicological investigation. - Highlights: → mtc expression in the springtail Folsomia candida is measured in response to different metals. → Expression of this gene changed in response to all tested metals, except for one. → Metal-contaminated field soils also changed the expression of mtc significantly. → The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene did not change mtc's expression. → mtc expression may be a specific indicator of metal soil contamination. - Exposure to metal containing soil induces the expression of mtc in the springtail Folsomia candida.

  20. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  1. Transfer of Nickel from Polluted Soil to Pisum sativum L. and Raphanus sativus L. under Composted Green Amendment and Native Soil Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafady Nivien Allam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of compost, inoculation with native soil microbes and their residual effects on bioavailability of nickel by peas (Pisum sativum L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L. grown on polluted soil were investigated in pot experiments. Plants were amendment with different compost levels (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6% of soil dry weight and inoculated with different native soil microbes (4 fungal species, one bacterial species, 4 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the polluted soil under study. Significant increases in the biomass of pea and radish plants were observed as a result of amendment application and their residual effects. The mycorrhizal dependency (MD of pea plants was lower than of radish plants. The highest reductions of Ni levels in both plants were observed by the simultaneous applications of compost with microbes or mycorrhizal fungi to polluted soils. Soil pH increased significantly (p < 0.05 as a result of applying native microbes especially with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF alone or combined with compost. The DTPA extractability of soil Ni was significantly decreased with increasing soil pH (p < 0.05. The minimum transfer factor of Ni from polluted soil were 0.067 and 0.089 for pea and radish plants, respectively which were attained as a result of applying compost (0.6% of soil weight inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi. From the results, we can conclude that the use of compost and native soil microbes as a soil remediate could be an effective strategy for soil remediation.

  2. Caracterisation thermique de modules de refroidissement pour la photovoltaique concentree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Louis-Michel

    Pour rentabiliser la technologie des cellules solaires, une reduction du cout d'exploitation et de fabrication est necessaire. L'utilisation de materiaux photovoltaiques a un impact appreciable sur le prix final par quantite d'energie produite. Une technologie en developpement consiste a concentrer la lumiere sur les cellules solaires afin de reduire cette quantite de materiaux. Or, concentrer la lumiere augmente la temperature de la cellule et diminue ainsi son efficacite. Il faut donc assurer a la cellule un refroidissement efficace. La charge thermique a evacuer de la cellule passe au travers du recepteur, soit la composante soutenant physiquement la cellule. Le recepteur transmet le flux thermique de la cellule a un systeme de refroidissement. L'ensemble recepteur-systeme de refroidissement se nomme module de refroidissement. Habituellement, la surface du recepteur est plus grande que celle de la cellule. La chaleur se propage donc lateralement dans le recepteur au fur et a mesure qu'elle traverse le recepteur. Une telle propagation de la chaleur fournit une plus grande surface effective, reduisant la resistance thermique apparente des interfaces thermiques et du systeme de refroidissement en aval vers le module de refroidissement. Actuellement, aucune installation ni methode ne semble exister afin de caracteriser les performances thermiques des recepteurs. Ce projet traite d'une nouvelle technique de caracterisation pour definir la diffusion thermique du recepteur a l'interieur d'un module de refroidissement. Des indices de performance sont issus de resistances thermiques mesurees experimentalement sur les modules. Une plateforme de caracterisation est realisee afin de mesurer experimentalement les criteres de performance. Cette plateforme injecte un flux thermique controle sur une zone localisee de la surface superieure du recepteur. L'injection de chaleur remplace le flux thermique normalement fourni par la cellule. Un systeme de refroidissement est installe

  3. Heavy metals pollution influences the soil of Baia Mare city Roumania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, L.; Petrescu, L.; Stanescu, L.F.; Bilal, E.

    2010-01-01

    For a connection between the environment close by industrial area and residential area; where the consequences heavy metal pollution are more acute, we had drawn samples inside Romplumb S.A. factory in Baia Mare city (Romania), the main heavy metal pollution agent, close by this factory, cross roads, areas close by parks and areas far off the main pollution agent. These samples had drawn both on the surface soil and 15 cm depth. In this subchapter we will present the analyses types and the results of these analyses taking into account the chemistry composition of drawing samples. A half of each sample was crushed very fine for ICP, XRF. From uncrushed half a part was crushed at 2 accordance with ICP results and these distributions on maps, we can see that the biggest heavy metals amount is in N-E of Baia Mare (zone I) due to the main pollution factor, Romplumb S.A... The pollution for zone II is not as big as zone I. Heavy metals in this zone are due to emission released by Romplumb S.A. and Phonix S.A. which are carry by air and due to the cross roads. The high amount of heavy metal from Baia Mare soils affects more and more people health. Health Direction Baia Mare made a lot of investigation on Baia Mare Soil. The results of these investigations are: - The hope life is smaller with 2,2 years than usual - Mortality is bigger with 10-15% than usual - Avitaminoza D*2 is 65-95% - Metabolism diseases due to Pb are frequent with 40-60%

  4. Polluted sites and soils - Management of environmental liabilities; Sites et sols pollues - Gestion des passifs environnementaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Corfec, Y.

    2011-07-01

    This book presents in a synthetic and structured way the essential notions for the understanding of the stakes of polluted sites and soils management. In particular: the regulatory context, the environmental considerations (toxicological constraints, indeterminations), the conditions of environments characterization and cleansing (interventions typology, properties of contaminants (metal trace amounts, organic compounds), decontamination and cleansing logics), and the essential conditions of risk management in an industrial or urban context. (J.S.)

  5. Evaluation of Pollution of Soils and Particulate Matter Around Metal Recycling Factories in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akinade S. Olatunji; Tesleem O. Kolawole; Moroof Oloruntola; Christina Günter

    2018-01-01

    Background. Metal recycling factories (MRFs) have developed rapidly in Nigeria as recycling policies have been increasingly embraced. These MRFs are point sources for introducing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) into environmental media. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the constituents (elemental and mineralogy) of the wastes (slag and particulate matter, (PM)) and soils around the MRFs and to determine the level of pollution within the area. Methods. Sixty samples (...

  6. Bioelectroventing: an electrochemical‐assisted bioremediation strategy for cleaning‐up atrazine‐polluted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez‐Garay, Ainara; Quejigo, Jose Rodrigo; Dörfler, Ulrike; Schroll, Reiner; Esteve‐Núñez, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Summary The absence of suitable terminal electron acceptors (TEA) in soil might limit the oxidative metabolism of environmental microbial populations. Bioelectroventing is a bioelectrochemical strategy that aims to enhance the biodegradation of a pollutant in the environment by overcoming the electron acceptor limitation and maximizing metabolic oxidation. Microbial electroremediating cells (MERCs) are devices that can perform such a bioelectroventing. We also report an overall profile of the...

  7. Effects of Zeolite and Vermicompost on Changes of Zn Chemical Fractionation in a Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hamidpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil contamination by heavy metals is a major concern throughout the world, due to persistence of metals in the environment and their toxicity and threat to all living organisms. Several strategies have been used to immobilize heavy metal ions in soils. Immobilization can be achieved by adding natural and synthetic amendments such as zeolites and organic materials. Because of large specific surface area, high cation exchange capacity (CEC, low cost and wide spread availability, zeolites are probably the most promising materials interacting with many heavy metal ions in contaminated soils and water. Organic amendments such as vermicompost contains a high proportion of humified organic matter (OM, may decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil by adsorption and by forming stable complexes with surface functional groups, thus permitting the re-establishment of vegetation on contaminated sites. Recent studies showed that the co-application of zeolite and humic acids could be effective in reducing the available fraction of Pb in a garden polluted soil. Fractionation of heavy metals cations in amended polluted-soils is needed to predict elemental mobility in soil and phyto-availability to plants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of co-application of zeolite and vermicompost on Zn redistribution in a contaminated soil. Material and Methods: A contaminated soil was collected from the top 20 cm in the vicinity of zinc mine in Zanjan province, western north of Iran. The soil sample was air-dried, passed through 2-mm sieve and stored at room temperature. The soil sample was thoroughly mixed to ensure uniformity. Sub-samples were then digested using the hot-block digestion procedure for total Zn concentration. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse condition. The polluted soil was put in polyethylene pots and mixed well vermicompost and zeolite at the rate of 0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 soil. The

  8. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  9. Soil carbon and nitrogen budget in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.; Bergmann, C.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Litterfall, bio- and necromass of the forest floor vegetation, decomposition of recent organic material, soil respiration and humus stocks were examined in 3 Scots pine stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany. One site, Rosea, received heavy deposition loads from chemical industries and brown coal fired power plants. The site Taura received moderate air pollution due to lower deposition of coarse and calcium rich dust particles; the third site, Neuglobsow was afforested and represents a low polluted control site. High nitrogen loads and increased pH value due to Ca deposition caused shifts in the vegetation structure, and higher biomass production of the forest floor vegetation, whereas needle litter production was not impacted. Simultaneously, decomposition rates of the recently harvested forest floor vegetation decreased with increasing pollutant loads, but needle litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates did not differ between the sites. Consequently, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks increased with increasing pollutant input. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Parvez, Lutfar; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-15

    Total concentrations of heavy metals in the soils of mine drainage and surrounding agricultural fields in the northern part of Bangladesh were determined to evaluate the level of contamination. The average concentrations of Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Rb, Sr, Nb and Zr exceeded the world normal averages and, in some cases, Mn, Zn, As and Pb exceeded the toxic limit of the respective metals. Soil pollution assessment was carried out using enrichment factor (EF), geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and pollution load index (PLI). The soils show significant enrichment with Ti, Mn, Zn, Pb, As, Fe, Sr and Nb, indicating inputs from mining activities. The I(geo) values have revealed that Mn (1.24+/-0.38), Zn (1.49+/-0.58) and Pb (1.63+/-0.38) are significantly accumulated in the study area. The PLIs derived from contamination factors indicate that the distal part of the coal mine-affected area is the most polluted (PLI of 4.02). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component and cluster analyses, suggest that Mn, Zn, Pb and Ti are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly coal mining activities, and the extreme proximal and distal parts are heavily contaminated with maximum heavy metals.

  11. Remediation of explosive-polluted soil in slurry phase by aerobic biostimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Baoping; Shen, Mengyue; Aslam, Hina; Wu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    There is a great volume of polluted soil by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing wastewater containing dozen of nitrocompounds in China. In this study, biostimulation was used for remediating the explosive-polluted soil in aerobic bioslurry by monitoring the removal of total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that the pulp density had almost no effect on TOC removal; whereas the acetone addition evidently improved remediation efficiency of the polluted soil by intrinsic microorganism, and the TOC removal increased from 25% to 38.4% when dose of acetone increased from 0% to 4% (v/v). The maximum TOC removal of 49.1% was achieved through further adjusting pH at 9.0 and temperature at 30 °C. The second order reaction fits well removal dynamics of TOC under the optimum conditions. With the average conditions, liquid phase TOC decreased from 3404 to 3144 mg/L and solid phase TOC dropped from 1022 to 104 mg/L, leading to toxicity decline by 35%; the optimum condition witnessed 48.9% of TOC removal from 4500 to 2300 mg/L in liquid phase, causing toxicity drop by 62%.

  12. Application of monte-carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmudov, H M; Valibeyova, G; Jafarov, Y D; Musaeva, Sh Z [Institute of Radiation Problems, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan); others, and

    2006-10-15

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capasites of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities.The analysis using Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainly in reports.Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report.Relative uncertainly of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources.Usage of the notion {sup u}ncertainty{sup i}n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it necessary, for exact reflection of 90 per cent uncertainty in reports.According to radiation safety norms level of radiation backgrounds exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous.By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of polluted soil.

  13. Application of monte-carlo method in definition of key categories of most radioactive polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmudov, H.M; Valibeyova, G.; Jafarov, Y.D; Musaeva, Sh.Z

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The principle of analysis by Monte Carlo method consists of a choice of random variables of coefficients of an exposition doze capasites of radiation and data on activity within the boundaries of their individual density of frequency distribution of exposition doses capacities.The analysis using Monte Carlo method is useful for realization of sensitivity analysis of measured capacity amount of an exposition dose in order to define the major factors causing uncertainly in reports.Reception of such conceptions can be valuable for definition of key categories of radiation polluted soil and establishment of priorities to use resources for enhancement of the report.Relative uncertainly of radiation polluted soil categories determined with the help of the analysis by Monte Carlo method in case of their availability can be applied using more significant divergence between average value and a confidential limit in case when borders of resources available for preparation and to prepare possible estimations for the most significant categories of sources.Usage of the notion u ncertainty i n reports also allows to set threshold value for a key category of sources, if it necessary, for exact reflection of 90 per cent uncertainty in reports.According to radiation safety norms level of radiation backgrounds exceeding 33 mkR/hour is considered dangerous.By calculated Monte Carlo method much more dangerous sites and sites frequently imposed to disposals and utilization were chosen from analyzed samples of polluted soil.

  14. Bacteria Associated to Plants Naturally Selected in a Historical PCB Polluted Soil Show Potential to Sustain Natural Attenuation

    KAUST Repository

    Vergani, Lorenzo; Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Fusi, Marco; Di Guardo, Antonio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of the association between plants and microorganisms is a promising approach able to boost natural attenuation processes for soil clean-up in vast polluted areas characterized by mixed chemical contamination. We aimed to explore

  15. Assessing the use of magnetic methods to monitor vertical migration of metal pollutants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, B.; Cioppa, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    In order to assess the use of magnetic methods to study and improve our understanding of the vertical migration behavior of metal pollutants in natural soil, a controlled experiment was performed during August-December 2009, near Belle River, Ontario. The soil is Quaternary in age, consisting primarily of glacial till (Tavistock Till) overlain by localized alluvium deposits of very recent origin. Groundcover vegetation is minimal, consisting only of various grasses. Eighteen PVC tubes (8” wide, 16” long) were inserted vertically into the ground as test capsules, in order to avoid contaminating the surrounding area. Magnetite powder (5µm) was distributed on the surface of the soil inside nine of the tubes (10 grams of magnetite/tube) to simulate anthropogenic contamination, while the others were used as controls. Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) measurements were used for both ongoing surface monitoring and pre- and post-treatment vertical migration assessment. The initial surface MS values in the contaminated tubes were one to two orders of magnitude larger than in the uncontaminated tubes. While the surficial MS remained fairly stable in uncontaminated soil, decreases of 15-60 % were observed in contaminated soil tubes. Susceptibility profiles from soil cores in the contaminated tubes show that the concentration of iron containing particles is highest at depths between 2-7 cm. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis on layers with an enhanced magnetic signal showed high weight% of iron and oxygen, indicating the presence of iron minerals. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the magnetite powder and the particles from the contaminated tubes had similar morphologies. These results suggest that the magnetite migrated downwards into the soil over the five month period, probably as a result of rainwater infiltration and vertical migration. Some of the soil profiles showed a small enhancement of magnetic signal at 17-18 cm, and SEM-EDS analysis shows

  16. In situ semi-quantitative analysis of polluted soils by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaël, Amina; Bousquet, Bruno; Michel-Le Pierrès, Karine; Travaillé, Grégoire; Canioni, Lionel; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-05-01

    Time-saving, low-cost analyses of soil contamination are required to ensure fast and efficient pollution removal and remedial operations. In this work, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been successfully applied to in situ analyses of polluted soils, providing direct semi-quantitative information about the extent of pollution. A field campaign has been carried out in Brittany (France) on a site presenting high levels of heavy metal concentrations. Results on iron as a major component as well as on lead and copper as minor components are reported. Soil samples were dried and prepared as pressed pellets to minimize the effects of moisture and density on the results. LIBS analyses were performed with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, 60 mJ per 10 ns pulse, at a repetition rate of 10 Hz with a diameter of 500 μm on the sample surface. Good correlations were obtained between the LIBS signals and the values of concentrations deduced from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). This result proves that LIBS is an efficient method for optimizing sampling operations. Indeed, "LIBS maps" were established directly on-site, providing valuable assistance in optimizing the selection of the most relevant samples for future expensive and time-consuming laboratory analysis and avoiding useless analyses of very similar samples. Finally, it is emphasized that in situ LIBS is not described here as an alternative quantitative analytical method to the usual laboratory measurements but simply as an efficient time-saving tool to optimize sampling operations and to drastically reduce the number of soil samples to be analyzed, thus reducing costs. The detection limits of 200 ppm for lead and 80 ppm for copper reported here are compatible with the thresholds of toxicity; thus, this in situ LIBS campaign was fully validated for these two elements. Consequently, further experiments are planned to extend this study to other chemical elements and other

  17. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  18. Microbial activity and soil organic matter decay in roadside soils polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Fischer, Thomas; Iurchenko, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that hydrocarbon addition to soil provokes soil organic matter priming (Zyakun et al., 2011). It has further been shown that petroleum hydrocarbons deposit to roadside soils bound to fine mineral particles and together with vehicle spray (Mykhailova et al., 2014), and that hydrocarbon concentrations decrease to safe levels within the first 15 m from the road, reaching background concentrations at 60-100 m distance (Mykhailova et al., 2013). It was the aim of this study to (I) identify the bioavailability of different petroleum hydrocarbon fractions to degradation and to (II) identify the native (i.e. pedogenic) C fraction affected by hydrocarbon-mediated soil organic matter priming during decay. To address this aim, we collected soil samples at distances from 1 to 100 m (sampling depth 15 cm) near the Traktorostroiteley avenue and the Pushkinskaya street in Kharkov, as well as near the country road M18 near Kharkov, Ukraine. The roads have been under exploitation for several decades, so microbial adaptation to enhanced hydrocarbon levels and full expression of effects could be assumed. The following C fractions were quantified using 13C-CP/MAS-NMR: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lignin, Aliphates, Carbonyl/Carboxyl as well as black carbon according to Nelson and Baldock (2005). Petroleum hydrocarbons were determind after hexane extraction using GC-MS and divided into a light fraction (chain-length C27, Mykhailova et al., 2013). Potential soil respiration was determined every 48 h by trapping of CO2 evolving from 20 g soil in NaOH at 20 ° C and at 60% of the maximum water holding capacity and titration after a total incubation period of 4 weeks in the lab. It was found that soil respiration positively correlated with the ratio of the light fraction to the sum of medium and heavy fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons, which indicates higher biodegradation primarily of the light petroleum hydrocarbon fraction. Further, soil respiration was

  19. Agroecological Responses of Heavy Metal Pollution with Special Emphasis on Soil Health and Plant Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Srivastava

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With modern day urbanization and industrialization, heavy metal (HM contamination has become a prime concern for today's society. The impacts of metal contamination on agriculture range from the agricultural soil to the produce in our food basket. The heavy metals (HMs and metalloids, including Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Hg, Pb, among others, can result in significant toxic impacts. The intensification of agricultural land use and changes in farming practices along with technological advancement have led to heavy metal pollution in soil. Metals/metalloids concentrations in the soil are increasing at alarming rate and affect plant growth, food safety, and soil microflora. The biological and geological reorganization of heavy metal depends chiefly on green plants and their metabolism. Metal toxicity has direct effects to flora that forms an integral component of ecosystems. Altered biochemical, physiological, and metabolic processes are found in plants growing in regions of high metal pollution. However, metals like Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, and Cr are required in trace amounts by plants for their metabolic activities. The present review aims to catalog major published works related to heavy metal contamination in modern day agriculture, and draw a possible road map toward future research in this domain.

  20. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Carmo Freitas, M. do; Ene, A.; Steinnes, E.

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  1. Soil pollution with trace elements at selected sites in Romania studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelica, A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Magurele, Ilfov County (Romania); Carmo Freitas, M. do [Technological and Nuclear Institute (ITN), Sacavem (Portugal); Ene, A. [Dunarea de Jos Univ. of Galati (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry, Physics and Environment; Steinnes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry

    2013-03-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine concentrations of 42 elements in samples of surface soil collected at seven sites polluted from various anthropogenic activities and a control site in a relatively clean area. Elements studied were Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn, and Zr. The results are compared with data for trace elements atmospheric deposition in lichen transplants from the same sites. The most severe soil contamination was observed at Copsa Mica from non-ferrous metallurgy. Appreciable soil contamination was also indicated at Baia Mare (non-ferrous mining and metallurgy), Deva (coal-fired power plant, cement and building materials industry), Galati (ferrous metallurgy), Magurele and Afumati (general urban pollution), and Oradea (chemical and light industries). In most cases excessive levels of toxic metals in soils matched correspondingly high values in lichen transplants. Compared to Romanian norms, legal upper limits were exceeded for Zn and Cd at Copsa Mica. Also, As and Sb occurred in excessive levels at given sites. (orig.)

  2. [Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in soil of relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-Wen; Zheng, Bing-Hui; Shi, Yao; Han, Chao-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the pollution level and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir. The contents and spatial distribution of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were analyzed. The integrated pollution index and potential ecological risk index were used to evaluate the contamination degree and potential ecological risk of these elements. The results indicated that the average contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and As in the samples were 0.61, 23.11, 58.25, 22.65, 58.99 and 16.95 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Compared with the background value of soils from Henan province, all these 6 elements except Zn were enriched to some extent, especially Cd. Similar patterns were observed for the spatial distribution of Cu, Zn, and Pb. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface sediments of the typical domestic reservoirs, Cd and As in soil of the relocation areas from the Danjiangkou Reservoir were heavily accumulated. The correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations among Pb, Cu, and Zn. And there was also significant positive correlation between Cr and Pb. In contrast, negative correlation was found between Cr and As. To sum up, the comprehensive assessment results showed that Cd was the primary element with high ecological risk.

  3. Long-Term Dynamics of Urban Soil Pollution with Heavy Metals in Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Kosheleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of 21-year-long (1989–2010 observations of the concentrations and the spatial distribution patterns of nine heavy metals (HMs in topsoils of the Eastern district of Moscow are presented. The quantitative parameters of soil pollution include the annual increase rates of HM concentrations in several land-use zones. The maps of geochemical anomalies were compiled using the data collected in 1989, 2005, and 2010. The growth of the total volume of industrial and vehicles’ emissions between 1989 and 2005 caused significant deposition of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd. The additional input of Cd to the soils is attributed to the application of sewage sludge as fertilizers. The relative increment of concentrations was the highest for Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, and Cr. In 2005–2010, the relative annual increment rate was the highest for Cr, Cd, Co, and Ni, and it increased by an order of magnitude as compared to the previous period. By contrast, Pb and Cu concentrations decreased owing to the soil reclamation, the exclusion of leaded gasoline as a fuel for vehicles and closing some hazardous enterprises. Joint analysis of snow and soil geochemical maps allows identification of the zones of actual, permanent, and relict pollution.

  4. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF. - Highlights: • Ensemble models including stochastic gradient boosting and random forest are used. • The models were verified by cross-validation and SGB performed better than RF. • Heavy metal pollution sources on a local scale are identified and apportioned. • Models illustrate good suitability in assessing sources in local-scale agricultural soils. • Anthropogenic sources contributed most to soil Pb and Cd pollution in our case. - Multi-source and multi-phase pollution by heavy metals in agricultural soils on a local scale were identified and apportioned.

  6. Rapid identification of soil cadmium pollution risk at regional scale based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; Changa, Q.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-01-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution due to long-term sewage irrigation is a serious environmental problem in many irrigation areas in northern China. Quickly identifying its pollution status is an important basis for remediation. Visible-near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VNIRS) provides a useful tool.

  7. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Bakker, Martine; van Os, Bertil; Klaver, Gerard; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban

  8. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Floodplains of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse are heavily polluted. We investigated the risk of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for detritivores living in a floodplain area, the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, affected by these rivers. Total soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl

  9. Effect of the major components of industrial air pollution on nonsymbiotic nitrogen-fixation activity in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islamov, S S; Chunderova, A I

    1976-01-01

    Industrial pollution of atmosphere inhibits the activity of non-symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soils. The inhibiting effect of polluted air can be explained by the presence of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in it. Sulfur dioxide does not depress the nitrogenase complex of aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen fixing microorganisms.

  10. Remediation of metal polluted soils by phytorremediation combined with biochar addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gómez-Limón, Dulce; César Arranz, Julio; Saa, Antonio; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to optimize and quantify the treatment of metal polluted soils through phytoremediation techniques combined with the addition of biochar. Biochar is a carbon rich material obtained by thermal treatment of biomass in inert atmosphere. In recent years, it has been attracted considerable interest due to their positive effect after soil addition. The use of biochar also seems appropriate for the treatment of metal-contaminated soils decreasing their mobility. Biochar properties highly depend on the raw material composition and manufacturing conditions. This paper is based on the use of manure wastes, rich in nutrients and therefore interesting raw materials for biochar production, especially when combined with phytoremediation techniques since the biochar act as conditioner and slow release fertilizer. We are very grateful to Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (Spain) for financial support under Project CGL2014-58322-R.

  11. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  12. Pollution Status of Pakistan: A Retrospective Review on Heavy Metal Contamination of Water, Soil, and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Waseem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trace heavy metals, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. In addition to these metals, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc are also important trace micronutrients. The presence of trace heavy metals in the atmosphere, soil, and water can cause serious problems to all organisms, and the ubiquitous bioavailability of these heavy metal can result in bioaccumulation in the food chain which especially can be highly dangerous to human health. This study reviews the heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, particularly to assess the heavy metal contamination in water (ground water, surface water, and waste water, soil, sediments, particulate matter, and vegetables. The listed contaminations affect the drinking water quality, ecological environment, and food chain. Moreover, the toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and vegetables poses serious threat to human health.

  13. Responses of soil microbial activity to cadmium pollution and elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi Ping; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Yong Jun; Jia, Feng An; He, Xin Hua

    2014-03-06

    To address the combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and elevated CO2 on soil microbial communities, DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiles, respiration, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations, loessial soils were exposed to four levels of Cd, i.e., 0 (Cd0), 1.5 (Cd1.5), 3.0 (Cd3.0) and 6.0 (Cd6.0) mg Cd kg(-1) soil, and two levels of CO2, i.e., 360 (aCO2) and 480 (eCO2) ppm. Compared to Cd0, Cd1.5 increased fungal abundance but decreased bacterial abundance under both CO2 levels, whilst Cd3.0 and Cd6.0 decreased both fungal and bacterial abundance. Profiles of DGGE revealed alteration of soil microbial communities under eCO2. Soil respiration decreased with Cd concentrations and was greater under eCO2 than under aCO2. Soil total C and N were greater under higher Cd. These results suggest eCO2 could stimulate, while Cd pollution could restrain microbial reproduction and C decomposition with the restraint effect alleviated by eCO2.

  14. Comparative studies of oil product regulation in polluted soil for several industrialized countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccassoni, F.; Kalnina, D.; Piga, L.

    2017-10-01

    Oil contaminated sites are the consequence of a long period of industrialization. Oil is a complex mixture including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to have negative effects on human health and the environment. Dividing oil products in groups (fractions) of petroleum hydrocarbons that act alike in soil and water, one can better know what happens to them. Being able to understand the behaviour of oil products in soil, it will allow to implement prevention and remediation actions. Interventions on contaminated sites are bound to comply with regulatory limits that each country has set in their own environmental legislation. The different concentration thresholds of oil products in soil for several EU countries and Canada has led to compare: limit values, analytical method, soil characteristics and/or land use. This will allow to evaluate what could be the best regulation approach, assessing if it is better to consider soil matrix in the site or the specific land use or both of them. It will also assess what is the best analytical methodology to be adopted to achieve the pollutant concentrations in the soil in order to have comparable results among different countries, such as: Baltic countries (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania), Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark), Western countries (Italy and The Netherlands) and Canada, like gaschromatography in the range from C10 - C50. The study presents an overview of environmental regulatory system of several EU countries and Canada and the correlation between different parameters about oil products indicated in each environmental legislation.

  15. Sorption, transport and biodegradation - An insight into bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Liu, Yani; Yu, Jiangfang; Yi, Huan; Ye, Shujing; Deng, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Contamination of soils with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as organochlorine pesticide, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, halohydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is of increasing concern. Microbial degradation is potential mechanism for the removal of POPs, but it is often restricted by low bioavailability of POPs. Thus, it is important to enhance bioavailability of POPs in soil bioremediation. A series of reviews on bioavailability of POPs has been published in the past few years. However, bioavailability of POPs in relation to soil organic matter, minerals and soil microbes has been little studied. To fully understand POPs bioavailability in soil, research on interactions of POPs with soil components and microbial responses in bioavailability limitation conditions are needed. This review focuses on bioavailability mechanisms of POPs in terms of sorption, transport and microbial adaptation, which is particularly novel. In consideration of the significance of bioavailability, further studies should investigate the influence of various bioremediation strategies on POPs bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  17. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  18. A reactive transport model for mercury fate in soil--application to different anthropogenic pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Blanc, Philippe; Jacques, Diederik

    2014-11-01

    Soil systems are a common receptor of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) contamination. Soils play an important role in the containment or dispersion of pollution to surface water, groundwater or the atmosphere. A one-dimensional model for simulating Hg fate and transport for variably saturated and transient flow conditions is presented. The model is developed using the HP1 code, which couples HYDRUS-1D for the water flow and solute transport to PHREEQC for geochemical reactions. The main processes included are Hg aqueous speciation and complexation, sorption to soil organic matter, dissolution of cinnabar and liquid Hg, and Hg reduction and volatilization. Processes such as atmospheric wet and dry deposition, vegetation litter fall and uptake are neglected because they are less relevant in the case of high Hg concentrations resulting from anthropogenic activities. A test case is presented, assuming a hypothetical sandy soil profile and a simulation time frame of 50 years of daily atmospheric inputs. Mercury fate and transport are simulated for three different sources of Hg (cinnabar, residual liquid mercury or aqueous mercuric chloride), as well as for combinations of these sources. Results are presented and discussed with focus on Hg volatilization to the atmosphere, Hg leaching at the bottom of the soil profile and the remaining Hg in or below the initially contaminated soil layer. In the test case, Hg volatilization was negligible because the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) was inhibited by the low concentration of dissolved Hg. Hg leaching was mainly caused by complexation of Hg(2+) with thiol groups of dissolved organic matter, because in the geochemical model used, this reaction only had a higher equilibrium constant than the sorption reactions. Immobilization of Hg in the initially polluted horizon was enhanced by Hg(2+) sorption onto humic and fulvic acids (which are more abundant than thiols). Potential benefits of the model for risk management and remediation of

  19. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  20. Experimental Investigation of Phenanthrene Pollutant Removal Efficiency for Contaminated Sandy Soil by Enhanced Soil Washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif salah Alquzweeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are environmental concerns that must be removed to acceptable level. This research assesses two agents (Na2EDTA and SDS to remediate contaminated sandy soil, spiked with 500mg/kg phenanthrene. Five sets of experiments (batch are applied to investigate the optimal of five influencing factors on soil remediation: Na2EDTA-SDS concentration, liquid/Solid ratio, stirring speed, pH value of flushing solution and mixing time. The results of batch experiments showed that SDS has high phenanthrene removal efficiency (90%, while Na2EDTA shows no phenanthrene removal. pH has no effect on phenanthrene removal. To study the influence of flow rates on the removal efficiency of contaminants, two column tests with hydraulic gradient of 0.2 and 1.2 conducted by SDS solution. The results illustrate that high phenanthrene removal from soil obtained by 1.2 hydraulic gradient condition. The SDS flushing solution removed approximately 69% and 81% of phenanthrene from soil under low and high hydraulic gradients, respectively. It was concluded that phenanthrene removal depend on surfactant micelles formation. Overall, the study showed that soil flushing removal efficiency for contaminants depends on the flushing agents selectivity and affinity to the contaminants and the condition of hydraulic gradient.

  1. Study of the mobilization of pollutants in soils of the Bogota Savanna - phase 1, Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Luz Myrian; Vargas Zarate, Orlando

    1997-01-01

    's health that consumes agricultural products cultivated on these soils. The areas of more contamination are toward the south part of the Savanna, where the River Bogota has received the polluting discharge of the industrial and urban area, in places where intensive watering is used and it changes the soils with waste of the industry of weather-beaten of the leather, like in the sector of Bosa, equally in the sector Bojaca-Madrid, in areas of agricultural use. They are also some polluted places located toward the north of the studied area. It settled down that although for their physical and chemical properties, the Savanna soils have a high capacity of retention of metals, that capacity has been surpassed in several of the polluted places, in which migration of the metals is presented toward the deepest horizons. The samples of water taken in places of intense watering, present high levels of metals that indicate processes of accumulation in the soils. Finally, the results of this study suggests the necessity to take control measures to avoid a bigger deterioration of the quality of the agricultural soils of the Bogota Savanna and to manage the risk that is presented by the presence of heavy metals appropriately

  2. Characterization and origin of organic and inorganic pollution in urban soils in Pisa (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Roberto; Vanni, Giacomo; Marchini, Fausto; Saviozzi, Alessandro

    2017-10-12

    We assessed the quality of 31 urban soils in Pisa by analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and the platinum group elements (PGEs). The risk was evaluated by the geological accumulation index (I geo ) and the enrichment factor (EF). Results were compared with those obtained from a non-urban site and with the quantitative limits fixed by Italian legislation. In nearly all the monitored sites, the legal limit for TPH of 60 mg/kg in residential areas was exceeded, indicating widespread and intense pollution throughout the entire city area. The I geo indicated no Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn pollution and minimal Pb and Cr pollution due to anthropogenic enrichment. Legal Hg and Zn limits of 1 and 150 mg/kg, respectively, were exceeded in about 20% of sites; Cd (2 mg/kg), Cr (150 mg/kg), and Cu (120 mg/kg) in only one site; and the Ni legal limit of 120 mg/kg was never exceeded. Some urban soils showed a higher Hg level than the more restrictive legal limit of 5 mg/kg concerning areas for industrial use. Based on the soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate-bound fractions, Mn and Zn showed the highest mobility, suggesting a more potential risk of soil contamination than the other metals. The TPH and both Cr and Hg amounts were not correlated with any of the other monitored metals. The total contents of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu in soils were positively correlated with each other, suggesting a common origin from vehicular traffic. The PGE values (Pt and Pd) were below the detection limits in 75%-90% of the monitored areas, suggesting that their accumulation is at an early stage.

  3. [Effects of enhanced CO2 fertilization on phytoremediation of DEHP-polluted soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Guang; Mu, Nan

    2013-03-01

    Low efficiency of remediation is one of the key issues to be solved in phytoremediation technology. Based on the necessity of reducing CO2 emission in China and the significance of CO2 in plant photosynthesis, this paper studied the effects of enhanced CO2 fertilization on the phytoremediation of polluted soil, selecting the C3 plant mung bean (Vigna radiate) and the C4 plant maize (Zea mays) as test plants for phytoremediation and the DEHP as the target pollutant. DEHP pollution had negative effects on the growth and rhizosphere micro-environment of the two plants. After enhanced CO2 fertilization, the aboveground dry mass of the two plants and the alkaline phosphatase activity in the rhizosphere soils of the two plants increased, the COD activity in the leaves of the two plants decreased, the microbial community in the rhizosphere soils shifted, and the numbers of the microbes with DEHP-tolerance in the rhizosphere soils increased. These changes indicated that enhanced CO2 fertilization could promote the plant growth and the plant tolerance to DEHP stress, and improve the rhizosphere micro-environment. Enhanced CO2 fertilization also increased the DEHP uptake by the two plants, especially their underground parts. All these effects induced the residual DEHP concentration in the rhizospheres of the two plants, especially that of mung bean, decreased obviously, and the phytoremediation efficiency increased. Overall, enhanced CO2 fertilization produced greater effects on C3 plant than on C4 plant. It was suggested that enhanced CO2 fertilization could be a useful measure to enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation.

  4. Earthworm biomass as additional information for risk assessment of heavy metal biomagnification: a case study for dredged sediment-derived soils and polluted floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Samyn, Jurgen; Quataert, Paul; Muys, Bart; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of earthworms in the biomagnification of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems is widely recognised. Differences in earthworm biomass between sites is mostly not accounted for in ecological risk assessment. These differences may be large depending on soil properties and pollution status. A survey of earthworm biomass and colonisation rate was carried out on dredged sediment-derived soils (DSDS). Results were compared with observations for the surrounding alluvial plains. Mainly grain size distribution and time since disposal determined earthworm biomass on DSDS, while soil pollution status of the DSDS was of lesser importance. Highest earthworm biomass was observed on sandy loam DSDS disposed at least 40 years ago. - Polluted clayey dredged sediment-derived soils have a relatively low risk for heavy metal biomagnification due to slow earthworm colonisation

  5. Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils on Railroad Side of Zhengzhou-Putian Section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-Hua; CHU Chun-Jie; LI Jian; SONG Bo

    2009-01-01

    The pollution status and horizontal distribution of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd) in the soil on railroad side along the Zhengzhou-Putian section of Longxi-Haizhou Railroad were studied by collecting soil samples along a sampling section perpendicular to the railroad at the distances of 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 m from the railroad edge. The concentrations of heavy metals in the sampling soils were higher than those of the control site. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were found to be the highest in the soils at the railroad edge, and then decreased with increasing distance from the railroad. The highest concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Cu in soils were located at about 10-30 m from the railroad. Compared with the single factor pollution index (SFPI) of heavy metals calculated for the control site, the average SFPI from the sampling sites decreased in the order of Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. There were notable negative correlations between the integral pollution index (IPI) of soil heavy metals at all sampling sites and the distances from the railroad. According to three IPIs calculated from the background values of heavy metals in och-aquic Cambisols, the heavy metal concentrations in the control soil, and the 2nd levels for soil heavy metals in GB15618-1995, the study area could be divided, based on the distances from the railroad, into four pollution zones: heavy pollution zone (0-10 m), medium pollution zone (10-50 m), slight pollution zone (50-100 m), and warning zone (100-500 m), respectively.

  6. Response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaci; Zhang, Zhaoji; Li, Yasong; Wen, Yi; Fei, Yuhong

    2017-07-29

    The extensive use of roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry can lead to environmental arsenic contamination. This study was conducted to reveal the response of soil microbial communities to roxarsone pollution along a concentration gradient. To explore the degradation process and degradation kinetics of roxarsone concentration gradients in soil, the concentration shift of roxarsone at initial concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, as well as that of the arsenic derivatives, was detected. The soil microbial community composition and structure accompanying roxarsone degradation were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that roxarsone degradation was inhibited by a biological inhibitor, confirming that soil microbes were absolutely essential to its degradation. Moreover, soil microbes had considerable potential to degrade roxarsone, as a high initial concentration of roxarsone resulted in a substantially increased degradation rate. The concentrations of the degradation products HAPA (3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), AS(III), and AS(V) in soils were significantly positively correlated. The soil microbial community composition and structure changed significantly across the roxarsone contamination gradient, and the addition of roxarsone decreased the microbial diversity. Some bacteria tended to be inhibited by roxarsone, while Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Arthrobacter, Lysobacter, and Alkaliphilus played important roles in roxarsone degradation. Moreover, HAPA, AS(III), and AS(V) were significantly positively correlated with Symbiobacterium, which dominated soils containing roxarsone, and their abundance increased with increasing initial roxarsone concentration. Accordingly, Symbiobacterium could serve as indicator of arsenic derivatives released by roxarsone as well as the initial roxarsone concentration. This is the first investigation of microbes closely related to roxarsone

  7. Ecological effects of combined pollution associated with e-waste recycling on the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; He, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Xue-Rui; Chen, Wen-Ce; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Huang, Li-Nan

    2015-06-02

    The crude processing of electronic waste (e-waste) has led to serious contamination in soils. While microorganisms may play a key role in remediation of the contaminated soils, the ecological effects of combined pollution (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) on the composition and diversity of microbial communities remain unknown. In this study, a suite of e-waste contaminated soils were collected from Guiyu, China, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analysis. Our data revealed significant differences in microbial taxonomic composition between the contaminated and the reference soils, with Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes dominating the e-waste-affected communities. Genera previously identified as organic pollutants-degrading bacteria, such as Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Alcanivorax, were frequently detected. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that approximately 70% of the observed variation in microbial assemblages in the contaminated soils was explained by eight environmental variables (including soil physiochemical parameters and organic pollutants) together, among which moisture content, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), and copper were the major factors. These results provide the first detailed phylogenetic look at the microbial communities in e-waste contaminated soils, demonstrating that the complex combined pollution resulting from improper e-waste recycling may significantly alter soil microbiota.

  8. Value of mammals trophycal and metabolitycal activity during of soils self-cleaning in conditions of the antropogenyc pollution

    OpenAIRE

    V. L. Zhuk

    2005-01-01

    The influencing of elk and roe deer excrements on radionuckleids migration in the soil horizon under zinc pollution circumstances has been investigated. It is confirmed that mammals excretory activity is an important acting natural ecological factor further radionuckleids quickly redistribution in the soil thus reducing the level of radioactivity and heavy metals

  9. Can the watershed non-point phosphorus pollution be interpreted by critical soil properties? A new insight of different soil P states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Xiong, Junfeng

    2018-07-01

    The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model. Then several critical physicochemical soil properties, especially various soil P compositions, were innovatively introduced to determine the response of the critical soil properties to NPS P pollution. The findings can be summarized: i) the mean PP load value of the different sub-basins was 5.87 kg, and PP pollution is regarded to be the primary NPS P pollution state, while the DP loads increased rapidly under the rapid urbanization process. ii) iron-bound phosphorus (Fe-P) and aluminum-bound phosphorus (Al-P) are the main components of available P and showed the most sensitive responses to NPS PP pollution, and the correlation coefficients were approximately 0.9. Otherwise, the residual phosphorus (Res-P) was selected as a sensitive soil P state that was significantly negatively correlated with the DP loads. iii) The DP and PP concentrations were represented differently when they were correlated with various soil properties, and the clay proportion was strongly negatively related to the PP loads. Meanwhile, there is a non-linear relationship between the DP loads and the critical soil properties, such as Fe and Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Specifically, a strong inhibitory effect of TN concentration on the DP load was apparent in the Nanfei river (NF) and Paihe (PH) river basins where the R 2 reached 0.67, which contrasts with the relatively poor

  10. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  11. Study on the reduction and hysteresis effect of soil nitrogen pollution by Alfalfa in channel buffer bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yixia; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Zhanyu; Li, Dongying

    2018-01-01

    Based on the simulation experiments of solute transport in channel buffer bank and pot experiments, this study analyzed the transport of nitrogen pollution from farmland drains along the South-North Water Transfer east route project; and compared the nitrogen transport rule and purification effect of alfalfa in channel buffer bank soil under situations of bare land and alfalfa mulching. The results showed that: (1) soil nitrogen content decreased gradually with the width increase of channel buffer bank by the soil adsorption and decomposition; (2) the migration rates of nitrogen were 0.06 g·kg-1 by the alfalfa mulching; (3) the removed rates of nitrogen from the soil were 0.088 g·kg-1 by cutting alfalfa; (4) the residual nitrogen of soil with alfalfa was 10% of the bare land. Alfalfa in channel buffer bank had obvious reduction and hysteresis effect to soil nitrogen pollution.

  12. Comparison of soil heavy metal pollution caused by e-waste recycling activities and traditional industrial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kailing; Sun, Zehang; Hu, Yuanan; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-04-01

    The traditional industrial operations are well recognized as an important source of heavy metal pollution, while that caused by the e-waste recycling activities, which have sprouted in some developing countries, is often overlooked. This study was carried out to compare the status of soil heavy metal pollution caused by the traditional industrial operations and the e-waste recycling activities in the Pearl River Delta, and assess whether greater attention should be paid to control the pollution arising from e-waste recycling activities. Both the total contents and the chemical fractionation of major heavy metals (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in 50 surface soil samples collected from the e-waste recycling areas and 20 soil samples from the traditional industrial zones were determined. The results show that the soils in the e-waste recycling areas were mainly polluted by Cu, Zn, As, and Cd, while Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were the major heavy metals in the soils from the traditional industrial zones. Statistical analyses consistently show that Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in the surface soils from both types of sites were contributed mostly by human activities, while As, Cr, and Ni in the soils were dominated by natural background. No clear distinction was found on the pollution characteristic of heavy metals in the surface soils between the e-waste recycling areas and traditional industrial zones. The potential ecological risk posed by heavy metals in the surface soils from both types of sites, which was dominated by that from Cd, ranged from low to moderate. Given the much shorter development history of e-waste recycling and its largely unregulated nature, significant efforts should be made to crack down on illegal e-waste recycling and strengthen pollution control for related activities.

  13. Identification of Heavy Metal Pollution Derived From Traffic in Roadside Soil Using Magnetic Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingguo; Ge, Jing; Yang, Miao

    2017-06-01

    The study integrates surface and vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents (Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe) to characterize the signature of vehicle pollutants in roadside soils at Linfen city, China. Sites with reforestation and without vegetation cover were investigated. The results showed that magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents were higher at the roadside without trees than in the reforest belt. The variations of magnetic susceptibility and heavy metal contents decreased both with distance and with depth. The maximum value was observed at 5-10 m away from the roadside edge. The vertical distribution in soil revealed accumulation of pollutants in 0-5 cm topsoils. The average contents were higher than the background values and in the order Fe (107.21 g kg -1 ), Zn (99.72 mg kg -1 ), Pb (90.99 mg kg -1 ), Cu (36.14 mg kg -1 ). Coarse multi domain grains were identified as the dominating magnetic particles. Multivariate statistical and SEM/EDX analyses suggested that the heavy metals derived from traffic sources. Trees act as efficient receptors and green barrier, which can reduce vehicle derived pollution.

  14. A novel approach for soil contamination assessment from heavy metal pollution: a linkage between discharge and adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoqing; Li, Chaolin; Li, Ji; Wang, Jiaxin; Liu, Suting; Ye, Bin

    2010-03-15

    Soil protection from heavy metal contamination requires scientific assessment on the linkage between site-specific pollutant discharge and environmental effects. However, this kind of linkage is usually disregarded due to the lack of assessment tools in environmental policies, e.g., some developed coastal cities in China have forced their highly polluting industries out to less developed interior areas without consideration of the impacts from pollution transfer. This paper developed a soil adsorption fraction (SAF) model to characterize the emissions-to-adsorption relationship between heavy metal emission and the adsorption by soil. Case studies were carried out for two adjacent southern cities in China, i.e., Guangzhou and Shaoguan. The results indicated that the average SAF of cadmium was 5.38 x 10(-3) for Shaoguan and 1.28 x 10(-3) for Guangzhou, i.e., cadmium released from Shaoguan threatened the soil environment 4.2 times of that from Guangzhou. Further analysis showed the polluting pathway and abundance of water resources were the main influencing factors on SAF. Soil contamination will be exaggerated by relocating heavy metal polluting industries from coastal areas to interior areas. The results should be useful to prompt site-specific policies on heavy metal pollution control. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel approach for soil contamination assessment from heavy metal pollution: A linkage between discharge and adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiaoqing; Li Chaolin; Li Ji; Wang Jiaxin; Liu Suting; Ye Bin

    2010-01-01

    Soil protection from heavy metal contamination requires scientific assessment on the linkage between site-specific pollutant discharge and environmental effects. However, this kind of linkage is usually disregarded due to the lack of assessment tools in environmental policies, e.g., some developed coastal cities in China have forced their highly polluting industries out to less developed interior areas without consideration of the impacts from pollution transfer. This paper developed a soil adsorption fraction (SAF) model to characterize the emissions-to-adsorption relationship between heavy metal emission and the adsorption by soil. Case studies were carried out for two adjacent southern cities in China, i.e., Guangzhou and Shaoguan. The results indicated that the average SAF of cadmium was 5.38 x 10 -3 for Shaoguan and 1.28 x 10 -3 for Guangzhou, i.e., cadmium released from Shaoguan threatened the soil environment 4.2 times of that from Guangzhou. Further analysis showed the polluting pathway and abundance of water resources were the main influencing factors on SAF. Soil contamination will be exaggerated by relocating heavy metal polluting industries from coastal areas to interior areas. The results should be useful to prompt site-specific policies on heavy metal pollution control.

  16. Application of manures to mitigate the harmful effects of electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals on soil microbial properties in polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Nguyen, Thi Thu Nhan; Che, Rongxiao; Phan, Thuc D; Hosseini Bai, Shahla

    2017-12-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) used with electrokinetic (EK) to remediate heavy metal-polluted soils is a toxic chelate for soil microorganisms. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of alternative organic chelates to EDTA on improving the microbial properties of a heavy metal-polluted soil subjected to EK. Cow manure extract (CME), poultry manure extract (PME) and EDTA were applied to a lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn)-polluted calcareous soil which were subjected to two electric intensities (1.1 and 3.3 v/cm). Soil carbon pools, microbial activity, microbial abundance (e.g., fungal, actinomycetes and bacterial abundances) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Pb and Zn (available forms) were assessed in both cathodic and anodic soils. Applying the EK to soil decreased all the microbial variables in the cathodic and anodic soils in the absence or presence of chelates. Both CME and PME applied with two electric intensities decreased the negative effect of EK on soil microbial variables. The lowest values of soil microbial variables were observed when EK was combined with EDTA. The following order was observed in values of soil microbial variables after treating with EK and chelates: EK + CME or EK + PME > EK > EK + EDTA. The CME and PME could increase the concentrations of available Pb and Zn, although the increase was less than that of EDTA. Overall, despite increasing soil available Pb and Zn, the combination of EK with manures (CME or PME) mitigated the negative effects of using EK on soil microbial properties. This study suggested that the synthetic chelates such as EDTA could be replaced with manures to alleviate the environmental risks of EK application.

  17. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  18. Climate change effects on enchytraeid performance in metal-polluted soils explained from changes in metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaraz, M Nazaret; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change may alter physical, chemical and biological properties of ecosystems, affecting organisms but also the fate of chemical pollutants. This study aimed to find out how changes in climate conditions (air temperature, soil moisture content) affect the toxicity of metal-polluted soils to the soft-bodied soil organism Enchytraeus crypticus, linking enchytraeid performance with changes in soil available and body metal concentrations. Bioassays with E. crypticus were performed under different combinations of air temperature (20 and 25 °C) and soil moisture content (50% and 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC) in dilution series of three metal-polluted soils (mine tailing, forest and watercourse). After 21 d exposure, enchytraeid reproduction was determined, and soil available (extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2) and body Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in surviving adults were determined. In general, Cd, Pb and Zn availability decreased upon incubation under the different climate scenarios. In the watercourse soil, with initially higher available metal concentrations (678 µg Cd kg(-1), 807 µg Pb kg(-1) and 31,020 µg Zn kg(-1)), decreases were greatest at 50% WHC probably due to metal immobilization as carbonates. Enchytraeid reproduction was negatively affected by higher available metal concentrations, with reductions up to 98% in the watercourse soil compared to the control soil at 30% WHC. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn was higher when drier conditions were combined with the higher temperature of 25 °C. Changes in metal bioavailability and bioaccumulation explained the toxicity of soil polluted by metal mine wastes to enchytraeids under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lead and Zinc pollution of soils in the Kabwe lead-zinc mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musonda, B.M.; Tembo, F

    2004-01-01

    Lead and Zinc pollution of soils related to mining activities in Kabwe district is one of the major environmental problems in Zambia today. In this study, we investigated the distribution of lead and zinc in topsoil and subsoil. Samples were collected from topsoil(0-20cm) and subsoil(20-50cm)at predetermined sites using a 5km x 5km regional grid and a 500m x 500m local grid. After preparation 260 local and 200 regional samples were analysed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The background levels of cold HNO3 extractable lead and zinc are 50mg/kg and 70mg/kg respectively. The degree of Pb and Zn contamination of the soils varies with proximity of the soils to Kabwe mining centre. The content of Pb and Zn in topsoil that is very close to the mine is up to 1.6% and 3.9% respectively while soils that are very far from the mine generally contain less than 10mg/kg Pb and 20mg/kg Zn. The heavy metal contamination patterns in soils adjacent to the mine have been formed by wind dispersion of particulate matter and dry deposition. The risk of exposure of humans to lead and zinc is very high in areas that are adjacent to the mining centre. (author)

  20. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioremediation of engine oil polluted soil by the tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Singer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenipekun, Clementina O; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy of an indigenous white rot fungus Lentinus squarrosulus in degrading engine oil in soil. Flasks containing sterilized garden soil (100 g) moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were contaminated with engine oil 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40% w/w concentrations, inoculated with L. squarrosulus and incubated at room temperature for 90 days. Levels of organic matter, pH, total hydrocarbon and elemental content (C, Cu, Fe, K, N, Ni, Zn and available P) were determined post-fungal treatment. Results indicate that contaminated soils inoculated with L. squarrosulus had increased organic matter, carbon and available phosphorus, while the nitrogen and available potassium was reduced. A relatively high percentage degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was observed at 1% engine oil concentration (94.46%), which decreased to 64.05% TPH degradation at 40% engine oil contaminated soil after 90 days of incubation. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni recovered from straw/fungal biomass complex increased with the increase of engine-oil contamination and bio-accumulation by the white-rot fungus. The improvement of nutrient content values as well as the bioaccumulation of heavy metals at all levels of engine oil concentrations tested through inoculations with L. squarrosulus is of importance for the bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soils.

  2. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: Co-composting versus incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R.; Nason, Mark A.; Williamson, Julie C.; Jones, Davey L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost. - Co-composting did not provide enhanced stabilization of trace elements over the conventional addition of compost to contaminated land

  3. The maximum reservoir capacity of soils for persistent organic pollutants: implications for global cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Valle, M.; Jurado, E.; Dachs, J.; Sweetman, A.J.; Jones, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of maximum reservoir capacity (MRC), the ratio of the capacities of the surface soil and of the atmospheric mixed layer (AML) to hold chemical under equilibrium conditions, is applied to selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the surface 'skin' (1 mm) of soils. MRC is calculated as a function of soil organic matter (SOM) content and temperature-dependent K OA and mapped globally for selected PCB congeners (PCB-28; -153; -180) and HCB, to identify regions with a higher tendency to retain POPs. It is shown to vary over many orders of magnitude, between compounds, locations and time (seasonally/diurnally). The MRC approach emphasises the very large capacity of soils as a storage compartment for POPs. The theoretical MRC concept is compared to reality and its implications for the global cycling of POPs are discussed. Sharp gradients in soil MRC can exist in mountainous areas and between the land and ocean. Exchanges between oceans and land masses via the atmosphere is likely to be an important driver to the global cycling of these compounds, and net ocean-land transfers could occur in some areas. - Major global terrestrial sinks/stores for POPs are identified and the significance of gradients between them discussed

  4. A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calace, N.; Maggi, C.; Pellegrini, F.; Petronio, B. M.; Pietroletti, M. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    A preliminary study on the effects of sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by heavy metal has been carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of reducing heavy metal mobility. Sewage sludge disposal on soil polluted by zinc and lead can modify their speciation, immobilizing a portion of metal present in mobile forms. In this way environmental hazards due to heavy metal presence can be reduced, because these derive essentially from the amount of metal present in mobile chemical forms. The results obtained show that sludge addition increases the fraction of metal sorbed from the soil; the characterization of the sludge before and after the treatment with the soil point out that this behaviour can be ascribed both to organic substances present in the sludge with the creation of new adsorbing sites, and to an increase of the ph value of the soil, due to the organic and inorganic compounds in the sludge. [Italiano] E` stato condotto uno studio preliminare sugli effetti derivanti dallo spargimento di un fango urbano su un suolo inquinato da metalli pesanti, in modo da valutare la possibilita` di ridurre la mobilita` dei metalli stessi. Il trattamento di un suolo inquinato da zinco e piombo con un fango urbano potrebbe produrre modificazioni sulla speciazione dei metalli immobilizzando una porzione del metallo presente in forma mobile. In tal modo i rischi ambientali dovuti alla presenza dei metalli possono essere ridotti. I risultati ottenuti hanno sottolineato la capacita` del fango di incrementare la frazione di metallo assorbita dal suolo; la caratterizzazione del fango prima e dopo il trattamento con il terreno ha messo in evidenza come tale proprieta` del fango sia imputabile sia alla sostanza organica presente, che assorbendosi sul suolo e` in grado di generare nuovi siti assorbenti, che all`aumento del pH del terreno.

  5. Ecotoxicological characteristic of a soil polluted by radioactive elements and heavy metals before and after its bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, P.; Groudev, S.; Spasova, I.; Nikolova, M.

    2012-04-01

    Cinnamon soils from southeastern Bulgaria are heavily polluted with radionuclides (uranium, radium) and toxic heavy metals (copper and lead) due to the winds transportation of fine particles from flotation dumps to the soil surface. As a result of this, the polluted soils are characterized by a slightly alkaline pH (7.82) and positive net neutralization potential (+136.8 kg CaCO3/t). A fresh sample of cinnamon soil was subjected to remediation under laboratory conditions in four lysimeters each containing 70 kg of soil. The preliminary study revealed that most of the pollutants were presented as carbonate, reducible and oxidisable mobility fractions, i.e. pollutants ions were specifically adsorbed by carbonate and ferric iron minerals or were capsulated in sulfides. The applied soil treatment was connected with leaching of the pollutants located mainly in the horizon A, their transportation through the soil profile as soluble forms, and their precipitation in the rich-in-clay subhorizon B3. The efficiency of leaching depended on the activity of the indigenous microflora and on the chemical processes connected with solubilization of pollutants and formation of stable complexes with some organic compounds, chloride and hydrocarbonate ions. These processes were considerably enhanced by adding hay to the horizon A and irrigating the soil with water solutions containing the above-mentioned ions and some nutrients. After 18 months of treatment, each of the soil profiles in the different lysimeters was divided into five sections reflecting the different soil layers. The soil in these sections was subjected to a detailed chemical analysis and the data obtained were compared with the relevant data obtained before the start of the experiment. The best leaching of pollutants from horizon A was measured in the variants where soil mulching was applied. For example, the best leaching of lead (54.5 %) was found in the variant combining this technique and irrigation with solutions

  6. On the possible role of macrofungi in the biogeochemical fate of uranium in polluted forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubrová, Jaroslava [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Albertov 6, CZ-12843 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Husinec–Řež 130, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Žigová, Anna [Institute of Geology, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojová 269, CZ-16500 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Řanda, Zdeněk [Nuclear Physics Institute, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Husinec–Řež 130, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Rohovec, Jan [Institute of Geology, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojová 269, CZ-16500 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Gryndler, Milan [Institute of Microbiology, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídeňská 1083, CZ-142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Krausová, Ivana [Nuclear Physics Institute, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Husinec–Řež 130, CZ-25068 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Dunn, Colin E. [8756 Pender Park Drive, Sidney, BC, V8L 3Z5 Canada (Canada); Kotrba, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Technická 3, CZ-166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Uranium is not accumulated in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic macrofungi. • Uranium is not accumulated in ectomycorrhizal roots of Picea abies. • Accumulation of metals in macrofungi does not depend on their fractionation in soils. - Abstract: Interactions of macrofungi with U, Th, Pb and Ag were investigated in the former ore mining district of Příbram, Czech Republic. Samples of saprotrophic (34 samples, 24 species) and ectomycorrhizal (38 samples, 26 species) macrofungi were collected from a U-polluted Norway spruce plantation and tailings and analyzed for metal content. In contrast to Ag, which was highly accumulated in fruit-bodies, concentrations of U generally did not exceed 3 mg/kg which indicates a very low uptake rate and efficient exclusion of U from macrofungi. In ectomycorrhizal tips (mostly determined to species level by DNA sequencing), U contents were practically identical with those of the non-mycorrhizal fine spruce roots. These findings suggest a very limited role of macrofungi in uptake and biotransformation of U in polluted forest soils. Furthermore, accumulation of U, Th, Pb and Ag in macrofungal fruit-bodies apparently does not depend on total content and chemical fractionation of these metals in soils (tested by the BCR sequential extraction in this study)

  7. Kinetic modelling of a diesel-polluted clayey soil bioremediation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Engracia Lacasa; Merlo, Elena Moliterni [Chemical Engineering Department, Research Institute for Chemical and Environmental Technology (ITQUIMA), University of Castilla La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Mayor, Lourdes Rodríguez [National Institute for Hydrogen Research, C/Fernando el Santo, 13500 Puertollano (Spain); Camacho, José Villaseñor, E-mail: jose.villasenor@uclm.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Research Institute for Chemical and Environmental Technology (ITQUIMA), University of Castilla La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to describe a diesel-polluted clayey soil bioremediation process. The reaction system under study was considered a completely mixed closed batch reactor, which initially contacted a soil matrix polluted with diesel hydrocarbons, an aqueous liquid-specific culture medium and a microbial inoculation. The model coupled the mass transfer phenomena and the distribution of hydrocarbons among four phases (solid, S; water, A; non-aqueous liquid, NAPL; and air, V) with Monod kinetics. In the first step, the model simulating abiotic conditions was used to estimate only the mass transfer coefficients. In the second step, the model including both mass transfer and biodegradation phenomena was used to estimate the biological kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. In both situations, the model predictions were validated with experimental data that corresponded to previous research by the same authors. A correct fit between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed because the modelling curves captured the major trends for the diesel distribution in each phase. The model parameters were compared to different previously reported values found in the literature. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to show the reproducibility level of the model. - Highlights: • A mathematical model is proposed to describe a soil bioremediation process. • The model couples mass transfer phenomena among phases with biodegradation. • Model predictions were validated with previous data reported by the authors. • A correct fit and correlation coefficients were observed.

  8. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  9. On the possible role of macrofungi in the biogeochemical fate of uranium in polluted forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubrová, Jaroslava; Žigová, Anna; Řanda, Zdeněk; Rohovec, Jan; Gryndler, Milan; Krausová, Ivana; Dunn, Colin E.; Kotrba, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Uranium is not accumulated in ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic macrofungi. • Uranium is not accumulated in ectomycorrhizal roots of Picea abies. • Accumulation of metals in macrofungi does not depend on their fractionation in soils. - Abstract: Interactions of macrofungi with U, Th, Pb and Ag were investigated in the former ore mining district of Příbram, Czech Republic. Samples of saprotrophic (34 samples, 24 species) and ectomycorrhizal (38 samples, 26 species) macrofungi were collected from a U-polluted Norway spruce plantation and tailings and analyzed for metal content. In contrast to Ag, which was highly accumulated in fruit-bodies, concentrations of U generally did not exceed 3 mg/kg which indicates a very low uptake rate and efficient exclusion of U from macrofungi. In ectomycorrhizal tips (mostly determined to species level by DNA sequencing), U contents were practically identical with those of the non-mycorrhizal fine spruce roots. These findings suggest a very limited role of macrofungi in uptake and biotransformation of U in polluted forest soils. Furthermore, accumulation of U, Th, Pb and Ag in macrofungal fruit-bodies apparently does not depend on total content and chemical fractionation of these metals in soils (tested by the BCR sequential extraction in this study)

  10. COPPER ACCUMULATION IN SOILS AND VEGETATION OF POLLUTED AREA COPŞA MICĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Vrînceanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study carried out in order to estimate the distribution and accumulation of copper in soils and vegetation fromCopşa Mică area used a radial network centered in the source of pollution – S.C. SOMETRA S.A. Copşa Mică. Soil andplant samples taken from the radial nodes of the network were analyzed to determine the content of copper. Values ofcopper content in plant ranged between 4.2 mg/kg and 97 mg/kg. Based on these results has been obtained a regressionequation that estimates the copper content in plants as function of the total copper content in soil. The spontaneousvegetation developed in the investigated area includes plants belonging to the following species: Amaranthusretroflexus, Artemisia vulgaris, Asclepias syriaca, Calamagrostis epigeios, Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, Cynodondactylon, Daucus carota, Equisetum arvense, Phragmites australis, Picris hieracioides, Setaria glauca, Sinapisarvensis, Verbascum phlomoides and Xanthium strumarium. The copper pollution doesn’t represent a major problem inCopşa Mică area.

  11. Cosorption study of organic pollutants and dissolved organic matter in a soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Cespedes, F. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Perez, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain)]. E-mail: mfernand@ual.es; Villafranca-Sanchez, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Gonzalez-Pradas, E. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Almeria, La Canada de San Urbano s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    In this study we have evaluated the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sorption of imidacloprid, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and 4-bromoaniline (4-BA) on a typical calcareous soil (Luvic Xerosol) from south-eastern Spain. Two different types of DOM were used, that is to say, dissolved natural organic matter extracts from a commercial peat (DNOM) and a high-purity tannic acid (TA) solution. The experiments were carried out in a 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} aqueous medium at 25 deg. C. The results indicated that the presence of both DNOM and TA, over a concentration range of 15-100 mg L{sup -1}, produced an increase in the amount of 3,4-DCA and 4-BA sorbed and a decrease in the amount of imidacloprid retained on the soil studied. A modified distribution coefficient, K {sub doc}, has been proposed as a safer parameter for soil sorption predictions of organic pollutants and it could be of help to model the fate of these in the environment. - Cosorption of organic pollutants and DOM.

  12. Cosorption study of organic pollutants and dissolved organic matter in a soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Cespedes, F.; Fernandez-Perez, M.; Villafranca-Sanchez, M.; Gonzalez-Pradas, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study we have evaluated the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sorption of imidacloprid, 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) and 4-bromoaniline (4-BA) on a typical calcareous soil (Luvic Xerosol) from south-eastern Spain. Two different types of DOM were used, that is to say, dissolved natural organic matter extracts from a commercial peat (DNOM) and a high-purity tannic acid (TA) solution. The experiments were carried out in a 0.01 M CaCl 2 aqueous medium at 25 deg. C. The results indicated that the presence of both DNOM and TA, over a concentration range of 15-100 mg L -1 , produced an increase in the amount of 3,4-DCA and 4-BA sorbed and a decrease in the amount of imidacloprid retained on the soil studied. A modified distribution coefficient, K doc , has been proposed as a safer parameter for soil sorption predictions of organic pollutants and it could be of help to model the fate of these in the environment. - Cosorption of organic pollutants and DOM

  13. Studies concerning the decontamination of hydrocarbons- polluted soil areas using bioremediation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deac, C.; Barbulescu, A.; Gligor, A.; Bibu, M.; Petrescu, V.

    2016-11-01

    The accidental or historic contamination of soils with hydrocarbons, in areas crossed by oil pipelines or where oil- or gas-extraction installations are located, is a major concern and has significant financial and ecological consequences, both for the owners of those areas and for the oil transportation or exploitation companies. Therefore it is very important to find the optimal method for removing the pollution. The current paper presents measures, mainly involving bioremediation, recommended and applied for the depollution of a contaminated area in Romania. While the topic of dealing with polluted soils is well-established in the Romanian speciality literature, bioremediation is a relatively novel approach and this paper presents important considerations in this regard. Contaminated soil samples were taken from 10 different locations within the targeted area and subjected to a thorough physical and chemical analysis, which led to determining a specific scoring table for assessing the bioremediation potential of the various samples. This has allowed the authors to establish for each of the sampled areas the best mix of factors such as nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), gypsum, microelements etc., that would lead to obtaining the best results in terms of the contaminants' biodegradation.

  14. Kinetic modelling of a diesel-polluted clayey soil bioremediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Engracia Lacasa; Merlo, Elena Moliterni; Mayor, Lourdes Rodríguez; Camacho, José Villaseñor

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to describe a diesel-polluted clayey soil bioremediation process. The reaction system under study was considered a completely mixed closed batch reactor, which initially contacted a soil matrix polluted with diesel hydrocarbons, an aqueous liquid-specific culture medium and a microbial inoculation. The model coupled the mass transfer phenomena and the distribution of hydrocarbons among four phases (solid, S; water, A; non-aqueous liquid, NAPL; and air, V) with Monod kinetics. In the first step, the model simulating abiotic conditions was used to estimate only the mass transfer coefficients. In the second step, the model including both mass transfer and biodegradation phenomena was used to estimate the biological kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. In both situations, the model predictions were validated with experimental data that corresponded to previous research by the same authors. A correct fit between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed because the modelling curves captured the major trends for the diesel distribution in each phase. The model parameters were compared to different previously reported values found in the literature. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to show the reproducibility level of the model. - Highlights: • A mathematical model is proposed to describe a soil bioremediation process. • The model couples mass transfer phenomena among phases with biodegradation. • Model predictions were validated with previous data reported by the authors. • A correct fit and correlation coefficients were observed.

  15. Evolution of microbial communities during electrokinetic treatment of antibiotic-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongna; Li, Binxu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhu, Changxiong; Tian, Yunlong; Ye, Jing

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of microbial communities during the electrokinetic treatment of antibiotic-polluted