WorldWideScience

Sample records for politically sensitive areas

  1. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  2. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  3. Digital Learning Aids for Nynorsk Pupils in School: - A Politically Sensitive Area or a Question of a Deeper Scientific Understanding of Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Johan Krumsvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This position paper focuses on Nynorsk in the digital era and the need for research-based knowledge about it in school settings in Norway. The Norwegian language situation is exceptional because Norway has two written standards, Bokmål (majority variety and Nynorsk (minority variety, and both the Education Act and the Norwegian Directorate of Education require that publishers provide parallel editions of all paper-based and digital learning aids for pupils. However, a national report by Skjær,Eiksund, Fretland, Holen & Netteland(2008 revealed that few publishers have developed and offered digital learning aids in Nynorsk. In 2015 the situation appears to be largely unchanged, even though the authorities, language organisations and “leadings lights” have taken several initiatives to encourage compliance with the Education Act; however, what is needed is further research into the situation of parallel editions of digital learning aids. This is of particular interest today since the pupils in the county with the highest rate (97% of Nynorsk-pupils has consistently been at the top of the list as one of the best performing counties in Norway in national tests since 2006 (Directorate of Education 2015. In addition, Vangsnes, Söderlund & Blekesaune (2015 find that municipalities in Norway with more than 50% Nynorsk-pupils achieve better in National tests when compared to Bokmål municipalities. The main message in our position paper is that the digital revolution might have changed some underlying premises for how we understand and use language and dialects, and the need for parallel editions of digital learning aids in Bokmål and Nynorsk is no longer a question of economics or of political statements for or against Nynorsk, etc., but is instead a question of a more nuanced scientific understanding of learning and achievement in today’s digitized school. The achievements of Nynorsk pupils in national tests is one indicator of school

  4. Origin of political conflict in Arctic wilderness areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Gladden

    2002-01-01

    There are several important factors related to political conflict associated with arctic wilderness areas: scientific studies, economic interests, ethnic identities, geographic differences, and national histories. How groups with an interest in these wilderness areas inject their values into these factors stimulates political debate with each other and with stewarding...

  5. Computational and Simulation Modeling of Political Attitudes: The 'Tiger' Area of Political Culture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost one century long history, political attitudes modeling research has accumulated a critical mass of theory and method. Its characteristics and particularities have often suggested that political attitude approach to political persuasion modeling reveals a strong theoretical autonomy of concept which entitles it to become a new separate discipline of research. Though this did not actually happen, political attitudes modeling research has remained the most challenging area – the “tiger” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times. Several computational and simulation modeling paradigms have provided support to political attitudes modeling research. These paradigms and the shift from one to another are briefly presented for a period of time of almost one century. The dominant paradigmatic views are those inspired by the Newtonian mechanics, and those based on the principle of methodological individualism and the emergence of macro phenomena from the individual interactions at the micro level of a society. This period of time is divided in eight ages covering the history of ideas in a wide range of political domains, going from political attitudes to polity modeling. Internal and external pressures for paradigmatic change are briefly explained.

  6. Biodiversity mapping in sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Tor; Ulssnes, Amund; Nissen-Lie, Torild [DNV, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    When oil companies are entering new unexplored areas their potential footprint on the environment should be measured in a way that necessary action could be included in the planning of the activity. These actions should reduce the impact to accepted levels. Traditional baseline studies, including sediment and macro fauna sampling, are carried out in homogeneous areas. In heterogeneous and unexplored areas there is a need for more information than these traditional sediment analyses can give. To increase the knowledge from specific areas biodiversity mapping has been carried out. To combine the knowledge from ROV surveys, modelling, current measurements, sediment characteristics, seismic, macro fauna and background levels of chemicals contents in the sediments, both prior to the exploration, and after the drilling have taken place the operator can document their footprint on the marine environment. (author)

  7. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents point equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas in EPA New England. This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally...

  8. Political Differences in Past, Present, and Future Life Satisfaction: Republicans Are More Sensitive than Democrats to Political Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R.; Omorogbe, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Previous research finds that Republicans report being happier or more satisfied with their lives than Democrats. Using representative American samples from 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2010, we tested a Person × Situation interactionist account in which political affiliation (Democrat, Republican) and political climate (favorable when the president in office is of the same party) are proposed to affect past, present, and anticipated future life satisfaction. Meta-analyses of related tests of key hypotheses confirmed that (a) life satisfaction was greater when the political climate was favorable rather than unfavorable and (b) Republicans were more sensitive to political climate than Democrats. As predicted, Republicans also were more politically polarized than Democrats. Taken together, the findings indicate that, compared to Democrats, Republicans are more apt to self-identify in political terms, and core aspects of their subjective well-being are more easily affected by the outcome of political events. PMID:24901253

  9. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  10. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative...

  11. Extending the the behavioral immune system to political psychology: are political conservatism and disgust sensitivity really related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybur, Joshua M; Merriman, Leslie A; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell; McDonald, Melissa M; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2010-10-26

    Previous research suggests that several individual and cultural level attitudes, cognitions, and societal structures may have evolved to mitigate the pathogen threats posed by intergroup interactions. It has been suggested that these anti-pathogen defenses are at the root of conservative political ideology. Here, we test a hypothesis that political conservatism functions as a pathogen-avoidance strategy. Across three studies, we consistently find no relationship between sensitivity to pathogen disgust and multiple measures of political conservatism. These results are contrasted with theoretical perspectives suggesting a relationship between conservatism and pathogen avoidance, and with previous findings of a relationship between conservatism and disgust sensitivity.

  12. EPA Region 1 Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage represents polygon equivalents of environmentally sensitive areas (ESA) in EPA Region I. ESAs were developed as part of an EPA headquarters initiative based on reviews of various regulatory and guidance documents, as well as phone interviews with federal/state/local government agencies and private organizations. ESAs include, but are not limited to, wetlands, biological resources, habitats, national parks, archaeological/historic sites, natural heritage areas, tribal lands, drinking water intakes, marinas/boat ramps, wildlife areas, etc.

  13. Sensitivity of permanent meadows areas. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcelot, L.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work proposed in the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project on the permanent meadows areas is to compare the sensitivity of these surfaces and cheese maker sector which are associated with them, and to identify the processes which determine this sensitivity. The realization of this objective will lean on certain data of activities acquired recently by the I.R.S.N. (compartments: soils, herb, milk and cheese), as well as on new measures, on three sites: Saint-Laurent-de-Geris ( West), Beaune-Le-Froid ( center), and Massif of Jura (East). Two scales of transfers observation and sensitivity are retained. In a first time, the sensitivity of meadows areas will studied at the regional scale, from data acquired in the Massif du Jura ( between 300 and 1200 metres up). In a second time, a study will allow to compare the sensitivity of three areas retained (West, Center, East) at the national scale. The expertise will be focused on the factors of sensitivity of the transfer soil-herb and the factors of sensitivity bound to the cheese makers sectors. The data of the already available zones of study create strong variabilities of the rates of 137 Cs transfer in the interfaces soil / herb and herb / milk, letting suppose that the nature of soils, the quantity and the quality of food ingested by the cattle constitutes dominating factors of sensitivity. Besides, the size of the basin of milk collection, extremely variable from a site of study in the other one, has to influence the contamination of cheeses and as such, it establishes an important factor of sensitivity of the cheese makers sector. (N.C.)

  14. Exploration in sensitive areas: Convincing the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Exmouth region WA is known for the Ningaloo Reef, an environmentally sensitive region covered by petroleum exploration permits. This paper discusses the issue of carrying out drilling operations in an environmentally sensitive area. Despite the successful drilling of two wells in the area in 1993, and an environmental management strategy developed by the operating company, the continuing policy of not allowing drilling in Ningaloo Marine Park was an example of government, the local community and the widespread public disregarding of scientific evidence and the environmental record of the oil and gas industry. Nevertheless, the communications program was a success and the exploration company now has an environmental policy that reflects the importance of community and government education and consultation. 1 fig., 1 photo., 11 refs

  15. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  16. X ray sensitive area detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor); Yost, Vaughn H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device is disclosed which comprises a phosphor-containing film capable of receiving and storing an image formed by a pattern of incoming x rays, UV, or other radiation falling on the film. The device is capable of fluorescing in response to stimulation by a light source in a manner directly proportional to the stored radiation pattern. The device includes: (1) a light source capable of projecting light or other appropriate electromagnetic wave on the film so as to cause it to fluoresce; (2) a means to focus the fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film after light stimulation; and (3) at least one charged coupled detector or other detecting element capable of receiving and digitizing the pattern of fluoresced light coming from the phosphor-containing film. The device will be able to generate superior x ray images of high resolution from a crystal or other sample and will be particularly advantageous in that instantaneous near-real-time images of rapidly deteriorating samples can be obtained. Furthermore, the device can be made compact and sturdy, thus capable of carrying out x ray or other radiation imaging under a variety of conditions, including those experienced in space.

  17. Large area two dimensional position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sann, H.; Olmi, A.; Lynen, U.; Stelzer, H.; Gobbi, A.; Bock, R.

    1979-02-01

    After an introduction, a position-sensitive ionization chamber, a parallel-plate detector, and a multiwire position-sensitive chamber are described. Then the data acquisition and analysis methods are considered. Furthermore, the experimental methods for a multi-parameter experiment are described. Finally, the measurement of gamma-ray and neutron multiplicities and sequential fission is considered, and the results are presented. (HSI) [de

  18. Reflexive Positioning in a Politically Sensitive Situation: Dealing with the Threats of Researching the West Bank Settler Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possick, Chaya

    2009-01-01

    For the past 7 years, the author has conducted qualitative research projects revolving around the experiences of West Bank settlers. The political situation in Israel in general, and the West Bank in particular, has undergone rapid and dramatic political, military, and social changes during this period. In highly politically sensitive situations…

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  20. Confronting stillbirths and newborn deaths in areas of conflict and political instability: a neglected global imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul H; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite considerable improvements in reproductive and newborn health throughout the world, relatively poor outcomes persist in areas plagued by conflict or political instability. To assess the contribution of areas of conflict and instability to global patterns of stillbirths and newborn deaths and to identify opportunities for effective intervention in these areas. Analysis of the available data on stillbirths and neonatal mortality in association with conflict and governance indicators, and review of epidemiological and political literature pertaining to the provision of health and public services in areas of conflict and instability. Of the 15 countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates in the world, 14 are characterized by chronic conflict or political instability. If India and China are excluded, countries experiencing chronic conflict or political instability account for approximately 42% of all neonatal deaths worldwide. Efforts to address adverse reproductive and newborn outcomes in these areas must adapt recommended intervention protocols to the special security and governance conditions associated with unstable political environment. Despite troubling relative and absolute indicators, the special requirements of improving reproductive and neonatal outcomes in areas affected by conflict and political instability have not received adequate attention. New integrated political and technical strategies will be required. This should include moving beyond traditional approaches concerned with complex humanitarian emergencies. Rather, global efforts must be based on a deeper understanding of the specific governance requirements associated with protracted and widespread health requirements. A focus on women's roles, regional strategies which take advantage of relative stability and governance capacity in neighbouring states, virtual infrastructure, and assistance regimens directed specifically to unstable areas may prove useful.

  1. When Politics Matters: The Impact of Politicians' and Bureaucrats' Policy Preferences on Salient and Nonsalient Policy Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Martin; Blom-Hansen, Jens; Serritzlew, Søren

    2015-01-01

    whether politics still matters when bureaucratic preferences are taken into account. We do this in a simultaneous test of political and bureaucratic influences on public budgets, a policy measure often studied in the ‘politics matters’ literature. We find that political preferences trump bureaucratic ones...... in policy areas salient to the public, but not in less salient areas. This might be comforting news from a democratic perspective. However, since public budgets represent an easy case for political influence, it is food for thought that political preferences do not always prevail....

  2. Identifying environmentally sensitive areas under the Oil Pollution Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Pease, A.L.; Watson, S.N.; Wasel, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Section 4202(a)(6) of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA) requires the President to issue regulations that require owners or operators of tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities that could impact environmentally sensitive areas, drinking water intakes, and other economically sensitive areas to prepare and submit plans for responding to a worst case discharge of oil and to a substantial threat of such a discharge. The authority to implement the response plan regulations has been delegated to various agencies, including the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Transportation. In addition, Area Committees designated under the OPA are responsible for assuring preplanning of response efforts, including procedures for protecting environmentally sensitive areas, and protection, rescue and rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife. Area Contingency Plans for each of the designated areas will describe the areas of special economic and environmental importance that might be damaged by discharges. This paper will discuss and compare the identification of environmentally sensitive areas and vulnerability analyses required as elements of response plans for agencies implementing regulations under the OPA authority. This paper will also describe the progress of the Area Committees with respect to contingency planning development for protection of environmentally sensitive areas

  3. Justice concerns can feed nationalistic concerns and impede solidarity in the euro crisis : How victim sensitivity translates into political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothmund, T.; Stavrova, O.; Schlösser, T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how victim sensitivity and news media exposure conjointly contribute to the formation of political attitudes in the context of the euro crisis. Study 1 (N = 208) showed that observer-sensitive individuals were more likely and victim-sensitive individuals were less likely to support

  4. CRIMINAL-POLITICAL FUTUROLOGY IN THE FIELD OF FIGHTING CRIME (CONCEPTUAL AND SUBJECT AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Novichkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the subject area of the new direction of pre-vision — criminal-political futurology (forecasting in the field of combating crime, absorbing in itself the main types of legal prediction: criminological, criminal, criminal Executive, criminal procedural, operational search and other.

  5. Note: Anodic bonding with cooling of heat-sensitive areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Henriksen, Toke Riishøj

    2010-01-01

    Anodic bonding of silicon to glass always involves heating the glass and device to high temperatures so that cations become mobile in the electric field. We present a simple way of bonding thin silicon samples to borosilicate glass by means of heating from the glass side while locally cooling hea......-sensitive areas from the silicon side. Despite the high thermal conductivity of silicon, this method allows a strong anodic bond to form just millimeters away from areas essentially at room temperature....

  6. Identifying sensitive areas on intercultural contacts: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the negative influence that cultural friction areas can promote on intercultural contacts. First, we expose the critical incident method like cross-cultural training model (Arthur, 2001. Then we show the negative effects that sensitive cultural zones can exert on the formation of prejudices and stereotypes about culturally diverse groups, analyzing 77 critical incidents collected in two different formative contexts. The main cultural shock areas detected are a intercultural communication barriers, b gender roles, and c the cultural expressions statement. Strategies to improve the method validity are proposed.

  7. Mapping of transport sensitive areas - Task 3.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münier, Bernd

    and retrieval of data available for pan European mapping exercises revealed a considerable number of high resolution maps suitable for production of map examples. The results have been documented as a spreadsheet, containing essential sets of metadata. Furthermore, it could be realised that the number...... and related sensitive areas in the EU deals with the operationalisation of the criteria for transport sensitivity and impacts, as defined in D2. This paper reports the findings of task 3.1, a Review on spatial approaches, mapping examples and available data sets at EU level. The outcomes of this task...... and quality of map data available is constantly increasing, both with regard to coverage of existing maps and the release of new maps or maps harmonised from national mapping tasks. Main data gaps seem to be within data on meteorology and air quality, as they only exist in rather coarse spatial resolution...

  8. Quantitative Study of Green Area for Climate Sensitive Terraced Housing Area Design in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, O T S; Saito, K; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Neighbourhood plays a significant role in peoples' daily lives. Nowadays, terraced housing is common in Malaysia, and green areas in the neighborhood are not used to their maximum. The aim of the research is to quantify the types of green area that are most efficient for cooling the environment for thermal comfort and mitigation of Urban Heat Island. Spatial and environmental inputs are manipulated for the simulation using Geographic Information System (GIS) integrated with computational microclimate simulation. The outcome of this research is a climate sensitive housing environment model framework on the green area to solve the problem of Urban Heat Island

  9. Managing artisanal and small-scale mining in forest areas: perspectives from a poststructural political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirons, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) is an activity intimately associated with social deprivation and environmental degradation, including deforestation. This paper examines ASM and deforestation using a broadly poststructural political ecology framework. Hegemonic discourses are shown to consistently influence policy direction, particularly in emerging approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility and the Forest Stewardship Council. A review of alternative discourses reveals that the poststructural method is useful for critiquing the international policy arena but does not inform new approaches. Synthesis of the analysis leads to conclusions that echo a growing body of literature advocating for policies to become increasingly sensitive to local contexts, synergistic between actors at difference scales, and to be integrated across sectors.

  10. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  11. DIFFICULTIES IN INTERNATIONAL TRAVELLING FOR RESIDENTS OF AREAS WITH UNDEFINED POLITICAL STATUS. CASE STUDY: CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan Constantin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In March 2014 a change took place on Europe's political map. The Crimean Peninsula became part of Russia, switching sovereignty after more than 20 years during which it was part of Ukraine. This took place following a Russian military intervention and a referendum. A majority of the world's countries however, do not recognize the Russian control of Crimea and still consider it a part of Ukraine, rendering the territory an area with undefined political status. Shortly after the sovereignty change, the region and its population started experiencing all kinds of hardships. An often neglected type of hardship Crimeans are experiencing is the difficulty of obtaining visas. Following the referendum, many diplomatic missions in Russia have instituted a policy of not issuing visas to residents of Crimea who apply with Russian-issued documents. This article shall make a summary of EU and Schengen countries' positions regarding this issue, as these are the biggest groups of countries that requires both Russians and Ukrainians to obtain visas before travelling there. This research was made mostly directly, by requesting each country's diplomatic mission in Moscow to give an official position. The research had the purpose of verifying the information that certain countries do issue visas to Crimeans with Russian documents and also to give a more general and complex picture on the matter of visas for residents of Crimea. This theme is important as a policy of not issuing visas has significant repercussions on the region's economy and on the freedom of movement of its citizens.

  12. Readout for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiming [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Yang, Yigang, E-mail: yangyigang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    A neutron sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector was developed for neutron imaging on the beamline of a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS). The detector was set up with a Wedge-and-Strip Anode (WSA) and a delay line anode readout to compare the spatial resolution and throughput with these two anodes. Tests show that the WSA readout is suitable for small area imaging with a spatial resolution of 200 μm with low energy X-rays in a 50 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly. However, the spatial resolution deteriorated to ~2 mm in a 106 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly because the noise caused by the parasitic capacitance is 10 times larger in the larger assembly than in the 50 mm diameter assembly. A 120 mm by 120 mm delay line anode was then used for the 106 mm MCP readout. The spatial resolution was evaluated for various voltages applied to the MCP V-stack, various readout voltages and various distances between the MCP V-stack rear face and the delay line. The delay line readout had resolutions of 65.6 μm in the x direction and 63.7 μm in the y direction and the throughput was greater than 600 kcps. The MCP was then used to acquire a neutron image of an USAF1951 Gd-mask.

  13. Sensitivity of marine protected area network connectivity to atmospheric variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alan D; Henry, Lea-Anne; Corne, David W; Roberts, J Murray

    2016-11-01

    International efforts are underway to establish well-connected systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) covering at least 10% of the ocean by 2020. But the nature and dynamics of ocean ecosystem connectivity are poorly understood, with unresolved effects of climate variability. We used 40-year runs of a particle tracking model to examine the sensitivity of an MPA network for habitat-forming cold-water corals in the northeast Atlantic to changes in larval dispersal driven by atmospheric cycles and larval behaviour. Trajectories of Lophelia pertusa larvae were strongly correlated to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant pattern of interannual atmospheric circulation variability over the northeast Atlantic. Variability in trajectories significantly altered network connectivity and source-sink dynamics, with positive phase NAO conditions producing a well-connected but asymmetrical network connected from west to east. Negative phase NAO produced reduced connectivity, but notably some larvae tracked westward-flowing currents towards coral populations on the mid-Atlantic ridge. Graph theoretical metrics demonstrate critical roles played by seamounts and offshore banks in larval supply and maintaining connectivity across the network. Larval longevity and behaviour mediated dispersal and connectivity, with shorter lived and passive larvae associated with reduced connectivity. We conclude that the existing MPA network is vulnerable to atmospheric-driven changes in ocean circulation.

  14. Environmental issues and solutions for exploratory drilling in sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Chevron USA Production Company (CPDN), the National Forest Service (FS) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) successfully utilized a multi-disciplinary team approach to design and implement innovative environmental solutions to drill the 8,000 foot deep, Hunter Creek exploratory well. The project was located in the Bridger-Teton National Forest, less than 20 miles from Grand Teton National Park. Acquiring permission from the FS, the BLM, and ultimately, the public to drill the Hunter Creek well involved substantial teamwork in identifying many potential, environmental pitfalls. Creative, workable and cost-effective mitigation measures employed at Hunter Creek included: utilizing a helicopter and limiting vehicle use of an existing road, conducting environmental and safety training, an erosion control and reclamation plan, designing an environmentally friendly, near-zero-discharge drilling location, initiating a water quality monitoring program to establish baseline data and to ensure protection of surface and ground water, designing a waste minimization plan, identifying threatened and endangered and special status species possibly affected by project activities, and ensuring compliance with all mitigation measures and Federal and State regulations. The Hunter Creek project successfully demonstrates that oil and gas exploration can be conducted with a soft footprint in environmentally sensitive areas if mitigation measures are front-end loaded in the project and honored by all personnel involved. Teamwork, training and communication were found to be indispensable components of achieving success at Hunter Creek

  15. Frequency of Sensitization to Animals in a Tropical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pet avoidance is commonly recommended to allergic patients, even if an IgE-mediated sensitization has not been demonstrated. This management is difficult to accomplish by patients with emotional attachment to their pets and the effectiveness is controversial. Objective: To assess the sensitization to different animals among patients with asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and/or dermatitis. Patients and method: A retrospective study was performed with 300 previously reported patients with asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and/ or dermatitis; we organized two groups: Group 1 included patients who were tested skin sensitization to both dog and cat. Group 2 was comprised of all patients with skin testing droppings or feathers of birds (canary, parrot, pigeon or hen. Results: Sensitization to cat and especially to dog was high (7% and 47%, respectively. The co-sensitization to dog was high among patients sensitized to cat (85%. Sensitization to other epithelia (horse, hamster, rabbit, cow was low. About birds, there was a greater sensitization to proteins contained in the feces than in the feathers, pigeon sensitization was the most frequent. We observed no differences in the pattern of sensitization among patients according to age, gender or allergic symptoms. Conclusions: The frequency of co-sensitization with cat and dog was high, which may be explained by shared proteins between the two species as lipocalins. About birds, the proteins in pigeon droppings were the main cause of sensitization; however, it does not seem to share cross-reactivity with other birds and the frequency was relatively low compared with epithelia allergens.

  16. Regional International Courts in Search of Relevance - Adjudicating Politically Sensitive Disputes in Central America and the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    The Central American and of the Caribbean Courts of Justice (CACJ and CCJ) are hybrid judicial institutions. While their Member States chiefly envisaged them as EU-style regional economic courts, they have explored the whole extension of their formally delegated functions and have developed pecul...... sensitive issues becomes less surprising, and – the article argues – it constitutes part of a strategy of the judges to legitimize the two Courts vis-à-vis their peculiar institutional, political, and social environments....... peculiar expertise in matters relating to freedom of movement, human and fundamental rights, and mega-politics. The article explains how two ICs seemingly established to build common markets have come to rule on high-stakes political disputes, which, ostensibly, have little to do with regional economic...... integration. The article posits that the scholarship on delegation to ICs is only partially able to provide an answer to this question. It, hence, suggests an alternative theoretical framework by relying on transnational field theory and reflexive sociology. The article demonstrates that, despite the rhetoric...

  17. Environmental risk of oil production in sensitive areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Salve; Larsen, Lars-Henrik

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses sensitive areas in the Arctic regions with focus on the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various ecosystem problems related to oil and gas production are pointed out. Characteristics of particularly sensitive areas are mentioned and some examples of vulnerable areas are discussed (tk)

  18. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat Areas 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Ecological areas as identified and collected by BEACON and submitted to CSMW as part of the Central Coast (from Pt. Conception to Pt. Mugu) Coastal Regional Sediment...

  19. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Sensitive Habitat Areas 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Ecological areas as identified and collected by BEACON and submitted to CSMW as part of the Central Coast (from Pt. Conception to Pt. Mugu) Coastal Regional Sediment...

  20. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  1. "So, is that your 'relative' or mine?" A political-ecological critique of census-based area deprivation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-10-01

    Census-based deprivation indices have been widely used in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and UK to measure area-based socio-economic inequalities. This paper examines the indicators used in census-based area deprivation indices using a political ecology approach. We question whether the current indicators of deprivation derived from census data are meaningful for the all age groups and minority groups in the population, with a particular focus on deprivation indicators used in New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. We comparatively reviewed methodological papers and reports that describe the indicators of deprivation in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Canada and the UK from 1975 to 2014. We consider the relationship between the notion of standards of living and measurements of deprivation and explore how hegemonic cultural constructs are implicit in measures of deprivation that privilege a Eurocentric, ageist and gender normative construction of statistics. We argue for more political ecological analyses to studying the relationship between social inequalities, geographies, health inequities and political economy to transform structures of oppression and inequality. This requires turning the analytical gaze on the wealthy and privileged instead of defaulting into deficit models to account for inequality. Studies of deprivation and inequality would benefit from understanding the processes and operations of power in the (re)production of socio-economic and health inequities to inform holistic strategies for social justice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Tourism function zoning of Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province based on ecological sensitivity analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lin-sheng; Tang, Cheng-cai; Guo, Hua

    2010-07-01

    Based on the statistical data of natural ecology and social economy in Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area in Qinghai Province in 2008, an evaluation index system for the ecological sensitivity of this area was established from the aspects of protected area rank, vegetation type, slope, and land use type. The ecological sensitivity of the sub-areas with higher tourism value and ecological function in the area was evaluated, and the tourism function zoning of these sub-areas was made by the technology of GIS and according to the analysis of eco-environmental characteristics and ecological sensitivity of each sensitive sub-area. It was suggested that the Jinyintan Grassland Scenic Area could be divided into three ecological sensitivity sub-areas (high, moderate, and low), three tourism functional sub-areas (restricted development ecotourism, moderate development ecotourism, and mass tourism), and six tourism functional sub-areas (wetland protection, primitive ecological sightseeing, agriculture and pasture tourism, grassland tourism, town tourism, and rural tourism).

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for artificial reefs, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Management Areas, National Wildlife Refuges, and...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Florida Panhandle: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, Management Areas, National Forests, National Park Service properties, Parks, and...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Designated Critical Habitats, wildlife refuges, management areas, National Forests, National Parks, National Park...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  7. Design principles of water sensitive in settlement area on the river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryanti, E.; Hasriyanti, N.; Utami, W. D.

    2018-03-01

    This research will formulate the principle of designing settlement area of Kapuas River Pontianak with the approach of water sensitive concept of urban design (WSUD) the densely populated settlement area. By using a case study the approach that is a dense settlement area located on the banks of the river with literature study techniques to formulate the aspects considered and components that are set in the design, descriptive analysis with the rationalistic paradigm for identification characteristics of the settlement in the river banks areas with consideration of WSUD elements and formulate the principles of designing water-sensitive settlement areas. This research is important to do because the problems related to the water management system in the existing riverside settlement in Pontianak has not been maximal to do. So the primary of this research contains several objectives that will be achieved that is identifying the characteristics of riverside settlement area based on consideration of design aspects of the area that are sensitive to water and the principle of designing the area so that the existing problem structure will be formulated in relation to the community’s need for infrastructure in settlement environment and formulate and develop appropriate technology guidelines for integrated water management systems in riverside settlement areas and design techniques for water-sensitive settlements (WSUD).

  8. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Decoding facial expressions based on face-selective and motion-sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Xu, Junhai; Zhang, Gaoyan; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan; Wang, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas. In a block design experiment, participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise) in images, videos, and eyes-obscured videos. Due to the use of multiple stimulus types, the impacts of facial motion and eye-related information on facial expression decoding were also examined. It was found that motion-sensitive areas showed significant responses to emotional expressions and that dynamic expressions could be successfully decoded in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas. Compared with static stimuli, dynamic expressions elicited consistently higher neural responses and decoding performance in all regions. A significant decrease in both activation and decoding accuracy due to the absence of eye-related information was also observed. Overall, the findings showed that emotional expressions are represented in motion-sensitive areas in addition to conventional face-selective areas, suggesting that motion-sensitive regions may also effectively contribute to facial expression recognition. The results also suggested that facial motion and eye-related information played important roles by carrying considerable expression information that could facilitate facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3113-3125, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Holistic self-care for rehabilitation experienced by thai buddhist trauma patients in areas of political and social unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songwathana, Praneed; Watanasiriwanich, Wachiraya; Kitrungrote, Luppana

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the meaning and practice of holistic self-care for rehabilitation among Thai Buddhist trauma patients living in areas of political unrest where acts of terrorism occur. Eleven Thai Buddhist trauma patients were selected as specified. The data were collected by in-depth interviews between November 2011 and April 2012, and analyzed using the Van Manen method.Those interviewed described "holistic self-care for rehabilitation" as learning (1) to acquire a new life and (2) to bear the increased demands of care as a chronic disease. Health care responses fell into 3 categories: (1) improving physical self-sufficiency and rehabilitation by increasing muscle strength, pain management, and pressure sores; (2) improving psychological well-being by applying positive thinking, making an effort to live independently, and following a set of religious practices; and (3) finding harmony in life through caution and a willingness to adjust one's lifestyle. Although the participants seemed to adapt well to their new lifestyles, extensive support from health care professionals was necessary. This study promotes better understanding of the holistic health care experiences the survivors of trauma have as a result of an unstable political situation that includes aspects of social unrest and terrorism.

  11. Structural and effective connectivity reveals potential network-based influences on category-sensitive visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eFurl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual category perception is thought to depend on brain areas that respond specifically when certain categories are viewed. These category-sensitive areas are often assumed to be modules (with some degree of processing autonomy and to act predominantly on feedforward visual input. This modular view can be complemented by a view that treats brain areas as elements within more complex networks and as influenced by network properties. This network-oriented viewpoint is emerging from studies using either diffusion tensor imaging to map structural connections or effective connectivity analyses to measure how their functional responses influence each other. This literature motivates several hypotheses that predict category-sensitive activity based on network properties. Large, long-range fiber bundles such as inferior fronto-occipital, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi are associated with behavioural recognition and could play crucial roles in conveying backward influences on visual cortex from anterior temporal and frontal areas. Such backward influences could support top-down functions such as visual search and emotion-based visual modulation. Within visual cortex itself, areas sensitive to different categories appear well-connected (e.g., face areas connect to object- and motion sensitive areas and their responses can be predicted by backward modulation. Evidence supporting these propositions remains incomplete and underscores the need for better integration of DTI and functional imaging.

  12. TRADE AND POLITICS IN THE PACIFIC AREA:TRENDS IN MULTILATERAL TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Bonciu

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations from the Asia – Pacific area in the larger context of the shift of the economic center of the world economy from the Atlantic to the Pacific area. The high economic dynamism of the region has been accompanied in the past two decades by the establishment of a large number of bilateral and multilateral free trade agreements that included in many cases regulations on investments and other topics. In the wake of the Doha Round of nego...

  13. A Political-Ecological Analysis of Income Inequality in the Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollens, Scott A.

    1986-01-01

    Metropolitan development is not simply a result of ecological factors. Governmental organization affects the incentives of localities and helps determine patterns of growth. This study updates previous studies on factors influencing residential area income inequality. Modification of the variables in the ecological explanation will increase…

  14. Exploring Political Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    The author distinguishes between the concepts of political socialization and political education. He argues that political socialization has come to dominate both our thinking and our teaching in the area of civic education. Suggestions for promoting political education are included. (DE)

  15. Public relations and political support in area-wide integrated pest management programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, V.A.; Regidor Fernandez, E.E.; Reyes Flores, J.; Teruya, T.; Barnes, B.; Gomez Riera, P.; Lindquist, D.; Reuben, R.

    2005-01-01

    The public relations component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and support, and to keep the work goal-oriented even when some programme activities are controversial. The media can be valuable and effective partners by informing the public about the real facts and activities of a programme, especially if this is done in a non-technical and straightforward way. Ongoing research support improves the programme technology, provides technical credibility on contentious issues, and solves operational problems. Programme failure can result from poor public relations and inadequate public support. (author)

  16. The Gordian knot: managing herring (Clupea harengus) bridging across populations, fishery units, management areas, and politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Mosegaard, Henrik; Berg, Casper Willestofte

    2012-01-01

    –24) and the North Sea (Division IIIa) by various EU—and in the latter case also non‐EU—fishing fleets. For the two separate management areas, TACs are set at different times in the yearly TACsetting process by the EU and negotiating counties, which often result in conflicts over quota allocations among different......The management of western Baltic spring spawning (WBSS) herring is challenged by the highly complex stock structure with a temporal and geographical distribution leading to conflicting interests among different stakeholder groups. The stock is exploited in the Baltic Sea (Subdivisions 22...... management units. The WBSS herring stock spawns in the western Baltic Sea and migrates into the Kattegat and Skagerrak areas, where it mixes with North Sea autumn spawning (NSAS) herring. Recent development of otolith shape analysis has enabled a high‐resolution separation of herring stocks in these waters...

  17. Sensitivity of permanent meadows areas. Preliminary report; Sensibilite des zones de prairies permanentes. Rapport preliminaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourcelot, L

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work proposed in the framework of the S.E.N.S.I.B. project on the permanent meadows areas is to compare the sensitivity of these surfaces and cheese maker sector which are associated with them, and to identify the processes which determine this sensitivity. The realization of this objective will lean on certain data of activities acquired recently by the I.R.S.N. (compartments: soils, herb, milk and cheese), as well as on new measures, on three sites: Saint-Laurent-de-Geris ( West), Beaune-Le-Froid ( center), and Massif of Jura (East). Two scales of transfers observation and sensitivity are retained. In a first time, the sensitivity of meadows areas will studied at the regional scale, from data acquired in the Massif du Jura ( between 300 and 1200 metres up). In a second time, a study will allow to compare the sensitivity of three areas retained (West, Center, East) at the national scale. The expertise will be focused on the factors of sensitivity of the transfer soil-herb and the factors of sensitivity bound to the cheese makers sectors. The data of the already available zones of study create strong variabilities of the rates of {sup 137}Cs transfer in the interfaces soil / herb and herb / milk, letting suppose that the nature of soils, the quantity and the quality of food ingested by the cattle constitutes dominating factors of sensitivity. Besides, the size of the basin of milk collection, extremely variable from a site of study in the other one, has to influence the contamination of cheeses and as such, it establishes an important factor of sensitivity of the cheese makers sector. (N.C.)

  18. Political demography: Powerful trends under-attended by demographic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The interconnections between politics and the dramatic demographic changes under way around the world have been neglected by the two research disciplines that could contribute most to their understanding: demography and political science. Instead, this area of 'political demography' has largely been ceded to political activists, pundits, and journalists, leading often to exaggerated or garbled interpretation. The terrain includes some of the most politically sensitive and contested issues: alleged demographically determined shifts in the international balance of power; low fertility, population decline, and demographic ageing; international migration; change in national identity; and compositional shifts in politically sensitive social categories and human rights. Meanwhile many governments and non-governmental actors have actively pursued varieties of 'strategic demography', deploying fertility, mortality, or migration as instruments of domestic or international policy. Political scientists and demographers could and should use their knowledge and analytic techniques to improve understanding and to moderate excessive claims and fears on these topics.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This

  20. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  1. A magnetotelluric study of the sensitivity of an area to seismoelectric signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, efforts at better understanding the physical properties of precursory ultra-low frequency pre-seismic electric signals (SES have been intensified. Experiments show that SES cannot be observed at all points of the Earth's surface but only at certain so-called sensitive sites. Moreover, a sensitive site is capable of collecting SES from only a restricted number of seismic areas (selectivity effect. Therefore the installation of a permanent station appropriate for SES collection should necessarily be preceded by a pilot study over a broad area and for a long duration. In short, a number of temporary stations are installed and, after the occurrence of several significant earthquakes (EQs from a given seismic area, the most appropriate (if any of these temporary stations, in the sense that they happen to collect SES, can be selected as permanent. Such a long experiment constitutes a serious disadvantage in identifying a site as SES sensitive. However, the SES sensitivity of a site should be related to the geoelectric structure of the area that hosts the site as well as the regional geoelectric structure between the station and the seismic focal area. Thus, knowledge of the local and regional geoelectric structure can dramatically reduce the time involved in identifying SES sites. In this paper the magnetotelluric method is used to investigate the conductivity structure of an area where a permanent SES station is in operation. Although general conclusions cannot be drawn, the area surrounding an SES site near Ioannina, Greece is characterized by: (1 major faults in the vicinity; (2 highly resistive structure flanked by abrupt conductivity contrasts associated with large-scale geologic contacts, and (3 local inhomogeneities in conductivity structure. The above results are consistent with the fact that electric field amplitudes from remotely-generated signals should be appreciably stronger at such sites when compared to neighboring

  2. Sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Eriksson, M; Rylander, E; Schwartz, B

    1988-09-01

    Atopic sensitization of children in the Stockholm area to house dust mites (HDM) was investigated in a case-control study. Sixty children with and 60 without positive skin prick tests for HDM were matched for age and sex. HDM-sensitized children had previously more often lived in other areas known to be mite infested than the control children. Sensitization to mites was related to dampness in the homes, but no significant relationship was found to the type of residence, frequent visits to a summer house in the archipelago or parental smoking. Dust samples from mattresses of the children with the strongest positive reactions to mites in skin prick tests and the respective controls were subjected to an enzyme immunoassay, to measure the content of the major allergens of the Dermatophagoides (D.) species D. pterinyssinus, D. farinae and D. microceras. Mattress dust samples from the beds of HDM-sensitized children contained significantly higher HDM antigen concentrations than those from the beds of controls. Private houses contained significantly more HDM antigens than flats and 10 of 11 homes in which a dampness problem was recognized contained mite antigens. It is postulated that mite infestation is increasing in the area, energy-saving measures creating improved conditions for HDM survival.

  3. Flicker sensitivity as a function of target area with and without temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovamo, J; Donner, K; Näsänen, R; Raninen, A

    2000-01-01

    Flicker sensitivities (1-30 Hz) in foveal, photopic vision were measured as functions of stimulus area with and without strong external white temporal noise. Stimuli were circular, sinusoidally flickering sharp-edged spots of variable diameters (0.25-4 degrees ) but constant duration (2 s), surrounded by a uniform equiluminant field. The data was described with a model comprising (i) low-pass filtering in the retina (R), with a modulation transfer function (MTF) of a form derived from responses of cones; (ii) normalisation of the temporal luminance distribution by the average luminance; (iii) high-pass filtering by postreceptoral neural pathways (P), with an MTF proportional to temporal frequency; (iv) addition of internal white neural noise (N(i)); (v) integration over a spatial window; and (vi) detection by a suboptimal temporal matched filter of efficiency eta. In strong external noise, flicker sensitivity was independent of spot area. Without external noise, sensitivity increased with the square root of stimulus area (Piper's law) up to a critical area (A(c)), where it reaches a maximum level (S(max)). Both A(c) and eta were monotonic functions of temporal frequency (f), such that log A(c) increased and log eta decreased linearly with log f. Remarkably, the increase in spatial integration area and the decrease in efficiency were just balanced, so A(c)(f)eta(f) was invariant against f. Thus the bandpass characteristics of S(max)(f) directly reflected the composite effect of the distal filters R(f) and P(f). The temporal equivalent (N(it)) of internal neural noise (N(i)) decreased in inverse proportion to spot area up to A(c) and then stayed constant indicating that spatially homogeneous signals and noise are integrated over the same area.

  4. Political Jurisdiction Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  5. Political Boundaries (Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A joint venture involving the National Atlas programs in Canada (Natural Resources Canada), Mexico (Instituto Nacional de Estad�ica Geograf�e Inform�ca), and the...

  6. Is heat pain detection threshold associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    role in the development of secondary hyperalgesia; however, a possible association of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization and other heat pain models remains unknown. Our aim with this study is to investigate how close the heat pain detection threshold is associated...... with the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by the clinical heat pain model: Brief thermal sensitization. METHODS AND DESIGN: We aim to include 120 healthy participants. The participants will be tested on two separate study days with the following procedures: i) Brief thermal sensitization, ii......) heat pain detection threshold and iii) pain during thermal stimulation. Additionally, the participants will be tested with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. We conducted statistical simulations based on data from our previous study, to estimate...

  7. Heat pain detection threshold is associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization (BTS) of the skin and heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT) may both have predictive abilities in regards to pain sensitivity and clinical pain states. The association between HPDT and secondary hyperalgesia......, however, remains unsettled, and the dissimilarities in physiologic properties suggest that they may represent 2 distinctively different pain entities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HPDT and BTS-induced secondary hyperalgesia. METHODS: A sample of 121 healthy male...... participants was included and tested on 2 separate study days with BTS (45°C, 3 minutes), HPDT, and pain during thermal stimulation (45°C, 1 minute). Areas of secondary hyperalgesia were quantified after monofilament pinprick stimulation. The pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) and hospital anxiety and depression...

  8. A large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, M M D; Souza, F A; Alonso, E E; Fujii, R J; Meyknecht, A B; Added, N; Aissaoui, N; Cardenas, W H Z; Ferraretto, M D; Schnitter, U; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Yamamura, M S; Carlin, N

    1999-01-01

    Large area two-dimensional position sensitive multiwire proportional detectors were developed to be used in the study of light heavy-ion nuclear reactions at the University of Sao Paulo Pelletron Laboratory. Each detector has a 20x20 cm sup 2 active area and consists of three grids (X-position, anode and Y-position) made of 25 mu m diameter gold plated tungsten wires. The position is determined through resistive divider chains. Results for position resolution, linearity and efficiency as a function of energy and position for different elements are reported.

  9. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on High Surface Area Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavuluri Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High surface area nanocrystalline zinc oxide material is fabricated using mesoporous nanostructured carbon as a sacrificial template through combustion process. The resulting material is characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, HR-SEM, and HR-TEM. The nitrogen adsorption measurement indicates that the materials possess BET specific surface area ca. 30 m2/g. Electron microscopy images prove that the zinc oxide spheres possess particle size in the range of 0.12 μm–0.17 μm. The nanocrystalline zinc oxide spheres show 1.0% of energy conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Ecological Sensitivity Evaluation of Tourist Region Based on Remote Sensing Image - Taking Chaohu Lake Area as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Li, W. J.; Yu, J.; Wu, C. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing technology is of significant advantages for monitoring and analysing ecological environment. By using of automatic extraction algorithm, various environmental resources information of tourist region can be obtained from remote sensing imagery. Combining with GIS spatial analysis and landscape pattern analysis, relevant environmental information can be quantitatively analysed and interpreted. In this study, taking the Chaohu Lake Basin as an example, Landsat-8 multi-spectral satellite image of October 2015 was applied. Integrated the automatic ELM (Extreme Learning Machine) classification results with the data of digital elevation model and slope information, human disturbance degree, land use degree, primary productivity, landscape evenness , vegetation coverage, DEM, slope and normalized water body index were used as the evaluation factors to construct the eco-sensitivity evaluation index based on AHP and overlay analysis. According to the value of eco-sensitivity evaluation index, by using of GIS technique of equal interval reclassification, the Chaohu Lake area was divided into four grades: very sensitive area, sensitive area, sub-sensitive areas and insensitive areas. The results of the eco-sensitivity analysis shows: the area of the very sensitive area was 4577.4378 km2, accounting for about 37.12 %, the sensitive area was 5130.0522 km2, accounting for about 37.12 %; the area of sub-sensitive area was 3729.9312 km2, accounting for 26.99 %; the area of insensitive area was 382.4399 km2, accounting for about 2.77 %. At the same time, it has been found that there were spatial differences in ecological sensitivity of the Chaohu Lake basin. The most sensitive areas were mainly located in the areas with high elevation and large terrain gradient. Insensitive areas were mainly distributed in slope of the slow platform area; the sensitive areas and the sub-sensitive areas were mainly agricultural land and woodland. Through the eco-sensitivity analysis of

  11. ECOLOGICAL SENSITIVITY EVALUATION OF TOURIST REGION BASED ON REMOTE SENSING IMAGE – TAKING CHAOHU LAKE AREA AS A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing technology is of significant advantages for monitoring and analysing ecological environment. By using of automatic extraction algorithm, various environmental resources information of tourist region can be obtained from remote sensing imagery. Combining with GIS spatial analysis and landscape pattern analysis, relevant environmental information can be quantitatively analysed and interpreted. In this study, taking the Chaohu Lake Basin as an example, Landsat-8 multi-spectral satellite image of October 2015 was applied. Integrated the automatic ELM (Extreme Learning Machine classification results with the data of digital elevation model and slope information, human disturbance degree, land use degree, primary productivity, landscape evenness , vegetation coverage, DEM, slope and normalized water body index were used as the evaluation factors to construct the eco-sensitivity evaluation index based on AHP and overlay analysis. According to the value of eco-sensitivity evaluation index, by using of GIS technique of equal interval reclassification, the Chaohu Lake area was divided into four grades: very sensitive area, sensitive area, sub-sensitive areas and insensitive areas. The results of the eco-sensitivity analysis shows: the area of the very sensitive area was 4577.4378 km2, accounting for about 37.12 %, the sensitive area was 5130.0522 km2, accounting for about 37.12 %; the area of sub-sensitive area was 3729.9312 km2, accounting for 26.99 %; the area of insensitive area was 382.4399 km2, accounting for about 2.77 %. At the same time, it has been found that there were spatial differences in ecological sensitivity of the Chaohu Lake basin. The most sensitive areas were mainly located in the areas with high elevation and large terrain gradient. Insensitive areas were mainly distributed in slope of the slow platform area; the sensitive areas and the sub-sensitive areas were mainly agricultural land and woodland

  12. The assessment of environmentally sensitive forest road construction in Calabrian pine forest areas of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Metin

    2006-07-01

    Forest road construction by bulldozers in Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests on mountainous terrain of Turkey causes considerable damage to the environment and the forest standing alongside the road. This situation obliges a study of environmentally sound road construction in Turkey. This study was carried out in 4 sample sites of Antalya Forest Directorate in steep (34-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-70% gradient) conditions with bulldozer and excavator machine and direct damages to forest during road construction was determined, including forest area losses and damages to downhill trees in mountainous areas. It was determined that in steep terrain when excavators were used, less forest area (22.16%) was destroyed compared to bulldozers and 26.54% less area in very steep terrain. The proportion of damage on trees where bulldozer worked was nearly twofold higher than excavator was used. The results of this research show that the environmentally sensitive techniques applied for the road construction projects are considerably superior to the traditional use of bulldozers on steep slopes. The environmentally sound forest road construction by use of excavator must be considered an appropriate and reliable solution for mountainous terrain where areas of sensitive forest ecosystems are to be opened up.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the surface water- groundwater interaction for the sandy area of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez del Campo, E.; Jousma, G.; Massop, H.T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The "Sensitivity Analysis of the Surface Water- Groundwater Interaction for the Sandy Area of the Netherlands" was carried out in the framework of a bilateral research project in support of the implementation of a nationwide geohydrological information system (REGIS) in the Netherlands. This project, conducted in cooperation between the TNO Institute for Applied Scientific Research (IGG-TNO) and !he Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water Research (SC-DLO), is aimed at defin...

  14. High sensitivity, high surface area Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpal; Morita, Takahiro; Suzuki, Yuma; Shimojima, Masayuki; Le Van, An; Sugamata, Masami; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are considered the gold standard in the demonstration of various immunological reactions with an application in the detection of infectious diseases such as during outbreaks or in patient care. This study aimed to produce an ELISA-based diagnostic with an increased sensitivity of detection compared to the standard 96-well method in the immunologic diagnosis of infectious diseases. A '3DStack' was developed using readily available, low cost fabrication technologies namely nanoimprinting and press stamping with an increased surface area of 4 to 6 times more compared to 96-well plates. This was achieved by stacking multiple nanoimprinted polymer sheets. The flow of analytes between the sheets was enhanced by rotating the 3DStack and confirmed by Finite-Element (FE) simulation. An Immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA for the detection of antibodies in human serum raised against Rubella virus was performed for validation. An improved sensitivity of up to 1.9 folds higher was observed using the 3DStack compared to the standard method. The increased surface area of the 3DStack developed using nanoimprinting and press stamping technologies, and the flow pattern between sheets generated by rotating the 3DStack were potential contributors to a more sensitive ELISA-based diagnostic device.

  15. Approach to downstream planning for nearshore response and sensitive areas protection outside Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeCola, E.G.; Robertson, T.L.; Robertson, R.; Banta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the need for an oil spill response plan for downstream coastal communities that could be affected by oil spilled from tankers travelling in Prince William Sound, Alaska. For the purpose of oil spill contingency planning, the State of Alaska has been divided into the Kodiak and Cook Inlet sub-areas that are at risk for downstream impacts from a Prince William Sound oil spill. The 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill provided an example of a worst-case scenario oil spill from a tanker in Prince William Sound, but the oil spill planning system that has evolved in Alaska does not adequately plan for on oil spill that originates in one sub-area of the state, but impacts other sub-areas in the downstream spill path. This study analyzed the gaps that exist in the current response planning system in the Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet and Kodiak sub-areas. A method was proposed to improve the existing response plans so that emergency response teams are better prepared to manage cross-boundary oil spills originating in Prince William Sound. The proposed method focuses on nearshore response and sensitive areas protection for coastlines and communities that are at risk for oil spills from a tanker travelling the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS). 11 refs., 3 figs

  16. Precisely Controlled Ultrathin Conjugated Polymer Films for Large Area Transparent Transistors and Highly Sensitive Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Dongyoon; Ryu, Gi-Seong; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Hyunchul; Lee, Myungwon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-13

    A uniform ultrathin polymer film is deposited over a large area with molecularlevel precision by the simple wire-wound bar-coating method. The bar-coated ultrathin films not only exhibit high transparency of up to 90% in the visible wavelength range but also high charge carrier mobility with a high degree of percolation through the uniformly covered polymer nanofibrils. They are capable of realizing highly sensitive multigas sensors and represent the first successful report of ethylene detection using a sensor based on organic field-effect transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Functional organization of the face-sensitive areas in human occipital-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hanyu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng

    2017-08-15

    Human occipital-temporal cortex features several areas sensitive to faces, presumably forming the biological substrate for face perception. To date, there are piecemeal insights regarding the functional organization of these regions. They have come, however, from studies that are far from homogeneous with regard to the regions involved, the experimental design, and the data analysis approach. In order to provide an overall view of the functional organization of the face-sensitive areas, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive study that taps into the pivotal functional properties of all the face-sensitive areas, within the context of the same experimental design, and uses multiple data analysis approaches. In this study, we identified the most robustly activated face-sensitive areas in bilateral occipital-temporal cortices (i.e., AFP, aFFA, pFFA, OFA, pcSTS, pSTS) and systemically compared their regionally averaged activation and multivoxel activation patterns to 96 images from 16 object categories, including faces and non-faces. This condition-rich and single-image analysis approach critically samples the functional properties of a brain region, allowing us to test how two basic functional properties, namely face-category selectivity and face-exemplar sensitivity are distributed among these regions. Moreover, by examining the correlational structure of neural responses to the 96 images, we characterize their interactions in the greater face-processing network. We found that (1) r-pFFA showed the highest face-category selectivity, followed by l-pFFA, bilateral aFFA and OFA, and then bilateral pcSTS. In contrast, bilateral AFP and pSTS showed low face-category selectivity; (2) l-aFFA, l-pcSTS and bilateral AFP showed evidence of face-exemplar sensitivity; (3) r-OFA showed high overall response similarities with bilateral LOC and r-pFFA, suggesting it might be a transitional stage between general and face-selective information processing; (4) r-aFFA showed high

  18. A fast large-area position-sensitive time-of-flight neutron detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A new position-sensitive time-of-flight neutron detection and histograming system has been developed for use at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. Spatial resolution of roughly 1 cm x 1 cm and time-of-flight resolution of ∼1 μsec are combined in a detection system which can ultimately be expanded to cover several square meters of active detector area. This system is based on the use of arrays of cylindrical one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counters, and is capable of collecting the x-y-t data and sorting them into histograms at time-averaged data rates up to ∼300,000 events/sec over the full detector area and with instantaneous data rates up to more than fifty times that. Numerous hardware features have been incorporated to facilitate initial tuning of the position encoding, absolute calibration of the encoded positions, and automatic testing for drifts. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tabs

  19. Management and valuation of an environmentally sensitive area: Norfolk Broadland, England, case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. Kerry; Brooke, Jan

    1988-03-01

    Wetlands, like any other environmentally sensitive resource, require very careful evaluation. While it is accepted that all wetlands may be equally valuable in terms of maintaining global life-support systems, individual areas may be ranked according to their uniqueness or the irreplaceability of the resource should the wetland be developed. The various techniques available for evaluating the wetland resource in the development versus conservation conflict situation are critically assessed. Indirect appraisal via the opportunity cost method can generate valuable data which have contributed to the mitigation of such conflict situations. The Broadland, in Norfolk, England, recently designated an environmentally sensitive area (ESA), provides a case study example of wetland management. The search for an “acceptable” flood alleviation strategy for the ESA is examined in detail. The economic and environmental asset structure of the study area is examined at two levels. A basic “screening” system is applied to each of the identified flood protection planning units to enable the rank ordering of the units. A more detailed appraisal is then made of the value of selected units so that the cost-effectiveness of any planned expenditure on flood protection works can be assessed. Specific management issues and their likely effect on the environment, in terms of land use for example, are also addressed. The 1986 Agriculture Act marks a potential watershed in British conservation policy. The ESA policy encompasses a dual management strategy that attempts to stimulate compatible agricultural and conservation practices and activities. Other countries that still retain significant unspoiled wetland resources may find that preemptive regulatory government intervention in favor of conservation would help to avoid the worst aspects of the British experience.

  20. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  1. Sustainable Tourism in Sensitive Areas: Bibliometric Characterisation and Content Analysis of Specialised Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Sánchez-Cañizares

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years after the emergence of the term “sustainable tourism” and in view of the proliferation of literature on the subject, it seems appropriate to carry out a bibliographical review, based on empirical bibliometric data, in order to find out who the leading research pioneers are for this type of tourism, discover gaps in our understanding, and redefine the concept’s frontiers. This paper focuses specifically on sustainable tourism in sensitive areas, in a first attempt to provide understanding of the accumulated knowledge of the sub-theme by looking at research presented by impact publications. A total of 985 papers published on this topic on Web of Science were selected to this end, and after applying the H-Classics methodology, a content analysis of the forty papers with the greatest impact was carried out. This has led to the discovery of research trends, gaps in the analysis of polar and mountainous areas, and a lack of a core group of highly productive researchers in this area.

  2. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  3. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  4. Resistant place identities in rural Charleston County, South Carolina: Cultural, environmental, and racial politics in the Sewee to Santee Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; A.C. Halfacre; P.T. Hurley

    2009-01-01

    The cultural and political implications of landscape change and urban growth in the western U.S. are well-documented. However, comparatively little scholarship has examined the effects of urbanization on sense of place in the southern U.S. We contribute to the literature on competing place meanings with a case study from the rural “Sewee to Santee” region of northern...

  5. Allergic reactions to vespids: comparison of sensitivities to two species in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca, M; Miranda, A; Fernandez, J; Terrados, S; Vela, J M; Vega, J M; Gonzalez, J J; Juarez, C

    1988-01-01

    We have studied a group of twenty-seven patients who suffer allergic reactions to vespids stings. Specific IgE antibodies to venom extracts from Polistes gallicus and Vespula germanica were measured by RAST, and the crossreactivity between the two venoms was compared using the RAST inhibition technique. We concluded that, in southern Spain, sensitization to P. gallicus was more prevalent than that to V. germanica, with 44% of the subjects in this study reacting to P. gallicus compared with 33% to V. germanica. However, there was a considerable degree of crossreactivity between the two species. It is evident that Polistes is an important species in this area; however, both in Spain and other Mediterranean countries, V. germanica venom is used almost exclusively for diagnosis and immunotherapy.

  6. A large-area, position-sensitive neutron detector with neutron/γ-ray discrimination capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecher, P.D.; Galonsky, A.; Kruse, J.J.; Gaff, S.J.; Ottarson, J.; Wang, J.; Seres, Z.; Ieki, K.; Iwata, Y.; Schelin, H.

    1997-01-01

    To further study neutron-rich halo nuclei, we have constructed a neutron detector array. The array consists of two separate banks of detectors, each of area 2 x 2 m 2 and containing 250 l of liquid scintillator. Each bank is position-sensitive to better than 10 cm. For neutron time-of-flight measurements, the time resolution of the detector has been demonstrated to be about 1 ns. By using the scintillator NE-213, we are able to distinguish between neutron and γ-ray signals above 1 MeV electron equivalent energy. Although the detector array was constructed for a particular experiment it has also been used in a number of other experiments. (orig.)

  7. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, L M; Dinesh, B V; Thomas, R G; Saxena, A; Sawant, Y S; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with alpha particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am- sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu source, fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation for slip rate sensitivity analysis in Cimandiri fault area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratama, Cecep, E-mail: great.pratama@gmail.com [Graduate Program of Earth Science, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, ITB, JalanGanesa no. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Meilano, Irwan [Geodesy Research Division, Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, ITB, JalanGanesa no. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian [Global Geophysical Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, ITB, JalanGanesa no. 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Slip rate is used to estimate earthquake recurrence relationship which is the most influence for hazard level. We examine slip rate contribution of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), in probabilistic seismic hazard maps (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years or 500 years return period). Hazard curve of PGA have been investigated for Sukabumi using a PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis). We observe that the most influence in the hazard estimate is crustal fault. Monte Carlo approach has been developed to assess the sensitivity. Then, Monte Carlo simulations properties have been assessed. Uncertainty and coefficient of variation from slip rate for Cimandiri Fault area has been calculated. We observe that seismic hazard estimates is sensitive to fault slip rate with seismic hazard uncertainty result about 0.25 g. For specific site, we found seismic hazard estimate for Sukabumi is between 0.4904 – 0.8465 g with uncertainty between 0.0847 – 0.2389 g and COV between 17.7% – 29.8%.

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for aquaculture sites, Designated Critical Habitats, management areas, Nature Conservancy properties, parks, and...

  10. Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  11. The role of printing techniques for large-area dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, Paolo; Vesce, Luigi; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    The versatility of printing technologies and their intrinsic ability to outperform other techniques in large-area deposition gives scope to revolutionize the photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing field. Printing methods are commonly used in conventional silicon-based PVs to cover part of the production process. Screen printing techniques, for example, are applied to deposit electrical contacts on the silicon wafer. However, it is with the advent of third generation PVs that printing/coating techniques have been extensively used in almost all of the manufacturing processes. Among all the third generation PVs, dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology has been developed up to commercialization levels. DSSCs and modules can be fabricated by adopting all of the main printing techniques on both rigid and flexible substrates. This allows an easy tuning of cell/module characteristics to the desired application. Transparency, colour, shape, layout and other DSSC’s features can be easily varied by changing the printing parameters and paste/ink formulations used in the printing process. This review focuses on large-area printing/coating technologies for the fabrication of DSSCs devices. The most used and promising techniques are presented underlining the process parameters and applications. (paper)

  12. Predicted infiltration for sodic/saline soils from reclaimed coastal areas: sensitivity to model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng; Chen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm(3). A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ₀ was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  13. The role of printing techniques for large-area dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Paolo; Vesce, Luigi; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2015-10-01

    The versatility of printing technologies and their intrinsic ability to outperform other techniques in large-area deposition gives scope to revolutionize the photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing field. Printing methods are commonly used in conventional silicon-based PVs to cover part of the production process. Screen printing techniques, for example, are applied to deposit electrical contacts on the silicon wafer. However, it is with the advent of third generation PVs that printing/coating techniques have been extensively used in almost all of the manufacturing processes. Among all the third generation PVs, dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) technology has been developed up to commercialization levels. DSSCs and modules can be fabricated by adopting all of the main printing techniques on both rigid and flexible substrates. This allows an easy tuning of cell/module characteristics to the desired application. Transparency, colour, shape, layout and other DSSC’s features can be easily varied by changing the printing parameters and paste/ink formulations used in the printing process. This review focuses on large-area printing/coating technologies for the fabrication of DSSCs devices. The most used and promising techniques are presented underlining the process parameters and applications.

  14. Spatial Aggregation of Forest Songbird Territories and Possible Implications for Area Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bourque

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat area requirements of forest songbirds vary greatly among species, but the causes of this variation are not well understood. Large area requirements could result from advantages for certain species when settling their territories near those of conspecifics. This phenomenon would result in spatial aggregations much larger than single territories. Species that aggregate their territories could show reduced population viability in highly fragmented forests, since remnant patches may remain unoccupied if they are too small to accommodate several territories. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1 to seek evidence of territory clusters of forest birds at various spatial scales, lags of 250-550 m, before and after controlling for habitat spatial patterns; and (2 to measure the relationship between spatial autocorrelation and apparent landscape sensitivity for these species. In analyses that ignored spatial variation of vegetation within remnant forest patches, nine of the 17 species studied significantly aggregated their territories within patches. After controlling for forest vegetation, the locations of eight out of 17 species remained significantly clustered. The aggregative pattern that we observed may, thus, be indicative of a widespread phenomenon in songbird populations. Furthermore, there was a tendency for species associated with higher forest cover to be more spatially aggregated [ERRATUM].

  15. The Overlapping Area of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS and Wheat-Sensitive Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Catassi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS. New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion.

  16. Benchmarking sensitivity of biophysical processes to leaf area changes in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Duveiller, Gregory; Georgievski, Goran; Li, Wei; Robestson, Eddy; Kautz, Markus; Lawrence, Peter; Ciais, Philippe; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Wiltshire, Andy; Arneth, Almut; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are widely applied as supporting tools for policy-relevant assessment of climate change and its impact on terrestrial ecosystems, yet knowledge of their performance skills in representing the sensitivity of biophysical processes to changes in vegetation density is still limited. This is particularly relevant in light of the substantial impacts on regional climate associated with the changes in leaf area index (LAI) following the observed global greening. Benchmarking LSMs on the sensitivity of the simulated processes to vegetation density is essential to reduce their uncertainty and improve the representation of these effects. Here we present a novel benchmark system to assess model capacity in reproducing land surface-atmosphere energy exchanges modulated by vegetation density. Through a collaborative effort of different modeling groups, a consistent set of land surface energy fluxes and LAI dynamics has been generated from multiple LSMs, including JSBACH, JULES, ORCHIDEE, CLM4.5 and LPJ-GUESS. Relationships of interannual variations of modeled surface fluxes to LAI changes have been analyzed at global scale across different climatological gradients and compared with satellite-based products. A set of scoring metrics has been used to assess the overall model performances and a detailed analysis in the climate space has been provided to diagnose possible model errors associated to background conditions. Results have enabled us to identify model-specific strengths and deficiencies. An overall best performing model does not emerge from the analyses. However, the comparison with other models that work better under certain metrics and conditions indicates that improvements are expected to be potentially achievable. A general amplification of the biophysical processes mediated by vegetation is found across the different land surface schemes. Grasslands are characterized by an underestimated year-to-year variability of LAI in cold climates

  17. Sensitivity of neurons in the middle temporal area of marmoset monkeys to random dot motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tristan A; Allitt, Benjamin J; Hagan, Maureen A; Price, Nicholas S C; Rajan, Ramesh; Rosa, Marcello G P; Lui, Leo L

    2017-09-01

    Neurons in the middle temporal area (MT) of the primate cerebral cortex respond to moving visual stimuli. The sensitivity of MT neurons to motion signals can be characterized by using random-dot stimuli, in which the strength of the motion signal is manipulated by adding different levels of noise (elements that move in random directions). In macaques, this has allowed the calculation of "neurometric" thresholds. We characterized the responses of MT neurons in sufentanil/nitrous oxide-anesthetized marmoset monkeys, a species that has attracted considerable recent interest as an animal model for vision research. We found that MT neurons show a wide range of neurometric thresholds and that the responses of the most sensitive neurons could account for the behavioral performance of macaques and humans. We also investigated factors that contributed to the wide range of observed thresholds. The difference in firing rate between responses to motion in the preferred and null directions was the most effective predictor of neurometric threshold, whereas the direction tuning bandwidth had no correlation with the threshold. We also showed that it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of neurometric thresholds using stimuli that were not highly optimized for each neuron, as is often necessary when recording from large populations of neurons with different receptive field concurrently, as was the case in this study. These results demonstrate that marmoset MT shows an essential physiological similarity to macaque MT and suggest that its neurons are capable of representing motion signals that allow for comparable motion-in-noise judgments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report the activity of neurons in marmoset MT in response to random-dot motion stimuli of varying coherence. The information carried by individual MT neurons was comparable to that of the macaque, and the maximum firing rates were a strong predictor of sensitivity. Our study provides key information regarding the neural

  18. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  19. Highway runoff quality models for the protection of environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel highway runoff quality models using artificial neural networks (ANN) which take into account site-specific highway traffic and seasonal storm event meteorological factors to predict the event mean concentration (EMC) statistics and mean daily unit area load (MDUAL) statistics of common highway pollutants for the design of roadside ditch treatment systems (RDTS) to protect sensitive receiving environs. A dataset of 940 monitored highway runoff events from fourteen sites located in five countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and China) was compiled and used to develop ANN models for the prediction of highway runoff suspended solids (TSS) seasonal EMC statistical distribution parameters, as well as the MDUAL statistics for four different heavy metal species (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb). TSS EMCs are needed to estimate the minimum required removal efficiency of the RDTS needed in order to improve highway runoff quality to meet applicable standards and MDUALs are needed to calculate the minimum required capacity of the RDTS to ensure performance longevity.

  20. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  1. Groundwater recharge in irrigated semi-arid areas: quantitative hydrological modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Candela, Lucila; Molinero, Jorge; Tamoh, Karim

    2010-12-01

    For semi-arid regions, methods of assessing aquifer recharge usually consider the potential evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration rates can be below potential rates for long periods of time, even in irrigated systems. Accurate estimations of aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas under irrigated agriculture are essential for sustainable water-resources management. A method to estimate aquifer recharge from irrigated farmland has been tested. The water-balance-modelling approach was based on VisualBALAN v. 2.0, a computer code that simulates water balance in the soil, vadose zone and aquifer. The study was carried out in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain) in the period 1999-2008 for three different groups of crops: annual row crops (lettuce and melon), perennial vegetables (artichoke) and fruit trees (citrus). Computed mean-annual-recharge values (from irrigation+precipitation) during the study period were 397 mm for annual row crops, 201 mm for perennial vegetables and 194 mm for fruit trees: 31.4, 20.7 and 20.5% of the total applied water, respectively. The effects of rainfall events on the final recharge were clearly observed, due to the continuously high water content in soil which facilitated the infiltration process. A sensitivity analysis to assess the reliability and uncertainty of recharge estimations was carried out.

  2. Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program threatened and endangered species survey: Progress report. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.L.; Awl, D.J.; Gabrielsen, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Endangered Species Act (originally passed in 1973) is a Federal statute that protects both animal and plant species. The Endangered Species Act identifies species which are, without careful management, in danger of becoming extinct and species that are considered threatened. Along with the designation of threatened or endangered, the Endangered Species Act provides for the identification of appropriate habitat for these species. Since 1993, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has supported a program to survey the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for threatened and endangered species. The Environmentally Sensitive Areas Surveys Program initiated vascular plant surveys during fiscal year 1993 and vertebrate animal surveys during fiscal year 1994 to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered species on the ORR at the present time. Data collected during these surveys are currently aiding Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigations on the ORR. They also provide data for ER and Waste Management decision documents, ensure that decisions have technical and legal defensibility, provide a baseline for ensuring compliance with principal legal requirements and will increase public confidence in DOE`s adherence to all related environmental resources rules, laws, regulations, and instructions. This report discusses the progress to date of the threatened and endangered species surveys of the ORR.

  3. Preliminary Study of Position-Sensitive Large-Area Radiation Portal Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Kim, Hyunok; Moon, Myung Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongyul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Won; Lim, Yong Kon [Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    An RPM, which is a passive inspection method, is a system for monitoring the movement of radioactive materials at an airport, seaport, border, etc. To detect a γ-ray, an RPM using the plastic scintillator is generally used. The method of γ-ray detection using an RPM with a plastic scintillator is to measure lights generated by an incident γ-ray in the scintillator. Generally, a large-area RPM uses one or two photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for light collection. However, in this study, we developed a 4-ch RPM that can measure the radiation signal using 4 PMTs. The reason for using 4 PMTs is to calculate the position of the radiation source. In addition, we developed an electric device for acquisition of a 4-ch output signal at the same time. To estimate the performance of the developed RPM, we performed an RPM test using a {sup 60}Co γ-ray check source. In this study, we performed the development of a 4-ch RPM. The major function of the typical RPM is to measure the radiation. However, we developed a position-sensitive 4-ch RPM, which can be used to measure the location of the radiation source, as well as the radiation measurement, at the same time. In the future, we plan to develop an algorithm for a position detection of the radiation. In addition, an algorithm will be applied to an RPM.

  4. Soil amendments for heavy metals removal from stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of dissolved metals in stormwater runoff from urbanized watersheds are much higher than established guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Five potential soil amendment materials derived from affordable, abundant sources have been tested as filter media using shaker tests and were found to remove dissolved metals in stormwater runoff. Blast furnace (BF) slag and basic oxygenated furnace (BOF) slag from a steel mill, a drinking water treatment residual (DWTR) from a surface water treatment plant, goethite-rich overburden (IRON) from a coal mine, and woodchips (WC) were tested. The IRON and BOF amendments were shown to remove 46-98% of dissolved metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in repacked soil columns. Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants for six metals across five materials were calculated. Breakthrough curves of dissolved metals and total metal accumulation within the filter media were measured in column tests using synthetic runoff. A reduction in system performance over time occurred due to progressive saturation of the treatment media. Despite this, the top 7 cm of each filter media removed up to 72% of the dissolved metals. A calibrated HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate long-term metal accumulation in the filter media, and model results suggest that for these metals a BOF filter media thickness as low as 15 cm can be used to improve stormwater quality to meet standards for up to twenty years. The treatment media evaluated in this research can be used to improve urban stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs).

  5. Tracking sensitive source areas of different weather pollution types using GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Xingqin; Zhai, Shixian; Hou, Qing; Sun, Zhaobin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the sustained pollution processes were selected during which daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75 μg/m3 for three days continuously based on the hourly data of Beijing observation sites from July 2012 to December 2015. Using the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) MICAPS meteorological processing system, synoptic situation during PM2.5 pollution processes was classified into five weather types: low pressure and weak high pressure alternating control, weak high pressure, low pressure control, high rear, and uniform pressure field. Then, we chose the representative pollution cases corresponding to each type, adopted the GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model tracking the sensitive source areas of the five types, and analyzed the critical discharge periods of Beijing and neighboring provinces as well as their contribution to the PM2.5 peak concentration in Beijing. The results showed that the local source plays the main theme in the 30 h before the objective time, and prior to 72 h before the objective time contribution of local sources for the five pollution types are 37.5%, 25.0%, 39.4%, 31.2%, and 42.4%, respectively; the Hebei source contributes constantly in the 57 h ahead of the objective time with the contribution proportion ranging from 37% to 64%; the contribution period and rate of Tianjin and Shanxi sources are shorter and smaller. Based on the adjoint sensitivity analysis, we further discussed the effect of emission reduction control measures in different types, finding that the effect of local source reduction in the first 20 h of the objective time is better, and if the local source is reduced 50% within 72 h before the objective time, the decline rates of PM2.5 in the five types are 11.6%, 9.4%, 13.8%, 9.9% and 15.2% respectively. And the reduction effect of the neighboring sources is better within the 3-57 h before the objective time.

  6. Use of remote sensing and GIS in mapping the environmental sensitivity areas for desertification of Egyptian territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, A.; Lotfy, I.

    2008-06-01

    Desertification is defined in the first art of the convention to combat desertification as "land degradation in arid, semiarid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from climatic variations and human activities". Its consequence include a set of important processes which are active in arid and semi arid environment, where water is the main limiting factor of land use performance in such ecosystem . Desertification indicators or the groups of associated indicators should be focused on a single process. They should be based on available reliable information sources, including remotely sensed images, topographic data (maps or DEM'S), climate, soils and geological data. The current work aims to map the Environmental Sensitivity Areas (ESA's) to desertification in whole territory of Egypt at a scale of 1:1 000 000. ETM satellite images, geologic and soil maps were used as main sources for calculating the index of Environmental Sensitivity Areas (ESAI) for desertification. The algorism is adopted from MEDALLUS methodology as follows; ESAI = (SQI * CQI * VQI)1/3 Where SQI is the soil quality index, CQI is the climate quality index and VQI is the vegetation quality index. The SQI is based on rating the parent material, slope, soil texture, and soil depth. The VQI is computed on bases of rating three categories (i.e. erosion protection, drought resistance and plant cover). The CQI is based on the aridity index, derived from values of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Arc-GIS 9 software was used for the computation and sensitivity maps production. The results show that the soil of the Nile Valley are characterized by a moderate SQI, however the those in the interference zone are low soil quality indexed. The dense vegetation of the valley has raised its VQI to be good, however coastal areas are average and interference zones are low. The maps of ESA's for desertification show that 86.1% of Egyptian territory is classified as very sensitive areas, while 4.3% as

  7. Institutionalizing Political and Civic Engagement on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam H.

    2015-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental design, I examine the impact of a political engagement program on students, looking at traditional measures of internal efficacy, as well as other areas of political engagement including levels of political knowledge, the development of political skills, and interest in media coverage of politics.

  8. Contested Campuses: Politics, race, and the battles over public education in the Greater Los Angeles Area, 1949-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalesky, Brian Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, during the height of protests and actions by civil rights activists against de facto school segregation in the Los Angeles area, the residents of a group of small cities fought to break away from the Los Angeles City Schools and create a new, independent school district. If established, the district would serve white pupils nearly exclusively, preserving and reinforcing racially segregated schools in the area. Proponents of the plan were residents of the maj...

  9. Political Challenges in Complex Place-Based Health Promotion Partnerships: Lessons From an Exploratory Case Study in a Disadvantaged Area of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Letitia; Rowe Minniss, Fiona; Ehrlich, Carolyn; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Settings-based health promotion involving multiple strategies and partners is complex, especially in disadvantaged areas. Partnership development and organizational integration are examined in the literature; however, there is more to learn from the examination of practice stakeholders' experience of intersectoral partnership processes. This case study examines stakeholder experiences of challenges in new partnership work in the context of a culturally diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged region in Queensland, Australia. Health promotion staff and community representatives participated in interviews and focus groups, and the thematic analysis included observations and documentary analyses. Our findings highlight the retrogressive influence of broader system dynamics, including policy reform and funding changes, upon partnership working. Partnership enablers are disrupted by external political influences and the internal politics (individual and organizational) of health promotion practice. We point to the need for organization level commitment to a consistent agreed vision specifically accounting for place, as a cornerstone of intersectoral health promotion partnership resilience. If organizations from diverse sectors can embed a vision for health that accounts for place, complex health promotion initiatives may be less vulnerable to broader system reforms, and health in all policy approaches more readily sustained.

  10. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  11. Prevalence of sensitization to allergens in school children with asthma residents from Guadalajara metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Alcalá-Padilla

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The high prevalence of the sensitization to house dust mites and epithelial in children with asthma, stimulates to implement methods of environmental control for contributing a better control of the disease.

  12. PI3 kinase is involved in cocaine behavioral sensitization and its reversal with brain area specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiuwu; Mi Jing; Wetsel, William C.; Davidson, Colin; Xiong Xieying; Chen Qiang; Ellinwood, Everett H.; Lee, Tong H.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important signaling molecule involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, and phagocytosis, and may participate in various brain functions. To determine whether it is also involved in cocaine sensitization, we measured the p85α/p110 PI3K activity in the nuclear accumbens (NAc) shell, NAc core, and prefrontal cortex (PFC) following establishment of cocaine sensitization and its subsequent reversal. Naive rats were rank-ordered and split into either daily cocaine or saline pretreatment group based on their locomotor responses to an acute cocaine injection (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.). These two groups were then injected with cocaine (40 mg/kg, s.c.) or saline for 4 consecutive days followed by 9-day withdrawal. Cocaine sensitization was subsequently reversed by 5 daily injections of the D 1 /D 2 agonist pergolide (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) in combination with the 5-HT 3 antagonist ondansetron (0.2 mg/kg, s.c., 3.5 h after pergolide injection). After another 9-day withdrawal, behavioral cocaine sensitization and its reversal were confirmed with an acute cocaine challenge (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and animals were sacrificed the next day for measurement of p85α/p110 PI3K activity. Cocaine-sensitized animals exhibited increased PI3K activity in the NAc shell, and this increase was reversed by combined pergolide/ondansetron treatment, which also reversed behavioral sensitization. In the NAc core and PFC, cocaine sensitization decreased and increased the PI3K activity, respectively. These changes, in contrast to that in the NAc shell, were not normalized following the reversal of cocaine-sensitization. Interestingly, daily injections of pergolide alone in saline-pretreated animals induced PI3K changes that were similar to the cocaine sensitization-associated changes in the NAc core and PFC but not the NAc shell; furthermore, these changes in saline-pretreated animals were prevented by ondansetron given 3.5 h after pergolide. The present

  13. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  14. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  15. Social developmnet of ecologically sensitive rural areas: Case studies of the Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) and the Devetashko Plato (Bulgaria)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletalová, Jana; Stefanová, D.; Vaishar, Antonín; Stefanov, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Tcherkezova, E.

    3-4, 3-4 (2016), s. 65-84 ISSN 0204-7209 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : social development * rural sensitive areas * Devetashko Plato * Bulgaria * Moravian karst - Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography http://geoproblems.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/2016_34/4_zapletalova.pdf

  16. Political Socialization: A Topical Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauen, Marsha; Harmon, Kathryn Newcomer

    1977-01-01

    Identifies four major areas of recent investigations: cross-cultural studies of political socialization, the focus on the interactive nature of the individual in the process of learning about politics, the need to examine the comparative impacts of the various agencies of political socialization, and methodological and conceptual refinements.…

  17. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  18. Sensitivity, selectivity and stability of tin oxide nanostructures on large area arrays of microhotplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, Balaji; Cavicchi, Richard; Semancik, Steve; DeVoe, Don L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of nanoparticle engineered tin oxide (SnO2) are reported, for microhotplate chemical sensing applications. 16 Å of metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, copper and silver were selectively evaporated onto each column of the microhotplate array. Following evaporation, the microhotplates were heated to 500 °C and SnO2 was deposited on top of the microhotplates using a self-aligned chemical vapour deposition process. Scanning electron microscopy characterization revealed control of SnO2 nanostructures in the range of 20-121 nm. Gas sensing in seven different hydrocarbons revealed that metal nanoparticles that helped in producing faster nucleation of SnO2 resulted in smaller grain size and higher sensitivity. Sensitivity as a function of concentration and grain size is addressed for tin oxide nanostructures. Smaller grain sizes resulted in higher sensitivity of tin oxide nanostructures. Temperature programmed sensing of the devices yielded shape differences in the response between air and methanol, illustrating selectivity. Spiderweb plots were used to monitor the materials programmed selectivity. The shape differences between different gases in spiderweb plots illustrate materials selectivity as a powerful mapping approach for monitoring selectivity in various gases. Continuous monitoring in 80 ppm methanol yielded stable sensor response for more than 200 h. This comprehensive study illustrates the use of a nanoparticle engineering approach for sensitive, selective and stable gas sensing applications.

  19. [Prevalence of sensitization to allergens in school children with asthma residents from Guadalajara metropolitan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá-Padilla, Guadalupe; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Kestler-Gramajo, Amanda; Valdez-López, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is dependent on the geographical and climatic conditions in each region; therefore, identify agents most commonly sensitized children with asthma is important for planning prevention measures. To determine the prevalence of the sensitization to allergens in children with asthma. This cross-sectional and prolective study includes children from ages 6 to 14, who have asthma, attended for the first time in an allergy service. The patients were recruited consecutively between the months of January 1st 2014 to December 31st 2014. The frequency of the allergen sensitization was estimated. This study included 186 children, the median age was 7 years olds, the male group was 104/186 (55.9%) The median of the positive results was 5 and monosensitized were 47/186 (2.2%). The most common category of allergens was the indoor (90.3%), then trees (71.0%), and finally the fungi (9.7%). Individually, the house dust mites were more common in between the interior allergens, followed by the epithelial; in the tree pollen were oaks (31.7%) and ashes (28.0%), in weeds was mugwort (21.5%), in grasses was Zea mays (18.3%) and in the fungi was Cladosporium spp. (6.5%). The high prevalence of the sensitization to house dust mites and epithelial in children with asthma, stimulates to implement methods of environmental control for contributing a better control of the disease.

  20. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  1. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  2. Optimizations of large area quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, M.; West, K.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we address optimizations of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) through the combination of important issues like semi-transparency, quasi-solid-state constructions and low-cost realization of serially connected modules. DSSCs with a transparency of 50% in the visible region, moderate...... encouraging results. A short circuit current (I-sc) of 4.45 mA cm(-2) with an open circuit voltage (V-oc) of 0.5 V were recorded in standard solar cells sensitized by cis-bis(thiocyano) ruthenium(II)-bis-2, 2'-bipyridine-4, 4'-dicarboxylate. Up-scaling tests demonstrate the easy realization of a 625 cm(2...

  3. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  4. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  5. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of managed properties including: Critical Habitats, Management Areas, Marine Sanctuaries, National Parks, Nature Conservancy lands,...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for designated critical habitats, essential habitats, management areas, marine sanctuaries, National Park Service properties,...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries of Coast Guard facilities; management areas; marinas; marine sanctuaries; national forests; national, regional, and state parks;...

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northwest Arctic, Alaska: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing management area data for Designated Critical Habitats, National Park Service properties, Wildlife Refuges, and...

  10. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  11. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  12. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  13. Profile of antibiotic consumption, sensitivity and resistance in an urban area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripi, Sunita Bhargavi; Thadepalli, Venu Gopala Rao; Khagga, Mukkanti; Tripuraribhatla, Prasanna Krishna; Bharadwaj, Dinesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Antibiotics are an important category of drugs in which indiscriminate use can affect the susceptibility patterns among infectious organisms, resulting in antibiotic resistance. Data on antibiotic usage and susceptibility patterns were collected from public and private health centres in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, through the use of questionnaires. The data collected were then coded, tabulated, computed and evaluated using statistical analysis. The consumption profile of the different categories of drugs used in public and private hospitals was as follows: nutrition and metabolism products 19.0%; gastrointestinal disorder-related drugs 18.5%; antibiotics 16.8%; anti-pyretics and anti-analgesics 20.6%. These drugs were found to be in high demand. Among the antibiotics, aminoglycosides (amikacin), quinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin), tetracyclines (doxycycline), penicillin (ampicillin) and sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) were the most commonly prescribed drugs for antibiotic therapy. 46% of the culture laboratory reports were positive with the following organism profile: Escherichia coli (36%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (29%), Enterococcus faecalis (9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10%). In terms of the sensitivity profile of antibacterials, amikacin (66.9%) was the only antibiotic showing sensitivity patterns, while the majority of antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, amoxicillin, gentamycin and norfloxacin, had acquired a resistance rate of 55.1%-80.6%. The results of this study suggest that indiscriminate prescription and consumption of new broad-spectrum antibiotics against sensitive organisms results in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, there is an urgent need to curb the excessive use of antibiotics in local hospitals in order to control the trend of increasing antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics.

  14. Scientific and political equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronberg, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    The conflict between technological and political decisions concerning a spent fuel policy is again proclaimed. It is pointed out that this must be a decision at the national level and that new studies on areas already studied is a method of avoiding decisions. The author states that he doubts that ''a policy, capable of implementation within a reasonable time frame,'' can be developed if restrictions are not placed ''upon the political as well as the technical community.''

  15. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  16. Maps help protect sensitive areas from spills : an integrated approach to environmental mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflamme, A.; Leblanc, S.R.; Percy, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Atlantic Sensitivity Mapping Program (ASMP) is underway in Canada's Atlantic Region to develop and maintain the best possible sensitivity mapping system to provide planners and managers with the full range of information they would need in the event of a coastal oil spill drill or spill incident. This initiative also provides recommendations concerning resource protection at the time of a spill. ASMP has become a powerful tool, providing a consistent and standardized terminology throughout the range of spill planning, preparedness and real-time response activities. The desktop mapping system provides an easy-to-use approach for a wide range of technical and support data and information stored in various databases. The data and information are based on a consistent set of terms and definitions that describe the character of the shore zone, the objective and strategies for a specific response, and the methods for achieving those objectives. The data are linked with other resource information in a GIS-based system and can be updated quickly and easily as new information becomes available. The mapping program keeps evolving to better serve the needs of environmental emergency responders. In addition, all components will soon be integrated into a web-based mapping format for broader accessibility. Future work will focus on developing a pre-spill database for Labrador. 3 refs., 8 figs

  17. Influence on sensitivity to insecticides: a case study of a settled area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The close proximity of Liwonde National Park to Liwonde town creates a unique situation of a large human population adjacent to a natural undisturbed animal reserve. The closeness of the two ecosystems has an impact on biology of mosquitoes of the area, such as susceptibility to insecticides. Susceptibility to insecticide ...

  18. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total area and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models...

  19. Proposal for the decision making in sensitive technology: application to the nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eduardo Ramos Ferreira da

    2007-01-01

    In a previous article, a correlation is made among the phases of the nuclear technology development and the decision making processes, showing that from the 70's decade, such processes are connected to the national security doctrines, influenced by the Brazilian War College. In this paper it is shown the developed model for the decision making when the sensitive technologies are involved that in our special case will be specific oriented to the nuclear technology. An assessment are made for such decisions must having the the population approval, showing the main existent obstacles and how the present model, although defined at the end of the year 2003, will not be succeeded in a short period of time. It is mainly shown that the linear models must be abandoned, essential since the Word War II, for a holistic model more realistic with a new global state of affairs

  20. Investigations of sensitivity to antibiotics of salmonella strain species originating from poultry from different epizootiological areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1666 samples were examined, of which 512 samples of parenchymatous organs of dead or deliberately sacrtificed animals, 60 samples of non-hatched fertilized eggs, 202 samples of feces, 652 samples of cloacal smears, 221 samples of smears from walls of maintenance objects, incubator stations, and transport vehicles, 19 samples of beddings and shavings. The samples originated from poultry farms and which were taken to a laboratory immediately on sampling and sown the same day. A total of 104 strains of Salmonella were isolated: 94 strains from samples of parenchymatous organs of dead chicks, 1 strain from non-hatched eggs, 3 strains from feces samples, 1 strain from samples of cloacal smears, 4 strains from samples of surface smears of maintenance objects and transport vehicles, and 1 strain from samples of beddings and shavings. Serological typization established the presence of the following serovarieties: Salmonella Enteritidis 79 strains, Salmonella Hartford 17 strains, Salmonella Typohimurium 5 strains, Salmonella Mbandaka 2 strains, and Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain. We examined the sensitivity of Salmonella strains to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, enrofloxacine, norfloxacine, flumequin, erythromycin, lincospectin, colistin, fluorphenicol, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. In S. Enteritidis strains, no resistence was established to colistin, fluorphenicol and sulphamethoxasole+trimethoprim, in fact, the sensitivity to these antibiotics and chemotherapeutics was 100%. Prevalence resitence of 0.96%, in only one strain, was established for enrofloxacine. A high prevalence resistence of 33.6% was established for neomycin, while prevalence resistence of 3.86% was established for the related aminoglycozide antibiotic gentamycin. The highest prevalence resistance in S.Hartford strains was established for erythromycin, 15.38%, and streptomycin, 7.6%. Resistence of S. Tyohimurium was

  1. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  2. Sensitization to 10 mites in a tropic area. Der p and Der f are important risk factor for sensitization to other mites from Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, Chortoglyphidae, and Glyciphagidae families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much is known about the frequency of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, although less is known about sensitization to other species and their possible interactions. Objective: In patients with allergic manifestations, to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to 10 species of mites in a tropical area and their possible interactions. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sensitization was evaluated by skin tests. A generalized linear Poisson regression model with robust variance was used. Based on the sensitization probability reasons and social networking analysis, explorations of relationship for 10 mites were performed. Results: 147 patients were included. The highest sensitization was found to mites' family Pyroglyphidae (> 70 % and less frequently was the Glycyphagidae family (< 50 %. Sensitization to any mites significantly increased the likelihood of sensitization to others. Sensitization to Der f or Der p increased, more than 20 times the likelihood of sensitization to other mites of the Pyroglyphidae family and more than 10 times to mites from other families. Sensitization to mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae family also increased the risk of sensitization to other mites but less than 5 times. Conclusion: Sensitization to mites is frequent in tropical area. Pyroglyphidae sensitization is the main risk factor for polysensitization with other mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae. These results must be considered at diagnosis and treatment of allergy diseases.

  3. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Proposed Hampton Roads Area Sites for a Possible Small Modular Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, R. J. [ORNL; Omitaomu, O. A. [ORNL

    2014-08-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to use the OR-SAGE tool to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in evaluating future electrical generation deployment options for small modular reactors (SMRs) in areas with significant energy demand from the federal sector. Deployment of SMRs in zones with high federal energy use can provide a means of meeting federal clean energy goals.

  4. 2013 FEMA Political Jurisdiction Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  5. Social-cultural impacts of transnational oil corporations in environmentally sensitive areas. Documentation VII 1 E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, L

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of two case studies of indigenous peoples living in the Americas. It is the first report in a series and the others will be devoted to indigenous peoples in Africa and Asia. The focus is on the activities of transnational corporations on indigenous lands. However, it should be acknowledged from the outset that transnational corporations today act with the knowledge and consent of the national governments involved. The case studies cover oil development in diverse areas where indigenous peoples live: the rainforest and the arctic. The report concludes with recommendations for Governments and transnational corporations which, if followed could promote cultural diversity and sustainable development. (orig.).

  6. The role of boundary organizations in co-management: examining the politics of knowledge integration in a marine protected area in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella J. Gray

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are an increasingly popular tool for management of the marine commons. Effective governance is essential if MPAs are to achieve their objectives, yet many MPAs face conflicts and governance challenges, including lack of trust and knowledge integration between fishers, scientists, and policy makers. This paper considers the role of a boundary organization in facilitating knowledge integration in a co-managed MPA, the Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Marine Reserve in Belize. Boundary organizations can play an important role in resource management, by bridging the science-policy divide, facilitating knowledge integration, and enabling communication in conditions of uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Belize, the paper identifies four challenges for knowledge integration. First, actors have divergent perspectives on whether and how knowledge is being integrated. Second, actors disagree on resource conditions within the MPA and how these should be understood. Third, in order to maintain accountability with multiple actors, including fishers, government, and funders, the boundary organization has promoted the importance of different types of knowledge for different purposes (science and fishers’ knowledge, rather than the integration of these. Finally, a lack of trust and uneven power relations make it difficult to separate knowledge claims from political claims. However, even if knowledge integration proves difficult, boundary organizations may still play an important role by maintaining accountability, providing space for conflicting understandings to co-exist, and ultimately for governance institutions to evolve.

  7. Socio-ecological correlates of mental health among ethnic minorities in areas of political conflict: a study of Druze adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Natour, Miras

    2014-04-01

    Children and youths living in areas of political conflict are at increased risk of mental health problems, but little is known about psychosocial adjustment among ethnic minorities living in war-afflicted settings. This cross-sectional study used an ecological approach to investigate the unique contributions of child, family/social, and minority related factors as well as traumatic exposure and perceived discrimination to the mental health of 167 Druze adolescents in Northern Israel. Outcome measures included participants' self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, psychological distress, and emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescents reported high indirect exposure, moderate discrimination, strong ethnic identity and high religious involvement. Regression analyses showed that female gender, number of traumatic events, and perceived discrimination were associated with more severe mental health outcomes. In addition, low social support and high religious involvement predicted increased PTSD symptom severity, while stronger ethnic identity was associated with less emotional and behavioral problems. Findings are discussed in terms of the cultural characteristics of the Druze community and highlight the need to consider additional stressors, such as discrimination, when working with ethnic minority youth in conflict zones.

  8. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  9. Research on large area VUV-sensitive gaseous photomultipliers for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Artur Emanuel Cardoso

    Desde cedo que a comunidade cientifica compreendeu que gases nobres em liquido sao excelentes meios de deteccao de radiacao, combinando a sua elevada densidade, elevado grau de homogeneidade e de elevado rendimento de cintilacao. Para alem destas caracteristicas inerentes, estes tem a potencialidade de fornecer ambos sinais de ionizacao - criando electroes livres - e cintilacao em resposta a interaccao com radiacao ionizante e, tendo em vista a sua aplicacao em experiencias de eventos raros relacionados com fisica de neutrinos ou materia-escura, a capacidade de autoblindagem garante a exclusao de eventos induzidos por radiacao de fundo. O facto de nao absorverem a sua propria luz, emergente dos eventos de cintilacao, permite a expansao deste tipo de detectores ate grandes volumes, sendo que as colaboracoes mais recentes propoem detectores com dezenas de toneladas de xenon em estado liquido. As experiencias actuais que usam gases nobres em estado liquido empregam xenon ou argon numa so fase (estado liquido) ou em dupla-fase (estado liquido + gasoso) e as suas aplicacoes abrangem desde as ja referidas experiencias de procura de eventos raros, passando por imagiologia medica tais como detectores de radiacao gama para PET ou câmaras Compton "3-gamma" em combinacao com PET, passando tambem por aplicacoes de seguranca como sistemas de inspeccao para deteccao de material fissil e, finalmente, em câmaras Compton para aplicacoes de astrofisica. Em ambas as configuracoes a leitura dos sinais de cintilacao e geralmente feita atraves de um grande numero de dispendiosos fotomultiplicadores de vacuo agrupados. A presente tese de doutoramento e dedicada aos fotomultiplicadores gasosos de grande area para aplicacoes criogenicas desenvolvidos no contexto do programa doutoral, tendo em vista a sua eventual aplicacao como um dispositivo complementar aos metodos existentes de deteccao de cintilacao, para aplicacao em futuras experiencias de grande escala. Esta pesquisa foi

  10. Reduction of atmospheric fine particle level by restricting the idling vehicles around a sensitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Chen, Kang-Shin

    2018-07-01

    Atmospheric particles are a major problem that could lead to harmful effects on human health, especially in densely populated urban areas. Chiayi is a typical city with very high population and traffic density, as well as being located at the downwind side of several pollution sources. Multiple contributors for PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≥2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles cause complicated air quality problems. This study focused on the inhibition of local emission sources by restricting the idling vehicles around a school area and evaluating the changes in surrounding atmospheric PM conditions. Two stationary sites were monitored, including a background site on the upwind side of the school and a campus site inside the school, to monitor the exposure level, before and after the idling prohibition. In the base condition, the PM 2.5  mass concentrations were found to increase 15% from the background, whereas the nitrate (NO 3 - ) content had a significant increase at the campus site. The anthropogenic metal contents in PM 2.5 were higher at the campus site than the background site. Mobile emissions were found to be the most likely contributor to the school hot spot area by chemical mass balance modeling (CMB8.2). On the other hand, the PM 2.5 in the school campus fell to only 2% after idling vehicle control, when the mobile source contribution reduced from 42.8% to 36.7%. The mobile monitoring also showed significant reductions in atmospheric PM 2.5 , PM 0.1 , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and black carbon (BC) levels by 16.5%, 33.3%, 48.0%, and 11.5%, respectively. Consequently, the restriction of local idling emission was proven to significantly reduce PM and harmful pollutants in the hot spots around the school environment. The emission of idling vehicles strongly affects the levels of particles and relative pollutants in near-ground air around a school area. The PM 2.5 mass concentration at a campus site increased from

  11. Estradiol increases the sensitivity of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons to dopamine and ethanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha J Vandegrift

    Full Text Available Gender differences in psychiatric disorders such as addiction may be modulated by the steroid hormone estrogen. For instance, 17β-estradiol (E2, the predominant form of circulating estrogen in pre-menopausal females, increases ethanol consumption, suggesting that E2 may affect the rewarding properties of ethanol and thus the development of alcohol use disorder in females. The ventral tegmental area (VTA is critically involved in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of ethanol. In order to determine the role of E2 in VTA physiology, gonadally intact female mice were sacrificed during diestrus II (high E2 or estrus (low E2 for electrophysiology recordings. We measured the excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine (DA of VTA DA neurons and found that both excitation by ethanol and inhibition by dopamine were greater in diestrus II compared with estrus. Treatment of VTA slices from mice in diestrus II with an estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780 reduced ethanol-stimulated neuronal firing, but had no effect on ethanol-stimulated firing of neurons in slices from mice in estrus. Surprisingly, ICI 182,780 did not affect the inhibition by DA, indicating different mechanisms of action of estrogen receptors in altering ethanol and DA responses. We also examined the responses of VTA DA neurons to ethanol and DA in ovariectomized mice treated with E2 and found that E2 treatment enhanced the responses to ethanol and DA in a manner similar to what we observed in mice in diestrus II. Our data indicate that E2 modulates VTA neuron physiology, which may contribute to both the enhanced reinforcing and rewarding effects of alcohol and the development of other psychiatric disorders in females that involve alterations in DA neurotransmission.

  12. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  13. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Zhu; K. Pohlmann; J. Chapman; C. Russell; R.W.H. Carroll; D. Shafer

    2009-09-10

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation’s first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and highlevel radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effectiveporosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  14. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Contaminant Travel Times from the Upgradient Nevada Test Site to the Yucca Mountain Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Chapman, J.; Russell, C.; Carroll, R.W.H.; Shafer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as the nation's first permanent geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to intercept the subsurface of the proposed land withdrawal area for the repository is investigated. The timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty for possible radionuclide movement along these flow pathways is estimated as a result of effective-porosity value uncertainty for the hydrogeologic units (HGUs) along the flow paths. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the most influential HGUs on the advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley regional groundwater flow system (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Effective porosity values for HGUs along these pathways are one of several parameters that determine possible radionuclide travel times between the NTS and proposed YM withdrawal areas. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site effective-porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. The simulations are based on two steady-state flow scenarios, the pre-pumping (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model), and the 1998 pumping (assuming steady-state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model) scenarios for the purpose of long-term prediction and monitoring. The pumping scenario accounts for groundwater withdrawal activities in the Amargosa Desert and other areas downgradient of YM. Considering each detonation in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa (in

  15. GIS Assessment of Mass Tourism Anthropization in Sensitive Coastal Environments: Application to a Case Study in the Mar Menor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador García-Ayllón

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the Mediterranean coast, the tourism activity which has developed since the 1950s has become a mass tourism industry in recent decades, cohabitating with natural spaces of high environmental value. These sensitive areas are thus subjected to a varied catalog of anthropizing actions (urbanization of the natural soil, modification of the dune balances by the construction of port infrastructures, alteration of marine ecosystems by recreational activities, etc.. All these inter-related elements are often difficult to analyze in a comprehensive way because of their diffuse nature. This paper proposes a methodology based on GIS analysis for the evaluation of diffuse anthropization associated to tourism in sensitive coastal environments. By using different indicators of territorial transformation, a complete method is proposed to establish the index of diffuse anthropization of a territory. This methodology, which is easily applicable in a generalized manner in different cases for developed countries, will be applied in the Mar Menor, a coastal lagoon area in the Mediterranean that has been suffering from mass tourism during recent decades. The results will show the important impact of several actions linked to tourism and the worrying inertia that the current trend can cause in the lagoon’s ecosystem.

  16. Sensitivity analysis of P-waves and S-waves to gas hydrate in the Shenhu area using OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Huaishan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zizheng; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    Compared to towed streamers, ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) obtain both S-wave data and richer wavefield information. In this paper, the induced polarization method is used to conduct wavefield separation on OBS data obtained from the Shenhu area in the South China Sea. A comparison of the changes in P- and S-waves, and a comprehensive analysis of geological factors within the area, enable analysis and description of the occurrence of natural gas hydrate in the study area. Results show an increase in P-wave velocity when natural gas hydrate exists in the formation, whereas the S-wave velocity remains almost constant, as S-waves can only propagate through the rock skeleton. Therefore, the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) response of the P-wave is better than that of the S-wave in the frequency analysis profile. In a wide-angle section, the refractive wave of the hydrate layer is evident when using P-wave components but identification is difficult with S-wave components. This velocity model illustrates the sensitivity of P- and S-wave components to gas hydrate. The use of this polarization method and results of analysis provide technical and theoretical support for research on hydrate deposits and other geological features in the Shenhu area.

  17. Multiple pathways carry signals from short-wavelength-sensitive ('blue') cones to the middle temporal area of the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Roy, Sujata; Dreher, Bogdan; Martin, Paul R; Vidyasagar, Trichur R

    2013-01-01

    We recorded spike activity of single neurones in the middle temporal visual cortical area (MT or V5) of anaesthetised macaque monkeys. We used flashing, stationary spatially circumscribed, cone-isolating and luminance-modulated stimuli of uniform fields to assess the effects of signals originating from the long-, medium- or short- (S) wavelength-sensitive cone classes. Nearly half (41/86) of the tested MT neurones responded reliably to S-cone-isolating stimuli. Response amplitude in the majority of the neurones tested further (19/28) was significantly reduced, though not always completely abolished, during reversible inactivation of visuotopically corresponding regions of the ipsilateral primary visual cortex (striate cortex, area V1). Thus, the present data indicate that signals originating in S-cones reach area MT, either via V1 or via a pathway that does not go through area V1. We did not find a significant difference between the mean latencies of spike responses of MT neurones to signals that bypass V1 and those that do not; the considerable overlap we observed precludes the use of spike-response latency as a criterion to define the routes through which the signals reach MT.

  18. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  19. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. Methods The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Results Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some

  20. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas. However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital.The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval. The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey, based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600. The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method were conducted based on these data.Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences

  1. The Influence of Urbanism and Information Consumption on Political Dimensions of Social Capital: Exploratory Study of the Localities Adjacent to the Core City from Brașov Metropolitan Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeanu, Cătălina-Ionela; Briciu, Arabela; Briciu, Victor; Repanovici, Angela; Coman, Claudiu

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a growing trend towards the research of voting behavior in post-communist countries. Urban sociology theorists state that not only space structures influence political participation, but also space structures are changing under the influence of global, local, and individual factors. The growing role played by information in the globalised world has accelerated the paradigm shift in urban sociology: from central place model (based on urban-rural distinction and on monocentric metropolitan areas) to network society (based on space of flows and polycentric metropolitan areas). However, recent studies have mainly focused on countries with solid democracies, rather than on former communist countries. The present study aims to analyze the extent to which a new emerging spatial structure can be envisaged within a metropolitan area of Romania and its consequences for the political dimensions of social capital. The Transilvania University Ethics Commission approved this study (S1 Aprouval). The research is based upon individual and aggregate empirical data, collected from the areas adjacent to the core city in Brașov metropolitan area. Individual data has been collected during October 2012, using the oral survey technique (S1 Survey), based on a standardized questionnaire (stratified simple random sample, N = 600). The National Institute of Statistics and the Electoral Register provided the aggregate data per locality. Unvaried and multivariate analyses (hierarchical regression method) were conducted based on these data. Some dimensions of urbanism, identified as predictors of the political dimensions of social capital, suggest that the area under analysis has a predominantly monocentric character, where the rural-urban distinction continues to remain relevant. There are also arguments favoring the dissolution of the rural-urban distinction and the emergence of polycentric spatial structures. The presence of some influences related to the

  2. Politics of aviation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  3. Environmental politics. Actual research projects in the area of sectional themes of renewable energies; Umweltpolitik. Aktuelle Forschungsvorhaben im Bereich Querschnittsthemen der erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Gisela; Boehme, Dieter; Nikol, Claudia (comps.)

    2006-08-15

    Within the meeting of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 23rd to 24th February, 2006 in Berlin the following lectures were held: (1) Reaching the targets of development for renewable energies up to the year 2020 (Joachim Nitsch); (2) Introduction to the topics of cross-section projects in the area of renewable energy (Wolfhart Duerrschmidt); (3) Preparation and accompanying of the preparation of a report of experience according to paragraph 20 EEG (Frithjof Staiss); (4) Analysis and evaluation for the further EEG from total economic view (Claudia Kemfert); (5) Monitoring for the efficiency of the amended EEG and the development of the power generation from biomass (Daniela Thraen); (6) Monitoring for the efficiency of the amended EEG and the development of power generation from solar energy (Dieer Guennewig); (7) Market penetration of renewable energies in the German and European power market (Mario Ragwitz); (8) Ecologically optimized expansion of the renewable energy revisited: the sectorial challenges (Martin Pehnt); (9) Key issues for the development and introduction of budget independent instruments for the market penetration in the heating market (Michael Nast); (10) Material flow analysis of sustainable mobility in the context of the renewable energies till to 2030 (Uwe Fritsche); (11) Optimization for a sustainable expansion of the generation and utilization of biogas in Germany - Electricity, thermal energy, fuels (Guido Reinhardt); (12) A structural-economical-ecological comparison of regenerative energy technologies (RE) with Carbon Capture and Capture (CCS) (Manfred Fischedick); (13) Monitoring of support instruments for renewable energies in the power supply sector in the EU and scientific accompanying of the Feed-in-Cooperation (Mario Ragwitz); (14) Further development of the EU politics for the promotion of renewable energies in the European power supply single

  4. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  5. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers....

  6. Predator Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louisa Cappelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer urges readers to see coyotes as crucial members of the natural community whose predation is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecological stability. Their cultural production provides a human story of ecocritical engagement for understanding the cascading effects of removing top predators from their ecosystems. By envisioning biocentric possibilities within place-based and scientific contexts, Edward Abbey and Barbara Kingsolver share a common theme of political ecology: political processes shape ecological conditions. A close reading of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer provides a literary entryway to connect research, arguments, and discourse across disciplines tasking readers to engage in political discussions of environmental sustainability and to consider viable solutions to preserve the ecological diversity of our predator populations and ecosystems.

  7. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  9. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  10. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  11. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  12. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  13. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  14. Political liberalism and religious claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  15. Framework to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyen, Luc; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2005-03-01

    We propose a framework that combines simulation optimization with Bayesian decision analysis to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas. A stochastic simulation optimization management model is employed to plan regionally distributed groundwater pumping while preserving the hydroecological balance in wetland areas. Because predictions made by an aquifer model are uncertain, groundwater supply systems operate below maximum yield. Collecting data from the groundwater system can potentially reduce predictive uncertainty and increase safe water production. The price paid for improvement in water management is the cost of collecting the additional data. Efficient data collection using Bayesian decision analysis proceeds in three stages: (1) The prior analysis determines the optimal pumping scheme and profit from water sales on the basis of known information. (2) The preposterior analysis estimates the optimal measurement locations and evaluates whether each sequential measurement will be cost-effective before it is taken. (3) The posterior analysis then revises the prior optimal pumping scheme and consequent profit, given the new information. Stochastic simulation optimization employing a multiple-realization approach is used to determine the optimal pumping scheme in each of the three stages. The cost of new data must not exceed the expected increase in benefit obtained in optimal groundwater exploitation. An example based on groundwater management practices in Florida aimed at wetland protection showed that the cost of data collection more than paid for itself by enabling a safe and reliable increase in production.

  16. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Political representation is the central issue in contemporary debates on the level of democracy in political institutions and processes in the European Union. Underrepresentation of particular groups in political institutions, decision-making and policy-making processes is perceived as the problem of justice, legitimacy and effectiveness in democratic societies. In this paper, the author analyzes the gender aspects of democratic decision-making processes and political representation of women in the EU member states. The social, historical and political dimension of women's efforts to obtain and promote their civil status and political rights have been the framework for developing the principle of gender equality as one of the founding EU principles. In the past hundred years, one of the most significant trends in politics has been the expansion of formal political representation of women. Yet, even though it has been more than a hundered years since women won their political rights in the 19th and the 20th century (the right to vote and the right to be voted, gender differences in political rights are still a substantial part of debate. Today, women's political representation is still inadequate and their political capacity and power have not been exercised to a sufficient extent (or proportionally through their actual representation in parliament. In March 2012, the European Commisision published a report on gender equality in different areas of social life; the Eurobarometer survey shows that women are generally underrepresented in politics. In national parliaments, only one out of four MPs is a woman. In the European Parliament, three out of ten parliamentarians are women. The statistics shows a huge discrepancy among the EU Member States in terms of women's representation in parliament (44.7% in Sweden as contrasted to 13.3% in Romania. The prevailing view in many studies is that post-industrial democracies are deficient as they have failed

  17. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  18. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  19. Large-Area Cross-Aligned Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Flexible, Transparent, and Force-Sensitive Mechanochromic Touch Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungse; Kang, Saewon; Pandya, Ashish; Shanker, Ravi; Khan, Ziyauddin; Lee, Youngsu; Park, Jonghwa; Craig, Stephen L; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2017-04-25

    Silver nanowire (AgNW) networks are considered to be promising structures for use as flexible transparent electrodes for various optoelectronic devices. One important application of AgNW transparent electrodes is the flexible touch screens. However, the performances of flexible touch screens are still limited by the large surface roughness and low electrical to optical conductivity ratio of random network AgNW electrodes. In addition, although the perception of writing force on the touch screen enables a variety of different functions, the current technology still relies on the complicated capacitive force touch sensors. This paper demonstrates a simple and high-throughput bar-coating assembly technique for the fabrication of large-area (>20 × 20 cm 2 ), highly cross-aligned AgNW networks for transparent electrodes with the sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq -1 at 95.0% of optical transmittance, which compares favorably with that of random AgNW networks (sheet resistance of 21.0 Ω sq -1 at 90.4% of optical transmittance). As a proof of concept demonstration, we fabricate flexible, transparent, and force-sensitive touch screens using cross-aligned AgNW electrodes integrated with mechanochromic spiropyran-polydimethylsiloxane composite film. Our force-sensitive touch screens enable the precise monitoring of dynamic writings, tracing and drawing of underneath pictures, and perception of handwriting patterns with locally different writing forces. The suggested technique provides a robust and powerful platform for the controllable assembly of nanowires beyond the scale of conventional fabrication techniques, which can find diverse applications in multifunctional flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  1. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  2. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  3. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the DC and PSLI Overt, Indirect • US forming a coalition with France and Britain to return Trieste to Italy control • US Urged French and British...efforts to alter Chile’s social construct by calling for the end to the Allende government, pointing out the failures of Marxism , encouraging a...political or social change. Frances Piven and Richard Cloward describe three attributes associated with group consciousness and cognitive

  4. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  5. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  6. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  7. Reconsidering Gender and Women in Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Lilijana ČIČKARIĆ

    2015-01-01

    The most common problems that are placed in the center of the study of political representation are related to the following questions - why do not more women in legislative bodies always result in a policy that is gender sensitive and receptive to women? Why does the statistical presence of women not facilitate their cooperation and coalition among representatives of different political parties? The key issue is that higher inclusion of women in political bodies, has to result in changing th...

  8. Gender, Politics and Democratisation in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Kassea, B. Raul

    2006-01-01

    Gender perceptions, religious belief systems, and political thought have excluded women from politics, for ages, around the world. Combining feminist and modernisation theorists in my theoretical framework, I examine the trends in patriarchal Europe and I highlight the gender-sensitive model of the Nordic countries. Retracing local gender patterns from precolonial to postcolonial eras in sub-Saharan Africa, I explore the links between perceptions, needs, resources, education and women's polit...

  9. The Impact of Theory of Optimal Currency Areas on Discursus of Political Parties ČSSD and ODS about the Entry to the Eurozone Between the Years 2010 - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    This essay is about the theory of optimal currency areas (OCA) and its reflection in public discussion of two biggest political parties in Czech Republic - ODS and ČSSD, about Czech Republic entering the European Monetary Union (EMU). Although EMU hadn't met the criteria of OCA before the examined period, both parties entered the elections in May 2010 with more or less pro-european program despite decreasing support of eurozone in Czech public opinion. While ČSSD only limitedly mentioned the ...

  10. Modeling and direct sensitivity analysis of biogenic emissions impacts on regional ozone formation in the Mexico-U.S. border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Dominguez, A; Wilkinson, J G; Yang, Y J; Russell, A G

    2000-01-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved biogenic hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions inventory has been developed for a region along the Mexico-U.S. border area. Average daily biogenic non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emissions for the 1700 x 1000 km2 domain were estimated at 23,800 metric tons/day (62% from Mexico and 38% from the United States), and biogenic NOx was estimated at 1230 metric tons/day (54% from Mexico and 46% from the United States) for the July 18-20, 1993, ozone episode. The biogenic NMOG represented 74% of the total NMOG emissions, and biogenic NOx was 14% of the total NOx. The CIT photochemical airshed model was used to assess how biogenic emissions impact air quality. Predicted ground-level ozone increased by 5-10 ppb in most rural areas, 10-20 ppb near urban centers, and 20-30 ppb immediately downwind of the urban centers compared to simulations in which only anthropogenic emissions were used. A sensitivity analysis of predicted ozone concentration to emissions was performed using the decoupled direct method for three dimensional air quality models (DDM-3D). The highest positive sensitivity of ground-level ozone concentration to biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic VOC emissions results in increasing ozone concentrations) was predicted to be in locations with high NOx levels, (i.e., the urban areas). One urban center--Houston--was predicted to have a slight negative sensitivity to biogenic NO emissions (i.e., increasing biogenic NO emissions results in decreasing local ozone concentrations). The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source VOC emissions, all positive, were mainly in the urban areas. The highest sensitivities of ozone concentrations to on-road mobile source NOx emissions were predicted in both urban (either positive or negative sensitivities) and rural (positive sensitivities) locations.

  11. High prevalence of food sensitization among adults with allergic diseases who live in the Guadalajara metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Bedolla-Barajas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of food sensitization in adults shows differences owing to geographic, regional and cultural circumstances. Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with food sensitization in adults with allergic diseases. Methods: Cross-sectional study, where medical records of adult patients with any allergic disease and who tested positive to airborne allergens on at least one skin test were reviewed. Age, sex, underlying allergic disease and skin test result were recorded. Statistical analyses included food sensitization prevalence with the corresponding confidence intervals (CI, as well as a multivariate analysis to determine associated factors. Results: We included 258 patients with a mean of 36 years of age; 75 % were of the female sex. The most common underlying condition was allergic rhinitis (59 %. The prevalence of food sensitization was 37 % (95 % CI, 31.5-43.3 and it did not vary significantly according to sex or allergic disease in question. The most sensitizing food was soybeans (44.8 %, and associated factors were sensitization to cat dander (OR = 1.8; 95 % CI, 1.03-3.2 and 5 or more positive skin tests (OR = 4.3, 95 % CI 2.3-8.1. Conclusions: The prevalence of food sensitization in people with allergic disease was 40 %. Further studies are required to determine its prevalence in the general population.

  12. The concept of Dessak: development of environmental decision support for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuhaibar, B.; Jakes, J. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (Kuwait); Semioshkina, N. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency (International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA))

    2014-07-01

    The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) is implementing the 'Nuclear Program for Peaceful Applications (NPPA)', a research program focused on supporting the promotion of applications in nuclear techniques and methods in various sectors and industries of Kuwait. One of the components of this program is the establishment of research and training facilities to support the protection of the population and the environment and to reduce the risk of harmful exposures. One major component of the NPPA it the development of an environmental decision support system (EDSS) for radio-ecologically sensitive areas in Kuwait (DESSAK). The aim of this project is to be able to integrate information in a spatial and temporal resolution which will then be combined with radioecological transfer models. This allows for the identification of critical pathways to protect the environment and humans from unexpectedly elevated and routine releases of radioactivity during the operation of a nuclear power plant, research reactor or any other nuclear application. The sensitivity of the Arabian Gulf region, with its very special marine and terrestrial environmental conditions, is a driving force to keep balance between the industrial use and the preservation of nature for a sustainable development and exploitation of natural resources. This specifically applies to regions where in the past no nuclear activities have been conducted e.g. Kuwait, and which are now considered for any activity involving the nuclear fuel cycle. The situation in Kuwait specifically is to be considered as challenging: with the introduction of nuclear activities which might include the building of a Neutron Generating Facility (NGF), the necessary measures need to be established e.g. the legal and administrative formalities for nuclear safety and security, the human and administrative capabilities and capacities, and so on. In addition, a number of neighbouring or regional countries have already

  13. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  14. Scintillation hodoscope with 50x50 cm2 sensitive area on the basis of hodoscopic FEhU's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borog, V.V.; Dronov, V.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Rykalin, V.I.; Demekhin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    The problems of choosing optimal constructions of sensitive elements of large hodoscopes on the base of hodoscopic photamultipliers are considered. The obtained results of numerical calculations for choosing optimal constructions and materials of hodoscope elements are confirmed by the results of the performed measurements. The measured spatial resolution of one of constructions of scintillation hodoscopes with the 50x50x2 cm 3 sensitive volume using two hodoscopic photomultipliers constituted ±3 mm

  15. Vegetation management in sensitive areas of the Lake Tahoe Basin: A workshop to evaluate risks and advance existing strategies and practices [Independent review panel report

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Wally Miller; Bruce Hartsough; Scott Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Elected officials, agency representatives and stakeholders representing many segments of the Lake Tahoe Basin community have all raised concerns over the limited progress in reducing excess vegetation biomass in Stream Environment Zones (SEZ) and on steep slopes (collectively referred to as sensitive areas) in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Limited access, the potential for...

  16. POLITICAL POWER IN THE PRISM OF POLITICAL ANALYSIS (EXPERIENCE REVIEW OF CURRENT RESEARCH DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuryukin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad theoretical material considered relevant areas of the study of political power. Reveals the patterns of occurrence and development of a strictly scientific views on political power as a phenomenon and a social process. Determined the current trends of development of theoreticalunderstanding of political power in relation to the stages of its evolution. The most urgent technological model of exercising political power.

  17. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  18. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  19. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  20. Bi-functional TiO2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhancing the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Zhang; Wu Jihuai; Lin Jianming; Huang, Miaoliang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Enhanced photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC with conductive grids in the photo and counter electrodes. Highlights: ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids is made for using as electrode in large-area DSSC. ► The electrode has high conductivity and low internal resistance. ► TiO 2 protected Ag grids electrode avoids iodine corrosion in electrolyte. ► The TiO 2 layer also play a blocking layer role. ► Above factors enhance the photovoltaic performance of large-area DSSC. - Abstract: A bi-functional TiO 2 cemented Ag grid under layer for enhanced the photovoltaic performance of a large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is prepared with a simple way. The conductive printing paste contains micro-sized Ag powders and nano-sized TiO 2 cementing agent. The conductive printing paste can be well cemented on the FTO glass and form high conductive grids with Ag powders sintered together by the nano-sized TiO 2 particles. The formed conductive grid is protected with a TiO 2 thin layer and TiO 2 sol treatment to avoid the iodine corrosion. The addition of the TiO 2 cemented conductive grid can decrease the internal resistance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell when it is prepared in the photo and counter electrodes. Furthermore, the protecting TiO 2 thin layer and the TiO 2 sol treatment can be done on the whole area of the large-area photo electrode to both play as the blocking under layer at the same time, which can also enhance the photovoltaic performance of the large-area dye-sensitized solar cell.

  1. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  2. Is heat pain detection threshold associated with the area of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization? A study of healthy volunteers - design and detailed plan of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten Sejer; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Dahl, Jørgen Berg

    2016-05-31

    Several factors are believed to influence the development and experience of pain. Human clinical pain models are central tools, in the investigation of basic physiologic pain responses, and can be applied in patients as well as in healthy volunteers. Each clinical pain model investigates different aspects of the human pain response. Brief thermal sensitization induces a mild burn injury, resulting in development of primary hyperalgesia at the site of stimulation, and secondary hyperalgesia surrounding the site of stimulation. Central sensitization is believed to play an important role in the development of secondary hyperalgesia; however, a possible association of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization and other heat pain models remains unknown. Our aim with this study is to investigate how close the heat pain detection threshold is associated with the size of the area of secondary hyperalgesia induced by the clinical heat pain model: Brief thermal sensitization. We aim to include 120 healthy participants. The participants will be tested on two separate study days with the following procedures: i) Brief thermal sensitization, ii) heat pain detection threshold and iii) pain during thermal stimulation. Additionally, the participants will be tested with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. We conducted statistical simulations based on data from our previous study, to estimate an empirical power of 99.9 % with α of 0.05. We define that an R(2) heat stimulation, and thus may be a biomarker of an individual's pain sensitivity. The number of studies investigating secondary hyperalgesia is growing; however basic knowledge of the physiologic aspects of secondary hyperalgesia in humans is still incomplete. We therefore find it interesting to investigate if HPDT, a known quantitative sensory test, is associated with areas of secondary hyperalgesia following brief thermal sensitization Clinicaltrials

  3. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  4. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  5. Detailed oil spill contingency analysis in establishment of preparedness plans for exploration drilling in environmentally sensitive areas: an integrated management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spikkerud, Cathrine S.; Skeie, Geir Morten; Brude, Odd Willy; Gravir, Gjermund [DNV Managing Risk, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the integrated management process leading up to a dynamic oil spill preparedness plan based on detailed analysis of oil spill contingency requirements and environmental risk in environmentally sensitive areas. Starting with a detailed environmental risk and oil spill contingency analysis, oil spill preparedness plans are developed. These plans are generic for the area possibly affected by an oil spill, and are developed in detail for environmental 'hot spots' that are highly challenging in terms of oil spill response. The detailed plans make use of detailed data sets on shoreline substrate sensitivities and cleanup methodology, photographic inventory, logistical issues and access to real-time incident data for important areas. This detailed approach ensures sufficient knowledge about the sensitive area in advance to provide fast and correct strategic and tactical operational recovery decisions. A final element of the integrated process is a web based GIS, providing all parties involved with one common situation overview, ensuring that the facts remain in focus throughout the operation and that those responsible for informing stake-holders have access to correct and timely updated information. (author)

  6. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Kirchner, Thomas B.; Breshears, David D.; Field, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    The Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G disposal facility is used for the disposal of radioactive waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. In compliance with that requirement, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for facilities that receive waste after September 26, 1988. Sites are also required to conduct composite analyses for facilities that receive waste after this date; these analyses account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (and will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with these facilities. LANL issued Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis in 2008. In support of those analyses, vertical and horizontal sediment flux data were collected at two analog sites, each with different dominant vegetation characteristics, and used to estimate rates of vertical resuspension and wind erosion for Area G. The results of that investigation indicated that there was no net loss of soil at the disposal site due to wind erosion, and suggested minimal impacts of wind on the long-term performance of the facility. However, that study did not evaluate the potential for contaminant transport caused by the horizontal movement of soil particles over long time frames. Since that time, additional field data have been collected to estimate wind threshold velocities for initiating sediment transport due to saltation and rates of sediment transport once those thresholds are reached. Data such as these have been used in the development of the Vegetation Modified Transport (VMTran) model. This model is designed to estimate patterns and long-term rates of contaminant redistribution caused by winds at the site, taking into account the impacts of plant

  7. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirchner, Thomas B. [New Mexico State University; Breshears, David D. [University of Arizona; Field, Jason P. [University of Arizona

    2012-03-27

    The Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G disposal facility is used for the disposal of radioactive waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. In compliance with that requirement, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for facilities that receive waste after September 26, 1988. Sites are also required to conduct composite analyses for facilities that receive waste after this date; these analyses account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (and will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with these facilities. LANL issued Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis in 2008. In support of those analyses, vertical and horizontal sediment flux data were collected at two analog sites, each with different dominant vegetation characteristics, and used to estimate rates of vertical resuspension and wind erosion for Area G. The results of that investigation indicated that there was no net loss of soil at the disposal site due to wind erosion, and suggested minimal impacts of wind on the long-term performance of the facility. However, that study did not evaluate the potential for contaminant transport caused by the horizontal movement of soil particles over long time frames. Since that time, additional field data have been collected to estimate wind threshold velocities for initiating sediment transport due to saltation and rates of sediment transport once those thresholds are reached. Data such as these have been used in the development of the Vegetation Modified Transport (VMTran) model. This model is designed to estimate patterns and long-term rates of contaminant redistribution caused by winds at the site, taking into account the impacts of plant

  8. About the 'scientification' of politics by way of scientific expertise by advisory bodies. Social science expertise and desicion-making in social problem areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1985-01-01

    Taking the examples of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Education Council and the Federal Parliament's Commission of Inquiry on Future Nuclear Energy Policy, this paper analyses political situations in the Federal Republic of Germany in which social science expertise entered public debate and decision-making in certain social problem areas in a very pronounced way. By considering the social context in which these advisory bodies were created, an attempt is made to link an analysis of different social actors' interests to a review of existing knowledge and patterns of interpretation in the social sciences. It is shown that by using social science findings some actors achieved advantages in justifying and legitimating their political positions and that subsequently the relations of actors in some arenas of conflict changed-without, however, allowing to relate this causally only to the use of scientific knowledge. If, however, the use of scientific arguments is rapidly generalized, the confrontation of expertise and counter-expertise by opposing actors becomes usual practice. This, in turn, provides for questions concerning their 'scientificity', which the social sciences are asked to take up in reflections of their relation to social practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Political Market Orientation: A Framework for Understanding Relationship Structures in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. In our article, we demonstrate how Ormrod...... strive for contextual sensitivity. By adopting this approach it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties with the resulting emphasis on communication tactics at election time, together......’s conceptual model of political market orientation complements political science models of party organization by drawing attention to the competing interests of stakeholders in shaping party strategy and organizational structure. We treat parties as a multitude of actors rather than as monolithic entities...

  10. A methodological approach to assess sensitivity to desertification in two sub-Saharan urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, P.; Terracciano, S.; Topa, M. E.; Adamo, P.; Coly, A.; De Paola, F.; Giordano, S.; Giugni, M.; Touré, H.

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) defines desertification as "land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities". Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century and the African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land. In this geographic area, desertification processes are usually generated by soil erosion due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Preventing desertification requires an improved understanding of its causes, impact, degree and association with climate, soil, water, land cover, socio-economic factors and their combined effects. The development of methodologies capable of managing large amounts of data in an integrated approach is needed because of the complexity and variety of forms of desertification processes. The study was carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to estimate the sensitivity to land degradation in the urban and peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (MEditerranean Desertification and Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (climate, soil, vegetation) and anthropogenic factors (land management). The methodology is adaptable to the local conditions, considering that some key indicators can be operationally defined through the inclusion or exclusion of parameters and the scores assigned in order to match the specific relevance of the factors. All local data

  11. Sensitivity study of surface wind flow of a limited area model simulating the extratropical storm Delta affecting the Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marrero

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In November 2005 an extratropical storm named Delta affected the Canary Islands (Spain. The high sustained wind and intense gusts experienced caused significant damage. A numerical sensitivity study of Delta was conducted using the Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW. A total of 27 simulations were performed. Non-hydrostatic and hydrostatic experiments were designed taking into account physical parameterizations and geometrical factors (size and position of the outer domain, definition or not of nested grids, horizontal resolution and number of vertical levels. The Factor Separation Method was applied in order to identify the major model sensitivity parameters under this unusual meteorological situation. Results associated to percentage changes relatives to a control run simulation demonstrated that boundary layer and surface layer schemes, horizontal resolutions, hydrostaticity option and nesting grid activation were the model configuration parameters with the greatest impact on the 48 h maximum 10 m horizontal wind speed solution.

  12. Sensitivity study of surface wind flow of a limited area model simulating the extratropical storm Delta affecting the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, C.; Jorba, O.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    In November 2005 an extratropical storm named Delta affected the Canary Islands (Spain). The high sustained wind and intense gusts experienced caused significant damage. A numerical sensitivity study of Delta was conducted using the Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW). A total of 27 simulations were performed. Non-hydrostatic and hydrostatic experiments were designed taking into account physical parameterizations and geometrical factors (size and position of the outer domain, d...

  13. Memetics and political science. Chosen problems

    OpenAIRE

    Donaj, Łukasz; Barańska, Marzena

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity has increasingly become a determinant of the quality of research. A particular challenge faces political science, which in itself is an interdisciplinary area of study. Or else what is interdisciplinary research including the methodologies of political science and, for example, neuroscience to depend on? In this article, the authors try to identify what political science can gain by using such fields as memetics. The subject matter of the publication is a brief description...

  14. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  15. Toward a Spatial Perspective on Business Sustainability: The Role of Central Urban and Environmentally Sensitive Areas in Energy Corporates’ Green Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Liu, Zongrui; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    As one of the most concerned topics in strategic management research, the motivations of energy corporates’ green behaviours are extensively explored by scholars, however, only a few noticed the role of geographic antecedents. To bridge this gap, we argue that energy firms’ green behaviours will be greatly predicted by its location, more specifically, proximity to environmentally sensitive areas and central urban areas. Draw on neo-institutional theory and stakeholder theory, we argue that institutional forces mediate the links between energy corporates’ green behaviours and proximities, while different proximity affects via different institutional logics. The results are discussed along with managerial implications.

  16. Evaluation of sensitivity to desertification by a modified ESAs method in two sub-Saharan peri-urban areas: Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Iavazzo, Pietro; Terracciano, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Coly, Adrien; De Paola, Francesco; Giordano, Simonetta; Giugni, Maurizio; Traoré, Seydou Eric

    2013-04-01

    Desertification is regarded as one of the major global environmental problems of the 21st century. The African sub-Sahara is often quoted as the most seriously affected region with a significant loss of biological and economic productivity of the land due to climate characteristics and fluctuations, unsustainable land uses, overgrazing and inappropriate agricultural practices. Due to its complexity, dynamism and extent, desertification is complicated to check and assess. The absence of an agreed methodology for the identification of affected areas is a critical point in desertification monitoring and assessment. An integrated approach which uses both qualitative and quantitative measures is crucial to reach the aim of sustainable resource use and has to be reflected in application of sets of indicators. The selection of appropriate indicators and their integration and interpretation should be conducted by the objectives to be achieved and the questions to be answered. This study, carried out within the FP7-ENV-2010 CLUVA project (Climate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa), aimed to assess the sensitivity to desertification in peri-urban areas of both Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Saint Louis (Senegal) cities. The approach was based on the implementation and adaptation to the local conditions of the modeling methodology developed within the MEDALUS project (Mediterranean Desertification And Land Use). The model is characterized by a multi-factor approach based on the assessment of both environmental quality indicators (vegetation, soil, climate) and anthropogenic factors (land management). All local data, arranged in a GIS environment, allowed the generation of maps identifying Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and an Index of Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAI). Changes and integrations to the original methodology have been set taking into account the environmental and social features of the whole sub-Saharan west Africa in order to allow the use of

  17. Understading neoliberal politics by the mediation of institutional economics

    OpenAIRE

    Akansel, İlkben

    2014-01-01

    Neoliberalism, which cannot be described by a certain rule, includes a wide range of perspective. Therefore, it is a highly effective notion in terms of economics and politics. This efficiency has a mutual meaning in socio-cultural area. However, it is obvious that the most effective area of neoliberal politics is economics, because intended efficiency in politics and socio-cultural levels are provided through applicable economics politics. Although it has some certain notions derived from al...

  18. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsible for the Underground Injection Control Program. You may call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1... INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and Operators of Class V Injection Wells § 144.87 How does... Water Source Assessment and Protection Program in your area. You may call the Safe Drinking Water...

  19. Groundwater Engineering in an Environmentally Sensitive Urban Area: Assessment, Landuse Change/Infrastructure Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Yihdego

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A rise in the shallow unconfined groundwater at a site in Australia is causing water logging of the underground facility in the affected area. Realizing this problem, a study was conducted to identify the source of water that is causing the rise and to develop an implementation and operation plan of the mitigation (dewatering system. Modelling was undertaken using MODFLOW-SURFACT code, within the framework of Visual MODFLOW, to assess the spatial and temporal groundwater level at the site. The study undertaken incorporates compilation and assessment of available data, including a list of factual information reviewed, development of a conceptual groundwater model for the site and modelling of the pre and post development conditions. The outcomes of the assessment indicate water level rises due to the construction of the embankment are likely less than 0.12 m and changes in land, such as affected area burial, may change aquifer characteristics more significantly than the embankment. It is concluded that the elevated groundwater levels in the affected area are most likely a result of above average rainfall since 2007 and long term cumulative land use changes. The embankment construction is just one of many land use changes that have occurred both within and surrounding the affected area and likely only a minor contributor to the elevated water levels. Greater contribution may be attributed to re-direction of the natural flow paths the railway culvert weir reducing the overland flow gradient and ongoing changes (burial within the affected area and including the embankment. The model findings gives answers on what factors may be/are causing/contributing to, the higher than usual groundwater levels in the study area. A combination of drainage and/or pumping (dewatering system is suggested as a solution to overcome the problem of rising groundwater levels at the site. Further, the model output can aid in assessing mitigation options, including

  20. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  1. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  2. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  3. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Social/sexual norms and AIDS in the South. Ethics and the politics of aids: lessons for small cities and rural areas throughout the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, N K

    1991-01-01

    No one denies that the face of AIDS (the "AIDS profile") is changing, and it is clear that we are entering a new phase in our understanding of this disease. As the AIDS profile changes, however, we are seeing a change in attitudes about prevention. In this stage of the epidemic there seems to be a move toward adopting more coercive strategies for breaking the chain of transmission. One concern, obviously, is that newly HIV-infected persons will find that they have little capacity to demand recognition of their rights to consent, to be treated, to confidentiality, to move about freely in society, to work, and so on. Unfortunately, this bodes ill for newly infected persons in previously low-incidence areas. Two very recent studies suggest that rates of high-risk sexual behavior among homosexual/bisexual men in smaller cities and rural areas in the South are much higher than rates now reported for gay men in large city epicenters. This paper attempts to examine the implications of differences in social and sexual behavior norms in the South for the spread of AIDS/HIV and to suggest morally appropriate primary prevention strategies for working within them.

  5. Species-area curves revised: the effects of model choise on parameter sensitivity to environmental, community, and individual plant characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horník, J.; Janeček, Štěpán; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří; Janečková, Petra; Jiráská, Š.; Lanta, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 10 (2012), s. 1675-1686 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/07/0808; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : species-area curve * wet meadows * clonal growth Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.534, year: 2012

  6. The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scandinavian politics today through a series of cutting-edge chapters. It will be a key reference point both for advanced-level students developing knowledge about the subject, as well as researchers producing new material in the area and beyond. It brings geographical scope and depth, with comparative...... chapters contributed by experts across the region. Methodologically and theoretically pluralistic, the handbook is in itself a reflection of the field of political science in Scandinavia and the diversity of the issues covered in the volume. The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics......The Routledge Handbook of Scandinavian Politics is a comprehensive overview of Scandinavian politics provided by leading experts in the field and covering the polity, the politics and the policy of Scandinavia. Coherently structured with a multi-level thematic approach, it explains and details...

  7. Monitoring of clinical efficacy and in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in area along Thai Myanmar border during 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungsihirunrat Kanchana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, the proportion of Plasmodium vivax infection has become equal to Plasmodium falciparum. Reports of a trend of gradual decline of in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax to chloroquine in some areas of the country, together with accumulating evidences of chloroquine resistance P. vivax in other parts of the world, emphasize the need for closely and continuously monitoring clinical efficacy in conjunction with in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates. Methods The study was conducted at Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during March 2008 - August 2009. A total of 130 patients (17 Thais and 113 Burmeses; 64 males and 66 females with mono-infection of P. vivax malaria, aged between 15-60 years and weighing more than 40 kg, were included in the study. Patients received treatment with chloroquine (2,000 mg chloroquine phosphate over three days and the anti-relapse drug primaquine (15 mg for 14 days. In vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was evaluated by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Results All patients showed satisfactory response to treatment. The cure rate was virtually 100% within the follow-up period of 42 days. Neither recurrence of P. vivax parasitaemia nor appearance of P. falciparum occurred during the investigation period. In vitro data showed a stable sensitivity of chloroquine in this area since 2006. Geometric mean and median (95% CI values of IC50 for chloroquine were 100.1 and 134.7 (1.1-264.9 nM, respectively. Conclusion In vivo results suggest that the standard regimen of chloroquine was still very effective for the treatment of blood infections with P. vivax in the Thai-Myanmar border area. In vitro sensitivity data however, raise the possibility of potential advent of resistance in the future. Regular monitoring of the chloroquine sensitivity of P. vivax is essential to facilitate the early recognition of treatment failures and to expedite the formulation of appropriate changes to

  8. Ventral Tegmental Area Dopamine Cell Activation during Male Rat Sexual Behavior Regulates Neuroplasticity and d-Amphetamine Cross-Sensitization following Sex Abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloate, Lauren N; Omrani, Azar; Adan, Roger A; Webb, Ian C; Coolen, Lique M

    2016-09-21

    Experience with sexual behavior causes cross-sensitization of amphetamine reward, an effect dependent on a period of sexual reward abstinence. We previously showed that ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key mediator of this cross-sensitization, potentially via dopamine receptor activation. However, the role of mesolimbic dopamine for sexual behavior or cross-sensitization between natural and drug reward is unknown. This was tested using inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells. rAAV5/hSvn-DIO-hm4D-mCherry was injected into the VTA of TH::Cre adult male rats. Males received clozapine N-oxide (CNO) or vehicle injections before each of 5 consecutive days of mating or handling. Following an abstinence period of 7 d, males were tested for amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP). Next, males were injected with CNO or vehicle before mating or handling for analysis of mating-induced cFos, sex experience-induced ΔFosB, and reduction of VTA dopamine soma size. Results showed that CNO did not affect mating behavior. Instead, CNO prevented sexual experience-induced cross-sensitization of amphetamine CPP, ΔFosB in the NAc and medial prefrontal cortex, and decreases in VTA dopamine soma size. Expression of hm4D-mCherry was specific to VTA dopamine cells and CNO blocked excitation and mating-induced cFos expression in VTA dopamine cells. These findings provide direct evidence that VTA dopamine activation is not required for initiation or performance of sexual behavior. Instead, VTA dopamine directly contributes to increased vulnerability for drug use following loss of natural reward by causing neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic pathway during the natural reward experience. Drugs of abuse act on the neural pathways that mediate natural reward learning and memory. Exposure to natural reward behaviors can alter subsequent drug-related reward. Specifically, experience with sexual behavior

  9. Sensitivity of ground motion parameters to local site effects for areas characterised by a thick buried low-velocity layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Daniela; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Paolucci, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that earthquake damage at a particular site depends on the source, the path that the waves travel through and the local geology. The latter is capable of amplifying and changing the frequency content of the incoming seismic waves. In regions of sparse or no strong ground motion records, like Malta (Central Mediterranean), ground motion simulations are used to obtain parameters for purposes of seismic design and analysis. As an input to ground motion simulations, amplification functions related to the shallow subsurface are required. Shear-wave velocity profiles of several sites on the Maltese islands were obtained using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (H/V), the Extended Spatial Auto-Correlation (ESAC) technique and the Genetic Algorithm. The sites chosen were all characterised by a layer of Blue Clay, which can be up to 75 m thick, underlying the Upper Coralline Limestone, a fossiliferous coarse grained limestone. This situation gives rise to a velocity inversion. Available borehole data generally extends down till the top of the Blue Clay layer therefore the only way to check the validity of the modelled shear-wave velocity profile is through the thickness of the topmost layer. Surface wave methods are characterised by uncertainties related to the measurements and the model used for interpretation. Moreover the inversion procedure is also highly non-unique. Such uncertainties are not commonly included in site response analysis. Yet, the propagation of uncertainties from the extracted dispersion curves to inversion solutions can lead to significant differences in the simulations (Boaga et al., 2011). In this study, a series of sensitivity analyses will be presented with the aim of better identifying those stratigraphic properties which can perturb the ground motion simulation results. The stochastic one-dimensional site response analysis algorithm, Extended Source Simulation (EXSIM; Motazedian and Atkinson, 2005), was used to perform

  10. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical......, but are active constructors of their political life. Their emotions and social environment are highly important for their political orientation. It is recommended that further research focus on dynamic learning and on arenas for political learning rather than on “single agent studies.” Recommendations...

  11. Highly Sensitive Electromechanical Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors Based on Large-Area Layered PtSe2 Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stefan; Yim, Chanyoung; McEvoy, Niall; Kataria, Satender; Yokaribas, Volkan; Kuc, Agnieszka; Pindl, Stephan; Fritzen, Claus-Peter; Heine, Thomas; Duesberg, Georg S; Lemme, Max C

    2018-05-23

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) due to their ultimate thinness. Platinum diselenide (PtSe 2 ), an exciting and unexplored 2D transition metal dichalcogenide material, is particularly interesting because its low temperature growth process is scalable and compatible with silicon technology. Here, we report the potential of thin PtSe 2 films as electromechanical piezoresistive sensors. All experiments have been conducted with semimetallic PtSe 2 films grown by thermally assisted conversion of platinum at a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible temperature of 400 °C. We report high negative gauge factors of up to -85 obtained experimentally from PtSe 2 strain gauges in a bending cantilever beam setup. Integrated NEMS piezoresistive pressure sensors with freestanding PMMA/PtSe 2 membranes confirm the negative gauge factor and exhibit very high sensitivity, outperforming previously reported values by orders of magnitude. We employ density functional theory calculations to understand the origin of the measured negative gauge factor. Our results suggest PtSe 2 as a very promising candidate for future NEMS applications, including integration into CMOS production lines.

  12. Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase by protein kinase A in vitro promotes an increase in its hydrophobic surface area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krintel, Christian; Mörgelin, Matthias; Logan, Derek T

    2009-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (EC 3.1.1.79; HSL) is a key enzyme in the mobilization of fatty acids from stored triacylglycerols. HSL activity is controlled by phosphorylation of at least four serines. In rat HSL, Ser563, Ser659 and Ser660 are phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) in vitro as well......, the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid (bis-ANS) was found to inhibit the hydrolysis of triolein by purified recombinant rat adipocyte HSL, with a decrease in the effect of bis-ANS upon PKA phosphorylation of HSL. The interaction of HSL with bis-ANS was found to have...... a Kd of 1 microM in binding assays. Upon PKA phosphorylation, the interactions of HSL with both bis-ANS and the alternative probe SYPRO Orange were increased. By negative stain transmission electron microscopy, phosphorylated HSL was found to have a closer interaction with phospholipid vesicles than...

  13. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  14. Perceived Organisational Politics, Political Behaviour and Employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facing both private and public sector organisations (Nidhi & Prerna, 2015;. Gotsis & Kortezi ... These studies suggest that organisational politics often interfere with normal ..... Rawls's (1971) theory of justice provides a theoretical foundation for the relationship between ..... Ethical considerations in organisational politics: ...

  15. Celebrity politics: the politics of late modernity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, D.; t Hart, P.; Tindall, K.

    2010-01-01

    The academic literature on celebrity politics is rarely systematic; more often it is superficial and anecdotal. In addition, most of the literature focuses either upon classifying different types/categories of celebrity politicians and their roles in politics, or upon the question of whether the

  16. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  17. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  18. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Gao; Meigen Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008.Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind,temperature and ozone,but NOx concentration is overestimated.Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics,high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 μg/m3 at Aoyuncun site,respectively.The analysis of sensitive test,with and without emission controls,shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning.The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate.Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August,horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer.On 24 July,as the wind velocity was smaller,the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  20. Latest Trends in German Political Socialisation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Bernhard

    1979-01-01

    Presents an overview of the most notable among recent books on political socialization in West Germany and indicates trends among these publications in areas of research methodology, objectives, stress on empirical studies, and theoretical models. (Author/DB)

  1. Role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestation of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-K; Chang, Y-S; Lee, M-H; Hong, S-C; Bae, J-M; Jee, Y-K; Chun, B-R; Cho, S-H; Min, K-U; Kim, Y-Y

    2002-09-01

    Spider mites such as the citrus red mite and the two-spotted spider mite have been demonstrated to be important allergens for fruit cultivating farmers. To evaluate the role of environmental exposure to spider mites in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in urban and rural areas. A total of 16,624 subjects (aged 7 to 18 years) living in urban (metropolitan and non-metropolitan) and rural areas (apple orchards and citrus orchards) in Korea were evaluated by questionnaire and skin prick test for 11 common aeroallergens, including citrus red mite (CRM) and two-spotted spider mite (TSM). The positive skin response rates to TSM were 4.2% of 1,563 metropolitan subjects, 3.8% of 5,568 non-metropolitan subjects and 6.5% of 1,464 subjects living nearby apple farms, and that to CRM 15.6% of 8,029 living nearby citrus farms. The prevalence of current wheeze and rhinitis as reported on a questionnaire was higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms once or more per year than among those without it (10% vs. 7.1%, 32.8% vs. 26.7%, for wheezing and rhinitis, respectively). Among those with wheezing or rhinitis, the positive skin responses to TSM or CRM were also higher among those with a history of visiting fruit farms than among those without one (11.2% vs. 6.6%, 13.0% vs. 6.6%, respectively), although the positive skin responses to house dust mites were similar in the both groups. Spider mites are common sensitizing allergens in children and adolescents exposed to them, and environmental exposure to these mites may represent an important risk factor in the sensitization and the clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in children and adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

  2. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  3. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  4. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics......This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...

  5. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  6. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....

  7. Identification of limiting case between DBA and SBDBA (CL break area sensitivity): A new model for the boron injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, R., E-mail: r.gonzalez@ing.unipi.it [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); Petruzzi, A., E-mail: a.petruzzi@ing.unipi.it [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); D’Auria, F., E-mail: f.dauria@ing.unipi.it [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, O., E-mail: mazzantini@na-sa.com.ar [Nucleo-electrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarity (e.g. oblique Control Rods, Positive Void coefficient) required a developed and validated complex three dimensional (3D) neutron kinetics (NK) coupled thermal hydraulic (TH) model. Reactor shut-down is obtained by oblique CRs and, during accidental conditions, by an emergency shut-down system (JDJ) injecting a highly concentrated boron solution (boron clouds) in the moderator tank. The boron clouds reconstruction is obtained using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) CFX code calculation. A complete Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) calculation implies the application of the RELAP5-3D{sup ©} system code. Within the framework of the third Agreement “Nucleoelèctrica Argentina-Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA) – University of Pisa/GRNSPG” (Contract, 2009), a new RELAP5-3D control system for the boron injection system was developed and implemented in the validated coupled RELAP5-3D/NESTLE model of the Atucha 2 NPP. The aim of this activity is to find out the limiting case (maximum break area size) for the Peak Cladding Temperature for LOCAs under fixed boundary conditions.

  8. Sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to wind fields in the New York metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W.; Rao, S.T. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States); Thunis, P. [ISPRA Establishment (Italy); Bornstein, R.; Freedman, F. [San Jose State Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The New York airshed modeling domain, extending from northern Philadelphia, PA to the southern Massachusetts, is part of the large urban corridor stretching from Virginia to Maine alone the eastern sea-board of United States. Due to the continued non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone, the area has been designated to be in the {open_quotes}severe{close_quotes} classification under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This requires demonstration of compliance with the ozone NAAQS with grid-based photochemical models such as the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of a one-way model nesting scheme, with the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) providing initial and boundary conditions and other ancillary data for the UAM. Meteorological data and emissions data can also be developed by alternative methods for use with UAM, if considered more appropriate than those derived from the ROM-UAM system.

  9. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  10. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  11. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the

  12. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  13. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  14. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  15. Kentucky physicians and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  16. Politically Active Home Economists: Their Socialization to Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Connie J.

    1980-01-01

    A nationwide study identified a pattern of political socialization for home economists who were politically active. The most outstanding feature of the politically active subjects was their perception that political activity is a professional role. (SK)

  17. Environmental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) changes in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain since the European Common Agriculture Policies (CAP) implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    The Enviromental Sensitive Areas (ESAs) approach to study the Land Degradation is a methodology developed by professor Costas Kosmas et al., (1999) to map environmental sensitive areas and then the impact of Land Degradation and desertification on Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (Salvati et al., 2013). This methodology has been applied mainly to the Mediterranean Belt (Lavado Contador et al., 2009), but other authors adapted the methodology to other climatic regions (Izzo et al., 2013). The ESAs methodology allows mapping changes in the distribution of the sensitive areas to Desertification as a consequence of biophysical or human chances. In the Mediterranean countries of Europe, especially Spain, suffered a dramatic change due to the application of the European Common Agricultural Policies (CAP) after 1992. The objective of the CAP was to implemented policies to improve the environmental conditions of agricultural land. This target is especially relevant in Mediterranean areas of Spain, mainly the South and the East of the country. An Environmental Sensitive Area (ESAs) model (Kosmas et al., 2009) was implemented using Geographical Information System (GIS) tools, to identify, assess, monitor and map the levels of sensitivity to land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, which is a representative landscape of the Mediterranean belt in Eastern Spain The results show that it was found that after the implementation of CAP, the most sensitive areas have expanded. This increase in degraded areas is driven by the expansion of commercial and chemically managed crops that increased the soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009) and that few soil conservation strategies were applied (Giménez Morera et al., 2010). Another factor that triggered Desertification processes is the increase in the recurrencesof forest fires as a consequence of land abandonment (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). This contributed to an increase of scrubland. Our research show an

  18. [Constructing ecological security patterns in mountain areas based on geological disaster sensitivity: A case study in Yuxi City, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Guo, Xiao Nan; Hu, Yi Na; Liu, Yan Xu

    2017-02-01

    As one of the key topics in the research of landscape ecology, regional ecological security patterns can effectively promote regional sustainable development and terrestrial ecological barriers construction. It is extremely important for middle Yunnan, with frequent disasters and fragile ecolo-gical environment, to construct ecological security patterns so as to effectively avoid the geological disasters, maintain ecosystem health, and promote the coordinated development of regional ecological system and social economic system. Taking Yuxi City as a case study area, this study firstly estimated the ecosystem services importance of water conservation, carbon fixation and oxygen release, soil conservation, and biodiversity according to the basal characteristics of regional ecological environment, and then identified ecological sources in consideration of the quality of integrated ecosystem services and single types. Secondly, the resistance surface based on land use types was modified by the sensitivity of regional geological disasters. Lastly, the ecological corridors were identified using minimum cumulative resistance model, and as a result, the ecological security pattern of Yuxi City was constructed. The results showed that there were 81 patches for ecological sources in Yuxi City, accounting for 38.4% of the total area, and overlaying 75.2% of nature protection areas. The ecological sources were mainly distributed in the western mountainous areas as well as eastern water areas of the city. The length of ecological corridors was 1642.04 km, presenting a spatial pattern of one vertical and three horizontals, and extending along river valleys and fault basins with high vegetation coverage. This paper constructed ecological security patterns in mountainous areas aiming at the characteristics of geological disasters, providing spatial guidance for development and conservation decision-making in mountain areas.

  19. Proposed spatial framework to develop land use in an environmentally-sensitive area: Case study, El-Daba'a region, Egypt Part I: Ecological value assessment using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jenaid, S.S.; Mohammed, W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a area in Egypt using GIS as a first step for the development of an environmental management plan for the area. The absence of environmental planning in the process of land use development may cause many significant negative impacts on biodiversity, ecological value and the general environmental conditions and the therefore reducing such negative impacts will improve land use development. The first part of sequel of two papers, which is a part of a sustainable land use development research program, aims at designing a spatial framework to improve land use planning and development in an environmental context. The research program deals with the problem of land use planning and development in an arid coastal area under environmentally sensitive conditions. The study area is El-Daba'a region, located in the northwestern coast of Egypt, which can be described as a wild area. The approach used in this paper consists of studying the spatial ecological characteristics of El-Daba'a region using different spatial data including maps and land sat remote sensing data. These data are used to create a series of superimposed informative layers managed by a geographic information system (GIS) to describe the spatial ecological characteristics of the study area. The developed GIS allow decision makers to handle large amounts of information simultaneously such as geology, geomorphology, land cover, wild life and many other different information layers. The system is designed to help decision makers to organize, relate, analyze and visualize the ecological data and information in the study area. The developed GIS system might be used to determine the probable effects of building a nuclear power station on the ecosystem. (author)

  20. POLITICAL ISLAM IN TUNISIA: ELECTORAL CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF 2004 AND 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez Fuentes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key points in the future of today’s political transition in Tunisia lies in the Islamists’ willingness to cooperate with the rest of the political parties to promote political change, as well as their electoral performance in the next elections. The aim of this article is to help reduce uncertainty on this issue, by clarifying its antecedents. With this aim, the author adopts as the article’s area of study the strategic-relational dimensions of Tunisia’s Islamist party’s performance in elections. With this in mind, the author analyses the types of interaction that the Islamist party maintained in the presidential elections of 2004 and 2009 with the other political and social parties that were critical of the Ben Ali regime, and examines its causes. As a result of this, the study concludes that up to now, both the party’s alignment with certain secular political and social actors from the structure of opposition to the Ben Ali regime, and its policy of confrontation with certain others, has not been based on any programmatic issue, nor on any issues of sensitivity or religious conception, but rather on the struggle to head political change and to lead a new government.

  1. Forecasting summertime surface temperature and precipitation in the Mexico City metropolitan area: sensitivity of the WRF model to land cover changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bravo, Clemente; Caetano, Ernesto; Magaña, Víctor

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the frequency and intensity of severe hydrometeorological events in recent decades in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area have motivated the development of weather warning systems. The weather forecasting system for this region was evaluated in sensitivity studies using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for July 2014, a summer time month. It was found that changes in the extent of the urban area and associated changes in thermodynamic and dynamic variables have induced local circulations that affect the diurnal cycles of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields. A newly implemented configuration (land cover update and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA)) of the WRF model has improved the adjustment of the precipitation field to the orography. However, errors related to the depiction of convection due to parameterizations and microphysics remains a source of uncertainty in weather forecasting in this region.

  2. Cognitive Engagement and Online Political Participation on Social Media among Youths in Malaysia: The Moderating role of Political Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrauf Aishat Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of political knowledge in engendering political participation among youths in a society cannot be overstated. Yet, there is scarcity of research in this area. Thus, this study assessed the moderating role of political knowledge in the relationship between Access to Political Information on Facebook and Twitter (APIFT, Political Interest (PI and Policy Satisfaction (PS with Online Political Participation on Facebook and Twitter (OPPFT. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 238 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia. Questionnaire was used to collect data which was analysed using Partial Least Squares-MultiGroup Analysis (PLS-MGA. Results revealed that political knowledge moderated the relationship between access to political information on Facebook and Twitter and political interest with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. However, it did not moderate the relationship between policy satisfaction with youth online political participation on Facebook and Twitter. Generally, these findings suggests that political knowledge plays a significant role in youth online political participation in Malaysia. Consequently, this study has added empirical evidence to predictors of political participation while at the same time contributing to the body of knowledge on online political participation.

  3. The Political Economy of Postwar Economic Development in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.

  4. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  5. International Contexts for Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1991-01-01

    Uses international examples of the ways in which political learning takes place--indoctrination, political socialization, and political education--to suggest that open and democratic political education is not common, even in democracies. (SK)

  6. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  7. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  8. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  9. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  10. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  11. Radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Brenda J.; Strand, Per; Assimakopoulos, Panayotis

    2003-01-01

    After the release of radionuclide into the environment it is important to be able to readily identify major routes of radiation exposure, the most highly exposed individuals or populations and the geographical areas of most concern. Radioecological sensitivity can be broadly defined as the extent to which an ecosystem contributes to an enhanced radiation exposure to Man and biota. Radioecological sensitivity analysis integrates current knowledge on pathways, spatially attributes the underlying processes determining transfer and thereby identifies the most radioecologically sensitive areas leading to high radiation exposure. This identifies where high exposure may occur and why. A framework for the estimation of radioecological sensitivity with respect to humans is proposed and the various indicators by which it can be considered have been identified. These are (1) aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag), (2) action (and critical) loads, (3) fluxes and (4) individual exposure of humans. The importance of spatial and temporal consideration of all these outputs is emphasized. Information on the extent of radionuclide transfer and exposure to humans at different spatial scales is needed to reflect the spatial differences which can occur. Single values for large areas, such as countries, can often mask large variation within the country. Similarly, the relative importance of different pathways can change with time and therefore assessments of radiological sensitivity are needed over different time periods after contamination. Radioecological sensitivity analysis can be used in radiation protection, nuclear safety and emergency preparedness when there is a need to identify areas that have the potential of being of particular concern from a risk perspective. Prior identification of radioecologically sensitive areas and exposed individuals improve the focus of emergency preparedness and planning, and contribute to environmental impact assessment for future facilities. The

  12. Political and Territorial Construction of Regional and National Identities in Spain since 1978

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlebæk, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the Statute-related parliamentary debates of the Catalan and Valencian autonomous regions and analyses the conceptions of the political communities defended by the political parties, both of Spain, Valencia and Catalonia and the relationship between them. The goal...... is to analyse the differences over time and across ideologies of the identification patterns and the preferences with regards to the territorial organisation of the Spanish state and the arguments used to legitimise these positions. Unsurprising, the investigation shows that the secessionist crisis in Catalonia...... is reflected in many ways, but it also shows indications of conflict or of highly sensitive areas with conflict potential as early as 1979. Furthermore there are significant differences in the ways the political parties act in Valencia and Catalonia, respectively. The results suggest that the decentralisation...

  13. Caudal Edge of the Liver in the Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ View Is the Most Sensitive Area for Free Fluid on the FAST Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveta Lobo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF. Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison’s pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the “sub-quadrants” of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation. Methods: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 – June 2013. Ultrasound fellowship-trained faculty with three emergency medicine residents reviewed all FAST exams. We excluded studies if they were incomplete, of poor image quality, or with incorrect medical record information. Positive studies were assessed for FF localization, comparing the traditional abdominal views and on a sub-quadrant basis: right upper quadrant (RUQ1 - hepatodiaphragmatic; RUQ2 - Morison’s pouch; RUQ3 - caudal liver edge and superior paracolic gutter; left upper quadrant (LUQ1 - splenic-diaphragmatic; LUQ2 - spleno-renal; LUQ3 – around inferior pole of kidney; suprapubic area (SP1 - bilateral to bladder; SP2 - posterior to bladder; SP3 – posterior to uterus (females. FAST results were confirmed by chart review of computed tomography results or operative findings. Results: Of the included 1,008 scans, 48 (4.8% were positive. The RUQ was the most positive view with 32/48 (66.7% positive. In the RUQ sub-quadrant analysis, the most positive view was the RUQ3 with 30/32 (93.8% positive. Conclusion: The RUQ is most sensitive for FF assessment, with the superior paracolic gutter area around the caudal liver edge (RUQ3 being the most positive sub-quadrant within the RUQ. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2270-280.

  14. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  15. Mapping the areas sensitive to long-term endotoxin tolerance in the rat brain: a c-fos mRNA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Martí, Octavi; Armario, Antonio

    2005-06-01

    We have recently found that a single endotoxin administration to rats reduced the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to another endotoxin administration 4 weeks later, which may be an example of the well-known phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance. However, the time elapsed between the two doses of endotoxin was long enough to consider the above results as an example of late tolerance, whose mechanisms are poorly characterized. To know if the brain plays a role in this phenomenon and to characterize the putative areas involved, we compared the c-fos mRNA response after a final dose of endotoxin in animals given vehicle or endotoxin 4 weeks before. Endotoxin caused a widespread induction of c-fos mRNA in the brain, similar to that previously reported by other laboratories. Whereas most of the brain areas were not sensitive to the previous experience with endotoxin, a few showed a reduced response in endotoxin-pretreated rats: the parvocellular and magnocellular regions of the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, the central amygdala, the lateral division of the bed nucleus and the locus coeruleus. We hypothesize that late tolerance to endotoxin may involve plastic changes in the brain, likely to be located in the central amygdala. The reduced activation of the central amygdala in rats previously treated with endotoxin may, in turn, reduce the activation of other brain areas, including the hypothalamic paraventicular nucleus.

  16. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  17. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide....... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  18. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  19. Use of Combined Observational- and Model-Derived Photochemical Indicators to Assess the O3-NOx-VOC System Sensitivity in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson R. Carrillo-Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric levels of O3 have historically exceeded the official annual Mexican standards within the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA in NE Mexico. High-frequency and high-precision measurements of tropospheric O3, NOy, NO2, NO, CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were made at the Obispado monitoring site near the downtown MMA from September 2012 to August 2013. The seasonal cycles of O3 and NOy are driven by changes in meteorology and to a lesser extent by variations in primary emissions. The NOy levels were positively correlated with O3 precursors and inversely correlated with O3 and wind speed. Recorded data were used to assess the O3-Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC-NOx system’s sensitivity through an observational-based approach. The photochemical indicator O3/NOy was derived from measured data during the enhanced O3 production period (12:00–18:00 Central Daylight Time (CDT, GMT-0500. The O3/NOy ratios calculated for this time period showed that the O3 production within the MMA is VOC sensitive. A box model simulation of production rates of HNO3 (PHNO3 and total peroxides (Pperox carried out for O3 episodes in fall and spring confirmed the VOC sensitivity within the MMA environment. No significant differences were observed in O3/NOy from weekdays to weekends or for PHNO3/Pperox ratios, confirming the limiting role of VOCs in O3 production within the MMA. The ratified photochemical regime observed may allow the environmental authorities to revise and verify the current policies for air quality control within the MMA.

  20. Implications of adopting a biodiversity-based vulnerability index versus a shoreline environmental sensitivity index on management and policy planning along coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik, G; Alameddine, I; Maroun, R; Rachid, G; Bruschi, D; Astiaso Garcia, D; El-Fadel, M

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a multi-criteria index was developed to assess anthropogenic stressors along the Mediterranean coastline. The index aimed at geo-locating pollution hotspots for informed decision making related to coastal zone management. The index was integrated in a Geographical Information System based geodatabase implemented at several pilot areas along the Northern (Italy and France), Eastern (Lebanon), and Southern (Tunisia) Mediterranean coastlines. The generated stressor maps were coupled with a biodiversity richness index and an environmental sensitivity index to produce vulnerability maps that can form the basis for prioritizing management and mitigation interventions towards the identification of pollution hotspots and the promotion of sustainable coastal zone management. The results identified significant differences between the two assessment methods, which can bias prioritization in decision making and policy planning depending on stakeholders' interests. The discrepancies emphasize the need for transparency and understanding of the underlying foundations behind vulnerability indices and mapping development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Fabrication and Characterization of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Diode Radiation Detectors with a Sensitive Area of up to 4 cm².

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin-Yue; Wang, Ling; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jin-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Peng; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Fu; Ouyang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ao; Huang, Run-Hua; Bai, Song

    2017-10-13

    Silicon carbide (SiC) detectors of an Ni/4H-SiC Schottky diode structure and with sensitive areas of 1-4 cm² were fabricated using high-quality lightly doped epitaxial 4H-SiC material, and were tested in the detection of alpha particles and pulsed X-rays/UV-light. A linear energy response to alpha particles ranging from 5.157 to 5.805 MeV was obtained. The detectors were proved to have a low dark current, a good energy resolution, and a high neutron/gamma discrimination for pulsed radiation, showing the advantages in charged particle detection and neutron detection in high-temperature and high-radiation environments.

  2. The Fabrication and Characterization of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky Diode Radiation Detectors with a Sensitive Area of up to 4 cm2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yue Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC detectors of an Ni/4H-SiC Schottky diode structure and with sensitive areas of 1–4 cm2 were fabricated using high-quality lightly doped epitaxial 4H-SiC material, and were tested in the detection of alpha particles and pulsed X-rays/UV-light. A linear energy response to alpha particles ranging from 5.157 to 5.805 MeV was obtained. The detectors were proved to have a low dark current, a good energy resolution, and a high neutron/gamma discrimination for pulsed radiation, showing the advantages in charged particle detection and neutron detection in high-temperature and high-radiation environments.

  3. Suitability of thermal plasmas for large-area bacteria inactivation on temperature-sensitive surfaces – first results with Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M; Schein, S; Schaup, J; Zimmermann, S; Schein, J

    2017-01-01

    The application of thermal plasma for large-area bacteria inactivation on temperature-sensitive surfaces is not a common one. Nonetheless, there are thermal plasma generators which offer a high sheath homogeneity and have proven to be suitable for treatment of thermally sensitive materials in the past. To investigate the suitability of such plasmas, agar dishes plated with endospores of Geobacillus stearothermophilus have been treated with a long arc plasma generator called LARGE. The achieved results have been compared with a commercially available non-thermal plasma generator. A significant inactivation of the endospores could be observed only after 60 s of treatment with the thermal plasma source. This was not possible with the non-thermal generator. Moreover, no temperature damage or increase of the specimen could be detected. An attempt to determine the main agents responsible for the microbicidal effects have been made – the influence of plasma gas composition, discharge current and treatment time has been investigated. Significant improvements in the disinfection rates after adding small amounts of nitrogen to the plasma gas could be observed. A first discussion regarding the suitability of thermal plasmas for bacteria inactivation has been given. (paper)

  4. Testing the sensitivity of pumpage to increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well-field area, West-Central Florida : an optimization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, Dann K.

    2002-01-01

    Tampa Bay depends on ground water for most of the water supply. Numerous wetlands and lakes in Pasco County have been impacted by the high demand for ground water. Central Pasco County, particularly the area within the Cypress Creek well field, has been greatly affected. Probable causes for the decline in surface-water levels are well-field pumpage and a decade-long drought. Efforts are underway to increase surface-water levels by developing alternative sources of water supply, thus reducing the quantity of well-field pumpage. Numerical ground-water flow simulations coupled with an optimization routine were used in a series of simulations to test the sensitivity of optimal pumpage to desired increases in surficial aquifer system heads in the Cypress Creek well field. The ground-water system was simulated using the central northern Tampa Bay ground-water flow model. Pumping solutions for 1987 equilibrium conditions and for a transient 6-month timeframe were determined for five test cases, each reflecting a range of desired target recovery heads at different head control sites in the surficial aquifer system. Results are presented in the form of curves relating average head recovery to total optimal pumpage. Pumping solutions are sensitive to the location of head control sites formulated in the optimization problem and as expected, total optimal pumpage decreased when desired target head increased. The distribution of optimal pumpage for individual production wells also was significantly affected by the location of head control sites. A pumping advantage was gained for test-case formulations where hydraulic heads were maximized in cells near the production wells, in cells within the steady-state pumping center cone of depression, and in cells within the area of the well field where confining-unit leakance is the highest. More water was pumped and the ratio of head recovery per unit decrease in optimal pumpage was more than double for test cases where hydraulic heads

  5. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak Jørgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well...... as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent...

  6. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  7. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  8. Cosmopolitan political science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the term cosmopolitism could rarely be found in modern political science literature. It was only in the 1990s that the term was rediscovered by political scientists in the critical discourse on globalization. In this article, I will explore the full potential of cosmopolitism as an analytical concept for empirical political science. I will argue that the concept of cosmopolitism should not be restricted to the analysis of global politics. Indeed, cosmopolitism has much more to offer for political scientists. Properly understood, it enables--and necessitates--a re-invention of political science in the age of globalization, comparable to the behavioural revolution in political science in the 1950s. Such a paradigmatic shift should be based on a twofold transformation of existing disciplinary boundaries: A removal of the boundary between national (and comparative) and international politics on the one hand; and a re-definition of the boundaries between empirical and normative approaches on the other. As a result, cosmopolitism may serve as a new, critical theory of politics based on the integration of hitherto separated fields and sub-fields.

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area - Volume 1, Geographic Information Systems data and Volume 2, Maps in Portable Document Format (NODC Accession 0014792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York - New Jersey Metropolitan Area from 1999 to...

  10. Political Change in the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Martin; Hueser, Simone

    This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other...... sciences in the coming years. In addition to providing an overview of the existing literature on the Arab Spring, the article examines the empirical results of political diversification in the Arab world. A two‐by‐two matrix of political rule that differentiates according to the type of rule and the degree...

  11. Network Approach in Political Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина Васильевна Опанасенко

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to issues of network approach application in political communication studies. The author considers communication in online and offline areas and gives the definition of rhizome, its characteristics, identifies links between rhizome and network approach. The author also analyses conditions and possibilities of the network approach in modern political communication. Both positive and negative features of the network approach are emphasized.

  12. Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} aggregate photoanode with high specific surface area and strong light scattering for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunhui; Luo, Yanhong; Guo, Xiaozhi; Li, Dongmei [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Mi, Jianli; So, Lasse; Hald, Peter [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Meng, Qingbo, E-mail: qbmeng@iphy.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory for New Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Iversen, Bo B., E-mail: bo@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography, Department of Chemistry and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    Phase-pure anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallite aggregates synthesized by a continuous supercritical fluid process have been first used for fabricating mesoporous photoanodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Due to the small size (11 nm) of the TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites in the aggregates, the mesoporous photoanode provides a high specific surface area, 80 m{sup 2}/g, which ensures high dye loading. At the same time, the submicrometer-sized aggregates endow the mesoporous photoanode with strong light scattering effect. Therefore, the light harvesting efficiency of the photoanode is increased. With an improved short-circuit current density, a high overall power conversion efficiency of 8.65% (100 mW/cm{sup 2}, AM 1.5) is achieved without additional scattering layers, 12% enhanced compared with the DSCs fabricated from commercial Degussa P25 with exactly the same procedures. In addition, this supercritical fluid process is scalable and rapid (less than one minute) for TiO{sub 2} aggregates synthesis, which will push the commercialization of DSCs in the future. - Graphical abstract: Due to the special morphology and structure, the photoanode of DSCs provides high specific surface area and strong light scattering at the same time, which results in high conversion efficiencies of the DSCs. Table of contents: Thanks to the synchronous realization of high specific surface area and strong light scattering, a high efficiency of 8.65% was achieved based on a novel mesoporous TiO{sub 2} aggregates photoanode for DSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiO{sub 2} aggregate photoanode provides a possible route for highly efficient DSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoanode with high dye loading and light scattering is successfully fabricated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} synthesized by a supercritical fluid process is first applied to DSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis method and high efficiency will push the commercialization of DSCs.

  13. What's Politics Got to Do with It? "Power" as a "Threshold" Concept for Undergraduate Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Politics courses embedded in business and commerce degree programs have soared in number in recent years. Yet how business students, often compulsorily enrolled in politics courses, learn key politics concepts is an under-researched area. The purpose of this article is to determine where the teaching and learning of political science and business…

  14. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  15. Centre for Political and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and definitions will be published and the data translated into the official ... The Centre provides a terminological and subject-related service to lecturers and ... postgraduate students in international politics, political studies and .... obtain financial contributions (cf. .... making of authoritative and enforceable rules (laws) for.

  16. Seizing Political Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Political actors need to be nimble and respond to the opportunity to reform old policies and initiate new ones. The article looks at how the European Commission takes advantage of politically opportune moments (the ‘gridlock interval’) in the European Parliament to put forward new legislation...

  17. ICTs and Political Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  18. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  19. Happiness and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, happiness research in psychology, economics and philosophy has been discussing the proper meaning of happiness and its main determinants. Moreover, the idea has spread within academic and political circles that it may be legitimate for institutions to engage in “politics...... of happiness”. This article presents a critique of the project of promoting happiness through public policies....

  20. Political Communication with Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I sketch the outlines of a theory of political human-animal conversations, based on ideas about language that I borrow from Ludwig Wittgenstein’s later work, in particular his notion of language-games. I present this theory as a supplement to the political theory of animal rights Sue

  1. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  2. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  3. Political Animals: The Paradox of Ecofeminist Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, Catriona

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the paradox between the careful work of rigorous political analysis and philosophy and a desire for mystery and the experience of awe and wildness that demands putting aside careful reasoning and the sensing of nature in an altogether different way. (LZ)

  4. Civic Political Culture, Participatory Governance and Political ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    This study x-rayed the significance of civic political culture on participatory governance and its .... The literature on participatory governance theory assumes that deliberation is key to effective .... factors and capture all considerations involved in making certain that citizen interests .... vital element in any organization.

  5. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  6. The Politics of Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    The central claim of this book is that thinking about ‘dependence’ should be at the core of political theory principally because it helps us to think about issues of economic justice. Unlike political theories that either condemn or celebrate dependence, the book argues that dependence...... is an inescapable fact of social life, neither good nor bad in itself. The real political issues are about how we as a society organise and judge various forms of dependence. And this is, in fact, what much political debate is about if we dig beneath the surface. On the one hand, we disagree about how we should...... organise vulnerability; on the other hand, we disagree about who we should condemn as parasitical. Vulnerability and parasitism are thus key concepts for understanding political debate about forms of dependence. Showing the tension between these two sides to the problem of economic dependence...

  7. SU-G-BRB-03: Assessing the Sensitivity and False Positive Rate of the Integrated Quality Monitor (IQM) Large Area Ion Chamber to MLC Positioning Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, E McKenzie; DeMarco, J; Steers, J; Fraass, B [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To examine both the IQM’s sensitivity and false positive rate to varying MLC errors. By balancing these two characteristics, an optimal tolerance value can be derived. Methods: An un-modified SBRT Liver IMRT plan containing 7 fields was randomly selected as a representative clinical case. The active MLC positions for all fields were perturbed randomly from a square distribution of varying width (±1mm to ±5mm). These unmodified and modified plans were measured multiple times each by the IQM (a large area ion chamber mounted to a TrueBeam linac head). Measurements were analyzed relative to the initial, unmodified measurement. IQM readings are analyzed as a function of control points. In order to examine sensitivity to errors along a field’s delivery, each measured field was divided into 5 groups of control points, and the maximum error in each group was recorded. Since the plans have known errors, we compared how well the IQM is able to differentiate between unmodified and error plans. ROC curves and logistic regression were used to analyze this, independent of thresholds. Results: A likelihood-ratio Chi-square test showed that the IQM could significantly predict whether a plan had MLC errors, with the exception of the beginning and ending control points. Upon further examination, we determined there was ramp-up occurring at the beginning of delivery. Once the linac AFC was tuned, the subsequent measurements (relative to a new baseline) showed significant (p <0.005) abilities to predict MLC errors. Using the area under the curve, we show the IQM’s ability to detect errors increases with increasing MLC error (Spearman’s Rho=0.8056, p<0.0001). The optimal IQM count thresholds from the ROC curves are ±3%, ±2%, and ±7% for the beginning, middle 3, and end segments, respectively. Conclusion: The IQM has proven to be able to detect not only MLC errors, but also differences in beam tuning (ramp-up). Partially supported by the Susan Scott Foundation.

  8. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  9. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  10. Student life - Making politics matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-02

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  11. Gram-scale synthesis of catalytic Co9S8 nanocrystal ink as a cathode material for spray-deposited, large-area dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hao; Lu, Ming-De; Tung, Yung-Liang; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2013-10-22

    We report the development of Co9S8 nanocrystals as a cost-effective cathode material that can be readily combined with spraying techniques to fabricate large-area dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices and can be further connected with series or parallel cell architectures to obtain a relatively high output voltage or current. A gram-scale synthesis of Co9S8 nanocrystal is carried out via a noninjection reaction by mixing anhydrous CoCl2 with trioctylphosphine (TOP), dodecanethiol and oleylamine (OLA) at 250 °C. The Co9S8 nanocrystals possess excellent catalytic ability with respect to I(-)/I3(-) redox reactions. The Co9S8 nanocrystals are prepared as nanoinks to fabricate uniform, crack-free Co9S8 thin films on different substrates by using a spray deposition technique. These Co9S8 films are used as counter electrodes assembled with dye-adsorbed TiO2 photoanodes to fabricate DSSC devices having a working area of 2 cm(2) and an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.02 ± 0.18% under AM 1.5 solar illumination, which is comparable with the PCE of 7.2 ± 0.12% obtained using a Pt cathode. Furthermore, six 2 cm(2)-sized DSSC devices connected in series output an open-circuit voltage of 4.2 V that can power a wide range of electronic devices such as LED arrays and can charge commercial lithium ion batteries.

  12. Association of Odor Thresholds and Responses in Cerebral Blood Flow of the Prefrontal Area during Olfactory Stimulation in Patients with Multiple Chemical Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Azuma

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a disorder characterized by nonspecific and recurrent symptoms from various organ systems associated with exposure to low levels of chemicals. Patients with MCS process odors differently than controls do. Previously, we suggested that this odor processing was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the prefrontal area during olfactory stimulation using near-infrared spectroscopic (NIRS imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of odor thresholds and changes in rCBF during olfactory stimulation at odor threshold levels in patients with MCS. We investigated changes in the prefrontal area using NIRS imaging and a T&T olfactometer during olfactory stimulation with two different odorants (sweet and fecal at three concentrations (zero, odor recognition threshold, and normal perceived odor level in 10 patients with MCS and six controls. The T&T olfactometer threshold test and subjective assessment of irritating and hedonic odors were also performed. The results indicated that the scores for both unpleasant and pungent odors were significantly higher for those for sweet odors at the normal perceived level in patients with MCS than in controls. The brain responses at the recognition threshold (fecal odor and normal perceived levels (sweet and fecal odors were stronger in patients with MCS than in controls. However, significant differences in the odor detection and recognition thresholds and odor intensity score between the two groups were not observed. These brain responses may involve cognitive and memory processing systems during past exposure to chemicals. Further research regarding the cognitive features of sensory perception and memory due to past exposure to chemicals and their associations with MCS symptoms is needed.

  13. The Specific of Political Fundraising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Евгений Викторович Смолянинов

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The following study is dedicated to the process of political fundraising as a subject of political science. Through the article one can find the definition of political fundraising and American political scientists' approaches to the analysis of this process. Comparative analysis of political fundraising in the U.S.A. and Russian Federation demonstrates that its' transparency has an important impact on public's control of lobby groups and other shadow political entities.

  14. The Political Activity in the Network Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марианна Юрьевна Павлютенкова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development and deep penetration into all areas of modern society of information and communication technologies significantly increase the role of network interactions. Network structures represented primarily social networks, embedded in the public policy process and became one of the key political actors. Online communities take the form of public policy, where the formation of public opinion and political decision-making plays the main role. Networking environment opens up new opportunities for the opposition and protest movements, civic participation, and control of public policy in general. The article gives an insight on the political aspects of social networking, concludes on the trend formation and network's strengthening of the political activity in a wide distribution of e-networking and e-communications.

  15. Political consumer behaviour among university students in Brazil and Germany: The role of contextual features and core political values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzur, Patrick F; Torres, Cláudio V; Kedzior, Karina K; Boehnke, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between political consumerism and core political values (CPVs) among university students in Brazil (N = 414) and Germany (N = 222). Despite the prerequisite to endorse values that are compatible with political consumerism, contextual features of one's immediate environment might affect overall levels of political consumerism. Our results show that political consumerism is significantly associated with higher income in Brazil (but not in Germany). After controlling for income, political consumerism was practised more frequently in Germany than in Brazil, in urban compared with rural areas, and was not dependent on gender. The urban-rural split was stronger in Brazil than in Germany. These results confirm our hypothesis that contextual features are associated with political consumerism. Furthermore, the political value Equality positively predicted political consumerism in both countries. In contrast, Traditional Morality and support of Free Enterprise negatively predicted political consumerism, although the effect sizes of these relationships were only small. These results suggest that political consumerism among university students is widespread in Germany but not in Brazil. Interestingly, regardless of its low prevalence in Brazil, political consumerism is positively associated with the CPV of Equality among university students in both countries. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Polite Interactions with Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2016-01-01

    We sketch an inference architecture that permits linguistic aspects of politeness to be interpreted; we do so by applying the ideas of politeness theory to the SCARE corpus of task-oriented dialogues, a type of dialogue of particular relevance to robotics. The fragment of the SCARE corpus we...... analyzed contains 77 uses of politeness strategies: our inference architecture covers 58 of them using classical AI planning techniques; the remainder require other forms of means-ends inference. So by the end of the paper we will have discussed in some detail how to interpret automatically different forms...

  17. A Political Innovator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Yu; Andersen, Torben Juul

    2016-01-01

    ) of the CEO. Based on a sample of 381 manufacturing firms extracted from the Entrepreneurs Survey System of Chinese CEOs with 2014 data from the Jiangsu province, the study finds that political networking is positively related to explorative and exploitative innovation but negatively moderated by the CSE......Political networking is frequently used in transition economies to gain superior performance. This study draws on upper echelons theory (UET) and the resource-based view (RBV) to analyze the relationship between political networking and firm innovation moderated by the core self-evaluation (CSE...... of the CEOs....

  18. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  19. Private political archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Chorążyczewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns

  20. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy......, and freedom. This philosophical project had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics. At the theoretical level, the argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy to articulate an Italian political trajectory that does not simply accept the tale...

  1. Multimodality, politics and ideology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    This journal's editorial statement is clear that political discourse should be studied not only as regards parliamentary type politics. In this introduction we argue precisely for the need to pay increasing attention to the way that political ideologies are infused into culture more widely...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....

  2. Vertically building Zn2SnO4 nanowire arrays on stainless steel mesh toward fabrication of large-area, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengdao; Zhou, Yong; Bao, Chunxiong; Xue, Guogang; Zhang, Jiyuan; Liu, Jianguo; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2012-06-07

    Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire arrays were for the first time grown onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) in a binary ethylenediamine (En)/water solvent system using a solvothermal route. The morphology evolution following this reaction was carefully followed to understand the formation mechanism. The SSM-supported Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowire was utilized as a photoanode for fabrication of large-area (10 cm × 5 cm size as a typical sample), flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The synthesized Zn(2)SnO(4) nanowires exhibit great bendability and flexibility, proving potential advantage over other metal oxide nanowires such as TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) for application in flexible solar cells. Relative to the analogous Zn(2)SnO(4) nanoparticle-based flexible DSSCs, the nanowire geometry proves to enhance solar energy conversion efficiency through enhancement of electron transport. The bendable nature of the DSSCs without obvious degradation of efficiency and facile scale up gives the as-made flexible solar cell device potential for practical application.

  3. PRIME: research project on radioecological sensitivity indicators and on multi-criteria methods applied to the environment of an industrial area. Scientific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Successive studies conducted on the management of nuclear post-accidental circumstances have shown that it must be based on an anticipated characterisation of the radiological vulnerability of the environment, using an overall approach and according ta a strategy that takes inhabitants and their living conditions into account. The PRIME project has investigated and implemented a pilot method for characterising contaminated areas and usable by risk managers dealing with industrial accidents - notably involving radioactive substances - in relationship with a panel of stakeholders: experts, decision-makers and local elected officials, citizens. The method is based on Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA). It aims at modelling the different and sometimes contradicting opinions and at ranking the radio-ecological and socio-economical sensitivity factors of a region towards radioactive pollution, in the order of assisting decision making, These factors are defined by the environmental and anthropic parameters that may aggravate or limit the consequences of radioactive pollution. As the PRIME project was a partnership between scientific laboratories, representatives of public institutions and of civil society, it led to explore innovative forms of cooperation and to develop a tool combining MCA and GIS mapping. (authors)

  4. Politics out of the History of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sartori

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendy Brown’s approach in Politics out of History is characterized by an attempt to analyze the presence of the past which can be read not only under the light of Nietzsche’s legacy, but also through a comparison with Hannah Arendt’s conception of the gap between the past and the future. Like Arendt, Brown aims to look at the present as the site of politics and freedom, even though the former conceives the break with tradition as the unavoidable starting point, while the latter assumes that that break is not fully accomplished because it was not recognized. Rather, it produces Wounded Attachments whose effect is that of limiting the possibility of left criticism. Moving from this parallel, Brown’s analysis is compared to the Italian philosophy of sexual difference, stressing their common interest in thinking freedom beyond a female identity built on a presumed common oppression.

  5. Political tug of war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhart, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    Rapid expansion of the European power grid is essential for the further development of wind and solar energy. The most significant obstacles are not technical, but rather of a political nature. (orig.)

  6. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  7. Glosa about political ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates about political ethics aren't new. They have been present since ancient Greek philosophers. Machiavelli set some new principles, regarding amoral behavior of the prince, which could be quite legitimate and legal. He didn't invented anything new, he just admitted that, that was the reality. Some modern authors think that ethics and politics should be departed always, some other think that they should cooperate. In the end of the day, the voters are those who must face with amoral behavior of politicians, because it seems that politicians don't recognize ethics at all? Or is it just look like? In this paper, we will try in short to tell something about origins of political ethics, its burning issues, and about possible ways of implementation of political ethics and its development.

  8. Political State Boundary (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — State boundaries with political limit - boundaries extending into the ocean (NTAD). The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an...

  9. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  10. Protest Demonstrations, Political Partici

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-04-14

    Apr 14, 2015 ... the Era of Terrorism: Nigeria's Public Order Act and the ... Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other international laws. But owing to the .... little sense to limit analysis of political participation to voting and electoral.

  11. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  12. Political communication in referendums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Reinemann, C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews research on political communication in referendums that have become increasingly popular in democracies worldwide. The authors define key characteristics of referendums, touch upon participation in and popular support for referendums, and highlight the differences between them

  13. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  14. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  15. Mixing politics and crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Rasmus; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background Dread Pirate Roberts, founder of the first cryptomarket for illicit drugs named Silk Road, articulated libertarian political motives for his ventures. Previous research argues that there is a significant political component present or involved in cryptomarket drug dealing which...... is specifically libertarian. The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of political discourses within discussions of cryptomarket drug dealing, and further to research the potential changes of these over the timespan of the study. Methods We develop a novel operationalization of discourse analytic...... concepts which we combine with topic modelling enabling us to study how politics are articulated on cryptomarket forums. We apply the Structural Topic Model on a corpus extracted from crawls of cryptomarket forums encompassing posts dating from 2011 to 2015. Results The topics discussed on cryptomarket...

  16. Political Market Orientation and the Network Party Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    and Saglie (2003). This is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. Whilst the underlying conceptualisation draws......The conceptualisation of a political market orientation (PMO) draws on current marketing thought by focussing on the relationships that exist between the party2 and relevant internal and external stakeholders (Ormrod 2005, 2011a). However, the specific way in which the PMO model is linked...... on the management-based ‘relationship marketing’ approach (Bannon 2005; Henneberg and O’Shaughnessy 2009), by striving for contextual sensitivity it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties...

  17. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  18. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  19. Nuclear waste: the political realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1983-01-01

    The land dumping of nuclear waste has again come to the attention of anti-nuclear groups, environmentalists and the media, following the announcement of the proposed sites for intermediate-level nuclear waste at Billingham and Bedford. Opposition has already surfaced on a large scale, with public meetings in both areas and a revitalisation of the waste dumping network. This article explains some of the political realities in the nuclear debate, and suggests how we can tackle the issue of waste dumping, remembering that, even if the industry closes tomorrow, there are vast quantities of waste which must be safely and democratically dealt with. (author)

  20. Political Education as a Means of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Weronika; Knobelsdorf, Wodzimierz

    1980-01-01

    This essay describes the dimensions of political socialization with systematic political education as a major component. Both promote individual acceptance of political norms--particularly where government and school systems are tightly linked. The authors argue that political socialization should promote effective citizenship rather than simply…

  1. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  2. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  3. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  4. The Effects of Majoring in Political Science on Political Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Casey B. K.; Smith, Keith W.; Williams, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study tests, and finds support, for the hypotheses that a student who majors in political science will have stronger feelings of political competence and will be more willing to engage in hypothetical political actions than two peer groups: (a) those who major in other fields and (b) those who show an interest in politics but have not studied…

  5. The Pragmatics of Political Apology in Ghana's Contemporary Politics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses political apology in the 4th republic of Ghanaian contemporary politics from 2013 to 2015. It taps its data from apologetic speeches by political officials and from apologies rendered to politicians. The paper discusses the semantics and pragmatics of political apology. It examines the use of the language ...

  6. Fandom meets activism: Rethinking civic and political participation

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa M. Brough; Sangita Shresthova

    2012-01-01

    Fan activism lies at the intersection of cultural and political participation. The study of fan activism can inform our understanding of contemporary collective action more broadly. We suggest four key areas for analysis: the relationships between cultural and political participation; the tension between participation and resistance in the context of fan activism; affect and the role of content worlds in civic and political mobilization; and evaluation of the impacts of fan activism. By drawi...

  7. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    political socialization . Political-cultural values are gradually internalized within the society and political behavior is largely reflective of...the extent to which the regime used education as a means of political socialization : Socialism is articulated as a Muslim theory of socialism. The head... political socialization except for a brief period during the mobilization program of Ali Sabri. Egypt’s party system has been more relevant for

  8. Sensitivity of coefficients for converting entrance surface dose and kerma-area product to effective dose and energy imparted to the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.; Sandborg, M.; Persliden, J.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of the conversions from entrance surface dose (ESD) or kerma-area product (KAP) to effective dose (E) or to energy imparted to the patient (ε) to the likely variations in tube potential, field size, patient size and sex which occur in clinical work. As part of a factorial design study for chest and lumbar spine examinations, the tube potentials were varied to be ±10% of the typical values for the examinations while field sizes and the positions of the field centres were varied to be representative of values drawn from measurements on patient images. Variation over sex and patient size was based on anthropomorphic phantoms representing males and females of ages 15 years (small adult) and 21 years (reference adult). All the conversion coefficients were estimated using a mathematical phantom programmed with the Monte Carlo code EGS4 for all factor combinations and analysed statistically to derive factor effects. In general, the factors studied behaved independently in the sense that interaction of the physical factors generally gave no more than a 5% variation in a conversion coefficient. Taken together, variation of patient size, sex, field size and field position can lead to significant variation of E/KAP by up to a factor of 2, of E/ESD by up to a factor of 3, of ε/KAP by a factor of 1.3 and of ε/ESD by up to a factor of 2. While KAP is preferred to determine ε, the results show no strong preference of KAP over ESD in determining E. The mean absorbed dose D-bar in the patient obtained by dividing ε (determined using KAP) by the patient's mass was found to be the most robust measure of E. (author)

  9. Incidence and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profiles of Normal Conjunctiva Bacterial Flora in the Central Area of China: A Hospital-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution and patterns of resistance to antimicrobial agents of normal conjunctival bacteria.Materials and Methods: Conjunctival specimens were collected from 8,224 patients and then cultured, which underwent antimicrobial susceptibility test following standard methods. Patients with infectious symptoms such as erythema or oedema and those using systemic or topical antibiotics within 1 month were excluded.Results: In this study, the incidence of isolated bacteria was 24.2%. The middle aged group of 41–65 years presented the lowest rate of bacterial isolation which was 19.4%, while the highest isolation rate (83.1% was found in patients in the age range of 0–6 years. In every age group, the incidence of bacterial isolation in men was higher than that in women. The top 3 most commonly isolated micro-organisms were Staphylococcus epidermidis (39.7%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (4.5%, and Staphylococcus aureus (2.7%, of which about 83.1% S. aureus were isolated in the group of 0-6 years. We found that coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS were more resistant to penicillin, macrolides, clindamycin and sulfonamides with the rate ranging from 57.9 to 90.8%, which were highly susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, rifampin, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Contrasting to CONS, the general resistance rate of S. aureus was significantly lower. Additionally, Streptococcus was susceptible well to the majority of antimicrobial agents, while highly resistant to macrolides and tetracyclines with the rate >80%.Conclusions: In conclusion, our study revealed the incidence and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of normal conjunctiva bacterial flora in the central area of China, which could be useful in the prevention of ocular infections. Importantly, our data could be used to guide the selection of appropriate prophylactic agents.

  10. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weimin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  11. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  12. AXIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF POLITICAL NICKNAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUSTOVA IRINA NIKOLAEVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of axiological possibilities of political nicknames. Political nicknames are very expressive. They can be personal and impersonal. Some nicknames lose their primary meaning to become a part of evaluative political lexis. In the language of politics nicknames often serve not only as means of assessment, but also as ideological weapon.

  13. Politics of inclusion and empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe......The book examines the political and academic debates about the interplay between political, civil and social citizenship in US and Europe...

  14. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  15. Political Attitudes Develop Independently of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area. PMID:25734580

  16. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Verhulst, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  17. Political analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Monogan III, James E

    2015-01-01

    Political Analysis Using R can serve as a textbook for undergraduate or graduate students as well as a manual for independent researchers. It is unique among competitor books in its usage of 21 example datasets that are all drawn from political research. All of the data and example code is available from the Springer website, as well as from Dataverse (http://dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/ARKOTI). The book provides a narrative of how R can be useful for addressing problems common to the analysis of public administration, public policy, and political science data specifically, in addition to the social sciences more broadly. While the book uses data drawn from political science, public administration, and policy analyses, it is written so that students and researchers in other fields should find it accessible and useful as well. Political Analysis Using R is perfect for the first-time R user who has no prior knowledge about the program. By working through the first seven chapters of this book, an entry-level user sho...

  18. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  19. The ontology of "political" in political consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s ...... or services will enable companies to better understand consumers need and expectations. The latter being a necessity if confirmation of expectations, satisfaction, retention of customers and customer loyalty are goals of importance for the selling company.......The aim of this paper is to create a more complex and holistic understanding of the value system of the political consumer. A case study was undertaken were the unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman......’s laddering technique. The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures when buycotting organic food. In other words, the informants activate different values for similar attributes and consequences. This means that consumption of organic food is related...

  20. Politics as Culture: Contribution of Political Science to Democratic Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Padjen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the contribution of Croatian political science to the development of democracy in Croatia. The focus of the analysis is the concept of culture which author talks about in five steps. In the first step it is understood in the modern key, in the second step as different for nature and in the third as different from society. In the fourth step author differentiates political culture from political economy and political institutions, but in the fifth part there is an attempt to show culture as a fundamental part of politics, policy and polity. On the basis of these insights author shows that the matrix of Croatian political science is more and more devoted to scientific investigation of politics as culture as both study of political culture and as a source of development as politics as culture.

  1. POLITICAL OPTIONS AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS WITHIN THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sandu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in the security environment of Eastern Europe and the South Caucasus have been reshaping the strategies of the six small countries in the proximity of both the EU and Russia. Their attempts to take upon themselves their Soviet heritage and their sensitive geographical position were reflected by a mix of East-West orientations. Some of them chose to create stronger economic bonds with the EU members while others decided to anticipate Russian discontent in separatist areas they shelter and became members of the EEU. Regardless of their option, the Eastern Partnership members embarked? on a long road of political, social and economic changes, so that their stability and growth would become pillars of a stronger role on the regional and international arena in the future. The EU, in turn, has been supporting its partners to the East according to their level of commitment to reform and approximation, although the economic benefits of this relation are imperceptible.

  2. Gender and Political Disempowerment of Women in Rivers State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political disempowerment of women has remained dominant in the literature on gender. This paper sets out to evaluate the level of women participation as well as identify the factors which impede the equitable political participation of women in the Port Harcourt City Local Council area. It adopts the theory of Radical ...

  3. Descent into the Maelstrom: Anthropology in the Politics of Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovesh, Michael

    Conditions in academic employment associated with increasingly tense political struggles for anthropology departments are discussed. Personnel policies for state-supported institutions are cited as areas of major controversy and the effect of student enrollments on the setting of staffing-level parameters is emphasized. Politics internal to…

  4. Color-Coding Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000 Presidential election between George H. W. Bush and Al Gore, journalists often used the terms blue states and red states to describe the political landscape within the United States. This article studies the framing of these terms during the years 2004 through 2007. Using latent and manifest qualitative content analyses, six different news media frames were found in a sample of 337 newspaper articles. Two hypotheses were also tested indicating that framing patterns varied slightly by time period and article types. However, the argument that increased levels of political polarization in the United States have been created by predominantly conflict-oriented coverage may not be true. Instead, these terms became journalistic heuristics that were used to organize how people think about politics in a way that fit with contemporary media practices, and there is no single agreed upon interpretation of these terms within this reporting.

  5. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  6. Politics of Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is the most political of all the elements, the material for the production of both the large amounts of electricity and the most destructive weapons in the world. The problems that its dual potential creates are only now beginning to become evident. Author Norman Moss looks at this situation and sheds light on many of the questions that emerge. The nuclear issue always comes back to how much uranium there is, what can be done with it, and which countries have it. Starting with a concise history of uranium and explaining its technology in terms the nonspecialist can understand, The Politics of Uranium considers the political issues that technical arguments obscure. It tells the little-known story of the international uranium cartel, explains the entanglements of governments with the uranium trade, and describes the consequences of wrong decisions and blunders-especially the problems of nuclear waste. It also examines the intellectual and emotional roots of the anti-nuclear movement

  7. Inclusion as political mobilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muwanga, Nansozi

    2016-01-01

    constituencies. Finally, there is relatively weak pressure to push through education quality-enhancing reforms, be it from civil society in general, powerful interest groups, or parliament. At the local level, we find that how a school is situated within local elite networks is important in explaining local...... to implement qualityenhancing policies, first, because the formal and informal governance arrangements allow for a system of decentralised rent management that serves to appease lower level factions. Secondly, the NRM government is caught in the rhetoric of allowing free education in an appeal to rural......Uganda has been successful in broadening access to education. However, this achievement has been undermined by low literacy and numeracy levels and high drop-out rates. A political settlement perspective sheds light on the politics of education reforms. We find that there are weak political drives...

  8. Education and the political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt articulates...... in The Crisis in Education, namely natality and conservation, but we can also form a clearer understanding of the separation and of her educational thinking more broadly....

  9. Politics at the interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannabiran, Gobinaath; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2010-01-01

    At the birth of participatory design, there was a strong political consciousness surrounding the design of new technology, the design process in particular, establishing a rich set of methods and tools for user-centered design. Today, the term design has extended its scope of concern beyond...... the process of design and into how users interact with the designed product on a day-to-day basis. This paper is an attempt to call to attention the need for a new set of methods, attitudes and approaches, along with the existing, to discuss, analyze and reflect upon the politics at the interface....... By presenting a critical analysis of two design cases, we elicit the importance of such an agenda and the implications for design in doing so. We use the Foucauldian notion of power to analyze the power relationships in these two cases and to articulate the politics at the interface. We conclude by emphasizing...

  10. Education and the political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    This paper presents the controversial separation of education from the realm of the political as proposed by Hannah Arendt. For the sake of children and the future of the world, we must, according to Arendt, separate education from the political. If we do not do so, we not only expose our children...... to the blinding light of public existence before they are prepared for such exposure but also risk imposing on them our beliefs and prejudices, thus robbing them of the opportunity to create something new. By reading Arendt’s argumentation for the separation as developmental and temporal, Gert Biesta is able...... to claim that this separation is based on a psychological misunderstanding and that it renders children incapable of political action. I propose here that, by considering the separation instead to be a question of protection, not only can we heed the two essences of education that Arendt articulates...

  11. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  12. Possible effects of changes in the meteorological state over semi-arid areas on the general well-being of weather-sensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S; Bromberg, Ljuba; Adler, Batiah; Aizenberg, Alexander

    2012-04-16

    The influence of the changes in atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, on general well-being of hypertensive persons was analyzed. Under test was the group of 20 hypertensive weather-sensitive patients; their blood pressure, pulse rate and appearance of 4 symptoms of discomfort sensations: arthritic pain, unjustified anxiety, severe headache and inexplicable tiredness- were registered. Symptoms are classified in ICD-9 code (780-790) and scored on a 4-point scale. Results were defined as positive (no departure from the range of normal values) or problematic; the daily number of the latter results was collected under the name "pathological reactions" NPR if at least two of these 7 checked symptoms (of one patient) were outside the normal range. Comparison of the current weather conditions with their means, questioning of patients and repeated examinations are used to gain information. The data was analyzed employing the SAS statistical software. Pearson and Spearman correlations were used, applied on the best and worst days, when a minimum and a maximum of pathological changes NPR in the patients' well-being were observed. The statistical significance was p wind speed WS and direction were expressed in blood pressure changes and in exacerbation of discomfort of various degrees. Unfavorable conditions correspond to days with dominant desert air streams and to high WS, when NPR reaches 85.7%; during the days with prevalent sea breeze NPR was ≤22.9%. The role of wind direction in NPR occurrence is prevalent when WS > 4 m·s-1. The Spearman test gives higher correlation than Pearson test (ρ ~ 0.14, p < 0.03 against ρ ~ 0.1, p < 0.04). NPR is more affected by the air streams than by absolute values of meteorological parameters. The method of this study might give to family doctors some additional tools to predict deterioration in general feelings of chronic patients and could be related to other health problems influenced

  13. Possible effects of changes in the meteorological state over semi-arid areas on the general well-being of weather-sensitive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yackerson Naomy S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of the changes in atmospheric states, typical for areas close to big deserts, on general well-being of hypertensive persons was analyzed. Methods Under test was the group of 20 hypertensive weather-sensitive patients; their blood pressure, pulse rate and appearance of 4 symptoms of discomfort sensations: arthritic pain, unjustified anxiety, severe headache and inexplicable tiredness- were registered. Symptoms are classified in ICD-9 code (780–790 and scored on a 4-point scale. Results were defined as positive (no departure from the range of normal values or problematic; the daily number of the latter results was collected under the name “pathological reactions” NPR if at least two of these 7 checked symptoms (of one patient were outside the normal range. Comparison of the current weather conditions with their means, questioning of patients and repeated examinations are used to gain information. The data was analyzed employing the SAS statistical software. Pearson and Spearman correlations were used, applied on the best and worst days, when a minimum and a maximum of pathological changes NPR in the patients’ well-being were observed. The statistical significance was p  Results ~1500 medical observations and verbal statements were registered in the Primary Care Clinic (Be’er-Sheva, Israel during 2001–2002. No meaning correlation was found between NPR and absolute values of temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. Variations in wind speed WS and direction were expressed in blood pressure changes and in exacerbation of discomfort of various degrees. Unfavorable conditions correspond to days with dominant desert air streams and to high WS, when NPR reaches 85.7%; during the days with prevalent sea breeze NPR was ≤22.9%. The role of wind direction in NPR occurrence is prevalent when WS > 4 m·s-1. The Spearman test gives higher correlation than Pearson test (ρ ~ 0.14, p ρ ~ 0

  14. The Politics of Whitelisting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article looks closely at the politics of whitelists in commercial security. It argues that whitelists are essential for the current transformations in regulatory politics in which Codes of Conduct, Best Practices, Benchmarks and Standards are replacing more conventional, legally binding forms...... of regulation. The article traces how whitelists are tied to these transformations. The account is organized around how the practical, pragmatic and poetic character of lists (Umberto Eco) fashion the work and topological imprint (Manuel DeLanda) of whitelists in commercial security specifically. The article...

  15. Environmental groups in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, P.; Goyder, J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; (Part I) the environmental movement (environmental groups and the attentive public; the episodic development of the environmental movement; the underlying values of environmentalism; the roots of environmental concern; the social limits to growth; elite manipulation of values); the organisation of environmental groups; environmental groups in national politics; environmental groups in local politics; (Part II) the Henley Society; Friends of the Earth; the National Trust; the Royal Society for Nature Conservation; the European Environmental Bureau. (U.K.)

  16. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  17. Epistemological or Political?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    in a consolidated field. It is argued that if we envisage a consolidated field of IDS, there is a need to develop common ground which calls for scholars of ID to be more explicit about the meanings they ascribe to ID than we see today when the sliding between the epistemological and political dimensions...... of the field may go unnoticed. It is suggested that whereas ambiguity may be unwanted in the epistemological dimension, it may be quite useful in the political dimension. A systematic comparison of opposite positions offers a common frame of reference for a more productive dialogue between different positions...

  18. Poetry, philosophy, political

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pucheu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering how persistently a certain amount of specialized critics work to diminish contemporary Brazilian poetry, this essay seeks to conceive an articulation among poetry, philosophy and politics. We atempt to do that, on the one hand, through the philosophical concepts of aporia and wonder (thaumazein, and, on the another hand, by considering what Giorgio Agamben refers to as “an insurmontable disjunction between whatever singularity and the State organization”. Among the many poets that could be approached in this context, we chose to close the text with an interpretation some of Tarso de Melo's remarkably and explicitly political poems.

  19. Foucault's Political Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    If one reads Michel Foucault "backward," so to speak, one can sense the contours of a "big narrative" of "the political" which is founded on the claim that "Where there is obedience there cannot be parrhesia" (Foucault, 2011, p. 336). What Foucault is doing with this sentence is breaking the circle...... from showing how obedience is incompatible with a politics of truth. The unity created by centralized domination, he holds, is democratically "false," however legitimate it may be. There can be no real democracy where laypeople are commanded to hand over their capacity and right to govern themselves...

  20. Internationalist Political Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    One rather striking description of what lies behind the various phenomena we now refer to with the term "globalisation" comes to us from the chairman of Magna International, a Canadian-owned auto-parts manufacturer whose production lines are located in Mexico. "To be in business," he states, "your first mandate is to make money, and money has no heart, soul, conscience, homeland" (Henwood, 1997, 113). If this is the world of business and money, might politics be its obverse? To be sure, polit...

  1. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  2. The politics of digits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2013-01-01

    -endings data. Second, nine-ending and other higher-end decimals are found to be over-represented which echoes odd pricing research. It suggests that incumbents take voters’ biases into account and apply odd taxes to minimize the political costs of taxation while maximizing revenue. Attention should be given......From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price...

  3. Interest in politics modulates neural activity in the amygdala and ventral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Marta; Zamboni, Giovanna; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-11-01

    Studies on political participation have found that a person's interest in politics contributes to the likelihood that he or she will be involved in the political process. Here, we looked at whether or not interest in politics affects patterns of brain activity when individuals think about political matters. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we scanned individuals (either interested or uninterested in politics based on a self-report questionnaire) while they were expressing their agreement or disagreement with political opinions. After scanning, participants were asked to rate each political opinion presented in the scanner for emotional valence and emotional intensity. Behavioral results showed that those political opinions participants agreed with were perceived as more emotionally intense and more positive by individuals interested in politics relative to individuals uninterested in politics. In addition, individuals interested in politics showed greater activation in the amygdala and the ventral striatum (ventral putamen) relative to individuals uninterested in politics when reading political opinions in accordance with their own views. This study shows that having an interest in politics elicits activations in emotion- and reward-related brain areas even when simply agreeing with written political opinions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  5. Enhancing Political Participation in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd George Waller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth participation through political talk appears to be shifting to the online public sphere in many parts of the world. Many attribute this shift to online social networks such as Facebook. Emerging research seem to suggest that this may be a cure for the problem of political apathy among the youth. This study explores such a possibility in Jamaica. In all, 752 youth ages 15 to 24 were surveyed to ascertain whether Facebook encourages political talk among this age cohort, and what if any are the primary factors that discourage this practice. The findings suggest that (a Facebook is an extension of offline political talk among the civically engaged and politically charged youth of Jamaica; (b Facebook does not substantively encourage political talk among the politically apathetic Jamaican youth; and (c fear of political victimization is the primary factor that discourages many Jamaican youth to engage in political talk on Facebook.

  6. Spatial Differentiation of Soil Erosion Sensitivity in Ecologically Vulnerable Areas%北方生态脆弱区土壤侵蚀敏感性空间分异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉涛; 邓伟

    2017-01-01

    Yulin City,which is located in the transition zone sandwiched between Mu Us Desert and Plateau hilly-gully region,is not only a typical ecologically vulnerable area in agro-pastoral transitional zone of North China,but also a key ecological function protection area with soil conservation and sand fixation in China.Affected by aeolian landform,arid climate,sparse vegetation and high-strength land use during recent years,soil erosion has become the main ecological disaster in Yulin.Soil erosion seriously restricts human survival and socio-economy sustainable development of the region.So many scholars have paid much attention to the soil erosion problems in the study area.Based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation theory and GIS spatial analysis function,three natural factors (precipitation,terrain and soil factors) affecting soil erosion,and other three artificial parameters (biological measures,agricultural measures and socio-economic measures factors) were collected as the evaluation indexes to make the assessment equations.Then assessment of each factor was produced and an integrated soil erosion sensitivity evaluation was examined by using GIS.Furthermore,distribution characteristics and spatial difference of sensitivity of soil erosion in the study area were also analyzed.The sensitivity of the influences was classified into four degrees.The result demonstrates that moderate sensitive is the main type of soil sensitivities in the Yulin,followed by slight sensitive and strong sensitive distribute,and the area proportion with non-sensitivity is very small.Based on the overall distribution patterns,the general trend of soil erosion sensitivity descends from the southern loess hilly-gully areas to the northern sandy marsh areas.The strong soil erosion sensitivities mainly distribute in the south of Jingbian and Dingbian Counties,the Yellow River coast area in the eastern and the part areas of six counties in the south.The evaluation results of improved soil erosion

  7. A Grounded Theory of Political Intelligentizing in Business Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel-Mauve Adjognon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the substantive area of business administration using the classic grounded theory method. Business administration is mostly driven by political games between top-level corporate managers. The main concern of the managers I met was that they wanted to be more politically successful. For them, success meant being able to change regularly the course of decisions and action within their firm. The study led to the emergence of a core variable called political intelligentizing. Political intelligentizing explains the recurrent main concern that these managers have to resolve, and it explains the competences managers have to combine to succeed regularly in organisational politics. They resolve their main problem through political intelligentizing which consists in acquiring, developing and combining six specific skills: time matching, rhetorical fitting, silence juggling, strategic forward-thinking, strategic interacting and relationing.

  8. Political Transmigrants: Rethinking Hmong Political Activism in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengher N. Vang, Ph.D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the initial resettlement of the Hmong in the United States in the mid-1970s, they have maintained strong political and military relationships with the Lao People‘s Democratic Republic (LPDR. Yet, there is little research on that relationship and the involvement of the Hmong in the United States in political developments in Laos. Most works on Hmong political activism have focused on the electoral participation and representation of Hmong Americans in relation to American domestic politics. In this article, using archival, ethnographic, and interview data that I have collected between 2006 and 2009 in Laos, Thailand, and the United States, I describe and analyze the non-domestic or transnational form of Hmong American political expression and participation. I argue that Hmong political activism in America not only was transnational from the outset, but that their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government also had a significant impact on their ethnic politics. Many Hmong political activists made their entry into ethnic politics through the door of transnational politics, and many were motivated by transnational political issues to participate in domestic American politics. By exploring their transnational involvement in political developments in Laos and their relations with the Lao PDR government, we get a more complete and dynamic understanding of Hmong political activism in the United States than is possible by focusing exclusively on domestic and electoral participation. Examining their transnational politics also allows us to see the transnationality of not only their culture, identity, and community but also that of their political activities and aspirations.

  9. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-correa, M

    1998-01-01

    "Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." excerpt

  10. Sensitive innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Katia Dupret

    Present paper discusses sources of innovation as heterogenic and at times intangible processes. Arguing for heterogeneity and intangibility as sources of innovation originates from a theoretical reading in STS and ANT studies (e.g. Callon 1986, Latour 1996, Mol 2002, Pols 2005) and from field work...... in the area of mental health (Dupret Søndergaard 2009, 2010). The concept of sensitive innovation is developed to capture and conceptualise exactly those heterogenic and intangible processes. Sensitive innovation is therefore primarily a way to understand innovative sources that can be......, but are not necessarily, recognized and acknowledged as such in the outer organisational culture or by management. The added value that qualifies these processes to be defined as “innovative” are thus argued for along different lines than in more traditional innovation studies (e.g. studies that build on the classic...

  11. When politics prevails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Dagnis; Snaith, Holly

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses Britain’s quest to negotiate its future membership of the European Union (EU) through the lens of Liberal intergovernmentalism. The article demonstrates that despite the significant economic consequences of a potential Brexit, party political factors have hitherto proven more...

  12. Political Education Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  13. Conscience and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  14. Political Parties and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2017-01-01

    parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...... political parties with participatory internal democratic processes....

  15. Inequality and Political Clientelism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    on the basis of party affiliation may arise. Operationally, party-based clientelism is defined as a bias of public policy in favour of members of the governing political party. In a sample of local governments in India, party-based clientelism is shown to exist in two out of four states and to be strongly...

  16. The politics of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs.

  17. Perceptions of political leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Schmitz, J; Murray, Gregg R

    2017-01-01

    Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.

  18. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  19. The politics of insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  20. Experiments as politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Smith, HJ

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the political nature of laboratory experiments. Such experiments can be construed as paradigms of power, open to construction and debate, where different agents and interests are involved in a process of struggle over both (re)presentation and substance.

  1. The Politics of Trade

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chapter Four The Case of Argentine Research in Building Regional Integration .... Each of the case studies in this book looks at the various contextual factors that play a ..... Economic and political networking allows them to control the channels by ...... Cities such as Toronto, for example, have a comparative advantage in the ...

  2. Situated, embodied, and political

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    is developed. The article discusses ways in which professional journalism is positioned in relation to engaging subjectivity of citizen journalism – as convergence media, as well as independent forms of knowledge and information sharing. The often political affectivity of citizen journalism is discussed...

  3. Political Correctness, Historically Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Seymour Martin

    1992-01-01

    This historical review examines conservative and liberal attitudes on U.S. campuses in terms of political, ethnic, racial, gender, and religious issues. Discussed are the era of protest (1960s), the era of quiescence and move toward conservatism (1970-84), reversing the trend via increasing faculty liberalism, and contemporary opinion (a…

  4. Writerly Gaming: Political Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    software for private entertainment (looking/feeling real) or they can be pragmatic software used for training of professionals (affecting soldiers’, pilots’, etc. perception of the real). A third, and less debated game-reality relationship, based on public awareness and typically a socio-political agenda...

  5. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original…

  6. Spiritual Politics, Political Religion, and Religious Freedom in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravers, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma......A state of the art artcle on academic work on religion, politics, and religious freedom in Burma...

  7. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  8. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C.; Sheikh, Sana

    2014-01-01

    Based on Lakoff’s (2002) Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father) predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1) reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2). Political liberalism wa...

  9. Teaching gender and politics: Feminist methods in political science

    OpenAIRE

    Krook, Mona Lena

    2009-01-01

    Feminist research in political science is marked by two major contributions: (1) introducing the concept of “gender” and (2) expanding the definition of “politics.” Given its origins in feminist theory and activism, it is guided by scholarly and political aims to transform the study and the practice of politics (cf. Hawkesworth 2006). These commitments enable feminist scholars to identify new research questions, as well as to approach traditional topics in novel ways, using a variety of resea...

  10. Social positions and political recruitment: a study of Brazilian senators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Codato

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses the methodology for the definition, classification, and measurement of social positions of the parliamentary political elite. We present some theoretical and methodological strategies for classifying the variable “occupation held prior to political career”, and suggest the use of more than one indicator for this measurement. We argue that a typology of both social and political characteristics of parliament members is the best way to grasp the transformations on the patterns of political recruitment throughout the 20th century. The first model we tested classified Brazilian senators elected between 1918 and 2010 among occupations conventionally used in studies on political elites. The second applied model seeks to change the coding of occupations so as to grasp this group’s sociopolitical transformations over time. We conclude with a new classification suggestion, which results from a typology sensitive to the varying values ascribed to professional occupations throughout history.

  11. Engaging and Disengaging with Political News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Linaa Jensen, Jakob

    (most notably by Prior, 2007; Stromback, Djerf-Pierre, & Shehata, 2012) that this development also can lead to an increase in the number of people who utilize this enhanced media choice to skip news altogether. One area that merits special attention in this context is political news. Critical engagement......, 1992) and 'performance of identity' (Madianou, 2009) that take place throughout people's everyday life. To further understand these processes it is important to attend to how users engage – or disengage – with political news. To do this we present a typology of news users based on an exploratory...... and conversing face-to-face) that users engage in for political discussion, and compare these across demographics as well as relevant media use patterns. The findings from the survey will be supplemented by results from a series of qualitative interviews that shed light on the motivations users have for engaging...

  12. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  13. Sensitivity of nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled whole blood samples and its usefulness to blood donor screening in endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jesus F; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Pang, Lorrin W; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a severe disease with high fatality rate. Most Brazilian blood banks in the Amazon region perform malaria screening using microscopic examination (thick smears). Since low parasite concentrations are expected in asymptomatic blood donors a high sensitivity test should be used for donor screening. This study determined the sensitivity of a nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled samples. We performed a one-stage criterion validation study with 21 positive samples pooled with samples from ten negative volunteer until three different concentrations were reached (0.33; 0.25; 0.20 parasites/μL - p/μL). Nested PCR was performed as described by Snounou et al. (1993). Sensitivities (and confidence intervals) were determined by stratum of final parasite concentration on the pooled samples. All samples with parasitemia values of 0.33 and 0.25 p/μL had 100% sensitivity (95%CI=86.3-100). One negative result was obtained from a sample with 0.20 p/μL sensitivity=95.2% (95%CI=76.2-99.9). Compared to parasitemia detectable under ideal conditions of thick smear, this nested-PCR in pooled sample was able to detect 40 times more parasites per microliter. Nested-PCR in pooled samples should be considered as a high sensitive alternative to thick smear for donor screening in blood banks at endemic regions. Local authorities need to assess cost:benefit advantages of this method compared to alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Union Underground: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    This is the third unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course which focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. The unit analyzes the concept of political maintenance by studying the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) between 1918 and 1975 and its fight to secure mine safety standards. A documentary…

  15. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  16. A Political Philosophy Approach to Teaching American Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kevin E.

    1982-01-01

    Suggests an alternative to the civic training, political indoctrination, and descriptive presentation approaches used to teaching American government courses. Recommends a political philosophy approach within a framework of elite theory to help students develop a critical perspective on American politics. (DMM)

  17. The politics and anti-politics of social movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burchardt, Marian; Patterson, Amy S.; Mubanda Rasmussen, Louise

    2013-01-01

    's poverty. Religious HIV/AIDS activities must be analysed in a conceptual space between a civil society/politics approach and a service-provider/anti-politics framework. That is, religious mobilisation may at times seek to engage the public realm to shape policies, while at other times it may shun politics...

  18. Political Economy: Success or Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Frey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Political Economy and Public Choice approaches have promoted the study of interactions between the economy and the polity for over 60 years now. The present paper endeavours to provide a critical discussion of this literature and its achievements. In particular, it begins with the different approaches based on empirically tested or politometric models and it then proceeds to discuss different studies of the effects that particular rules of the game have on politico-economic outcomes. The third section of the paper will address studies that take institutions to be endogenous and aims to explain why particular institutions emerge. Finally, the question of whether Political Economy has been a success or a failure will be tackled. While the success in terms of the position it has gained in economic research and teaching is undeniable, a look at one of the most thriving recent areas of economics, happiness research, will reveal that some of its fundamental lessons are all too often disregarded.

  19. Nuclear power and political conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is limited to the first phase of conflict up to 1977. The various forms of controversy on the issue of nuclear energy are examined. The conflict is explained as being the result of relevant research and (energy) infrastructure policies. The first task of such an investigation is to analyse the depoliticization of nuclear energy policy which took place over a period of nearly 20 years (1955-1973/4). This depoliticization and non-decisionmaking on the social consequences of nuclear energy have laid the foundations for the development of the conflict which occured in the first cycle of the nuclear energy conflict. The second task is to highlight the social structure of the opposition movement, its forms of struggle, and the response of the state apparatus, The crisis of the nuclear power policy has led to a more or less distinct paralysis of the state apparatus because the political and industrial decisionmaking processes in this area were not designed to cope with social conflicts. In fact, their very structure had excluded the possibility of political opposition to a specific technology. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Adaptation of an urban land surface model to a tropical suburban area: Offline evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and optimization of TEB/ISBA (SURFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshan, Suraj

    The main objective of the present thesis is the improvement of the TEB/ISBA (SURFEX) urban land surface model (ULSM) through comprehensive evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and optimization experiments using energy balance and radiative and air temperature data observed during 11 months at a tropical sub-urban site in Singapore. Overall the performance of the model is satisfactory, with a small underestimation of net radiation and an overestimation of sensible heat flux. Weaknesses in predicting the latent heat flux are apparent with smaller model values during daytime and the model also significantly underpredicts both the daytime peak and nighttime storage heat. Surface temperatures of all facets are generally overpredicted. Significant variation exists in the model behaviour between dry and wet seasons. The vegetation parametrization used in the model is inadequate to represent the moisture dynamics, producing unrealistically low latent heat fluxes during a particularly dry period. The comprehensive evaluation of the USLM shows the need for accurate estimation of input parameter values for present site. Since obtaining many of these parameters through empirical methods is not feasible, the present study employed a two step approach aimed at providing information about the most sensitive parameters and an optimized parameter set from model calibration. Two well established sensitivity analysis methods (global: Sobol and local: Morris) and a state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (Borg) were employed for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Experiments were carried out for three different weather periods. The analysis indicates that roof related parameters are the most important ones in controlling the behaviour of the sensible heat flux and net radiation flux, with roof and road albedo as the most influential parameters. Soil moisture initialization parameters are important in controlling the latent heat flux. The built (town) fraction

  1. Political and Social Economy of Care : Gendered Dimensions in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Political and Social Economy of Care : Gendered Dimensions in Selected ... in this area; an institutional analysis of the care regimes; and a micro level quantitative ... (and girls and boys) within households assume responsibility for the physical ...

  2. Mass Media and Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  3. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  4. The Politics of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Buur, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Economic transformation is driven by successfully implemented industrial policy, but industrial policy is inherently political. We cannot understand why some governments pursue and implement industrial policy better than others without understanding the politics. This article addresses...

  5. Education for Leisure and the Political System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hilmi

    1976-01-01

    The author considers the place of education for leisure in primitive political systems, traditional political systems, and modern political systems (including premobilized and mobilized dictatorships and democracies). (GW)

  6. Privatization Framework: Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Indra

    2009-01-01

    Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...

  7. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  8. Remote Sensing of Seagrass Leaf Area Index and Species: The Capability of a Model Inversion Method Assessed by Sensitivity Analysis and Hyperspectral Data of Florida Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hedley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The capability for mapping two species of seagrass, Thalassia testudinium and Syringodium filiforme, by remote sensing using a physics based model inversion method was investigated. The model was based on a three-dimensional canopy model combined with a model for the overlying water column. The model included uncertainty propagation based on variation in leaf reflectances, canopy structure, water column properties, and the air-water interface. The uncertainty propagation enabled both a-priori predictive sensitivity analysis of potential capability and the generation of per-pixel error bars when applied to imagery. A primary aim of the work was to compare the sensitivity analysis to results achieved in a practical application using airborne hyperspectral data, to gain insight on the validity of sensitivity analyses in general. Results showed that while the sensitivity analysis predicted a weak but positive discrimination capability for species, in a practical application the relevant spectral differences were extremely small compared to discrepancies in the radiometric alignment of the model with the imagery—even though this alignment was very good. Complex interactions between spectral matching and uncertainty propagation also introduced biases. Ability to discriminate LAI was good, and comparable to previously published methods using different approaches. The main limitation in this respect was spatial alignment with the imagery with in situ data, which was heterogeneous on scales of a few meters. The results provide insight on the limitations of physics based inversion methods and seagrass mapping in general. Complex models can degrade unpredictably when radiometric alignment of the model and imagery is not perfect and incorporating uncertainties can have non-intuitive impacts on method performance. Sensitivity analyses are upper bounds to practical capability, incorporating a term for potential systematic errors in radiometric alignment may

  9. Service Learning and Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Diana

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the link between political socialization scholarship and service learning. States that information gleaned from socialization research on adolescents' political identities and beliefs can inform service learning, asserting that the relationship between political socialization and service learning needs to be encouraged. (CMK)

  10. The Rebirth of Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Richard G.; Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that research on political socialization began in the late 1950s and died a premature death in the 1970s. Discusses the field's origins and downfall, and predicts a rebirth in a new and sustainable form. Outlines changes in secondary school political science education and political socialization research in other nations. (CFR)

  11. The Politics of Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  12. Archivists Killed for Political Reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    This essay, Archivists Killed for Political Reasons, offers an overview of archivists who were killed for political reasons through the ages. After determining the criteria for inclusion, sixteen such political murders of archivists are briefly discussed. These cases were distributed over six

  13. Political Science and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, O. P.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews the environmental conditions which gave rise to the development of environmental politics and later to the subdiscipline of political ecology. Defines the intellectual boundaries of political ecology and the goals it seeks to attain. Concludes that the increasingly global economy and widespread ecological problems guarantee an…

  14. Germany's energy policies from 1960 to 1980 against the background of foreign trade relations and foreign politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakainski, M.

    1993-01-01

    There is hardly another area of politicis where the wishes and interests of different social groups clash so hard with facts and realities as the area of energy politics. The following article looks at Germany's energy politics between 1960 and 1980, it tries to highlight the vanifications of foreign trade relations and explain their impact on energy politics and on the resulting tensions on the area of foreign politics. (orig.) [de

  15. Criticising with Foucault: Towards a Guiding Framework for Socio-Political Studies in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollosche, David

    2016-01-01

    Socio-political studies in mathematics education often touch complex fields of interaction between education, mathematics and the political. In this paper I present a Foucault-based framework for socio-political studies in mathematics education which may guide research in that area. In order to show the potential of such a framework, I discuss the…

  16. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  17. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  18. Orphans and political instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuning, Marijke; Ishiyama, John

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the security implications of growing orphan populations, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Little has been written about the security implications of this especially vulnerable group of children. Are growing orphan populations associated with increases in political instability as has been suggested? Using data from several sources, we employ regression analysis to test whether Sub-Saharan African countries with larger proportions of orphans and those with increasing orphan populations experience higher rates of political instability. We find that the increase in the orphan population is related to an increasing incidence of civil conflict, but do not find a similar relationship for the proportion of orphans. In addition, we find that the causes of orphanhood matter. We conclude that increases in orphan populations (rather than simple proportions) are destabilizing. We suggest possible avenues for mediating the security risks posed by growing orphan populations.

  19. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M.; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum–whether liberal, conservative, or moderate–has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in “bluer” locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in “redder” locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced. PMID:28207906

  20. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Tullett, Alexa M; Mensch, Zachary; Hart, William; Gottlieb, Sara

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.

  1. The political reference point: How geography shapes political identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Feinberg

    Full Text Available It is commonly assumed that how individuals identify on the political spectrum-whether liberal, conservative, or moderate-has a universal meaning when it comes to policy stances and voting behavior. But, does political identity mean the same thing from place to place? Using data collected from across the U.S. we find that even when people share the same political identity, those in "bluer" locations are more likely to support left-leaning policies and vote for Democratic candidates than those in "redder" locations. Because the meaning of political identity is inconsistent across locations, individuals who share the same political identity sometimes espouse opposing policy stances. Meanwhile, those with opposing identities sometimes endorse identical policy stances. Such findings suggest that researchers, campaigners, and pollsters must use caution when extrapolating policy preferences and voting behavior from political identity, and that animosity toward the other end of the political spectrum is sometimes misplaced.

  2. Eros and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Rønning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many parallels between Henrik Ibsen’s Rosmersholm (1886 and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson’s Paul Lange og Tora Parsberg (1898. Both dramas have as their protagonist a weak and noble man, who is offered love and an erotic relationship by a strong woman, and who is not able to reciprocate.              At the same time they are plays about how politics demand the ability to act and take a stand in a world where men are supposed to engage politically at the same time as women are supposed to stand in the background. In both dramas the political and the erotic are interwoven in a manner that drives the men into despair because they can neither satisfy the demands of love in the intimate arena nor the demands for power in the public arena of politics.             There are also other parallels between the plays, in relation to the role of the figures, that demand of the protagonists that they take a stand, and drop them and betray them when they do not. Both dramas also end in a final suicide. Though here the two plays differ in that in Ibsen’s play the drama ends in the double suicide of the man and the woman, while in Bjørnson’s it is only the man who sacrifices himself. This implies that the question of strength, power and the erotic are more consistently played out in Ibsen’s drama.

  3. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  4. Taxation and political stability

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando; Mutascu, Mihai; Tiwari, Aviral

    2011-01-01

    The present study is, in particular, an attempt to test the relationship between tax level and political stability by using some economic control variables and to see the relationship among government effectiveness, corruption, and GDP. For the purpose, we used the Vector Autoregression (VAR) approach in the panel framework, using a country-level panel data from 59 countries for the period 2002 to 2008. The salient features of this model are: (a) simplicity is based on a limited number of var...

  5. Taxation and political stability

    OpenAIRE

    Mutascu, Mihai; Tiwari, Aviral; Estrada, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present study is, in particular, an attempt to test the relationship between tax level and political stability by using some economic control variables and to see the relationship among government effectiveness, corruption, and GDP. For the purpose, we used the Vector Autoregression (VAR) approach in the panel framework, using a country-level panel data from 59 countries for the period 2002 to 2008. The salient features of this model are: (a) simplicity is based on a limited number of ...

  6. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  7. The politics of arms control treaty ratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepon, M.; Caldwell, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book presents a critical examination of executive-congressional relations and the domestic politics of arms control treaty ratification within the United States during the twentieth century. The staring point of this study is the hypothesis that the politics of treaty ratification can be as important as the negotiations leading up to agreements. Benefits to international peace and security sought in years of painstaking diplomatic effort can be lost without Senate consent, as was the case with the Treaty of Versailles and the second treaty arising from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). The authors of the case studies were requested to present first a brief, historical introduction to the case indicating why the case was important, the background concerning the origins of the treaty, and the treaty's major provisions. The purpose of the introduction to the case was not to provide a complete picture of the negotiating record but to set the stage for a more in-depth discussion of the events that followed after the treaty was signed. The authors address five substantive areas: the international political context of the treaty, the domestic political context, the role of the president, executive-congressional relations, and public opinion and the role of interest groups. The questions and issues concerning each of these areas are briefly summarized

  8. Political construction of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheze, A.A.A. de la.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970s radioactive waste disposal became a controversial scientific and social issue in the United States, after the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) charged with the development, regulation and promotion of nuclear technology, had tried to implement its disposal technology near Lyons, Kansas. This study traces the emergence of this controversy as part of the long-term development of the US radioactive waste disposal technology. Radioactive waste was not always considered a problem, and different meanings were attached to radwaste in the 1940s and early 1950s. Problem definitions and technical designs that underlaid this technology can be reconstructed, and its possible to show how some definitions received attention and others not, and how some became, and remained, dominant. During the process of problem definition, views compete, agendas are built, resources are allocated, and boundaries are created and maintained between 'inside' and 'outside world'. This is a political process, and by heuristically using concepts from political science and recent technology studies, the Political Construction of US radioactive waste disposal technologically can be reconstructed. (author). 301 refs.; 3 figs.; 15 tabs

  9. The Politics of Universalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the political function of human rights in the 16th Century in Spain just after the conquest of America. It claims that the study of this period of early globalization is relevant for the understanding of the function of human rights discourses to day, at the ‘end...... discourses is split down the middle: it serves both as a critique of power and as an extension of power, and the disclosure of this split helps us understand the inner politics of human rights. The article discusses the trial in Valladolid in 1550 when the rights of the barbarian Indians of America were put...... on trial. It focuses mainly on the arguments made by Bartolomé de las Casas and on the reasons why the King allowed las Casas’ fierce critique of the conquest to be published in a period of otherwise severe censorship. The article is inspired by Etienne Balibar’s idea of ‘politics of universalism...

  10. CSR as Corporate Political Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Mette; Roepstorff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    –image dynamics of political CSR’. Concretely, we describe in two vignettes how IKEA’s declared ‘apolitical and neutral’ CSR identity becomes entangled with national and international socio-political events that critically challenge the corporate engagement prior national understandings of citizenship rights....... In this process, IKEA’s CSR identity becomes defined as a political and non-neutral activity. Our article contributes by bringing attention to the organizational level dynamics of political CSR by offering a conceptualization of how global and local socio-political events may disturb the alignment between CSR...

  11. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  12. Social Workers and Politics: Lessons from Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Leon

    1988-01-01

    Describes the workings of the political system as it is important to social workers. Discusses three significant issues in politics: (1) the role of money; (2) crises as pervasive political phenomena; and (3) the habituating nature of political participation. (ABL)

  13. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC.Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy.The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies.Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on

  14. Political economy with affect: on the role of emotions and relationships in political economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and provides experimental evidence on the role of emotions and, in particular, the neglected role of endogenous affective relationships (bonding) in three key areas of political economy: (i) appropriation, with compliance or resistance as response; (ii) competition for access to

  15. Sensitivity analysis of bubble size and probe geometry on the measurements of interfacial area concentration in gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Ishii, Mamoru; Serizawa, Akimi

    1994-01-01

    Interfacial area concentration measurement is quite important in gas-liquid two-phase flow. To determine the accuracy of measurement of the interfacial area using electrical resistivity probes, numerical simulations of a passing bubble through sensors are carried out. The two-sensors method, the four-sensors method and the correlative method are tested and the effects of sensor spacing, bubble diameter and hitting angle of the bubbles on the accuracy of each measurement method are investigated. The results indicated that the two-sensors method is insensitive to the ratio between sensor spacing and bubble diameter, and hitting angle. It overestimates the interfacial area for small hitting angles while it gives a reasonable accuracy for smaller bubbles and large hitting angles. The four-sensors method gives accurate interfacial area measurements particularly for the larger bubble diameters and smaller hitting angles, while for smaller bubbles and larger hitting angles, the escape probability of bubbles through the sensors becomes large and the accuracy becomes worse. The correlative method gives an overall accuracy for interfacial area measurement. Particularly, it gives accurate measurements for large bubbles and larger hitting angles while for smaller hitting angles, the spatial dependence of the correlation functions affects the accuracy. (orig.)

  16. POLITICAL RISK ON THE FINANCIAL MARKET The problem of adequate scientific assessment of business operations - the naivety of economists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dziawgo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant problems of a modern economy and economics is political risk. A destructive influence of politics on the financial market cannot be ignored. It is necessary to indicate some selected specific problems of the financial market connected with politics in the area of: public finance (including EU, monetary policy and capital market. Nowadays, the scale and dynamics of political interference in the economy and finance leads to the problem of rationality in business activities. Moreover, many hidden political factors change the political risk into immeasurable political uncertainty.

  17. TEMPORAL VEGETATION DYNAMICS IN PEAT SWAMP AREA USING MODIS TIME-SERIES IMAGERY: A MONITORING APPROACH OF HIGH-SENSITIVE ECOSYSTEM IN REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Setiawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peat swamp area is an essential ecosystem due to high vulnerability of functions and services. As the change of forest cover in peat swamp area has increased considerably, many studies on peat swamp have focused on forest conversion or forest degradation. Meanwhile, in the context of changes in the forestlands are the sum of several processes such as deforestation, reforestation/afforestation, regeneration of previously deforested areas, and the changing spatial location of the forest boundary. Remote sensing technology seems to be a powerful tool to provide information required following that concerns. A comparison imagery taken at the different dates over the same locations for assessing those changes tends to be limited by the vegetation phenology and land-management practices. Consequently, the simultaneous analysis seems to be a way to deal with the issues above, as a means for better understanding of the dynamics changes in peat swamp area. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using MODIS images during the last 14 years for detecting and monitoring the changes in peat swamp area. We identified several significant patterns that have been assigned as the specific peat swamp ecosystem. The results indicate that a different type of ecosystem and its response to the environmental changes can be portrayed well by the significant patterns. In understanding the complex situations of each pattern, several vegetation dynamics patterns were characterized by physical land characteristics, such as peat depth, land use, concessions and others. Characterizing the pathways of dynamics change in peat swamp area will allow further identification for the range of proximate and underlying factors of the forest cover change that can help to develop useful policy interventions in peatland management.

  18. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    Indonesia has been an electoral democracy for more than a decade, and yet the political landscape of the world’s third-largest democracy is as complex and enigmatic as ever. Indonesia is simultaneous a country that has achieved a successful transition to democracy and a flawed, illiberal......, and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...

  19. Executive dysfunction, brain aging, and political leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark; Franklin, David L; Post, Jerrold M

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is an essential component of executive function, and a critical skill of political leadership. Neuroanatomic localization studies have established the prefrontal cortex as the critical brain site for executive function. In addition to the prefrontal cortex, white matter tracts as well as subcortical brain structures are crucial for optimal executive function. Executive function shows a significant decline beginning at age 60, and this is associated with age-related atrophy of prefrontal cortex, cerebral white matter disease, and cerebral microbleeds. Notably, age-related decline in executive function appears to be a relatively selective cognitive deterioration, generally sparing language and memory function. While an individual may appear to be functioning normally with regard to relatively obvious cognitive functions such as language and memory, that same individual may lack the capacity to integrate these cognitive functions to achieve normal decision-making. From a historical perspective, global decline in cognitive function of political leaders has been alternatively described as a catastrophic event, a slowly progressive deterioration, or a relatively episodic phenomenon. Selective loss of executive function in political leaders is less appreciated, but increased utilization of highly sensitive brain imaging techniques will likely bring greater appreciation to this phenomenon. Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon was an example of a political leader with a well-described neurodegenerative condition (cerebral amyloid angiopathy) that creates a neuropathological substrate for executive dysfunction. Based on the known neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes that occur with aging, we should probably assume that a significant proportion of political leaders over the age of 65 have impairment of executive function.

  20. Politics for cities, cities for the political. About possibility (and necessity of radical urban politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Marzec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essay faces the problem of determinacy of global capitalism processes for the reality of urban political life. The city is naturally communitarian form of human life and seems to be the place where radical pro-community politics could be undertaken. Already existing and operating forms of power could fruitfully influence the city social relations. Values and norms of conduct are broadly delegated on the urban space and materiality, thus conscious shaping of city space has severe consequences for community life. If a crisis of the political partly has its roots in metamorphoses of the cities, then also remedies, rising from the urban materiality and reestablishing political subjects, could be thought. City, as most real place of political life could be either reduced to the aggregate of consumers or reestablished as a political community. Due to this is the place where undesired course of action could be stopped, hence precisely here the radical democratic politics can emerge.

  1. Is the political animal politically ignorant? Applying evolutionary psychology to the study of political attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2012-12-20

    As evidenced by research in evolutionary psychology, humans have evolved sophisticated psychological mechanisms tailored to solve enduring adaptive problems of social life. Many of these social problems are political in nature and relate to the distribution of costs and benefits within and between groups. In that sense, evolutionary psychology suggests that humans are, by nature, political animals. By implication, a straightforward application of evolutionary psychology to the study of public opinion seems to entail that modern individuals find politics intrinsically interesting. Yet, as documented by more than fifty years of research in political science, people lack knowledge of basic features of the political process and the ability to form consistent political attitudes. By reviewing and integrating research in evolutionary psychology and public opinion, we describe (1) why modern mass politics often fail to activate evolved mechanisms and (2) the conditions in which these mechanisms are in fact triggered.

  2. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.

    2010-01-01

    To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In

  4. Political Psychopathy : Fujimori case

    OpenAIRE

    Nizama Valladolid, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Seven years after his political fall, Alberto Fujimori Fujimori was extradited from Chile on September 22 of 2007, in order to judge him by two cases of human rights violations and five corruption cases. The mega-trial begun on december 10 of 2007. According to the mediate authorship theory, having led the command in charge of the counterterrorist actions involves him in crimes related to human rights. The Supreme court special penal division judges him by six cases related to human rights, c...

  5. Infrastructural politics on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Andreas

    If Twitter started as a device for reporting one’s everyday comings and goings, it has in recent years come to be seen also as a resource for understanding and problematizing things like revolutions, disasters and politics (Rogers 2013). In this paper, I raise the question of whether a similar...... broadening of the avenues of possible inquiry could be timely in relation to Facebook. What can we learn from Facebook as a venue for organizing in emergencies or around public issues? In order start answering this question I examine a recent controversy over plans to build a new road-pricing infrastructure...

  6. Energy Revolution, Political Revolutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonneuve, Cecile; Boncourt, Maite de

    2015-01-01

    As epicentres of the production of hydrocarbon, the Gulf States must adapt to an energy scene upset by the arrival of new resources on the market and by the historic reversal of demand in European countries. Consuming less energy and developing alternative sources in order to reserve hydrocarbon for exports: such is the huge challenge for countries whose social contract is based on unlimited consumption of subsidized energy. In the long term, their economic, social and political stability is at stake, together with their ability to remain key actors of the world energy system

  7. Environment and political power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovenale, F.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment is made of what should be the desired characteristics of model national and international social-political frameworks optimized to allow the efficacious implementation of regional and global scale environmental restoration and protection strategies such as those being proposed by the United Nations and aimed at global environmentally compatible sustainable growth. Ample reference is made to the socio-economic considerations contained in Murray Bookchin's works on the ecology of freedom and the ecological society. Focus is on the international nature of the most serious environmental problems and on historical and current trends relevant to international cooperation, especially with regards to economic development and technology transfer

  8. The Features of Political Crowdfunding in the Russian Political Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Владимирович Соколов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process сrowdfunding’s formation in modern Russia. The authors highlighted the reasons for the appearance of this phenomenon. They justified choice of Russian politicians of mechanism for collecting funds in political campaigns. The article characterizes trends in political fundraising and сrowdfunding in Russia. The study highlighted their advantages and disadvantages for application in political activity. The authors give examples of successful сrowdfunding campaigns in modern Russia.

  9. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Islamist militance has been developing in a wide variety of social and economic settings, including England, France , 6 Germany, and elsewhere. We might...political wedge between the United States and Egypt led to Nasir’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Britain then plotted with France and Israel...than the membership, which, at the time, came from the petit bourgeoisie , or were migrants to urban areas. Shukri Mustafa, leader of TWH, was

  10. The New Right and family politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, J

    1992-05-01

    Political concern for the family has historically been intermittent; the present context is that there are considerable consequences for individuals, families, and personal life. Socioeconomic and cultural changes brought the rise of the New Right; The Thatcher (UK) and Reagan (US) administrations were committed to strengthening the traditional family. The emergence of the family as a social problem and the political agenda are discussed. The costs of liberalism were felt in a recessionary economy. The US political agenda of Carter to hold a White House Conference on the American Family never materialized. Reagan used the restoration of the traditional American family as a way to get the economy back on its feet. Moral crusaders and the new evangelical Christian movement merged with the political right; the "Gang of Four" (Republican Party right) politicians involved morally conservative communities normally outside the political area into the New Right. Grass roots organizations were mobilized on the Right. The British situation is explained; differences existed in that there were no antiabortion and moral lobby groups tied to the Right although their influence was felt. Pressure group politics is relatively novel to Britain. The Moral Majority in the US and right wing pressure groups on the Tory government are but 1 part of the New Right; it is characterized as populist, proclaiming the Radical Conservatism of Adam Smith and Edmund Burke. The approach in this article is to show the complex interactions of theory, biography, and public opinion in the practical politics of the New Right. Policy outcomes are not predictable because of ideological differences in New Right attitudes toward the family. The attitudes of the moral order and the family is exemplified in the work of Roger Scruton's neoconservative stand on social order, Robert Nozick's Kantian proposition that human beings are ends with natural inviolable rights of individual freedom, Hayak and Friedman

  11. PoliticAPP: Towards a Categorization of Mobile Apps in Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo VÁZQUEZ SANDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analyze of all mobile apps that are available in the field of Spanish political communication, with the aim to develop a pioneering categorization of these platforms according to various criteria as promoters, aims pursued or areas of performance. It includes also a critical review from which it is concluded that these app reproduce classic communication patterns with the voters. That means that the implementation of these channels seems to have been due more to political marketing than to boost democratic participation or to introduce an horizontal outline of a new relationship between politicians and citizens.

  12. Party Political Panthers: Hegemonic Tamil Politics and the Dalit Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gorringe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi (VCK, Liberation Panther Party has successfully transformed from the largest Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu into a recognised political organisation. Social movement theorists like Gamson (1990 view political recognition and engagement as one of the main aims and successes of social mobilisation. Despite the obvious achievements of the VCK, however, activists and commentators express disappointment or disillusionment with its performance. The Panthers clearly reject the caste hierarchy, but they increasingly adopt hegemonic forms of politics which can undermine their aims. This paper, thus, engages with the questions of movement institutionalisation by tracing the political trajectory of the VCK and charting its resistance to and compliance with Dravidian hegemony. It argues that institutionalisation needs to be understood within particular socio-political contexts and notes how the hegemony of Dravidian politics partly explains the disjuncture between activist and political perceptions. It portrays how the dominant political parties have set the template for what it means to ‘do’ politics in Tamil Nadu which serves as both an opportunity and a constraint for potential challengers.

  13. Turkish Political Market and the Perception of Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the Turkish political market and determine where and how Turkish political parties are perceived by voters. The study uses a two-dimensional map to determine the voter perceptions of the parties in the Turkish political market based on a survey questionnaire applied to 400 young voters. It also investigates whether there are any major differences in the perception of parties in the political space based on voter ideologies. The study finds that young voters have clear perceptions of the positions of Turkish parties. It also finds that voter perceptions of parties vary based on voters’ ideological positions.

  14. POLITICAL WILL AND ANTICORRUPTION CRUSADE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in all ramifications has continued to jeopardize the efforts of governments in forging national unity, infrastructural development and in most cases, leaving the majority of a nation’s citizens to live in absolute poverty. The phenomenon has persisted in many countries mostly due to weak political will or the lack of it necessary to curb the menace. In its simplest form corruption reflects the use of public office for private gain. As a remedy to this there should be a demonstration of credible intent by political leaders, stakeholders groups to attack perceived causes or effects of corruption at a systemic level. This demonstration of credible capacity reflects political will. The political will to curb corruption is also the political will to pursue other goals like good governance and national unity. Political will is not equivalent to political manifesto rhetoric or pressure group statements. Rather, it is the manifestation of a robust system of checks and balances and strong political institutions for combating corruption and promoting good governance as well as restoring trust and confidence in democratic politics. Gowon’s  proposal reflects strong political will for good governance, because, if political will is to be more than just a slogan, it must be understood in a broad context. This reinforces the believe that if there is an absence of political will at the top, there will be a general lack of commitment to combat corruption, and pursue other important national goals as political development and poverty reduction. The exploratory research design was adopted for the study. Secondary data were generated through a format designed by the investigator for the purpose of the study. Because of the sensitive nature of the study primary data were also generate through a Liker-type questionnaire to supplement the secondary data. Data generated were analyzed through descriptive and X2 statistics and presented in tables with

  15. APLIKASI SIG UNTUK PEMETAAN INDEKS KEPEKAAN LINGKUNGAN: STUDI KASUS DI PESISIR CILACAP DAN SEGARA ANAKAN (GIS Application for Environmental Sensitivity Index Mapping Case Study in Cilacap Coastal Area and Segara Anakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utantyo Utantyo

    2015-01-01

    , sementara wilayah Segara Anakan dianggap sensitif terhadap polusi minyak mengingat 112 km2 (45% dari 249 Km2 daerah Segara Anakan. Segara Anakan memiliki ranking sensitivitas tertinggi (ESl 8, 9, 10.   ABSTRACT Coastal resources can be impacted during an oil spill incident. Given that oil pollution can occur under a wide variety of circumstances, the use of both detailed coastal inventories in conjunction with established sensitivity indexes and approaches allows for a greater level of information and options available to spill planners. a Geographic Information System (GIS can greatly enhance and improve upon the use and development of data required for oil spill response and contingency planning. This study is determined to examine environmental sensitivities and to combine them into prototype of environmental sensitivity information systems with the aid of GIS in the lagoon of Segara Anakan and Cilacap coastal region. One of the most important strategies in oil spill contingency planning is prioritizing the spill response. Coastal environments would be prioritized and qualitatively queried by establishing Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI classification schema. Environmental sensitivity reflects the degree of reaction of coastal region to withstand and to recover when oil spill hazard was occurred. The method to establish an ESI is by combining related factors of an environmental sensitivity. i.e: (a the exposure to wave and tidal energy, (b the shoreline slope, (c the substrate type, and (d its biological productivity. This study emphasizes the ability of Geographic Information system (GIS to visualize and to model environmental sensitivity factors spatially. the result shows that the application of a GIS to manage, manipulate, and display relevant coastal databases was possible to be done and had notable advantages in sensitivity mapping efforts, Cilacap coastal region has medium sensitivity, since the area is bordered by ESI 5 shoreline (with length of 11.6 km

  16. Local communities’ consolidation process: political factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fedorenko

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that the local communities’ consolidation process in the contemporary world is the problem which has both empirical and theoretical importance. Depending on the size of the local area, local polices are taking different forms. As usual, they provide an agreement and compromise solutions based on issues that are important to the local community. The experience of the developed democracies has shown that local assemblies ensure the establishment of coalitions based on short-termed procedures. The study has tested that an important aspect of the formation of local communities consolidated position is based on development issues and civil participation. It is especially visible in the United States and the EU countries. The municipality level determines the quality of local political bodies, which is formed on party basis. For contemporary Ukraine important tools for provision of political responsibility are forces, which take care about the local communities and determine their development for a long period. Overall, the consolidation of political forces in the local government system is an important task that determines the need for the adoption of regulatory instruments which would ensure the harmonious and constructive political cooperation regardless of their ideological positions.

  17. Political side of risk: a new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, J.B.; Trauth, C.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The resolution of many of the Nation's most-serious problems today is hampered by our apparent inability to systematically deal with the socio-political dimensions of the societal acceptance of risks in areas of technical development, decision making, and policy formulation. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the energy field. The nature of public hazards has changed drastically during the past half century or so, driving public considerations of risk into the political realm. This has given many of the socio-political parameters underlying individual, group, and institutional perception and acceptance of risk an importance not typically recognized in technical approaches to risk assessment. As a result, there is now a large gap between technically based views of risk and societal views of risk which, the authors feel, is largely responsible for impeding the resolution of the national problems alluded to above. This paper proposes a general approach toward closing this gap, by using indicators from the political system to measure public perceptions and acceptance of risk, as a continuing function of time, to provide the technical community and policy and decision makers a basis from which to more effectively meet societal environmental, safety, and health goals. 15 references, 6 figures.

  18. Politics at its end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proske, R.

    1992-01-01

    The author sees politics describing towards its end under the impact of the development science, technology and the economy have undergone. One of the signposts on this road of change has been the discovery of nuclear fission, leading to a revolution in the field of science, and developments such as the atomic bomb and, later on, the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, with technological development contributing the safe and economically operating reactors for power generation. In the eyes of the author, politics has little to contribute to solving the biggest problems of the future, which are the population explosion, and the global climate change caused by man-made emissions of trace gases. In order to tackle the climate problem, there is urgent need for a drastic outback in the consumption of fossil fuels, although renewable energy sources have not yet become reality to count on, the hydrogen economy still being just a hope, - so that nuclear power may be gaining second wind. (HP) [de

  19. Politics: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Muslim societies in all of their social and cultural variety are, as Donald E. Smith points out, ‘organic’ societies characterized by organic religious systems. In these societies, religion tends to permeate all institutions rather than to be differentiated and/or autonomous. The vast body of literature produced since the departure of the colonialists from the Muslim lands suggests, however, either the implicit existence of the dichotomy or at least the feasibility and advisability of radical separation between the spiritual and temporal realms. The seriousness of the issue, evidenced by an outpouring of studies, calls for an examination of the linkage between the two realms through textual (Qur’an and Hadith, intellectual (ideas of Muslim thinkers and historical evidence. Only in such a manner can the dynamics of the relationship between Islam and politics be understood and a determination made of what has changed and what has remained unchanged. This entails, first, an understanding of the meaning and nature of politics from the Western perspective to facilitate a comparison...

  20. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, A.

    1994-01-01

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  1. Use of the discourse analysis method to study current political practice (by the example of representation of the political leader image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentialities in the application of the discourse analysis method to study a political discourse as a current political practice are shown. The authors, using the Foucault methodology, offer a sociological definition for the political discourse. It is the authors’ opinion that the approach mentioned allows investigating a political discourse as a practice for the formation of a certain reality, specific agents, institutions and organizations. A political discourse is a simulative dynamic model of political area where various subdiscourses interact, thus creating their own ideas of policy, symbols and images. Subdiscourses of political leaders become dominating. Inasmuch as a political discourse in a current political system is carried out with the aid of mass media, it could be considered as a media discourse of policy. The authors consider the representation as a basic mechanism for the formation of a political discourse, by the example of the representation of the image of V.V. Putin, the President of the Russian Federation. The representation of a political leader image in a political discourse has a number of peculiarities. It is carried out on the basis of certain principles with the aid of the system of political codes. Empiric investigations allowed making a conclusion that the main symbolic image for the Russian President is an image of a super-hero. It is the authors’ opinion, the image of V.V. Putin as a leader super-hero is determined by the specificity of the Russian political culture within the limits of which a leader is a center of power establishing an authoritarian style of ruling. The authors show the process of the political legitimacy displacement from the institutional level to the personal one by means of mass media. A political leader gains a status of a subject establishing moral, social and value reference points for the whole of the society.

  2. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...... construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The chapter argues that the study of the EU has much to benefit from political psychology in terms of theories...... and methods of European identity and integration, but it also argues that political psychology can benefit from the insights of European integration by rethinking the processes that drive the marking of inside and outside, interior and exterior, belonging and otherness....

  3. Political ecology of Bruno Latour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birešev Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores Latour’s conception of political ecology and its theoretical and political implications. The first part of the paper shows Latour’s critique of theoretical frameworks of scientific and political practices, which, in his opinion, constrain a true discussion on ecological crises by simplifying them and putting them into readymade interpretative models. The second part of the paper examines the notions - the collective, representation, propositions, articulation, and parliament of things - central to understanding Latour’s idea of involvement of humans and non-humans in politics. Finally, the paper explores the potentials and constraints of Latour’s idea of political community of new political subjects (hybrid entities, which is constituted in controversies and through controversies. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  4. Contextualism in Normative Political Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Contextualism denotes a set of ideas about the importance of attention to context. The topic of the article is contextualism in normative political theory/philosophy, in relation to the part of political theory concerned with systematic political argument for normative claims—evaluative claims...... that can be invoked to contextualize a specific object of political discussion such as a law, an institution, or the like. Contextualism denotes any view that political theory should take context into account, but there are many different views about what this means. Contextualism can be characterized...... by way of different contrasts, which imply that the resulting conceptions of contextualism are views about different things, such as justification, the nature of political theory, or methodology. Here the focus is on characterizations of contextualism in terms of methodology and justification...

  5. Left or right? Teachers, political options and history didactics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pacievitch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text we discuss the political options of history teachers and its consequences to teaching. We ask if there are relations between political options and didactical choices of the history teacher. The data were obtained from the project “Youth and History in MERCOSUR”, that uses a questionnaire which was responded by a sample of 288 history teacher of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile and Paraguay. A descriptive and inferential statics treatment was given to the answers, with special attention to political options of the teachers, and crossing general information with stances about didactical aspects.  Norberto Bobbio’s notion about left and right was used. It was noted that the teachers, regardless of political opinion, defend the history teaching importance and care about their own political participation. There are subtle differences about the  teaching objectives evaluation and about professional difficulties among teachers, that also interpret sensitive historical themes coherently to their political stances. These findings invite to think more about the role of those professors who performs history teachers training, as to reinforce the importance of connecting politics and didactics in the making of teaching responsibility.

  6. Critical Theory and Political Socialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIK, Domonkos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the relevance of critical theories of modernity in the research of memory transmission and political socialization. Firstly, the relevant concepts of Habermas, Giddens and Bourdieu are overviewed. Secondly, the notion of political culture and memory transmission are reinterpreted from the perspective of these theories, revealing different sources and forms of radicalism. Finally, divergent constellations of modernization are reintroduced as the broadest context of the processes of political formation.

  7. Economic Integration and Political Disintegration

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Enrico Spolaore; Romain Wacziarg

    1997-01-01

    Trade liberalization and political separatism go hand in hand. In a world of trade restrictions, large countries enjoy economic benefits because political boundaries determine the size of the market. In a world of free trade and global markets even relatively small cultural, linguistic or ethnic groups can benefit from forming small and homogeneous political jurisdictions that trade peacefully and are economically integrated with others. This paper provides a formal model of the relationship ...

  8. Persuasion, Politeness and Relational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Świątek

    2017-01-01

    Politeness Theory, just like Grice’s Cooperative Principle, points out that pragmatic analysis of language behaviour has to be grounded in extra-linguistic facts of social (or even biological) nature. Additionally, despite the slightly misleading label, Politeness Theory provides a sound methodology to explain some persuasive as well as politeness phenomena. In the same vein, the so called Relational Model Theory provides another theoretical framework for the explanation of persuasive phenome...

  9. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  10. Positioning as a Part of Political Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Liutko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The political subject is defined as the consumer of goods in the form of political power, political ideas, political leaders, and parties. Political marketing is understood as the identification of political relations and processes with different forms of market exchange and the process of electoral choice as a specific market (the act of purchase and sale. The concept of political positioning appeared as the result of relevant categories of commercial research in the political sphere. Political positioning should be considered as the process of political communication aimed at acquiring by political actor his position in political marketing. It is the most difficult type of political and communication strategic campaigns. This approach allows the candidate (party to compare his image with electorate’s views of desired (acceptable candidate, political party; compare his image with the image of an opponent; explore the pros and cons of alternative positions; and choose those the most advantageous position for a candidate (party.

  11. How to Teach Political Advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik

    in close cooperation with the ministries and the mayor’s office. Besides training students to work under pressure, to write short and precise memos, to work in groups as well as on their own, to assess the political aspects of an issue, the course had some rather positive side effects in terms of student......, staffed with permanent civil servants rather than politically appointed persons. The aim of the course is to train the students in servicing the political and administrative top leaders of a politically led organization that is exposed to daily attention from the public, media and opposition. The course...

  12. Fandom meets activism: Rethinking civic and political participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Brough

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activism lies at the intersection of cultural and political participation. The study of fan activism can inform our understanding of contemporary collective action more broadly. We suggest four key areas for analysis: the relationships between cultural and political participation; the tension between participation and resistance in the context of fan activism; affect and the role of content worlds in civic and political mobilization; and evaluation of the impacts of fan activism. By drawing on work across several disciplines including media studies and social movement literature, the analysis of fan activism through these lenses offers insights for theorizing contemporary cultures and modes of collective action.

  13. The Dimensions of Brazilian Democracy: Inclusion, Participation and Political Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Sandra Tramontini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Questioning and boosting traditional ways of behavioral and institutional discourse is part of theories that aim towards critical changes in the politic and juridical area through emancipatory and non-repressive means. Thus, this research paper approaches some ways of questioning the systematics to which the State and the Law deal with politics, society, the democratic strengthening as well as its dimensions and relations with the popular participation and the politic representation. Thereby the deductive method will be used and the procedure form will be based on the bibliographic research.

  14. Highly sensitive and area-efficient CMOS image sensor using a PMOSFET-type photodetector with a built-in transfer gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Do; Kong, Jae-Sung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, a new CMOS image sensor is presented, which uses a PMOSFET-type photodetector with a transfer gate that has a high and variable sensitivity. The proposed CMOS image sensor has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2-poly 4- metal standard CMOS technology and is composed of a 256 × 256 array of 7.05 × 7.10 μm pixels. The unit pixel has a configuration of a pseudo 3-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) with the PMOSFET-type photodetector with a transfer gate, which has a function of conventional 4-transistor APS. The generated photocurrent is controlled by the transfer gate of the PMOSFET-type photodetector. The maximum responsivity of the photodetector is larger than 1.0 × 10 3 A/W without any optical lens. Fabricated 256 × 256 CMOS image sensor exhibits a good response to low-level illumination as low as 5 lux.

  15. Contact dermatitis in saffron workers: clinical profile and identification of contact sensitizers in a saffron-cultivating area of Kashmir Valley of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Iffat; Kamili, Afifa; Rasool, Farhan; Nehvi, Firdous; Rather, Parvaiz; Yasmin, Salwee; Pampori, Rafiq A; Jabeen, Yasmeen; Yaseen, Atiya; Bashir, Safia; Naaz, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, a bulbous perennial plant belonging to Iridaceae family, is the most expensive cultivated herb that is widely used for industrial and nonindustrial purposes. However, besides its attractive and valuable properties, contact dermatitis due to saffron is an uncommon reported entity. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical pattern patch-testing profile of contact dermatitis in saffron workers and to identify the most common allergens/sensitizers. One hundred ten saffron workers were patch-tested with 39 allergens, which included Indian standard series antigens, plant series antigens, and extracts from different parts of saffron flower. The allergens in Indian standard series accounted for 52.44% of positive reactions. Plant series and different parts of saffron accounted for 47.56% of the positive reactions. Among those patients with positive responses to the supplemental saffron allergens, 83.3% were of present or past relevance. The data observed in the present study confirm that the saffron dermatitis is a distinct clinical entity with characteristic clinical presentation and has a strong significance as an occupational allergen in those handling this plant. Patch testing with different parts of saffron flower has a role to play in finding out the etiological cause.

  16. Political frictions and public policy outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Grechyna, Daryna

    2016-01-01

    We study the role of political frictions in public policy outcomes. We propose a simple model of fiscal policy that combines a lack of commitment by the government, political turnover, and another political friction that can be interpreted either as political polarization or as public rent-seeking. We show that political turnover increases public debt levels, while political polarization or public rent-seeking leads to higher public spending. We evaluate the importance of different political ...

  17. Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times

    OpenAIRE

    Odih, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Advertising and Cultural Politics in Global Times traces daringly transgressive convergences between cultural politics and global advertising media. It engages with a range of interpolations between cultural politics and advertising technologies including: the governmental rationality of neoliberal vistas, transgressive aesthetics and the cultural politics of representation, the political sign-economy of citizen branding, techno-political convergences between the social and political, and the...

  18. MAPPING CHILDREN'S POLITICS: SPATIAL STORIES, DIALOGIC RELATIONS AND POLITICAL FORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, Sarah; Mitchell, Katharyne

    2012-03-01

    This article confronts a persistent challenge in research on children's geographies and politics: the difficulty of recognizing forms of political agency and practice that by definition fall outside of existing political theory. Children are effectively "always already" positioned outside most of the structures and ideals of modernist democratic theory, such as the public sphere and abstracted notions of communicative action or "rational" speech. Recent emphases on embodied tactics of everyday life have offered important ways to recognize children's political agency and practice. However, we argue here that a focus on spatial practices and critical knowledge alone cannot capture the full range of children's politics, and show how representational and dialogic practices remain a critical element of their politics in everyday life. Drawing on de Certeau's notion of spatial stories, and Bakhtin's concept of dialogic relations, we argue that children's representations and dialogues comprise a significant space of their political agency and formation, in which they can make and negotiate social meanings, subjectivities, and relationships. We develop these arguments with evidence from an after-school activity programme we conducted with 10-13 year olds in Seattle, Washington, in which participants explored, mapped, wrote and spoke about the spaces and experiences of their everyday lives. Within these practices, children negotiate autonomy and self-determination, and forward ideas, representations, and expressions of agreement or disagreement that are critical to their formation as political actors.

  19. Contemporary Political Paranoia, a Case of Political Gnosticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rivera García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward the concept of political paranoia as a useful category to understand some contemporary manifestations of the pathologies of power. For this aim an interdisciplinary approach has been used, namely, the knowledge provided by psychoanalysis, political philosophy, theology and literary or aesthetic studies. Freud’s and Lacan’s psychoanalysis allows us to understand why the paranoid subject is a megalomaniac and hyperrational subject who wants to be in control of everything. It is a sovereign subject, who has adapted not only to the Society of Control initially defined by Deleuze, but also to a conception of philosophy that aims for totality. After dealing with the close relationship between paranoia and conspiratorial political theory, the article explains the reason why contemporary political paranoia represents a case of the most radical political theology: political Gnosticism. This term stands for a conception of politics that reduces the Other to the condition of an absolute enemy that needs to be eliminated. Lastly, the article establishes a close link between the cure for political paranoia and the assumption of an ontology of incompleteness

  20. Transparency, political polarization, and political budget cycles in OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the effects of fiscal transparency and political polarization on the prevalence of electoral cycles in fiscal balance. While some recent political economy literature on electoral cycles identifies such cycles mainly in weak and recent democracies, in contrast we show, conditioning ...